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Sample records for basis biological markers

  1. Interpretation of results for tumor markers on the basis of analytical imprecision and biological variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sölétormos, G; Schiøler, V; Nielsen, D

    1993-01-01

    Interpretation of results for CA 15.3, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA) during breast cancer monitoring requires data on intra- (CVP) and inter- (CVG) individual biological variation, analytical imprecision (CVA), and indices of individuality. The average CVP...

  2. Paleoreconstruction by biological markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifert, W K; Moldowan, J M

    1981-06-01

    During diagenesis and conversion of the original lipid fraction of biological systems to petroleum hydrocarbons, the following four basic events needed for paleoreconstruction may be monitored by biological markers: (1) sourcing, (2) maturation, (3) migration and (4) biodegradation. Actual cases of applying biological markers to petroleum exploration problems in different parts of the world are demonstrated. Cretaceous- and Phosphoria-sourced oils in the Wyoming Thrust Belt can be distinguished from one another by high quality source fingerprinting of biomarker terpanes using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Identification of recently discovered biological markers, head-to-head isoprenoids, allows source differentiation between some oils from Sumatra. The degree of crude oil maturation in basins from California, Alaska, Russia, Wyoming and Louisiana can be assessed by specific biomarker ratios (20S/20R sterane epimers). Field evidence from such interpretation is augmented by laboratory pyrolysis of the rock. Extensive migration is documented by biomarkers in several oils. Biological marker results are consistent with the geological setting and add a dimension in assisting the petroleum explorationist towar paleoreconstruction.

  3. Biological basis of detoxication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caldwell, John; Jakoby, William B

    1983-01-01

    This volume considers that premise that most of the major patterns of biological conversion of foreign compounds are known and may have predictive value in assessing the biological course for novel compounds...

  4. The biological basis of radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steel, G.G.; Adams, G.E.; Horwich, A.

    1989-01-01

    The focus of this book is the biological basis of radiotherapy. The papers presented include: Temporal stages of radiation action:free radical processes; The molecular basis of radiosensitivity; and Radiation damage to early-reacting normal tissue

  5. Biological Markers and Salivary Cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Gunnarsson, Lars-Gunnar; Harris, Anette

    2011-01-01

    This chapter focuses on salivary cortisol in relation to biological markers. Specifically, associations with conventional cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic abnormalities (body mass index, waist circumference, waist/hip ratio, lipid status, glucose, blood pressure, heart rate and heart rate...... variations and pharmacological interventions were also excluded. After meeting all exclusion criteria, 42 papers remained. In total, 273 associations between salivary cortisol and any of the markers mentioned were studied, comprising 241 associations on metabolic abnormalities, 30 on inflammation, and 2...... on stress hormones. Of the salivary cortisol measures reported for evaluations of all markers tested were 136 (49%) single time points, 100 (37%) deviations, 36 (13%) AUC, and 1 (1%) dexamethasone test. Of these, 72 (26%) were statistically significant, and 201 (74%) indicated non-significant findings...

  6. Physical basis for biological effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodhead, D.T.

    1987-01-01

    Absorbed dose, or particle fluence, alone, are poor predictors of the biological effectiveness of ionizing radiations. Various radiation 'quality' parameters have been proposed to account quantitatively for the differences due to type of radiation. These include LET, quality factor (Q), lineal energy, specific energy and Z 2 /β 2 . However, all of these have major shortcomings, largely because they fail to describe adequately the microscopic stochastic properties of radiation which are primarily responsible for their relative effectiveness. Most biophysical models of radiation action now agree that the biological effectiveness of radiations are to a large extent determined by their very localized spatial properties of energy deposition (perhaps DNA and associated structures) and that the probability of residual permanent cellular damage (after cellular repair) depends on the nature of this initial macromolecular damage. Common features of these models make it clear that major future advances in identifying critical physical parameters of radiations for general practical application, or to describe their fundamental mechanisms of action, require accurate knowledge of the spatial patterns of energy deposition down to distances of the order of nanometres. Therefore, adequate descriptions are required of the nature and spatial distribution of the initial charged particles and of the interaction-by-interaction structure of the ensuing charged particle tracks. Recent development and application of Monte Carlo track structure simulations have already made it possible to commence such analyses of radiobiological data. (author). 56 refs, 7 figs

  7. Basis of the biological decomposition of xenobiotica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, R. von

    1993-01-01

    The ability of micro-organisms to decompose different molecules and to use them as a source of carbon, nitrogen, sulphur or energy is the basis for all biological processes for cleaning up contaminated soil. Therefore, the knowledge of these decomposition processes is an important precondition for judging which contamination can be treated biologically at all and which materials can be decomposed biologically. The decomposition schemes of the most important harmful material classes (aliphatic, aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons) are introduced and the consequences which arise for the practical application in biological cleaning up of contaminated soils are discussed. (orig.) [de

  8. The Biological Basis of Learning and Individuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Eric R.; Hawkins, Robert D.

    1992-01-01

    Describes the biological basis of learning and individuality. Presents an overview of recent discoveries that suggest learning engages a simple set of rules that modify the strength of connection between neurons in the brain. The changes are cited as playing an important role in making each individual unique. (MCO)

  9. Archaeological data as a basis for repository marker design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, M.F.

    1982-10-01

    This report concerns the development of a marking system for a nuclear waste repository which is very likely to survive for 10,000 years. In order to provide a background on the subject, and for the preliminary design presented in this report, a discussion is presented about the issues involved in human interference with the repository system and the communication of information. A separate chapter summarizes six ancient man-made monuments including: materials, effects of associated textual information on our understanding of the monument, and other features of the ancient monument relevant to marking a repository site. The information presented in the two chapters is used to provide the basis and rationale for a preliminary marker system design presented in a final chapter. 86 refs., 22 figs., 1 tab

  10. Archaeological data as a basis for repository marker design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, M.F.

    1982-10-01

    This report concerns the development of a marking system for a nuclear waste repository which is very likely to survive for 10,000 years. In order to provide a background on the subject, and for the preliminary design presented in this report, a discussion is presented about the issues involved in human interference with the repository system and the communication of information. A separate chapter summarizes six ancient man-made monuments including: materials, effects of associated textual information on our understanding of the monument, and other features of the ancient monument relevant to marking a repository site. The information presented in the two chapters is used to provide the basis and rationale for a preliminary marker system design presented in a final chapter. 86 refs., 22 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Oligothiophenes as Fluorescent Markers for Biological Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Manetto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes some of our results on the application of oligothiophenes as fluorescent markers for biological studies. The oligomers of thiophene, widely known for their semiconductor properties in organic electronics, are also fluorescent compounds characterized by chemical and optical stability, high absorbance and quantum yield. Their fluorescent emission can be easily modulated via organic synthesis by changing the number of thiophene rings and the nature of side-chains. This review shows how oligothiophenes can be derivatized with active groups such as phosphoramidite, N-hydroxysuccinimidyl and 4-sulfotetrafluorophenyl esters, isothiocyanate and azide by which the (biomolecules of interest can be covalently bound. This paper also describes how molecules such as oligonucleotides, proteins and even nanoparticles, tagged with oligothiophenes, can be used in experiments ranging from hybridization studies to imaging of fixed and living cells. Finally, a few multilabeling experiments are described.

  12. Biological Prognostic Markers in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimíra Vroblová

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL is the most frequent leukemic disease of adults in the Western world. It is remarkable by an extraordinary heterogeneity of clinical course with overall survival ranging from several months to more than 15 years. Classical staging sytems by Rai and Binet, while readily available and useful for initial assessment of prognosis, are not able to determine individual patient’s ongoing clinical course of CLL at the time of diagnosis, especially in early stages. Therefore, newer biological prognostic parameters are currently being clinically evaluated. Mutational status of variable region of immunoglobulin heavy chain genes (IgVH, cytogenetic aberrations, and both intracellular ZAP- 70 and surface CD38 expression are recognized as parameters with established prognostic value. Molecules regulating the process of angiogenesis are also considered as promising markers. The purpose of this review is to summarize in detail the specific role of these prognostic factors in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

  13. Biological basis of the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lance, D.R.; McInnis, D.O.

    2005-01-01

    In principle, the sterile insect technique (SIT) is applicable to controlling a wide variety of insect pests, but biological factors, interacting with socio-economic and political forces, restrict its practical use to a narrower set of pest species and situations. This chapter reviews how the biology and ecology of a given pest affect the feasibility and logistics of developing and using the SIT against that pest insect. The subjects of pest abundance, distribution, and population dynamics are discussed in relation to producing and delivering sufficient sterile insects to control target populations. Pest movement and distribution are considered as factors that influence the feasibility and design of SIT projects, including the need for population- or area-wide management approaches. Biological characteristics, that affect the ability of sterile insects to interact with wild populations, are presented, including the nature of mating systems of pests, behavioural and physiological consequences of mass production and sterilization, and mechanisms that males use to block a female's acquisition and/or use of sperm from other males. An adequate knowledge of the biology of the pest species and potential target populations is needed, both for making sound decisions on whether integration of the SIT into an area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programme is appropriate, and for the efficient and effective application of the technique. (author)

  14. Biological basis of chemo-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mornex, F.; Van Houtte, P.; Cosset, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Radiation therapy has been for years treatment of choice of locally advanced non small cell lung cancer. Improvement due to the combination of radiation and chemotherapy has been shown recently through several randomized trials and a recent meta-analysis. These results may be explained by biological mechanisms, yet un-completely explored, which are detailed in this review and applied to lung cancer. The optimal combination scheme is not yet defined, even trough the concurrent approach is promising, at the expense of an increased toxicity which is the limiting factor of treatment escalation doses. Biological findings and future results of randomized trials will hopefully open new avenues in the therapeutic strategy of this poor prognosis disease. (authors)

  15. The biological basis of plutonium safety standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mole, R.H.

    1976-01-01

    Since no radiation injury or cancer in man can, as yet, be directly attributed to Pu, all safety standards for Pu must be determined by reference to other safety standards, development of which is discussed. A system of safety standards must be based on links with real damage, such as the requirement for 226 Ra in bone. The type of biological information required for making standards realistic is considered in relation to Pu and Ra in bone. Also considered are the possible effects of Pu in soft tissue such as bone marrow. Not only dose, but also the number of cells exposed to the dose are important biologically and cellular aspects are examined. Since there is no positive evidence of Pu toxicity relevant information on other α emitters must be examined. The observed effectiveness of Ra, daughters of 222 Ra and 232 Th in causing mutations and cancer, is surveyed. Reference is made to the necessity of improving the ICRP system, currently based on the critical organ concept, by recognising the need for summation of risks in other organs where exposure to Pu is concerned. Improved biological understanding particularly that of hereditary damage, in recent years leads to less pessimistic thinking on the effects of ionizing radiations. The immediate need appears to be for consistency in safety standards. (U.K.)

  16. On the biological basis of musicality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honing, Henkjan

    2018-03-15

    In recent years, music and musicality have been the focus of an increasing amount of research effort. This has led to a growing role and visibility of the contribution of (bio)musicology to the field of neuroscience and cognitive sciences at large. While it has been widely acknowledged that there are commonalities between speech, language, and musicality, several researchers explain this by considering musicality as an epiphenomenon of language. However, an alternative hypothesis is that musicality is an innate and widely shared capacity for music that can be seen as a natural, spontaneously developing set of traits based on and constrained by our cognitive abilities and their underlying biology. A comparative study of musicality in humans and well-known animal models (monkeys, birds, pinnipeds) will further our insights on which features of musicality are exclusive to humans and which are shared between humans and nonhuman animals, contribute to an understanding of the musical phenotype, and further constrain existing evolutionary theories of music and musicality. © 2018 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of New York Academy of Sciences.

  17. Structural Basis of Biological Nitrile Reduction*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikwana, Vimbai M.; Stec, Boguslaw; Lee, Bobby W. K.; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie; Iwata-Reuyl, Dirk; Swairjo, Manal A.

    2012-01-01

    The enzyme QueF catalyzes the reduction of the nitrile group of 7-cyano-7-deazaguanine (preQ0) to 7-aminomethyl-7-deazaguanine (preQ1), the only nitrile reduction reaction known in biology. We describe here two crystal structures of Bacillus subtilis QueF, one of the wild-type enzyme in complex with the substrate preQ0, trapped as a covalent thioimide, a putative intermediate in the reaction, and the second of the C55A mutant in complex with the substrate preQ0 bound noncovalently. The QueF enzyme forms an asymmetric tunnel-fold homodecamer of two head-to-head facing pentameric subunits, harboring 10 active sites at the intersubunit interfaces. In both structures, a preQ0 molecule is bound at eight sites, and in the wild-type enzyme, it forms a thioimide covalent linkage to the catalytic residue Cys-55. Both structural and transient kinetic data show that preQ0 binding, not thioimide formation, induces a large conformational change in and closure of the active site. Based on these data, we propose a mechanism for the activation of the Cys-55 nucleophile and subsequent hydride transfer. PMID:22787148

  18. Biological basis of total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubray, B.; Helfre, S.; Dendale, R.; Cosset, J.M.; Giraud, P.

    1999-01-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the radiobiological bases of total body irradiation (TBI) is made difficult by the large number of normal and malignant tissues that must be taken into account. In addition, tissue responses to irradiation are also sensitive to associated treatments, type of graft and a number of patient characteristics. Experimental studies have yielded a large body of data, the clinical relevance of which still requires definite validation through randomized trials. Fractionated TBI schemes are able to reduce late normal tissue toxicity, but the ultimate consequences of the fractional dose reduction do not appear to be equivocal. Thus, leukemia and lymphoma cells are probably more radio-biologically heterogeneous than previously thought, with several cell lines displaying relatively high radioresistance and repair capability patterns. The most primitive host-type hematopoietic stem cells are likely to be at least partly protected by TBI fractionation and may hamper late engraftment. Similarly, but with possibly conflicting consequences on the probability of engraftment, the persistence of a functional marrow stroma may also be fractionation-sensitive, while higher rejection rates have been reported after T-depletion grafts and fractionated TBI. in clinical practice (as for performance of relevant clinical trials), the influence of these results are rather limited by the heavy logistic constraints created by a sophisticated and time-consuming procedure. Lastly, clinicians are now facing an increasing incidence of second cancers, at least partly induced by irradiation, which jeopardize the long-term prospects of otherwise cured patients. (authors)

  19. Biological basis of suicide and suicidal behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Ghanshyam N

    2013-01-01

    Objective Suicide is a major public health concern as each year 30,000 people die by suicide in the US alone. In the teenage population, it is the second leading cause of death. There have been extensive studies of psychosocial factors associated with suicide and suicidal behavior. However, very little is known about the neurobiology of suicide. Recent research has provided some understanding of the neurobiology of suicide, which is the topic of this review. Methods Neurobiology of suicide has been studied using peripheral tissues, such as platelets, lymphocytes, and cerebral spinal fluid obtained from suicidal patients or from the postmortem brains of suicide victims. Results These studies have provided encouraging information with regard to the neurobiology of suicide. They show an abnormality of serotonergic mechanism, such as increased serotonin receptor subtypes and decreased serotonin metabolites, such as 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid. These studies also suggest abnormalities of receptor-linked signaling mechanisms, such as phosphoinositide and adenylyl cyclase signaling mechanisms. Other biological systems that appear to be dysregulated in suicide are the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and abnormalities of neurotrophins and neurotrophin receptors. More recently, several studies also indicate abnormalities of neuroimmune functions in suicide. Conclusions These studies have been discussed in detail in the following review. Some encouraging information has emerged, primarily related to some of these neurobiological mechanisms. It is hoped that neurobiological studies may eventually result in identifying appropriate biomarkers for suicidal behavior as well as appropriate therapeutic targets for its treatment. PMID:23773657

  20. Plasma tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 as a biological marker?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, Anne F.; Frederiksen, Camilla B.; Christensen, Ib J.

    2007-01-01

    Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) may be a valuable biological marker in Colorectal Cancer (CRC). However, prospective validation of TIMP-1 as a biological marker should include a series of pre-analytical considerations. TIMP-1 is stored in platelets, which may degranulate during...

  1. Biological markers of Alzheimer?s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Cruz de Souza

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The challenges for establishing an early diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD have created a need for biomarkers that reflect the core pathology of the disease. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF levels of total Tau (T-tau, phosphorylated Tau (P-Tau and beta-amyloid peptide (Aβ42 reflect, respectively, neurofibrillary tangle and amyloid pathologies and are considered as surrogate markers of AD pathophysiology. The combination of low Aβ42 and high levels of T-tau and P-Tau can accurately identify patients with AD at early stages, even before the development of dementia. The combined analysis of the CSF biomarkers is also helpful for the differential diagnosis between AD and other degenerative dementias. The development of these CSF biomarkers has evolved to a novel diagnostic definition of the disease. The identification of a specific clinical phenotype combined with the in vivo evidence of pathophysiological markers offers the possibility to make a diagnosis of AD before the dementia stage with high specificity.

  2. Biological (molecular and cellular) markers of toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shugart, L.R.; D'Surney, S.J.; Gettys-Hull, C.; Greeley, M.S. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Several molecular and cellular markers of genotoxicity were adapted for measurement in the Medaka (Oryzias latipes), and were used to describe the effects of treatment of the organism with diethylnitrosamine (DEN). NO 6 -ethyl guanine adducts were detected, and a slight statistically significant, increase in DNA strand breaks was observed. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that prolonged exposure to high levels of DEN induced alkyltransferase activity which enzymatically removes any O 6 -ethyl guanine adducts but does not result in strand breaks or hypomethylation of the DNA such as might be expected from excision repair of chemically modified DNA. Following a five week continuous DEN exposure with 100 percent renewal of DEN-water every third day, the F values (DNA double strandedness) increased considerably and to similar extent in fish exposed to 25, 50, and 100 ppM DEN. This has been observed also in medaka exposed to BaP

  3. Established and emerging biological activity markers of inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O H; Vainer, B; Madsen, S M

    2000-01-01

    Assessment of disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), i.e., ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), is done using clinical parameters and various biological disease markers. Ideally, a disease marker must: be able to identify individuals at risk of a given disorder......, be disease specific, mirror the disease activity and, finally, be easily applicable for routine clinical purposes. However, no such disease markers have yet been identified for IBD. In this article, classical disease markers including erythrocyte sedimentation rate, acute phase proteins (especially...... orosomucoid and CRP), leukocyte and platelet counts, albumin, neopterin, and beta2-microglobulin will be reviewed together with emerging disease markers such as antibodies of the ANCA/ASCA type, cytokines (e.g., IL-1, IL-2Ralpha, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-alpha, and TNF-alpha receptors) and with various adhesion...

  4. Established and emerging biological activity markers of inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O H; Vainer, B; Madsen, S M

    2000-01-01

    orosomucoid and CRP), leukocyte and platelet counts, albumin, neopterin, and beta2-microglobulin will be reviewed together with emerging disease markers such as antibodies of the ANCA/ASCA type, cytokines (e.g., IL-1, IL-2Ralpha, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-alpha, and TNF-alpha receptors) and with various adhesion......Assessment of disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), i.e., ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), is done using clinical parameters and various biological disease markers. Ideally, a disease marker must: be able to identify individuals at risk of a given disorder......, be disease specific, mirror the disease activity and, finally, be easily applicable for routine clinical purposes. However, no such disease markers have yet been identified for IBD. In this article, classical disease markers including erythrocyte sedimentation rate, acute phase proteins (especially...

  5. Biological markers of generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maron, Eduard; Nutt, David

    2017-06-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a prevalent and highly disabling mental health condition; however, there is still much to learn with regard to pertinent biomarkers, as well as diagnosis, made more difficult by the marked and common overlap of GAD with affective and anxiety disorders. Recently, intensive research efforts have focused on GAD, applying neuroimaging, genetic, and blood-based approaches toward discovery of pathogenetic and treatment-related biomarkers. In this paper, we review the large amount of available data, and we focus in particular on evidence from neuroimaging, genetic, and neurochemical measurements in GAD in order to better understand potential biomarkers involved in its etiology and treatment. Overall, the majority of these studies have produced results that are solitary findings, sometimes inconsistent and not clearly replicable. For these reasons, they have not yet been translated into clinical practice. Therefore, further research efforts are needed to distinguish GAD from other mental disorders and to provide new biological insights into its pathogenesis and treatment.

  6. Clinical utility of autoantibodies and biologic markers in rheumatoid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To review the current and emerging auto-antibodies and biologic markers in rheumatoid arthritis. Data source: Published original research work and reviews were searched in English related to pathophysiology, diagnosis and auto antibodies in rheumatoid arthritis. Study design: Only articles that emphasis on ...

  7. A Summary of the Biological Basis of Frailty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Roger A

    2015-01-01

    Frailty has been defined as a geriatric syndrome that is characterized by a reduction in the physiological reserve required for an individual to respond to endogenous and exogenous stressors. Using a discrete definition of frailty that includes sedentariness, involuntary weight loss, fatigue, poor muscle strength, and slow gait speed, 'frailty' has been associated with increased disability, postsurgical complications, and increased mortality. Despite the strong associations between frailty and subsequent poor outcomes, limited attention to this common geriatric condition has been paid in clinical settings. A more fundamental basic understanding of the biological factors that contribute to the frailty phenotype has begun to emerge. Multiple underlying biological factors such as dysregulation of inflammatory processes, genomic instability, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and cellular senescence appear to contribute to the clinical presentation of frailty. This chapter summarizes the papers presented on the biological basis of frailty from the 83rd Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop on 'Frailty, Pathophysiology, Phenotype and Patient Care' held in Barcelona, Spain, in March 2014. © 2015 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Study Finds Association between Biological Marker and Susceptibility to the Common Cold

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... W X Y Z Study Finds Association Between Biological Marker and Susceptibility to the Common Cold Share: © ... a cold caused by a particular rhinovirus. The biological marker identified in the study was the length ...

  9. Biological basis of combination therapy with radiation and bleomycin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Hiroshi; Matsuzawa, Taiju; Yokoyama, Kumiko; Okuyama, Shinichi; Yamaura, Hiroshi

    1976-01-01

    The biological basis for combination therapy with radiation and bleomycin (BLM) was studied on C 2 W cells growing in vitro. When BLM was added to the medium before or after irradiation, a potentiating effect was observed. The potentiation remained for 4-6 hours after irradiation. To make clear the mechanism, both type of repair from radiation damage (Elkind type and PLD) by BLM were examined. BLM didn't inhibit the Elkind type recovery but it did inhibit the repair of potentially lethal damage (PLD repair). Plateau phase C 2 W cells were irradiated, incubated at 37 0 C for a various number of hours, then trypsinized for colony formation. PLD repair was inhibited when BLM was added immediately after irradiation. Based on such experimental results, we treated lung cancer with combination of radiation and BLM. BLM was injected intravenously within 30 minutes after irradiation. Although it seems too early to discuss the result of the combination therapy, it is very promising. (J.P.N.)

  10. Biological basis of combination therapy with radiation and bleomycin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, H; Matsuzawa, T; Yokoyama, K; Okuyama, S; Yamaura, H [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Research Inst. for Tuberculosis, Leprosy and Cancer

    1976-01-01

    The biological basis for combination therapy with radiation and bleomycin (BLM) was studied on C/sub 2/W cells growing in vitro. When BLM was added to the medium before or after irradiation, a potentiating effect was observed. The potentiation remained for 4-6 hours after irradiation. To make clear the mechanism, both type of repair from radiation damage (Elkind type and PLD) by BLM were examined. BLM didn't inhibit the Elkind type recovery but it did inhibit the repair of potentially lethal damage (PLD repair). Plateau phase C/sub 2/W cells were irradiated, incubated at 37/sup 0/C for a various number of hours, then trypsinized for colony formation. PLD repair was inhibited when BLM was added immediately after irradiation. Based on such experimental results, we treated lung cancer with combination of radiation and BLM. BLM was injected intravenously within 30 minutes after irradiation. Although it seems too early to discuss the result of the combination therapy, it is very promising.

  11. The prognostic value of biological markers in paediatric Hodgkin lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farruggia, Piero; Puccio, Giuseppe; Sala, Alessandra; Todesco, Alessandra; Buffardi, Salvatore; Garaventa, Alberto; Bottigliero, Gaetano; Bianchi, Maurizio; Zecca, Marco; Locatelli, Franco; Pession, Andrea; Pillon, Marta; Favre, Claudio; D'Amico, Salvatore; Provenzi, Massimo; Trizzino, Angela; Zanazzo, Giulio Andrea; Sau, Antonella; Santoro, Nicola; Murgia, Giulio; Casini, Tommaso; Mascarin, Maurizio; Burnelli, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    Many biological and inflammatory markers have been proposed as having a prognostic value at diagnosis of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), but very few have been validated in paediatric patients. We explored the significance of these markers in a large population of 769 affected children. By using the database of patients enrolled in A.I.E.O.P. (Associazione Italiana di Emato-Oncologia Pediatrica) trial LH2004 for paediatric HL, we identified 769 consecutive patients treated with curative intent from 1st June 2004 to 1st April 2014 with ABVD (doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine), or hybrid COPP/ABV (cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisone, procarbazine, doxorubicin, bleomycin and vinblastine) regimens. On multivariate analysis with categorical forms, the 5-year freedom from progression survival was significantly lower in patients with stage IV or elevated value of platelets, eosinophils and ferritin at diagnosis. Furthermore, stage IV and eosinophils seem to maintain their predictive value independently of interim (after IV cycles of chemotherapy) positron emission tomography. Using the combination of four simple markers such as stage IV and elevated levels of platelets, ferritin and eosinophils, it is possible to classify the patients into subgroups with very different outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Quality control of X-ray irradiator by biological markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Miwa; Lukmanul Hakkim, F.; Yoshida, Masahiro; Matsuda, Naoki; Morita, Naoko

    2011-01-01

    The exposure of animals or cultured cells to radiation is the essential and common step in experimental researches to elucidate biological effects of radiation. When an X-ray generator is used as a radiation source, physical parameters including dose, dose rate, and the energy spectrum of X-ray play crucial roles in biological outcome. Therefore, those parameters are the important points to be checked in quality control and to be carefully considered in advance to the irradiation to obtain the accurate and reproductive results. Here we measured radiation dose emitted from the X-ray irradiator for research purposes by using clonogenic survival of cultured mammalian cells as a biological marker in parallel with physical dosimetry. The results drawn from both methods exhibited good consistency in the dose distribution on the irradiation stage. Furthermore, the close relationship was observed between cell survival and the photon energy spectrum by using different filter components. These results suggest that biological dosimetry is applicable to quality control of X-ray irradiator in adjunct to physical dosimetry and that it possibly helps better understanding of the optimal irradiating condition by X-ray users in life-science field. (author)

  13. The Learning of Biology: A Structural Basis for Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Darrel L.

    1977-01-01

    This article reviews recent research studies and experiences relating the learning theories of Ausubel to biology instruction. Also some suggestions are made for future research on the learning of biology. (MR)

  14. Radiation biology as a basis for multidisciplinary cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoya, N.

    2017-01-01

    The research field of radiation biology has progressed greatly thanks to the advances in molecular biology. DNA in the cell nucleus is the principal target of radiation. The biological effect of radiation can be determined by how the DNA damage is processed in the cell. In order to prevent deleterious biological effects due to DNA damage, the cells possess a system termed 'DNA damage response'. The DNA damage response finally induces cell cycle arrest, activation of DNA repair pathways, or cell death. If accurately repaired, DNA damage will result in survival of cells with no biological effects. If inaccurately repaired, DNA damage may result in survival of cells exhibiting genetic alterations, which can lead to the development of various diseases including cancer. If unrepaired, fatal DNA damage such as the DNA double-strand break will result in cell depth. Since radiation therapy and chemotherapy are designed to specifically kill cancer cells by inducing DNA double-strand breaks, it is important to take advantage of cancer-specific abnormalities in DNA damage response. In this review, I describe the impact of targeting DNA damage response in cancer therapy and show how progress in radiation biology has contributed to the development of novel therapeutic strategies. (author)

  15. Biological basis of heavy ion beams for cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Kiyohiko

    1985-01-01

    Fast neutron therapy has started firstly and proton therapy has commenced secondly, fast neutron shows better biological effects compared to conventional radiations but its dose distribution is not good, and proton demonstrates excellent dose distribution but its biological effects are almost the same as that of conventional radiations. On the other hand, negative pi-mesons and heavy ions indicate high radiobiological effect and excellent dose distribution, therefore these particle radiations is considered to be more attractive for radiotherapeutic radiations to enhance cure rate of cancers. The biological strong points of these particles are as follows : 1) cells exposed to these particle radiations shows less recovery after irradiation compared to conventional radiations, 2) these radiations show high biological effects (high value of relative biological effectiveness = RBE) when the same dose is given, 3) big effects on hypoxic cells which exsist in tumor, i.e. the value of oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) is low, 4) the differences in radiosensitivity by stages of cell cycle are not so great (data was not shown in present paper), 5) biological effects at prepeak plateau region in depth dose curve formed by these particle radiations is less than that at peak region (therefore, if beam is modulated to cover tumor at spraed out broad peak, tumors is given more biological effect compared to normal tissues which is to be exposed to radiations at prepaeak region). Clinical trial using heavy ions are being performed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory which is only one facility to be able to try clinical trial. The results of clinical trials at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory suggest to be very prospective to enhance tumor cure rate, however it is too early to estimate the effect of heavy ion therapy. (J.P.N.)

  16. Biological markers as predictors of radiosensitivity in syngeneic murine tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Sei Kyung; Shin, Hyun Soo; Seong, Jin Sil; Kim, Sung Hee

    2006-01-01

    We investigated whether a relationship exists between tumor control dose 50 (TCD 50 ) or tumor growth delay (TGD) and radiation induced apoptosis (RIA) in syngeneic murine tumors. Also we investigated the biological markers that can predict radiosensitivity in murine tumor system through analysis of relationship between TCD 50 , TGD, RIA and constitutive expression levels of the genetic products regulating RIA. Syngeneic murine tumors such as ovarian adenocarcinoma, mammary carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, fibrosarcoma, hepatocarcinoma were used in this study. C3H/HeJ mice were bred and maintained in our specific pathogen free mouse colony and were 8 ∼ 12 weeks old when used for the experiments. The tumors, growing in the right hind legs of mice, were analyzed for TCD 50 , TGD, and RIA at 8 mm in diameter. The tumors were also analyzed for the constitutive expression levels of p53, p21 WAF1/CIP1 , BAX, Bcl-2, Bcl-x L , Bcl-x S , and p34. Correlation analysis was performed whether the level of RIA were correlated with TCD 50 or TGD, and the constitutive expression levels of genetic products regulating RIA were correlated with TCD 50 , TGD, RIA. The level of RIA showed a significant positive correlation (R = 0.922, ρ = 0.026) with TGD, and showed a trend to correlation (R = -0.848), marginally significant correlation with TCD 50 (ρ = 0.070). It indicates that tumors that respond to radiation with high percentage of apoptosis were more radiosensitive. The constitutive expression levels of p21 WAF1/CIP1 and p34 showed a significant correlation either with TCD 50 (R = 0.893, ρ = 0.041 and R = 0.904, ρ = 0.035) or with TGD (R = -0.922, ρ 0.026 and R = -0.890, ρ = 0.043). The tumors with high constitutive expression levels of p21 WAF1/CIP1 or p34 were less radiosensitive than those with low expression. Radiosensitivity may be predicted with the level of RIA in murine tumors. The constitutive expression levels of p21 WAF1/CIP1 or p34 can be used as biological

  17. Biological markers as predictors of radiosensitivity in syngeneic murine tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Sei Kyung; Shin, Hyun Soo [Bundang CHA General Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Seong, Jin Sil; Kim, Sung Hee [Yonsei Cancer Center, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-06-15

    We investigated whether a relationship exists between tumor control dose 50 (TCD{sub 50}) or tumor growth delay (TGD) and radiation induced apoptosis (RIA) in syngeneic murine tumors. Also we investigated the biological markers that can predict radiosensitivity in murine tumor system through analysis of relationship between TCD{sub 50}, TGD, RIA and constitutive expression levels of the genetic products regulating RIA. Syngeneic murine tumors such as ovarian adenocarcinoma, mammary carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, fibrosarcoma, hepatocarcinoma were used in this study. C3H/HeJ mice were bred and maintained in our specific pathogen free mouse colony and were 8 {approx} 12 weeks old when used for the experiments. The tumors, growing in the right hind legs of mice, were analyzed for TCD{sub 50}, TGD, and RIA at 8 mm in diameter. The tumors were also analyzed for the constitutive expression levels of p53, p21{sup WAF1/CIP1}, BAX, Bcl-2, Bcl-x{sub L}, Bcl-x{sub S}, and p34. Correlation analysis was performed whether the level of RIA were correlated with TCD{sub 50} or TGD, and the constitutive expression levels of genetic products regulating RIA were correlated with TCD{sub 50}, TGD, RIA. The level of RIA showed a significant positive correlation (R = 0.922, {rho} = 0.026) with TGD, and showed a trend to correlation (R = -0.848), marginally significant correlation with TCD{sub 50} ({rho} = 0.070). It indicates that tumors that respond to radiation with high percentage of apoptosis were more radiosensitive. The constitutive expression levels of p21{sup WAF1/CIP1} and p34 showed a significant correlation either with TCD{sub 50} (R = 0.893, {rho} = 0.041 and R = 0.904, {rho} = 0.035) or with TGD (R = -0.922, {rho} 0.026 and R = -0.890, {rho} = 0.043). The tumors with high constitutive expression levels of p21{sup WAF1/CIP1} or p34 were less radiosensitive than those with low expression. Radiosensitivity may be predicted with the level of RIA in murine tumors. The

  18. Biological ageing and frailty markers in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwers, Barbara; Dalmasso, Bruna; Hatse, Sigrid; Laenen, Annouschka; Kenis, Cindy; Swerts, Evalien; Neven, Patrick; Smeets, Ann; Schöffski, Patrick; Wildiers, Hans

    2015-05-01

    Older cancer patients are a highly heterogeneous population in terms of global health and physiological reserves, and it is often difficult to determine the best treatment. Moreover, clinical tools currently used to assess global health require dedicated time and lack a standardized end score. Circulating markers of biological age and/or fitness could complement or partially substitute the existing screening tools. In this study we explored the relationship of potential ageing/frailty biomarkers with age and clinical frailty. On a population of 82 young and 162 older non-metastatic breast cancer patients, we measured mean leukocyte telomere length and plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), regulated upon activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). We also developed a new tool to summarize clinical frailty, designated Leuven Oncogeriatric Frailty Score (LOFS), by integrating GA results in a single, semi-continuous score. LOFS' median score was 8, on a scale from 0=frail to 10=fit. IL-6 levels were associated with chronological age in both groups and with clinical frailty in older breast cancer patients, whereas telomere length, IGF-1 and MCP-1 only correlated with age. Plasma IL-6 should be further explored as frailty biomarker in cancer patients.

  19. Biological markers for kidney injury and renal function in the intensive care unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Royakkers, A.A.N.M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the investigations described in this thesis was to seek for answers to two relevant questions in ICUs in resource-rich settings, i.e., can new biological markers play a role in early recognition of AKI, and can new biological markers predict recovery of renal function in patients who

  20. Biological basis of inhalation exposure of radon and its daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Osamu

    1989-01-01

    Since inhalation exposure by radon and its daughters is very specific type of internal exposure, it is necessary to understand its characteristic nature. The specificity originates from the nuclear feature of radon daughters and the biological micro-environment in the respiratory tract. Inhaled radon and its daughters exist in the respiratory tract as ions attached to air dusts and deposit on the mucus surface of the respiratory tract by various mechanisms such as impaction, sedimentation and diffusion. Deposition of radon daughters is predominant around the site of the fourth generation according to Weibel's model. Deposited particles with radon daughters are cleared by muco-ciliary transportation. Its speed is estimated to be about 1.0 cm/min, at the upper region. Alpha decay will happen during transportation in the respiratory tract. Radon has no tissue affinity metabolically. Therefore, the irradiation is limited to the epithelial cells of respiratory tract. The cell components within 30-70 micron in depth are irradiated with alpha particle. Biological effectiveness of alpha radiation is very high compared with beta or gamma radiation. The target cell for carcinogenesis by radon exposure is considered to be the basal cell of epithelium. Lung cancer induced by radon inhalation is recognized to be squamous cell carcinoma, small cell carcinoma, or oat-cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. The modification factors which influence the effect of radon exposure are co-inhalation of ore dust and smoking habit. According to epidemiological studies on lung cancer which occurred in uranium miners, it is suggested that the smoking habit strongly promotes lung cancer induction. (author)

  1. The biological basis for the control of prenatal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The embryo and fetus have been generally considered to be more sensitive than the adult to the detrimental effects of radiation exposure. In particular, recent re-evaluations of epidemiological data on human population exposed to radiation have suggested that there may be greater sensitivity than heretofore recognized to the induction of mental retardation and reduced intelligence by exposure during gestation. To assist national authorities in evaluating this problem and establishing appropriate protection measures for limiting the dose to the embryo and fetus and, thus, to pregnant or potentially pregnant women, the Nuclear Energy Agency has appointed a Group of Consultants to assemble and evaluate the biological data relevant to the protection of the human conceptus, and to make recommendations for achieving this in the operational practice. The Group has surveyed the human data dealing with the biologcal effects of radiation exposure at low doses, and has supplemented this with information derived from animal studies. The Group has also taken full account of the studies and recommendations issued in this area by other international organizations, primarily the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). This report is published under the responsibility of the Secretary General of the OECD, and does not commit Member governments of the Organization

  2. Uses of chemotherapy together with radiation, and its biological basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Ikuo; Terashima, Toyozo

    1978-01-01

    Effect of use of anticancer drugs together with radiation, especially effects of Actinomycin D (AMD), Bleomycin (BLM), and Adriamycin (Ad) which seemed to have synergistic effect, and other substances which have possibility to have synergistic effect were described. It was clarified that AMD out of them showed synergistic effect to inhibit repair of sublethel damage induced by irradiation in addition to anticancer effect itself. Therefore, it is thought that use of AMD is effective especially to cancer with high radioresistance and it is better to administer this drug just before or just after irradiation. It seems to be better to administer at one time with high concentration in the allowable range. It is difficult to come to a conclusion as to BLM and Ad, generalized as well as the conclusion of AMD, but it seems to be better to use BLM and Ad together with irradiation at the same time. As BLM is highly effective especially to epithelial cells, it must be necessary to investigate whether there is a difference of characteristics between cells. In any case, there are two great factors, the concentration and action time (containing the time remaining in vivo) of drugs, and moreover, another factor, time relation to irradiation is added. Therefore, an experiment schedule is complicated so much, and it is important to study quantitatively on the basis of systematic experimental plan. As to clinical application of them, it is necessary to perform an experiment in vitro which is exullent in estimation and an experiment in vivo which certified the effects in keeping organic cooperation. (Tsunoda, M.)

  3. Biological monitoring and assessment of rivers as a basis for identifying and prioritising river management options

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, DJ

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available management objectives. This paper demonstrates how the results obtained with biological indices and system-specific knowledge, are combined to derive semi quantitative assessments of ecosystem condition. These assessments provide the basis for responding...

  4. Schizophrenia: from the brain to peripheral markers. A consensus paper of the WFSBP task force on biological markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stober, Gerald; Ben-Shachar, Dorit; Cardon, M

    2009-01-01

    traits that are specific to particular conditions. An important aim of biomarker discovery is the detection of disease correlates that can be used as diagnostic tools. Method. A selective review of the WFSBP Task Force on Biological Markers in schizophrenia is provided from the central nervous system...

  5. Sequence-Related Amplified Polymorphism (SRAP Markers: A Potential Resource for Studies in Plant Molecular Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel W. H. Robarts

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the past few decades, many investigations in the field of plant biology have employed selectively neutral, multilocus, dominant markers such as inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR, random-amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD, and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP to address hypotheses at lower taxonomic levels. More recently, sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP markers have been developed, which are used to amplify coding regions of DNA with primers targeting open reading frames. These markers have proven to be robust and highly variable, on par with AFLP, and are attained through a significantly less technically demanding process. SRAP markers have been used primarily for agronomic and horticultural purposes, developing quantitative trait loci in advanced hybrids and assessing genetic diversity of large germplasm collections. Here, we suggest that SRAP markers should be employed for research addressing hypotheses in plant systematics, biogeography, conservation, ecology, and beyond. We provide an overview of the SRAP literature to date, review descriptive statistics of SRAP markers in a subset of 171 publications, and present relevant case studies to demonstrate the applicability of SRAP markers to the diverse field of plant biology. Results of these selected works indicate that SRAP markers have the potential to enhance the current suite of molecular tools in a diversity of fields by providing an easy-to-use. highly variable marker with inherent biological significance.

  6. Plasma tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 as a biological marker? Pre-analytical considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, Anne Fog; Frederiksen, Camilla; Christensen, Ib Jarle

    2007-01-01

    Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) may be a valuable biological marker in Colorectal Cancer (CRC). However, prospective validation of TIMP-1 as a biological marker should include a series of pre-analytical considerations. TIMP-1 is stored in platelets, which may degranulate during ...... collection and storage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of platelet TIMP-1 contamination on plasma TIMP-1 levels in healthy volunteers....

  7. Medulloblastoma: histopathologic and molecular markers of anaplasia and biologic behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Hye Sook; Lee, You Jeong; Park, Kyeongmee; Cho, Byung-Kyu; Park, Sung-Hye

    2006-07-01

    Large cell/anaplastic (LC/A) medulloblastoma (MB) is a recently recognized variant of medulloblastoma known to be associated with an advanced stage and a poor prognosis. Although Eberhart et al. suggested histopathologic grading of medulloblastoma in 2002, no consensus has been reached in terms of determining the criteria of an LC/A variant, and its biological behavior continues to be the subject of debate. We retrospectively analyzed 74 cases (range 0.25-15 years) of MB clinicopathologically using the criteria established by Eberhart et al. The LC/A variant was identified in 16 cases (22% of MB cases), five of which showed a poor outcome. Most LC/A variant cases revealed synaptophysin immunoexpression (75%), but no epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression. Expression of synaptophysin, NeuN, GFAP, p53, c-erbB2, and EGFR did not differ in LC/A and non-LC/A variants. Seven of the 74 cases of medulloblastoma showed erbB2 amplification by FISH, four of which were LC/A variants. N-myc amplification was observed in only one LC/A variant, but no c-myc amplification was found. In patients younger than 10 years, the LC/A variant showed a significantly poorer outcome than the non-LC/A variant (P = 0.02), while no difference was found in older patients. Multivariate analysis revealed only metastasis on MRI and p53 expression, but not anaplasia as unfavorable prognostic factors. Our study suggests that prognostic implications of anaplasia in medulloblastoma are uncertain, and that the reproducibility of the histopathologic criteria of the LC/A variant should be reassessed before they can be applied in practical use.

  8. Biological Markers for Pulpal Inflammation: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan-Krister Rechenberg

    Full Text Available Pulpitis is mainly caused by an opportunistic infection of the pulp space with commensal oral microorganisms. Depending on the state of inflammation, different treatment regimes are currently advocated. Predictable vital pulp therapy depends on accurate determination of the pulpal status that will allow repair to occur. The role of several players of the host response in pulpitis is well documented: cytokines, proteases, inflammatory mediators, growth factors, antimicrobial peptides and others contribute to pulpal defense mechanisms; these factors may serve as biomarkers that indicate the status of the pulp. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the presence of biomarkers in pulpitis.The electronic databases of MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus and other sources were searched for English and non-English articles published through February 2015. Two independent reviewers extracted information regarding study design, tissue or analyte used, outcome measures, results and conclusions for each article. The quality of the included studies was assessed using a modification of the Newcastle-Ottawa-Scale.From the initial 847 publications evaluated, a total of 57 articles were included in this review. In general, irreversible pulpitis was associated with different expression of various biomarkers compared to normal controls. These biomarkers were significantly expressed not only in pulp tissue, but also in gingival crevicular fluid that can be collected non-invasively, and in dentin fluid that can be analyzed without extirpating the entire pulpal tissue. Such data may then be used to accurately differentiate diseased from healthy pulp tissue. The interplay of pulpal biomarkers and their potential use for a more accurate and biologically based diagnostic tool in endodontics is envisaged.

  9. Identification of apple cultivars on the basis of simple sequence repeat markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, G S; Zhang, Y G; Tao, R; Fang, J G; Dai, H Y

    2014-09-12

    DNA markers are useful tools that play an important role in plant cultivar identification. They are usually based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and include simple sequence repeats (SSRs), inter-simple sequence repeats, and random amplified polymorphic DNA. However, DNA markers were not used effectively in the complete identification of plant cultivars because of the lack of known DNA fingerprints. Recently, a novel approach called the cultivar identification diagram (CID) strategy was developed to facilitate the use of DNA markers for separate plant individuals. The CID was designed whereby a polymorphic maker was generated from each PCR that directly allowed for cultivar sample separation at each step. Therefore, it could be used to identify cultivars and varieties easily with fewer primers. In this study, 60 apple cultivars, including a few main cultivars in fields and varieties from descendants (Fuji x Telamon) were examined. Of the 20 pairs of SSR primers screened, 8 pairs gave reproducible, polymorphic DNA amplification patterns. The banding patterns obtained from these 8 primers were used to construct a CID map. Each cultivar or variety in this study was distinguished from the others completely, indicating that this method can be used for efficient cultivar identification. The result contributed to studies on germplasm resources and the seedling industry in fruit trees.

  10. Cellular resistance in radio- and chemotherapy: biological basis and strategies for circumvention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twentyman, P.R.

    1991-01-01

    In this review the author points out that resistance to cytotoxic drugs is a complex, multifactorial phenomenon involving a range of mechanisms. There is accumulating evidence that these are of relevance to both inherent and acquired resistance in the clinic. Demonstration that mechanisms of drug and radiation resistance are closely linked provides a basis for the related patterns of responsiveness observed in clinical practice. Strategies for circumvention of resistance mechanisms will depend for success upon finding ways of improving therapeutic ratio. Optimal clinical trial of resistance circumvention strategies will require the use of quantitative markers of resistance mechanisms in tumour and normal tissues. (author)

  11. Identification of biological/biochemical marker(s) for preterm delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Poul; Schendel, Diana; Deshpande, Anjali D.

    2001-01-01

    Fetal and neonatal mortality and morbidity rates are strongly associated with gestational age for delivery: the risk for poor outcome increases as gestational age decreases. Attempts to predict preterm delivery (PTD, spontaneous delivery before 37 weeks' gestation) have been largely unsuccessful...... a nested case-control study of PTD in 84 cases and 400 controls has been performed. The second study is a nested case-control study of 675 PTD cases (equally divided into three gestational age categories of 24-29 weeks' gestation, 30-33 weeks' gestation, and 34-36 weeks' gestation) and 675 controls drawn...... study against PTD. The first phase of the clinical intervention study will be to establish a risk-assessment model based on the "best" combination of biological/biochemical measures and other factors associated with PTD in order to identify pregnant women at very high risk of PTD. The second phase...

  12. DNA markers for forensic identification of non-human biological traces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselink, M.

    2018-01-01

    In this thesis, DNA markers are described that enable forensically relevant classification of three groups of non-human biological traces: fungi (Chapter 1), domestic cats (Chapters 2, 3 an d 4) and birch trees (Chapters 5 and 6). Because the forensic questions associated with these traces require

  13. Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 2011

    2011-01-01

    Dry erase whiteboards come with toxic dry erase markers and toxic cleaning products. Dry erase markers labeled "nontoxic" are not free of toxic chemicals and can cause health problems. Children are especially vulnerable to environmental health hazards; moreover, schools commonly have problems with indoor air pollution, as they are more densely…

  14. A Bayesian spatial model for neuroimaging data based on biologically informed basis functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, Ismael; Oldehinkel, Marianne; van Oort, Erik S B; Garcia-Solis, David; Mir, Pablo; Beckmann, Christian F; Marquand, Andre F

    2017-11-01

    The dominant approach to neuroimaging data analysis employs the voxel as the unit of computation. While convenient, voxels lack biological meaning and their size is arbitrarily determined by the resolution of the image. Here, we propose a multivariate spatial model in which neuroimaging data are characterised as a linearly weighted combination of multiscale basis functions which map onto underlying brain nuclei or networks or nuclei. In this model, the elementary building blocks are derived to reflect the functional anatomy of the brain during the resting state. This model is estimated using a Bayesian framework which accurately quantifies uncertainty and automatically finds the most accurate and parsimonious combination of basis functions describing the data. We demonstrate the utility of this framework by predicting quantitative SPECT images of striatal dopamine function and we compare a variety of basis sets including generic isotropic functions, anatomical representations of the striatum derived from structural MRI, and two different soft functional parcellations of the striatum derived from resting-state fMRI (rfMRI). We found that a combination of ∼50 multiscale functional basis functions accurately represented the striatal dopamine activity, and that functional basis functions derived from an advanced parcellation technique known as Instantaneous Connectivity Parcellation (ICP) provided the most parsimonious models of dopamine function. Importantly, functional basis functions derived from resting fMRI were more accurate than both structural and generic basis sets in representing dopamine function in the striatum for a fixed model order. We demonstrate the translational validity of our framework by constructing classification models for discriminating parkinsonian disorders and their subtypes. Here, we show that ICP approach is the only basis set that performs well across all comparisons and performs better overall than the classical voxel-based approach

  15. Health effects of low-level ionising radiation: biological basis for risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upton, A.C.

    1987-01-01

    The biological basis for risk assessment is discussed. The risks of carcinogenic effects, teratogenic effects, and genetic (heritable) effects are estimated to vary in proportion with the dose of radiation in the low-dose domain; however, the risks also appear to vary with the LET of the radiation, age at the time of irradiation, and other variables. Although the data suffice to place the risks in perspective with other hazards of modern life, further research to refine the reliability of the risk assessment is called for. (author)

  16. Physical Activity, Physical Performance, and Biological Markers of Health among Sedentary Older Latinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Moreno

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Physical activity is associated with better physical health, possibly by changing biological markers of health such as waist circumference and inflammation, but these relationships are unclear and even less understood among older Latinos—a group with high rates of sedentary lifestyle. Methods. Participants were 120 sedentary older Latino adults from senior centers. Community-partnered research methods were used to recruit participants. Inflammatory (C-reactive protein and metabolic markers of health (waist circumference, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, and glucose, physical activity (Yale physical activity survey, and physical performance (short physical performance NIA battery were measured at baseline and 6-month followup. Results. Eighty percent of the sample was female. In final adjusted cross-sectional models, better physical activity indices were associated with faster gait speed (P<0.05. In adjusted longitudinal analyses, change in self-reported physical activity level correlated inversely with change in CRP (β=-0.05; P=0.03 and change in waist circumference (β=-0.16; P=0.02. Biological markers of health did not mediate the relationship between physical activity and physical performance. Conclusion. In this community-partnered study, higher physical activity was associated with better physical performance in cross-sectional analyses. In longitudinal analysis, increased physical activity was associated with improvements in some metabolic and inflammatory markers of health.

  17. The relationship between biological marker factors and the bone metastasis in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Lingjing; Liang Changhua; Li Xinhui; Deng Haoyu; Hu Shuo; Duan Huaxin

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between biological marker factors and the bone metastasis in breast cancer to instruct the follow-up of breast cancer patients. Methods: One hundred and fifteen breast cancer patients proved by histological examination after surgery were involved. To detect nm23 protein, C-erbB-2 protein, estrogen receptor (ER), progestogen receptor (PR) expression of their excised breast cancer tissue, immunohistochemical procedures were used. The relationship between biological marker factors and the bone metastasis in breast cancer was analyzed. All patients were examined by radioisotope whole body bone imaging during the follow-up. Results: The results were that the clinical staging, the status of axillary lymph nodes, the expression of nm23 protein, C-erbB-2 protein, ER were related to the bone metastasis in breast cancer, while the age, the mode of operation and the expression of PR were not. Conclusion: Colligating analysis of clinical, pathological status and biological marker factors is very important for the prediction of the prognosis and the direction of the follow-up in breast cancer patients after surgery

  18. Covariance Association Test (CVAT) Identifies Genetic Markers Associated with Schizophrenia in Functionally Associated Biological Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Palle Duun; Demontis, Ditte; Cuyabano, Beatriz Castro Dias; Børglum, Anders D; Sørensen, Peter

    2016-08-01

    Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder with large personal and social costs, and understanding the genetic etiology is important. Such knowledge can be obtained by testing the association between a disease phenotype and individual genetic markers; however, such single-marker methods have limited power to detect genetic markers with small effects. Instead, aggregating genetic markers based on biological information might increase the power to identify sets of genetic markers of etiological significance. Several set test methods have been proposed: Here we propose a new set test derived from genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP), the covariance association test (CVAT). We compared the performance of CVAT to other commonly used set tests. The comparison was conducted using a simulated study population having the same genetic parameters as for schizophrenia. We found that CVAT was among the top performers. When extending CVAT to utilize a mixture of SNP effects, we found an increase in power to detect the causal sets. Applying the methods to a Danish schizophrenia case-control data set, we found genomic evidence for association of schizophrenia with vitamin A metabolism and immunological responses, which previously have been implicated with schizophrenia based on experimental and observational studies. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  19. Social stratification in the Sikh population of Punjab (India) has a genetic basis: evidence from serological and biochemical markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahal, Sukh Mohinder Singh; Virk, Rupinder Kaur; Kaur, Sukhvir; Bansal, Rupinder

    2011-01-01

    The present study was planned to assess whether social stratification in the Sikh population inhabiting the northwest border Indian state of Punjab has any genetic basis. Blood samples were collected randomly from a total of 2851 unrelated subjects belonging to 21 groups of two low-ranking Sikh scheduled caste populations, viz. Mazhabi and Ramdasi, and a high-ranking Jat Sikh caste population of Punjab. The genetic profile of Sikh groups was investigated using a total of nine serobiochemical genetic markers, comprising two blood groups (ABO, RH(D)) and a battery of seven red cell enzyme polymorphisms (ADA, AK1, ESD, PGM1, GLO1, ACP1, GPI), following standard serological and biochemical laboratory protocols. Genetic structure was studied using original allele frequency data and statistical measures of heterozygosity, genic differentiation, genetic distance, and genetic admixture. Great heterogeneity was observed between Sikh scheduled caste and Jat Sikh populations, especially in the RH(D) blood group system, and distribution of ESD, ACP1, and PGM1 enzyme markers was also found to be significantly different between many of their groups. Genetic distance trees demonstrated little or no genetic affinities between Sikh scheduled caste and Jat Sikh populations; the Mazhabi and Ramdasi also showed little genetic relationship. Genetic admixture analysis suggested a higher element of autochthonous tribal extraction in the Ramdasi. The present study revealed much genetic heterogeneity in differently ranking Sikh caste populations of Punjab, mainly attributable to their different ethnic backgrounds, and provided a genetic basis to social stratification present in this religious community of Punjab, India.

  20. Characterization of Fasciola spp. in Myanmar on the basis of spermatogenesis status and nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Madoka; Bawn, Saw; Maw, Ni Ni; Htun, Lat Lat; Thein, Myint; Gyi, Aung; Sunn, Kyaw; Katakura, Ken; Itagaki, Tadashi

    2011-12-01

    Fasciola spp. in Myanmar were characterized on the basis of spermatogenesis status and DNA markers of nuclear internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1). We collected 88 adult flukes from Yangon, Lashio, and Myitkyina. Spermatogenesis status was analyzed by the presence of sperm in the seminal vesicles, and 8 aspermic and 80 spermic flukes were detected. The flukes were identified on the basis of spermatogenesis status and ITS1 types which were analyzed by a PCR-RFLP method, and 80 spermic flukes were identified as F. gigantica. A very low detection rate of aspermic Fasciola sp. indicated that they are not established in Myanmar. In phylogenetic analyses, the 7 aspermic Fasciola sp. from Myitkyina displayed a haplotype in nad1 sequence, which was identical to that of aspermic Fasciola sp. from other Asian countries including China. Therefore, they were probably introduced from China through an infected domestic ruminant. On the other hand, 17 nad1 haplotypes detected in F. gigantica belonged to 2 clades unique to Myanmar, each with a distinct founder haplotype in a network analysis. This indicated a unique history of F. gigantica introduction into Myanmar involving ancient artificial movements of domestic ruminants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers: A potential resource for studies in plant molecular biology1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robarts, Daniel W. H.; Wolfe, Andrea D.

    2014-01-01

    In the past few decades, many investigations in the field of plant biology have employed selectively neutral, multilocus, dominant markers such as inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR), random-amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) to address hypotheses at lower taxonomic levels. More recently, sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers have been developed, which are used to amplify coding regions of DNA with primers targeting open reading frames. These markers have proven to be robust and highly variable, on par with AFLP, and are attained through a significantly less technically demanding process. SRAP markers have been used primarily for agronomic and horticultural purposes, developing quantitative trait loci in advanced hybrids and assessing genetic diversity of large germplasm collections. Here, we suggest that SRAP markers should be employed for research addressing hypotheses in plant systematics, biogeography, conservation, ecology, and beyond. We provide an overview of the SRAP literature to date, review descriptive statistics of SRAP markers in a subset of 171 publications, and present relevant case studies to demonstrate the applicability of SRAP markers to the diverse field of plant biology. Results of these selected works indicate that SRAP markers have the potential to enhance the current suite of molecular tools in a diversity of fields by providing an easy-to-use, highly variable marker with inherent biological significance. PMID:25202637

  2. Sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers: A potential resource for studies in plant molecular biology(1.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robarts, Daniel W H; Wolfe, Andrea D

    2014-07-01

    In the past few decades, many investigations in the field of plant biology have employed selectively neutral, multilocus, dominant markers such as inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR), random-amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) to address hypotheses at lower taxonomic levels. More recently, sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers have been developed, which are used to amplify coding regions of DNA with primers targeting open reading frames. These markers have proven to be robust and highly variable, on par with AFLP, and are attained through a significantly less technically demanding process. SRAP markers have been used primarily for agronomic and horticultural purposes, developing quantitative trait loci in advanced hybrids and assessing genetic diversity of large germplasm collections. Here, we suggest that SRAP markers should be employed for research addressing hypotheses in plant systematics, biogeography, conservation, ecology, and beyond. We provide an overview of the SRAP literature to date, review descriptive statistics of SRAP markers in a subset of 171 publications, and present relevant case studies to demonstrate the applicability of SRAP markers to the diverse field of plant biology. Results of these selected works indicate that SRAP markers have the potential to enhance the current suite of molecular tools in a diversity of fields by providing an easy-to-use, highly variable marker with inherent biological significance.

  3. The influence of framing on clinicians' judgments of the biological basis of behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nancy S; Ahn, Woo-kyoung; Johnson, Samuel G B; Knobe, Joshua

    2016-03-01

    Practicing clinicians frequently think about behaviors both abstractly (i.e., in terms of symptoms, as in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th ed., DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) and concretely (i.e., in terms of individual clients, as in DSM-5 Clinical Cases; Barnhill, 2013). Does abstract/concrete framing influence clinical judgments about behaviors? Practicing mental health clinicians (N = 74) were presented with hallmark symptoms of 6 disorders framed abstractly versus concretely, and provided ratings of their biological and psychological bases (Experiment 1) and the likely effectiveness of medication and psychotherapy in alleviating them (Experiment 2). Clinicians perceived behavioral symptoms in the abstract to be more biologically and less psychologically based than when concretely described, and medication was viewed as more effective for abstractly than concretely described symptoms. These findings suggest a possible basis for miscommunication and misalignment of views between primarily research-oriented and primarily practice-oriented clinicians; furthermore, clinicians may accept new neuroscience research more strongly in the abstract than for individual clients. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Investigating the Influence of Biological Sex on the Behavioral and Neural Basis of Face Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherf, K Suzanne; Elbich, Daniel B; Motta-Mena, Natalie V

    2017-01-01

    There is interest in understanding the influence of biological factors, like sex, on the organization of brain function. We investigated the influence of biological sex on the behavioral and neural basis of face recognition in healthy, young adults. In behavior, there were no sex differences on the male Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT)+ or the female CFMT+ (that we created) and no own-gender bias (OGB) in either group. We evaluated the functional topography of ventral stream organization by measuring the magnitude and functional neural size of 16 individually defined face-, two object-, and two place-related regions bilaterally. There were no sex differences in any of these measures of neural function in any of the regions of interest (ROIs) or in group level comparisons. These findings reveal that men and women have similar category-selective topographic organization in the ventral visual pathway. Next, in a separate task, we measured activation within the 16 face-processing ROIs specifically during recognition of target male and female faces. There were no sex differences in the magnitude of the neural responses in any face-processing region. Furthermore, there was no OGB in the neural responses of either the male or female participants. Our findings suggest that face recognition behavior, including the OGB, is not inherently sexually dimorphic. Face recognition is an essential skill for navigating human social interactions, which is reflected equally in the behavior and neural architecture of men and women.

  5. Investigating the Influence of Biological Sex on the Behavioral and Neural Basis of Face Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Abstract There is interest in understanding the influence of biological factors, like sex, on the organization of brain function. We investigated the influence of biological sex on the behavioral and neural basis of face recognition in healthy, young adults. In behavior, there were no sex differences on the male Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT)+ or the female CFMT+ (that we created) and no own-gender bias (OGB) in either group. We evaluated the functional topography of ventral stream organization by measuring the magnitude and functional neural size of 16 individually defined face-, two object-, and two place-related regions bilaterally. There were no sex differences in any of these measures of neural function in any of the regions of interest (ROIs) or in group level comparisons. These findings reveal that men and women have similar category-selective topographic organization in the ventral visual pathway. Next, in a separate task, we measured activation within the 16 face-processing ROIs specifically during recognition of target male and female faces. There were no sex differences in the magnitude of the neural responses in any face-processing region. Furthermore, there was no OGB in the neural responses of either the male or female participants. Our findings suggest that face recognition behavior, including the OGB, is not inherently sexually dimorphic. Face recognition is an essential skill for navigating human social interactions, which is reflected equally in the behavior and neural architecture of men and women. PMID:28497111

  6. Quality control in the neutron activation analysis of biological markers for selenium in epidemiological investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, J.S.; Ngwenyama, R.A.; Guthrie, J.M.; Brockman, J.D.; Spate, V.L.; Robertson, J.D.

    2008-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis is routinely used at the MURR to quantify selenium in prospectively-collected biologic markers including blood serum and toenails. These specimens are typically collected from well-defined cohort populations participating in investigations assessing selenium intake and incidence of chronic disease endpoints. These epidemiological investigations, whether observational (case-control) or clinical (intervention), typically generate thousands of samples. The purpose of this paper is to assess, through evaluation of quality control results, if the achievable accuracy and precision in the measurement of selenium using NAA is adequate to determine a relative risk of 1.2 at high confidence in epidemiological studies. (author)

  7. Biological markers in animals can provide information on exposure and bioavailability of environmental contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shugart, L.R.; Adams, S.M.; Jimenez, B.D.; Talmage, S.S.; McCarthy, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of agents present in the environment seek to identify the extent to which they contribute to the causation of a specific toxic, clinical, or pathological endpoint. The multifactorial nature of disease etiology, long latency periods and the complexity of exposure, all contribute to the difficulty of establishing associations and casual relationships between a specific exposure and an adverse outcome. These barriers to studies of exposures and subsequent risk assessment cannot generally be changed. However, the appropriate use of biological markers in animal species living in a contaminated habitat can provide a measure of potential damage from that exposure and, in some instances, act as a surrogate for human environmental exposures. Quantitative predictivity of the effect of exposure to environmental pollutants is being approached by employing an appropriate array of biological end points. 34 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs

  8. Biological and psychological markers of stress in humans: focus on the Trier Social Stress Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Andrew P; Kennedy, Paul J; Cryan, John F; Dinan, Timothy G; Clarke, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Validated biological and psychological markers of acute stress in humans are an important tool in translational research. The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), involving public interview and mental arithmetic performance, is among the most popular methods of inducing acute stress in experimental settings, and reliably increases hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation. However, although much research has focused on HPA axis activity, the TSST also affects the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary system, the immune system, cardiovascular outputs, gastric function and cognition. We critically assess the utility of different biological and psychological markers, with guidance for future research, and discuss factors which can moderate TSST effects. We outline the effects of the TSST in stress-related disorders, and if these responses can be abrogated by pharmacological and psychological treatments. Modified TSST protocols are discussed, and the TSST is compared to alternative methods of inducing acute stress. Our analysis suggests that multiple readouts are necessary to derive maximum information; this strategy will enhance our understanding of the psychobiology of stress and provide the means to assess novel therapeutic agents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Emotional management and biological markers of dietetic regimen in chronic kidney disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Carlo; Aceto, Paola; Luciani, Massimiliano; Fazzari, Erika; Cesari, Valerio; Luciano, Stella; Fortini, Antonio; Berloco, Desiderata; Canulla, Francesco; Bruzzese, Vincenzo; Lai, Silvia

    2017-11-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the association between psychological characteristics and biological markers of adherence in chronic kidney disease patients receiving conservative therapy, hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis (PD), or kidney transplantation. Seventy-nine adult patients were asked to complete the following questionnaires: Toronto Alexithymia scale, Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale, and Short Form Health Survey. Biological markers of adherence to treatment were measured. Peritoneal dialysis patients showed a lower capacity to feel pleasure from sensorial experience (p = .011) and a higher values of phosphorus compared to the other patients' groups (p = .0001). The inability to communicate emotions was negatively correlated with hemoglobin levels (r = -(0).69; p = .001) and positively correlated with phosphorus values in the PD patients (r = .45; p = .050). Findings showed higher psychological impairments and a lower adherence to the treatment in PD patients and suggest the implication of emotional competence in adherence to treatment.

  10. The genetic and biological basis of feed efficiency in mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardie, L C; VandeHaar, M J; Tempelman, R J; Weigel, K A; Armentano, L E; Wiggans, G R; Veerkamp, R F; de Haas, Y; Coffey, M P; Connor, E E; Hanigan, M D; Staples, C; Wang, Z; Dekkers, J C M; Spurlock, D M

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study was to identify genomic regions and candidate genes associated with feed efficiency in lactating Holstein cows. In total, 4,916 cows with actual or imputed genotypes for 60,671 single nucleotide polymorphisms having individual feed intake, milk yield, milk composition, and body weight records were used in this study. Cows were from research herds located in the United States, Canada, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. Feed efficiency, defined as residual feed intake (RFI), was calculated within location as the residual of the regression of dry matter intake (DMI) on milk energy (MilkE), metabolic body weight (MBW), change in body weight, and systematic effects. For RFI, DMI, MilkE, and MBW, bivariate analyses were performed considering each trait as a separate trait within parity group to estimate variance components and genetic correlations between them. Animal relationships were established using a genomic relationship matrix. Genome-wide association studies were performed separately by parity group for RFI, DMI, MilkE, and MBW using the Bayes B method with a prior assumption that 1% of single nucleotide polymorphisms have a nonzero effect. One-megabase windows with greatest percentage of the total genetic variation explained by the markers (TGVM) were identified, and adjacent windows with large proportion of the TGVM were combined and reanalyzed. Heritability estimates for RFI were 0.14 (±0.03; ±SE) in primiparous cows and 0.13 (±0.03) in multiparous cows. Genetic correlations between primiparous and multiparous cows were 0.76 for RFI, 0.78 for DMI, 0.92 for MBW, and 0.61 for MilkE. No single 1-Mb window explained a significant proportion of the TGVM for RFI; however, after combining windows, significance was met on Bos taurus autosome 27 in primiparous cows, and nearly reached on Bos taurus autosome 4 in multiparous cows. Among other genes, these regions contain β-3 adrenergic receptor and the physiological candidate gene

  11. Pimonidazole: a novel hypoxia marker for complementary study of tumor hypoxia and tumor biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varia, Mahesh A.; Kennedy, Andrew S.; Calkins-Adams, Dennise P.; Rinker, Lillian; Novotny, Debra; Fowler, Wesley C.; Raleigh, James A.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: Tumor hypoxia appears to be associated with treatment resistance and with gene expression that may lead to hypoxia-mediated selection of tumor cells as a source for cell growth and metastases. The objective of this study was to develop complementary techniques of hypoxia detection with molecular markers of cell proliferation and metastases in order to investigate the role of tumor hypoxia in tumor biology. Materials and Methods: Pimonidazole is a 2-nitroimidazole which is reductively-activated and becomes covalently bound to thiol-containing proteins only in hypoxic cells. These adducts can be detected using immunohistochemistry, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay or flow cytometry as a measure of hypoxia in tumors. Quantitative immunohistochemical analysis has been completed for five patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix who were given pimonidazole hydrochloride (0.5 g/m 2 intravenously) followed by cervical biopsies 24 hours later. Informed consent was obtained according to a protocol approved by the Institutional Review Board. A minimum of 3 random biopsies were obtained from the tumors and at least four sections examined from each biopsy site. Formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissue sections were immunostained for pimonidazole binding using a mouse monoclonal antibody. Commercially available monoclonal antibodies were used to detect cell proliferation markers MIB-1 (Ki-67) and to detect vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in tumor cells in contiguous sections. The extent of immunostaining was expressed as the percent of immunostained to total tumor cells as determined by Chalkley point counting. Results: No clinical toxicities were associated with pimonidazole infusion. Immunostaining with pimonidazole antibody was observed in all patients indicating the presence of tumor hypoxia. Qualitatively there is little or no overlap between the areas of hypoxia and proliferation. Quantitative data tabulated below show the

  12. [Serum anticholinergic activity: relationship with clinical symptoms in Alzheimer's disease and proposal of new biological marker].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Koji; Konishi, Kimiko; Hachisu, Mitsugu

    2011-06-01

    We reviewed the importance of measuring serum anticholinergic activity (SAA) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Since Tune and Coyle reported a simple method for assessing SAA using radioreceptor-binding assay, SAA is assumed to be the cumulative activity of parent medications and their metabolites and its relationship with delirium and cognitive functions has been debated. However, we evaluated the SAA in AD patients and SAA was correlated with prescription of antipsychotic medications, cognitive dysfunctions, severity of AD and psychotic symptoms, especially, with delusion and diurnal rhythm disturbance. From these results, we should not only pay attention to avoiding the prescription of medications with anticholinergic activity but also we speculated that AA appeared endogenously in AD and accelerated AD pathology. Moreover, there might be the possibility that SAA has predictive value for assessing the progressiveness of AD and as a biological marker for AD.

  13. Specific acyclic isoprenoids as biological markers of methanogenic bacteria in marine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassell, S C; Wardroper, A M; Thomson, I D; Maxwell, J R; Eglinton, G

    1981-04-23

    The widespread occurrence of extended hopanoids in sediments and petroleums illustrates the importance of bacterial lipid contributions to geological materials. In archaebacteria, however, hopanoids are absent; their role as structural components of biomembranes is fulfilled by acyclic isoprenoids. Recent studies of the lipid constituents of archaebacteria have greatly extended the range of acyclic isoprenoid skeletons known in organisms (Fig. 1). In particularly, isoprenoids with head-to-head linkages have been identified, and such compounds (for example, 3,7,11,15,18,22,26,30-octamethyldotriacontane, I) have been recognized in petroleum and as degradation products of Messel shale kerogen. Here we report the first recognition of 2,6,10,15,19-pentamethyleicosane (II), a known component of methanogens, in marine sediments of Recent to Cretaceous age (Table 1) and suggest that it and certain other acyclic isoprenoids may be used as biological markers for methanogens.

  14. Malignant transformation in vitro: criteria, biological markers, and application in environmental screening of carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borek, C.

    1979-01-01

    Biological markers which distinguish malignantly transformed fibroblasts from their normal counterpart include pleomorphic morphology, lowered requirement for nutritional factors, loss of density inhibition of growth, complex topography as discernible by scanning electron microscopy, loss in surface proteins, incomplete glycosylation of membrane glycolylipids and glycoproteins, increased production of specific proteases, decreased organization of the cytoskeleton, and acquisition of neoantigens. Several of these markers are not consistently found in transformed epithelial cells and therefore cannot serve to distinguish unequivocally neoplastic epithelial cells from the normal counterparts. The only criteria associated with the transformed nature of both fibroblasts and epithelial cells are the ability of the cells to proliferate in semisolid medium and to induce tumors in appropriate hosts. In vitro systems represent a powerful tool for screening the mutagenic/oncogenic potential of physical, chemical, and environmental agents. Fibroblasts rather than epithelial cells are preferred for this purpose at the present time because of the clear-cut phenotypic differences between the normal and the transformed cells. These systems have been useful in establishing that malignant transformation can be induced by doses as low as 1 rad of X rays or 0.1 rad of neutrons, and that fractionation at low dose levelsleads to enhanced transformation. They have been useful in identifying a large number of hazardous chemicals and in evaluating the relationship between the mutagenic and carcinogenic potential of radiation and chemicals

  15. Is the Alzheimer's disease cortical thickness signature a biological marker for memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busovaca, Edgar; Zimmerman, Molly E; Meier, Irene B; Griffith, Erica Y; Grieve, Stuart M; Korgaonkar, Mayuresh S; Williams, Leanne M; Brickman, Adam M

    2016-06-01

    Recent work suggests that analysis of the cortical thickness in key brain regions can be used to identify individuals at greatest risk for development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). It is unclear to what extent this "signature" is a biological marker of normal memory function - the primary cognitive domain affected by AD. We examined the relationship between the AD signature biomarker and memory functioning in a group of neurologically healthy young and older adults. Cortical thickness measurements and neuropsychological evaluations were obtained in 110 adults (age range 21-78, mean = 46) drawn from the Brain Resource International Database. The cohort was divided into young adult (n = 64, age 21-50) and older adult (n = 46, age 51-78) groups. Cortical thickness analysis was performed with FreeSurfer, and the average cortical thickness extracted from the eight regions that comprise the AD signature. Mean AD-signature cortical thickness was positively associated with performance on the delayed free recall trial of a list learning task and this relationship did not differ between younger and older adults. Mean AD-signature cortical thickness was not associated with performance on a test of psychomotor speed, as a control task, in either group. The results suggest that the AD signature cortical thickness is a marker for memory functioning across the adult lifespan.

  16. Developing maximal neuromuscular power: Part 1--biological basis of maximal power production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormie, Prue; McGuigan, Michael R; Newton, Robert U

    2011-01-01

    This series of reviews focuses on the most important neuromuscular function in many sport performances, the ability to generate maximal muscular power. Part 1 focuses on the factors that affect maximal power production, while part 2, which will follow in a forthcoming edition of Sports Medicine, explores the practical application of these findings by reviewing the scientific literature relevant to the development of training programmes that most effectively enhance maximal power production. The ability of the neuromuscular system to generate maximal power is affected by a range of interrelated factors. Maximal muscular power is defined and limited by the force-velocity relationship and affected by the length-tension relationship. The ability to generate maximal power is influenced by the type of muscle action involved and, in particular, the time available to develop force, storage and utilization of elastic energy, interactions of contractile and elastic elements, potentiation of contractile and elastic filaments as well as stretch reflexes. Furthermore, maximal power production is influenced by morphological factors including fibre type contribution to whole muscle area, muscle architectural features and tendon properties as well as neural factors including motor unit recruitment, firing frequency, synchronization and inter-muscular coordination. In addition, acute changes in the muscle environment (i.e. alterations resulting from fatigue, changes in hormone milieu and muscle temperature) impact the ability to generate maximal power. Resistance training has been shown to impact each of these neuromuscular factors in quite specific ways. Therefore, an understanding of the biological basis of maximal power production is essential for developing training programmes that effectively enhance maximal power production in the human.

  17. Are All Dads Equal? Biology Versus Marriage as a Basis for Paternal Investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofferth, Sandra L.; Anderson, Kermyt G.

    2003-01-01

    Using three different theoretical perspectives, examines the engagement, availability, participation, and warmth of residential fathers in married biological parent, unmarried biological parent, married stepparent, and cohabiting father families. Biology explains less of father involvement than anticipated once differences between fathers are…

  18. Adverse biological effects of Milan urban PM looking for suitable molecular markers of exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantecca Paride

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The results presented summarise the ones obtained in the coordinated research project Tosca, which extensively analysed the impact of Milan urban PM on human health. The molecular markers of exposure and effects of seasonally and size-fractionated PMs (summer and winter PM10, PM2.5 were investigated in in vitro (human lung cell lines and in vivo (mice systems. The results obtained by the analyses of cytotoxic, pro-inflammatory and genotoxic parameters demonstrate that the biological responses are strongly dependent upon the PM samples seasonal and dimensional variability, that ultimately reflect their chemical composition and source. In fact summer PM10, enriched in crustal elements and endotoxins, was the most cytotoxic and pro-inflammatory fraction, while fine winter PMs induced genotoxic effects and xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (like CYP1B1 production, likely as a consequence of the higher content in combustion derived particles reach in PAHs and heavy toxic metals. These outcomes outline the need of a detailed knowledge of the PMs physico-chemical composition on a local scale, coupled with the biological hazard directly associated to PM exposure. Apparently this is the only way allowing scientists and police-makers to establish the proper relationships between the respirable PM quantity/quality and the health outcomes described by clinicians and epidemiologists.

  19. New basis set for the prediction of the specific rotation in flexible biological molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baranowska-Łaczkowska, Angelika; Z. Łaczkowski, Krzysztof Z. Łaczkowski; Henriksen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    are compared to those obtained with the (d-)aug-cc-pVXZ (X = D, T and Q) basis sets of Dunning et al. The ORP values are in good overall agreement with the aug-cc-pVTZ results making the ORP a good basis set for routine TD-DFT optical rotation calculations of conformationally flexible molecules. The results...

  20. Biological markers of oxidative stress: Applications to cardiovascular research and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Ho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is a common mediator in pathogenicity of established cardiovascular risk factors. Furthermore, it likely mediates effects of emerging, less well-defined variables that contribute to residual risk not explained by traditional factors. Functional oxidative modifications of cellular proteins, both reversible and irreversible, are a causal step in cellular dysfunction. Identifying markers of oxidative stress has been the focus of many researchers as they have the potential to act as an “integrator” of a multitude of processes that drive cardiovascular pathobiology. One of the major challenges is the accurate quantification of reactive oxygen species with very short half-life. Redox-sensitive proteins with important cellular functions are confined to signalling microdomains in cardiovascular cells and are not readily available for quantification. A popular approach is the measurement of stable by-products modified under conditions of oxidative stress that have entered the circulation. However, these may not accurately reflect redox stress at the cell/tissue level. Many of these modifications are “functionally silent”. Functional significance of the oxidative modifications enhances their validity as a proposed biological marker of cardiovascular disease, and is the strength of the redox cysteine modifications such as glutathionylation. We review selected biomarkers of oxidative stress that show promise in cardiovascular medicine, as well as new methodologies for high-throughput measurement in research and clinical settings. Although associated with disease severity, further studies are required to examine the utility of the most promising oxidative biomarkers to predict prognosis or response to treatment.

  1. Chromium oxide (51Cr2O3 used as biological marker was not absorbed by fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.Z. Sakita

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the rate absorption of radio-labeled chromium oxide (51Cr2O3, used as biological marker in nutrition studies with Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. An experimental diet with approximately 58 µCi of specific activity of the element was encapsulated and fed daily to 35 adult Nile tilapia; a group of 35 fish was used as control feeding on a basal diet. At the beginning of the experiment five fish from each group were randomly selected and blood samples were drawn from control (BC and experimental fish (BE. Fish were then euthanized by anesthetic overdoses and samples of the liver tissue (LT, renal tissue (RT, stomach without content (S, intestine without content (I, gills tissue (GT, muscle tissue (fillet; MT, visceral fat (VF, content of the digestive tract (CTDE and water aquarium were collected from the experimental fish. The procedure was repeated daily for one week. Simple linear regressions were adjusted - days of collection vs. determination coefficients, and were established for statistical comparisons of the measured activity of 51Cr readings in sampled blood and tissues (logarithmic transformation for samples of the control and experimental fish. No differences (P>0.05 were detected between samples from BC fish and BE, RT, VF, MT and LT of treated fish, but samples of GT, I, S, CTDE and WA from the tanks holding fish which received the experimental diet differed from control (P<0.05. The experimental results indicate that the trivalent chromium in the form of 51Cr2O3 was not significantly absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract, gills or another possible route of absorption under these experimental conditions and with Nile tilapia. Therefore, this marker was shown to be inert and can be safely used in nutrition studies.

  2. Review: domestic animal forensic genetics - biological evidence, genetic markers, analytical approaches and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanthaswamy, S

    2015-10-01

    This review highlights the importance of domestic animal genetic evidence sources, genetic testing, markers and analytical approaches as well as the challenges this field is facing in view of the de facto 'gold standard' human DNA identification. Because of the genetic similarity between humans and domestic animals, genetic analysis of domestic animal hair, saliva, urine, blood and other biological material has generated vital investigative leads that have been admitted into a variety of court proceedings, including criminal and civil litigation. Information on validated short tandem repeat, single nucleotide polymorphism and mitochondrial DNA markers and public access to genetic databases for forensic DNA analysis is becoming readily available. Although the fundamental aspects of animal forensic genetic testing may be reliable and acceptable, animal forensic testing still lacks the standardized testing protocols that human genetic profiling requires, probably because of the absence of monetary support from government agencies and the difficulty in promoting cooperation among competing laboratories. Moreover, there is a lack in consensus about how to best present the results and expert opinion to comply with court standards and bear judicial scrutiny. This has been the single most persistent challenge ever since the earliest use of domestic animal forensic genetic testing in a criminal case in the mid-1990s. Crime laboratory accreditation ensures that genetic test results have the courts' confidence. Because accreditation requires significant commitments of effort, time and resources, the vast majority of animal forensic genetic laboratories are not accredited nor are their analysts certified forensic examiners. The relevance of domestic animal forensic genetics in the criminal justice system is undeniable. However, further improvements are needed in a wide range of supporting resources, including standardized quality assurance and control protocols for sample

  3. Philosophical Basis and Some Historical Aspects of Systems Biology: From Hegel to Noble - Applications for Bioenergetic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saks, Valdur; Monge, Claire; Guzun, Rita

    2009-01-01

    We live in times of paradigmatic changes for the biological sciences. Reductionism, that for the last six decades has been the philosophical basis of biochemistry and molecular biology, is being displaced by Systems Biology, which favors the study of integrated systems. Historically, Systems Biology - defined as the higher level analysis of complex biological systems - was pioneered by Claude Bernard in physiology, Norbert Wiener with the development of cybernetics, and Erwin Schrödinger in his thermodynamic approach to the living. Systems Biology applies methods inspired by cybernetics, network analysis, and non-equilibrium dynamics of open systems. These developments follow very precisely the dialectical principles of development from thesis to antithesis to synthesis discovered by Hegel. Systems Biology opens new perspectives for studies of the integrated processes of energy metabolism in different cells. These integrated systems acquire new, system-level properties due to interaction of cellular components, such as metabolic compartmentation, channeling and functional coupling mechanisms, which are central for regulation of the energy fluxes. State of the art of these studies in the new area of Molecular System Bioenergetics is analyzed. PMID:19399243

  4. Philosophical Basis and Some Historical Aspects of Systems Biology: From Hegel to Noble - Applications for Bioenergetic Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdur Saks

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We live in times of paradigmatic changes for the biological sciences. Reductionism, that for the last six decades has been the philosophical basis of biochemistry and molecular biology, is being displaced by Systems Biology, which favors the study of integrated systems. Historically, Systems Biology - defined as the higher level analysis of complex biological systems - was pioneered by Claude Bernard in physiology, Norbert Wiener with the development of cybernetics, and Erwin Schrödinger in his thermodynamic approach to the living. Systems Biology applies methods inspired by cybernetics, network analysis, and non-equilibrium dynamics of open systems. These developments follow very precisely the dialectical principles of development from thesis to antithesis to synthesis discovered by Hegel. Systems Biology opens new perspectives for studies of the integrated processes of energy metabolism in different cells. These integrated systems acquire new, system-level properties due to interaction of cellular components, such as metabolic compartmentation, channeling and functional coupling mechanisms, which are central for regulation of the energy fluxes. State of the art of these studies in the new area of Molecular System Bioenergetics is analyzed.

  5. Total and phosphorylated tau protein as biological markers of Alzheimer's disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hampel, Harald

    2012-02-01

    Advances in our understanding of tau-mediated neurodegeneration in Alzheimer\\'s disease (AD) are moving this disease pathway to center stage for the development of biomarkers and disease modifying drug discovery efforts. Immunoassays were developed detecting total (t-tau) and tau phosphorylated at specific epitopes (p-tauX) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), methods to analyse tau in blood are at the experimental beginning. Clinical research consistently demonstrated CSF t- and p-tau increased in AD compared to controls. Measuring these tau species proved informative for classifying AD from relevant differential diagnoses. Tau phosphorylated at threonine 231 (p-tau231) differentiated between AD and frontotemporal dementia, tau phosphorylated at serine 181 (p-tau181) enhanced classification between AD and dementia with Lewy bodies. T- and p-tau are considered "core" AD biomarkers that have been successfully validated by controlled large-scale multi-center studies. Tau biomarkers are implemented in clinical trials to reflect biological activity, mechanisms of action of compounds, support enrichment of target populations, provide endpoints for proof-of-concept and confirmatory trials on disease modification. World-wide quality control initiatives are underway to set required methodological and protocol standards. Discussions with regulatory authorities gain momentum defining the role of tau biomarkers for trial designs and how they may be further qualified for surrogate marker status.

  6. Biological marker distribution in coexisting kerogen, bitumen and asphaltenes in Monterey Formation diatomite, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, E.; Ruth, E.; Huizinga, B. J.; Kaplan, I. R.

    1986-01-01

    Organic-rich (18.2%) Monterey Formation diatomite from California was studied. The organic matter consist of 94% bitumen and 6% kerogen. Biological markers from the bitumen and from pyrolysates of the coexisting asphaltenes and kerogen were analyzed in order to elucidate the relationship between the various fractions of the organic matter. While 17 alpha(H), 18 alpha(H), 21 alpha(H)-28,30-bisnorhopane was present in the bitumen and in the pryolysate of the asphaltenes, it was not detected in the pyrolysates of the kerogen. A C40-isoprenoid with "head to head" linkage, however, was present in pyrolysates of both kerogen and asphaltenes, but not in the bitumen from the diatomite. The maturation level of the bitumen, based on the extent of isomerization of steranes and hopanes, was that of a mature oil, whereas the pyrolysate from the kerogen showed a considerably lower maturation level. These relationships indicate that the bitumen may not be indigenous to the diatomite and that it is a mature oil that migrated into the rock. We consider the possibility, however, that some of the 28,30-bisnorhopane-rich Monterey Formation oils have not been generated through thermal degradation of kerogen, but have been expelled from the source rock at an early stage of diagenesis.

  7. Cuba: exploring the history of admixture and the genetic basis of pigmentation using autosomal and uniparental markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcheco-Teruel, Beatriz; Parra, Esteban J; Fuentes-Smith, Evelyn; Salas, Antonio; Buttenschøn, Henriette N; Demontis, Ditte; Torres-Español, María; Marín-Padrón, Lilia C; Gómez-Cabezas, Enrique J; Alvarez-Iglesias, Vanesa; Mosquera-Miguel, Ana; Martínez-Fuentes, Antonio; Carracedo, Angel; Børglum, Anders D; Mors, Ole

    2014-07-01

    We carried out an admixture analysis of a sample comprising 1,019 individuals from all the provinces of Cuba. We used a panel of 128 autosomal Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs) to estimate the admixture proportions. We also characterized a number of haplogroup diagnostic markers in the mtDNA and Y-chromosome in order to evaluate admixture using uniparental markers. Finally, we analyzed the association of 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with quantitative estimates of skin pigmentation. In the total sample, the average European, African and Native American contributions as estimated from autosomal AIMs were 72%, 20% and 8%, respectively. The Eastern provinces of Cuba showed relatively higher African and Native American contributions than the Western provinces. In particular, the highest proportion of African ancestry was observed in the provinces of Guantánamo (40%) and Santiago de Cuba (39%), and the highest proportion of Native American ancestry in Granma (15%), Holguín (12%) and Las Tunas (12%). We found evidence of substantial population stratification in the current Cuban population, emphasizing the need to control for the effects of population stratification in association studies including individuals from Cuba. The results of the analyses of uniparental markers were concordant with those observed in the autosomes. These geographic patterns in admixture proportions are fully consistent with historical and archaeological information. Additionally, we identified a sex-biased pattern in the process of gene flow, with a substantially higher European contribution from the paternal side, and higher Native American and African contributions from the maternal side. This sex-biased contribution was particularly evident for Native American ancestry. Finally, we observed that SNPs located in the genes SLC24A5 and SLC45A2 are strongly associated with melanin levels in the sample.

  8. Final report on 'biological effects of tritium as a basis of research and development in nuclear fusion'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    The National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Japan, has undertaken a special study of ''biological effects of tritium as a basis of research and development in nuclear fusion'' over a 5-year period from April 1981 through March 1986. This is a final report, covering incorporation and metabolism of tritium, physical, chemical, and cellular effects of tritium, tritium damage to the mammalian tissue, and human exposure to tritium. The report is organized into five chapters, including ''Study of incorporation of tritium into the living body and its in vivo behavior''; ''Physical and chemical studies for the determination of relative biological effectiveness''; ''Analytical study on biological effects of tritium in cultured mammalian cells''; ''Study of tritium effects on the mammalian tissue, germ cells, and cell transformation''; and ''Changes in the hemopoietic stem cells and lymphocyte subsets in humans after exposure to some internal emitters''. (Namekawa, K.)

  9. Is there a Biological Basis for Therapeutic Applications of Millimetre Waves and THz Waves?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, Mats-Olof; Zeni, Olga; Simkó, Myrtill

    2018-03-01

    Millimetre wave (MMW) and THz wave (THz) applications are already employed in certain industrial and medical environments for non-destructive quality control, and medical imaging, diagnosis, and therapy, respectively. The aim of the present study is to investigate if published experimental studies (in vivo and in vitro) provide evidence for "non-thermal" biological effects of MMW and THz. Such effects would occur in absence of tissue heating and associated damage and are the ones that can be exploited for therapeutic medical use. The investigated studies provide some evidence for both MMW and THz that can influence biological systems in a manner that is not obviously driven by tissue heating. However, the number of relevant studies is very limited which severely limits the drawing of any far-reaching conclusions. Furthermore, the studies have not addressed specific interaction mechanisms and do not provide hints for future mechanistic studies. Also, the studies do not indicate any specific importance regarding power density levels, frequencies, or exposure duration. It is also unclear if any specific biological endpoints are especially sensitive. Any therapeutic potential of MMW or THz has to be evaluated based on future high-quality studies dealing with physical, bio-physical, and biological aspects that have specific health-related perspectives in mind.

  10. Does age difference really matter? Facial markers of biological quality and age difference between husband and wife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danel, D P; Dziedzic-Danel, A; Kleisner, K

    2016-08-01

    Information conveyed by facial attractiveness markers such as averageness, bilateral symmetry, and secondary sexual characteristics may play an important adaptive role in human sexual selection. Nonetheless, mate choice also relies on other non-physical characteristics such as, for instance, an individual's age. Women prefer and enter in relationships with older partners, whereas in men the inverse relation is observed. Surprisingly, the link between facial morphological markers of biological quality on the one hand and age disparity between partners on the other hand has been as yet subject of very little research. This study aims to fill this gap. We had used facial photographs and demographic data of heterosexual marriages. Facial cues of biological quality, such as averageness, bilateral symmetry, and sexual dimorphism, were digitally measured using geometric morphometric methods and then associated with spouses' age difference. It turned out that a greater age disparity between spouses correlates, in both partners, with higher scores in facial measures which indicate partners' biological quality. One exception is female facial masculinity - generally regarded as an unattractive marker of a low biological quality - which, too, is associated with higher spouse age disparity. In general, our results show that facial symmetry, averageness, and secondary sexual characteristics may play a role in age-dependent mate choice. We suggest that in marriages where the wife is considerably younger than the husband, wife's greater facial masculinity may increase her perceived age and with it, her perceived maturity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Circulating VEGF as a biological marker in patients with rheumatoid arthritis? Preanalytical and biological variability in healthy persons and in patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hetland, Merete Lund; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Lottenburger, Tine

    2008-01-01

    /ml (range: non-detectable to 352); serum: 328 pg/ml (53-1791)) were independent of gender and age. Short- and long-term biologic variability included diurnal variation (sampling should take place after 7 AM) and impact of exercise (increased VEGF immediately after bicycling normalised within 1 hour......BACKGROUND: Soluble vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a promising biomarker in monitoring rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but studies of pre-analytical and biologic variability are few. METHODS: VEGF was measured by ELISA methods in serum and plasma from healthy persons and RA patients. Pre......). CONCLUSIONS: Pre-analytical factors and biologic variability including diurnal variation and impact of exercise should be accounted for in future studies that include circulating VEGF as a biological marker....

  12. Biological marker compounds as indicators of the depositional history of the Maoming oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brassell, S.C.; Eglinton, G.; Mo, F.J.

    1986-01-01

    The Eocene Maoming oil shale from Guangdong Province occurs as a laterally uniform stratigraphic section, typically 20-25 m thick, from which the aliphatic hydrocarbon constituents of six representative samples were investigated using GC and C-GC-MS. The sediments evaluated included the basal lignite, a vitrinite lens from the overlying claystone, and four intervals from the massive oil shale bed. As expected, the lignite and vitrinite differ markedly from the oil shales. The lignite is dominated by bacterial hopanoids and components of higher plant origin, including C/sub 29/ steroids and triterpenoids such as oleanenes. Visually, the oil shale samples show corroded and degraded phytoclasts, spores, wispy particles of fluorescent organic material attributable to dinoflagellates and, especially in the uppermost sample, colonial algal bodies. The distributions of biological markers in the oil shales show many features in common, notably a dominance of dinoflagellate-derived 4-methylsteroids, and a significant proportion of higher-plant derived n-alkanes with marked odd-over-even carbon number predominance. Overall, they exhibit several features that resemble characteristics of the Messel shale. The hydrocarbons of the lowest shale horizon suggest that there may have been a gradual transition between deposition of the original peat and the subsequent oil shales. The aliphatic hydrocarbons of the uppermost shale are dominated by a number of C/sub 31/ and C/sub 33/ botryococcane homologues and other unusual branched alkanes possibly derived from green algae. All of the samples are immature. Overall, molecular and microscopic examination of the stratigraphic succession of the Maoming oil shale suggests a shallow, lacustrine environment within which peats were deposited. This lake subsequently deepened to support abundant algal populations, especially dinoflagellates, culminating in a dominance of botryococcoid algae.

  13. Verification of the systematic position of California brome (Bromus carinatus Hook. and Arn., Poaceae, cv. 'Broma', on the basis of analysis of issr markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Sutkowska

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ‘Broma’ is a grass cultivar belonging to the species Bromus carinatus. In the Lists of Agricultural Plant Varieties of the Research Centre for Cultivar Testing (COBORU, it is shown as Bromus willdenowii (= B. catharticus, B. unioloides (List of Agricultural Plant Varieties 1989-2009, whereas already in 1984 Mirek demonstrated on the basis of morphological analysis that this was a different closely related species – B. carinatus. The aim of the present study was to verify the species affiliation of cv. ‘Broma’. The conducted analysis of ISSR molecular markers included representatives of cv. ‘Broma” as well as of B. carinatus and B. willdenowii. The method used allowed the identification of molecular markers of the above-mentioned taxa. The numerical analysis of the obtained results suggests that cv. ‘Broma’ should be classified in the species B. carinatus, not B. willdenowii.

  14. Methods for the synthesis of aza(deaza)xanthines as a basis of biologically active compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babkov, D A; Geisman, A N; Novikov, M S; Khandazhinskaya, A L

    2016-01-01

    The review covers methods for the synthesis of aza(deaza)xanthines, i.e., fused pyrrolo-, pyrazolo- and triazolopyrimidine heterocyclic systems, which are common core structures of various biologically active compounds. The extensive range of modern synthetic approaches is organized according to target structures and starting building blocks. The presented material is intended to benefit broad audience of specialists in the fields of organic, medicinal and pharmaceutical chemistry. The bibliography includes 195 references

  15. Entendendo o papel de marcadores biológicos no câncer de pulmão Understanding the role of biological markers in lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VERA LUIZA CAPELOZZI

    2001-11-01

    ógicos intermediários.Biological markers are cellular, structural and biochemical components that can define cellular as well as molecular changes in both normal and neoplastic cells. There are two types of biological markers: 1 intermediate markers that evaluate cellular and molecular alterations before malignancy occurs; and 2 diagnostic markers, present in association with malignancy. The identification and validation of biological markers for clinical use are performed in stages: ¨ initial identification in cell cultures of the tumor; ¨ testing of the marker in tissues obtained in biopsies of patients with an established diagnosis of the tumor; ¨ testing of biopsies of normal tissues and tissues with an inflammatory process; ¨ sputum, blood or urine tests for validation as a non-invasive test that can be used in high-risk populations. Sorologic and histopathologic biological markers are cellular, structural and biochemical components found in both normal and neoplastic cells that can be quantitatively assessed by biochemical, immunological and molecular methods in the body fluids or tissues, respectively, and may be associated with malignancies and, possibly, with the neoplastic organ. Biological markers are studied in diverse primary neoplasms. However, few of them proved to be clinically valuable. The role of biological markers in lung cancer patients remains unclear because only a small number of markers has been properly assessed. The aim of this paper is to understand the role of sorologic and histologic biological markers in the prognosis and survival of lung cancer patients based on our previous works. Furthermore, we present a future perspective of the early detection of lung cancer on the basis of the role of intermediate biological markers.

  16. Kamptonema (Microcoleaceae, Cyanobacteria), a new genus derived from the polyphyletic Phormidium on the basis of combined molecular and cytomorphological markers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Strunecký, Otakar; Komárek, Jiří; Šmarda, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 2 (2014), 193-207 ISSN 0032-7786 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/12/1818 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : cyanobacteria * taxonomic revision * polyphasic approach Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.104, year: 2014

  17. Changes in biological markers, particularly hormone receptors, due to pre-operative chemotherapy (epirubicin/docetaxel in operable breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumiko Tashima

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the correlation between biological markers prior to pre-operative chemotherapy with epirubicin and docetaxel (ET therapy and the effect of treatment as well as the clinically significant changes in biological markers before and after chemotherapy. Since April 2002, 52 patients with tumors ≥3 cm in diameter or lymph node metastases have received pre-operative ET chemotherapy. The items investigated were ER/PgR, proliferative activity (MIB-1, etc. The correlation of changes in these factors between pre- and post-treatment status and the clinical and pathological responses was investigated. Clinical response was 82%, BCS rate was 67%. Pathological response was 31.4%. The ER/PgR positive cell rate significantly decreased from 48%/32% to 37%/14%. The MIB-1 decreased from 48% to 27%. The pathological response was significantly high in patients with low ER/PgR-positive rates and those with high MIB-1 values.

  18. Zone analysis in biology articles as a basis for information extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuta, Yoko; Korhonen, Anna; Mullen, Tony; Collier, Nigel

    2006-06-01

    In the field of biomedicine, an overwhelming amount of experimental data has become available as a result of the high throughput of research in this domain. The amount of results reported has now grown beyond the limits of what can be managed by manual means. This makes it increasingly difficult for the researchers in this area to keep up with the latest developments. Information extraction (IE) in the biological domain aims to provide an effective automatic means to dynamically manage the information contained in archived journal articles and abstract collections and thus help researchers in their work. However, while considerable advances have been made in certain areas of IE, pinpointing and organizing factual information (such as experimental results) remains a challenge. In this paper we propose tackling this task by incorporating into IE information about rhetorical zones, i.e. classification of spans of text in terms of argumentation and intellectual attribution. As the first step towards this goal, we introduce a scheme for annotating biological texts for rhetorical zones and provide a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the data annotated according to this scheme. We also discuss our preliminary research on automatic zone analysis, and its incorporation into our IE framework.

  19. Physical, biological and clinical basis of light ions using in radiotherapy: EULIMA project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauvel, P.

    1991-01-01

    Improving the efficiency of radiotherapy is a constant concern in oncology: more than half of the patients who contract cancer receive radiotherapy at some stage. Use of charged particles in radiotherapy represents indisputable progress in localization of the dose delivered to tumour masses, thereby allowing reduction of dose received by adjacent healthy tissues. Protons improve the physical selectivity of the irradiation, i.e. the dose distribution. High-LET (Linear Energy Transfer) radiations produce different biological effects, decreasing the differences in radiosensitivity, and allowing radiation therapy to control radioresistant tumours. Fast neutrons represent the most known of these high-LET particles, but they suffer of a relatively poor physical selectivity. The two approaches (physical selectivity and biological advantages) are joined in by light ions (Carbon, Oxygen, Neon). Highly selective high-LET radiation therapy can be performed for radioresistant tumours without damage to healthy tissues. Preliminary results obtained in Berkeley (USA) demonstrate an improved local control of unresectable, slowly growing tumours, confirming what could be extrapolated from proton and neutrontherapy. Furthermore, radioactive light ion beams can be used to verify the accuracy of treatment planning by checking the range of the particle with a PET camera, and in the future for the treatment itself. In the framework of its programme Europe against Cancer, the Commission of the European Communities participates in the funding of the EULIMA (European Light Ion Medical Accelerator) project feasibility study, aiming to design an hospital-based light ion therapy facility in Europe [fr

  20. Social and Behavioral Risk Marker Clustering Associated with Biological Risk Factors for Coronary Heart Disease: NHANES 2001–2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J. Everage

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Social and behavioral risk markers (e.g., physical activity, diet, smoking, and socioeconomic position cluster; however, little is known whether clustering is associated with coronary heart disease (CHD risk. Objectives were to determine if sociobehavioral clustering is associated with biological CHD risk factors (total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference, and diabetes and whether associations are independent of individual clustering components. Methods. Participants included 4,305 males and 4,673 females aged ≥20 years from NHANES 2001–2004. Sociobehavioral Risk Marker Index (SRI included a summary score of physical activity, fruit/vegetable consumption, smoking, and educational attainment. Regression analyses evaluated associations of SRI with aforementioned biological CHD risk factors. Receiver operator curve analyses assessed independent predictive ability of SRI. Results. Healthful clustering (SRI = 0 was associated with improved biological CHD risk factor levels in 5 of 6 risk factors in females and 2 of 6 risk factors in males. Adding SRI to models containing age, race, and individual SRI components did not improve C-statistics. Conclusions. Findings suggest that healthful sociobehavioral risk marker clustering is associated with favorable CHD risk factor levels, particularly in females. These findings should inform social ecological interventions that consider health impacts of addressing social and behavioral risk factors.

  1. Validation of systems biology derived molecular markers of renal donor organ status associated with long term allograft function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perco, Paul; Heinzel, Andreas; Leierer, Johannes; Schneeberger, Stefan; Bösmüller, Claudia; Oberhuber, Rupert; Wagner, Silvia; Engler, Franziska; Mayer, Gert

    2018-05-03

    Donor organ quality affects long term outcome after renal transplantation. A variety of prognostic molecular markers is available, yet their validity often remains undetermined. A network-based molecular model reflecting donor kidney status based on transcriptomics data and molecular features reported in scientific literature to be associated with chronic allograft nephropathy was created. Significantly enriched biological processes were identified and representative markers were selected. An independent kidney pre-implantation transcriptomics dataset of 76 organs was used to predict estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) values twelve months after transplantation using available clinical data and marker expression values. The best-performing regression model solely based on the clinical parameters donor age, donor gender, and recipient gender explained 17% of variance in post-transplant eGFR values. The five molecular markers EGF, CD2BP2, RALBP1, SF3B1, and DDX19B representing key molecular processes of the constructed renal donor organ status molecular model in addition to the clinical parameters significantly improved model performance (p-value = 0.0007) explaining around 33% of the variability of eGFR values twelve months after transplantation. Collectively, molecular markers reflecting donor organ status significantly add to prediction of post-transplant renal function when added to the clinical parameters donor age and gender.

  2. EuroFIR-BASIS - a combined composition and biological activity database for bioactive compounds in plant-based foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gry, Jørn; Black, Lucinda; Eriksen, Folmer Damsted

    2007-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that certain non-nutrient bioactive compounds promote optimal human health and reduce the risk of chronic disease. An Internet-deployed database, EuroFIR-BASIS, which uniquely combines food composition and biological effects data for plant-based bioactive compounds......, is being developed. The database covers multiple compound classes and 330 major food plants and their edible parts with data sourced from quality-assessed, peer-reviewed literature. The database will be a valuable resource for food regulatory and advisory bodies, risk authorities, epidemiologists...... and researchers interested in diet and health relationships, and product developers within the food industry....

  3. Chemical and protein structural basis for biological crosstalk between PPAR α and COX enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleves, Ann E.; Jain, Ajay N.

    2015-02-01

    We have previously validated a probabilistic framework that combined computational approaches for predicting the biological activities of small molecule drugs. Molecule comparison methods included molecular structural similarity metrics and similarity computed from lexical analysis of text in drug package inserts. Here we present an analysis of novel drug/target predictions, focusing on those that were not obvious based on known pharmacological crosstalk. Considering those cases where the predicted target was an enzyme with known 3D structure allowed incorporation of information from molecular docking and protein binding pocket similarity in addition to ligand-based comparisons. Taken together, the combination of orthogonal information sources led to investigation of a surprising predicted relationship between a transcription factor and an enzyme, specifically, PPAR α and the cyclooxygenase enzymes. These predictions were confirmed by direct biochemical experiments which validate the approach and show for the first time that PPAR α agonists are cyclooxygenase inhibitors.

  4. The biological basis of treating jaw discrepancies: An interplay of mechanical forces and skeletal configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamesinis, Konstantinos; Basdra, Efthimia K

    2018-05-01

    Jaw discrepancies and malrelations affect a large proportion of the general population and their treatment is of utmost significance for individuals' health and quality of life. The aim of their therapy is the modification of aberrant jaw development mainly by targeting the growth potential of the mandibular condyle through its cartilage, and the architectural shape of alveolar bone through a suture type of structure, the periodontal ligament. This targeted treatment is achieved via external mechanical force application by using a wide variety of intraoral and extraoral appliances. Condylar cartilage and sutures exhibit a remarkable plasticity due to the mechano-responsiveness of the chondrocytes and the multipotent mesenchymal cells of the sutures. The tissues respond biologically and adapt to mechanical force application by a variety of signaling pathways and a final interplay between the proliferative activity and the differentiation status of the cells involved. These targeted therapeutic functional alterations within temporo-mandibular joint ultimately result in the enhancement or restriction of mandibular growth, while within the periodontal ligament lead to bone remodeling and change of its architectural structure. Depending on the form of the malrelation presented, the above treatment approaches, in conjunction or separately, lead to the total correction of jaw discrepancies and the achievement of facial harmony and function. Overall, the treatment of craniofacial and jaw anomalies can be seen as an interplay of mechanical forces and adaptations occurring within temporo-mandibular joint and alveolar bone. The aim of the present review is to present up-to-date knowledge on the mechano-biology behind jaw growth modification and alveolar bone remodeling. Furthermore, future molecular targeted therapeutic strategies are discussed aiming at the improvement of mechanically-driven chondrogenesis and osteogenesis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Using the logical basis of phylogenetics as the framework for teaching biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Morphy D. Santos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the evolutionary theory is widespread in modern worldview. Due to its great explanatory power and pervasiveness, the theory of evolution should be used as the organizing theme in biology teaching. For this purpose, the essential concepts of phylogenetic systematics are useful as a didactic instrument. The phylogenetic method was the first objective set of rules to implement in systematics the evolutionary view that the organisms are all connected at some hierarchical level due to common ancestry, as suggested by Darwin and Wallace. Phylogenetic systematics was firstly proposed by the German Entomologist Willi Hennig in 1950 and had considerably importance in the decrease of the role of essentialism and subjectivity in classificatory studies, becoming one of the paradigms in biological systematics. Based on cladograms, a general phylogenetic reference system allows to the depiction and representation of large amounts of biological information in branching diagrams. Besides, the phylogenetic approach sheds light upon typical misconceptions concerning evolution and related concepts that directly affect students' comprehension about the evolutionary process and the hierarchical structure of the living world. The phylogenetic method is also a form of introducing students to some of the philosophical and scientific idiosyncrasies, providing them the ability to understand concepts such as hypothesis, theory, paradigm and falsifiability. The students are incited to use arguments during the process of accepting or denying scientific hypotheses, which overcomes the mere assimilation of knowledge previously elaborated.A influência da teoria evolutiva é disseminada na visão de mundo moderna. Devido a seu grande poder explanatório e penetração, a teoria da evolução deve ser usada como o tema organizador do ensino de biologia. Para esse propósito, os conceitos essenciais da sistemática filogenética são úteis como instrumentos did

  6. Angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE): structure, biological roles, and molecular basis for chloride ion dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuyer, Geoffrey; Yates, Christopher J; Sturrock, Edward D; Acharya, K Ravi

    2014-10-01

    Somatic angiotensin-I converting enzyme (sACE) has an essential role in the regulation of blood pressure and electrolyte fluid homeostasis. It is a zinc protease that cleaves angiotensin-I (AngI), bradykinin, and a broad range of other signalling peptides. The enzyme activity is provided by two homologous domains (N- and C-), which display clear differences in substrate specificities and chloride activation. The presence of chloride ions in sACE and its unusual role in activity was identified early on in the characterisation of the enzyme. The molecular mechanisms of chloride activation have been investigated thoroughly through mutagenesis studies and shown to be substrate-dependent. Recent results from X-ray crystallography structural analysis have provided the basis for the intricate interactions between ACE, its substrate and chloride ions. Here we describe the role of chloride ions in human ACE and its physiological consequences. Insights into the chloride activation of the N- and C-domains could impact the design of improved domain-specific ACE inhibitors.

  7. The application of protein markers in conversion of maize inbred lines to the cytoplasmic male sterility basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanovic Milan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of seven maize inbred lines of different origin and maturity group were used in the trial set up according to the split-plot randomized complete block design in five environments. Each inbred was observed in five variants: original inbred (N; cytoplasmic male sterile C-type (CMS-C; restorer for CMS-C (RfC; cytoplasmic male sterile S-type (CMS-S and restorer for CMS-S (RfS. The objective was to compare grain yield of original inbreds and their CMS and Rf variants and to apply Isoelectric focusing (IEF to determine whether the conversion of original inbreds to their CMS and Rf counterparts have been done completely. Protein markers have shown that conversion of almost all inbreds was done good and completely. Only original inbreds ZPL2 and ZPL5 did not concur on banding patterns with their RfC variants. The type of cytoplasm had a very significant impact on grain yield. Namely, CMS-C counterparts significantly out yielded their CMS-S versions, while the inbreds with C and S cytoplasm over yielded inbreds with N cytoplasm, as well as their RfC and RfS versions.

  8. The biological basis of human sexual orientation: is there a role for epigenetics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngun, Tuck C; Vilain, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Sexual orientation is one of the largest sex differences in humans. The vast majority of the population is heterosexual, that is, they are attracted to members of the opposite sex. However, a small but significant proportion of people are bisexual or homosexual and experience attraction to members of the same sex. The origins of the phenomenon have long been the subject of scientific study. In this chapter, we will review the evidence that sexual orientation has biological underpinnings and consider the involvement of epigenetic mechanisms. We will first discuss studies that show that sexual orientation has a genetic component. These studies show that sexual orientation is more concordant in monozygotic twins than in dizygotic ones and that male sexual orientation is linked to several regions of the genome. We will then highlight findings that suggest a link between sexual orientation and epigenetic mechanisms. In particular, we will consider the case of women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). These women were exposed to high levels of testosterone in utero and have much higher rates of nonheterosexual orientation compared to non-CAH women. Studies in animal models strongly suggest that the long-term effects of hormonal exposure (such as those experienced by CAH women) are mediated by epigenetic mechanisms. We conclude by describing a hypothetical framework that unifies genetic and epigenetic explanations of sexual orientation and the continued challenges facing sexual orientation research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Investigating the genetic and epigenetic basis of big biological questions with the parthenogenetic marbled crayfish: A review and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Gunter

    2018-03-01

    In the last 15 years, considerable attempts have been undertaken to develop the obligately parthenogenetic marbled crayfish Procambarus virginalis as a new model in biology. Its main advantage is the production of large numbers of offspring that are genetically identical to the mother, making this crustacean particularly suitable for research in epigenetics. Now, a draft genome, transcriptome and genome-wide methylome are available opening new windows for research. In this article, I summarize the biological advantages and genomic and epigenetic features of marbled crayfish and, based on first promising data, discuss what this new model could contribute to answering of ''big'' biological questions. Genome mining is expected to reveal new insights into the genetic specificities of decapod crustaceans, the genetic basis of arthropod reproduction, moulting and immunity, and more general topics such as the genetic underpinning of adaptation to fresh water, omnivory, biomineralization, sexual system change, behavioural variation, clonal genome evolution, and resistance to cancer. Epigenetic investigations with the marbled crayfish can help clarifying the role of epigenetic mechanisms in gene regulation, tissue specification, adult stem cell regulation, cell ageing, organ regeneration and disease susceptibility. Marbled crayfish is further suitable to elucidate the relationship between genetic and epigenetic variation, the transgenerational inheritance of epigenetic signatures and the contribution of epigenetic phenotype variation to the establishment of social hierarchies, environmental adaptation and speciation. These issues can be tackled by experiments with highly standardized laboratory lineages, comparison of differently adapted wild populations and the generation of genetically and epigenetically edited strains.

  10. Validation of Alzheimer's disease CSF and plasma biological markers: the multicentre reliability study of the pilot European Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (E-ADNI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buerger, Katharina; Frisoni, Giovanni; Uspenskaya, Olga

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiatives ("ADNI") aim to validate neuroimaging and biochemical markers of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Data of the pilot European-ADNI (E-ADNI) biological marker programme of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma candidate biomarkers are reported. METHO...

  11. CaliBayes and BASIS: integrated tools for the calibration, simulation and storage of biological simulation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuhui; Lawless, Conor; Gillespie, Colin S; Wu, Jake; Boys, Richard J; Wilkinson, Darren J

    2010-05-01

    Dynamic simulation modelling of complex biological processes forms the backbone of systems biology. Discrete stochastic models are particularly appropriate for describing sub-cellular molecular interactions, especially when critical molecular species are thought to be present at low copy-numbers. For example, these stochastic effects play an important role in models of human ageing, where ageing results from the long-term accumulation of random damage at various biological scales. Unfortunately, realistic stochastic simulation of discrete biological processes is highly computationally intensive, requiring specialist hardware, and can benefit greatly from parallel and distributed approaches to computation and analysis. For these reasons, we have developed the BASIS system for the simulation and storage of stochastic SBML models together with associated simulation results. This system is exposed as a set of web services to allow users to incorporate its simulation tools into their workflows. Parameter inference for stochastic models is also difficult and computationally expensive. The CaliBayes system provides a set of web services (together with an R package for consuming these and formatting data) which addresses this problem for SBML models. It uses a sequential Bayesian MCMC method, which is powerful and flexible, providing very rich information. However this approach is exceptionally computationally intensive and requires the use of a carefully designed architecture. Again, these tools are exposed as web services to allow users to take advantage of this system. In this article, we describe these two systems and demonstrate their integrated use with an example workflow to estimate the parameters of a simple model of Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth on agar plates.

  12. Molecular mechanisms of nematode-nematophagous microbe interactions: basis for biological control of plant-parasitic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Zou, Chenggang; Xu, Jianping; Ji, Xinglai; Niu, Xuemei; Yang, Jinkui; Huang, Xiaowei; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2015-01-01

    Plant-parasitic nematodes cause significant damage to a broad range of vegetables and agricultural crops throughout the world. As the natural enemies of nematodes, nematophagous microorganisms offer a promising approach to control the nematode pests. Some of these microorganisms produce traps to capture and kill the worms from the outside. Others act as internal parasites to produce toxins and virulence factors to kill the nematodes from within. Understanding the molecular basis of microbe-nematode interactions provides crucial insights for developing effective biological control agents against plant-parasitic nematodes. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of the interactions between nematodes and nematophagous microorganisms, with a focus on the molecular mechanisms by which nematophagous microorganisms infect nematodes and on the nematode defense against pathogenic attacks. We conclude by discussing several key areas for future research and development, including potential approaches to apply our recent understandings to develop effective biocontrol strategies.

  13. Covariance Association Test (CVAT) Identifies Genetic Markers Associated with Schizophrenia in Functionally Associated Biological Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Palle Duun; Demontis, Ditte; Castro Dias Cuyabano, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    was among the top performers. When extending CVAT to utilize a mixture of SNP effects, we found an increase in power to detect the causal sets. Applying the methods to a Danish schizophrenia case–control data set, we found genomic evidence for association of schizophrenia with vitamin A metabolism......Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder with large personal and social costs, and understanding the genetic etiology is important. Such knowledge can be obtained by testing the association between a disease phenotype and individual genetic markers; however, such single-marker methods have limited...... genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP), the covariance association test (CVAT). We compared the performance of CVAT to other commonly used set tests. The comparison was conducted using a simulated study population having the same genetic parameters as for schizophrenia. We found that CVAT...

  14. Selected biological markers in various vascular lesions of the head and neck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzanna Gronkiewicz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Vascular anomalies are divided according to the contemporary system of classification into two groups: tumors and malformations. However, there is no consensus on juvenile angiofibroma’s place in that system. The general characteristics of selected markers of angiogenesis and tissue remodeling are presented in the series in the context of current knowledge in the field of pathophysiology of vascular lesions. The mentioned markers are currently the subjects of multidirectional studies in oncology, as they take part in the process of neoangiogenesis and proliferation of tumors. Nevertheless, they have not been widely examined in vascular lesions. The indirect goal of that series is to indicate the possible research direction on vascular lesions to determine their molecular profile, to create a more specific system of classification, and above all to develop new diagnostic and treatment methods.

  15. [Use of the 2D:4D digit ratio as a biological marker of specific language disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font-Jordà, Antònia; Gamundí, Antoni; Nicolau Llobera, María Cristina; Aguilar-Mediavilla, Eva

    2018-04-03

    The finding of biological markers of specific language impairment would facilitate their detection and early intervention. In this sense, the 2D:4D finger ratio is considered an indirect indicator of prenatal exposure to testosterone. Previous studies have related it to linguistic competence and aggressive behaviour, and could be a candidate for a biological marker of language impairment. The aim was to compare the value of the 2D:4D ratio in children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) with those of children with typical language development, as well as to establish to what extent this biological index correlates with the behaviour (linguistic, cognitive, social,...) in both groups. 2D:4D ratio, language, cognition and social behaviour were compared in a group of children with SLI (n=15), with a group of children without language difficulties (n=16) of the same age (between 5-8 years), gender (male), and socio-cultural level. Children with SLI showed significantly higher values of 2D:4D ratio of the right hand, and a negative correlation between this ratio and their linguistic competence. Although the children with SLI showed impaired adaptive abilities, but not more aggressive behaviour, these measurements did not correlate with the 2D:4D index. Nevertheless, social behaviour correlated with language and cognition competence. A higher value of the biological 2D:4D ration (lower intrauterine exposure to testosterone) seems to be associated with language difficulties in boys with SLI, but not with their behavioural difficulties. Their behavioural difficulties seem to be a consequence of their linguistic difficulties and their level of cognition. Copyright © 2018. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  16. [Biological markers for the status of vitamins B12 and D: the importance of some analytical aspects in relation to clinical interpretation of results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulat, O; Rey, F; Mooser, V

    2012-10-31

    Biological markers for the status of vitamins B12 and D: the importance of some analytical aspects in relation to clinical interpretation of results When vitamin B12 deficiency is expressed clinically, the diagnostic performance of total cobalamin is identical to that of holotranscobalamin II. In subclinical B12 deficiency, the two aforementioned markers perform less well. Additional analysis of a second, functional marker (methylmalonate or homocysteine) is recommended. Different analytical approaches for 25-hydroxyvitamin D quantification, the marker of vitamin D deficiency, are not yet standardized. Measurement biases of up to +/- 20% compared with the original method used to establish threshold values are still observed.

  17. A marker of biological age explains individual variation in the strength of the adult stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Clare; Nettle, Daniel; Larriva, Maria; Gillespie, Robert; Reichert, Sophie; Brilot, Ben O; Bedford, Thomas; Monaghan, Pat; Spencer, Karen A; Bateson, Melissa

    2017-09-01

    The acute stress response functions to prioritize behavioural and physiological processes that maximize survival in the face of immediate threat. There is variation between individuals in the strength of the adult stress response that is of interest in both evolutionary biology and medicine. Age is an established source of this variation-stress responsiveness diminishes with increasing age in a range of species-but unexplained variation remains. Since individuals of the same chronological age may differ markedly in their pace of biological ageing, we asked whether biological age-measured here via erythrocyte telomere length-predicts variation in stress responsiveness in adult animals of the same chronological age. We studied two cohorts of European starlings in which we had previously manipulated the rate of biological ageing by experimentally altering the competition experienced by chicks in the fortnight following hatching. We predicted that individuals with greater developmental telomere attrition, and hence greater biological age, would show an attenuated corticosterone (CORT) response to an acute stressor when tested as adults. In both cohorts, we found that birds with greater developmental telomere attrition had lower peak CORT levels and a more negative change in CORT levels between 15 and 30 min following stress exposure. Our results, therefore, provide strong evidence that a measure of biological age explains individual variation in stress responsiveness: birds that were biologically older were less stress responsive. Our results provide a novel explanation for the phenomenon of developmental programming of the stress response: observed changes in stress physiology as a result of exposure to early-life adversity may reflect changes in ageing.

  18. Biological and Chemical Removal of Primary Cilia Affects Mechanical Activation of Chondrogenesis Markers in Chondroprogenitors and Hypertrophic Chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deren, Matthew E; Yang, Xu; Guan, Yingjie; Chen, Qian

    2016-02-04

    Chondroprogenitors and hypertrophic chondrocytes, which are the first and last stages of the chondrocyte differentiation process, respectively, are sensitive to mechanical signals. We hypothesize that the mechanical sensitivity of these cells depends on the cell surface primary cilia. To test this hypothesis, we removed the primary cilia by biological means with transfection with intraflagellar transport protein 88 (IFT88) siRNA or by chemical means with chloral hydrate treatment. Transfection of IFT88 siRNA significantly reduced the percentage of ciliated cells in both chondroprogenitor ATDC5 cells as well as primary hypertrophic chondrocytes. Cyclic loading (1 Hz, 10% matrix deformation) of ATDC5 cells in three-dimensional (3D) culture stimulates the mRNA levels of chondrogenesis marker Type II collagen (Col II), hypertrophic chondrocyte marker Type X collagen (Col X), and a molecular regulator of chondrogenesis and chondrocyte hypertrophy bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2). The reduction of ciliated chondroprogenitors abolishes mechanical stimulation of Col II, Col X, and BMP-2. In contrast, cyclic loading stimulates Col X mRNA levels in hypertrophic chondrocytes, but not those of Col II and BMP-2. Both biological and chemical reduction of ciliated hypertrophic chondrocytes reduced but failed to abolish mechanical stimulation of Col X mRNA levels. Thus, primary cilia play a major role in mechanical stimulation of chondrogenesis and chondrocyte hypertrophy in chondroprogenitor cells and at least a partial role in hypertrophic chondrocytes.

  19. Biological and Chemical Removal of Primary Cilia Affects Mechanical Activation of Chondrogenesis Markers in Chondroprogenitors and Hypertrophic Chondrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew E. Deren

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Chondroprogenitors and hypertrophic chondrocytes, which are the first and last stages of the chondrocyte differentiation process, respectively, are sensitive to mechanical signals. We hypothesize that the mechanical sensitivity of these cells depends on the cell surface primary cilia. To test this hypothesis, we removed the primary cilia by biological means with transfection with intraflagellar transport protein 88 (IFT88 siRNA or by chemical means with chloral hydrate treatment. Transfection of IFT88 siRNA significantly reduced the percentage of ciliated cells in both chondroprogenitor ATDC5 cells as well as primary hypertrophic chondrocytes. Cyclic loading (1 Hz, 10% matrix deformation of ATDC5 cells in three-dimensional (3D culture stimulates the mRNA levels of chondrogenesis marker Type II collagen (Col II, hypertrophic chondrocyte marker Type X collagen (Col X, and a molecular regulator of chondrogenesis and chondrocyte hypertrophy bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2. The reduction of ciliated chondroprogenitors abolishes mechanical stimulation of Col II, Col X, and BMP-2. In contrast, cyclic loading stimulates Col X mRNA levels in hypertrophic chondrocytes, but not those of Col II and BMP-2. Both biological and chemical reduction of ciliated hypertrophic chondrocytes reduced but failed to abolish mechanical stimulation of Col X mRNA levels. Thus, primary cilia play a major role in mechanical stimulation of chondrogenesis and chondrocyte hypertrophy in chondroprogenitor cells and at least a partial role in hypertrophic chondrocytes.

  20. Evolving Evidence for the Value of Neuroimaging Methods and Biological Markers in Subjects Categorized with Subjective Cognitive Decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lista, Simone; Molinuevo, Jose L; Cavedo, Enrica; Rami, Lorena; Amouyel, Philippe; Teipel, Stefan J; Garaci, Francesco; Toschi, Nicola; Habert, Marie-Odile; Blennow, Kaj; Zetterberg, Henrik; O'Bryant, Sid E; Johnson, Leigh; Galluzzi, Samantha; Bokde, Arun L W; Broich, Karl; Herholz, Karl; Bakardjian, Hovagim; Dubois, Bruno; Jessen, Frank; Carrillo, Maria C; Aisen, Paul S; Hampel, Harald

    2015-09-24

    There is evolving evidence that individuals categorized with subjective cognitive decline (SCD) are potentially at higher risk for developing objective and progressive cognitive impairment compared to cognitively healthy individuals without apparent subjective complaints. Interestingly, SCD, during advancing preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD), may denote very early, subtle cognitive decline that cannot be identified using established standardized tests of cognitive performance. The substantial heterogeneity of existing SCD-related research data has led the Subjective Cognitive Decline Initiative (SCD-I) to accomplish an international consensus on the definition of a conceptual research framework on SCD in preclinical AD. In the area of biological markers, the cerebrospinal fluid signature of AD has been reported to be more prevalent in subjects with SCD compared to healthy controls; moreover, there is a pronounced atrophy, as demonstrated by magnetic resonance imaging, and an increased hypometabolism, as revealed by positron emission tomography, in characteristic brain regions affected by AD. In addition, SCD individuals carrying an apolipoprotein ɛ4 allele are more likely to display AD-phenotypic alterations. The urgent requirement to detect and diagnose AD as early as possible has led to the critical examination of the diagnostic power of biological markers, neurophysiology, and neuroimaging methods for AD-related risk and clinical progression in individuals defined with SCD. Observational studies on the predictive value of SCD for developing AD may potentially be of practical value, and an evidence-based, validated, qualified, and fully operationalized concept may inform clinical diagnostic practice and guide earlier designs in future therapy trials.

  1. Perspective Biological Markers for Autism Spectrum Disorders: Advantages of the Use of Receiver Operating Characteristic Curves in Evaluating Marker Sensitivity and Specificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Provvidenza M. Abruzzo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD are a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders. Recognized causes of ASD include genetic factors, metabolic diseases, toxic and environmental factors, and a combination of these. Available tests fail to recognize genetic abnormalities in about 70% of ASD children, where diagnosis is solely based on behavioral signs and symptoms, which are difficult to evaluate in very young children. Although it is advisable that specific psychotherapeutic and pedagogic interventions are initiated as early as possible, early diagnosis is hampered by the lack of nongenetic specific biological markers. In the past ten years, the scientific literature has reported dozens of neurophysiological and biochemical alterations in ASD children; however no real biomarker has emerged. Such literature is here reviewed in the light of Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC analysis, a very valuable statistical tool, which evaluates the sensitivity and the specificity of biomarkers to be used in diagnostic decision making. We also apply ROC analysis to some of our previously published data and discuss the increased diagnostic value of combining more variables in one ROC curve analysis. We also discuss the use of biomarkers as a tool for advancing our understanding of nonsyndromic ASD.

  2. Evaluation of Accessory Lacrimal Gland in Muller's Muscle Conjunctival Resection Specimens for Precursor Cell Markers and Biological Markers of Dry Eye Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Marwan; Shah, Dhara; Pasha, Zeeshan; Jassim, Sarmad H; Jassim Jaboori, Assraa; Setabutr, Pete; Aakalu, Vinay K

    2017-04-01

    The accessory lacrimal glands (ALGs) are an understudied component of the tear functional unit, even though they are important in the development of dry eye syndrome (DES). To advance our understanding of aging changes, regenerative potential, and histologic correlates to human characteristics, we investigated human ALG tissue from surgical samples to determine the presence or absence of progenitor cell markers and lacrimal epithelial markers and to correlate marker expression to relevant patient characteristics. ALG tissues obtained from Muller's muscle conjunctival resection (MMCR) specimens were created using tissue microarrays (TMAs). Immunofluorescence staining of MMCR sections was performed using primary antibodies specific to cell protein markers. Cell marker localization in TMAs was then assessed by two blinded observers using a standardized scoring system. Patient characteristics including age, race, and status of ocular surface health were then compared against expression of stem cell markers. Human ALG expressed a number of epithelial markers, and in particular, histatin-1 was well correlated with the expression of epithelial markers and was present in most acini. In addition, we noted the presence of precursor cell markers nestin, ABCG2, and CD90 in ALG tissue. There was a decrease in precursor cell marker expression with increasing age. Finally, we noted that a negative association was present between histatin-1 expression and DES. Thus, we report for the first time that human ALG tissues contain precursor marker-positive cells and that this marker expression may decrease with increasing age. Moreover, histatin-1 expression may be decreased in DES. Future studies will be performed to use these cell markers to isolate and culture lacrimal epithelial cells from heterogeneous tissues, determine the relevance of histatin-1 expression to DES, and isolate candidate precursor cells from ALG tissue.

  3. Evaluation of Accessory Lacrimal Gland in Muller’s Muscle Conjunctival Resection Specimens for Precursor Cell Markers and Biological Markers of Dry Eye Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Marwan; Shah, Dhara; Pasha, Zeeshan; Jassim, Sarmad H.; Jaboori, Assraa Jassim; Setabutr, Pete; Aakalu, Vinay K.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The accessory lacrimal glands (ALG) are an understudied component of the tear functional unit, even though they are important in the development of dry eye syndrome (DES). To advance our understanding of aging changes, regenerative potential and histologic correlates to human characteristics, we investigated human ALG tissue from surgical samples to determine the presence or absence of progenitor cell markers and lacrimal epithelial markers and to correlate marker expression to relevant patient characteristics. Materials and Methods ALG tissues obtained from Muller’s Muscle Conjunctival Resection (MMCR) specimens were created using tissue microarrays (TMAs). Immunofluorescence staining of MMCR sections was performed using primary antibodies specific to cell protein markers. Cell marker localization in TMAs was then assessed by two blinded observers using a standardized scoring system. Patient characteristics including age, race, and status of ocular surface health were then compared against expression of stem cell markers. Results Human ALG expressed a number of epithelial markers, and in particular, histatin-1 was well correlated with the expression of epithelial markers and was present in most acini. In addition, we noted the presence of precursor cell markers nestin, ABCG2 and CD90 in ALG tissue. There was a decrease in precursor cell marker expression with increasing age. Finally, we noted that a negative association was present between histatin-1 expression and DES. Conclusions Thus, we report for the first time that human ALG tissues contain precursor marker positive cells and that this marker expression may decrease with increasing age. Moreover, histatin-1 expression may be decreased in DES. Future studies will be performed to use these cell markers to isolate and culture lacrimal epithelial cells from heterogeneous tissues, determine the relevance of histatin-1 expression to DES and isolate candidate precursor cells from ALG tissue. PMID:27612554

  4. Molecular biology of breast cancer metastasis Molecular expression of vascular markers by aggressive breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrix, Mary JC; Seftor, Elisabeth A; Kirschmann, Dawn A; Seftor, Richard EB

    2000-01-01

    During embryogenesis, the formation of primary vascular networks occurs via the processes of vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. In uveal melanoma, vasculogenic mimicry describes the 'embryonic-like' ability of aggressive, but not nonaggressive, tumor cells to form networks surrounding spheroids of tumor cells in three-dimensional culture; these recapitulate the patterned networks seen in patients' aggressive tumors and correlates with poor prognosis. The molecular profile of these aggressive tumor cells suggests that they have a deregulated genotype, capable of expressing vascular phenotypes. Similarly, the embryonic-like phenotype expressed by the aggressive human breast cancer cells is associated with their ability to express a variety of vascular markers. These studies may offer new insights for consideration in breast cancer diagnosis and therapeutic intervention strategies

  5. Biological effects of drinking-water mineral composition on calcium balance and bone remodeling markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, S; Baudoin, C; Boute, D; Brazier, M; De La Guéronniere, V; De Vernejoul, M C

    2004-01-01

    To compare the effects of 2 drinking waters containing similar calcium (Ca) concentration in order to analyze the role of ions other than Ca on bone metabolism. These mineral drinking-waters differed by their mineral composition primarily concerning the concentration of bicarbonate (HCO3-), high in the HB, and sulfate, high in HS water. Of 60 included women, 39 completed the study. Patients were randomly assigned to an intake of 1 liter per day of mineral water HB or HS for 28 d, followed by cross-over to the alternative drinking-water for a further 28 d. At baseline and after each period of one month, Ca metabolism parameters, acid-base status, and bone remodeling markers were measured. Changes in Ca metabolism were significant in the HB group where the ionized Ca increased and the PTH decreased. Serum pH showed a similar increase whatever the used drinking water compared to baseline. In the HB group, significant increase in urine pH, and significant decrease in AT-HCO3- and NH4+ were observed. Bone resorption markers, urinary CTx/Cr, Pyr/Cr, and D-Pyr/Cr, significantly decreased in the HB group compared to baseline, and were not significantly modified in the HS group. These results showed a beneficial effect of the bicarbonaterich HB water on bone metabolism. This may account for a better bioavailability of the Ca, a greater alkalinization, and a larger decrease in PTH level secondary to a higher ionized Ca level. The higher content of silica in HB water may have also participated to the positive action on bone balance that was observed. In this short term study, these data underlined the potential role of the mineral drinking water composition on bone metabolism.

  6. THE ASSESSMENT OF BIOLOGICAL MARKERS IN PATIENTS WITH PREECLAMPSIA WHEN AN INFLAMMATORY PROCESS APPEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Crauciuc

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia represents a pathological state that is specific to regnancy, is characterized by high blood pressure de novo and significant proteinuria and appears after 20 weeks of pregnancy. The continuously increasing mortality caused by preeclampsia in our country totally justifies the fact that all efforts are directed towards primary and secondary prevention of the disease and underlines the necessity of urgent intervention at population level, together withthe implementation of a screening programme that is able to reduce the impact of this condition on the mother and the baby. The cases were gathered between 2003 and 2014. The patients were selected by studying the observation charts of the pregnant women hospitalized in ”Cuza Vodă” Clinical Hospital of Obstetrics and Gynecology Iaşi, having a pregnancy over 20 weeks, who came for a specialized consult and who were harvested CRP, without an infectious context or prematurely and spontaneously ruptured membranes. The comparison of the lab markers for the pregnantwomen with severe preeclampsia, depending on the plasmatic level of CRP over 12 mg/l, showed significantly higher values of fibrinogen, LDH, GOT, GPT, serum blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and urine proteins, while the mean number of white cells was significantly reduced (p<0,05. The study confirms the change in the inflammatory process markers, the hepatic and kidney function, associated with a high plasmatic level of CRP for pregnant women with severe preeclampsia.

  7. Effectiveness of biologic and non-biologic antirheumatic drugs on anaemia markers in 153,788 patients with rheumatoid arthritis: New evidence from real-world data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Sanjoy Ketan; Montvida, Olga; Best, Jennie H; Gale, Sara; Pethoe-Schramm, Attila; Sarsour, Khaled

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate the impact of treatment with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), including IL-6 receptor inhibitor tocilizumab (TCZ), on anaemia markers in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Using the Centricity Electronic Medical Records from USA, patients with rheumatoid arthritis diagnosed between January 2000 and April 2016, who initiated TCZ (n = 3732); tofacitinib (TOFA, n = 3126); other biologic DMARD (obDMARD, n = 55,964); or other non-biologic DMARD (onbDMARD, n = 91,236) were identified. Changes in haemoglobin (Hb) and haematocrit (Hct) over 2 years of treatment initiation were evaluated, adjusting and balancing for confounders. Mean (95% CI) adjusted increase in Hb and Hct levels at 24 months in TCZ group were 0.23g/dL (0.14, 0.42) and 0.96% (0.41, 1.52) respectively. Among patients with anaemia in the TCZ group, Hb and Hct increased significantly by 0.72g/dL and 2.06%, respectively. Patients in the TCZ group were 86% (95% CI of OR: 1.43, 2.00) more likely to increase Hb ≥ 1g/dL compared to the other groups combined. No clinically significant changes in Hb were observed in the other groups. The obDMARD group demonstrated lower Hct increase than TCZ group, while no significant changes were observed in the remaining groups. Compared to those who initiated TCZ therapy after 1 year of diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis, those who initiated earlier were 95% (OR = 1.95; 95% CI: 1.19, 3.21; p < 0.001) more likely to increase Hb within 6 months. This real-world study suggests significant increase in Hb and Hct levels after TCZ therapy in anaemic and non-anaemic patients with rheumatoid arthritis, compared with other biologic and non-biologic DMARDs. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The biological basis of a universal constraint on color naming: cone contrasts and the two-way categorization of colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Youping; Kavanau, Christopher; Bertin, Lauren; Kaplan, Ehud

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have provided evidence for the existence of universal constraints on color categorization or naming in various languages, but the biological basis of these constraints is unknown. A recent study of the pattern of color categorization across numerous languages has suggested that these patterns tend to avoid straddling a region in color space at or near the border between the English composite categories of "warm" and "cool". This fault line in color space represents a fundamental constraint on color naming. Here we report that the two-way categorization along the fault line is correlated with the sign of the L- versus M-cone contrast of a stimulus color. Moreover, we found that the sign of the L-M cone contrast also accounted for the two-way clustering of the spatially distributed neural responses in small regions of the macaque primary visual cortex, visualized with optical imaging. These small regions correspond to the hue maps, where our previous study found a spatially organized representation of stimulus hue. Altogether, these results establish a direct link between a universal constraint on color naming and the cone-specific information that is represented in the primate early visual system.

  9. Forging patterns and making waves from biology to geology: a commentary on Turing (1952) 'The chemical basis of morphogenesis'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Philip

    2015-04-19

    Alan Turing was neither a biologist nor a chemist, and yet the paper he published in 1952, 'The chemical basis of morphogenesis', on the spontaneous formation of patterns in systems undergoing reaction and diffusion of their ingredients has had a substantial impact on both fields, as well as in other areas as disparate as geomorphology and criminology. Motivated by the question of how a spherical embryo becomes a decidedly non-spherical organism such as a human being, Turing devised a mathematical model that explained how random fluctuations can drive the emergence of pattern and structure from initial uniformity. The spontaneous appearance of pattern and form in a system far away from its equilibrium state occurs in many types of natural process, and in some artificial ones too. It is often driven by very general mechanisms, of which Turing's model supplies one of the most versatile. For that reason, these patterns show striking similarities in systems that seem superficially to share nothing in common, such as the stripes of sand ripples and of pigmentation on a zebra skin. New examples of 'Turing patterns' in biology and beyond are still being discovered today. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society.

  10. The impact of a prospective survey-based workplace intervention program on employee health, biologic stress markers, and organizational productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderzén, Ingrid; Arnetz, Bengt B

    2005-07-01

    To study whether knowledge about psychosocial work indicators and a structured method to implement changes based on such knowledge comprise an effective management tool for enhancing organizational as well as employee health and well-being. White- collar employees representing 22 different work units were assessed before and after a 1-year intervention program. Subjective ratings on health and work environment, biologic markers, absenteeism, and productivity were measured. Significant improvements in performance feedback, participatory management, employeeship, skills development, efficiency, leadership, employee well-being, and work-related exhaustion were identified. The restorative hormone testosterone increased during the intervention and changes correlated with increased overall organizational well-being. Absenteeism decreased and productivity improved. Fact-based psychosocial workplace interventions are suggested to be an important process for enhancing employee well-being as well as organizational performance.

  11. A life course approach to explore the biological embedding of socioeconomic position and social mobility through circulating inflammatory markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagné, Raphaële; Delpierre, Cyrille; Kelly-Irving, Michelle; Campanella, Gianluca; Guida, Florence; Krogh, Vittorio; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Tumino, Rosario; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios; Hosnijeh, Fatemeh Saberi; Lang, Thierry; Vermeulen, Roel; Vineis, Paolo; Stringhini, Silvia; Chadeau-Hyam, Marc

    2016-04-27

    Lower socioeconomic position (SEP) has consistently been associated with poorer health. To explore potential biological embedding and the consequences of SEP experiences from early life to adulthood, we investigate how SEP indicators at different points across the life course may be related to a combination of 28 inflammation markers. Using blood-derived inflammation profiles measured by a multiplex array in 268 participants from the Italian component of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort, we evaluate the association between early life, young adulthood and later adulthood SEP with each inflammatory markers separately, or by combining them into an inflammatory score. We identified an increased inflammatory burden in participants whose father had a manual occupation, through increased plasma levels of CSF3 (G-CSF; β = 0.29; P = 0.002), and an increased inflammatory score (β = 1.96; P = 0.029). Social mobility was subsequently modelled by the interaction between father's occupation and the highest household occupation, revealing a significant difference between "stable Non-manual" profiles over the life course versus "Manual to Non-manual" profiles (β = 2.38, P = 0.023). Low SEP in childhood is associated with modest increase in adult inflammatory burden; however, the analysis of social mobility suggests a stronger effect of an upward social mobility over the life course.

  12. Imaging the pathoanatomy of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in vivo: targeting a propagation-based biological marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassubek, Jan; Müller, Hans-Peter; Del Tredici, Kelly; Lulé, Dorothée; Gorges, Martin; Braak, Heiko; Ludolph, Albert C

    2018-04-01

    Neuropathological studies in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) have shown a dissemination in a regional sequence in four anatomically defined patterns. The aim of this retrospective study was to see whether longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data support the pathological findings. The application of DTI analysis to fibre structures that are prone to be involved at each neuropathological pattern of ALS was performed in a monocentre sample of 67 patients with ALS and 31 controls that obtained at least one follow-up scan after a median of 6 months. At the group level, longitudinal ALS data showed significant differences for the stage-related tract systems. At the individual level, 27% of the longitudinally scanned patients with ALS showed an increase in ALS stage, while the remaining were stable or were at the highest ALS stage. Longitudinal fractional anisotropy changes in the respective tract systems correlated significantly with the slope of the revised ALS functional rating scale. The DTI-based protocol was able to image the disease patterns of ALS in vivo cross-sectionally and longitudinally, in support of DTI as a technical marker to image ALS stages. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Role of serum eosinophil cationic protein as a biological marker to assess the severity of bronchial asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begum, A.; Sattar, H.; Miah, R.A.; Saleh, A.A.; Hassan, R.; Salam, A

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The study was carried out to evaluate the role of serum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) as a biological marker for the diagnosis and to assess the severity of bronchial asthma. Methodology: This observational cross-sectional study was conducted among 70 bronchial asthma patients and 45 disease controls (tuberculosis-15, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease-15, interstitial lung disease-15) enrolled from patients attending the outpatient department of the National Institute of Disease of the Chest and Hospital (NIDCH), Dhaka, Bangladesh during July 2010 to June 2011. Global Initiative of Asthma Management and Prevention (GINA) criteria were followed for selection of both atopic and non-atopic patients with intermittent or persistent (mild, moderate and severe) asthma. Serum level of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), IgE, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1% predicted) and circulatory eosinophil (CE) count were estimated. Results: Mean serum ECP level (28.8 +- 42.9 vs. 6.82 +- 3.5 ng/mL; P<0.001), IgE level (383.59 - 225.3 vs. 135 +- 131.8 IU/mL; P<0.001) and percent circulatory eosinophil count (9.95 +- 3.7 vs. 5.95 +- 1.4; P<0.024) were all found significantly raised among asthma patients than disease controls but % FEV1 was equivocal. All grades of persistent asthma patients had significantly (P<0.025 and P<0.002) higher mean ECP level than intermittent cases but serum IgE level and CE count did not differ significantly. FEV1 % predicted correlated well among moderate and severe persistent asthma but was equivocal for intermittent and mild persistent cases. Conclusion: This study has reinforced that serum eosinophil cationic protein is a dependable biological marker with more discriminatory power over other indicators for bronchial asthma and to assess its severity. (author)

  14. Extended morphological processing: a practical method for automatic spot detection of biological markers from microscopic images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimori, Yoshitaka; Baba, Norio; Morone, Nobuhiro

    2010-07-08

    A reliable extraction technique for resolving multiple spots in light or electron microscopic images is essential in investigations of the spatial distribution and dynamics of specific proteins inside cells and tissues. Currently, automatic spot extraction and characterization in complex microscopic images poses many challenges to conventional image processing methods. A new method to extract closely located, small target spots from biological images is proposed. This method starts with a simple but practical operation based on the extended morphological top-hat transformation to subtract an uneven background. The core of our novel approach is the following: first, the original image is rotated in an arbitrary direction and each rotated image is opened with a single straight line-segment structuring element. Second, the opened images are unified and then subtracted from the original image. To evaluate these procedures, model images of simulated spots with closely located targets were created and the efficacy of our method was compared to that of conventional morphological filtering methods. The results showed the better performance of our method. The spots of real microscope images can be quantified to confirm that the method is applicable in a given practice. Our method achieved effective spot extraction under various image conditions, including aggregated target spots, poor signal-to-noise ratio, and large variations in the background intensity. Furthermore, it has no restrictions with respect to the shape of the extracted spots. The features of our method allow its broad application in biological and biomedical image information analysis.

  15. FSH-FSHR3-stem cells in ovary surface epithelium: basis for adult ovarian biology, failure, aging, and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhartiya, Deepa; Singh, Jarnail

    2015-01-01

    Despite extensive research, genetic basis of premature ovarian failure (POF) and ovarian cancer still remains elusive. It is indeed paradoxical that scientists searched for mutations in FSH receptor (FSHR) expressed on granulosa cells, whereas more than 90% of cancers arise in ovary surface epithelium (OSE). Two distinct populations of stem cells including very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) and ovarian stem cells (OSCs) exist in OSE, are responsible for neo-oogenesis and primordial follicle assembly in adult life, and are modulated by FSH via its alternatively spliced receptor variant FSHR3 (growth factor type 1 receptor acting via calcium signaling and the ERK/MAPK pathway). Any defect in FSH-FSHR3-stem cell interaction in OSE may affect folliculogenesis and thus result in POF. Ovarian aging is associated with a compromised microenvironment that does not support stem cell differentiation into oocytes and further folliculogenesis. FSH exerts a mitogenic effect on OSE and elevated FSH levels associated with advanced age may provide a continuous trigger for stem cells to proliferate resulting in cancer, thus supporting gonadotropin theory for ovarian cancer. Present review is an attempt to put adult ovarian biology, POF, aging, and cancer in the perspective of FSH-FSHR3-stem cell network that functions in OSE. This hypothesis is further supported by the recent understanding that: i) cancer is a stem cell disease and OSE is the niche for ovarian cancer stem cells; ii) ovarian OCT4-positive stem cells are regulated by FSH; and iii) OCT4 along with LIN28 and BMP4 are highly expressed in ovarian cancers. © 2015 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  16. Biological markers for anxiety disorders, OCD and PTSD: A consensus statement. Part II: Neurochemistry, neurophysiology and neurocognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandelow, Borwin; Baldwin, David; Abelli, Marianna; Bolea-Alamanac, Blanca; Bourin, Michel; Chamberlain, Samuel R.; Cinosi, Eduardo; Davies, Simon; Domschke, Katharina; Fineberg, Naomi; Grünblatt, Edna; Jarema, Marek; Kim, Yong-Ku; Maron, Eduard; Masdrakis, Vasileios; Mikova, Olya; Nutt, David; Pallanti, Stefano; Pini, Stefano; Ströhle, Andreas; Thibaut, Florence; Vaghix, Matilde M.; Won, Eunsoo; Wedekind, Dirk; Wichniak, Adam; Woolley, Jade; Zwanzger, Peter; Riederer, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Objective Biomarkers are defined as anatomical, biochemical or physiological traits that are specific to certain disorders or syndromes. The objective of this paper is to summarise the current knowledge of biomarkers for anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Methods Findings in biomarker research were reviewed by a task force of international experts in the field, consisting of members of the World Federation of Societies for Biological Psychiatry Task Force on Biological Markers and of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology Anxiety Disorders Research Network. Results The present article (Part II) summarises findings on potential biomarkers in neurochemistry (neurotransmitters such as serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine or GABA, neuropeptides such as cholecystokinin, neurokinins, atrial natriuretic peptide, or oxytocin, the HPA axis, neurotrophic factors such as NGF and BDNF, immunology and CO2 hypersensitivity), neurophysiology (EEG, heart rate variability) and neurocognition. The accompanying paper (Part I) focuses on neuroimaging and genetics. Conclusions Although at present, none of the putative biomarkers is sufficient and specific as a diagnostic tool, an abundance of high quality research has accumulated that should improve our understanding of the neurobiological causes of anxiety disorders, OCD and PTSD. PMID:27419272

  17. Occupational cosmic radiation exposure in Portuguese airline pilots: study of a possible correlation with oxidative biological markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rodrigo; Folgosa, Filipe; Soares, Paulo; Pereira, Alice S; Garcia, Raquel; Gestal-Otero, Juan Jesus; Tavares, Pedro; Gomes da Silva, Marco D R

    2013-05-01

    Several studies have sought to understand the health effects of occupational exposure to cosmic radiation. However, only few biologic markers or associations with disease outcomes have so far been identified. In the present study, 22 long- and 26 medium-haul male Portuguese airline pilots and 36 factory workers who did not fly regularly were investigated. The two groups were comparable in age and diet, were non-smokers, never treated with ionizing radiation and other factors. Cosmic radiation exposure in pilots was quantified based on direct monitoring of 51 flights within Europe, and from Europe to North and South America, and to Africa. Indirect dose estimates in pilots were performed based on the SIEVERT (Système informatisé d'évaluation par vol de l'exposition au rayonnement cosmique dans les transports aériens) software for 6,039 medium- and 1,366 long-haul flights. Medium-haul pilots had a higher cosmic radiation dose rate than long-haul pilots, that is, 3.3 ± 0.2 μSv/h and 2.7 ± 0.3 μSv/h, respectively. Biological tests for oxidative stress on blood and urine, as appropriate, at two time periods separated by 1 year, included measurements of antioxidant capacity, total protein, ferritin, hemoglobin, creatinine and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8OHdG). Principal components analysis was used to discriminate between the exposed and unexposed groups based on all the biological tests. According to this analysis, creatinine and 8OHdG levels were different for the pilots and the unexposed group, but no distinctions could be made among the medium- and the long-haul pilots. While hemoglobin levels seem to be comparable between the studied groups, they were directly correlated with ferritin values, which were lower for the airline pilots.

  18. DHT and IGF-1 in peripheral blood lymphocytes: new markers for the biological passport of athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, A; Imperlini, E; Alfieri, A; Spaziani, S; Martone, D; Parisi, A; Orru, S; Buono, P

    2013-01-01

    We performed a pilot study using human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) as a novel system to identify new biomarkers of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) abuse in sport. First, to obtain a gene signature, we treated cultures of lymphocytes from sedentary males with three doses of 0.237 microg/ml DHT, each of which is 80-fold the physiological concentration in young adult male serum, at days 0, 2 and 4, or with a single dose of 1.25 microg/ml IGF-1, which is 5-fold the physiological concentration in young adult male serum. We then used the Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 microarray to identify a gene signature related to DHT or IGF-1 administration. Gene expression was evaluated after 7 and 21 days of DHT treatment, and after 24 h, 72 h and 7 days of IGF-1 treatment. Microarray analysis yielded a list of genes whose expression was altered after DHT or IGF-1 treatment. Among these we selected the genes that are most representative of the pathways associated with skeletal and muscular disorders using the IPA bioinformatics tool. We identified six (IDO1, CXCL13, CCL1, GZMB, VDR and IL2RA) and two (FN1 and RAB31) genes that were up-regulated in lymphocytes from sedentary subjects after 7 days of DHT and IGF-1 treatment, respectively. The expression of these genes in lymphocytes from differently trained athletes was either down-regulated or similar to that in lymphocytes from sedentary subjects. This finding suggests that up-regulation was due to the drug and not to physical exercise. In conclusion, we demonstrate that PBL can be useful in anti-doping checks, and we describe new biomarkers of DHT and IGF-1 abuse which can be included in the Athlete's Biological Passport.

  19. A systematic review of secondhand smoke exposure in a car: Attributable changes in atmospheric and biological markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raoof, Sana A; Agaku, Israel T; Vardavas, Constantine I

    2015-05-01

    Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) has been linked to disease, disability, and premature death. While several countries have enacted smoke-free legislations, exposure to SHS may still occur in unregulated private environments, such as in the family car. We performed a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature in PubMed and Web of Science up to May 2013. Articles were selected if they provided a quantitative measure of SHS exposure (biological or atmospheric markers); the study was conducted inside a car; and the assessed exposure was attributable to cigarette combustion. From 202 articles identified, 12 met the inclusion criteria. Among all studies that assessed smoking in cars with at least one window partially open, the particulate matter 2.5 μm or less in diameter (PM2.5) concentrations ranged from 47 μg/m(3) to 12,150 μg/m(3). For studies with all windows closed, PM2.5 ranged from 203.6 μg/m(3) to 13,150 μg/m(3). SHS concentration in a car was mediated by air-conditioning status, extent of airflow, and driving speed. Smoking in cars leads to extremely high exposure to SHS and increased concentration of atmospheric markers of exposure-even in the presence of air-conditioning or increased airflow from open windows. This clearly shows that the only way to protect nonsmokers, especially children, from SHS within cars is by eliminating tobacco smoking. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. The Effects of Short-Term Propofol and Dexmedetomidine on Lung Mechanics, Histology, and Biological Markers in Experimental Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heil, Luciana Boavista Barros; Santos, Cíntia L; Santos, Raquel S; Samary, Cynthia S; Cavalcanti, Vinicius C M; Araújo, Mariana M P N; Poggio, Hananda; Maia, Lígia de A; Trevenzoli, Isis Hara; Pelosi, Paolo; Fernandes, Fatima C; Villela, Nivaldo R; Silva, Pedro L; Rocco, Patricia R M

    2016-04-01

    Administering anesthetics to the obese population requires caution because of a variety of reasons including possible interactions with the inflammatory process observed in obese patients. Propofol and dexmedetomidine have protective effects on pulmonary function and are widely used in short- and long-term sedation, particularly in intensive care unit settings in lean and obese subjects. However, the functional and biological effects of these drugs in obesity require further elucidation. In a model of diet-induced obesity, we compared the short-term effects of dexmedetomidine versus propofol on lung mechanics and histology, as well as biological markers of inflammation and oxidative stress modulation in obesity. Wistar rats (n = 56) were randomly fed a standard diet (lean) or experimental diet (obese) for 12 weeks. After this period, obese animals received sodium thiopental intraperitoneally and were randomly allocated into 4 subgroups: (1) nonventilated (n = 4) for molecular biology analysis only (control); (2) sodium thiopental (n = 8); (3) propofol (n = 8); and (4) dexmedetomidine (n = 8), which received continuous IV administration of the corresponding agents and were mechanically ventilated (tidal volume = 6 mL/kg body weight, fraction of inspired oxygen = 0.4, positive end-expiratory pressure = 3 cm H2O) for 1 hour. Compared with lean animals, obese rats did not present increased body weight but had higher total body and trunk fat percentages, airway resistance, and interleukin-6 levels in the lung tissue (P = 0.02, P = 0.0027, and P = 0.01, respectively). In obese rats, propofol, but not dexmedetomidine, yielded increased airway resistance, bronchoconstriction index (P = 0.016, P = 0.02, respectively), tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6 levels, as well as lower levels of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor-2 and glutathione peroxidase (P = 0.001, Bonferroni-corrected t test). In this model of diet-induced obesity, a 1-hour propofol infusion

  1. Prediction for steatosis in type-2 diabetes: clinico-biological markers versus 1H-MR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guiu, Boris; Krause, Denis; Cercueil, Jean-Pierre; Crevisy-Girod, Elodie; Binquet, Christine; Duvillard, Laurence; Masson, David; Lepage, Come; Hamza, Samia; Minello, Anne; Hillon, Patrick; Verges, Bruno; Petit, Jean-Michel

    2012-01-01

    The SteatoTest, fatty liver index (FLI) and hepatic steatosis index (HSI) are clinico-biological scores of steatosis validated in general or selected populations. Serum adiponectin (s-adiponectin) and retinol binding protein 4 (s-RBP4) are adipokines that could predict liver steatosis. We investigated whether the Steatotest, FLI, HSI, s-adiponectin and s-RBP4 could be valid predictors of liver steatosis in type-2 diabetic (T2D) patients. We enrolled 220 consecutive T2D patients. Reference standard was 3.0 T 1 H-MR spectroscopy (corrected for T1 and T2 decays). Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), Kappa statistic measures of agreement, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were assessed. Median liver fat content was 91 mg triglyceride/g liver tissue (range: 0-392). ICCs among the Steatotest, FLI, HSI, s-adiponectin, s-RBP4 and spectroscopy were low: 0.384, 0.281, 0.087, -0.297 and 0.048. Agreement between scores and spectroscopy was poor (Kappa range: 0.042-0.281). The areas under the ROC curves were low: 0.674, 0.647, 0.637, 0.616 and 0.540. S-adiponectin and s-RBP4 levels were strongly related to the presence of diabetic nephropathy (P = 0.0037 and P = 0.004; Mann-Whitney). The SteatoTest, FLI, HSI, s-adiponectin, s-RBP4 are not valid predictors of steatosis in T2D patients. Clino-biological markers cannot replace 1 H-MR spectroscopy for the assessment of liver fat in this population. (orig.)

  2. Prediction for steatosis in type-2 diabetes: clinico-biological markers versus {sup 1}H-MR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guiu, Boris; Krause, Denis; Cercueil, Jean-Pierre [University of Burgundy, INSERM U866, BP 87900, Dijon (France); CHU (University Hospital), Department of Radiology, 2 boulevard Marechal de Lattre de Tassigny, BP 77908, Dijon (France); Crevisy-Girod, Elodie [CHU (University Hospital), Department of Endocrinology, Diabetology, and Metabolic Diseases, BP 77908, Dijon (France); Binquet, Christine [University of Burgundy, INSERM U866, BP 87900, Dijon (France); CHU (University Hospital), Department of Biostatistics and Medical Informatics, BP 77908, Dijon (France); Duvillard, Laurence [University of Burgundy, INSERM U866, BP 87900, Dijon (France); Masson, David [University of Burgundy, INSERM U866, BP 87900, Dijon (France); CHU (University Hospital), Department of Biochemistry, BP 77908, Dijon (France); Lepage, Come; Hamza, Samia; Minello, Anne; Hillon, Patrick [University of Burgundy, INSERM U866, BP 87900, Dijon (France); CHU (University Hospital), Department of Hepatology, BP 77908, Dijon (France); Verges, Bruno; Petit, Jean-Michel [University of Burgundy, INSERM U866, BP 87900, Dijon (France); CHU (University Hospital), Department of Endocrinology, Diabetology, and Metabolic Diseases, BP 77908, Dijon (France)

    2012-04-15

    The SteatoTest, fatty liver index (FLI) and hepatic steatosis index (HSI) are clinico-biological scores of steatosis validated in general or selected populations. Serum adiponectin (s-adiponectin) and retinol binding protein 4 (s-RBP4) are adipokines that could predict liver steatosis. We investigated whether the Steatotest, FLI, HSI, s-adiponectin and s-RBP4 could be valid predictors of liver steatosis in type-2 diabetic (T2D) patients. We enrolled 220 consecutive T2D patients. Reference standard was 3.0 T {sup 1}H-MR spectroscopy (corrected for T1 and T2 decays). Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), Kappa statistic measures of agreement, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were assessed. Median liver fat content was 91 mg triglyceride/g liver tissue (range: 0-392). ICCs among the Steatotest, FLI, HSI, s-adiponectin, s-RBP4 and spectroscopy were low: 0.384, 0.281, 0.087, -0.297 and 0.048. Agreement between scores and spectroscopy was poor (Kappa range: 0.042-0.281). The areas under the ROC curves were low: 0.674, 0.647, 0.637, 0.616 and 0.540. S-adiponectin and s-RBP4 levels were strongly related to the presence of diabetic nephropathy (P = 0.0037 and P = 0.004; Mann-Whitney). The SteatoTest, FLI, HSI, s-adiponectin, s-RBP4 are not valid predictors of steatosis in T2D patients. Clino-biological markers cannot replace {sup 1}H-MR spectroscopy for the assessment of liver fat in this population. (orig.)

  3. Overweight and Obesity in Southern Italy: their association with social and life-style characteristics and their effect on levels of biologic markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osella, Alberto R; Díaz, María Del Pilar; Cozzolongo, Rafaelle; Bonfiglio, Caterina; Franco, Isabella; Abrescia, Daniela Isabel; Bianco, Antonella; Giampiero, Elba Silvana; Petruzzi, José; Elsa, Lanzilota; Mario, Correale; Mastrosimni, Anna María; Giocchino, Leandro

    2014-01-01

    In the last decades, overweight and obesity have been transformed from minor public health issues to a major threat to public health affecting the most affluent societies and also the less developed ones. To estimate overweight-obesity prevalence in adults, their association with some social determinants and to assess the effect of these two conditions on levels of biologic and biochemical characteristics, by means of a population-based study. A random sample of the general population of Putignano was drawn. All participants completed a general pre-coded and a Food Frequency questionnaire; anthropometric measures were taken and a venous blood sample was drawn. All subjects underwent liver ultra-sonography. Data description was done by means of tables and then Quantile Regression was performed. Overall prevalence of overweight and obesity were 34.5% and 16.1% respectively. Both overweight and obesity were more frequent among male, married and low socio-economic position subjects. There were increasing frequencies of normal weight with higher levels of education. Overweight and obese subjects had more frequently Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Hypertension and altered biochemical markers. Quantile regression showed a statistically significant association of age with overweight and obesity (maximum about 64.8 yo), gender (female) and low levels of education in both overweight and obesity. More than 10 gr/day of wine intake was associated with overweight. The prevention and treatment of overweight/obesity on a population wide basis are needed. Population-based strategies should also improve social and physical environmental contexts for healthful lifestyles.

  4. Changes in Oxidative Stress Markers and Biological Markers of Muscle Injury with Aging at Rest and in Response to an Exhaustive Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzid, Mohamed Amine; Hammouda, Omar; Matran, Regis; Robin, Sophie; Fabre, Claudine

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate whether oxidative stress markers and biomarkers of muscle injury would be affected by aging at rest and in response to an incremental exhaustive exercise. Methods Fifteen young (20.3±2.8 years) and fifteen older adults (65.1±3.5 years) performed an incremental cycle ergometer test to exhaustion. Before and after exercise, oxidative stress [superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR), ascorbic acid, α-Tocopherol, malondialdehyde (MDA)] and muscle injury [creatine kinase (CK), lactate deshydrogenase (LDH)] biomarkers were assessed. Results At rest, there was no difference in oxidative stress markers and LDH level between the groups, however CK was significantly higher in the young group than the elderly group (pantioxidant efficiency and an increase in oxidative stress damage. Furthermore, older adults would not more susceptible to exercise-induced muscle injury than young people. PMID:24618679

  5. Discrimination of uranium chemo-toxic and radio-toxic effects: definition of biological markers for evaluating professional risks in nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darolles, Carine

    2010-01-01

    Uranium (U) is a heavy metal that is also considered as an alpha emitter. Thus the origin of U toxicity is both chemical and radiological. The identification of bio-markers to discriminate chemical and radiological toxicity for a given U compound is required to assess accurately the health effects of isotopic mixtures such as depleted U in 235 U with a low specific activity. Data from the literature show that the best candidates are cytogenetic markers. In the present work, the assessment of bio-markers of U contamination was performed on three cellular models (mouse fibroblasts, rat lymphocytes and human lymphocytes) that were exposed to different isotopic mixtures of U. The cytokinesis-block micronucleus (MN) centromere assay was performed to discriminate the chemo-toxic and radio-toxic effects of U. This study showed that the evaluation of micronuclei in bi-nucleated cells could not assess U genotoxicity accurately. Instead, the assessment of centromere-negative micronuclei and nucleo-plasmic bridges correlated with the radio-toxic effects of U. The evaluation of centromere-positive micronuclei and micronuclei in mono-nucleated cells correlated with the chemo-toxic effects of U. These cytogenetic markers should be validated on different biological models and could be proposed to discriminate radiological and chemical toxicity of a given isotopic mixture of U. These four cytogenetic markers could be a useful complement of the classical dosimetric bio-markers for the assessment of internal uranium contamination. (author)

  6. Biological markers of asexuality: Handedness, birth order, and finger length ratios in self-identified asexual men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yule, Morag A; Brotto, Lori A; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2014-02-01

    Human asexuality is defined as a lack of sexual attraction to anyone or anything and it has been suggested that it may be best conceptualized as a sexual orientation. Non-right-handedness, fraternal birth order, and finger length ratio (2D:4D) are early neurodevelopmental markers associated with sexual orientation. We conducted an Internet study investigating the relationship between self-identification as asexual, handedness, number of older siblings, and self-measured finger-lengths in comparison to individuals of other sexual orientation groups. A total of 325 asexuals (60 men and 265 women; M age, 24.8 years), 690 heterosexuals (190 men and 500 women; M age, 23.5 years), and 268 non-heterosexuals (homosexual and bisexual; 64 men and 204 women; M age, 29.0 years) completed online questionnaires. Asexual men and women were 2.4 and 2.5 times, respectively, more likely to be non-right-handed than their heterosexual counterparts and there were significant differences between sexual orientation groups in number of older brothers and older sisters, and this depended on handedness. Asexual and non-heterosexual men were more likely to be later-born than heterosexual men, and asexual women were more likely to be earlier-born than non-heterosexual women. We found no significant differences between sexual orientation groups on measurements of 2D:4D ratio. This is one of the first studies to test and provide preliminary empirical support for an underlying neurodevelopmental basis to account for the lack of sexual attraction characteristic of asexuality.

  7. Use of anti-tumor necrosis factor biologics in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis does not change human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 markers: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umekita, Kunihiko; Umeki, Kazumi; Miyauchi, Shunichi; Ueno, Shiro; Kubo, Kazuyoshi; Kusumoto, Norio; Takajo, Ichiro; Nagatomo, Yasuhiro; Okayama, Akihiko

    2015-09-01

    Anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) biologics are effective in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA); however, it is still not clear whether this treatment promotes the development of malignancies such as lymphoma. Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), which is a causative agent of adult T-cell lymphoma (ATL), is prevalent in Japan. Many HTLV-1-positive patients with RA are assumed to exist; however, there have thus far been no reports on the effect of anti-TNF biologics on HTLV-1-positive patients. We analyzed the response to treatment with anti-TNF biologics and change of HTLV-1 markers in two cases of RA. The two cases showed no response based on the European League Against of Rheumatism response criteria 60-96 weeks after administration of anti-TNF biologics (infliximab and etanercept). No signs of ATL were observed and HTLV-1 markers, such as proviral load and clonality of HTLV-1-infected cells, showed no significant change in either of two cases. Therefore, treatment with anti-TNF biologics did not induce activation of HTLV-1, although the effect on RA was not as effective as in HTLV-1-negative patients in this limited study. Further long-term study with a greater number of patients is necessary to clarify the safety and efficacy of anti-TNF biologics in HTLV-1-positive patients with RA.

  8. The use of caffeine as a biological marker of human exposure and response to polycyclic and polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, M.E

    1987-06-05

    The use of caffeine as a non-invasive biological marker of PAH-inducible P-450 enzyme induction in humans is assessed through caffeine biotransformation studies using human liver preparations, and through caffeine ingestion studies of human populations exposed to diverse polycyclic and polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and HAHs). In vitro studies indicate that all N-demethylations from caffeine and its primary metabolites are mediated in large part by PAH-inducible P-450 in human liver microsomes, whereas corresponding methylxanthine hydroxylations are in large and variable part mediated by other enzymes that are apparently not inducible by PAHs. It is proposed that a caffeine metabolite ratio (CMR), based on paraxanthine 7-demethylation products relative to a paraxanthine 8-hydroxylation product measured in the urine after caffeine ingestion, reflects PAH-inducible P-450 activity. In vivo studies demonstrate that mean CMR values are significantly higher in smokers and lower in oral contraceptive users, and that CMR values correlate highly with systemic caffeine clearance. Furthermore, mean CMR and CBT (caffeine breath test) values determined for six populations of varying age, and PAH and HAH exposure demonstrated a significant correlation. The participation of xanthine oxidase in the metabolism of caffeine, and proposes the use of the urinary ratio of 1-methyluric acid to 1-methylxanthine as an index of xanthine oxidase activity is also demonstrated. The data suggest that xanthine oxidase activity is not altered by gender, age, oral contraceptive use, PAH and HAH exposure. The data support the use of the CMR as an indicator of PAH-inducible P-450 activity, and show that xanthine oxidase is resistant to induction by PAHs and HAHs. 300 refs., 41 figs., 35 tabs.

  9. The biologically equivalent dose BED - Is the approach for calculation of this factor really a reliable basis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, J.M.; Zimmermann, J.

    2000-01-01

    To predict the effect on tumours in radiotherapy, especially relating to irreversible effects, but also to realize the retrospective assessment the so called L-Q-model is relied on at present. Internal specific organ parameters, such as α, β, γ, T p , T k , and ρ, as well as external parameters, so as D, d, n, V, and V ref , were used for determination of the biologically equivalent dose BED. While the external parameters are determinable with small deviations, the internal parameters depend on biological varieties and dispersons: In some cases the lowest value is assumed to be Δ=±25%. This margin of error goes on to the biologically equivalent dose by means of the principle of superposition of errors. In some selected cases (lung, kidney, skin, rectum) these margins of error were calculated exemplarily. The input errors especially of the internal parameters cause a mean error Δ on the biologically equivalent dose and a dispersion of the single fraction dose d dependent on the organ taking into consideration, of approximately 8-30%. Hence it follows only a very critical and cautious application of those L-Q-algorithms in expert proceedings, and in radiotherapy more experienced based decisions are recommended, instead of acting only upon simple two-dimensional mechanistic ideas. (orig.) [de

  10. Additional Prognostic Value of SUVmax Measured by F-18 FDG PET/CT over Biological Marker Expressions in Surgically Resected Cervical Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Man Soo; Kim, Seong-Jang; Pak, Kyoungjune; Lee, Chang Hun

    2015-01-01

    We compared the prognostic ability of the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) and various biological marker expressions to predict recurrence in patients with surgically resected cervical cancer. A retrospective review identified 60 patients with cervical cancer who received [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG PET/CT) at the time of the diagnosis of cancer. The SUVmax, expressions of carbonic anhydrase-IX (CA-IX), glucose transporter 1 (GLUT-1), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and known prognostic factors were investigated. The median follow-up time was 22.2 months (range 3.4-43.1 months). Using univariate analyses, the stage (stage II, p = 0.0066), SUVmax (> 6, p = 0.027), parametrial involvement (p value than biological marker expression in patients with surgically resected cervical cancer. © 2015 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  11. A novel magnet based 3D printed marker wand as basis for repeated in-shoe multi segment foot analysis: a proof of concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eerdekens, Maarten; Staes, Filip; Pilkington, Thomas; Deschamps, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Application of in-shoe multi-segment foot kinematic analyses currently faces a number of challenges, including: (i) the difficulty to apply regular markers onto the skin, (ii) the necessity for an adequate shoe which fits various foot morphologies and (iii) the need for adequate repeatability throughout a repeated measure condition. The aim of this study therefore was to design novel magnet based 3D printed markers for repeated in-shoe measurements while using accordingly adapted modified shoes for a specific multi-segment foot model. Multi-segment foot kinematics of ten participants were recorded and kinematics of hindfoot, midfoot and forefoot were calculated. Dynamic trials were conducted to check for intra and inter-session repeatability when combining novel markers and modified shoes in a repeated measures design. Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated to determine reliability. Both repeatability and reliability were proven to be good to excellent with maximum joint angle deviations of 1.11° for intra-session variability and 1.29° for same-day inter-session variability respectively and ICC values of >0.91. The novel markers can be reliably used in future research settings using in-shoe multi-segment foot kinematic analyses with multiple shod conditions.

  12. A common basis for facilitated legitimate exchange of biological materials proposed by the European Culture Collections' Organisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Fritze

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Being charged with the task of accessioning and supplying of living microbiological material, microbial culture collections are institutions that play a central role between the interests of a variety of user communities. On the one side are the providers of living microbiological material, such as individual scientists, institutions and countries of origin and on the other side are the various kinds of recipients/users of cultures of microorganisms from academia and industry. Thus, providing access to high quality biological material and scientific services while at the same time observing donor countries' rights, intellectual property rights, biosafety and biosecurity aspects poses demanding challenges. E.g. donor countries rights relate to Article 15 of the Convention on Biological Diversity: "Contracting parties …. recognize the sovereign rights of states over their natural resources …. shall facilitate access to resources … and not impose restrictions that run counter to the aims of the Convention. Access to natural resources shall be by mutually agreed terms and subject to prior informed consent ..." The use of a proposed standard contract by culture collections is discussed as a way of contractually safeguarding the existing research commons, while observing the new rights established in the Convention on Biological Diversity as well as other existing and new legislation impacting on the accessibility of living microbial material.

  13. How to object to radically new technologies on the basis of justice: the case of synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, David

    2013-10-01

    A recurring objection to the exploration, development and deployment of radical new technologies is based on their implications with regards to social justice. In this article, using synthetic biology as an example, I explore this line of objection and how we ought to think about justice in the context of the development and introduction of radically new technologies. I argue that contrary to popular opinion, justice rarely provides a reason not to investigate, develop and introduce radical new technologies, although it may have significant implications for how they ought to be introduced. In particular I focus on the time dependency of justice objections and argue that often these function by looking only at the implications of the introduction of the technology at the point of introduction, rather than the more important long-term impact on patterns of distribution and opportunity. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. The genetic basis of novel water utilisation and drinking behaviour traits and their relationship with biological performance in turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusakovica, Julija; Kremer, Valentin D; Plötz, Thomas; Rohlf, Paige; Kyriazakis, Ilias

    2017-09-29

    There is increasing interest in the definition, measurement and use of traits associated with water use and drinking behaviour, mainly because water is a finite resource and its intake is an important part of animal health and well-being. Analysis of such traits has received little attention, due in part to the lack of appropriate technology to measure drinking behaviour. We exploited novel equipment to collect water intake data in two lines of turkey (A: 27,415 and B: 12,956 birds). The equipment allowed continuous recording of individual visits to the water station in a group environment. Our aim was to identify drinking behaviour traits of biological relevance, to estimate their genetic parameters and their genetic relationships with performance traits, and to identify drinking behaviour strategies among individuals. Visits to the drinkers were clustered into bouts, i.e. time intervals spent in drinking-related activity. Based on this, biologically relevant traits were defined: (1) number of visits per bout, (2) water intake per bout, (3) drinking time per bout, (4) drinking rate, (5) daily bout frequency, (6) daily bout duration, (7) daily drinking time and (8) daily water intake. Heritability estimates for most drinking behaviour traits were moderate to high and the most highly heritable traits were drinking rate (0.49 and 0.50) and daily drinking time (0.35 and 0.46 in lines A and B, respectively). Genetic correlations between drinking behaviour and performance traits were low except for moderate correlations between daily water intake and weight gain (0.46 and 0.47 in lines A and B, respectively). High estimates of breeding values for weight gain were found across the whole range of estimated breeding values for daily water intake, daily drinking time and water intake per bout. We show for the first time that drinking behaviour traits are moderately to highly heritable. Low genetic and phenotypic correlations with performance traits suggest that current

  15. Markers for nutrition studies: review of criteria for the evaluation of markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Jan; Antoine, Jean-Michel; Burzykowski, Tomasz; Chiodini, Alessandro; Gibney, Mike; Kuhnle, Gunter; Méheust, Agnès; Pijls, Loek; Rowland, Ian

    2013-10-01

    Markers are important tools to assess the nutrition status and effects of nutrition interventions. There is currently insufficient consensus in nutrition sciences on how to evaluate markers, despite the need for properly evaluating them. To identify the criteria for the evaluation of markers related to nutrition, health and disease and to propose generic criteria for evaluation. The report on "Evaluation of Biomarker and Surrogate Endpoints in Chronic Disease" from the Institute of Medicine was the starting point for the literature search. Additionally, specific search strategies were developed for Pubmed. In nutrition, no set of criteria or systematic approach to evaluate markers is currently available. There is a reliance on the medical area where statistical methods have been developed to quantify the evaluation of markers. Even here, a systematic approach is lacking-markers are still evaluated on a case-by-case basis. The review of publications from the literature search resulted in a database with definitions, criteria for validity and the rationale behind the criteria. It was recognized that, in nutrition, a number of methodological aspects differ from medical research. The following criteria were identified as essential elements in the evaluation of markers: (1) the marker has a causal biological link with the endpoint, (2) there is a significant association between marker and endpoint in the target population, (3) marker changes consistently with the endpoint, e.g., in response to an intervention, and (4) change in the marker explains a substantial proportion of the change in the endpoint in response to the intervention.

  16. The possibilities and limitations of neuronavigation method in the treatment of intracranial pathology, on the basis of anatomic registering markers and preoperative magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lickendorf, M.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: The evaluation of technical parameters of the system and the evaluation of the influence of changing intraoperative conditions on the accuracy of the indications of the neuronavigational system has the key meaning in the effectiveness on the work of a neurosurgeon. On the other hand the employment of neuronavigation during an operation on the brain allows to get an insight into the dynamics and directions of the shifts of individual brain structures in regard to themselves and hard integuments. Material and methods: In the experimental part of the work an analysis was done of the theoretical and actual accuracy of indications of the neuronavigational system obtained after the registering process in modal and clinical conditions. In the clinical part of the work, during the operations of 69 patients with the use of the neuronavigational system an analysis was done of the dynamics and the direction of shifts of the brain's surface and the boundaries of pathological focus in regard to the placement and volume of the pathological focus, volume of the peritumorous edema and the usage of the escape of the cerebrospinal fluid, as well as resulting from those shifts the divergence in the indications of the neuronavigational system. Results and conclusions: A smaller accuracy of the neuronavigational system in clinical than in modal conditions was proved. Anatomical registering markers cause the shifts of areas of greatest accuracy to the face area of patients, not including in its range the back sides of the head and there localized 65.4% of pathological focuses. In model and clinical conditions significant differences between computer error of the RMSE registering process and the marker localization error empirically defined were proved. In result of the analysis of the shifts of the cerebral cortex during the operation of tumors: Meta, Astr. II, Astr. III, GBM, vascular and intrachamberal it was proved that the peritumorous edema, the volume of the

  17. Genome Analysis of the First Extensively Drug-Resistant (XDR Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Malaysia Provides Insights into the Genetic Basis of Its Biology and Drug Resistance.

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    Chee Sian Kuan

    Full Text Available The outbreak of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB has become an increasing problem in many TB-burdened countries. The underlying drug resistance mechanisms, including the genetic variation favored by selective pressure in the resistant population, are partially understood. Recently, the first case of XDR-TB was reported in Malaysia. However, the detailed genotype family and mechanisms of the formation of multiple drugs resistance are unknown. We sequenced the whole genome of the UM 1072388579 strain with a 2-kb insert-size library and combined with that from previously sequenced 500-bp-insert paired-end reads to produce an improved sequence with maximal sequencing coverage across the genome. In silico spoligotyping and phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that UM 1072388579 strain belongs to an ancestral-like, non-Beijing clade of East Asia lineage. This is supported by the presence of a number of lineage-specific markers, including fadD28, embA, nuoD and pks7. Polymorphism analysis showed that the drug-susceptibility profile is correlated with the pattern of resistance mutations. Mutations in drug-efflux pumps and the cell wall biogenesis pathway such as mmpL, pks and fadD genes may play an important role in survival and adaptation of this strain to its surrounding environment. In this work, fifty-seven putative promoter SNPs were identified. Among them, we identified a novel SNP located at -4 T allele of TetR/acrR promoter as an informative marker to recognize strains of East Asian lineage. Our work indicates that the UM 1072388579 harbors both classical and uncommon SNPs that allow it to escape from inhibition by many antibiotics. This study provides a strong foundation to dissect the biology and underlying resistance mechanisms of the first reported XDR M. tuberculosis in Malaysia.

  18. Population Genetic Analysis of Theileria annulata from Six Geographical Regions in China, Determined on the Basis of Micro- and Mini-satellite Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Fangyuan; Liu, Zhijie; Liu, Junlong; Liu, Aihong; Salih, Diaeldin A; Li, Youquan; Liu, Guangyuan; Luo, Jianxun; Guan, Guiquan; Yin, Hong

    2018-01-01

    Theileria annulata , a tick-borne apicomplexan protozoan, causes a lymphoproliferative disease of cattle with high prevalence in tropical and sub-tropical regions. Understanding the genetic diversity and structure of local populations will provide more fundamental knowledge for the population genetics and epidemics of protozoa. In this study, 78 samples of T. annulata collected from cattle/yaks representing 6 different geographic populations in China were genotyped using eight micro- and mini-satellite markers. High genetic variation within population, moderate genetic differentiation, and high level of diversity co-occurring with significant linkage disequilibrium were observed, which indicates there is gene flow between these populations in spite of the existence of reproductive and geographical barriers among populations. Furthermore, some degree of genetic differentiation was also found between samples from China and Oman. These findings provide a first glimpse of the genetic diversity of the T. annulata populations in China, and might contribute to the knowledge of distribution, dynamics, and epidemiology of T. annulata populations and optimize the management strategies for control.

  19. Pig Manure Contamination Marker Selection Based on the Influence of Biological Treatment on the Dominant Fecal Microbial Groups▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, Romain; Dabert, Patrick; Pourcher, Anne-Marie

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify a microbial marker for pig manure contamination. We quantified the persistence of four dominant bacterial groups from the pig intestinal tract throughout manure handling at 10 livestock operations (including aerobic digestion) by using molecular typing. The partial 16S rRNA genes of Bacteroides-Prevotella, Eubacterium-Clostridiaceae, Bacillus-Streptococcus-Lactobacillus (BSL), and Bifidobacterium group isolates were amplified and analyzed by capillary electrophoresis single-strand conformation polymorphism. The most dominant bacterial populations were identified by cloning and sequencing their 16S rRNA genes. The results showed that Bifidobacterium spp. and, to a lesser extent, members of the BSL group, were less affected by the aerobic treatment than either Eubacterium-Clostridiaceae or Bacteroides-Prevotella. Two Bifidobacterium species found in raw manure were still present in manure during land application, suggesting that they can survive outside the pig intestinal tract and also survive aerobic treatment. The 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer of one species, Bifidobacterium thermacidophilum subsp. porcinum, was sequenced, and a specific pair of primers was designed for its detection in the environment. With this nested PCR assay, this potential marker was not detected in samples from 30 bovine, 30 poultry, and 28 human fecal samples or in 15 urban wastewater effluents. As it was detected in runoff waters after spreading of pig manure, we propose this marker as a suitable microbial indicator of pig manure contamination. PMID:19525269

  20. Pig manure contamination marker selection based on the influence of biological treatment on the dominant fecal microbial groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, Romain; Dabert, Patrick; Pourcher, Anne-Marie

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this study was to identify a microbial marker for pig manure contamination. We quantified the persistence of four dominant bacterial groups from the pig intestinal tract throughout manure handling at 10 livestock operations (including aerobic digestion) by using molecular typing. The partial 16S rRNA genes of Bacteroides-Prevotella, Eubacterium-Clostridiaceae, Bacillus-Streptococcus-Lactobacillus (BSL), and Bifidobacterium group isolates were amplified and analyzed by capillary electrophoresis single-strand conformation polymorphism. The most dominant bacterial populations were identified by cloning and sequencing their 16S rRNA genes. The results showed that Bifidobacterium spp. and, to a lesser extent, members of the BSL group, were less affected by the aerobic treatment than either Eubacterium-Clostridiaceae or Bacteroides-Prevotella. Two Bifidobacterium species found in raw manure were still present in manure during land application, suggesting that they can survive outside the pig intestinal tract and also survive aerobic treatment. The 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer of one species, Bifidobacterium thermacidophilum subsp. porcinum, was sequenced, and a specific pair of primers was designed for its detection in the environment. With this nested PCR assay, this potential marker was not detected in samples from 30 bovine, 30 poultry, and 28 human fecal samples or in 15 urban wastewater effluents. As it was detected in runoff waters after spreading of pig manure, we propose this marker as a suitable microbial indicator of pig manure contamination.

  1. Application of biological markers for the identification of oil-type pollutants in recent sediments: Alluvial formation of the Danube river, Oil refinery Pančevo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rašović Aleksandar S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to examine to which extent the abundance and distribution of certain biological markers may be used for the identification of oil-type pollutants in recent sediments and ground waters. The samples were taken from the area of the Oil Refinery Pančevo (alluvial formation of the Danube River. The organic matter of the investigated samples was isolated using an extraction method with chloroform. The group composition and usual biological markers were analyzed in the obtained extracts. n-Alkanes and acyclic isoprenoids, pristane and phytane were analyzed using gas chromatographie (GC analysis of saturated hydrocarbons. Polycyclic alkanes of the sterane and terpane type were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, i.e. by analyzing the carbamide non-adduct of the total alkane fraction (Single Ion Monitoring SIM-technique. The obtained results indicate that n-alkanes can be used for the identification of oil-type pollutants (for example, if the oil-pollutant is biodegraded or present in very low concentrations, and steranes and triterpanes can be used as very reliable indicators of oil-type pollution in recent sediments and ground waters.

  2. Parasites as Biological Tags for Stock Discrimination of Beaked Redfish (Sebastes mentella: Parasite Infra-Communities vs. Limited Resolution of Cytochrome Markers.

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    Regina Klapper

    Full Text Available The use of parasites as biological tags for discrimination of fish stocks has become a commonly used approach in fisheries management. Metazoan parasite community analysis and anisakid nematode population genetics based on a mitochondrial cytochrome marker were applied in order to assess the usefulness of the two parasitological methods for stock discrimination of beaked redfish Sebastes mentella of three fishing grounds in the North East Atlantic. Multivariate, model-based approaches demonstrated that the metazoan parasite fauna of beaked redfish from East Greenland differed from Tampen, northern North Sea, and Bear Island, Barents Sea. A joint model (latent variable model was used to estimate the effects of covariates on parasite species and identified four parasite species as main source of differences among fishing grounds; namely Chondracanthus nodosus, Anisakis simplex s.s., Hysterothylacium aduncum, and Bothriocephalus scorpii. Due to its high abundance and differences between fishing grounds, Anisakis simplex s.s. was considered as a major biological tag for host stock differentiation. Whilst the sole examination of Anisakis simplex s.s. on a population genetic level is only of limited use, anisakid nematodes (in particular, A. simplex s.s. can serve as biological tags on a parasite community level. This study confirmed the use of multivariate analyses as a tool to evaluate parasite infra-communities and to identify parasite species that might serve as biological tags. The present study suggests that S. mentella in the northern North Sea and Barents Sea is not sub-structured.

  3. ASSESSMENT OF THE RESPONSE OF PATIENTS WITH CROHN'S DISEASE TO BIOLOGICAL THERAPY USING NEW NON-INVASIVE MARKERS: lactoferrin and calprotectin

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    Islaine Martins NOGUEIRA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Context The use of fecal markers to monitor Crohn's disease is crucial for assessing the response to treatment. Objective To assess the inflammatory activity of Crohn's disease by comparing fecal markers (calprotectin and lactoferrin, colonoscopy combined with biopsy, and the Crohn's disease activity index (CDAI, as well as serum markers, before treatment with infliximab, after the end of induction, and after the end of maintenance. Methods Seventeen patients were included who had been previously diagnosed with Crohn's disease and were using conventional treatment but required the introduction of biological therapy with infliximab. Each patient underwent a colonoscopy with biopsy, serum, and fecal (calprotectin and lactoferrin tests to assess inflammatory activity, and CDAI assessments before treatment with infliximab, after induction (week 8, and after maintenance (week 32. Results The calprotectin levels exhibited significant reductions (P = 0.04 between the assessment before treatment with infliximab and the end of induction, which did not occur after the end of the maintenance phase. Lactoferrin remained positive throughout the three phases of the study. Regarding the histological assessment, a significant difference was found only between the assessment before treatment and after the end of maintenance (P = 0.036, and 60% of the patients exhibited histological improvements after the completion of the follow-up period. The CDAI exhibited a significant difference between the assessment before treatment with infliximab and after induction, as well as before treatment and after maintenance (P<0.01. Conclusion Calprotectin and lactoferrin are not useful for monitoring inflammatory activity in Crohn's disease patients who are subjected to biological therapy.

  4. Curcumin, an active constiuent of the ancient medicinal herb Curcuma longa L.: some uses and the establishment and biological basis of medical efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkin, Jeffrey M; Li, Xia

    2013-06-01

    The root extract, curcumin (diferuloylmethane), is a constituent of the ancient herbal medicine Jiawei-Xiaoyaosan that has been used for dyspepsia, stress, and mood disorders. Curcumin engenders a diverse profile of biological actions that result in changes in oxidative stress, inflammation, and cell-death pathways. Combined with its historical use in medical practice and its safety profile, curcumin has been studied for its potential therapeutic applications in cancer, aging, endocrine, immunological, gastrointestinal, and cardiac diseases. In addition, data in animal models and in humans have also begun to be collected in stroke, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease. A compelling new body of literature is also mounting to support the efficacy of curcumin in stress and mood disorders. Current understanding of the biological basis for antidepressant-relevant biochemical and behavioral changes shows convergence with some mechanisms known for standard antidepressants. In addition, the mechanisms of the antidepressant-like pharmacology of curcumin also appear to overlap with those of other disease states. Thus, ancient wisdom might be built into this interesting and newly-appreciated natural molecule. Although curcumin is a primary ingredient in anti-aging pills, cosmetic creams, eye treatments, diet products, etc, a key hurdle to the development of curcumin for disease treatment and prevention is overcoming its low oral bioavailability. Although multiple approaches to this problem are being examined, a solution to the bioavailability issue will be needed to ensure appropriate tissue exposures of curcumin in clinical investigation. Progress in this regard is underway.

  5. Fetal dose from radiotherapy photon beams: Physical basis, techniques to estimate radiation dose outside of the treatment field, biological effects and professional considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stovell, Marilyn; Blackwell, C. Robert

    1997-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: The presentation will review: 1. The physical basis of radiation dose outside of the treatment field. 2. Techniques to estimate and reduce fetal dose. 3. Clinical examples of fetal dose estimation and reduction. 4. Biological effects of fetal irradiation. 5. Professional considerations. Approximately 4000 women per year in the United States require radiotherapy during pregnancy. This report presents data and techniques that allow the medical physicist to estimate the radiation dose the fetus will receive and to reduce this dose with appropriate shielding. Out-of-beam data are presented for a variety of photon beams, including cobalt-60 gamma rays and x rays from 4 to 18 MV. Designs for simple and inexpensive to more complex and expensive types of shielding equipment are described. Clinical examples show that proper shielding can reduce the radiation dose to the fetus by 50%. In addition, a review of the biological aspects of irradiation enables estimates of the risks of lethality, growth retardation, mental retardation, malformation, sterility, cancer induction, and genetic defects to the fetus. A summary of professional considerations/recommendations is also provided as a guide for the radiation oncologist and medical physicist

  6. Changes in the ER, PgR, HER2, p53 and Ki-67 biological markers between primary and recurrent breast cancer: discordance rates and prognosis

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    Tashima Rumiko

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In breast cancer, ER/PgR, HER2, and Ki-67 are important biological markers for predicting prognosis and making effective treatment decisions. In addition, changes in markers due to relapse are also clinically experienced; however, the frequency and clinical significance are still not fully understood. Thus, changes in markers and their correlations with prognosis were investigated. Patients and Methods Out of the patients with relapse from 1997 to March 2011, there were 97 consecutive patients from whom the lesion was resected and evaluated by immunostaining. The biopsy sites were chest wall, lymph node, ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence, lungs, bones, ovaries and brain. The markers sought were ER, PgR, HER2, p53 and Ki-67. Results The hormone receptor positive rate from the primary tumor to recurrence decreased from 63.9% to 57.7% and from 56.7% to 43.3% for ER and PgR, respectively. Changes in the positive/negative evaluation were seen at the rate of 10.3% and 25.8% for ER and PgR, respectively. The Ki-67 index increased significantly from a mean of 29.1% at primary tumor to 36.3% at relapse. When divided into 2 groups ( Conclusion Estrogen receptor and PgR decreased while Ki-67 increased due to relapse; however, the rate of change was high for PgR and Ki-67. Change in the subtypes was seen in 25%. In addition, PgR at relapse and Ki-67 at primary tumor were significant factors for post-relapse prognosis while PgR becoming negative was a poor prognostic factor. These findings are important for making effective treatment decisions.

  7. Molecular analysis of aspermic Fasciola flukes from Korea on the basis of the nuclear ITS1 region and mitochondrial DNA markers and comparison with Japanese aspermic Fasciola flukes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Madoka; Itagaki, Tadashi

    2012-07-01

    It has been speculated that populations of aspermic Fasciola flukes in Korea and Japan have a close phylogenetic relationship. To evaluate this, we analyzed 33 Korean aspermic Fasciola flukes on the basis of nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) and cytochrome c oxidase 1 (cox1) sequences. Fh, Fg, and Fh/Fg types were detected in the ITS1 region and displayed the fragment patterns of F. hepatica, F. gigantica, and both species, respectively by a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. Additionally, three concatenated haplotypes of nad1 and cox1(nad1/cox1) were detected, and 2 of these, Kor1/Kor1 (Fsp1/Fsp1) haplotype and Kor2a/Kor2 (Fsp2/Fsp2) haplotype, were shared by Korean and Japanese aspermic flukes. The Fst value (0.019), calculated using the concatenated sequences, indicated that Korean and Japanese aspermic Fasciola populations were genetically undifferentiated. Interestingly, a combination of the Fh/Fg type and Kor1/Kor1 haplotype was found at the highest frequency in Korean aspermic flukes, whereas the Fg type and Fsp2/Fsp2 haplotype combination was found at a conspicuously high frequency in Japanese aspermic flukes. This indicates that a founder effect caused by the introduction of infected hosts may have played a key role in the introduction of aspermic Fasciola flukes from Korea into Japan.

  8. Nodes and biological processes identified on the basis of network analysis in the brain of the senescence accelerated mice as an Alzheimer’s disease animal model

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    Xiao-Rui eCheng

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Harboring the behavioral and histopathological signatures of Alzheimer’s disease (AD, senescence accelerated mouse-prone 8 (SAMP8 mice are currently considered a robust model for studying AD. However, the underlying mechanisms, prioritized pathways and genes in SAMP8 mice linked to AD remain unclear. In this study, we provide a biological interpretation of the molecular underpinnings of SAMP8 mice. Our results were derived from differentially expressed genes in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex of SAMP8 mice compared to age-matched SAMR1 mice at 2, 6, and 12 months of age using cDNA microarray analysis. On the basis of PPI, MetaCore and the co-expression network, we constructed a distinct genetic sub-network in the brains of SAMP8 mice. Next, we determined that the regulation of synaptic transmission and apoptosis were disrupted in the brains of SAMP8 mice. We found abnormal gene expression of RAF1, MAPT, PTGS2, CDKN2A, CAMK2A, NTRK2, AGER, ADRBK1, MCM3AP and STUB1, which may have initiated the dysfunction of biological processes in the brains of SAMP8 mice. Specifically, we found microRNAs, including miR-20a, miR-17, miR-34a, miR-155, miR-18a, miR-22, miR-26a, miR-101, miR-106b and miR-125b, that might regulate the expression of nodes in the sub-network. Taken together, these results provide new insights into the biological and genetic mechanisms of SAMP8 mice and add an important dimension to our understanding of the neuro-pathogenesis in SAMP8 mice from a systems perspective.

  9. A life course approach to explore the biological embedding of socioeconomic position and social mobility through circulating inflammatory markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castagné, Raphaële; Delpierre, Cyrille; Kelly-Irving, Michelle; Campanella, Gianluca; Guida, Florence; Krogh, Vittorio; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Tumino, Rosario; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios; Hosnijeh, Fatemeh Saberi; Lang, Thierry; Vermeulen, Roel; Vineis, Paolo; Stringhini, Silvia; Chadeau-Hyam, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Lower socioeconomic position (SEP) has consistently been associated with poorer health. To explore potential biological embedding and the consequences of SEP experiences from early life to adulthood, we investigate how SEP indicators at different points across the life course may be related to a

  10. Accurate and fiducial-marker-free correction for three-dimensional chromatic shift in biological fluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Atsushi; Schermelleh, Lothar; Hirano, Yasuhiro; Haraguchi, Tokuko; Hiraoka, Yasushi

    2018-05-15

    Correction of chromatic shift is necessary for precise registration of multicolor fluorescence images of biological specimens. New emerging technologies in fluorescence microscopy with increasing spatial resolution and penetration depth have prompted the need for more accurate methods to correct chromatic aberration. However, the amount of chromatic shift of the region of interest in biological samples often deviates from the theoretical prediction because of unknown dispersion in the biological samples. To measure and correct chromatic shift in biological samples, we developed a quadrisection phase correlation approach to computationally calculate translation, rotation, and magnification from reference images. Furthermore, to account for local chromatic shifts, images are split into smaller elements, for which the phase correlation between channels is measured individually and corrected accordingly. We implemented this method in an easy-to-use open-source software package, called Chromagnon, that is able to correct shifts with a 3D accuracy of approximately 15 nm. Applying this software, we quantified the level of uncertainty in chromatic shift correction, depending on the imaging modality used, and for different existing calibration methods, along with the proposed one. Finally, we provide guidelines to choose the optimal chromatic shift registration method for any given situation.

  11. Current status on behavioral and biological markers of PTSD: a search for clarity in a conflicting literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, Phillip R; Diamond, David M

    2013-06-01

    Extensive research has identified stereotypic behavioral and biological abnormalities in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), such as heightened autonomic activity, an exaggerated startle response, reduced basal cortisol levels and cognitive impairments. We have reviewed primary research in this area, noting that factors involved in the susceptibility and expression of PTSD symptoms are more complex and heterogeneous than is commonly stated, with extensive findings which are inconsistent with the stereotypic behavioral and biological profile of the PTSD patient. A thorough assessment of the literature indicates that interactions among myriad susceptibility factors, including social support, early life stress, sex, age, peri- and post-traumatic dissociation, cognitive appraisal of trauma, neuroendocrine abnormalities and gene polymorphisms, in conjunction with the inconsistent expression of the disorder across studies, confounds attempts to characterize PTSD as a monolithic disorder. Overall, our assessment of the literature addresses the great challenge in developing a behavioral and biomarker-based diagnosis of PTSD. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Markers of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition reflect tumor biology according to patient age and Gleason score in prostate cancer.

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    Dorota Jędroszka

    Full Text Available Prostate carcinoma (PRAD is one of the most frequently diagnosed malignancies amongst men worldwide. It is well-known that androgen receptor (AR plays a pivotal role in a vast majority of prostate tumors. However, recent evidence emerged stating that estrogen receptors (ERs may also contribute to prostate tumor development. Moreover, progression and aggressiveness of prostate cancer may be associated with differential expression genes of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT. Therefore we aimed to assess the significance of receptors status as well as EMT marker genes expression among PRAD patients in accordance to their age and Gleason score.We analyzed TCGA gene expression profiles of 497 prostate tumor samples according to 43 genes involved in EMT and 3 hormone receptor genes (AR, ESR1, ESR2 as well as clinical characteristic of cancer patients. Then patients were divided into four groups according to their age and 5 groups according to Gleason score. Next, we evaluated PRAD samples according to relationship between the set of variables in different combinations and compared differential expression in subsequent groups of patients. The analysis was applied using R packages: FactoMineR, gplots, RColorBrewer and NMF.MFA analysis resulted in distinct grouping of PRAD patients into four age categories according to expression level of AR, ESR1 and ESR2 with the most distinct group of age less than 50 years old. Further investigations indicated opposite expression profiles of EMT markers between different age groups as well as strong association of EMT gene expression with Gleason score. We found that depending on age of prostate cancer patients and Gleason score EMT genes with distinctly altered expression are: KRT18, KRT19, MUC1 and COL4A1, CTNNB1, SNAI2, ZEB1 and MMP3.Our major observation is that prostate cancer from patients under 50 years old compared to older ones has entirely different EMT gene expression profiles showing potentially

  13. Advanced oxidation protein products and malondialdehyde - the new biological markers of oxidative stress - are elevated in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakir, Tansel; Goktas, Bulent; Mutlu, Mehmet F; Mutlu, Ilknur; Bilgihan, Ayse; Erdem, Mehmet; Erdem, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to measure advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) as markers for oxidative stress to evaluate cardiovascular risk in pre- and postmenopausal women and to compare the results with malondialde-hyde (MDA) levels. Twenty premenopausal women and 84 naturally postmenopausal patients were enrolled in the study. AOPP and MDA plasma levels were measured. The postmenopausal group was further subdivided into two groups: postmenopausal age of 40-49 and of 50-59 years. AOPP and MDA levels were compared between premenopausal, 40-49 and 50-59 year old menopausal women. Plasma AOPP and MDA levels in postmenopausal women were increased when compared with their premeno-pausal peers (123.83 ± 55.51 μmol/L vs. 61.59 ± 16.42 μmol/L and 6.50 ± 1.05 μmol/L vs. 5.98 ± 0.77 μmol/L; respectively). Mean plasma AOPP levels in the two menopausal age groups were both significantly higher from the premenopausal group (118.64 ± 59.1 μmol/L vs. 61.59 ± 16.42 μmol/L and 132.31 ± 48.97 μmol/L vs. 61.59 ± 16.42 μmol/L; respectively). No significant difference was found in mean AOPP levels between postmenopausal subjects of 40-49 and 50-59 years age (118.64 ± 59.12 μmol/L vs. 132.31 ± 48.97 μmol/L). Mean plasma MDA levels of each of two postmenopausal age groups were both significantly higher from the premenopausal group (6.50 ± 1.04 μmol/L vs. 5.98 ± 0.77 μmol/L and 6.50 ± 1.10 μmol/L vs. 5.98 ± 0.77 μmol/L; respectively). However, no statistically significant difference between the two postmenopausal age groups (6.50 ± 1.04 μmol/L vs. 6.50 ± 1.10 μmol/L) was found. AOPP and MDA levels are elevated in postmenopausal women as compared to their premenopausal peers, suggesting they can be used as markers for cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women.

  14. Physical exercise, fitness and dietary pattern and their relationship with circadian blood pressure pattern, augmentation index and endothelial dysfunction biological markers: EVIDENT study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Eguskiñe

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthy lifestyles may help to delay arterial aging. The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship of physical activity and dietary pattern to the circadian pattern of blood pressure, central and peripheral blood pressure, pulse wave velocity, carotid intima-media thickness and biological markers of endothelial dysfunction in active and sedentary individuals without arteriosclerotic disease. Methods/Design Design: A cross-sectional multicenter study with six research groups. Subjects: From subjects of the PEPAF project cohort, in which 1,163 who were sedentary became active, 1,942 were sedentary and 2,346 were active. By stratified random sampling, 1,500 subjects will be included, 250 in each group. Primary measurements: We will evaluate height, weight, abdominal circumference, clinical and ambulatory blood pressure with the Radial Pulse Wave Acquisition Device (BPro, central blood pressure and augmentation index with Pulse Wave Application Software (A-Pulse and SphymgoCor System Px (Pulse Wave Analysis, pulse wave velocity (PWV with SphymgoCor System Px (Pulse Wave Velocity, nutritional pattern with a food intake frequency questionnaire, physical activity with the 7-day PAR questionnaire and accelerometer (Actigraph GT3X, physical fitness with the cycle ergometer (PWC-170, carotid intima-media thickness by ultrasound (Micromax, and endothelial dysfunction biological markers (endoglin and osteoprotegerin. Discussion Determining that sustained physical activity and the change from sedentary to active as well as a healthy diet improve circadian pattern, arterial elasticity and carotid intima-media thickness may help to propose lifestyle intervention programs. These interventions could improve the cardiovascular risk profile in some parameters not routinely assessed with traditional risk scales. From the results of this study, interventional approaches could be obtained to delay vascular aging that combine physical

  15. Alcohol use disorders among people living with HIV/AIDS in Southern Brazil: prevalence, risk factors and biological markers outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Cláudio Moss; Mendoza-Sassi, Raúl Andrés; da Mota, Luisa Dias; Nader, Maíba Mikhael; de Martinez, Ana Maria Barral

    2017-04-11

    Alcohol abuse is an important public health problem, frequently unrecognized among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), and requires investigation and intervention. It is usually associated with lower adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). It can also produce adverse clinical outcomes, such as changes in certain HIV markers, particularly CD4 cell counts and HIV viral loads (VLs). Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of alcohol abuse among PLWHA, its associated risk factors and effects on CD4 cell counts and HIV VLs in southern Brazil. Between December 2012 and July 2013, 343 patients were interviewed at a reference hospital in southern Brazil. The instrument used was the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT), and a cutoff of eight points or more was applied. Socioeconomic, demographic, clinical and laboratory data were also collected. The statistical analysis included a Poisson regression to evaluate the factors associated with alcohol use disorder, and a linear regression was performed to assess the relationship between AUDIT scores and CD4 cell counts and HIV VLs. Alcohol abuse was present in 28.6% of the respondents, and possible dependence was present in 5%. The risk factors identified included being male, mixed or black skin color, low education and the use of intravenous or inhaled drugs. A higher AUDIT score was associated with a lower CD4 cell count but was not associated with higher HIV VL values. Our results show the importance of screening for alcohol abuse in this group. The prevalence of alcohol abuse was high, and it was associated with socioeconomic factors and the use of illicit drugs. Moreover, AUDIT score negatively affected CD4 cell counts as well.

  16. Biological Parameters and Molecular Markers of Clone CL Brener - The Reference Organism of the Trypanosoma cruzi Genome Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Zingales

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available Clone CL Brener is the reference organism used in the Trypanosoma cruzi Genome Project. Some biological parameters of CL Brener were determined: (a the doubling time of epimastigote forms cultured in liver infusion-tryptose (LIT medium at 28oC is 58±13 hr; (b differentiation of epimastigotes to metacyclic trypomastigotes is obtained by incubation in LIT-20% Grace´s medium; (c trypomastigotes infect mammalian cultured cells and perform the complete intracellular cycle at 33 and 37oC; (d blood forms are highly infective to mice; (e blood forms are susceptible to nifurtimox and benznidazole. The molecular typing of CL Brener has been determined: (a isoenzymatic profiles are characteristic of zymodeme ZB; (b PCR amplification of a 24Sa ribosomal RNA sequence indicates it belongs to T. cruzi lineage 1; (c schizodeme, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD and DNA fingerprinting analyses were performed

  17. Clinicopathological variables of sporadic schwannomas of peripheral nerve in 291 patients and expression of biologically relevant markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Eric D; Ingram, Davis; Metcalf-Doetsch, William; Khan, Dilshad; Al Sannaa, Ghadah; Le Loarer, Francois; Lazar, Alexander J F; Slopis, John; Torres, Keila E; Lev, Dina; Pollock, Raphael E; McCutcheon, Ian E

    2017-09-08

    OBJECTIVE While sporadic peripheral schwannomas (SPSs) are generally well treated with surgery, their biology is not well understood. Consequently, treatment options are limited. The aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive description of SPS. The authors describe clinicopathological features and treatment outcomes of patients harboring these tumors, and they assess expression of biomarkers using a clinically annotated tissue microarray. Together, these data give new insight into the biology and management of SPS. METHODS Patients presenting with a primary SPS between 1993 and 2011 (n = 291) were selected from an institutional registry to construct a clinical database. All patients underwent follow-up, and short- and long-term outcomes were assessed. Expression of relevant biomarkers was assessed using a new tissue microarray (n = 121). RESULTS SPSs were generally large (mean 5.5 cm) and frequently painful at presentation (55%). Most patients were treated with surgery (80%), the majority of whom experienced complete resolution (52%) or improvement (18%) of their symptoms. Tumors that were completely resected (85%) did not recur. Some patients experienced short-term (16%) and long-term (4%) complications postoperatively. Schwannomas expressed higher levels of platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β (2.1) than malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) (1.5, p = 0.004) and neurofibromas (1.33, p = 0.007). Expression of human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 was greater in SPSs (0.91) than in MPNSTs (0.33, p = 0.002) and neurofibromas (0.33, p = 0.026). Epidermal growth factor receptor was expressed in far fewer SPS cells (10%) than in MPNSTs (58%, p SPSs more frequently expressed cytoplasmic survivin (66% of tumor cells) than normal nerve (46% of cells), but SPS expressed nuclear survivin in fewer tumor cells than in MPNSTs (24% and 50%, respectively; p = 0.018). CONCLUSIONS Complete resection is curative for SPS. Left untreated, however, these

  18. Exploring ethical considerations for the use of biological and physiological markers in population-based surveys in less developed countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyder Adnan A

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The health information needs of developing countries increasingly include population-based estimates determined by biological and physiological measures. Collection of data on these biomarkers requires careful reassessment of ethical standards and procedures related to issues of safety, informed consent, reporting, and referral policies. This paper reviews the survey practices of health examination surveys that have been conducted in developed nations and discusses their application to similar types of surveys proposed for developing countries. Discussion The paper contends that a unitary set of ethical principles should be followed for surveys around the world that precludes the danger of creating double standards (and implicitly lowers standards for work done in developing countries. Global ethical standards must, however, be interpreted in the context of the unique historical and cultural context of the country in which the work is being done. Factors that influence ethical considerations, such as the relationship between investigators in developed and developing countries are also discussed. Summary The paper provides a set of conclusions reached through this discussion and recommendations for the ethical use of biomarkers in populations-based surveys in developing countries.

  19. Study of the biologic behavior of odontogenic keratocyst and orthokeratinaized odontogenic cyst using TGF-alpha and P53 markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyhimi, Parviz; Hashemzadeh, Zahra

    2014-04-01

    Odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) is an aggressive cyst, and its recurrence rate is higher than that of other odontogenic cysts. Orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst (OOC) is less aggressive than OKC, but bears the probability of carcinomatous changes. In this study, we evaluated the expression and intensity of P53 and TGF-alpha in order to compare the biologic behavior or probable carcinomatous changes of these two cysts. In this cross-sectional study, 15 OKC and 15 OOC were stained immunohistochemically for P53 and TGF-alpha using the Novolink polymer method. Then, all slides were examined by an optical microscope with 400× magnification, and the stained cells in the basal and parabasal layers were counted. Finally, the results were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon tests (P-value0.05), but the expression of P53 and TGF-alpha in the parabasal layer in OKC was statistically higher compared to OOC (P<0.05). Considering the known role of P53 and TGF-alpha in malignant changes and the higher expression of P53 and TGF-alpha in OKC compared to those in OOC, the probability of carcinomatous changes was higher in OKC than in OOC. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. High biological variation of serum hyaluronic acid and Hepascore, a biochemical marker model for the prediction of liver fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Enrico; Adams, Leon A; Ching, Helena L; Bulsara, Max; MacQuillan, Gerry C; Jeffrey, Gary P

    2013-05-01

    Serum hyaluronic acid and biochemical models which require hyaluronic acid analysis are commonly used as predictors of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic liver disease, however biological variation data for hyaluronic acid are deficient. Four serial serum samples were obtained at weekly intervals from healthy volunteers and patients with chronic hepatitis B, chronic hepatitis C and non- alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD; 20 in each group). The within-individual week-to-week variation (CVI) and reference change values for hyaluronic acid, α₂-macroglobulin and Hepascore were obtained. Hepascore is calculated from hyaluronic acid, α2-macroglobulin, bilirubin and γ-glutamyltransferase activity. Hyaluronic acid displayed large within-individual variation, the CVI values were 62% in healthy subjects, 38% in hepatitis C, 37% in hepatitis B and 36% in NAFLD patients. Hepascore CVIs were 43% in healthy subjects, 24% in hepatitis C, 28% in hepatitis B and 39% in NAFLD patients. α₂-Macroglobulin was much less variable with CVIs ranging from 4.4% to 7.6%. Bland-Altman plots of week-to-week variations showed rates of significant disagreement for samples collected in any 2 successive weeks varied from 5% in NAFLD patients to 8.3% in healthy subjects. When using non-fasting serum samples, hyaluronic acid and to a lesser extent, the Hepascore model display large within-individual variations in both health and chronic liver disease. This information is critical for interpreting the significance of both single measurements and changes in serial measurements.

  1. Prediction of clinical infection in women with preterm labour with intact membranes: a score based on ultrasonographic, clinical and biological markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayem, Gilles; Maillard, Françoise; Schmitz, Thomas; Jarreau, Pierre H; Cabrol, Dominique; Breart, Gérard; Goffinet, François

    2009-07-01

    To predict maternal and neonatal clinical infection at admission in women hospitalized for preterm labour (PTL) with intact membranes. Prospective study of 371 women hospitalized for preterm labour with intact membranes. The primary outcome was clinical infection, defined by clinical chorioamnionitis at delivery or early-onset neonatal infection. Clinical infection was identified in 21 cases (5.7%) and was associated with earlier gestational age at admission for PTL, elevated maternal C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell count (WBC), shorter cervical length, and a cervical funnelling on ultrasound. We used ROC curves to determine the cut-off values that minimized the number of false positives and false negatives. The cut-off points chosen were 30 weeks for gestational age at admission, 25 mm for cervical length, 8 mg/l for CRP and 12,000 c/mm(3) for WBC. Each of these variables was assigned a weight on the basis of the adjusted odds ratios in a clinical infection risk score (CIRS). We set a threshold corresponding to a specificity close to 90%, and calculated the positive and negative predictive values and likelihood ratios of each marker and of the CIRS. The CIRS had a sensitivity of 61.9%, while the sensitivity of the other markers ranged from 19.0% to 42.9%. Internal cross-validation was used to estimate the performance of the CIRS in new subjects. The diagnostic values found remained close to the initial values. A clinical infection risk score built from data known at admission for preterm labour helps to identify women and newborns at high risk of clinical infection.

  2. Ácidos graxos como marcadores biológicos da ingestão de gorduras Fatty acids as biological markers of fat intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana dos Santos Vaz

    2006-08-01

    of dietary fat intake. The aim of this study is to evidence the metabolic aspects of some fatty acids and their role as markers of dietary fat intake, and to present the analytical methods used in their determination. Analysis of the fatty acid composition of adipose tissue provides long-term information on dietary fat intake, whereas the determination of the fatty acid composition of serum lipid fractions accounts for the short- and medium-term dietary intakes. The essential fatty acids, the saturated fatty acids with an odd number of carbon atoms (15:0 and 17:0 and the trans fatty acids are used as biological markers of dietary fat intake or of these individual components, since they are not synthesized endogenously. Gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography are the main analytical methods used to determine fatty acid composition. At present, the most comprehensive evaluation of dietary fat intake comprises the determination of biological markers in association with dietary assessment methods.

  3. Prognostic factors in non-muscle-invasive bladder tumors - I. Clinical prognostic factors: A review of the experience of the EORTC genito-urinary group - II. Biologic prognostic markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurth, Karl-Heinz; Sylvester, Richard J.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To summarize the most important clinical prognostic factors of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer, as assessed by the European organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Genito-Urinary Group, to present biologic markers involved in urothelial cell carcinoma, and to address

  4. Differential risk assessments from five hypoxia specific assays: The basis for biologically adapted individualized radiotherapy in advanced head and neck cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordsmark, Marianne; Eriksen, Jesper Grau; Gebski, Val

    2007-01-01

    osteopontin measured by ELISA, tumour oxygenation status using pO(2) needle electrodes and tumour osteopontin, hypoxia inducible factor 1alpha (HIF-1alpha) and carboxyanhydrase 9 (CA9) by immunohistochemistry. The primary treatment was radiotherapy and the hypoxic radiosensitizer nimorazole. Loco......-regional tumour control was evaluated at 5 years. RESULTS: All five markers showed inter-tumour variability. Inter-marker correlations were inconsistent. Only plasma osteopontin inversely correlated with median tumour pO(2), (p=0.02, r=0.28) and CA9 correlated with HIF-1alpha (p...-Meier analysis high plasma osteopontin, high HIF-1alpha and high proportion of tumour pO(2)2.5mmHg (HP(2.5)) related significantly with poorer loco-regional control, whereas CA9 and tumour osteopontin failed to predict loco-regional control in this set dataset. When analyzing Hb, stage, and the five markers...

  5. The Road Ahead to Cure Alzheimer’s Disease: Development of Biological Markers and Neuroimaging Methods for Prevention Trials Across all Stages and Target Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavedo, E.; Lista, S.; Khachaturian, Z.; Aisen, P.; Amouyel, P.; Herholz, K.; Jack, C.R.; Sperling, R.; Cummings, J.; Blennow, K.; O’Bryant, S.; Frisoni, G.B.; Khachaturian, A.; Kivipelto, M.; Klunk, W.; Broich, K.; Andrieu, S.; de Schotten, M. Thiebaut; Mangin, J.-F.; Lammertsma, A.A.; Johnson, K.; Teipel, S.; Drzezga, A.; Bokde, A.; Colliot, O.; Bakardjian, H.; Zetterberg, H.; Dubois, B.; Vellas, B.; Schneider, L.S.; Hampel, H.

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a slowly progressing non-linear dynamic brain disease in which pathophysiological abnormalities, detectable in vivo by biological markers, precede overt clinical symptoms by many years to decades. Use of these biomarkers for the detection of early and preclinical AD has become of central importance following publication of two international expert working group’s revised criteria for the diagnosis of AD dementia, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to AD, prodromal AD and preclinical AD. As a consequence of matured research evidence six AD biomarkers are sufficiently validated and partly qualified to be incorporated into operationalized clinical diagnostic criteria and use in primary and secondary prevention trials. These biomarkers fall into two molecular categories: biomarkers of amyloid-beta (Aβ) deposition and plaque formation as well as of tau-protein related hyperphosphorylation and neurodegeneration. Three of the six gold-standard (“core feasible) biomarkers are neuroimaging measures and three are cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analytes. CSF Aβ1-42 (Aβ1-42), also expressed as Aβ1-42 : Aβ1-40 ratio, T-tau, and P-tau Thr181 & Thr231 proteins have proven diagnostic accuracy and risk enhancement in prodromal MCI and AD dementia. Conversely, having all three biomarkers in the normal range rules out AD. Intermediate conditions require further patient follow-up. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at increasing field strength and resolution allows detecting the evolution of distinct types of structural and functional abnormality pattern throughout early to late AD stages. Anatomical or volumetric MRI is the most widely used technique and provides local and global measures of atrophy. The revised diagnostic criteria for “prodromal AD” and “mild cognitive impairment due to AD” include hippocampal atrophy (as the fourth validated biomarker), which is considered an indicator of regional neuronal injury. Advanced image analysis

  6. Large scale fusion of gray matter and resting-state functional MRI reveals common and shared biological markers across the psychosis spectrum in the B-SNIP cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng eWang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To investigate whether aberrant interactions between brain structure and function present similarly or differently across probands with psychotic illnesses (schizophrenia (SZ, schizoaffective disorder (SAD, and bipolar I disorder with psychosis (BP and whether these deficits are shared with their first-degree non-psychotic relatives. A total of 1199 subjects were assessed, including 220 SZ, 147 SAD, 180 psychotic BP, 150 first-degree relatives of SZ, 126 SAD relatives, 134 BP relatives and 242 healthy controls. All subjects underwent structural MRI (sMRI and resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI scanning. Joint independent analysis (jICA was used to fuse sMRI gray matter (GM and rs-fMRI amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (ALFF data to identify the relationship between the two modalities. Joint ICA revealed two significantly fused components. The association between functional brain alteration in a prefrontal-striatal-thalamic-cerebellar network and structural abnormalities in the default mode network (DMN was found to be common across psychotic diagnoses and correlated with cognitive function, social function and Schizo-Bipolar Scale (SBS scores. The fused alteration in the temporal lobe was unique to SZ and SAD. The above effects were not seen in any relative group (including those with cluster-A personality. Using a multivariate fused approach involving two widely used imaging markers we demonstrate both shared and distinct biological traits across the psychosis spectrum. Further, our results suggest that the above traits are psychosis biomarkers rather than endophenotypes.

  7. The application of semianalytic method for calculating the thickness of biological shields of nuclear reactors. Part 1. Theoretical basis of a semianalytic method. Attenuation of neutrons' radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukaszek, W.; Kucypera, S.

    1982-01-01

    The basis of a semianalytic method for calculating attenuation of rays (neutron, gamma) in material medium is described. The method was applied in determining the neutrons' flux density in one dimensional Cartesian geometry of the reflector and the shield. (author)

  8. Ecological valuation of mechanic-biological waste treatment and waste combustion on the basis of energy balances and air pollutant balances; Oekologische Bewertung der mechanisch-biologischen Restabfallbehandlung und der Muellverbrennung auf Basis von Energie- und Schadgasbilanzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallmann, R.

    1999-04-01

    The work aims at an ecological valuation of air pollutant emissions and energy consumption as particularly relevant aspects of waste treatment and waste combustion plants, based on new scientific results, in order to draw up ecological budgets and make system comparisons in waste treatment. The target set is particularly effectively achieved by the following: documentation and scientific derivation of relevant boundary conditions, careful surveying and data processing for the purpose of making up an ecological budget, and objective valuation and interpretation of results. The high transparency of the methodics should be emphasized. They make the results obtained conclusive and verifiable. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit ist die oekologische Bewertung der besonders relevanten Aspekte Abluftemissionen und Energieverbrauch von MBA und MVA auf Basis aktueller Forschungsergebnisse als Grundlage fuer Oekobilanzen und Systemvergleiche zur Restabfallbehandlung. Diese Zielvorgabe wird durch die Dokumentation und wissenschaftliche Herleitung relevanter Rahmenbedingungen, sorgfaeltige Erhebung und Aufbereitung der Daten unter Gesichtspunkten der Erstellung einer Oekobilanz und letztendlich aufgrund der objektiven Bewertung und Interpretation der Ergebnisse im besonderen Masse erreicht. Besonders hervorzuheben hierbei ist die hohe Transparenz bei der methodischen Vorgehensweise. Die ermittelten Ergebnisse sind somit nachvollziehbar und ueberpruefbar. (orig.)

  9. Analytical systems as a basis for immobilized enzymes. 3. Use of a glucose enzyme electrode to determine carbohydrates in biological solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulys, J; Pesliakiene, M

    1981-01-01

    A method is described for determination of glucose, sucrose, and lactose in biological solutions using a glucose enzyme electrode characterized by high sensitivity and selectivity. The enzyme membrane (15 nm thick) is prepared from glucose oxidase isolated from Penicillium vitale. Glucose is determined in one minute (using static currents) or in 12 s (using registered current in a kinetic regime). Phosphate buffer (5-10 mM) is the only reagent required for analysis. Determination of sucrose and lactose require prior hydrolysis with 17.8% HCl at 70 degrees Celcius for O.5 and lO.7 minutes, respectively.

  10. [The phylogenetic theory of pathology. The arterial hypertension--a test of metabolic disorder. The biological basis of damage of target organs (a lecture)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, V N

    2013-05-01

    The increase of blood tension is a diagnostic test of disorders of homeostasis, trophology, endoecology and adaptation in paracrine regulated coenosis of cells. This conditions results in disorder of microcirculation in the distal section of arterial race and in compensatory increase of blood tension in its proximal section. The increase of blood tension disturbs the function of paracrine coenosis of cells which have one's own system of hemo- and hydrodynamics such as brain with system of spinal liquor and kidneys with local pool of primary urine. They counteract the rise of blood tension and activate local, humoral system of renin-angiotensin-II increasing peripheral resistance to blood flow. At that, the compensatory blood tension becomes even higher. The aldosterone and natriuretic peptides are functional synergists. So, they preserve and excrete ions of Na+ and support the stability of unified pool of intercellular medium ("Inner Ocean" of organism) where all cells live. The parameters of this pool are limited most strictly in vivo. If at the level of nephron the conditions are formed that can alter the parameters of unified pool of intercellular medium the vasomotor center rises blood tension from the level of organism "forcing" nephrons to re-establish the parameters of this pool and normalize the biological functions and biological reactions. The blood pressure increase under pathology of kidneys is caused because of pathological compensation at the level of organism mediated by vegetal nervous system and dictated by necessity to preserve the parameters of inner medium of organism.

  11. The influence of molecular markers and methods on inferring the phylogenetic relationships between the representatives of the Arini (parrots, Psittaciformes), determined on the basis of their complete mitochondrial genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urantowka, Adam Dawid; Kroczak, Aleksandra; Mackiewicz, Paweł

    2017-07-14

    Conures are a morphologically diverse group of Neotropical parrots classified as members of the tribe Arini, which has recently been subjected to a taxonomic revision. The previously broadly defined Aratinga genus of this tribe has been split into the 'true' Aratinga and three additional genera, Eupsittula, Psittacara and Thectocercus. Popular markers used in the reconstruction of the parrots' phylogenies derive from mitochondrial DNA. However, current phylogenetic analyses seem to indicate conflicting relationships between Aratinga and other conures, and also among other Arini members. Therefore, it is not clear if the mtDNA phylogenies can reliably define the species tree. The inconsistencies may result from the variable evolution rate of the markers used or their weak phylogenetic signal. To resolve these controversies and to assess to what extent the phylogenetic relationships in the tribe Arini can be inferred from mitochondrial genomes, we compared representative Arini mitogenomes as well as examined the usefulness of the individual mitochondrial markers and the efficiency of various phylogenetic methods. Single molecular markers produced inconsistent tree topologies, while different methods offered various topologies even for the same marker. A significant disagreement in these tree topologies occurred for cytb, nd2 and nd6 genes, which are commonly used in parrot phylogenies. The strongest phylogenetic signal was found in the control region and RNA genes. However, these markers cannot be used alone in inferring Arini phylogenies because they do not provide fully resolved trees. The most reliable phylogeny of the parrots under study is obtained only on the concatenated set of all mitochondrial markers. The analyses established significantly resolved relationships within the former Aratinga representatives and the main genera of the tribe Arini. Such mtDNA phylogeny can be in agreement with the species tree, owing to its match with synapomorphic features in

  12. Marine litter in an EBSA (Ecologically or Biologically Significant Area) of the central Mediterranean Sea: Abundance, composition, impact on benthic species and basis for monitoring entanglement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consoli, Pierpaolo; Andaloro, Franco; Altobelli, Chiara; Battaglia, Pietro; Campagnuolo, Silvana; Canese, Simonepietro; Castriota, Luca; Cillari, Tiziana; Falautano, Manuela; Pedà, Cristina; Perzia, Patrizia; Sinopoli, Mauro; Vivona, Pietro; Scotti, Gianfranco; Esposito, Valentina; Galgani, Francois; Romeo, Teresa

    2018-05-01

    Marine litter is commonly observed everywhere in the ocean. In this study, we analyzed 17 km of video footage, collected by a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) at depths ranging between 20 and 220 m, during 19 transects performed on the rocky banks of the Straits of Sicily. Recently, the Contracting Parties of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) recognized this site as an Ecologically or Biologically Significant Area (EBSA). The research aim was to quantify the abundance of marine litter and its impact on benthic fauna. Litter density ranged from 0 items/100 m 2 to 14.02 items/100 m 2 with a mean (±standard error) of 2.13 (±0.84) items/100 m 2 . The observed average density was higher (5.2 items/100 m 2 ) at depths >100 m than at shallower depths (fishing lines contributed to 98.07% of the overall litter density, then representing the dominant source of marine debris. Litter interactions with fauna were frequently observed, with 30% of litter causing "entanglement/coverage" and 15% causing damage to sessile fauna. A total of 16 species showed interaction (entanglement/coverage or damage) with litter items and 12 of these are species of conservation concern according to international directives and agreements (CITES, Berne Convention, Habitat Directive, SPA/BD Protocol, IUCN Red List); we also observed 7 priority habitats of the SPA/BD Protocol. This research will support the implementation of monitoring "Harm" as recommended by the UN Environment/MAP Regional Plan on Marine Litter Management in the Mediterranean, and the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). The institution of a SPAMI in the investigated area could represent a good management action for the protection of this hotspot of biodiversity and to achieve a Good Environmental Status (GES) for the marine environment by 2020, under the MSFD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Alteration of serum thymus and activation-regulated chemokine level during biologic therapy for psoriasis: Possibility as a marker reflecting favorable response to anti-interleukin-17A agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuya, Takashi; Honma, Masaru; Iinuma, Shin; Iwasaki, Takeshi; Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Ishida-Yamamoto, Akemi

    2018-06-01

    Biologics show great efficacy in treating psoriasis, a chronic inflammatory skin disease. The high cost and side-effects of biologics, dose-reduction, elongation of administration interval and suspension are possible options. However, there has been no reliable biomarker we can use when we consider these moderations in therapy. This study was conducted to test the possibility of using serum thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) level as an indicator for step down of biologic therapy. Serum TARC level was measured in 70 psoriatic patients at Asahikawa Medical University, and a correlation of TARC and severity of skin lesions was analyzed. Referring to serum TARC level, psoriatic patients can be divided into two groups. One is a population in which serum TARC level is positively correlated with severity of skin lesions, and the other is a population with low psoriatic severity and high TARC level. Serum TARC level was higher in the group that achieved PASI-clear with biologics than in the group which did not achieve PASI-clear. Among biologics, the group treated with secukinumab, an anti-interleukin (IL)-17A agent, showed significantly higher TARC level compared with the group treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor agents. In certain populations achieving PASI-clear, serum TARC level may be a potent marker reflecting better response to IL-17A inhibitors, and in this case step down of treatment for psoriasis is possible. © 2018 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  14. Automatic identification of optimal marker genes for phenotypic and taxonomic groups of microorganisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elad Segev

    Full Text Available Finding optimal markers for microorganisms important in the medical, agricultural, environmental or ecological fields is of great importance. Thousands of complete microbial genomes now available allow us, for the first time, to exhaustively identify marker proteins for groups of microbial organisms. In this work, we model the biological task as the well-known mathematical "hitting set" problem, solving it based on both greedy and randomized approximation algorithms. We identify unique markers for 17 phenotypic and taxonomic microbial groups, including proteins related to the nitrite reductase enzyme as markers for the non-anammox nitrifying bacteria group, and two transcription regulation proteins, nusG and yhiF, as markers for the Archaea and Escherichia/Shigella taxonomic groups, respectively. Additionally, we identify marker proteins for three subtypes of pathogenic E. coli, which previously had no known optimal markers. Practically, depending on the completeness of the database this algorithm can be used for identification of marker genes for any microbial group, these marker genes may be prime candidates for the understanding of the genetic basis of the group's phenotype or to help discover novel functions which are uniquely shared among a group of microbes. We show that our method is both theoretically and practically efficient, while establishing an upper bound on its time complexity and approximation ratio; thus, it promises to remain efficient and permit the identification of marker proteins that are specific to phenotypic or taxonomic groups, even as more and more bacterial genomes are being sequenced.

  15. Biological and genetic characteristics of Glyptotendipes tokunagai (Diptera: Chironomidae) on the basis of successive rearing of forty-two generations over seven years under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Min Jeong; Yoon, Tae Joong; Kang, Hyo Jeong; Bae, Yeon Jae

    2014-10-01

    Members of the nonbiting midge family Chironomidae have been used worldwide as water-quality indicators or toxicity test organisms. The purpose of this study was to establish the chironomid Glyptotendipes tokunagai Sasa as a new test species by conducting successive rearing under laboratory conditions. We monitored biological and genetic aspects of >42 successive generations over 7 yr, and also compared the development of the 39th generation with the fourth generation under five constant temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35°C. We observed that the number of eggs in an egg mass and the adult body sizes decreased rapidly in the early generations, and thereafter tended to stabilize from the fifth generation to the 42nd generation. In all generations, the mean hatching rate was >75%. Males were predominant in the early generations, but the sex ratio increased to 0.5 (ranged 0.24-0.61) in later generations. The genetic divergence of the reared generations, analyzed by using the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene, decreased from 0.0049 to 0.0004 as the generations progressed. In comparison with the fourth generation, the mortality and developmental time of the 39th generation were generally greater, and the adult body sizes were generally smaller. The estimated low developmental threshold temperatures of eggs, male larvae to male adults, and female larvae to female adults were 9.6, 11.3, and 9.7°C, respectively. The optimal rearing temperature was determined to be 25°C. This is the first record of domesticated rearing of a wild chironomid species under laboratory conditions for >7 yr.

  16. N-acetylcolchinol O-methyl ether and thiocolchicine, potent analogs of colchicine modified in the C ring. Evaluation of the mechanistic basis for their enhanced biological properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, G.J.; Getahun, Z.; Muzaffar, A.; Brossi, A.; Hamel, E.

    1990-01-01

    Two colchicine analogs with modifications only in the C ring are better inhibitors than colchicine of cell growth and tubulin polymerization. Radiolabeled thiocolchicine (with a thiomethyl instead of a methoxy group at position C-10) and N-acetylcolchinol O-methyl ether (NCME) (with a methoxy-substituted benzenoid instead of the methoxy-substituted tropone C ring) were prepared for comparison with colchicine. Scatchard analysis indicated a single binding site with KD values of 1.0-2.3 microM. Thiocolchicine was bound 2-4 times as rapidly as colchicine, but the activation energies of the reactions were nearly identical (18 kcal/mol for colchicine, 20 kcal/mol for thiocolchicine). NCME bound to tubulin in a biphasic reaction. The faster phase was 60 times as fast as colchicine binding at 37 degrees C, and a substantial reaction occurred at 0 degrees C. The rate of the faster phase of NCME binding changed relatively little as a function of temperature, so the activation energy was only 7.0 kcal/mol. Dissociation reactions were also evaluated, and at 37 degrees C the half-lives of the tubulin-drug complexes were 11 min for NCME, 24 h for thiocolchicine, and 27 h for colchicine. Relative dissociation rates as a function of temperature varied little among the drug complexes. Activation energies for the dissociation reactions were 30 kcal/mol for thiocolchicine, 27 kcal/mol for NCME, and 24 kcal/mol for colchicine. Comparison of the activation energies of association and dissociation yielded free energies for the binding reactions of -20 kcal/mol for NCME, -10 kcal/mol for thiocolchicine, and -6 kcal/mol for colchicine. The greater effectiveness of NCME and thiocolchicine as compared with colchicine in biological assays probably derives from their more rapid binding to tubulin and the lower free energies of their binding reactions

  17. Molecular markers in glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Kirsten; Kornblum, Harley I

    2017-09-01

    Gliomas are the most malignant and aggressive form of brain tumors, and account for the majority of brain cancer related deaths. Malignant gliomas, including glioblastoma are treated with radiation and temozolomide, with only a minor benefit in survival time. A number of advances have been made in understanding glioma biology, including the discovery of cancer stem cells, termed glioma stem cells (GSC). Some of these advances include the delineation of molecular heterogeneity both between tumors from different patients as well as within tumors from the same patient. Such research highlights the importance of identifying and validating molecular markers in glioma. This review, intended as a practical resource for both clinical and basic investigators, summarizes some of the more well-known molecular markers (MGMT, 1p/19q, IDH, EGFR, p53, PI3K, Rb, and RAF), discusses how they are identified, and what, if any, clinical relevance they may have, in addition to discussing some of the specific biology for these markers. Additionally, we discuss identification methods for studying putative GSC's (CD133, CD15, A2B5, nestin, ALDH1, proteasome activity, ABC transporters, and label-retention). While much research has been done on these markers, there is still a significant amount that we do not yet understand, which may account for some conflicting reports in the literature. Furthermore, it is unlikely that the investigator will be able to utilize one single marker to prospectively identify and isolate GSC from all, or possibly, any gliomas.

  18. Planar optical waveguide based sandwich assay sensors and processes for the detection of biological targets including protein markers, pathogens and cellular debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Jennifer S [Santa Fe, NM; Swanson, Basil I [Los Alamos, NM; Grace, Karen M [Los Alamos, NM; Grace, Wynne K [Los Alamos, NM; Shreve, Andrew P [Santa Fe, NM

    2009-06-02

    An assay element is described including recognition ligands bound to a film on a single mode planar optical waveguide, the film from the group of a membrane, a polymerized bilayer membrane, and a self-assembled monolayer containing polyethylene glycol or polypropylene glycol groups therein and an assay process for detecting the presence of a biological target is described including injecting a biological target-containing sample into a sensor cell including the assay element, with the recognition ligands adapted for binding to selected biological targets, maintaining the sample within the sensor cell for time sufficient for binding to occur between selected biological targets within the sample and the recognition ligands, injecting a solution including a reporter ligand into the sensor cell; and, interrogating the sample within the sensor cell with excitation light from the waveguide, the excitation light provided by an evanescent field of the single mode penetrating into the biological target-containing sample to a distance of less than about 200 nanometers from the waveguide thereby exciting the fluorescent-label in any bound reporter ligand within a distance of less than about 200 nanometers from the waveguide and resulting in a detectable signal.

  19. Tumors markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi-Mizumoto, N.H.

    1989-01-01

    In order to study blood and cell components alterations (named tumor markers) that may indicate the presence of a tumor, several methods are presented. Aspects as diagnostic, prognostic, therapeutic value and clinical evaluation are discussed. (M.A.C.)

  20. Exposure of healthy subjects with emissions from a gas metal arc welding process: part 3--biological effect markers and lung function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, P; Bischof, K; Siry, L; Bertram, J; Schettgen, T; Reisgen, U; Kraus, T; Gube, M

    2013-01-01

    Metal active gas welding (MAG) is a widely-used welding technique resulting in high emissions of welding fume particles. This study investigated whether short-term exposure to these fume particles results in changes in lung function and early stages of inflammatory reactions. Twelve healthy, young male subjects were exposed to MAG fumes for 6 h with three different exposure concentrations in a three-fold cross-over study design. Exposure was performed in the "Aachen Workplace Simulation Laboratory" under controlled conditions with constant fume concentration. Fume concentrations were 0, 1, and 2.5 mg m(-3) in randomized order. Before and after each exposure, spirometry, and impulse oscillometry were performed and breath condensate samples were collected in order to quantify inflammatory markers like Nitrate, Nitrite, Nitrotyrosine, Hydroxyprolin and Malondialdehyde. A significant dependency on the exposure concentration could not be established for any of the endpoint parameters. In healthy, young subjects neither changes in spirometry nor changes in inflammatory markers measured in exhaled breath condensate could be detected after short-term exposure.

  1. Biological impact of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) on european eel Definition and validation of bio-marker useful in situ; Impact biologique des hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques (HAP) sur l'anguille europeenne. Definition et validation de biomarqueurs in situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buet, A.

    2002-02-15

    In the natural environment, especially in aquatic ecosystems, the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) can have deleterious effects. The aim of this project was to assess the biological impact of PAH on the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) and to define a series of bio-markers useful in situ. The originality of this field study comes from the variety of the considered factors and the choice of a protected site. Bio-markers validation requires the knowledge of normal variations of the selected parameters. Therefore, the first objective of our study was to assess the effects of natural factors on the eco-physiological characteristics of an eel population collected from the National Reserve of Camargue. Bio-metric and metabolic parameters were measured as well as enzymatic markers of contamination: biotransformation activities (EROD, GST, UDPHT), oxidative stress activities (CAT, SOD, GPx, SeGPx) and membrane activities (ATPases, AChE). The temporal evolutions and the nutritional state influenced significantly the answer of these indicators of contamination in the studied population. On the other hand, the effect of sexual maturity and parasitism by the nematode Anguillicola crassus was reduced. After confirming a local atmospheric contribution in PAH, we tried to understand the accumulation patterns of these compounds within organisms and organs. Therefore, the analysis of PAH were performed on the bile, the liver and the muscle samples of European eels. Whatever the season, the sampling site, the sexual maturity and the sanitary state of eels, the PAH tissue contamination was general but fluctuating. The localization of the contamination gives information about its persistence. Chronologically, bile accumulation reflects a recent intoxication, whereas the liver gives a medium-term contamination image and the muscle impregnation represents a longer-term storage. The PAH concentrated in fat tissues but these concentrations were not systematically

  2. The biological basis for environmental quality assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpov, V.I.; Kudritsky, Y.K.; Georgievsky, A.B.

    1991-01-01

    A systematic approach is required to environmental quality assessments with regard to the Baltic regions in order to address the problem of pollution abatement. The proposed systematization of adaptive states stems from the general theory of adaptation. The various types of adaption are described. (AB)

  3. Biological Basis for Chemoprevention of Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    Concealing Clothing” Sukru Hatun, Omer Islam, Filiz Cizmecioglu, Bulent Kara, Kadir Babaoglu, Fatma Berk,and Ayse Sevim Go¨ kalp J. Nutr. 135: 218–222...to studies in ovarian caner , analyses of the relationship between the short AR CAG repeat length polymorphism and prostate cancer risk also have...pregnant, months of OC use, BMI, tubal ligation, family history of breast or ovarian caner in a first degree relative, waist-to-hip ratio 23 Table 6

  4. Biological Basis for Chemoprevention of Ovarian Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berchuck, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    To achieve a better understanding of the etiology of ovarian cancer we have initiated a case-control study that considers genetic susceptibility epidemiologic risk factors and acquired genetic alterations...

  5. Biological basis of social anxiety disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumi, Takeshi; Yoshioka, Mitsuhiro; Koyama, Tsukasa

    2007-01-01

    Reviewed are functional imaging studies of the brain in social anxiety disorder (SAD) which are being under remarkable progress, to discuss the disease in relation to the neuronal network. Current consensuses on results, their meta-analysis and consideration of regions suggested in those studies are as follows. In MRI and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies, cerebral morphology and blood flow at rest with 99m Tc-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) are normal in SAD. Many studies of SAD by positron emission tomography (PET) with probes such as 15 O-H 2 O and by fMRI have shown an anxiety-induced excess reaction in the amygdaloid body and insula, and certain studies, a reaction change in frontal lobe or cingulate gyrus. Pattern change of cerebral blood flow is observable by SPECT and PET with 11 C-WAY-100635 after treatment of SAD with SSRI (serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitor). Image findings of brain functions in SAD are not contradictory to clinical findings. Discussion of SAD is also made here in relation to posttraumatic stress and panic disorders, and their image findings. (R.T.)

  6. Diversidade genética de pitayas nativas do cerrado com base em marcadores RAPD Genetic diversity of native pitaya native from brazilian savannas with basis on RAPD markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keize Pereira Junqueira

    2010-09-01

    naturally vegetate on solid rocky sandstone or quartzite, tree trunks and on rocky fields sand soils at Minas Gerais, Goiás, Distrito Federal, Tocantins, Rio de Janeiro and Bahia, with strong evidences that Brazil central region is the biggest pitayas dispersion center, because of wide phenotypic diversity observed in collected accesses. We had the objective to realize genetic diversity study of 13 pitaya accesses maintained at Embrapa Cerrados germoplasm collection through RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA molecular markers. Each access genomic DNA were extracted and fourteen decamer initiators were used to obtain RAPD molecular markers, that were converted in a binary data matrix, from where we estimate genetic distances between accesses and realize grouping and graphic dispersion analysis. 162 RAPD markers were obtained, making 11,57 markers medium per primer. From markers total, 154 (95,06% were polymorphic. Genetic distances varied within 0,088 and 0,848, biggest values observed refer to distance between Unaí, MG access and Seleção Embrapa Cerrados access. The most different access was "Unaí, MG", that showed 0,675 of genetic distance avarege in relation to others accessions. The high genetic distance verified is due to the fact that the referred accesses do not belong to the same species. Pitaya accesses groups had little relation to their geographic origin. The genetic diversity found at brazilian savannas allow to include this biome at pitaya species diversity center, showing good perspectives to studies about this fruit potential.

  7. Exploration of Disease Markers under Translational Medicine Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajagopal Krishnamoorthy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Disease markers are defined as the biomarkers with specific characteristics during the general physical, pathological or therapeutic process, the detection of which can inform the progression of present biological process of organisms. However, the exploration of disease markers is complicated and difficult, and only a few markers can be used in clinical practice and there is no significant difference in the mortality of cancers before and after biomarker exploration. Translational medicine focuses on breaking the blockage between basic medicine and clinical practice. In addition, it also establishes an effective association between researchers engaged on basic scientific discovery and clinical physicians well informed of patients' requirements, and gives particular attentions on how to translate the basic molecular biological research to the most effective and appropriate methods for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of diseases, hoping to translate basic research into the new therapeutic methods in clinic. Therefore, this study mainly summarized the exploration of disease markers under translational medicine model so as to provide a basis for the translation of basic research results into clinical application.

  8. (SSR) markers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    2013-06-26

    Jun 26, 2013 ... analysis was in general agreement with PCoA in discrimi- nating the cultivars. Conclusions. Estimation of morphological diversity may provide addi- tional information on the present finding. Nonetheless, the 29 SSR markers provided considerable genetic reso- lution and this genetic diversity analysis ...

  9. (SSR) markers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-07-30

    Jul 30, 2014 ... India and the country is currently the leading producer, consumer and exporter of ... registration with the competent authority for plant variety protection. Conventionally ... detection of duplicates, parental verification in crosses, gene tagging in .... allelic patterns as revealed by the current set of SSR markers.

  10. Alcohol Use and Associations With Biological Markers and Self-Reported Indicators of Unprotected Sex in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Female Sex Workers in Mombasa, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Darcy; Wilson, Kate S; Masese, Linnet N; Wanje, George; Jaoko, Walter; Mandaliya, Kishorchandra; Richardson, Barbra A; Kinuthia, John; Simoni, Jane M; McClelland, R Scott

    2016-10-01

    Studies of alcohol use and sexual behavior in African populations have primarily been cross-sectional, used nonvalidated measures of alcohol use, or relied on self-reported sexual risk endpoints. Few have focused on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive women. Longitudinal data were collected from a cohort of HIV-positive Kenyan female sex workers. At enrollment and annual visits, participants were asked about past-year alcohol use using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). The primary endpoint was detection of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in vaginal secretions at quarterly examinations. Associations between hazardous/harmful alcohol use (AUDIT score ≥7), PSA detection, and secondary measures of sexual risk were evaluated using generalized estimating equations with a log binomial regression model. A total of 405 women contributed 2750 vaginal samples over 606 person-years of follow-up. Hazardous/harmful alcohol use was reported at 16.6% of AUDIT assessments and was associated with higher risk of PSA detection (relative risk 1.50; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-2.01) relative to no alcohol use. This association was attenuated and no longer statistically significant, after adjusting for age, work venue, intimate partner violence, depression, and partnership status (adjusted relative risk, 1.13; 95% confidence interval, 0.82-1.56). In exploratory analyses, alcohol use was associated with self-report of unprotected sex and with sexually transmitted infection acquisition. Although hazardous/harmful alcohol use was not associated with detection of PSA in adjusted analysis, associations with secondary outcomes suggest that alcohol use is at least a marker of sexual risk behavior.

  11. Marker lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, D.V.

    1980-01-01

    A marker lamp is described which consists of a block of transparent plastics material encapsulated in which is a radioactive light source. These lights comprise a small sealed glass capsule, the hollow inside surface of which is coated with phosphor and which contains tritium or similar radioactive gas. The use of such lamps for identification marking of routes, for example roads, and for identification of underwater oil pipelines is envisaged. (U.K.)

  12. [Blood amylase: a biological marker in irradiation accidents? Preliminary results obtained at the Gustave-Roussy Institut (GRI) and a literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennequin, C; Cosset, J M; Cailleux, P E; Girinsky, T; Ganem, G; Hubert, D; Comoy, E; Dutreix, J

    1989-01-01

    The retrospective evaluation of the dose after an irradiation accident is of paramount importance; it allows an adequate selection of patients and the most appropriate treatment can then be proposed. Classical physical dosimetry often lacks precision for dose assessment in such accidents. Cytogenetics, usually more reliable, is not 100% accurate and cannot be used in some particular instances. At the Institut Gustave-Roussy, we studied amylasemia in 15 patients who received a total body irradiation (TBI) for bone marrow grafting, at various dose levels (10, 2 and 1.35 Gy). Hyperamylasemia was found to be constant and dose-dependent. Ten additional patients given a localized irradiation of 2 Gy in the Waldeyer ring had a similar rise in amylasemia as did TBI patients who had received the same dose. In contrast, 13 patients given a pancreatic irradiation (as part of a localized abdominal irradiation) did not show any increase in amylasemia. This study seems to confirm reported data, which suggested that post-TBI hyperamylasemia is almost only related to salivary gland irradiation. Amylasemia could possibly be used as a "biological dosimeter"; however, the dose-effect relationship should be more precisely defined, as well as individual variations. Moreover, the definition of a "threshold-dose" below which hyperamylasemia can never be detected, would be of interest for radioprotection.

  13. Investigating the use of support vector machine classification on structural brain images of preterm-born teenagers as a biological marker.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlton Chu

    Full Text Available Preterm birth has been shown to induce an altered developmental trajectory of brain structure and function. With the aid support vector machine (SVM classification methods we aimed to investigate whether MRI data, collected in adolescence, could be used to predict whether an individual had been born preterm or at term. To this end we collected T1-weighted anatomical MRI data from 143 individuals (69 controls, mean age 14.6y. The inclusion criteria for those born preterm were birth weight ≤ 1500g and gestational age < 37w. A linear SVM was trained on the grey matter segment of MR images in two different ways. First, all the individuals were used for training and classification was performed by the leave-one-out method, yielding 93% correct classification (sensitivity = 0.905, specificity = 0.942. Separately, a random half of the available data were used for training twice and each time the other, unseen, half of the data was classified, resulting 86% and 91% accurate classifications. Both gestational age (R = -0.24, p<0.04 and birth weight (R = -0.51, p < 0.001 correlated with the distance to decision boundary within the group of individuals born preterm. Statistically significant correlations were also found between IQ (R = -0.30, p < 0.001 and the distance to decision boundary. Those born small for gestational age did not form a separate subgroup in these analyses. The high rate of correct classification by the SVM motivates further investigation. The long-term goal is to automatically and non-invasively predict the outcome of preterm-born individuals on an individual basis using as early a scan as possible.

  14. Biomonitoring role of some cellular markers during heat stress-induced changes in highly representative fresh water mollusc, Bellamya bengalensis: Implication in climate change and biological adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Sangita Maiti; Mustafi, Soumyajit Banerjee; Raha, Sanghamitra; Chakraborty, Susanta Kumar

    2018-08-15

    Owing to increasing concern of global climate-change, temperature rise is of great interest which can be primarily evaluated from the seasonal variations in some organisms. Aquatic environment can be extremely stressful to its inhabitants because most of them are poikilothermous. In the present study, attempt was made to evaluate the biological effects of oxidative-stress and adaptive/antioxidant capacities during temperature variations (36-40 °C for 24hrs to 72hrs) in Bellamya bengalensis both in environmental and laboratory conditions by testing some biomarkers like HSP70, catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione reductase (GR). The biomarker potency of the molecules and the anti-oxidative metabolic-network was postulated and extrapolated to find its resemblance to the climate-change associated organismal variations. In a natural and eco-restored environment in the Eastern part of India, 10-20 fold increases in CAT, SOD and HSP70 protein expressions (Western blot results) were noticed in Bellamya paralleling to their increased enzymatic activities (gel zymogram studies) due to the seasonal (summer versus winter) temperature variation. It is evident from the consecutive three years' study that this variation resulted in the unfavorable physico-chemical changes of water quality parameters like dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, alkalinity and consequently decreased the animal density in summer. And that was revived due to their higher reproduction-rate in post rainy/winter season when temperature normalizes resulting in a restoration of favorable environment. In laboratory condition, the reduced GR and increased GPx indicated the oxidative damage as evident by higher tissue MDA level following to higher mortality. Changes in SOD and CAT activities suggest activation of physiological mechanism to scavenge the ROS produced during heat stress. However, when mortality increased at different time points (36

  15. [Immunological Markers in Organ Transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, J H; Heits, N; Braun, F; Becker, T

    2017-04-01

    The immunological monitoring in organ transplantation is based mainly on the determination of laboratory parameters as surrogate markers of organ dysfunction. Structural damage, caused by alloreactivity, can only be detected by invasive biopsy of the graft, which is why inevitably rejection episodes are diagnosed at a rather progressive stage. New non-invasive specific markers that enable transplant clinicians to identify rejection episodes at an earlier stage, on the molecular level, are needed. The accurate identification of rejection episodes and the establishment of operational tolerance permit early treatment or, respectively, a controlled cessation of immunosuppression. In addition, new prognostic biological markers are expected to allow a pre-transplant risk stratification thus having an impact on organ allocation and immunosuppressive regimen. New high-throughput screening methods allow simultaneous examination of hundreds of characteristics and the generation of specific biological signatures, which might give concrete information about acute rejection, chronic dysfunction as well as operational tolerance. Even though multiple studies and a variety of publications report about important advances on this subject, almost no new biological marker has been implemented in clinical practice as yet. Nevertheless, new technologies, in particular analysis of the genome, transcriptome, proteome and metabolome will make personalised transplantation medicine possible and will further improve the long-term results and graft survival rates. This article gives a survey of the limitations and possibilities of new immunological markers in organ transplantation. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. La infección por el virus del papiloma humano, un posible marcador biológico de comportamiento sexual en estudiantes universitarios Human papillomavirus infection is a possible biological marker of sexual behavior among university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A Sánchez-Alemán

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Estimar la prevalencia de infección por el virus del papiloma humano (VPH en estudiantes universitarios y utilizar dicha frecuencia como un marcador biológico para evaluar el comportamiento sexual. Material y métodos. Se realizó un estudio transversal, en estudiantes de la Universidad Autónoma del estado de Morelos, México, durante el periodo 2000-2001. Se aplicó un cuestionario y se colectaron muestras genitales para detectar ADN de los VPH oncogénicos. Los datos se analizaron utilizando pruebas de Ji cuadrada y razones de momios. Resultados. La prevalencia global del VPH en 194 estudiantes fue de 14.4%. Las mujeres con dos o más parejas sexuales durante el último año presentaron mayor riesgo de infección por el VPH (RM 6.0 IC 1.7-21.1, al igual que las que utilizaron anticonceptivos hormonales y espermicidas en su última relación sexual (RM 3.0 IC 1.0-8.7. Los hombres que consumieron cocaína tuvieron más riesgo de infección por el VPH (RM 7.6 IC 1.3-45.1. Conclusiones. La prevalencia del VPH es relativamente alta. La utilización del VPH como un marcador biológico de comportamientos sexuales en mujeres es pertinente; en hombres, es necesario ampliar la muestra.Objective. To estimate the prevalence of Human papillomavirus (HPV among university students and to use it as a biological marker to assess sexual behavior. Material and Methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out between 2000 and 2001 among 194 students at Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Mexico. A data collection instrument was applied and genital samples were taken to detect oncogenic HPV DNA. Data were analyzed using the chi-squared test and odds ratios. Results. Overall HPV prevalence was 14.4%. Women who had had two or more sexual partners during the previous year showed a greater risk of HPV infection (OR 6.0, 95% CI 1.7-21.1, as did women who had used oral contraceptives and spermicides at their latest intercourse (OR 3.0, 95% CI 1

  17. Environmental biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschumi, P.A.

    1981-01-01

    Environmental biology illustrates the functioning of ecosystems and the dynamics of populations with many examples from limnology and terrestrial ecology. On this basis, present environmental problems are analyzed. The present environmental crisis is seen as a result of the failure to observe ecological laws. (orig.) [de

  18. Uniparental genetic markers in South Amerindians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Bisso-Machado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive review of uniparental systems in South Amerindians was undertaken. Variability in the Y-chromosome haplogroups were assessed in 68 populations and 1,814 individuals whereas that of Y-STR markers was assessed in 29 populations and 590 subjects. Variability in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA haplogroup was examined in 108 populations and 6,697 persons, and sequencing studies used either the complete mtDNA genome or the highly variable segments 1 and 2. The diversity of the markers made it difficult to establish a general picture of Y-chromosome variability in the populations studied. However, haplogroup Q1a3a* was almost always the most prevalent whereas Q1a3* occurred equally in all regions, which suggested its prevalence among the early colonizers. The STR allele frequencies were used to derive a possible ancient Native American Q-clade chromosome haplotype and five of six STR loci showed significant geographic variation. Geographic and linguistic factors moderately influenced the mtDNA distributions (6% and 7%, respectively and mtDNA haplogroups A and D correlated positively and negatively, respectively, with latitude. The data analyzed here provide rich material for understanding the biological history of South Amerindians and can serve as a basis for comparative studies involving other types of data, such as cultural data.

  19. Marcadores tumorais no câncer de pulmão: um caminho para a terapia biológica Tumor markers in lung cancer: a pathway to biological therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FERNANDO AZEVEDO PACHECO

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Os avanços recentes na genética e na biologia molecular permitiram a identificação de genes e proteínas produzidos ou superexpressados pelos tumores. Tais produtos, os chamados marcadores tumorais, antes utilizados apenas como ferramentas de diagnóstico e prognóstico, vêm atualmente tomando papel importante no desenvolvimento de novas modalidades de tratamento, direcionadas a quebrar o ciclo biológico da progressão tumoral. Neste artigo, revisa-se o papel de alguns marcadores tumorais tradicionalmente conhecidos (CEA, p53, NSE, K-ras, e descrevem-se a prevalência e a função da superexpressão do receptor do fator de crescimento epidérmico (EGFR e do seu produto protéico (p185neu. Novos agentes têm sido desenvolvidos baseando-se no bloqueio da sinalização iniciada pelo EGFR. Destes, destaca-se o ZD1839 (Iressa, uma droga via oral que inibe de modo reversível e seletivo a atividade tirosina-quinase do EGFR, e que vem demonstrando bons resultados tanto isoladamente quanto em combinação com outros agentes quimioterápicos. Tais avanços devem contribuir de modo significativo no tratamento do câncer, principalmente no carcinoma de pulmão do tipo não-pequenas células.Recent advances in genetics and molecular biology lead to the identification of genes and protein products overexpressed by tumors. Such products, called tumor markers, were previously used only as diagnostic and prognostic tools, but are currently being the target of extensive research, with growing evidence that some of them may have an important role in the development of new treatment modalities, targeting the tumor cell biological cycle. In this article, the authors review the role of some of the traditionally known tumor markers (CEA, p53, NSE, K-ras, and describe the prevalence and the role of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR overexpression and its protein product, p185neu. New drugs have been developed, aiming at the blockade of the signaling

  20. Genetic diversity of maize genotypes on the basis of morpho ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic diversity of maize genotypes on the basis of morpho-physiological and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Ashish Kumar, Arunita Rakshit, Naresh K Mangilipelli, Y Varalaxmi, T Vijayalakshmi, Jainender M Vanaja, SK Yadav, B Venkateswarlu, M Maheswari ...

  1. Molecular basis for mitochondrial signaling

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book covers recent advances in the study of structure, function, and regulation of metabolite, protein and ion translocating channels, and transporters in mitochondria. A wide array of cutting-edge methods are covered, ranging from electrophysiology and cell biology to bioinformatics, as well as structural, systems, and computational biology. At last, the molecular identity of two important channels in the mitochondrial inner membrane, the mitochondrial calcium uniporter and the mitochondrial permeability transition pore have been established. After years of work on the physiology and structure of VDAC channels in the mitochondrial outer membrane, there have been multiple discoveries on VDAC permeation and regulation by cytosolic proteins. Recent breakthroughs in structural studies of the mitochondrial cholesterol translocator reveal a set of novel unexpected features and provide essential clues for defining therapeutic strategies. Molecular Basis for Mitochondrial Signaling covers these and many more re...

  2. Magnetic resonance enterography changes after antibody to tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) alpha therapy in Crohn’s disease: correlation with SES-CD and clinical-biological markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoppino, Luca Pio; Della Valle, Nicola; Rizzi, Stefania; Cleopazzo, Elsa; Centola, Annarita; Iamele, Donatello; Bristogiannis, Christos; Stoppino, Giuseppe; Vinci, Roberta; Macarini, Luca

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the use of MRI in patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) has increased. However, few data are available on how MRI parameters of active disease change during treatment with anti-TNF and whether these changes correspond to symptoms, serum biomarkers, or endoscopic appearance. The aim of this study was to determine the changes over time in MRI parameters during treatment with anti-TNF in patients with CD, and to verify the correlation between MRI score, endoscopic appearance and clinical-biological markers. We performed a prospective single centre study of 27 patients with active CD (18 males and 9 females; median age of 27,4 ys; age range, 19–49). All patients underwent ileocolonoscopy and MRI at baseline and 26 weeks after anti-TNF therapy. Endoscopic severity was graded according to the Simple Endoscopic Score for Crohn’s Disease (SES-CD) and Magnetic Resonance Index of Activity (MaRIA) was calculated. Patients underwent clinical evaluation (CDAI) and the C-reactive protein (CRP) level was measured. The associations between variables were assessed with Pearson’s bivariate correlation analysis. A total of 135 intestinal segments were studied. The median patient age was 27,4 years, 67 % were male and the mean disease duration was 6,1 years. For induction of remission, 18 patients were treated with infliximab and 9 with adalimumab. The mean SES-CD and MaRIA scores significantly changed at week 26 (SES-CD: 14,7 ± 8,9 at baseline vs. 4,4 ± 4,6 at 26 weeks - p < 0.001; MaRIA: 41,1 ± 14,8 at baseline vs. 32,8 ± 11,7 at 26 weeks - p < 0.001). Also the CDAI and serum levels of CRP decreased significantly following treatment (p < 0.001). The overall MaRIA correlated with endoscopic score and with clinical activity (CDAI) both at baseline and at week 26 (p < 0.05). The correlation between overall MaRIA and CRP was significant only at week 26 (p < 0.001). The MaRIA has a good correlation with SES-CD, a high accuracy for prediction of endoscopic

  3. Enzyme markers in inbred rat strains: genetics of new markers and strain profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, M; Baverstock, P R; Watts, C H; Gutman, G A

    1984-08-01

    Twenty-six inbred strains of the laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus) were examined for electrophoretic variation at an estimated 97 genetic loci. In addition to previously documented markers, variation was observed for the enzymes aconitase, aldehyde dehydrogenase, and alkaline phosphatase. The genetic basis of these markers (Acon-1, Ahd-2, and Akp-1) was confirmed. Linkage analysis between 35 pairwise comparisons revealed that the markers Fh-1 and Pep-3 are linked. The strain profiles of the 25 inbred strains at 11 electrophoretic markers are given.

  4. Stereotactic core needle breast biopsy marker migration: An analysis of factors contributing to immediate marker migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ashali; Khalid, Maria; Qureshi, Muhammad M; Georgian-Smith, Dianne; Kaplan, Jonah A; Buch, Karen; Grinstaff, Mark W; Hirsch, Ariel E; Hines, Neely L; Anderson, Stephan W; Gallagher, Katherine M; Bates, David D B; Bloch, B Nicolas

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate breast biopsy marker migration in stereotactic core needle biopsy procedures and identify contributing factors. This retrospective study analyzed 268 stereotactic biopsy markers placed in 263 consecutive patients undergoing stereotactic biopsies using 9G vacuum-assisted devices from August 2010-July 2013. Mammograms were reviewed and factors contributing to marker migration were evaluated. Basic descriptive statistics were calculated and comparisons were performed based on radiographically-confirmed marker migration. Of the 268 placed stereotactic biopsy markers, 35 (13.1%) migrated ≥1 cm from their biopsy cavity. Range: 1-6 cm; mean (± SD): 2.35 ± 1.22 cm. Of the 35 migrated biopsy markers, 9 (25.7%) migrated ≥3.5 cm. Patient age, biopsy pathology, number of cores, and left versus right breast were not associated with migration status (P> 0.10). Global fatty breast density (P= 0.025) and biopsy in the inner region of breast (P = 0.031) were associated with marker migration. Superior biopsy approach (P= 0.025), locally heterogeneous breast density, and t-shaped biopsy markers (P= 0.035) were significant for no marker migration. Multiple factors were found to influence marker migration. An overall migration rate of 13% supports endeavors of research groups actively developing new biopsy marker designs for improved resistance to migration. • Breast biopsy marker migration is documented in 13% of 268 procedures. • Marker migration is affected by physical, biological, and pathological factors. • Breast density, marker shape, needle approach etc. affect migration. • Study demonstrates marker migration prevalence; marker design improvements are needed.

  5. Comparison of the cerebral SPECT and biological markers in the Alzheimer disease; Comparaison de la tomographie cerebrale par emission monophotonique de perfusion et des biomarqueurs dans la maladie d'Alzheimer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravasi, L.; Semah, F.; Steinling, M. [Unite imagerie fonctionnelle cerebrale, CHRU de Lille, (France); Bombois, S.; Pasquier, F. [centre memoire de ressources et de recherche, CHRU de Lille, (France); Schraen, S.; Buee, L. [Inserm U837, centre de biologie, CHRU de Lille, (France)

    2009-05-15

    This study aim was to compare the contribution of SPECT of cerebral perfusion and bio markers of the cerebrospinal liquid in the diagnosis of Alzheimer disease. Our preliminary conclusions show that the concordance of the SPECT and cerebrospinal liquid is good in the possible Alzheimer disease. the interest of the cerebral SPECT and bio markers of the cerebrospinal liquid, used alone or conjointly, for a more reliable diagnosis of Alzheimer disease must be evaluated of prospective way. (N.C.)

  6. Radiographic markers - A reservoir for bacteria?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tugwell, Jenna; Maddison, Adele

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Amongst the most frequently handled objects in the radiology department are radiographic markers. They are personal accessories used with every patient, and are kept in the radiographers pockets when not utilised. Upon enquiry it was discovered that many radiographers disregarded the potential of these accessories to become a vector for cross-contamination thus never or rarely clean them. The aims of this study were therefore to identify if radiographic markers are a reservoir for bacteria and to establish an effective cleaning method for decontaminating them. Methodology: 25 radiographers/student radiographers were selected for this study. Swabbing of their markers prior and post cleaning took place. The microbiology laboratory subsequently analyzed the results by quantifying and identifying the bacteria present. The participants also completed a closed questionnaire regarding their markers (e.g. frequency of cleaning and type of marker) to help specify the results gained from the swabbing procedure. Results: From the sample swabbed, 92% were contaminated with various organisms including Staphylococcus and Bacillus species, the amount of bacteria present ranged from 0 to >50 CFU. There were no significant differences between disinfectant wipes and alcohol gel in decontaminating the markers. Both successfully reduced their bacterial load, with 80% of the markers post cleaning having 0 CFU. Conclusion: The results indicated that radiographic markers can become highly contaminated with various organisms thus serve as a reservoir for bacteria. In addition, the markers need to be cleaned on a regular basis, with either disinfectant wipes or alcohol gel to reduce their bacterial load.

  7. Safety Basis Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.J. Garrett

    2002-01-01

    As part of the internal Integrated Safety Management Assessment verification process, it was determined that there was a lack of documentation that summarizes the safety basis of the current Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) site characterization activities. It was noted that a safety basis would make it possible to establish a technically justifiable graded approach to the implementation of the requirements identified in the Standards/Requirements Identification Document. The Standards/Requirements Identification Documents commit a facility to compliance with specific requirements and, together with the hazard baseline documentation, provide a technical basis for ensuring that the public and workers are protected. This Safety Basis Report has been developed to establish and document the safety basis of the current site characterization activities, establish and document the hazard baseline, and provide the technical basis for identifying structures, systems, and components (SSCs) that perform functions necessary to protect the public, the worker, and the environment from hazards unique to the YMP site characterization activities. This technical basis for identifying SSCs serves as a grading process for the implementation of programs such as Conduct of Operations (DOE Order 5480.19) and the Suspect/Counterfeit Items Program. In addition, this report provides a consolidated summary of the hazards analyses processes developed to support the design, construction, and operation of the YMP site characterization facilities and, therefore, provides a tool for evaluating the safety impacts of changes to the design and operation of the YMP site characterization activities

  8. Safety Basis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.J. Garrett

    2002-01-14

    As part of the internal Integrated Safety Management Assessment verification process, it was determined that there was a lack of documentation that summarizes the safety basis of the current Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) site characterization activities. It was noted that a safety basis would make it possible to establish a technically justifiable graded approach to the implementation of the requirements identified in the Standards/Requirements Identification Document. The Standards/Requirements Identification Documents commit a facility to compliance with specific requirements and, together with the hazard baseline documentation, provide a technical basis for ensuring that the public and workers are protected. This Safety Basis Report has been developed to establish and document the safety basis of the current site characterization activities, establish and document the hazard baseline, and provide the technical basis for identifying structures, systems, and components (SSCs) that perform functions necessary to protect the public, the worker, and the environment from hazards unique to the YMP site characterization activities. This technical basis for identifying SSCs serves as a grading process for the implementation of programs such as Conduct of Operations (DOE Order 5480.19) and the Suspect/Counterfeit Items Program. In addition, this report provides a consolidated summary of the hazards analyses processes developed to support the design, construction, and operation of the YMP site characterization facilities and, therefore, provides a tool for evaluating the safety impacts of changes to the design and operation of the YMP site characterization activities.

  9. Biology Branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, W F

    1974-12-31

    Progress is reported on the following studies in biochemistry and molecular biology: study of long pyrimidine polynucleotides in DNA; isolation of thymine dimers from Schizosaccharomyces pombe; thermal stability of high molecular weight RNA; nucleases of Micrococcus radiodurans; effect of ionizing radiation on M. radiodurans cell walls and cell membranes; chemical modification of nucleotides; exonucleases of M. radiodurans; and enzymatic basis of repair of radioinduced damage in M. radiodurans. Genetics, development, and population studies include repair pathways and mutation induction in yeast; induction of pure mutant clones in yeast; radiosensitivity of bacteriophage T4; polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of bacteriophage T4; radiation genetics of Dahibominus; and radiation studies on bitting flies. (HLW)

  10. Theoretical basis for dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, G.A.

    1985-01-01

    Radiation dosimetry is fundamental to all fields of science dealing with radiation effects and is concerned with problems which are often intricate as hinted above. A firm scientific basis is needed to face increasing demands on accurate dosimetry. This chapter is an attempt to review and to elucidate the elements for such a basis. Quantities suitable for radiation dosimetry have been defined in the unique work to coordinate radiation terminology and usage by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements, ICRU. Basic definitions and terminology used in this chapter conform with the recent ''Radiation Quantities and Units, Report 33'' of the ICRU

  11. From BASIS to MIRACLES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsapatsaris, Nikolaos; Willendrup, Peter Kjær; E. Lechner, Ruep

    2015-01-01

    Results based on virtual instrument models for the first high-flux, high-resolution, spallation based, backscattering spectrometer, BASIS are presented in this paper. These were verified using the Monte Carlo instrument simulation packages McStas and VITESS. Excellent agreement of the neutron count...... are pivotal to the conceptual design of the next generation backscattering spectrometer, MIRACLES at the European Spallation Source....

  12. Tantalum markers in radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronson, A.S.; Jonsson, N.; Alberius, P.

    1985-01-01

    The biocompatibility of two types of radiopaque tantalum markers was evaluated histologically. Reactions to pin markers (99.9% purity) and spherical markers (95.2% purity) were investigated after 3-6 weeks in rabbits and 5-48 weeks in children with abnormal growth. Both marker types were firmly attached to bone trabeculae; this was most pronounced in rabbit bone, and no adverse macroscopic reactions were observed. Microscopically, no reactions or only slight fibrosis of bone tissue were detected, while soft tissues only demonstrated a minor inflammatory reaction. Nevertheless, the need for careful preparation and execution of marker implantations is stressed, and particularly avoidance iof the use of emery in sharpening of cannulae. The bioinertness of tantalum was reconfirmed as was its suitability for use as skeletal and soft tissue radiographic markers. (orig.)

  13. Sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers-based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-19

    Dec 19, 2011 ... reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), differential-display .... were synthesized by Sangon Biological Engineering Technology and. Services ..... to cold tolerance to scar markers in common carp. J. Dalian.

  14. Identification of micro satellite markers on chromosomes of bread ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-07-18

    Jul 18, 2007 ... 2 Department of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, ... markers closely linked to karnal bunt resistance in wheat. ... from leaf tissues using modified CTAB procedure (Saghai-Maroof et.

  15. Dynamical basis set

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, M.; Heller, E.J.

    1985-01-01

    A new Cartesian basis set is defined that is suitable for the representation of molecular vibration-rotation bound states. The Cartesian basis functions are superpositions of semiclassical states generated through the use of classical trajectories that conform to the intrinsic dynamics of the molecule. Although semiclassical input is employed, the method becomes ab initio through the standard matrix diagonalization variational method. Special attention is given to classical-quantum correspondences for angular momentum. In particular, it is shown that the use of semiclassical information preferentially leads to angular momentum eigenstates with magnetic quantum number Vertical BarMVertical Bar equal to the total angular momentum J. The present method offers a reliable technique for representing highly excited vibrational-rotational states where perturbation techniques are no longer applicable

  16. Design basis 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, G.; Soerensen, P. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1996-09-01

    Design Basis Program 2 (DBP2) is comprehensive fully coupled code which has the capability to operate in the time domain as well as in the frequency domain. The code was developed during the period 1991-93 and succeed Design Basis 1, which is a one-blade model presuming stiff tower, transmission system and hub. The package is designed for use on a personal computer and offers a user-friendly environment based on menu-driven editing and control facilities, and with graphics used extensively for the data presentation. Moreover in-data as well as results are dumped on files in Ascii-format. The input data is organized in a in-data base with a structure that easily allows for arbitrary combinations of defined structural components and load cases. (au)

  17. Biological dosimetry of irradiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, V.; Chambrette, V.; Le Roy, A.; Paillole, N.; Sorokine, I.; Voisin, P.

    1994-01-01

    The biological dosimetry in radiation protection allows to evaluate the received dose by a potentially irradiated person from biological markers such chromosomal abnormalities. The technologies of Hybridization In Situ by Fluorescence (F.I.S.H) allow the detection of steady chromosomal aberrations of translocation type

  18. Ligophorus species (Monogenea: Ancyrocephalidae) from Mugil cephalus (Teleostei: Mugilidae) off Morocco with the description of a new species and remarks about the use of Ligophorus spp. as biological markers of host populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hafidi, Fouzia; Rkhami, Ouafae Berrada; de Buron, Isaure; Durand, Jean-Dominique; Pariselle, Antoine

    2013-11-01

    Gill monogenean species of Ligophorus Euzet et Suriano, 1977 were studied from the teleost Mugil cephalus Linneaus (Mugilidae) from the Mediterranean and Atlantic coasts of Morocco. We report the presence of L. mediterraneus from both the Mediterranean and Atlantic coast and L. cephali and L. maroccanus sp. n. from the Atlantic coast only. The latter species, which is described herein as new, resembles L. guanduensis but differs from this species mainly in having a shorter penis compared to the accessory piece, a proportionally longer extremity of the accessory piece and a less developed heel. The utility of Ligophorus spp. as markers of cryptic species of the complex M. cephalus is discussed in the context of species diversity and geographical distribution of these monogeneans on this host around the world. Presence of different species of Ligophorus on M. cephalus sensu stricto from the Atlantic and Mediterranean coast of Morocco demonstrates the usefulness of these species as fine resolution markers of genetic populations of their host, which are known to inhabit those coasts.

  19. Herbs and spices: characterization and quantitation of biologically-active markers for routine quality control by multiple headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with separative or non-separative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgorbini, Barbara; Bicchi, Carlo; Cagliero, Cecilia; Cordero, Chiara; Liberto, Erica; Rubiolo, Patrizia

    2015-01-09

    Herbs and spices are used worldwide as food flavoring, thus determination of their identity, origin, and quality is mandatory for safe human consumption. An analysis strategy based on separative (HS-SPME-GC-MS) and non-separative (HS-SPME-MS) approaches is proposed for the volatile fraction of herbs and spices, for quality control and to quantify the aromatic markers with a single analysis directly on the plant material as such. Eight-to-ten lots of each of the following herbs/spices were considered: cloves (Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & Perry), American peppertree (Schinus molle L.), black pepper and white pepper (Piper nigrum L.), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), sage (Salvia officinalis L.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.). Homogeneity, origin, and chemotypes of the investigated lots of each herb/spice were defined by fingerprinting, through statistical elaboration with principal component analysis (PCA). Characterizing aromatic markers were directly quantified on the solid matrix through multiple headspace extraction-HS-SPME (MHS-SPME). Reliable results were obtained with both separative and non-separative methods (where the latter were applicable); the two were in full agreement, RSD% ranging from 1.8 to 7.7% for eugenol in cloves, 2.2-18.4% for carvacrol+thymol in thyme, and 3.1-16.8% for thujones in sage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Radiopaque anastomosis marker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, D.P.; Halseth, W.L.

    1977-01-01

    This invention relates to split ring markers fabricated in whole or in part from a radiopaque material, usually metal, having the terminal ends thereof and a medial portion formed to define eyelets by means of which said marker can be sutured to the tissue at the site of an anastomosis to provide a visual indication of its location when examined fluoroscopically

  1. Recent advances in candidate-gene and whole-genome approaches to the discovery of anthelmintic resistance markers and the description of drug/receptor interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew C. Kotze

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthelmintic resistance has a great impact on livestock production systems worldwide, is an emerging concern in companion animal medicine, and represents a threat to our ongoing ability to control human soil-transmitted helminths. The Consortium for Anthelmintic Resistance and Susceptibility (CARS provides a forum for scientists to meet and discuss the latest developments in the search for molecular markers of anthelmintic resistance. Such markers are important for detecting drug resistant worm populations, and indicating the likely impact of the resistance on drug efficacy. The molecular basis of resistance is also important for understanding how anthelmintics work, and how drug resistant populations arise. Changes to target receptors, drug efflux and other biological processes can be involved. This paper reports on the CARS group meeting held in August 2013 in Perth, Australia. The latest knowledge on the development of molecular markers for resistance to each of the principal classes of anthelmintics is reviewed. The molecular basis of resistance is best understood for the benzimidazole group of compounds, and we examine recent work to translate this knowledge into useful diagnostics for field use. We examine recent candidate-gene and whole-genome approaches to understanding anthelmintic resistance and identify markers. We also look at drug transporters in terms of providing both useful markers for resistance, as well as opportunities to overcome resistance through the targeting of the transporters themselves with inhibitors. Finally, we describe the tools available for the application of the newest high-throughput sequencing technologies to the study of anthelmintic resistance.

  2. Radioactive Waste Management Basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, B.K.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this Radioactive Waste Management Basis is to describe the systematic approach for planning, executing, and evaluating the management of radioactive waste at LLNL. The implementation of this document will ensure that waste management activities at LLNL are conducted in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and the Implementation Guide for DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. Technical justification is provided where methods for meeting the requirements of DOE Order 435.1 deviate from the DOE Manual 435.1-1 and Implementation Guide.

  3. Incorporation of conventional genetic markers and RAPD markers into an RFLP based map in maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coe, E.H. Jr.; McMullen, M.D.; Polacco, M.; Davis, G.L.; Chao, S.

    1998-01-01

    Integration of classical genetic markers, in particular mutants, onto the maize Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) map will provide the tools necessary to further our understanding of plant development and of complex traits. Initially integration was accomplished by visual alignment of common markers and sometimes involved the use of information from several different molecular maps to determine the relative placement of a single mutant. The maize core marker set was designed to provide a common set of markers which could be used for integration of map data. We have completed the mapping, of 56 mutants on chromosome one relative to the core marker set. Phenotypes included whole plant, seedling, and kernel effects and represented a variety of biological processes. Since these mutants were previously located to chromosome arm, mapping required the use of only seven markers per mutant to define the correct bin location. Two mistakes in marker order relative to the classical map were identified, as well as, six groups of mutants which require allelism testing. Placement of mutants and cDNAs into bins using, the core markers provides a necessary resource for identification of gene function in maize. (author)

  4. SCIENTIFIC BASIS OF DENTISTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yegane GÜVEN

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Technological and scientific innovations have increased exponentially over the past years in the dentistry profession. In this article, these developments are evaluated both in terms of clinical practice and their place in the educational program. The effect of the biologic and digital revolutions on dental education and daily clinical practice are also reviewed. Biomimetics, personalized dental medicine regenerative dentistry, nanotechnology, high-end simulations providing virtual reality, genomic information, and stem cell studies will gain more importance in the coming years, moving dentistry to a different dimension.

  5. Accuracy of marker-assisted selection with auxiliary traits

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Genetic information on molecular markers is increasingly being used in plant and animal improvement programmes particularly as indirect means to improve a metric trait by selection either on an individual basis or on the basis of an index incorporating such information. This paper examines the utility of an index of ...

  6. The bio markers of ionizing radiation; Los biomarcadores de las radaiciones ionizantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pernot, E.; Cardis, E.

    2011-07-01

    This article reviews bio markers currently used to study the biological effects of ionizing radiation and proposed a classification based on the time of onset of biological effects related to exposure time and persistence over time.

  7. ITER technical basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-01-01

    Following on from the Final Report of the EDA(DS/21), and the summary of the ITER Final Design report(DS/22), the technical basis gives further details of the design of ITER. It is in two parts. The first, the Plant Design specification, summarises the main constraints on the plant design and operation from the viewpoint of engineering and physics assumptions, compliance with safety regulations, and siting requirements and assumptions. The second, the Plant Description Document, describes the physics performance and engineering characteristics of the plant design, illustrates the potential operational consequences foe the locality of a generic site, gives the construction, commissioning, exploitation and decommissioning schedule, and reports the estimated lifetime costing based on data from the industry of the EDA parties.

  8. ITER technical basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Following on from the Final Report of the EDA(DS/21), and the summary of the ITER Final Design report(DS/22), the technical basis gives further details of the design of ITER. It is in two parts. The first, the Plant Design specification, summarises the main constraints on the plant design and operation from the viewpoint of engineering and physics assumptions, compliance with safety regulations, and siting requirements and assumptions. The second, the Plant Description Document, describes the physics performance and engineering characteristics of the plant design, illustrates the potential operational consequences foe the locality of a generic site, gives the construction, commissioning, exploitation and decommissioning schedule, and reports the estimated lifetime costing based on data from the industry of the EDA parties

  9. Multiple marker abundance profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hooper, Cornelia M.; Stevens, Tim J.; Saukkonen, Anna

    2017-01-01

    proteins and the scoring accuracy of lower-abundance proteins in Arabidopsis. NPAS was combined with subcellular protein localization data, facilitating quantitative estimations of organelle abundance during routine experimental procedures. A suite of targeted proteomics markers for subcellular compartment...

  10. (DArT) markers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2EH Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovation (NSW Department of Industry and Investment and Charles Sturt. University), P. O. Box 588 Wagga Wagga, NSW 2650, Australia. 3Guangxi .... and obtain marker statistics. The exact order of the ...

  11. VT Roadside Historic Markers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Roadside Historic Site Marker program has proven an effective way to commemorate Vermont’s many people, events, and places of regional, statewide, or national...

  12. A common biological basis of obesity and nicotine addiction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.E. Thorgeirsson (Thorgeir); D.F. Gudbjartsson (Daniel); P. Sulem (Patrick); S. Besenbacher (Søren); U. Styrkarsdottir (Unnur); G. Thorleifsson (Gudmar); G.B. Walters (Bragi); H. Furberg (Helena); P. Sullivan (Patrick); J. Marchini (Jonathan); M.I. McCarthy (M.); V. Steinthorsdottir (Valgerdur); U. Thorsteinsdottir (Unnur); J-A. Zwart (John-Anker); I. Surakka (Ida); J.M. Vink (Jacqueline); N. Amin (Najaf); F. Geller (Frank); T. Rafnar (Thorunn); T. Esko (Tõnu); S. Walter (Stefan); C. Gieger (Christian); R. Rawal (R.); M. Mangino (Massimo); I. Prokopenko (Inga); R. Mägi (Reedik); K. Keskitalo (Kaisu); I.H. Gudjonsdottir (Iris); S. Gretarsdottir (Solveig); H. Stefansson (Hreinn); Y.S. Aulchenko (Yurii); M. Nelis (Mari); K.K.H. Aben (Katja); M. den Heijer (Martin); N. Soranzo (Nicole); A.M. Valdes (Ana Maria); C.J. Steves (Claire); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); A. Hofman (Albert); A. Tönjes (Anke); P. Kovacs (Peter); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); G.A.H.M. Willemsen (Gonneke); N. Vogelzangs (Nicole); A. Döring (Angela); N. Dahmen (N.); B. Nitz (Barbara); S. Ripatti (Samuli); M. Perola (Markus); J. Kettunen (Johannes); A.L. Hartikainen; A. Pouta (Anneli); J. Laitinen (Jaana); M.K. Isohanni (Matti); S. Huei-Yi (Shen); M. Allen (Maxine); M. Krestyaninova (Maria); A. Hall (Anne); J.R. Thompson (John); H. Oskarsson (Hogni); T. Tyrfingsson (Thorarinn); L.A.L.M. Kiemeney (Bart); M.-R. Jarvelin (Marjo-Riitta); V. Salomaa (Veikko); M. Stumvoll (Michael); T.D. Spector (Timothy); H.E. Wichmann (Heinz Erich); A. Metspalu (Andres); N.J. Samani (Nilesh); B.W.J.H. Penninx (Brenda); B.A. Oostra (Ben); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); J. Kaprio (Jaakko); J.R. Gulcher (Jeffrey); Y. Kim (Yunjung); J. Dackor (Jennifer); E.A. Boerwinkle (Eric); N. Franceschini (Nora); D. Ardissino (Diego); L. Bernardinelli (Luisa); P.M. Mannucci (Pier); F. Mauri (Francesco); P.A. Merlini (Piera); D. Absher (Devin); T.L. Assimes (Themistocles); S.P. Fortmann (Stephen); C. Iribarren (Carlos); J.W. Knowles (Joshua); T. Quertermous (Thomas); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); J.C. Bis (Joshua); H. Furberg (Helena); T. Haritunians (Talin); B. McKnight (Barbara); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); K.D. Taylor (Kent); E.L. Thacker (Evan); P. Almgren (Peter); L. Groop (Leif); C. Ladenvall (Claes); M. Boehnke (Michael); A.U. Jackson (Anne); K.L. Mohlke (Karen); H.M. Stringham (Heather); J. Tuomilehto (Jaakko); E.J. Benjamin (Emelia); S.J. Hwang; D. Levy (Daniel); S.R. Preis; R.S. Vasan (Ramachandran Srini); J. Duan (Jubao); P.V. Gejman (Pablo); D.F. Levinson (Douglas); A.R. Sanders (Alan); J. Shi (Jianxin); E.H. Lips (Esther); J.D. McKay (James); A. Agudo (Antonio); L. Barzan (Luigi); V. Bencko (Vladimir); S. Benhamou (Simone); X. Castellsagué (Xavier); C. Canova (Cristina); D.I. Conway (David); E. Fabianova (Eleonora); L. Foretova (Lenka); V. Janout (Vladimir); C.M. Healy (Claire); I. Holcátová (Ivana); K. Kjaerheim (Kristina); P. Lagiou; J. Lissowska (Jolanta); R. Lowry (Ray); T.V. MacFarlane (Tatiana); D. Mates (Dana); L. Richiardi (Lorenzo); P. Rudnai (Peter); N. Szeszenia-Dabrowska (Neonilia); D. Zaridze; A. Znaor (Ariana); M. Lathrop (Mark); P. Brennan (Paul); S. Bandinelli (Stefania); T.M. Frayling (Timothy); J.M. Guralnik (Jack); Y. Milaneschi (Yuri); J.R.B. Perry (John); D. Altshuler (David); R. Elosua (Roberto); S. Kathiresan (Sekar); G. Lucas (Gavin); O. Melander (Olle); C.J. O'Donnell (Christopher); S.M. Schwartz (Stephen); B.F. Voight (Benjamin); G.D. Smith; E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); S.J. Chanock (Stephen); F. Gu (Fangyi); S.E. Hankinson (Susan); D. Hunter (David); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); B.M. Everett (Brendan); G. Paré (Guillaume); P.M. Ridker (Paul); M.D. Li (Ming); H.H. Maes (Hermine); J. Audrain-Mcgovern (Janet); D. Posthuma (Danielle); L.M. Thornton (Laura); C. Lerman (Caryn); J.E. Rose (Jed); J.P.A. Ioannidis (John); P. Kraft (Peter); D.Y. Lin (Dan); J. Liu (Jason); P. Muglia (Pierandrea); D. Waterworth (Dawn); A.D. Pillai (Ajay); P. Muglia (Pierandrea); L. Middleton (Lefkos); W. Berrettini (Wade); C.W. Knouff (Christopher); X. Yuan (Xin); G. Waeber (Gérard); P. Vollenweider (Peter); M. Preisig (Martin); N.J. Wareham (Nick); J.H. Zhao (Jing Hua); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth); I.E. Barroso (Inês); K-T. Khaw (Kay-Tee); S.M. Grundy (Scott); P. Barter (Phil); R. Mahley (Robert); Y.A. Kesaniemi (Antero); R. McPherson (Ruth); J. Vincent (John); J.S. Strauss (John S); J. Kennedy (James); A.E. Farmer (Anne E); P. Mcguffin (Peter); R.N. Day (Richard); K. Matthews (Keith); A.B. Bakke (Arnold B.); A. Gulsvik (Amund); S. Lucae (Susanne); M. Ising (Marcus); T. Brueckl (Tanja); S. Horstmann (Sonja); J. Heinrich (Joachim); C. Lamina (Claudia); O. Polasek (Ozren); L. Zgaga (Lina); J.E. Huffman (Jennifer); S. Campbell (Susan); J.S. Kooner (Jaspal); J.C. Chambers (John); M.S. Burnett; J. Devaney (Joseph); A.D. Pichard; K.M. Kent (Kenneth); L.F. Satler; J.M. Lindsay (Joseph); R. Waksman (Ron); S.E. Epstein (Stephen); J.F. Wilson (James); S.H. Wild (Sarah); H. Campbell (Harry); V. Vitart (Veronique); M.P. Reilly (Muredach); M. Li (Mingyao); L. Qu (Liming); A. Wilensky (Asaf); W. Matthai (William); H. Hakonarson (Hakon); D.J. Rader (Daniel); A. Franke (Andre); M. Wittig (Michael); A. Schäfer (Arne); M. Uda (Manuela); A. Terracciano; X. Xiao (Xiangjun); F. Busonero; P. Scheet (Paul); D. Schlessinger; D.S. Clair; D. Rujescu (Dan); G.R. Abecasis (Gonçalo); H.J. Grabe (Hans Jörgen); A. Teumer (Alexander); H. Völzke (Henry); A. Petersmann (Astrid); U. John (Ulrich); I. Rudan (Igor); C. Hayward (Caroline); A.F. Wright (Alan); I. Kolcic (Ivana); B.J. Wright (Benjamin); A.J. Balmforth (Anthony); C. Anderson (Carl); T. Ahmed (Tariq); J. Mathew (Joseph); M. Parkes (Miles); J. Satsangi (Jack); M. Caulfield (Mark); P. Munroe (Patricia); M. Farrall (Martin); A. Dominiczak (Anna); H. Worthington (Helen); W. Thomson (Wendy); D.S. Eyre (Dylan Samuel); A. Barton (Anne); V. Mooser (Vincent); C. Francks (Clyde)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractSmoking influences body weight such that smokers weigh less than non-smokers and smoking cessation often leads to weight increase. The relationship between body weight and smoking is partly explained by the effect of nicotine on appetite and metabolism. However, the brain reward system

  13. [Biological basis of problematic internet use (PIN) and therapeutic implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauernhofer, Kathrin; Papousek, Ilona; Fink, Andreas; Unterrainer, Human Friedrich; Weiss, Elisabeth M

    2015-01-01

    The repetitive excessive use of internet has led to an increasing number of reports about the negative consequences of overuse and is now viewed as an important public health issue, although the diagnosis of internet addiction remains problematic. Increasing knowledge about the neurobiological mechanism of behavioral addictions will promote future research and is essential for the development of specific and effective treatment. Growing evidence suggests that the neurobiological substrates and pathways of internet addiction resemble those of substance dependency and other forms of behavioral addictions. This paper reviews the current neuroimaging findings and genetic influencing factors for problematic internet use (PIN)/internet addiction. Recent evidence from neuro-scientific studies has pointed out that certain dysfunctions in the prefrontal cortex possibly driven by impaired dopamine neurotransmission are related to symptoms of internet addiction. Finally the literature on psychological and pharmacological interventions for internet addiction will be discussed. However, due to a lack of methodological sound treatment studies in this field it is currently impossible to recommend any evidence-based treatment of internet addiction.

  14. Cognition and Rhetoric: Biological Basis of Meaning and Understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Arenas-Dolz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is twofold: on the one hand, to explore those approaches that understand cognitive processes as embodied and as a result of our interaction with the environment, and not merely as as a information processing system; and, on the other hand, to show their connexion with the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying meaning and understanding, giving and overview of some of the insights from recent studies in neurorhetorics.

  15. Investigating the genetic and epigenetic basis of big biological ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Günter Vogt

    2018-02-14

    Feb 14, 2018 ... advantage of producing high numbers of genetically identi- cal offspring. ..... For net culture, small containers should be filled to a water level of about ...... The availability of the genome of marbled crayfish now enables further ...

  16. The biological basis for dose limitation to the skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1992-01-01

    Ionizing radiation may cause deterministic effects and cancer. It has been the policy to base dose limits for radiation protection of the skin on the prevention of deterministic effects (1). In the case of cancer in general, dose limitation for radiation protection is based on limiting excess cancer mortality to low levels of radiation. Since skin cancers are seldom lethal, the general radiation protection standards will protect against an increase in excess mortality from skin cancer. However, with the dose limits selected to prevent deterministic effects, there is a significant probability of an excess incidence of skin cancer occurring as a result of exposure during a working lifetime. The induction of skin cancer by radiation is influenced significantly by subsequent exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) from sunlight. This finding raises not only interesting questions about the mechanisms involved, but also about the differences in risk of skin cancer in different populations. The amount and distribution of melanin in the skin determines the degree of the effect of UVR. This paper discusses the mechanisms of the induction of both deterministic and stochastic effects in skin exposed to radiation in relation to radiation protection. (author)

  17. Biological basis of tree-ring formation: a crash course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyrille Barthélémy Karl Rathgeber

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Wood is of crucial importance for man and biosphere. In this mini review, we present the fundamental processes involved in tree-ring formation and intra-annual dynamics of cambial activity, along with the influences of the environmental factors. During wood formation, new xylem cells produced by the cambium are undergoing profound transformations, passing through successive differentiation stages, which enable them to perform their functions in trees. Xylem cell formation can be divided in five major phases: (1 the division of a cambial mother cell that creates a new cell; (2 the enlargement of this newly formed cell; (3 the deposition of its secondary wall; (4 the lignification of its cell wall; and finally, (5 its programmed cell death. In most regions of the world cambial activity follows a seasonal cycle. At the beginning of the growing season, when temperature increases, the cambium resumes activity, producing new xylem cells. These cells are disposed along radial files, and start their differentiation program according to their birth date, creating typical developmental strips in the forming xylem. The width of these strips smoothly changes along the growing season. Finally, when climatic conditions deteriorate (temperature or water availability in particular, cambial activity stops, soon followed by cell enlargement, and later on by secondary wall deposition. Without a clear understanding of the xylem formation process, it is not possible to comprehend how annual growth rings and typical wood structures are formed, recording seasonal variations of the environment as well as extreme climatic events.

  18. Epigenetics and the Biological Basis of Gene x Environment Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagot, Rosemary C.; Meaney, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Child and adolescent psychiatry is rife with examples of the sustained effects of early experience on brain function. The study of behavioral genetics provides evidence for a relation between genomic variation and personality and with the risk for psychopathology. A pressing challenge is that of "conceptually" integrating findings from…

  19. Physical and biological basis of hadron radiotherapy. Book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-09-01

    The Workshop was a satellite event of the 14 th International Congress of Radiation Research (ICRR-2011). It was held in Cracow, Poland, on the 2 and 3 September 2011, at the Collegium Novum of the Jagiellonian University. The Workshop organized, jointly by the Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Polish Academy of Sciences and the Polish Radiation Research Society, would provide its participants with an opportunity to discuss current topics in proton and carbon radiotherapy, clinical aspects of ion radiotherapy, ion beam dosimetry, unwanted patient exposure, radiobiology for ion radiotherapy and other relevant subjects. Book of Abstracts contains abstracts of 33 oral presentations and 12 posters.

  20. Organisms modeling: The question of radial basis function networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzy Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There exists usually a gap between bio-inspired computational techniques and what biologists can do with these techniques in their current researches. Although biology is the root of system-theory and artifical neural networks, computer scientists are tempted to build their own systems independently of biological issues. This publication is a first-step re-evalution of an usual machine learning technique (radial basis funtion(RBF networks in the context of systems and biological reactive organisms.

  1. Serum and urinary biochemical markers for knee and hip-osteoarthritis: a systematic review applying the consensus BIPED criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spil, W.E. van; Groot, J. de; Lems, W.F.; Oostveen, J.C.M.; Lafeber, F.P.J.G.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Molecules that are released into biological fluids during matrix metabolism of articular cartilage, subchondral bone, and synovial tissue could serve as biochemical markers of the process of osteoarthritis (OA). Unfortunately, actual breakthroughs in the biochemical OA marker field are

  2. Genetic basis of endocrine pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V. Sorokman

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the review was analysis of literature data relating to the molecular genetic basis and diagnosis of endocrine pathology. We searched for published and unpublished researches using Pubmed as the search engine by the keywords: ‘genes’, ‘endocrine diseases’, ‘molecular diagnostics’, ‘prohormones’, ‘nuclear receptors and transcription factors’, taking into consideration studies conducted over the last 10 years, citation review of relevant primary and review articles, conference abstracts, personal files, and contact with expert informants. The criterion for the selection of articles for the study was based on their close relevance to the topic, thus out of 144 analyzed articles, the findings of the researchers covered in 32 articles were crucial. The described nosologies presented various heredi­tary forms of hypopituitarism, disturbances of steroid hormone biosynthesis, abnormal gender formation, monogenic forms of diabetes mellitus, endocrine tumors, etc. Pathology is identified that is associated with a mutation of genes encoding protein prohormones, receptors, steroid biosynthesis enzymes, intracellular signaling molecules, transport proteins, ion channels, and transcription factors. Among the endocrine diseases associated with defects in genes encoding protein prohormones, the defects of the GH1 gene are most common, the defects in the gene CYP21A2 (21-hydroxylase are among diseases associated with defects in genes encoding enzymes. More often mutations of genes encoding proteins belong to the class of G-protein coupled receptors. Most of the mutations associated with MEN-2A are concentrated in the rich cysteine region of the Ret receptor. More than 70 monogenic syndromes are known, in which there is a marked tolerance to glucose and some form of diabetes mellitus is diagnosed, diabetes mellitus caused by mutation of the mitochondrial gene (mutation tRNALeu, UUR is also detected. Of all the monogenic forms of

  3. Tumour markers in urology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, L.; Fornara, P.; Fabricius, P.G.

    1988-01-01

    The same applies essentially also for the bladder carcinomas: There is no reliable marker for these cancers which would be useful for clinical purposes. TPA has proven to be too non-specific in malignoma-detection and therefore hardly facilitates clinical decision-making in individual cases. The CEA is not sensitive enough to be recommendable for routine application. However, in advanced stages a CEA examination may be useful if applied within the scope of therapeutic efforts made to evaluate efficacy. In cases of carcinomas of the prostate the sour prostate-specific phosphatase (SPP) and, more recently, especially the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) have proven in follow-up and therapy monitoring, whereby the PSA is superior to the SPP. Nevertheless, both these markers should be employed in therapy monitoring because differences in behaviour will be observed when the desired treatment effect is only achieved in one of the two markers producing tumour cell clonuses. Both markers, but especially the PSA, are quite reliably in agreement with the result of the introduced chemo-/hormone therapy, whereby an increase may be a sure indicator of relapse several months previous to clinical symptoms, imaging procedures, so-called routine laboratory results and subjective complaints. However, none of the 2 markers is appropriate for the purposes of screening or early diagnosis of carcinomas of the prostate. (orig.) [de

  4. Prognostic molecular markers in early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteva, Francisco J; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N

    2004-01-01

    A multitude of molecules involved in breast cancer biology have been studied as potential prognostic markers. In the present review we discuss the role of established molecular markers, as well as potential applications of emerging new technologies. Those molecules used routinely to make treatment decisions in patients with early-stage breast cancer include markers of proliferation (e.g. Ki-67), hormone receptors, and the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. Tumor markers shown to have prognostic value but not used routinely include cyclin D 1 and cyclin E, urokinase-like plasminogen activator/plasminogen activator inhibitor, and cathepsin D. The level of evidence for other molecular markers is lower, in part because most studies were retrospective and not adequately powered, making their findings unsuitable for choosing treatments for individual patients. Gene microarrays have been successfuly used to classify breast cancers into subtypes with specific gene expression profiles and to evaluate prognosis. RT-PCR has also been used to evaluate expression of multiple genes in archival tissue. Proteomics technologies are in development

  5. Biological Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... E-Tools Safety and Health Topics / Biological Agents Biological Agents This page requires that javascript be enabled ... 202) 693-2300 if additional assistance is required. Biological Agents Menu Overview In Focus: Ebola Frederick A. ...

  6. Screening for the anti-inflammation quality markers of Xiaojin Pills based on HPLC-MS/MS method, COX-2 inhibition test and protein interaction network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xi; He, Ya-Nan; Feng, Bi; Pan, Yuan; Zhang, Hai-Zhu; Ke, Xiu-Mei; Zhang, Yi; Yang, Ming; Han, Li; Zhang, Ding-Kun

    2018-05-10

    Nowadays, breast disorders seriously affect women's health in an increasing number. In China, Xiaojin Pills are commonly used in the treatment of breast diseases. Doctors have concluded that the combined use of Xiaojin Pills with conventional therapy can significantly improve the efficacy with fewer side effects. However, the prescription of Xiaojin Pills is complicated and their quality control methods cannot completely ensure the quality of Xiaojin Pills. On the basis of its mechanism, our study combined chemical evaluation and biological evaluation to identify the anti-inflammatory markers of Xiaojin Pills. In this manuscript, 13 compounds in Xiaojin Pills were quantified. At the same time, the cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition rates of different Xiaojin Pills were measured and the possible markers were screened by spectrum-effect relationship. Further, anti-inflammatory activities of markers were verified and protein interaction network was analyzed, identifying the components of Protocatechuate, Beta-Boswellic acid and Levistilide A as the anti-inflammatory quality markers of Xiaojin Pills. We hope our studies can provide a scientific theoretical basis for accurately quality control of Xiaojin Pills and reasonable suggestions for pharmaceutical companies and new ideas for the quality control of other medicines.

  7. The Swift Turbidity Marker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Ahmad Fairuz; MatJafri, Mohd Zubir

    2011-01-01

    The Swift Turbidity Marker is an optical instrument developed to measure the level of water turbidity. The components and configuration selected for the system are based on common turbidity meter design concepts but use a simplified methodology to produce rapid turbidity measurements. This work is aimed at high school physics students and is the…

  8. Magik Markers Trehvis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Müra-rock'i viljelevast USA duost Magik Markers (ansambel osaleb režissöör Veiko Õunapuu uue mängufilmi "Püha Tõnu kiusamine" võtetel, kontsert 15. nov. Tartus klubis Trehv, vt. www.magikmarkers.audiosport.org.)

  9. Structural Biology Guides Antibiotic Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyak, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Modern drug discovery programs require the contribution of researchers in a number of specialist areas. One of these areas is structural biology. Using X-ray crystallography, the molecular basis of how a drug binds to its biological target and exerts its mode of action can be defined. For example, a drug that binds into the active site of an…

  10. Significance Of Immunohistochemical Markers In Diagnostics Of Urinary Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Medvedeva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of surgical and biopsy material 106 patients with diseases of urinary bladder have been under study. They received treatment at Scientific Research Institute of Fundamental and Clinical Uronephrology of Saratov State Medical University. 13 immunohistochemical markers have been evaluated: markers of proliferative activity - Ki-67, PCNA, p63, suppressor of tumor growth - p53, markers of apoptosis - Bcl-2, Bax, receptor of epidermal growth factors - EGFR, cytokeratin profile - (CK7, CK8, CK10/13, CK 17, CK18, CK19, as well as their diagnostic significance for identifying the urinary bladder cancer

  11. [Basis for designing a medical course curriculum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, R; Bojalil, L F; Mercer, H

    1977-01-01

    This article sets forth the reasons for the structure given to the Division of Biology and Health on the Xochimilco campus of Metropolitan Autonomous University in Mexico: to adjust the university to the process of social change going forward in the country and gear the university to the problems of the present by avoiding the rigidity of its structure. The basic aspects of curriculum design are cited against a background of an historical analysis of the socioeconomic structure of education and health. The principles underlying the curriculum and the course work are then described on the basis of that analysis.

  12. Generation and application of SSR markers in avocado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharon, D.; Lavi, U.; Cregan, P.B.; Hillel, J.

    1998-01-01

    Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) DNA markers were generated and applied to avocado. An SSR marker is based on a pair of primers which are synthesized on the basis of DNA sequences flanking a micro satellite. These markers are PCR based, quite polymorphic and abundant in several species. These are the markers, of choice in the human genome. The number of SSR markers in the avocado genome was calculated to be about 45,000, with the A/T micro satellite being the most frequent (1 in 40 kb). SSR markers are quite expensive to generate due to the required multi-step procedure; Screening a genomic library, about 66% of the positive clones turned out after sequencing to be SSR containing clones. In only about 55% of these, was it possible to synthesize primers and, of this group, only about 50% of the markers were useful for typing a specific family. Typing of five avocado cultivars using 59 SSR markers results in one to eight alleles per locus, mean heterozygosity ranging between 0.51 and 0.66 and gene diversity ranging between 0.42 and 0.66. The SSR markers were used to estimate the genetic relationships between various Persea species. The number of alleles in these species ranged between five and twelve with heterozygosity levels between 0.11-0.78 and gene diversity between 0.69-0.89. A preliminary genetic map, based on these SSR markers together with some DNA fingerprints (DFP) and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers, was drawn. The map consists of 12 linkage group having two to five markers each. Linkage analysis with several quantitative trait loci (QTLs) was performed by genetic typing and phenotypic assessment of the progeny of a controlled cross. The results of the interval mapping suggest that the gene(s) coding for the existence of fibers in the flesh, are probably linked to linkage group 3. (author)

  13. Generation and application of SSR markers in avocado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharon, D; Lavi, U [Institute of Horticulture, ARO Volcani Center, Bet-Dagan (Israel); Cregan, P B [United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville, Maryland (United States); Hillel, J [Faculty of Agriculture, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot (Israel)

    1998-10-01

    Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) DNA markers were generated and applied to avocado. An SSR marker is based on a pair of primers which are synthesized on the basis of DNA sequences flanking a micro satellite. These markers are PCR based, quite polymorphic and abundant in several species. These are the markers, of choice in the human genome. The number of SSR markers in the avocado genome was calculated to be about 45,000, with the A/T micro satellite being the most frequent (1 in 40 kb). SSR markers are quite expensive to generate due to the required multi-step procedure; Screening a genomic library, about 66% of the positive clones turned out after sequencing to be SSR containing clones. In only about 55% of these, was it possible to synthesize primers and, of this group, only about 50% of the markers were useful for typing a specific family. Typing of five avocado cultivars using 59 SSR markers results in one to eight alleles per locus, mean heterozygosity ranging between 0.51 and 0.66 and gene diversity ranging between 0.42 and 0.66. The SSR markers were used to estimate the genetic relationships between various Persea species. The number of alleles in these species ranged between five and twelve with heterozygosity levels between 0.11-0.78 and gene diversity between 0.69-0.89. A preliminary genetic map, based on these SSR markers together with some DNA fingerprints (DFP) and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers, was drawn. The map consists of 12 linkage group having two to five markers each. Linkage analysis with several quantitative trait loci (QTLs) was performed by genetic typing and phenotypic assessment of the progeny of a controlled cross. The results of the interval mapping suggest that the gene(s) coding for the existence of fibers in the flesh, are probably linked to linkage group 3. (author) 20 refs, 3 figs, 8 tabs

  14. REFORMASI SISTEM AKUNTANSI CASH BASIS MENUJU SISTEM AKUNTANSI ACCRUAL BASIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Rahayu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract –  Accounting reform movement was born with the aim of structuring the direction of improvement . This movement is characterized by the enactment of the Act of 2003 and Act 1 of 2004, which became the basis of the birth of Government Regulation No.24 of 2005 on Government Accounting Standards ( SAP . The general,  accounting is based on two systems,  the cash basis  and the accrual basis. The facts speak far students still at problem with differences to the two methods that result in a lack of understanding on the treatment system for recording. The purpose method of research is particularly relevant to student references who are learning basic accounting so that it can provide information and more meaningful understanding of the accounting method cash basis and Accrual basis. This research was conducted through a normative approach, by tracing the document that references a study/library that combines source of reference that can be believed either from books and the internet are processed with a foundation of knowledge and experience of the author. The conclusion can be drawn that basically to be able to understand the difference of the system and the Cash Basis accrual student base treatment requires an understanding of both methods. To be able to have the ability and understanding of both systems required reading exercises and reference sources.   Keywords : Reform, cash basis, accrual basis   Abstrak - Gerakan reformasi akuntansi dilahirkan dengan tujuan penataan ke arah perbaikan. Gerakan ini  ditandai dengan dikeluarkannya  Undang-Undang tahun 2003 dan Undang-Undang No.1 Tahun 2004  yang menjadi dasar lahirnya Peraturan Pemerintah No.24 Tahun 2005 tentang Standar Akuntansi Pemerintah (SAP . Pada umumnya pencatatan akuntansi di dasarkan pada dua sistem yaitu basis kas (Cash Basis dan basis akrual  (Accrual Basis. Fakta berbicara Selama ini mahasiswa masih dibinggungkan dengan perbedaan ke dua metode itu sehingga

  15. The urine marker test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elbe, Anne-Marie; Jensen, Stine Nylandsted; Elsborg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urine sample collection for doping control tests is a key component of the World Anti-Doping Agency's fight against doping in sport. However, a substantial number of athletes experience difficulty when having to urinate under supervision. Furthermore, it cannot always be ensured...... that athletes are actually delivering their own urine. A method that can be used to alleviate the negative impact of a supervised urination procedure and which can also identify urine as coming from a specific athlete is the urine marker test. Monodisperse low molecular weight polyethylene glycols (PEGs......) are given orally prior to urination. Urine samples can be traced to the donor by analysis of the PEGs previously given. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the use of the urine marker during urine doping control testing. METHODS: Two studies investigated athletes' acceptance...

  16. Modern Biology

    OpenAIRE

    ALEKSIC, Branko

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this course is to learn the philosophy, principles, and techniques of modern biology. The course is particularly designed for those who have not learned biology previously or whose major is other than biology, and who may think that they do not need to know any biology at all. The topics are covered in a rather general, overview manner, but certain level of diligence in grasping concepts and memorizing the terminology is expected.

  17. Mathematical biology

    CERN Document Server

    Murray, James D

    1993-01-01

    The book is a textbook (with many exercises) giving an in-depth account of the practical use of mathematical modelling in the biomedical sciences. The mathematical level required is generally not high and the emphasis is on what is required to solve the real biological problem. The subject matter is drawn, e.g. from population biology, reaction kinetics, biological oscillators and switches, Belousov-Zhabotinskii reaction, reaction-diffusion theory, biological wave phenomena, central pattern generators, neural models, spread of epidemics, mechanochemical theory of biological pattern formation and importance in evolution. Most of the models are based on real biological problems and the predictions and explanations offered as a direct result of mathematical analysis of the models are important aspects of the book. The aim is to provide a thorough training in practical mathematical biology and to show how exciting and novel mathematical challenges arise from a genuine interdisciplinary involvement with the biosci...

  18. Biological radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiefer, J.

    1989-01-01

    The book covers all aspects of biological radiation effects. The physical basis is dealt with in some detail, and the effects at the subcellular and the cellular level are discussed, taking into account modern developments and techniques. The effects on the human organism are reviewed, both from the point of view of applications in medicine as well as with regard to radiation hazards (teratogenic, gonadal and carcinogenic effects)

  19. Developmental Dyslexia: Early Precursors, Neurobehavioral Markers, and Biological Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benasich, April A., Ed.; Fitch, R. Holly, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the precursors and early indicators of dyslexia is key to early identification and effective intervention. Now there's a single research volume that brings together the very latest knowledge on the earliest stages of dyslexia and the diverse genetic, neurobiological, and cognitive factors that may contribute to it. Based on findings…

  20. Biological Variation and Diagnostic Accuracy of Dehydration Assessment Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    450 kcal; 57% carbohydrate, 30% fat, 13% protein, and 450 mg Na+) and 0.2 L water or apple juice . No additional food or water was permitted, and...hypotonic hypovolemia (6–8, 10). De- hydration predictably modulates renal function and urine composition in accordance with the deficit of body water...Costill DL, Cotè R, Fink W. Muscle water and electrolytes following varied levels of dehydration in man. J Appl Physiol 1976;40:6–11. 10. Feig PU, McCurdy

  1. Prognostic value of biological markers in myocardial infarction patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezin, Alexander E; Samura, Tatiana A

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the prognostic value of matrix metalloproteinase-3 and -9, and NT-pro-natriuretic peptide for fatal and nonfatal complications in Q-wave myocardial infarction patients in the acute and postinfarction periods. 85 men and women with documented Q-wave myocardial infarction were observed for 1 year after hospitalization. Clinical endpoints were identified through the hospital patient-tracking system, with a review of medical records for each recorded endpoint. Left ventricular ejection fraction and wall motion index were calculated. Measurements of matrix metalloproteinases and NT-pro-natriuretic peptide were performed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A cutoff value of 9.7 ng·mL(-1) for matrix metalloproteinase-3 showed the best discriminatory power (sensitivity = 77.8%, specificity = 90.8%). The optimal cutoff value of matrix metalloproteinase-9 was 18.1 ng·mL(-1) (sensitivity, 70.5%; specificity, 75%), and the cutoff for NT-pro-natriuretic peptide was 885 pmol·L(-1) (sensitivity, 58%; specificity, 68.6%). Matrix metalloproteinase-3 and -9 were strongly related with a positive prognostic value of 70% (sensitivity and specificity, 84% and 82%, respectively). These data may be helpful for further stratification of patients into cardiovascular mortality risk groups.

  2. Hair cortisol as a biological marker for burnout symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penz, Marlene; Stalder, Tobias; Miller, Robert; Ludwig, Vera M; Kanthak, Magdalena K; Kirschbaum, Clemens

    2018-01-01

    Burnout is a syndrome with negative impact on cognitive performance and mood as a consequence of long-term stress at work. It is further associated with increased risk for mental and physical diseases. One potential pathway to mediate chronic work-stress and adverse health conditions in burnout is through alterations in long-term glucocorticoid secretion. Here, we present cross-sectional data on hair cortisol/cortisone (hairF/hairE) concentrations and burnout from a population-based sample of the Dresden Burnout Study (DBS; N=314 hair samples). Burnout symptoms (emotional exhaustion, cynical attitudes toward work, and reduced efficacy) were assessed with the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS). To control for potential confounds, depressivity was as well assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) screening instrument for major depression. The present findings indicate specific hypercortisolism in participants who suffer from burnout. No significant associations were found between depressivity and hairF/hairE. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Lipoprotein (a): a potential biological marker for unruptured intracranial aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, J; Roberts, G; Bolger, C; el Baghdady, A; Bouchier-Hayes, D; Farrell, M; Collins, P

    1997-05-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of intracranial aneurysms (IAs) prior to rupture reduces the high morbidity and mortality associated with their occurrence. Elevated serum lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] level, an independent risk factor for atherogenesis, has been demonstrated in sporadic IA disease (1). The purpose of this study was to assess the degree of correlation between elevated Lp(a) levels and the occurrence of IAs in asymptomatic first degree relatives of index cases from three families exhibiting a familial tendency towards IA development. 25 family members and 41 healthy controls were screened by random serum Lp(a) sampling. All family members received 4-vessel cerebral angiography. Eleven family members were found on angiography to harbour asymptomatic aneurysms and all were successfully treated by surgery. Of these 11, ten had significantly raised serum Lp(a) levels (> 30 mg%). Fourteen family members had negative angiograms. Eight of this latter group, mean age 43.6 +/- 3.8 years, had serum Lp(a) levels above the normal range. Mean Lp(a) levels were 53.7 +/- 1.2 mg% in subjects with aneurysms compared with 22.1 +/- 1.45 mg% in subjects without demonstrable aneurysms and 10.5 +/- 0.48 mg% in the control population. The prevalence of elevated Lp(a) levels in these families and the high degree of association of raised Lp(a) levels with the presence of IAs in several family members warrants follow up of angiographically negative young subjects. We require a case-control study to establish whether particular polymorphisms at the apoprotein (a) gene level are associated with the occurrence of IAs in these families.

  4. Micrologie de Chris Marker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Geneix

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract (E: Using "micrology", as set out by Adorno in Negative Dialectics, this paper tries to
    characterize a central feature of Chris Marker's approach, as iconographer and writer, namely the way
    in which he explores the echoes of history and culture in the singularity and rarity of the documentary.
    As traveller and photographer he catches and collects microcosmic fragments, tying them up and
    editing them in the various frames of the book, the film or the new media.
    Abstract (F: En s'appuyant sur la "micrologie" proposée par Adorno dans la Dialectique négative,
    cet article tente de caractériser un aspect de la démarche de Chris Marker, iconographe et écrivain.
    C'est en effet dans le singulier et la rareté documentaires que ce cinéaste sonde des échos historiques et
    culturels. Voyageur et photographe, il saisit et collectionne des fragments microcosmiques, les liant et
    les montant dans les cadres divers du livre, du film et des nouveaux médias.

  5. Sequence-characterized markers from Begonia x tuberhybrida Voss..

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wiesner, Ivo; Wiesnerová, Dana

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 73, č. 6 (2008), s. 244-247 ISSN 1611-4426 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS500510566 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : Begonia * genetic markers Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.300, year: 2008

  6. Biological therapeutics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greenstein, Ben; Brook, Daniel A

    2011-01-01

    This introductory textbook covers all the main categories of biological medicines, including vaccines, hormonal preparations, drugs for rheumatoid arthritis and other connective tissue diseases, drugs...

  7. Cancer and tumour markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osifo, B.

    1999-02-01

    Cancer has been a major cause of death world wide and in Nigeria there are six commonest forms of manifestation of cancer known. Of these prostrate cancer is the highest with 16% occurrence of all known cancers according to a study by the Histopathology Department of the UCH. Many factors, amongst them dietary, environmental, lifestyle, age and sedentary work are possible causes. With the global rise in incidents, the IAEA initiated the Tumour Marker Project as a means of screening cancers in 15 African countries including Nigeria. In Nigeria, 4 groups of the commonest cancers have been chosen for screening. These are prostrate cancer, primary liver cancer, cancer of the GI tract and trophoblastic cancer

  8. Searching for biological markers of personality : are there neuroendocrine markers of anxiety?

    OpenAIRE

    Armario García, Antonio; Nadal i Alemany, Roser

    2013-01-01

    The existence of stable individual differences in cognitive and emotional capabilities both in animals and humans is well-accepted. The theories of personality assume that such individual differences can be categorized and that the richness of individual differences in humans would be the result of the combination of differences in a few underlying personality factors.

  9. Smart markers for watershed-based cell segmentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Fahrettin Koyuncu

    Full Text Available Automated cell imaging systems facilitate fast and reliable analysis of biological events at the cellular level. In these systems, the first step is usually cell segmentation that greatly affects the success of the subsequent system steps. On the other hand, similar to other image segmentation problems, cell segmentation is an ill-posed problem that typically necessitates the use of domain-specific knowledge to obtain successful segmentations even by human subjects. The approaches that can incorporate this knowledge into their segmentation algorithms have potential to greatly improve segmentation results. In this work, we propose a new approach for the effective segmentation of live cells from phase contrast microscopy. This approach introduces a new set of "smart markers" for a marker-controlled watershed algorithm, for which the identification of its markers is critical. The proposed approach relies on using domain-specific knowledge, in the form of visual characteristics of the cells, to define the markers. We evaluate our approach on a total of 1,954 cells. The experimental results demonstrate that this approach, which uses the proposed definition of smart markers, is quite effective in identifying better markers compared to its counterparts. This will, in turn, be effective in improving the segmentation performance of a marker-controlled watershed algorithm.

  10. Smart markers for watershed-based cell segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyuncu, Can Fahrettin; Arslan, Salim; Durmaz, Irem; Cetin-Atalay, Rengul; Gunduz-Demir, Cigdem

    2012-01-01

    Automated cell imaging systems facilitate fast and reliable analysis of biological events at the cellular level. In these systems, the first step is usually cell segmentation that greatly affects the success of the subsequent system steps. On the other hand, similar to other image segmentation problems, cell segmentation is an ill-posed problem that typically necessitates the use of domain-specific knowledge to obtain successful segmentations even by human subjects. The approaches that can incorporate this knowledge into their segmentation algorithms have potential to greatly improve segmentation results. In this work, we propose a new approach for the effective segmentation of live cells from phase contrast microscopy. This approach introduces a new set of "smart markers" for a marker-controlled watershed algorithm, for which the identification of its markers is critical. The proposed approach relies on using domain-specific knowledge, in the form of visual characteristics of the cells, to define the markers. We evaluate our approach on a total of 1,954 cells. The experimental results demonstrate that this approach, which uses the proposed definition of smart markers, is quite effective in identifying better markers compared to its counterparts. This will, in turn, be effective in improving the segmentation performance of a marker-controlled watershed algorithm.

  11. Tumor markers in colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Luís César [UNIFESP; Matos, Delcio [UNIFESP

    2002-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a clinical entity of a persistent relevance in clinical practice and its early diagnosis is a determinant factor to obtain better therapeutic results. Tumor markers are helpful means for a better approach to individuals with such neoplasm. In the present review, the authors analyze the phases in which surgical-clinical treatment markers must be used: diagnosis, determination of tumor stage, establishment of prognosis and detection of recurrence. Current and future markers...

  12. Serum markers of liver fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veidal, Sanne Skovgård; Bay-Jensen, Anne-Christine; Tougas, Gervais

    2010-01-01

    -epitopes, may be targeted for novel biochemical marker development in fibrosis. We used the recently proposed BIPED system (Burden of disease, Investigative, Prognostic, Efficacy and Diagnostic) to characterise present serological markers. METHODS: Pubmed was search for keywords; Liver fibrosis, neo......, a systematic use of the neo-epitope approach, i.e. the quantification of peptide epitopes generated from enzymatic cleavage of proteins during extracellular remodeling, may prove productive in the quest to find new markers of liver fibrosis....

  13. “LIFE COURSE SOCIOECONOMIC POSITION IS ASSOCIATED WITH INFLAMMATORY MARKERS: THE FRAMINGHAM OFFSPRING STUDY”

    OpenAIRE

    Pilote, Louise; Lynch, John W; Richard, Hugues; Almeida, Nisha; Benjamin, Emelia J; Murabito, Joanne M

    2010-01-01

    Associations between life course socioeconomic position (SEP) and novel biological risk markers for coronary heart disease such as inflammatory markers are not well understood. Most studies demonstrate inverse associations of life course SEP with C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and fibrinogen, however little is known about associations between life course SEP and other inflammatory markers including intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), tumor necrosis factor II (TNFR2), l...

  14. BWR NSSS design basis documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vij, R.S.; Bates, R.E.

    2004-01-01

    In 1985 an incident at Toledo Edison's Davis Besse plant caused the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to re-evaluate the technical information that the utilities had readily available to support the design of their plants. The Design Basis programs, currently on going in most U.S. utilities, have been the nuclear industry's response to the needs identified by this re-evaluation. In order to understand the Design Basis programs which have been implemented by the U.S. nuclear utilities, it is necessary to understand the problem as it was perceived by the nuclear industry (the utilities, the original NSSS designers and the regulators) after the Davis-Besse incident, the subsequent programs undertaken by the industry under the leadership of INPO and NUMARC, the NRC's actions, and the overall evolution of the industry's vision in relation to this problem. This paper presents the history of the design basis efforts from the first recognition of the problem by the NRC after the Davis-Besse incident, describes the actions taken by the NRC, INPO, NUMARC, the U.S. utilities and the NSSS designers, and brings the problem statement up-to-date in relation to the vision presently held by the U.S. nuclear industry. It then presents a technical discussion to develop a detailed definition of design basis information to support the problem statement. The information originally supplied by the NSSS designers during the plant design and construction is discussed as well as its relationship to the previously defined design basis information. This section of the paper concludes by defining the additional information needed by nuclear utilities to satisfy the requirements developed from the problem statement. Having developed a definition of the additional information (i.e., information not originally supplied during design and construction) required to solve the design basis problem as it is presently perceived by the U.S. nuclear industry, the paper then discusses design basis

  15. Biochemical markers of bone turnover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Deog Yoon

    1999-01-01

    Biochemical markers of bone turnover has received increasing attention over the past few years, because of the need for sensitivity and specific tool in the clinical investigation of osteoporosis. Bone markers should be unique to bone, reflect changes of bone less, and should be correlated with radiocalcium kinetics, histomorphometry, or changes in bone mass. The markers also should be useful in monitoring treatment efficacy. Although no bone marker has been established to meet all these criteria, currently osteocalcin and pyridinium crosslinks are the most efficient markers to assess the level of bone turnover in the menopausal and senile osteoporosis. Recently, N-terminal telopeptide (NTX), C-terminal telopeptide (CTX) and bone specific alkaline phosphatase are considered as new valid markers of bone turnover. Recent data suggest that CTX and free deoxypyridinoline could predict the subsequent risk of hip fracture of elderly women. Treatment of postmenopausal women with estrogen, calcitonin and bisphosphonates demonstrated rapid decrease of the levels of bone markers that correlated with the long-term increase of bone mass. Factors such as circadian rhythms, diet, age, sex, bone mass and renal function affect the results of biochemical markers and should be appropriately adjusted whenever possible. Each biochemical markers of bone turnover may have its own specific advantages and limitations. Recent advances in research will provide more sensitive and specific assays

  16. Is synthetic biology mechanical biology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Sune

    2015-12-01

    A widespread and influential characterization of synthetic biology emphasizes that synthetic biology is the application of engineering principles to living systems. Furthermore, there is a strong tendency to express the engineering approach to organisms in terms of what seems to be an ontological claim: organisms are machines. In the paper I investigate the ontological and heuristic significance of the machine analogy in synthetic biology. I argue that the use of the machine analogy and the aim of producing rationally designed organisms does not necessarily imply a commitment to mechanical biology. The ideal of applying engineering principles to biology is best understood as expressing recognition of the machine-unlikeness of natural organisms and the limits of human cognition. The paper suggests an interpretation of the identification of organisms with machines in synthetic biology according to which it expresses a strategy for representing, understanding, and constructing living systems that are more machine-like than natural organisms.

  17. Quantum Mechanics predicts evolutionary biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torday, J S

    2018-07-01

    Nowhere are the shortcomings of conventional descriptive biology more evident than in the literature on Quantum Biology. In the on-going effort to apply Quantum Mechanics to evolutionary biology, merging Quantum Mechanics with the fundamentals of evolution as the First Principles of Physiology-namely negentropy, chemiosmosis and homeostasis-offers an authentic opportunity to understand how and why physics constitutes the basic principles of biology. Negentropy and chemiosmosis confer determinism on the unicell, whereas homeostasis constitutes Free Will because it offers a probabilistic range of physiologic set points. Similarly, on this basis several principles of Quantum Mechanics also apply directly to biology. The Pauli Exclusion Principle is both deterministic and probabilistic, whereas non-localization and the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle are both probabilistic, providing the long-sought after ontologic and causal continuum from physics to biology and evolution as the holistic integration recognized as consciousness for the first time. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Computational biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Lars Røeboe; Jones, Neil; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2011-01-01

    Computation via biological devices has been the subject of close scrutiny since von Neumann’s early work some 60 years ago. In spite of the many relevant works in this field, the notion of programming biological devices seems to be, at best, ill-defined. While many devices are claimed or proved t...

  19. Mesoscopic biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper we present a qualitative outlook of mesoscopic biology where the typical length scale is of the order of nanometers and the energy scales comparable to thermal energy. Novel biomolecular machines, governed by coded information at the level of DNA and proteins, operate at these length scales in biological ...

  20. Relationship between apoptotic markers in semen from fertile men and demographic, hormonal and seminal characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, Ina; Spanò, Marcello; Hougaard, Karin S

    2012-01-01

    and biological correlates of the pro-apoptotic marker Fas and the anti-apoptotic marker Bcl-xL in sperm cells of fertile men. Six hundred and four men from Greenland, Poland and Ukraine were consecutively enrolled during their pregnant wife's antenatal visits. Semen analysis was performed as recommended...

  1. Genetic basis of chronic pancreatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, JBMJ; Morsche, RT; van Goor, Harry; Drenth, JPH

    2002-01-01

    Background: Pancreatitis has a proven genetic basis in a minority of patients. Methods: Review of the literature on genetics of pancreatitis. Results: Ever since the discovery that in most patients with hereditary pancreatitis a mutation in the gene encoding for cationic trypsinogen (R122H) was

  2. Ellipsoidal basis for isotropic oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallies, W.; Lukac, I.; Pogosyan, G.S.; Sisakyan, A.N.

    1994-01-01

    The solutions of the Schroedinger equation are derived for the isotropic oscillator potential in the ellipsoidal coordinate system. The explicit expression is obtained for the ellipsoidal integrals of motion through the components of the orbital moment and Demkov's tensor. The explicit form of the ellipsoidal basis is given for the lowest quantum numbers. 10 refs.; 1 tab. (author)

  3. Molecular basis of familial hypercholesterolemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruikman, Caroline S.; Hovingh, Gerard K.; Kastelein, John J. P.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review To provide an overview about the molecular basis of familial hypercholesterolemia. Recent findings Familial hypercholesterolemia is a common hereditary cause of premature coronary heart disease. It has been estimated that 1 in every 250 individuals has heterozygous familial

  4. Basis reduction for layered lattices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.L. Torreão Dassen (Erwin)

    2011-01-01

    htmlabstractWe develop the theory of layered Euclidean spaces and layered lattices. With this new theory certain problems that usually are solved by using classical lattices with a "weighting" gain a new, more natural form. Using the layered lattice basis reduction algorithms introduced here these

  5. Mixtures of truncated basis functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langseth, Helge; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre; Rumí, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we propose a framework, called mixtures of truncated basis functions (MoTBFs), for representing general hybrid Bayesian networks. The proposed framework generalizes both the mixture of truncated exponentials (MTEs) framework and the mixture of polynomials (MoPs) framework. Similar t...

  6. Molecular basis of neural function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tucek, S.; Stipek, S.; Stastny, F.; Krivanek, J.

    1986-01-01

    The conference proceedings contain abstracts of plenary lectures, of young neurochemists' ESN honorary lectures, lectures at symposia and workshops and poster communications. Twenty abstracts were inputted in INIS. The subject of these were the use of autoradiography for the determination of receptors, cholecystokinin, nicotine, adrenaline, glutamate, aspartate, tranquilizers, for distribution and pharmacokinetics of obidoxime-chloride, for cell proliferation, mitosis of brain cells, DNA repair; radioimmunoassay of cholinesterase, tyrosinase; positron computed tomography of the brain; biological radiation effects on cholinesterase activity; tracer techniques for determination of adrenaline; and studies of the biological repair of nerves. (J.P.)

  7. Review of functional markers for improving cooking, eating, and the nutritional qualities of rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Wendy C. P.; Rafii, Mohd Y.; Ismail, Mohd R.; Puteh, Adam; Latif, Mohammad A.; Ramli, Asfaliza

    2015-01-01

    After yield, quality is one of the most important aspects of rice breeding. Preference for rice quality varies among cultures and regions; therefore, rice breeders have to tailor the quality according to the preferences of local consumers. Rice quality assessment requires routine chemical analysis procedures. The advancement of molecular marker technology has revolutionized the strategy in breeding programs. The availability of rice genome sequences and the use of forward and reverse genetics approaches facilitate gene discovery and the deciphering of gene functions. A well-characterized gene is the basis for the development of functional markers, which play an important role in plant genotyping and, in particular, marker-assisted breeding. In addition, functional markers offer advantages that counteract the limitations of random DNA markers. Some functional markers have been applied in marker-assisted breeding programs and have successfully improved rice quality to meet local consumers’ preferences. Although functional markers offer a plethora of advantages over random genetic markers, the development and application of functional markers should be conducted with care. The decreasing cost of sequencing will enable more functional markers for rice quality improvement to be developed, and application of these markers in rice quality breeding programs is highly anticipated. PMID:26528304

  8. Tumor markers in clinical oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novakovic, S.

    2004-01-01

    The subtle differences between normal and tumor cells are exploited in the detection and treatment of cancer. These differences are designated as tumor markers and can be either qualitative or quantitative in their nature. That means that both the structures that are produced by tumor cells as well as the structures that are produced in excessive amounts by host tissues under the influence of tumor cells can function as tumor markers. Speaking in general, the tumor markers are the specific molecules appearing in the blood or tissues and the occurrence of which is associated with cancer. According to their application, tumor markers can be roughly divided as markers in clinical oncology and markers in pathology. In this review, only tumor markers in clinical oncology are going to be discussed. Current tumor markers in clinical oncology include (i) oncofetal antigens, (ii) placental proteins, (iii) hormones, (iv) enzymes, (v) tumor-associated antigens, (vi) special serum proteins, (vii) catecholamine metabolites, and (viii) miscellaneous markers. As to the literature, an ideal tumor marker should fulfil certain criteria - when using it as a test for detection of cancer disease: (1) positive results should occur in the early stages of the disease, (2) positive results should occur only in the patients with a specific type of malignancy, (3) positive results should occur in all patients with the same malignancy, (4) the measured values should correlate with the stage of the disease, (5) the measured values should correlate to the response to treatment, (6) the marker should be easy to measure. Most tumor markers available today meet several, but not all criteria. As a consequence of that, some criteria were chosen for the validation and proper selection of the most appropriate marker in a particular malignancy, and these are: (1) markers' sensitivity, (2) specificity, and (3) predictive values. Sensitivity expresses the mean probability of determining an elevated tumor

  9. Biological origins of color categorization

    OpenAIRE

    Skelton, Alice E.; Catchpole, Gemma; Abbott, Joshua T.; Bosten, Jenny M.; Franklin, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The biological basis of the commonality in color lexicons across languages has been hotly debated for decades. Prior evidence that infants categorize color could provide support for the hypothesis that color categorization systems are not purely constructed by communication and culture. Here, we investigate the relationship between infants’ categorization of color and the commonality across color lexicons, and the potential biological origin of infant color categories. We systematically mappe...

  10. Marker Detection in Aerial Images

    KAUST Repository

    Alharbi, Yazeed

    2017-04-09

    The problem that the thesis is trying to solve is the detection of small markers in high-resolution aerial images. Given a high-resolution image, the goal is to return the pixel coordinates corresponding to the center of the marker in the image. The marker has the shape of two triangles sharing a vertex in the middle, and it occupies no more than 0.01% of the image size. An improvement on the Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG) is proposed, eliminating the majority of baseline HOG false positives for marker detection. The improvement is guided by the observation that standard HOG description struggles to separate markers from negatives patches containing an X shape. The proposed method alters intensities with the aim of altering gradients. The intensity-dependent gradient alteration leads to more separation between filled and unfilled shapes. The improvement is used in a two-stage algorithm to achieve high recall and high precision in detection of markers in aerial images. In the first stage, two classifiers are used: one to quickly eliminate most of the uninteresting parts of the image, and one to carefully select the marker among the remaining interesting regions. Interesting regions are selected by scanning the image with a fast classifier trained on the HOG features of markers in all rotations and scales. The next classifier is more precise and uses our method to eliminate the majority of the false positives of standard HOG. In the second stage, detected markers are tracked forward and backward in time. Tracking is needed to detect extremely blurred or distorted markers that are missed by the previous stage. The algorithm achieves 94% recall with minimal user guidance. An average of 30 guesses are given per image; the user verifies for each whether it is a marker or not. The brute force approach would return 100,000 guesses per image.

  11. Electromagnetic Basis of Metabolism and Heredity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Friedemann; Stolc, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    Living organisms control their cellular biological clocks to maintain functional oscillation of the redox cycle, also called the "metabolic cycle" or "respiratory cycle". Organization of cellular processes requires parallel processing on a synchronized time-base. These clocks coordinate the timing of all biochemical processes in the cell, including energy production, DNA replication, and RNA transcription. When this universal time keeping function is perturbed by exogenous induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the rate of metabolism changes. This causes oxidative stress, aging and mutations. Therefore, good temporal coordination of the redox cycle not only actively prevents chemical conflict between the reductive and oxidative partial reactions; it also maintains genome integrity and lifespan. Moreover, this universal biochemical rhythm can be disrupted by ROS induction in vivo. This in turn can be achieved by blocking the electron transport chain either endogenously or exogenously by various metabolites, e.g. hydrogen sulfide (H2S), highly diffusible drugs, and carbon monoxide (CO). Alternatively, the electron transport in vivo can be attenuated via a coherent or interfering transfer of energy from exogenous ultralow frequency (ULF) and extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic (EM) fields, suggesting that-on Earth-such ambient fields are an omnipresent (and probably crucially important) factor for the time-setting basis of universal biochemical reactions in living cells. Our work demonstrated previously un-described evidence for quantum effects in biology by electromagnetic coupling below thermal noise at the universal electron transport chain (ETC) in vivo.

  12. Quantum Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Sergi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A critical assessment of the recent developmentsof molecular biology is presented.The thesis that they do not lead to a conceptualunderstanding of life and biological systems is defended.Maturana and Varela's concept of autopoiesis is briefly sketchedand its logical circularity avoided by postulatingthe existence of underlying living processes,entailing amplification from the microscopic to the macroscopic scale,with increasing complexity in the passage from one scale to the other.Following such a line of thought, the currently accepted model of condensed matter, which is based on electrostatics and short-ranged forces,is criticized. It is suggested that the correct interpretationof quantum dispersion forces (van der Waals, hydrogen bonding, and so onas quantum coherence effects hints at the necessity of includinglong-ranged forces (or mechanisms for them incondensed matter theories of biological processes.Some quantum effects in biology are reviewedand quantum mechanics is acknowledged as conceptually important to biology since withoutit most (if not all of the biological structuresand signalling processes would not even exist. Moreover, it is suggested that long-rangequantum coherent dynamics, including electron polarization,may be invoked to explain signal amplificationprocess in biological systems in general.

  13. The Infinitive Marker across Scandinavian

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ken Ramshøj

    2007-01-01

    In this paper I argue that the base-position of the infinitive marker in the Scandinavian languages and English share a common origin site. It is inserted as the top-most head in the VP-domain. The cross-linguistic variation in the syntactic distribution of the infinitive marker can be accounted...

  14. Biological variation of cystatin C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhard, Mark; Erlandsen, Erland; Randers, Else

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Cystatin C has been investigated as a marker of the glomerular filtration rate. However, previous studies have reported conflicting results concerning the biological variation of cystatin C. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the biological variation of cystatin C...... in comparison to creatinine. Methods: Eight weekly morning blood samples were taken from twenty healthy volunteers (13 females, 7 males) aged 25-61 years. Mean creatinine clearance was 99.7 ml/min/1.73 m2 (range 61.8-139.5) and mean body mass index 23.9 kg/m2 (range 20.3-28.7). A total of 155 samples were...

  15. Biological Motion Perception in Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Cusack

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Typically developing adults can readily recognize human actions, even when conveyed to them via point-like markers placed on the body of the actor (Johansson, 1973. Previous research has suggested that children affected by autism spectrum disorder (ASD are not equally sensitive to this type of visual information (Blake et al, 2003, but it remains unknown why ASD would impact the ability to perceive biological motion. We present evidence which looks at how adolescents and adults with autism are affected by specific factors which are important in biological motion perception, such as (eg, inter-agent synchronicity, upright/inverted, etc.

  16. Use of mammary epithelial antigens as markers in mammary neoplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceriani, R.L.; Peterson, J.A.; Blank, E.W.

    1979-01-01

    Cell-type specific antigens of the mammary epithelial cells can be used as markers of breast neoplasia. Methods are proposed for the detection of metastatic mammary tissue in vivo by injection of [ 125 I]-labeled antibodies against the mammary epithelial antigens. In addition, the reduced expression of mammary epithelial cell antigens in neoplastic breast cells, quantitated here on a cell per cell basis by flow cytofluorimetry, is a marker of neoplasia and an indication of a deletion accompanying the neoplastic transformation of these cells. (Auth.)

  17. Biological desulfurisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, B.J. [UOP LLC (United States); Benschop, A.; Janssen, A. [Paques Natural Solutions (Netherlands); Kijlstra, S. [Shell Global Solutions (Netherlands)

    2001-03-01

    This article focuses on the biological THIOPAQ process for removing hydrogen sulphide from refinery gases and recovering elemental sulphur. Details are given of the process which absorbs hydrogen sulphide-containing gas in alkaline solution prior to oxidation of the dissolved sulphur to elemental sulphur in a THIOPAQ aerobic biological reactor, with regeneration of the caustic solution. Sulphur handling options including sulphur wash, the drying of the sulphur cake, and sulphur smelting by pressure liquefaction are described. Agricultural applications of the biologically recovered sulphur, and application of the THIOPAQ process to sulphur recovery are discussed.

  18. Probing community nurses' professional basis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaarup, Clara; Pape-Haugaard, Louise; Jensen, Merete Hartun

    2017-01-01

    Complicated and long-lasting wound care of diabetic foot ulcers are moving from specialists in wound care at hospitals towards community nurses without specialist diabetic foot ulcer wound care knowledge. The aim of the study is to elucidate community nurses' professional basis for treating...... diabetic foot ulcers. A situational case study design was adopted in an archetypical Danish community nursing setting. Experience is a crucial component in the community nurses' professional basis for treating diabetic foot ulcers. Peer-to-peer training is the prevailing way to learn about diabetic foot...... ulcer, however, this contributes to the risk of low evidence-based practice. Finally, a frequent behaviour among the community nurses is to consult colleagues before treating the diabetic foot ulcers....

  19. Authorization basis requirements comparison report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brantley, W.M.

    1997-08-18

    The TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) consists of a set of documents identified by TWRS management with the concurrence of DOE-RL. Upon implementation of the TWRS Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) and Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs), the AB list will be revised to include the BIO and TSRs. Some documents that currently form part of the AB will be removed from the list. This SD identifies each - requirement from those documents, and recommends a disposition for each to ensure that necessary requirements are retained when the AB is revised to incorporate the BIO and TSRs. This SD also identifies documents that will remain part of the AB after the BIO and TSRs are implemented. This document does not change the AB, but provides guidance for the preparation of change documentation.

  20. Authorization basis requirements comparison report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brantley, W.M.

    1997-01-01

    The TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) consists of a set of documents identified by TWRS management with the concurrence of DOE-RL. Upon implementation of the TWRS Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) and Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs), the AB list will be revised to include the BIO and TSRs. Some documents that currently form part of the AB will be removed from the list. This SD identifies each - requirement from those documents, and recommends a disposition for each to ensure that necessary requirements are retained when the AB is revised to incorporate the BIO and TSRs. This SD also identifies documents that will remain part of the AB after the BIO and TSRs are implemented. This document does not change the AB, but provides guidance for the preparation of change documentation

  1. Hanford Generic Interim Safety Basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavender, J.C.

    1994-09-09

    The purpose of this document is to identify WHC programs and requirements that are an integral part of the authorization basis for nuclear facilities that are generic to all WHC-managed facilities. The purpose of these programs is to implement the DOE Orders, as WHC becomes contractually obligated to implement them. The Hanford Generic ISB focuses on the institutional controls and safety requirements identified in DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports.

  2. Hanford Generic Interim Safety Basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavender, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to identify WHC programs and requirements that are an integral part of the authorization basis for nuclear facilities that are generic to all WHC-managed facilities. The purpose of these programs is to implement the DOE Orders, as WHC becomes contractually obligated to implement them. The Hanford Generic ISB focuses on the institutional controls and safety requirements identified in DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports

  3. Intracellular recovery - basis of hyperfractionation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, U.; Guttenberger, R.; Kummermehr, J.

    1988-01-01

    The radiobiological basis fo a hyperfractionated radiation therapy versus conventional fractionation with respect to therapeutic gain, i.e., improved normal tissue sparing for the same level of tumour cell inactivation, will be presented. Data on the recovery potential of various tissues as well as the kinetics of repair will be given. The problem of incomplete repair with short irradiation intervals will be discussed. (orig.) [de

  4. Genetic basis of atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Campuzano

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation is the most common sustained arrhythmia and remains as one of main challenges in current clinical practice. The disease may be induced secondary to other diseases such as hypertension, valvular heart disease, and heart failure, conferring an increased risk of stroke and sudden death. Epidemiological studies have provided evidence that genetic factors play an important role and up to 30% of clinically diagnosed patients may have a family history of atrial fibrillation. To date, several rare variants have been identified in a wide range of genes associated with ionic channels, calcium handling protein, fibrosis, conduction and inflammation. Important advances in clinical, genetic and molecular basis have been performed over the last decade, improving diagnosis and treatment. However, the genetics of atrial fibrillation is complex and pathophysiological data remains still unraveling. A better understanding of the genetic basis will induce accurate risk stratification and personalized clinical treatment. In this review, we have focused on current genetics basis of atrial fibrillation.

  5. Dielectric relaxation in biological systems physical principles, methods, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Feldman, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    This title covers the theoretical basis and practical aspects of the study of dielectric properties of biological systems, such as water, electrolyte and polyelectrolytes, solutions of biological macromolecules, cells suspensions and cellular systems.

  6. Systems Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    study and understand the function of biological systems, particu- larly, the response of such .... understand the organisation and behaviour of prokaryotic sys- tems. ... relationship of the structure of a target molecule to its ability to bind a certain ...

  7. Frameworking memory and serotonergic markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Alfredo

    2017-07-26

    The evidence for neural markers and memory is continuously being revised, and as evidence continues to accumulate, herein, we frame earlier and new evidence. Hence, in this work, the aim is to provide an appropriate conceptual framework of serotonergic markers associated with neural activity and memory. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) has multiple pharmacological tools, well-characterized downstream signaling in mammals' species, and established 5-HT neural markers showing new insights about memory functions and dysfunctions, including receptors (5-HT1A/1B/1D, 5-HT2A/2B/2C, and 5-HT3-7), transporter (serotonin transporter [SERT]) and volume transmission present in brain areas involved in memory. Bidirectional influence occurs between 5-HT markers and memory/amnesia. A growing number of researchers report that memory, amnesia, or forgetting modifies neural markers. Diverse approaches support the translatability of using neural markers and cerebral functions/dysfunctions, including memory formation and amnesia. At least, 5-HT1A, 5-HT4, 5-HT6, and 5-HT7 receptors and SERT seem to be useful neural markers and therapeutic targets. Hence, several mechanisms cooperate to achieve synaptic plasticity or memory, including changes in the expression of neurotransmitter receptors and transporters.

  8. Biological Collections: Chasing the Ideal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenski, P. A.; Sazonov, A. E.; Fedyanin, A. A.; Sadovnichy, V. A.

    2016-01-01

    This article is based on the results of an analysis of existing biological collections in Russia and abroad set up in the framework of the project “Scientific Basis of the National Biobank –Depository of Living Systems” by M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University [1]. PMID:27437135

  9. Thermodynamic basis for cluster kinetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Lina; Bian, Xiufang; Qin, Xubo

    2006-01-01

    Due to the inaccessibility of the supercooled region of marginal metallic glasses (MMGs) within the experimental time window, we study the cluster kinetics above the liquidus temperature, Tl, to acquire information on the fragility of the MMG systems. Thermodynamic basis for the stability...... of locally ordered structure in the MMG liquids is discussed in terms of the two-order-parameter model. It is found that the Arrhenius activation energy of clusters, h, is proportional to the chemical mixing enthalpy of alloys, Hchem. Fragility of the MMG forming liquids can be described by the ratio...

  10. OSR encapsulation basis -- 100-KW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meichle, R.H.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide the basis for a change in the Operations Safety Requirement (OSR) encapsulated fuel storage requirements in the 105 KW fuel storage basin which will permit the handling and storing of encapsulated fuel in canisters which no longer have a water-free space in the top of the canister. The scope of this report is limited to providing the change from the perspective of the safety envelope (bases) of the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) and Operations Safety Requirements (OSR). It does not change the encapsulation process itself

  11. The physical basis of chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Warren, Warren S

    2000-01-01

    If the text you're using for general chemistry seems to lack sufficient mathematics and physics in its presentation of classical mechanics, molecular structure, and statistics, this complementary science series title may be just what you're looking for. Written for the advanced lower-division undergraduate chemistry course, The Physical Basis of Chemistry, Second Edition, offers students an opportunity to understand and enrich the understanding of physical chemistry with some quantum mechanics, the Boltzmann distribution, and spectroscopy. Posed and answered are questions concerning eve

  12. Mathematics, structuralism and biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, P T

    1988-01-01

    A new approach is gaining ground in biology, one that has much in common with the structuralist tradition in other fields. It is very much in the spirit of an earlier view of biology and indeed of science in general. It is also, though this is not generally recognized, in the spirit of twentieth century physics. As in modern physics, however, it is not a question of ignoring all the progress that has been made within the former paradigm. On the contrary, the aim is to use it as a basis for setting out in a somewhat different direction. Complex phenomena do not generally lend themselves to reductionist analyses which seek explanation only in terms of detailed mechanisms, but a proper scientific discussion of structure must make full use of what we have already learned - by whatever means - about the processes that underly the phenomena we are trying to understand.

  13. Introduction to radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uma Devi, P.; Satish Rao, B.S.; Nagarathnam, A.

    2000-01-01

    This book is arranged in a logical sequence, starting from radiation physics and radiation chemistry, followed by molecular, subcellular and cellular effects and going on to the level of organism. Topics covered include applied radiobiology like modifiers of radiosensitivity, predictive assay, health physics, human genetics and radiopharmaceuticals. The topics covered are : 1. Radiation Physics, 2. Detection and Measurement of Radiation, 3. Radiation Chemistry, 4. DNA Damage and Repair, 5. Chromosomal Aberrations and Gene Mutations, 6. Cellular Radiobiology 7. Acute Radiation Effects, 8. Delayed Effects of Radiation, 9. Biological Basis of Radiotherapy, 10. Chemical Modifiers of Radiosensitivity, 11. Hyperthermia, 12. High LET Radiations in Cancer, Therapy, 13. Predictive Assays, 14. Radiation Effects on Embryos, 15. Human Radiation Genetics, 16. Radiolabelled Compounds in Biology and Medicine and 17. Radiological Health

  14. Application of tumor markers in the immunodiagnosis of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelder, F.B.; Barr, L.H.; Goldman, L.I.

    1983-01-01

    Recently, research directed toward the detection of both tumor-specific and tumor-related products has intensified for several reasons. 1. The growing knowledge of tumor metabolism has lead some investigators to hypothesize that most, if not all, malignant tumors produce these substances. 2. The use of multiple tumor markers appears more valuable than application of single markers. 3. The availability of highly sensitive and specific immunological methods provides the tools to measure substances which previously could not be assayed. 4. As additional information evolves, the events associated with malignant transformation and tumor behaviour may become clear. Tumor-related products include immune markers, altered cell surface membranes, as well as fetal and/or ectopic proteins, to name but a few. The synthesis of fetal and/or ectopic proteins occurs in several cancers. These have served as the basis for most immunodiagnostic tests and comprise the major thrust of this review

  15. Quadratic Hedging of Basis Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardy Hulley

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines a simple basis risk model based on correlated geometric Brownian motions. We apply quadratic criteria to minimize basis risk and hedge in an optimal manner. Initially, we derive the Föllmer–Schweizer decomposition for a European claim. This allows pricing and hedging under the minimal martingale measure, corresponding to the local risk-minimizing strategy. Furthermore, since the mean-variance tradeoff process is deterministic in our setup, the minimal martingale- and variance-optimal martingale measures coincide. Consequently, the mean-variance optimal strategy is easily constructed. Simple pricing and hedging formulae for put and call options are derived in terms of the Black–Scholes formula. Due to market incompleteness, these formulae depend on the drift parameters of the processes. By making a further equilibrium assumption, we derive an approximate hedging formula, which does not require knowledge of these parameters. The hedging strategies are tested using Monte Carlo experiments, and are compared with results achieved using a utility maximization approach.

  16. Inflammatory Genetic Markers of Prostate Cancer Risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tindall, Elizabeth A.; Hayes, Vanessa M. [Cancer Genetics Group, Children’s Cancer Institute Australia for Medical Research, Lowy Cancer Research Centre, University of New South Wales, PO Box 81, Randwick, NSW 2031 (Australia); University of New South Wales, Kensington Campus, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Petersen, Desiree C., E-mail: dpetersen@ccia.unsw.edu.au [Cancer Genetics Group, Children’s Cancer Institute Australia for Medical Research, Lowy Cancer Research Centre, University of New South Wales, PO Box 81, Randwick, NSW 2031 (Australia)

    2010-06-08

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in Western society males, with incidence rates predicted to rise with global aging. Etiology of prostate cancer is however poorly understood, while current diagnostic tools can be invasive (digital rectal exam or biopsy) and/or lack specificity for the disease (prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing). Substantial histological, epidemiological and molecular genetic evidence indicates that inflammation is important in prostate cancer pathogenesis. In this review, we summarize the current status of inflammatory genetic markers influencing susceptibility to prostate cancer. The focus will be on inflammatory cytokines regulating T-helper cell and chemokine homeostasis, together with the Toll-like receptors as key players in the host innate immune system. Although association studies indicating a genetic basis for prostate cancer are presently limited mainly due to lack of replication, larger and more ethnically and clinically defined study populations may help elucidate the true contribution of inflammatory gene variants to prostate cancer risk.

  17. Inflammatory Genetic Markers of Prostate Cancer Risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tindall, Elizabeth A.; Hayes, Vanessa M.; Petersen, Desiree C.

    2010-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in Western society males, with incidence rates predicted to rise with global aging. Etiology of prostate cancer is however poorly understood, while current diagnostic tools can be invasive (digital rectal exam or biopsy) and/or lack specificity for the disease (prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing). Substantial histological, epidemiological and molecular genetic evidence indicates that inflammation is important in prostate cancer pathogenesis. In this review, we summarize the current status of inflammatory genetic markers influencing susceptibility to prostate cancer. The focus will be on inflammatory cytokines regulating T-helper cell and chemokine homeostasis, together with the Toll-like receptors as key players in the host innate immune system. Although association studies indicating a genetic basis for prostate cancer are presently limited mainly due to lack of replication, larger and more ethnically and clinically defined study populations may help elucidate the true contribution of inflammatory gene variants to prostate cancer risk

  18. Biological Correlates of Empathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Timucin Oral

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Empathy can be defined as the capacity to know emotionally what another is experiencing from within the frame of reference of that other person and the capacity to sample the feelings of another or it can be metaphorized as to put oneself in another’s shoes. Although the concept of empathy was firstly described in psychological theories, researches studying the biological correlates of psychological theories have been increasing recently. Not suprisingly, dinamically oriented psychotherapists Freud, Kohut, Basch and Fenichel had suggested theories about the biological correlates of empathy concept and established the basis of this modality decades ago. Some other theorists emphasized the importance of empathy in the early years of lifetime regarding mother-child attachment in terms of developmental psychology and investigated its role in explanation of psychopathology. The data coming from some of the recent brain imaging and animal model studies also seem to support these theories. Although increased activity in different brain regions was shown in many of the brain imaging studies, the role of cingulate cortex for understanding mother-child relationship was constantly emphasized in nearly all of the studies. In addition to these studies, a group of Italian scientists has defined a group of neurons as “mirror neurons” in their studies observing rhesus macaque monkeys. Later, they also defined mirror neurons in human studies, and suggested them as “empathy neurons”. After the discovery of mirror neurons, the hopes of finding the missing part of the puzzle for understanding the biological correlates of empathy raised again. Although the roles of different biological parameters such as skin conductance and pupil diameter for defining empathy have not been certain yet, they are going to give us the opportunity to revise the inconsistent basis of structural validity in psychiatry and to stabilize descriptive validity. In this review, the

  19. [Biological agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Koichi

    2009-03-01

    There are two types of biological agents for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA); monoclonal antibodies and recombinant proteins. Among the latter, etanercept, a recombinant fusion protein of soluble TNF receptor and IgG was approved in 2005 in Japan. The post-marketing surveillance of 13,894 RA patients revealed the efficacy and safety profiles of etanercept in the Japanese population, as well as overseas studies. Abatacept, a recombinant fusion protein of CTLA4 and IgG, is another biological agent for RA. Two clinical trials disclosed the efficacy of abatacept for difficult-to-treat patients: the AIM for MTX-resistant cases and the ATTAIN for patients who are resistant to anti-TNF. The ATTEST trial suggested abatacept might have more acceptable safety profile than infliximab. These biologics are also promising for the treatment of RA for not only relieving clinical symptoms and signs but retarding structural damage.

  20. Biological preconcentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manginell, Ronald P [Albuquerque, NM; Bunker, Bruce C [Albuquerque, NM; Huber, Dale L [Albuquerque, NM

    2008-09-09

    A biological preconcentrator comprises a stimulus-responsive active film on a stimulus-producing microfabricated platform. The active film can comprise a thermally switchable polymer film that can be used to selectively absorb and desorb proteins from a protein mixture. The biological microfabricated platform can comprise a thin membrane suspended on a substrate with an integral resistive heater and/or thermoelectric cooler for thermal switching of the active polymer film disposed on the membrane. The active polymer film can comprise hydrogel-like polymers, such as poly(ethylene oxide) or poly(n-isopropylacrylamide), that are tethered to the membrane. The biological preconcentrator can be fabricated with semiconductor materials and technologies.

  1. Ya as Discourse Marker: Indonesian Stand – Up Comedy Strategy in Producing Laughter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dientha Yuniar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper would explore an analysis of discourse markers ya as Indonesian stand – up comedy strategy in producing laughter. The spotlight would focus on how ya, as the major marker, performed in professional stand-up comedy performance. How they used ya in 7-10 minutes performance could illustrate the basis natural performance in bursting laughter and the enhancement of audience’s response in laughter. It argued for an approach based upon two level functions of discourse markers by Brinton (1996; textual level and interpersonal level. Both functions determined the functions of discourse markers. The result explored the relationship not only the bursting laughter but also between stand – up technique and discourse markers. Finally, this study leads into examination of ya as Indonesian discourse marker into the development of humor research within linguistics study.

  2. Markers and mapping revisited: finding your gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Neil; Ougham, Helen; Thomas, Howard; Pasakinskiene, Izolda

    2009-01-01

    This paper is an update of our earlier review (Jones et al., 1997, Markers and mapping: we are all geneticists now. New Phytologist 137: 165-177), which dealt with the genetics of mapping, in terms of recombination as the basis of the procedure, and covered some of the first generation of markers, including restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPDs), simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and quantitative trait loci (QTLs). In the intervening decade there have been numerous developments in marker science with many new systems becoming available, which are herein described: cleavage amplification polymorphism (CAP), sequence-specific amplification polymorphism (S-SAP), inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR), sequence tagged site (STS), sequence characterized amplification region (SCAR), selective amplification of microsatellite polymorphic loci (SAMPL), single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), expressed sequence tag (EST), sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP), target region amplification polymorphism (TRAP), microarrays, diversity arrays technology (DArT), single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP), denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) and methylation-sensitive PCR. In addition there has been an explosion of knowledge and databases in the area of genomics and bioinformatics. The number of flowering plant ESTs is c. 19 million and counting, with all the opportunity that this provides for gene-hunting, while the survey of bioinformatics and computer resources points to a rapid growth point for future activities in unravelling and applying the burst of new information on plant genomes. A case study is presented on tracking down a specific gene (stay-green (SGR), a post-transcriptional senescence regulator) using the full suite of mapping tools and comparative mapping resources. We end with a brief speculation on how genome analysis may progress into the future of

  3. Prenatal Screening Using Maternal Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Cuckle

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Maternal markers are widely used to screen for fetal neural tube defects (NTDs, chromosomal abnormalities and cardiac defects. Some are beginning to broaden prenatal screening to include pregnancy complications such as pre-eclampsia. The methods initially developed for NTDs using a single marker have since been built upon to develop high performance multi-maker tests for chromosomal abnormalities. Although cell-free DNA testing is still too expensive to be considered for routine application in public health settings, it can be cost-effective when used in combination with existing multi-maker marker tests. The established screening methods can be readily applied in the first trimester to identify pregnancies at high risk of pre-eclampsia and offer prevention though aspirin treatment. Prenatal screening for fragile X syndrome might be adopted more widely if the test was to be framed as a form of maternal marker screening.

  4. Natural hybridization in tropical spikerushes of Eleocharis subgenus Limnochloa (Cyperaceae): Evidence from morphology and DNA markers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Košnar, J.; Košnar, Ji.; Macek, Petr; Herbstová, Miroslava; Rejmánková, E.; Stech, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 7 (2010), s. 1229-1240 ISSN 0002-9122 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516; CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : Belize * Cyperaceae * DNA markers * hybridization Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology; EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology (BU-J) Impact factor: 3.052, year: 2010

  5. Neurobiological Basis of Insight in Schizophrenia: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Rose Mary; Vorderstrasse, Allison

    2016-01-01

    Insight in schizophrenia is defined as awareness into illness, symptoms, and need for treatment and has long been associated with cognition, other psychopathological symptoms, and several adverse clinical and functional outcomes. However, the biological basis of insight is not clearly understood. The aim of this systematic review was to critically evaluate and summarize advances in the study of the biological basis of insight in schizophrenia and to identify gaps in this knowledge. A literature search of PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and EMBASE databases was conducted using search terms to identify articles relevant to the biology of insight in schizophrenia published in the last 6 years. Articles that focused on etiology of insight in schizophrenia and those that examined the neurobiology of insight in schizophrenia or psychoses were chosen for analysis. Articles on insight in conditions other than schizophrenia or psychoses and which did not investigate the neurobiological underpinnings of insight were excluded from the review. Twenty-six articles met the inclusion criteria for this review. Of the 26 articles, 3 focused on cellular abnormalities and 23 were neuroimaging studies. Preliminary data identify the prefrontal cortex, cingulate cortex, and regions of the temporal and parietal lobe (precuneus, inferior parietal lobule) and hippocampus as the neural correlates of insight. A growing body of literature attests to the neurobiological basis of insight in schizophrenia. Current evidence supports the neurobiological basis of insight in schizophrenia and identifies specific neural correlates for insight types and its dimensions. Further studies that examine the precise biological mechanisms of insight are needed to apply this knowledge to effective clinical intervention development.

  6. Cancer molecular markers: A guide to cancer detection and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Meera; Sandhu, Sardul Singh; Sharma, Anil Kumar

    2018-02-08

    Cancer is generally caused by the molecular alterations which lead to specific mutations. Advances in molecular biology have provided an impetus to the study of cancers with valuable prognostic and predictive significance. Over the hindsight various attempts have been undertaken by scientists worldwide, in the management of cancer; where, we have witnessed a number of molecular markers which allow the early detection of cancers and lead to a decrease in its mortality rate. Recent advances in oncology have led to the discovery of cancer markers that has allowed early detection and targeted therapy of tumors. In this context, current review provides a detail outlook on various molecular markers for diagnosis, prognosis and management of therapeutic response in cancer patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Application of petroleum markers to geochemical and environmental investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Elgheit, M.A.; El-Gayar, M.S.; Hegazi, A.H.

    1998-01-01

    Application of trace-metal and biological markers to geochemical studies has shown that crude oils could be correlated or differentiated according to their geologic age. The V/Ni, V/Σ Ni, Mg, Fe, and pristine to phytane (Pr/Ph) markers were almost uniform in Gulf of Suez crude oils, revealing their same origin, yet showing marked differences in Western Desert crude oils, reflecting varying degrees of their maturity and migrational history. The significance of petroleum markers was extended to monitoring of oil spill sources. Weathering of spills usually renders their source identification questionable by infrared or gas chromatography profiles. Since evaporative loss light petroleum fractions does not appreciably affect the high-Molecular Weight components with which trace metals, isoprenoids, hopanes, and steranes are associated, V/Ni, Pr/Ph, m/z 191, and m/z 217 mass chromatogram fragments were found reliable in fingerprinting oil spill sources in Mediterranean waters

  8. 10 CFR 830.202 - Safety basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety basis. 830.202 Section 830.202 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT Safety Basis Requirements § 830.202 Safety basis. (a) The contractor responsible for a hazard category 1, 2, or 3 DOE nuclear facility must establish and maintain the safety basis...

  9. Internal dosimetry technical basis manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-20

    The internal dosimetry program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) consists of radiation protection programs and activities used to detect and evaluate intakes of radioactive material by radiation workers. Examples of such programs are: air monitoring; surface contamination monitoring; personal contamination surveys; radiobioassay; and dose assessment. The objectives of the internal dosimetry program are to demonstrate that the workplace is under control and that workers are not being exposed to radioactive material, and to detect and assess inadvertent intakes in the workplace. The Savannah River Site Internal Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual (TBM) is intended to provide a technical and philosophical discussion of the radiobioassay and dose assessment aspects of the internal dosimetry program. Detailed information on air, surface, and personal contamination surveillance programs is not given in this manual except for how these programs interface with routine and special bioassay programs.

  10. FLAMMABLE GAS TECHNICAL BASIS DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRIPPS, L.J.

    2005-02-18

    This document describes the qualitative evaluation of frequency and consequences for double shell tank (DST) and single shell tank (SST) representative flammable gas accidents and associated hazardous conditions without controls. The evaluation indicated that safety-significant SSCs and/or TSRS were required to prevent or mitigate flammable gas accidents. Discussion on the resulting control decisions is included. This technical basis document was developed to support of the Tank Farms Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) and describes the risk binning process for the flammable gas representative accidents and associated represented hazardous conditions. The purpose of the risk binning process is to determine the need for safety-significant structures, systems, and components (SSC) and technical safety requirement (TSR)-level controls for a given representative accident or represented hazardous condition based on an evaluation of the event frequency and consequence.

  11. FLAMMABLE GAS TECHNICAL BASIS DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRIPPS, L.J.

    2005-03-03

    This document describes the qualitative evaluation of frequency and consequences for DST and SST representative flammable gas accidents and associated hazardous conditions without controls. The evaluation indicated that safety-significant structures, systems and components (SSCs) and/or technical safety requirements (TSRs) were required to prevent or mitigate flammable gas accidents. Discussion on the resulting control decisions is included. This technical basis document was developed to support WP-13033, Tank Farms Documented Safety Analysis (DSA), and describes the risk binning process for the flammable gas representative accidents and associated represented hazardous conditions. The purpose of the risk binning process is to determine the need for safety-significant structures, systems, and components (SSC) and technical safety requirement (TSR)-level controls for a given representative accident or represented hazardous condition based on an evaluation of the event frequency and consequence.

  12. Internal dosimetry technical basis manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The internal dosimetry program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) consists of radiation protection programs and activities used to detect and evaluate intakes of radioactive material by radiation workers. Examples of such programs are: air monitoring; surface contamination monitoring; personal contamination surveys; radiobioassay; and dose assessment. The objectives of the internal dosimetry program are to demonstrate that the workplace is under control and that workers are not being exposed to radioactive material, and to detect and assess inadvertent intakes in the workplace. The Savannah River Site Internal Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual (TBM) is intended to provide a technical and philosophical discussion of the radiobioassay and dose assessment aspects of the internal dosimetry program. Detailed information on air, surface, and personal contamination surveillance programs is not given in this manual except for how these programs interface with routine and special bioassay programs

  13. The neurological basis of occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutman, Sharon A; Schindler, Victoria P

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper was to survey the literature about the neurological basis of human activity and its relationship to occupation and health. Activities related to neurological function were organized into three categories: those that activate the brain's reward system; those that promote the relaxation response; and those that preserve cognitive function into old age. The results from the literature review correlating neurological evidence and activities showed that purposeful and meaningful activities could counter the effects of stress-related diseases and reduce the risk for dementia. Specifically, it was found that music, drawing, meditation, reading, arts and crafts, and home repairs, for example, can stimulate the neurogical system and enhance health and well-being, Prospective research studies are needed to examine the effects of purposeful activities on reducing stress and slowing the rate of cognitive decline.

  14. Infective basis in childhood leukaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinlen, Leo

    1995-01-01

    Leukaemia in children has often been suspected of having an infective basis (as specifically identified in certain animal species) but, until recently, formal studies had gone no further than to show that it does not markedly cluster in time and space. Many infective illnesses, however, are uncommon responses to infections that are mainly spread by the majority of infected individuals who are not ill. These include, for example, glandular fever and certain types of meningitis. Such illnesses are not contagious and do not normally cluster. The possibilities that childhood leukamia might belong to this class of infective illnesses and be subject to increases in incidence as a result of epidemics of an underlying infection were suggested by the well-known excesses near Sellafield and Dounreay. (author)

  15. E. Biological effects of radiation on man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This report firstly summarises information on the biological hazards of radiation and their relation to radiation dose, and hence estimates the biological risks associated with nuclear power production. Secondly, it describes the basis and present status of radiation protection standards in the nuclear power industry

  16. Biological timekeeping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lloyd, David

    2016-01-01

    , the networks that connect differenttime domains and the oscillations, rhythms and biological clocks that coordinate andsynchronise the complexity of the living state.“It is the pattern maintained by this homeostasis, which is the touchstone ofour personal identity. Our tissues change as we live: the food we...

  17. Scaffolded biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minelli, Alessandro

    2016-09-01

    Descriptions and interpretations of the natural world are dominated by dichotomies such as organism vs. environment, nature vs. nurture, genetic vs. epigenetic, but in the last couple of decades strong dissatisfaction with those partitions has been repeatedly voiced and a number of alternative perspectives have been suggested, from perspectives such as Dawkins' extended phenotype, Turner's extended organism, Oyama's Developmental Systems Theory and Odling-Smee's niche construction theory. Last in time is the description of biological phenomena in terms of hybrids between an organism (scaffolded system) and a living or non-living scaffold, forming unit systems to study processes such as reproduction and development. As scaffold, eventually, we can define any resource used by the biological system, especially in development and reproduction, without incorporating it as happens in the case of resources fueling metabolism. Addressing biological systems as functionally scaffolded systems may help pointing to functional relationships that can impart temporal marking to the developmental process and thus explain its irreversibility; revisiting the boundary between development and metabolism and also regeneration phenomena, by suggesting a conceptual framework within which to investigate phenomena of regular hypermorphic regeneration such as characteristic of deer antlers; fixing a periodization of development in terms of the times at which a scaffolding relationship begins or is terminated; and promoting plant galls to legitimate study objects of developmental biology.

  18. Biological digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosevear, A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the biological degradation of non-radioactive organic material occurring in radioactive wastes. The biochemical steps are often performed using microbes or isolated enzymes in combination with chemical steps and the aim is to oxidise the carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulphur to their respective oxides. (U.K.)

  19. Marine Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewees, Christopher M.; Hooper, Jon K.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)

  20. Epistemological basis of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouailhetas, Yannick; Acar, Maria E.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Regarding natural phenomena understood or not, the absolute truth must be somewhere. In fact, there is no evidence that neither nature nor the phenomena that it includes were 'created' to be understood. Except for the fact that Man appeared through the same process, with his curiosity, capacity to perceive and manipulate, his greed for power and fears. In general, the attitude towards questions for which the absolute truth has not been reached varies from ignorance/indifference to the search of knowledge through scientific methodology, and may even be based on beliefs. The fact that the interaction between ionizing radiations and living beings results in biological effect is true. That the biological effect of high doses of radiation, absorbed outside the context of medicine, is hazardous for the irradiated individuals also seems to be true. That any dose is dangerous, or not, is debatable: the available information and knowledge are not consistent enough to end the question; and so, the absolute truth remains hidden. Radiological Protection is founded on the principle that any increase of dose results in an increase in the risk of cancer, and that this risk must be kept as low as possible. It is therefore based on this 'belief' that the international organisms of radiological protection emit recommendations aiming the protection of people and the environment. What is interesting about this question is that because of restrictions imposed by regulating agencies, populations, members of the public and the environment are properly protected against harmful effects of ionizing radiations, which makes the truth no longer interesting. Radiological Protection is a requirement associated to all activities involving nuclear energy. It satisfies several interests and opposes others. The greater the opposed interests and the perception that the absolute truth can represent dialectic advantage to one of the parts, the greater the perception of the importance of its

  1. Impact of marker ascertainment bias on genomic selection accuracy and estimates of genetic diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Heslot

    Full Text Available Genome-wide molecular markers are often being used to evaluate genetic diversity in germplasm collections and for making genomic selections in breeding programs. To accurately predict phenotypes and assay genetic diversity, molecular markers should assay a representative sample of the polymorphisms in the population under study. Ascertainment bias arises when marker data is not obtained from a random sample of the polymorphisms in the population of interest. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS is rapidly emerging as a low-cost genotyping platform, even for the large, complex, and polyploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L. genome. With GBS, marker discovery and genotyping occur simultaneously, resulting in minimal ascertainment bias. The previous platform of choice for whole-genome genotyping in many species such as wheat was DArT (Diversity Array Technology and has formed the basis of most of our knowledge about cereals genetic diversity. This study compared GBS and DArT marker platforms for measuring genetic diversity and genomic selection (GS accuracy in elite U.S. soft winter wheat. From a set of 365 breeding lines, 38,412 single nucleotide polymorphism GBS markers were discovered and genotyped. The GBS SNPs gave a higher GS accuracy than 1,544 DArT markers on the same lines, despite 43.9% missing data. Using a bootstrap approach, we observed significantly more clustering of markers and ascertainment bias with DArT relative to GBS. The minor allele frequency distribution of GBS markers had a deficit of rare variants compared to DArT markers. Despite the ascertainment bias of the DArT markers, GS accuracy for three traits out of four was not significantly different when an equal number of markers were used for each platform. This suggests that the gain in accuracy observed using GBS compared to DArT markers was mainly due to a large increase in the number of markers available for the analysis.

  2. Impact of Marker Ascertainment Bias on Genomic Selection Accuracy and Estimates of Genetic Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heslot, Nicolas; Rutkoski, Jessica; Poland, Jesse; Jannink, Jean-Luc; Sorrells, Mark E.

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide molecular markers are often being used to evaluate genetic diversity in germplasm collections and for making genomic selections in breeding programs. To accurately predict phenotypes and assay genetic diversity, molecular markers should assay a representative sample of the polymorphisms in the population under study. Ascertainment bias arises when marker data is not obtained from a random sample of the polymorphisms in the population of interest. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) is rapidly emerging as a low-cost genotyping platform, even for the large, complex, and polyploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genome. With GBS, marker discovery and genotyping occur simultaneously, resulting in minimal ascertainment bias. The previous platform of choice for whole-genome genotyping in many species such as wheat was DArT (Diversity Array Technology) and has formed the basis of most of our knowledge about cereals genetic diversity. This study compared GBS and DArT marker platforms for measuring genetic diversity and genomic selection (GS) accuracy in elite U.S. soft winter wheat. From a set of 365 breeding lines, 38,412 single nucleotide polymorphism GBS markers were discovered and genotyped. The GBS SNPs gave a higher GS accuracy than 1,544 DArT markers on the same lines, despite 43.9% missing data. Using a bootstrap approach, we observed significantly more clustering of markers and ascertainment bias with DArT relative to GBS. The minor allele frequency distribution of GBS markers had a deficit of rare variants compared to DArT markers. Despite the ascertainment bias of the DArT markers, GS accuracy for three traits out of four was not significantly different when an equal number of markers were used for each platform. This suggests that the gain in accuracy observed using GBS compared to DArT markers was mainly due to a large increase in the number of markers available for the analysis. PMID:24040295

  3. EuroFIR eBASIS: application for health claims submissions and evaluations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiely, M.; Black, L.J.; Plumb, J.; Kroon, P.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Larsen, J.C.; Speijers, G.; Kapsokefalou, M.; Sheehan, D.; Gry, J.; Finglas, P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The European Food Information Resource (EuroFIR) network has established the eBASIS (Bioactive Substances in Food Information System) online food composition and biological effects database for plant-derived bioactive compounds (phytochemicals). On the basis of submitted evidence, the

  4. Functional Basis of Microorganism Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chengsheng; Delmont, Tom O; Vogel, Timothy M; Bromberg, Yana

    2015-08-01

    Correctly identifying nearest "neighbors" of a given microorganism is important in industrial and clinical applications where close relationships imply similar treatment. Microbial classification based on similarity of physiological and genetic organism traits (polyphasic similarity) is experimentally difficult and, arguably, subjective. Evolutionary relatedness, inferred from phylogenetic markers, facilitates classification but does not guarantee functional identity between members of the same taxon or lack of similarity between different taxa. Using over thirteen hundred sequenced bacterial genomes, we built a novel function-based microorganism classification scheme, functional-repertoire similarity-based organism network (FuSiON; flattened to fusion). Our scheme is phenetic, based on a network of quantitatively defined organism relationships across the known prokaryotic space. It correlates significantly with the current taxonomy, but the observed discrepancies reveal both (1) the inconsistency of functional diversity levels among different taxa and (2) an (unsurprising) bias towards prioritizing, for classification purposes, relatively minor traits of particular interest to humans. Our dynamic network-based organism classification is independent of the arbitrary pairwise organism similarity cut-offs traditionally applied to establish taxonomic identity. Instead, it reveals natural, functionally defined organism groupings and is thus robust in handling organism diversity. Additionally, fusion can use organism meta-data to highlight the specific environmental factors that drive microbial diversification. Our approach provides a complementary view to cladistic assignments and holds important clues for further exploration of microbial lifestyles. Fusion is a more practical fit for biomedical, industrial, and ecological applications, as many of these rely on understanding the functional capabilities of the microbes in their environment and are less concerned with

  5. Functional Basis of Microorganism Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chengsheng; Delmont, Tom O.; Vogel, Timothy M.; Bromberg, Yana

    2015-01-01

    Correctly identifying nearest “neighbors” of a given microorganism is important in industrial and clinical applications where close relationships imply similar treatment. Microbial classification based on similarity of physiological and genetic organism traits (polyphasic similarity) is experimentally difficult and, arguably, subjective. Evolutionary relatedness, inferred from phylogenetic markers, facilitates classification but does not guarantee functional identity between members of the same taxon or lack of similarity between different taxa. Using over thirteen hundred sequenced bacterial genomes, we built a novel function-based microorganism classification scheme, functional-repertoire similarity-based organism network (FuSiON; flattened to fusion). Our scheme is phenetic, based on a network of quantitatively defined organism relationships across the known prokaryotic space. It correlates significantly with the current taxonomy, but the observed discrepancies reveal both (1) the inconsistency of functional diversity levels among different taxa and (2) an (unsurprising) bias towards prioritizing, for classification purposes, relatively minor traits of particular interest to humans. Our dynamic network-based organism classification is independent of the arbitrary pairwise organism similarity cut-offs traditionally applied to establish taxonomic identity. Instead, it reveals natural, functionally defined organism groupings and is thus robust in handling organism diversity. Additionally, fusion can use organism meta-data to highlight the specific environmental factors that drive microbial diversification. Our approach provides a complementary view to cladistic assignments and holds important clues for further exploration of microbial lifestyles. Fusion is a more practical fit for biomedical, industrial, and ecological applications, as many of these rely on understanding the functional capabilities of the microbes in their environment and are less concerned

  6. [Molecular basis of Fanconi's anemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digweed, M

    1999-01-01

    Fanconi anaemia (FA) is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder characterised clinically by progressive bone marrow failure, skeletal deformities and a predisposition to neoplasia. Patient cells manifest an extreme chromosomal instability and hypersensitivity to polyfunctional alkylating agents. It is assumed that the basic defect is related to the repair of DNA damage, in particular that of so-called DNA crosslinks. Currently there are eight complementation groups in FA (FA-A-FA-H) which indicates that at least eight independent genes can lead to FA. Three of these genes have been identified: FANCA, FANCC and FANCG. In this review, the molecular biology and genetics of FA are presented and possible functions of the FANC proteins are discussed.

  7. The correlation between internal and external markers for abdominal tumors: Implications for respiratory gating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gierga, David P.; Brewer, Johanna; Sharp, Gregory C.; Betke, Margrit; Willett, Christopher G.; Chen, George T.Y.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The correlation of the respiratory motion of external patient markers and abdominal tumors was examined. Data of this type are important for image-guided therapy techniques, such as respiratory gating, that monitor the movement of external fiducials. Methods and Materials: Fluoroscopy sessions for 4 patients with internal, radiopaque tumor fiducial clips were analyzed by computer vision techniques. The motion of the internal clips and the external markers placed on the patient's abdominal skin surface were quantified and correlated. Results: In general, the motion of the tumor and external markers were well correlated. The maximum amount of peak-to-peak craniocaudal tumor motion was 2.5 cm. The ratio of tumor motion to external-marker motion ranged from 0.85 to 7.1. The variation in tumor position for a given external-marker position ranged from 2 to 9 mm. The period of the breathing cycle ranged from 2.7 to 4.5 seconds, and the frequency patterns for both the tumor and the external markers were similar. Conclusions: Although tumor motion generally correlated well with external fiducial marker motion, relatively large underlying tumor motion can occur compared with external-marker motion and variations in the tumor position for a given marker position. Treatment margins should be determined on the basis of a detailed understanding of tumor motion, as opposed to relying only on external-marker information

  8. Geriatric neuro-oncology: from mythology to biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Michael; Platten, Michael; Roth, Patrick; Wick, Wolfgang

    2011-12-01

    Age has remained one of the most important determinants of risk for the development of certain brain tumors, of benefit from and tolerance of brain tumor treatment, and overall outcome. Regarding these three aspects, there are major differences across the spectrum of primary brain tumors depending on specific histology. Here, we review recent advances in understanding the biological basis of the prognostic marker 'age' in neuro-oncology. Contemporary population-based studies confirm the strong prognostic impact of age in many brain tumors. Elderly patients continue to be treated less aggressively than younger patients with the same tumors. However, biological factors may contribute to the negative prognostic impact of age. For instance, among gliomas, mutations of the isocitrate dehydrogenase genes, which are prognostically favorable, are much more common in younger patients. Moreover, complete responses defined by neuroimaging were much less durable in elderly as opposed to younger patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma in the German Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma Study Group trial. A combination of age-adapted patterns of care and treatment-independent, tumor-intrinsic factors contributes to the poorer outcome of elderly patients with brain tumors. These factors need to be better distinguished and understood in order to improve outcome in elderly brain tumor patients.

  9. Parameters of biological activity in colorectal cancer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svobodová, Š.; Topolčan, O.; Holubec jr., L.; Levý, M.; Pecen, Ladislav; Svačina, Š.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 1 (2011), s. 373-378 ISSN 0250-7005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : colorectal cancer * biological activity * prognosis * tumor markers * angiogenetic factors * metalloproteinases * adhesion molecules Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology Impact factor: 1.725, year: 2011

  10. Molecular and biological interactions in colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heer, Pieter de

    2007-01-01

    The current thesis discusses the use of molecular and biological tumor markers to predict clinical outcome. By studying several key processes in the develepment of cancer as regulation of cell motility (non-receptor protein tyrosin adesion kinases, FAK, Src and paxillin, Apoptosis (caspase-3

  11. [Biologics and mycobacterial diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuyuguchi, Kazunari; Matsumoto, Tomoshige

    2013-03-01

    developing TB. Lastly, Dr. Matsumoto stressed the risk of discontinuing TNF-alpha inhibitor during treatment for tuberculosis. He showed from his clinical experience that TNF-alpha inhibitor can be safely used in active TB patient receiving effective antituberculosis chemotherapy and it is even more effective for prevention of paradoxical response. Active discussion was done about the four topics, including the matter beyond present guidelines. We hope these discussions will form the basis for the establishment of new guideline for the management of mycobacterial disease when using immunosuppressive agents including biologics. 1. The risk of developing tuberculosis (TB) and situations of screening for TB risk at administration of biologics-the case of rheumatoid arthritis: Shigeto TOHMA (Clinical Research Center for Allergy and Rheumatology, National Hospital Organization Sagamihara National Hospital) We calculated the standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of TB from the clinical data on National Database of Rheumatic Diseases by iR-net in Japan (NinJa) and compared with the SIR of TB from the data of the post-marketing surveillances of five biologics. Among 43584 patient-years, forty patients developed TB. The SIR of TB in NinJa was 4.34 (95%CI: 3.00-5.69). According to the post-marketing surveillances of 5 biologics, the SIR of TB were 3.62-34.4. The incidence of TB in patients with RA was higher than general population in Japan, and was increased more by some biologics. We have to recognize the risk of TB when we start biologics therapy to patients with RA. Although the frequency of implementation of QuantiFERON test (QFT) had gradually increased, it was still limited to 41%. In order to predict the risk of developing TB and to prevent TB, it might be better to check all RA patients by QFT at time time of biologics administration. 2. Biologics and nontuberculous mycobacterial diseases: Hitoshi TOKUDA (Social Insurance Central General Hospital) Several topics about the

  12. Role of excision repair in postradiation recovery of biological activity of cellular DNA Bacillus subtilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippov, V.D.

    1976-01-01

    DNA extracted from UV-irradiated prototroph cells of Bacillus subtilis uvr + (45 sec. of UV light, 20% survivals) has a lowered transforming activity (TA) of markers purB and metB, and a lowered ratio TA pur/TA met. During the subsequent incubation of uvr + cells in glucose-salt medium free of nitrogen sources the TA of markers and the ratio between them increase. No increase is observed during the postradiation incubation under the same conditions or in a nutrition medium of uvr cells, deficient in escision of pyrimidine dimers. The increment of DNA begins approsimately in 30 min. after the beginning of incubation of irradiated uvr cells in nutrition medium. On the basis of these facts it is concluded that neither the replication of damaged DNA nor the postreplication repair, but only excision repair, can provide the recovery of biological (transforming) activity of cellular DNA in Bac. subtilis. The system given might be a suitable model for testing compounds which affect the activity of this process. The well-known inhibitors of dark repair, caffeine, proflavine to inhibit reversibly the initial steps of the process/ and especially acriflavine, delay the recovery of markers of cellular DNA in irradiated uvr + cells. Caffeine is proved to inhibit reversibly the initial steps of the process

  13. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert; E. Schneider

    2009-12-01

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 25 cost modules—23 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, transuranic, and high-level waste.

  14. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert

    2007-04-01

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 26 cost modules—24 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, and high-level waste.

  15. Conceptual basis of outcome measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, R A

    1995-01-01

    Because of its treatment configuration and the assumption of long-term benefit, rehabilitation has had a continuing interest in the measurement of outcomes. The utility of outcome indicators rests on their conceptual foundations, the technical development of measures and validation research. Some measures, particularly of functional status, have become increasingly sophisticated with the application of psychometric and statistical analysis techniques. Less effort has been devoted to an elaboration of their theoretical basis. A first step is an examination of the assumptions underlying outcome measures, the purpose of this article. Central to an understanding is clarification of definitions of key terms such as outcomes, independence, impairment, disability and handicap. All outcome measures must be seen as part of a social context of norms and expectations. However, most norms in rehabilitation are implied rather than explicit. The assumptions behind several common outcomes are examined with suggestions for ways to increase their utility. The ability of rehabilitation to compete in the current climate, stressing cost-effectiveness, will depend heavily on the robustness of outcome measures.

  16. Basis Document for Sludge Stabilization

    CERN Document Server

    Risenmay, H R

    2001-01-01

    DOE-RL recently issued Safety Evaluation Report (SER) amendments to the PFP Final Safety Analysis Report, HNF-SD-CP-SAR-021 Rev. 2. The Justification for Continued Operations for 2736-ZB and plutonium oxides in BTCs Safety Basis change (letter DOE-RL ABD-074) was approved by one of the SERs. Also approved by SER was the revised accident analysis for Magnesium Hydroxide Precipitation Process (MHPP) gloveboxes HC-230C-3 and HC-230C-5 containing increased glovebox inventories and corresponding increases in seismic release consequence. Numerous implementing documents require revision and issuance to implement the SER approvals. The SER plutonium oxides into BTCs specifically limited the SER scope to ''pure or clean oxides, i.e., 85 wt% or grater Pu, in this feed change'' (SER Section 3.0 Base Information paragraph 4 [page 11]). Comprehensive USQ Evaluation PFP-2001-12 addressed the packaging of Pu alloy metals into BTCs, and the packaging of Pu alloy oxides (powders) into food pack cans and determined that the ac...

  17. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert; E. Schneider

    2008-03-01

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 25 cost modules—23 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, transuranic, and high-level waste.

  18. Biological radioprotector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanescu, Ioan; Titescu, Gheorghe; Tamaian, Radu; Haulica, Ion; Bild, Walther

    2002-01-01

    According to the patent description, the biological radioprotector is deuterium depleted water, DDW, produced by vacuum distillation with an isotopic content lower than natural value. It appears as such or in a mixture with natural water and carbon dioxide. It can be used for preventing and reducing the ionizing radiation effects upon humans or animal organisms, exposed therapeutically, professionally or accidentally to radiation. The most significant advantage of using DDW as biological radioprotector results from its way of administration. Indeed no one of the radioprotectors currently used today can be orally administrated, what reduces the patients' compliance to prophylactic administrations. The biological radioprotector is an unnoxious product obtained from natural water, which can be administrated as food additive instead of drinking water. Dose modification factor is according to initial estimates around 1.9, what is a remarkable feature when one takes into account that the product is toxicity-free and side effect-free and can be administrated prophylactically as a food additive. A net radioprotective action of the deuterium depletion was evidenced experimentally in laboratory animals (rats) hydrated with DDW of 30 ppm D/(D+H) concentration as compared with normally hydrated control animals. Knowing the effects of irradiation and mechanisms of the acute radiation disease as well as the effects of administration of radiomimetic chemicals upon cellular lines of fast cell division, it appears that the effects of administrating DDW result from stimulation of the immunity system. In conclusion, the biological radioprotector DDW presents the following advantages: - it is obtained from natural products without toxicity; - it is easy to be administrated as a food additive, replacing the drinking water; - besides radioprotective effects, the product has also immunostimulative and antitumoral effects

  19. [Circadian markers and genes in bipolar disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeim, S; Boudebesse, C; Etain, B; Belliviera, F

    2015-09-01

    Bipolar disorder is a severe and complex multifactorial disease, characterized by alternance of acute episodes of depression and mania/hypomania, interspaced by euthymic periods. The etiological determinants of bipolar disorder yet, are still poorly understood. For the last 30 years, chronobiology is an important field of investigation to better understand the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder. We conducted a review using Medline, ISI Database, EMBase, PsyInfo up to January 2015, using the following keywords combinations: "mood disorder", "bipolar disorder", "depression", "unipolar disorder", "major depressive disorder", "affective disorder", for psychiatric conditions; and "circadian rhythms", "circadian markers", "circadian gene", "clock gene", "melatonin" for circadian rhythms. The search critera was presence of word in any field of the article. Quantitative and qualitative circadian abnormalities are associated with bipolar disorders both during acute episodes and euthymic periods, suggesting that these altered circadian rhythms may represent biological trait markers of the disorder. These circadian dysfunctions were assessed by various validated tools including polysomnography, actigraphy, sleep diaries, chronotype assessments and blood melatonin/cortisol measures. Other altered endogenous circadian activities have also been reported in bipolar patients, such as hormones secretion, core body temperature or fibroblasts activity. Moreover, these markers were also altered in healthy relatives of bipolar patients, suggesting a degree of heritability. Several genetic association studies have also showed associations between multiple circadian genes and bipolar disorder, such as CLOCK, ARTNL1, GSK3β, PER3, NPAS2, NR1D1, TIMELESS, RORA, RORB, and CSNK1ε. Thus, these circadian gene variants may contribute to the genetic susceptibility of the disease. Furthermore, the study of the clock system may help to better understand some phenotypic aspects like the

  20. Marine biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index

  1. Molecular markers in bladder cancer: Novel research frontiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanguedolce, Francesca; Cormio, Antonella; Bufo, Pantaleo; Carrieri, Giuseppe; Cormio, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Bladder cancer (BC) is a heterogeneous disease encompassing distinct biologic features that lead to extremely different clinical behaviors. In the last 20 years, great efforts have been made to predict disease outcome and response to treatment by developing risk assessment calculators based on multiple standard clinical-pathological factors, as well as by testing several molecular markers. Unfortunately, risk assessment calculators alone fail to accurately assess a single patient's prognosis and response to different treatment options. Several molecular markers easily assessable by routine immunohistochemical techniques hold promise for becoming widely available and cost-effective tools for a more reliable risk assessment, but none have yet entered routine clinical practice. Current research is therefore moving towards (i) identifying novel molecular markers; (ii) testing old and new markers in homogeneous patients' populations receiving homogeneous treatments; (iii) generating a multimarker panel that could be easily, and thus routinely, used in clinical practice; (iv) developing novel risk assessment tools, possibly combining standard clinical-pathological factors with molecular markers. This review analyses the emerging body of literature concerning novel biomarkers, ranging from genetic changes to altered expression of a huge variety of molecules, potentially involved in BC outcome and response to treatment. Findings suggest that some of these indicators, such as serum circulating tumor cells and tissue mitochondrial DNA, seem to be easily assessable and provide reliable information. Other markers, such as the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT (serine-threonine kinase)/mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) pathway and epigenetic changes in DNA methylation seem to not only have prognostic/predictive value but also, most importantly, represent valuable therapeutic targets. Finally, there is increasing evidence that the development of novel risk assessment tools

  2. Identify super quality markers from prototype-based pharmacokinetic markers of Tangzhiqing tablet (TZQ) based on in vitro dissolution/ permeation and in vivo absorption correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ziqiang; Liu, Jia; Li, Yazhuo; Du, Xi; Li, Yanfen; Wang, Ruihua; Lv, Chunxiao; He, Xin; Wang, Baohe; Huang, Yuhong; Zhang, Deqin

    2018-06-01

    A quality marker (Q-marker) is defined as an inherent chemical compound that is used for the quality control of a drug. Its biological activities are closely related to safety and therapeutic effects. Generally, a multiple-component herbal medicine may have many Q-markers. We therefore proposed a concept of "super Q-marker" satisfying both the criterion of Q-markers and PK-markers to be used in more effective quality control of herbal medicine. The first aim was to find suitable prototype-based PK-markers from Tangzhiqing tablets (TZQ), a Chinese patent medicine. Then super Q-markers were expected to be identified from the prototype-based PK-markers based on an in vitro-in vivo correlation study. Potentially eligible prototype-based PK-markers were identified in a single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetic study on TZQ in 30 healthy volunteers. The in vitro dissolution and permeation profiles of the prototype-based PK-markers of TZQ were evaluated by the physiologically-based drug dissolution/absorption simulating system (DDASS). An in vitro-in vivo correlation analysis was conducted between the dissolution/permeation behaviors in DDASS and the actual absorption profiles in human to test the transferability and traceability of the promising super Q-markers for TZQ. In human, plasma paeoniflorin and nuciferine as prototype-based PK-markers exhibited the appropriate pharmacokinetic properties, including dose-dependent systemic exposure (AUC, C max ) and a proper elimination half-life (1∼3h). In DDASS, it was predicted that paeoniflorin and nuciferine are highly permeable but the absorption rates are primarily limited by the dissolution rates. Moreover, the established in vitro-in vivo correlations of paeoniflorin and nuciferine were in support of the super Q-markers features. Paeoniflorin and nuciferine are identified as the super Q-markers from the prototype-based PK-markers of TZQ based on findings from a combination of in vitro, in vivo, and in vitro-in vivo

  3. International consensus for neuroblastoma molecular diagnostics: report from the International Neuroblastoma Risk Group (INRG) Biology Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambros, P F; Ambros, I M; Brodeur, G M; Haber, M; Khan, J; Nakagawara, A; Schleiermacher, G; Speleman, F; Spitz, R; London, W B; Cohn, S L; Pearson, A D J; Maris, J M

    2009-01-01

    Neuroblastoma serves as a paradigm for utilising tumour genomic data for determining patient prognosis and treatment allocation. However, before the establishment of the International Neuroblastoma Risk Group (INRG) Task Force in 2004, international consensus on markers, methodology, and data interpretation did not exist, compromising the reliability of decisive genetic markers and inhibiting translational research efforts. The objectives of the INRG Biology Committee were to identify highly prognostic genetic aberrations to be included in the new INRG risk classification schema and to develop precise definitions, decisive biomarkers, and technique standardisation. The review of the INRG database (n=8800 patients) by the INRG Task Force finally enabled the identification of the most significant neuroblastoma biomarkers. In addition, the Biology Committee compared the standard operating procedures of different cooperative groups to arrive at international consensus for methodology, nomenclature, and future directions. Consensus was reached to include MYCN status, 11q23 allelic status, and ploidy in the INRG classification system on the basis of an evidence-based review of the INRG database. Standardised operating procedures for analysing these genetic factors were adopted, and criteria for proper nomenclature were developed. Neuroblastoma treatment planning is highly dependant on tumour cell genomic features, and it is likely that a comprehensive panel of DNA-based biomarkers will be used in future risk assignment algorithms applying genome-wide techniques. Consensus on methodology and interpretation is essential for uniform INRG classification and will greatly facilitate international and cooperative clinical and translational research studies. PMID:19401703

  4. Structural Biology Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIGMS NIGMS Home > Science Education > Structural Biology Structural Biology Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area PDF Version (688 KB) Other Fact Sheets What is structural biology? Structural biology is the study of how biological ...

  5. Leerteoretiese basis van die andragogie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. A. Simpson

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available Learning theory basis of andragogy. A cursory glance at andragogy creates the impression that humanistic learning theory plays an all encompassing role in the learner centered approach andragogy espouses. A closer look, however, reveals that Knowles (1973, after having made an intensive study of learning theory, created an extensive framework within which human resource development can take place. The fact that Knowles attracted critique from different areas, led to a need to ascertain the role different learning theories, if any, played in the emergence of andragogy. Having looked at the assumptions displayed by the andragogical approach, as well as a comparison of different learning theories and their connection with andragogy, it became clear that andragogy contains elements of various learning theories in an adapted way. These adaptations resulted in an approach to adult education in which learners are given the opportunity to be part of the learning process in such a way that they themselves contribute to the development which takes place. Opsomming Met 'n eerste oogopslag wil dit voorkom asof humanistiese leerteorie 'n oorheersende rol in die leerdergesentreerde benadering van andragogie speel. By nadere ondersoek blyk dit egter dat Knowles (1973, na 'n deeglike studie van verskillende leerteoretiese beginsels, 'n omvangryke raamwerk geskep het waarbinne, aan die hand van verskeie aangepaste leerteoretiese beginsels, menslike hulpbronontwikkeling kan plaasvind. As gevolg van die feit dat Knowles vanuit verskillende oorde kritiek op die lyf geloop het, is besluit om die rol wat verskillende leerteorieë in andragogie speel, te bestudeer. Dit blyk dat andragogie nie net elemente van verskillende leerteorieë bevat nie, maar dat toepaslike aspekte van die teoriee wat ondersoek is, benut en aangepas is om 'n geintegreerde benadering te bewerkstellig waarin veral volwassene-leerders by leergeleenthede en hulle selfontwikkeling betrek word.

  6. PAV markers in Sorghum bicolour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Xin; Liu, Zhiquan; Mocoeur, Anne Raymonde Joelle

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Genic presence/absence variants (PAVs) correlate closely to the phenotypic variation, impacting plant genome sizes and the adaption to the environment. To shed more light on their genome-wide patterns, functions and to test the possibility of using them as molecular markers, we analyzed...... enriched in stress responses and protein modification. We used 325 polymorphic PAVs in two sorghum inbred lines Ji2731 and E-Tian, together with 49 SSR markers, and constructed a genetic map, which consisted of 10 linkage groups corresponding to the 10 chromosomes of sorghum and spanned 1430.3 cM in length...

  7. EuroFIR eBASIS: application for health claims submissions and evaluations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiely, M.; Black, L.J.; Plumb, J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The European Food Information Resource (EuroFIR) network has established the eBASIS (Bioactive Substances in Food Information System) online food composition and biological effects database for plant-derived bioactive compounds (phytochemicals). On the basis of submitted evidence......, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) expert panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies assesses whether claims made under articles 13.1, 13.5 or 14 of the Regulation (EC) 1924/2006, which governs the use of nutrition and health claims on foods, are scientifically justified. This report evaluates...... the eBASIS biological effects database in the preparation and evaluation of health claims dossiers. Methods: The eBASIS biological effects database is a compilation of expert-evaluated data extracted from the literature, prioritising human intervention studies to investigate health effects...

  8. Synthesis of (±)-I-125-iodobenzovesamicol - A cholinergic neuron marker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Y.W.; Van Dort, M.E.; Wieland, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    The authors are focusing efforts on developing markers for the cholinergic neuron. Vesamicol (VA) has been adopted as a basis for the design of a presynaptic cholinergic nerve marker. Benzovesamicol, an analog of VA, is equipotent with VA and displays remarkable bulk tolerance in the 5-position. They have synthesized (±)-[I-125]-5-iodobenzovesamicol, and have conducted in vivo screening with it in mice

  9. Minimum information about a marker gene sequence (MIMARKS) and minimum information about any (x) sequence (MIxS) specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yilmaz, Pelin; Kottmann, Renzo; Field, Dawn

    2011-01-01

    Here we present a standard developed by the Genomic Standards Consortium (GSC) for reporting marker gene sequences--the minimum information about a marker gene sequence (MIMARKS). We also introduce a system for describing the environment from which a biological sample originates. The 'environment...

  10. Serum Calprotectin in Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Promising Diagnostic Marker, How Far Is It Related to Activity and Sonographic Findings?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.E. Mansour

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: Calprotectin was found to have high association with laboratory and ultrasonography markers of inflammation in RA patients, so it is recommended for use as a marker of inflammatory activity in RA patients especially for the follow-up of patients on biological therapy to assess its efficacy.

  11. Towards uranium dose-effects relationships for bio markers of oxidative stress in fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buet, A.; Camilleri, V.; Simon, O.; Garnier-Laplace, J.

    2004-01-01

    Within the Envirhom program, the bioavailability of uranium, a widely spread metal in fresh waters, has been studied in various organisms to gain understanding of metal-organisms interactions. Experiments are still in progress to establish a comprehensive basis of early and delayed involved toxicological mechanisms. Uranium is known to be both radio-toxic and chemo-toxic. The cellular damage of radiation, but also of heavy metal exposure, is mainly associated with an oxidative injury due to the formation of reactive oxygen species. Moreover, the intensity of oxidative damages is dependant on the efficiency of antioxidant defense systems of the organism. In this context, short-term experiments were performed with juvenile rainbow trout (Onchorynchus mykiss) in order to (1) assess the response of some antioxidant parameters and other potential bio-markers and (2) to better characterize the kinetics of the responses in relation with U concentrations and exposure duration. Trout were exposed by direct pathway to a range of U concentrations in water (low, medium and high: 20, 100 and 500 μg U.L -1 respectively) during 10 days. Several antioxidant parameters were measured: the rate of reduced glutathione (GSH) that plays a major role in cellular detoxification and antioxidant defense, and the activities of superoxide dismutases (SOD) and catalase that are involved in the detoxification of oxygen reactive species. The activity of glutathione reductase (GR), that restores the pool of GSH was measured, as well as the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), a marker of neurotoxicity. In parallel, U analysis were performed in gill, skin, muscle, skeleton, intestine, liver, kidneys and body residues of exposed trout in order to assess the dependence of biological responses with a potential uranium bioaccumulation in fish tissues. (author)

  12. Systems biology and biomarker discovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodland, Karin D.

    2010-12-01

    Medical practitioners have always relied on surrogate markers of inaccessible biological processes to make their diagnosis, whether it was the pallor of shock, the flush of inflammation, or the jaundice of liver failure. Obviously, the current implementation of biomarkers for disease is far more sophisticated, relying on highly reproducible, quantitative measurements of molecules that are often mechanistically associated with the disease in question, as in glycated hemoglobin for the diagnosis of diabetes [1] or the presence of cardiac troponins in the blood for confirmation of myocardial infarcts [2]. In cancer, where the initial symptoms are often subtle and the consequences of delayed diagnosis often drastic for disease management, the impetus to discover readily accessible, reliable, and accurate biomarkers for early detection is compelling. Yet despite years of intense activity, the stable of clinically validated, cost-effective biomarkers for early detection of cancer is pathetically small and still dominated by a handful of markers (CA-125, CEA, PSA) first discovered decades ago. It is time, one could argue, for a fresh approach to the discovery and validation of disease biomarkers, one that takes full advantage of the revolution in genomic technologies and in the development of computational tools for the analysis of large complex datasets. This issue of Disease Markers is dedicated to one such new approach, loosely termed the 'Systems Biology of Biomarkers'. What sets the Systems Biology approach apart from other, more traditional approaches, is both the types of data used, and the tools used for data analysis - and both reflect the revolution in high throughput analytical methods and high throughput computing that has characterized the start of the twenty first century.

  13. Lod scores for gene mapping in the presence of marker map uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringham, H M; Boehnke, M

    2001-07-01

    Multipoint lod scores are typically calculated for a grid of locus positions, moving the putative disease locus across a fixed map of genetic markers. Changing the order of a set of markers and/or the distances between the markers can make a substantial difference in the resulting lod score curve and the location and height of its maximum. The typical approach of using the best maximum likelihood marker map is not easily justified if other marker orders are nearly as likely and give substantially different lod score curves. To deal with this problem, we propose three weighted multipoint lod score statistics that make use of information from all plausible marker orders. In each of these statistics, the information conditional on a particular marker order is included in a weighted sum, with weight equal to the posterior probability of that order. We evaluate the type 1 error rate and power of these three statistics on the basis of results from simulated data, and compare these results to those obtained using the best maximum likelihood map and the map with the true marker order. We find that the lod score based on a weighted sum of maximum likelihoods improves on using only the best maximum likelihood map, having a type 1 error rate and power closest to that of using the true marker order in the simulation scenarios we considered. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. EasyClone-MarkerFree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabre, Mathew Malcolm Jessop; Jakociunas, Tadas; Stovicek, Vratislav

    2016-01-01

    Clone-MarkerFree. The integration of linearized expression cassettes into defined genomic loci is facilitated by CRISPR/Cas9. Cas9 is recruited to the chromosomal location by specific guide RNAs (gRNAs) expressed from a set of gRNA helper vectors. Using our genome engineering vector suite, single and triple insertions are obtained...

  15. Tumour markers in gynaecological practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adewole, I.F.

    1999-02-01

    Gynaecological cancers are fairly common in developing countries and represent about 26 % f all cancers. Application of cervical cytology screening nationally has made cervical cancer one of the most preventable malignant diseases thus eliminating the challenges of advanced cancer management. Tumour markers has played a most crucial role in this respect

  16. Testing theories about ethnic markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Holm; Petersen, Michael Bang; Høgh-Olesen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, evolutionary psychologists and anthropologists have debated whether ethnic markers have evolved to solve adaptive problems related to interpersonal coordination or to interpersonal cooperation. In the present study, we add to this debate by exploring how individuals living in a m...

  17. Biological biomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorge-Herrero, E. [Servicio de Cirugia Experimental. Clinica Puerta de Hierro, Madrid (Spain)

    1997-05-01

    There are a number of situations in which substances of biological origin are employed as biomaterials. Most of them are macromolecules derived from isolated connective tissue or the connective tissue itself in membrane form, in both cases, the tissue can be used in its natural form or be chemically treated. In other cases, certain blood vessels can be chemically pretreated and used as vascular prostheses. Proteins such as albumin, collagen and fibrinogen are employed to coat vascular prostheses. Certain polysaccharides have also been tested for use in controlled drug release systems. Likewise, a number of tissues, such as dura mater, bovine pericardium, procine valves and human valves, are used in the preparation of cardiac prostheses. We also use veins from animals or humans in arterial replacement. In none of these cases are the tissues employed dissimilar to the native tissues as they have been chemically modified, becoming a new bio material with different physical and biochemical properties. In short, we find that natural products are being utilized as biomaterials and must be considered as such; thus, it is necessary to study both their chemicobiological and physicomechanical properties. In the present report, we review the current applications, problems and future prospects of some of these biological biomaterials. (Author) 84 refs.

  18. Biochemical Markers in Neurocritical Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omidvar Rezae

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available During the past two decades, a variety of serum or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF biochemical markers in daily clinical practice have been recommended to diagnose and monitor diverse diseases or pathologic situations. It will be essential to develop a panel of biomarkers, to be suitable for evaluation of treatment efficacy, representing distinct phases of injury and recovery and consider the temporal profile of those. Among the possible and different biochemical markers, S100b appeared to fulfill many of optimized criteria of an ideal marker. S100b, a cytosolic low molecular weight dimeric calciumbinding protein from chromosome 21, synthesized in glial cells throughout the CNS, an homodimeric diffusible, belongs to a family of closely related protein, predominantly expressed by astrocytes and Schwann cells and a classic immunohistochemical marker for these cells, is implicated in brain development and neurophysiology. Of the 3 isoforms of S-100, the BB subunit (S100B is present in high concentrations in central and peripheral glial and Schwann cells, Langerhans and anterior pituitary cells, fat, muscle, and bone marrow tissues. The biomarker has shown to be a sensitive marker of clinical and subclinical cerebral damage, such as stroke, traumatic brain injury, and spinal cord injury. Increasing evidence suggests that the biomarker plays a double function as an intracellular regulator and an extracellular signal of the CNS. S100b is found in the cytoplasm in a soluble form and also is associated with intracellular membranes, centrosomes, microtubules, and type III intermediate filaments. Their genomic organization now is known, and many of their target proteins have been identified, although the mechanisms of regulating S100b secretion are not completely understood and appear to be related to many factors, such as the proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a, interleukin (IL-1b, and metabolic stress. 

  19. Echinococcus metacestode: in search of viability markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottstein, Bruno; Wang, Junhua; Blagosklonov, Oleg; Grenouillet, Frédéric; Millon, Laurence; Vuitton, Dominique A; Müller, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that most humans infected with Echinococcus spp. exhibit resistance to disease. When infection leads to disease, the parasite is partially controlled by host immunity: in case of immunocompetence, the normal alveolar echinococcosis (AE) or cystic echinococcosis (CE) situation, the metacestode grows slowly, and first clinical signs appear years after infection; in case of impaired immunity (AIDS; other immunodeficiencies), uncontrolled proliferation of the metacestode leads to rapidly progressing disease. Assessing Echinococcus multilocularis viability in vivo following therapeutic interventions in AE patients may be of tremendous benefit when compared with the invasive procedures used to perform biopsies. Current options are F18-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), which visualizes periparasitic inflammation due to the metabolic activity of the metacestode, and measurement of antibodies against recEm18, a viability-associated protein, that rapidly regresses upon metacestode inactivation. For Echinococcus granulosus, similar prognosis-associated follow-up parameters are still lacking but a few candidates may be listed. Other possible markers include functional and diffusion-weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), and measurement of products from the parasite (circulating antigens or DNA), and from the host (inflammation markers, cytokines, or chemokines). Even though some of them have been promising in pilot studies, none has been properly validated in an appropriate number of patients until now to be recommended for further use in clinical settings. There is therefore still a need to develop reliable tools for improved viability assessment to provide the sufficient information needed to reliably withdraw anti-parasite benzimidazole chemotherapy, and a basis for the development of new alternative therapeutic tools. © B. Gottstein et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2014.

  20. Potential Audiological and MRI Markers of Tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, Kamakshi V; Thomas, Binu P; Nandy, Rajesh; Mao, Deng; Lu, Hanzhang

    2017-09-01

    Subjective tinnitus, or ringing sensation in the ear, is a common disorder with no accepted objective diagnostic markers. The purpose of this study was to identify possible objective markers of tinnitus by combining audiological and imaging-based techniques. Case-control studies. Twenty adults drawn from our audiology clinic served as participants. The tinnitus group consisted of ten participants with chronic bilateral constant tinnitus, and the control group consisted of ten participants with no history of tinnitus. Each participant with tinnitus was closely matched with a control participant on the basis of age, gender, and hearing thresholds. Data acquisition focused on systematic administration and evaluation of various audiological tests, including auditory-evoked potentials (AEP) and otoacoustic emissions, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) tests. A total of 14 objective test measures (predictors) obtained from audiological and MRI tests were subjected to statistical analyses to identify the best predictors of tinnitus group membership. The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator technique for feature extraction, supplemented by the leave-one-out cross-validation technique, were used to extract the best predictors. This approach provided a conservative model that was highly regularized with its error within 1 standard error of the minimum. The model selected increased frontal cortex (FC) functional MRI activity to pure tones matching their respective tinnitus pitch, and augmented AEP wave N₁ amplitude growth in the tinnitus group as the top two predictors of tinnitus group membership. These findings suggest that the amplified responses to acoustic signals and hyperactivity in attention regions of the brain may be a result of overattention among individuals that experience chronic tinnitus. These results suggest that increased functional MRI activity in the FC to sounds and augmented N₁ amplitude growth may potentially be the objective diagnostic

  1. Systems Biology: Impressions from a Newcomer Graduate Student in 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Melanie Rae

    2016-01-01

    As a newcomer, the philosophical basis of systems biology seems intuitive and appealing, the underlying philosophy being that the whole of a living system cannot be completely understood by the study of its individual parts. Yet answers to the questions "What is systems biology?" and "What constitutes a systems biology approach in…

  2. NABIC marker database: A molecular markers information network of agricultural crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang-Kug; Seol, Young-Joo; Lee, Dong-Jun; Jeong, In-Seon; Yoon, Ung-Han; Lee, Gang-Seob; Hahn, Jang-Ho; Park, Dong-Suk

    2013-01-01

    In 2013, National Agricultural Biotechnology Information Center (NABIC) reconstructs a molecular marker database for useful genetic resources. The web-based marker database consists of three major functional categories: map viewer, RSN marker and gene annotation. It provides 7250 marker locations, 3301 RSN marker property, 3280 molecular marker annotation information in agricultural plants. The individual molecular marker provides information such as marker name, expressed sequence tag number, gene definition and general marker information. This updated marker-based database provides useful information through a user-friendly web interface that assisted in tracing any new structures of the chromosomes and gene positional functions using specific molecular markers. The database is available for free at http://nabic.rda.go.kr/gere/rice/molecularMarkers/

  3. Biological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trott, K.R.

    1973-01-01

    Following an introduction into the field of cellular radiation effect considering the most important experimental results, the biological significance of the colony formation ability is brought out. The inactivation concept of stem cells does not only prove to be good, according to the present results, in the interpretation of the pathogenesis of acute radiation effects on moult tissue, it also enables chronicle radiation injuries to be interpreted through changes in the fibrous part of the organs. Radiation therapy of tumours can also be explained to a large extent by the radiation effect on the unlimited reproductiveness of tumour cells. The more or less similar dose effect curves for healthy and tumour tissue in practice lead to intermittent irradiation. The dependence of the intermittent doses and intervals on factors such as Elkind recovery, synchronisation, redistribution, reoxygenation, repopulation and regeneration are reviewed. (ORU/LH) [de

  4. Biological aspects of chemoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourhis, J.; Mornex, F.

    1998-01-01

    Radio-chemotherapy combinations, especially their concomitant associations, are widely used in the treatment of cancer. The development of these associations has been so far related more to clinical research than to laboratory experiments. The biological basis of the use of these agents relies on their complementarity which concerns the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in lethality (hypoxia, sensitivity throughout the cycle, DNA repair, apoptosis), spatial and temporal cooperation, etc. Laboratory experiments can determine favorable conditions for additivity, or supra-additivity, but also for infra-additive interactions as well as real antagonism which should be avoided in the clinic. It is however often difficult to transfer this information into the clinic since the conditions which allow additivity or supra-additivity are generally very narrow, and unlikely to be realised in the patient. General clinical conditions are more compatible with infra-additive interactions. (author)

  5. National survey on internal quality control for tumour markers in clinical laboratories in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Zhong, Kun; Yuan, Shuai; He, Falin; Du, Yuxuan; Hu, Zhehui; Wang, Zhiguo

    2018-06-15

    This survey was initiated to obtain knowledge on the current situation of internal quality control (IQC) practice for tumour markers (TMs) in China. Additionally, we tried to acquire the most appropriate quality specifications. This survey was a current status survey. The IQC information had been collected via online questionnaires. All of 1821 clinical laboratories which participated in the 2016 TMs external quality assessment (EQA) programme had been enrolled. The imprecision evaluation criteria were the minimal, desirable, and optimal allowable imprecisions based on biological variations, and 1/3 total allowable error (TEa) and 1/4 TEa. A total of 1628 laboratories answered the questionnaires (89%). The coefficients of variation (CVs) of the IQC of participant laboratories varied greatly from 1% (5 th percentile) to 13% (95 th percentile). More than 82% (82 - 91%) of participant laboratories two types of CVs met 1/3 TEa except for CA 19-9. The percentiles of current CVs were smaller than cumulative CVs. A number of 1240 laboratories (76%) reported their principles and systems used. The electrochemiluminescence was the most used principle (45%) and had the smallest CVs. The performance of laboratories for TMs IQC has yet to be improved. On the basis of the obtained results, 1/3 TEa would be realistic and attainable quality specification for TMs IQC for clinical laboratories in China.

  6. COMPLICATIONS OF ALCOHOLIC LIVER DISEASE AND DIAGNOSTIC MARKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Ilić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholism is one of the leading diseases affecting people’s health and immunity worldwide. Nearly 30 thousand people in the USA die from chronic liver damage. The liver is the central organ in the metabolism of alcohol. Alcohol is primarily a hepatotoxic agent. Hepatotoxicity of alcohol is clinically manifested by the development of alcoholic fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis and alcoholic cirrhosis. It is characterized by appropriate symptomatology, depending on the degree of liver damage. Excessive use of alcohol for a long period of time, along with malnutrition, genetic and ethnic predisposition, leads to alcoholic cirrhosis and the development of its complications. Portal hypertension damages other organs and organ systems, causing hepatopulmonary syndrome, hepatorenal syndrome, hepatic encephalopathy, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, etc. For these reasons, alcoholism reduction is given priority, as well as reduction of morbidity and mortality of people with alcoholic chronic liver damage. Therefore, early diagnosis of alcohol abuse is necessary, as well as timely diagnosis of different degrees of alcoholic liver damage. The diagnosis of chronic alcoholic liver damage is set on the basis of confirmed data of alcohol consumption; liver function test (serum markers aminotransferase, gammaglutamyl transferase, prothrombin time, serum bilirubin and albumin level; serum markers of liver fibrosis. Fibrosis markers are directly involved in sedimentation and dissolution of extracellular matrix, i.e. in the process of fibrogenesis and fibrinolysis of liver tissues. They include markers and enzymes of metabolism, as well as cytokines and chemokines.

  7. Gliomatosis cerebri: Prognosis based on current molecular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharaj, Monish M; Phan, Kevin; Xu, Joshua; Fairhall, Jacob; Reddy, Rajesh; Rao, Prashanth J V

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to review the literature and identify key molecular markers affecting the prognosis of Gliomatosis cerebri (2) to evaluate the level of evidence and identify outstanding markers requiring further study. A literature search was conducted across 5 major databases using the key terms: "Molecular markers" AND "Gliomatosis cerebri" OR "diffuse astrocytoma." Critical appraisal and data presentation was performed inline with the PRISMA guidelines. Following search strategy implementation, 11 studies were included in the final review process. Our data demonstrates significant prognostic value associated with IDH1 132H mutation and variable evidence surrounding the role of INA expression, MGMT promoter methylation and other factors. However, there are significant limitations in the level of evidence obtained. As the genetic basis for the pathogenesis of Gliomatosis cerebri continues to widen, there is little data on markers aside from IDH1 mutation available. IDH1 132H mutation has been demonstrated to have significant effect on survival, particularly in patients with Gliomatosis cerebri type 2. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. High prevalence of markers of coronary heart disease among Greenland Inuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marit Eika; Bjerregaard, Peter; Kjaergaard, Jens Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    were associated with CHD. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of markers of CHD was not different from that in Western populations. The Inuit is a population undergoing rapid social and health transitions, with the emergence of cardiovascular risk factors, and there is a need for critical rethinking...... of markers of CHD among Greenland Inuit, and to study associations between markers of CHD and behavioral and biological variables. DESIGN: We studied prevalence of angina pectoris (AP), self-reported myocardial infarction (MI), and ECG defined MI and ischaemia in a population survey among 1316 Inuit living...

  9. Creating biological nanomaterials using synthetic biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, MaryJoe K; Ruder, Warren C

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic biology is a new discipline that combines science and engineering approaches to precisely control biological networks. These signaling networks are especially important in fields such as biomedicine and biochemical engineering. Additionally, biological networks can also be critical to the production of naturally occurring biological nanomaterials, and as a result, synthetic biology holds tremendous potential in creating new materials. This review introduces the field of synthetic biology, discusses how biological systems naturally produce materials, and then presents examples and strategies for incorporating synthetic biology approaches in the development of new materials. In particular, strategies for using synthetic biology to produce both organic and inorganic nanomaterials are discussed. Ultimately, synthetic biology holds the potential to dramatically impact biological materials science with significant potential applications in medical systems. (review)

  10. Creating biological nanomaterials using synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, MaryJoe K; Ruder, Warren C

    2014-02-01

    Synthetic biology is a new discipline that combines science and engineering approaches to precisely control biological networks. These signaling networks are especially important in fields such as biomedicine and biochemical engineering. Additionally, biological networks can also be critical to the production of naturally occurring biological nanomaterials, and as a result, synthetic biology holds tremendous potential in creating new materials. This review introduces the field of synthetic biology, discusses how biological systems naturally produce materials, and then presents examples and strategies for incorporating synthetic biology approaches in the development of new materials. In particular, strategies for using synthetic biology to produce both organic and inorganic nanomaterials are discussed. Ultimately, synthetic biology holds the potential to dramatically impact biological materials science with significant potential applications in medical systems.

  11. Early bichemical markers of effects: Enzyme induction, oncogene activation and markers of oxidative damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Henrik E.; Loft, Steffen

    1995-01-01

    Early bichemical marker, enzyme induction, oncogene activation, oxidative damage, low-density lipoprotein......Early bichemical marker, enzyme induction, oncogene activation, oxidative damage, low-density lipoprotein...

  12. Procalcitonin: A Reliable Marker for the Diagnosis of Neonatal Sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib, Minoo; Bakhshiani, Zahra; Navaei, Fakhri; Saheb Fosoul, Fereshteh; Fouladi, Salomeh; Kazemzadeh, Hamidreza

    2012-01-01

    Objective(s) In the last few years, serum procalcitonin has been proposed as an early marker of infections in neonates, with varying results. In this study, we aimed to investigate the value of procalcitonin, and C- reactive protein in establishing the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis. Materials and Methods Blood samples were collected at admission from 69 neonates with suspected infection (admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Units at Alzahra and Dr Beheshti Hospital in and Fatema-Zahra in Najafabad from May 2005 to April 2006). Patients were categorized in different groups according to clinical symptoms of sepsis, bacteriological and laboratory results. Group I consisted of 20 newborns with positive blood cultures and other biological tests which suggested infection. Group II consisted of 49 neonates with negative blood cultures but had two or three of clinical signs of sepsis. The control group included 18 healthy neonates with physiological hyperbilirubinemia and no clinical and biological data of infection, referred to the hospital for bilirubin determination. Procalcitonin and C-reactive protein (CRP) were determined by immunoluminometric assay and nephlometry method respectively. Results Mean levels of procalcitonin and CRP in septic neonates (group I) were significantly higher than the other two groups (P< 0.005). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were determined for all markers and compared with each other. Conclusion We conclude that procalcitonin is a better marker than CRP in the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis. PMID:23493845

  13. Monoclonal carcinoembryonic antigen radioimmunoassay in prostatic cancer: Validation of the method and comparison to some other tumor-associated markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanovic, V.; Ignjatovic, M.; Milosavljevic, B.; Dinic, A.; Nis Univ.

    1987-01-01

    The use of a monoclonal CEA RIA and of some other biological markers for a diagnosis of prostatic cancer was investigated. The increased level of serum CEA was found in both prostatic cancer and in non-malignant disease. The low sensitivity of the CEA monoclonal assay precludes its use for a clinical diagnosis of prostatic cancer. The simultaneous use of some other biological markers (PAP, TPA, β2-microglobulin and ferritin) did increase sensitivity. However, further studies should be directed to a much more specific and sensitive marker of the human prostatic adenocarcinoma. (orig.) [de

  14. Monoclonal carcinoembryonic antigen radioimmunoassay in prostatic cancer: Validation of the method and comparison to some other tumor-associated markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanovic, V; Ignjatovic, M; Milosavljevic, B; Dinic, A

    1987-04-01

    The use of a monoclonal CEA RIA and of some other biological markers for a diagnosis of prostatic cancer was investigated. The increased level of serum CEA was found in both prostatic cancer and in non-malignant disease. The low sensitivity of the CEA monoclonal assay precludes its use for a clinical diagnosis of prostatic cancer. The simultaneous use of some other biological markers (PAP, TPA, ..beta..2-microglobulin and ferritin) did increase sensitivity. However, further studies should be directed to a much more specific and sensitive marker of the human prostatic adenocarcinoma.

  15. Biology relevant to space radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1996-01-01

    The biological effects of the radiations to which mankind on earth are exposed are becoming known with an increasing degree of detail. This knowledge is the basis of the estimates of risk that, in turn, fosters a comprehensive and evolving radiation protection system. The substantial body of information has been, and is being, applied to questions about the biological effects of radiation is space and the associated risk estimates. The purpose of this paper is not to recount all the biological effect of radiation but to concentrate on those that may occur as a result from exposure to the radiations encountered in space. In general, the biological effects of radiation in space are the same as those on earth. However, the evidence that the effects on certain tissues by the heaviest-charged particles can be interpreted on the basis of our knowledge about other high-LET radiation is equivocal. This specific question will be discussed in greater detail later. It is important to point out the that there are only limited data about the effects on humans of two components of the radiations in space, namely protons and heavy ions. Thus predictions of effects on space crews are based on experimental systems exposed on earth at rates and fluences that are higher than those in space and one the effects of gamma or x rays with estimates of the equivalent doses using quality factors

  16. Endometriosis and possible inflammation markers

    OpenAIRE

    Meng-Hsing Wu; Kuei-Yang Hsiao; Shaw-Jenq Tsai

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. Infiltration of peritoneal macrophages and local proinflammatory mediators in the peritoneal microenvironment affect ovarian function and pelvic anatomy leading to the symptoms and signs of endometriosis. The identification of a noninvasive marker for endometriosis will facilitate early diagnosis and treatment of this disease. This review provides an overview of local microenvironmental inflammation and systemic inflam...

  17. Endometriosis and possible inflammation markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Hsing Wu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. Infiltration of peritoneal macrophages and local proinflammatory mediators in the peritoneal microenvironment affect ovarian function and pelvic anatomy leading to the symptoms and signs of endometriosis. The identification of a noninvasive marker for endometriosis will facilitate early diagnosis and treatment of this disease. This review provides an overview of local microenvironmental inflammation and systemic inflammation biomarkers in endometriosis.

  18. Molecular markers for thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrero Rodriguez, Maria Teresa; Sinconegui Gomez, Belkys; Cruz Cruz, Anaisa

    2015-01-01

    The importance of the study of the thyroid nodule lies in excluding the possibility of a malignant lesion because the majority of lesions are benign but there is a malignancy risk of 5 to 10%. Most of them are well differentiated carcinomas originating in the follicular epithelium. In spite of the fact that the majority are benign lesions, distinguishing them from carcinomas is crucial to treatment and adequate follow-up. Fine-needle biopsy allows making the diagnosis in most of cases. However, this method is restricted, particularly when diagnosing follicular lesions. In an effort to improve the diagnostic accuracy of biopsy and to provide new diagnosing criteria, a number of molecular markers have been put forward, some of which has wide range of approval whereas others still awaits to be validated for further implementation. This article presented an updated review of molecular markers with higher number of evidence, more accessible and potentially usable from a methodological viewpoint for diagnosis of the thyroid nodule before surgery. The importance of the study of the thyroid nodule lies in excluding the possibility of a malignant lesion because the majority of lesions are benign but there is a malignancy risk of 5 to 10%. Most of them are well differentiated carcinomas originating in the follicular epithelium. In spite of the fact that the majority are benign lesions, distinguishing them from carcinomas is crucial to treatment and adequate follow-up. Fine-needle biopsy allows making the diagnosis in most of cases. However, this method is restricted, particularly when diagnosing follicular lesions. In an effort to improve the diagnostic accuracy of biopsy and to provide new diagnosing criteria, a number of molecular markers have been put forward, some of which has wide range of approval whereas others still awaits to be validated for further implementation. This article presented an updated review of molecular markers with higher number of evidence, more

  19. Tumor markers kits development for use in radioimmunometric assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, B.

    1997-01-01

    The immunoassays such as RIA and IRMA are now widely used through the world for the quantitation of a variety of substances in the biological fluid for their high sensibility and specificity which required simple equipments. These techniques are also very used in Algeria for an effective amelioration of public heath The assays kits of RIA/IRMA of thyroid hormones are the most used, followed by peptidic hormones, steroids hormones and IRMA Tumor Markers (T.M) kits. In spite of the important demand, of tumor markers kits for the diagnosis and follow up of cancers their use are always insufficient due to the high cost. The research contract programme proposed by IAEA on the theme 'The Developments of IRMA Tumor Markers Kits' of prostate specific Antigen (PSA) and Tissue Polypeptide Specific Antigen (TPS) will allowed us to produce locally with best quality-price, the main reagents for PSA and TPS IRMA assays kits for diagnosis and follow up the prostate and breast cancers which are very spready in the country. This report include the following points: Generalities on the use of tumor markers in Algeria, programme for the Development of the PSA IRMA assay (schedule of protocols applied for each reagents; annual planning for assessing the programme activities) and conclusion

  20. Voice analysis as an objective state marker in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, M.; Busk, Jonas; Frost, M.

    2016-01-01

    Changes in speech have been suggested as sensitive and valid measures of depression and mania in bipolar disorder. The present study aimed at investigating (1) voice features collected during phone calls as objective markers of affective states in bipolar disorder and (2) if combining voice...... features, automatically generated objective smartphone data on behavioral activities and electronic self-monitored data were collected from 28 outpatients with bipolar disorder in naturalistic settings on a daily basis during a period of 12 weeks. Depressive and manic symptoms were assessed using...... and electronic self-monitored data increased the accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of classification of affective states slightly. Voice features collected in naturalistic settings using smartphones may be used as objective state markers in patients with bipolar disorder....

  1. The Molecular Biology of Pestiviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tautz, Norbert; Tews, Birke Andrea; Meyers, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    Pestiviruses are among the economically most important pathogens of livestock. The biology of these viruses is characterized by unique and interesting features that are both crucial for their success as pathogens and challenging from a scientific point of view. Elucidation of these features at the molecular level has made striking progress during recent years. The analyses revealed that major aspects of pestivirus biology show significant similarity to the biology of human hepatitis C virus (HCV). The detailed molecular analyses conducted for pestiviruses and HCV supported and complemented each other during the last three decades resulting in elucidation of the functions of viral proteins and RNA elements in replication and virus-host interaction. For pestiviruses, the analyses also helped to shed light on the molecular basis of persistent infection, a special strategy these viruses have evolved to be maintained within their host population. The results of these investigations are summarized in this chapter. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Serotonin, neural markers and memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo eMeneses

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Diverse neuropsychiatric disorders present dysfunctional memory and no effective treatment exits for them; likely as result of the absence of neural markers associated to memory. Neurotransmitter systems and signaling pathways have been implicated in memory and dysfunctional memory; however, their role is poorly understood. Hence, neural markers and cerebral functions and dysfunctions are revised. To our knowledge no previous systematic works have been published addressing these issues. The interactions among behavioral tasks, control groups and molecular changes and/or pharmacological effects are mentioned. Neurotransmitter receptors and signaling pathways, during normal and abnormally functioning memory with an emphasis on the behavioral aspects of memory are revised. With focus on serotonin, since as it is a well characterized neurotransmitter, with multiple pharmacological tools, and well characterized downstream signaling in mammals’ species. 5-HT1A, 5-HT4, 5-HT5, 5-HT6 and 5-HT7 receptors as well as SERT (serotonin transporter seem to be useful neural markers and/or therapeutic targets. Certainly, if the mentioned evidence is replicated, then the translatability from preclinical and clinical studies to neural changes might be confirmed. Hypothesis and theories might provide appropriate limits and perspectives of evidence

  3. Apoptotic markers in protozoan parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fasel Nicolas

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The execution of the apoptotic death program in metazoans is characterized by a sequence of morphological and biochemical changes that include cell shrinkage, presentation of phosphatidylserine at the cell surface, mitochondrial alterations, chromatin condensation, nuclear fragmentation, membrane blebbing and the formation of apoptotic bodies. Methodologies for measuring apoptosis are based on these markers. Except for membrane blebbing and formation of apoptotic bodies, all other events have been observed in most protozoan parasites undergoing cell death. However, while techniques exist to detect these markers, they are often optimised for metazoan cells and therefore may not pick up subtle differences between the events occurring in unicellular organisms and multi-cellular organisms. In this review we discuss the markers most frequently used to analyze cell death in protozoan parasites, paying special attention to changes in cell morphology, mitochondrial activity, chromatin structure and plasma membrane structure/permeability. Regarding classical regulators/executors of apoptosis, we have reviewed the present knowledge of caspase-like and nuclease activities.

  4. [The Biology of Learning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo-Cabal, Gerardo

    2012-01-01

    The effort to relate mental and biological functioning has fluctuated between two doctrines: 1) an attempt to explain mental functioning as a collective property of the brain and 2) as one relatied to other mental processes associated with specific regions of the brain. The article reviews the main theories developed over the last 200 years: phrenology, the psuedo study of the brain, mass action, cellular connectionism and distributed processing among others. In addition, approaches have emerged in recent years that allows for an understanding of the biological determinants and individual differences in complex mental processes through what is called cognitive neuroscience. Knowing the definition of neuroscience, the learning of memory, the ways in which learning occurs, the principles of the neural basis of memory and learning and its effects on brain function, among other things, allows us the basic understanding of the processes of memory and learning and is an important requirement to address the best manner to commit to the of training future specialists in Psychiatry. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  5. A Brief Introduction to Chinese Biological Biological

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Chinese Biological Abstracts sponsored by the Library, the Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, the Biological Documentation and Information Network, all of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, commenced publication in 1987 and was initiated to provide access to the Chinese information in the field of biology.

  6. System requirements and design description for the document basis database interface (DocBasis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehman, W.J.

    1997-01-01

    This document describes system requirements and the design description for the Document Basis Database Interface (DocBasis). The DocBasis application is used to manage procedures used within the tank farms. The application maintains information in a small database to track the document basis for a procedure, as well as the current version/modification level and the basis for the procedure. The basis for each procedure is substantiated by Administrative, Technical, Procedural, and Regulatory requirements. The DocBasis user interface was developed by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC)

  7. New approach for isolation of VNTR markers.

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, Y; Carlson, M; Krapcho, K; Kanamori, M; White, R

    1988-01-01

    Elsewhere we have reported an efficient method for isolating VNTR (Variable Number of Tandem Repeats) markers. Several of the VNTR markers isolated in those experiments were sequenced, and a DNA sequence of 9 bp (GNNGTGGG) emerged as an apparent consensus sequence for VNTR markers. To confirm this result and to develop more VNTR markers, we synthesized nine different 18-base-long oligonucleotides whose sequences each included GNNGTGGG. When 102 cosmid clones selected by these oligonucleotides...

  8. Embedding filtering criteria into a wrapper marker selection method for brain tumor classification: an application on metabolic peak area ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kounelakis, M G; Zervakis, M E; Giakos, G C; Postma, G J; Buydens, L M C; Kotsiakis, X

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify reliable sets of metabolic markers that provide accurate classification of complex brain tumors and facilitate the process of clinical diagnosis. Several ratios of metabolites are tested alone or in combination with imaging markers. A wrapper feature selection and classification methodology is studied, employing Fisher's criterion for ranking the markers. The set of extracted markers that express statistical significance is further studied in terms of biological behavior with respect to the brain tumor type and grade. The outcome of this study indicates that the proposed method by exploiting the intrinsic properties of data can actually reveal reliable and biologically relevant sets of metabolic markers, which form an important adjunct toward a more accurate type and grade discrimination of complex brain tumors

  9. Evaluating Translational Research: A Process Marker Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trochim, William; Kane, Cathleen; Graham, Mark J.; Pincus, Harold A.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective: We examine the concept of translational research from the perspective of evaluators charged with assessing translational efforts. One of the major tasks for evaluators involved in translational research is to help assess efforts that aim to reduce the time it takes to move research to practice and health impacts. Another is to assess efforts that are intended to increase the rate and volume of translation. Methods: We offer an alternative to the dominant contemporary tendency to define translational research in terms of a series of discrete “phases.”Results: We contend that this phased approach has been confusing and that it is insufficient as a basis for evaluation. Instead, we argue for the identification of key operational and measurable markers along a generalized process pathway from research to practice. Conclusions: This model provides a foundation for the evaluation of interventions designed to improve translational research and the integration of these findings into a field of translational studies. Clin Trans Sci 2011; Volume 4: 153–162 PMID:21707944

  10. Allometric Scaling in Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banavar, Jayanth

    2009-03-01

    The unity of life is expressed not only in the universal basis of inheritance and energetics at the molecular level, but also in the pervasive scaling of traits with body size at the whole-organism level. More than 75 years ago, Kleiber and Brody and Proctor independently showed that the metabolic rates, B, of mammals and birds scale as the three-quarter power of their mass, M. Subsequent studies showed that most biological rates and times scale as M-1/4 and M^1/4 respectively, and that these so called quarter-power scaling relations hold for a variety of organisms, from unicellular prokaryotes and eukaryotes to trees and mammals. The wide applicability of Kleiber's law, across the 22 orders of magnitude of body mass from minute bacteria to giant whales and sequoias, raises the hope that there is some simple general explanation that underlies the incredible diversity of form and function. We will present a general theoretical framework for understanding the relationship between metabolic rate, B, and body mass, M. We show how the pervasive quarter-power biological scaling relations arise naturally from optimal directed resource supply systems. This framework robustly predicts that: 1) whole organism power and resource supply rate, B, scale as M^3/4; 2) most other rates, such as heart rate and maximal population growth rate scale as M-1/4; 3) most biological times, such as blood circulation time and lifespan, scale as M^1/4; and 4) the average velocity of flow through the network, v, such as the speed of blood and oxygen delivery, scales as M^1/12. Our framework is valid even when there is no underlying network. Our theory is applicable to unicellular organisms as well as to large animals and plants. This work was carried out in collaboration with Amos Maritan along with Jim Brown, John Damuth, Melanie Moses, Andrea Rinaldo, and Geoff West.

  11. Estimating the CCSD basis-set limit energy from small basis sets: basis-set extrapolations vs additivity schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spackman, Peter R.; Karton, Amir, E-mail: amir.karton@uwa.edu.au [School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The University of Western Australia, Perth, WA 6009 (Australia)

    2015-05-15

    Coupled cluster calculations with all single and double excitations (CCSD) converge exceedingly slowly with the size of the one-particle basis set. We assess the performance of a number of approaches for obtaining CCSD correlation energies close to the complete basis-set limit in conjunction with relatively small DZ and TZ basis sets. These include global and system-dependent extrapolations based on the A + B/L{sup α} two-point extrapolation formula, and the well-known additivity approach that uses an MP2-based basis-set-correction term. We show that the basis set convergence rate can change dramatically between different systems(e.g.it is slower for molecules with polar bonds and/or second-row elements). The system-dependent basis-set extrapolation scheme, in which unique basis-set extrapolation exponents for each system are obtained from lower-cost MP2 calculations, significantly accelerates the basis-set convergence relative to the global extrapolations. Nevertheless, we find that the simple MP2-based basis-set additivity scheme outperforms the extrapolation approaches. For example, the following root-mean-squared deviations are obtained for the 140 basis-set limit CCSD atomization energies in the W4-11 database: 9.1 (global extrapolation), 3.7 (system-dependent extrapolation), and 2.4 (additivity scheme) kJ mol{sup –1}. The CCSD energy in these approximations is obtained from basis sets of up to TZ quality and the latter two approaches require additional MP2 calculations with basis sets of up to QZ quality. We also assess the performance of the basis-set extrapolations and additivity schemes for a set of 20 basis-set limit CCSD atomization energies of larger molecules including amino acids, DNA/RNA bases, aromatic compounds, and platonic hydrocarbon cages. We obtain the following RMSDs for the above methods: 10.2 (global extrapolation), 5.7 (system-dependent extrapolation), and 2.9 (additivity scheme) kJ mol{sup –1}.

  12. Estimating the CCSD basis-set limit energy from small basis sets: basis-set extrapolations vs additivity schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spackman, Peter R.; Karton, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Coupled cluster calculations with all single and double excitations (CCSD) converge exceedingly slowly with the size of the one-particle basis set. We assess the performance of a number of approaches for obtaining CCSD correlation energies close to the complete basis-set limit in conjunction with relatively small DZ and TZ basis sets. These include global and system-dependent extrapolations based on the A + B/L α two-point extrapolation formula, and the well-known additivity approach that uses an MP2-based basis-set-correction term. We show that the basis set convergence rate can change dramatically between different systems(e.g.it is slower for molecules with polar bonds and/or second-row elements). The system-dependent basis-set extrapolation scheme, in which unique basis-set extrapolation exponents for each system are obtained from lower-cost MP2 calculations, significantly accelerates the basis-set convergence relative to the global extrapolations. Nevertheless, we find that the simple MP2-based basis-set additivity scheme outperforms the extrapolation approaches. For example, the following root-mean-squared deviations are obtained for the 140 basis-set limit CCSD atomization energies in the W4-11 database: 9.1 (global extrapolation), 3.7 (system-dependent extrapolation), and 2.4 (additivity scheme) kJ mol –1 . The CCSD energy in these approximations is obtained from basis sets of up to TZ quality and the latter two approaches require additional MP2 calculations with basis sets of up to QZ quality. We also assess the performance of the basis-set extrapolations and additivity schemes for a set of 20 basis-set limit CCSD atomization energies of larger molecules including amino acids, DNA/RNA bases, aromatic compounds, and platonic hydrocarbon cages. We obtain the following RMSDs for the above methods: 10.2 (global extrapolation), 5.7 (system-dependent extrapolation), and 2.9 (additivity scheme) kJ mol –1

  13. The molecular basis of jaundice: An old symptom revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzin, Silvia; Masutti, Flora; Vitek, Libor; Tiribelli, Claudio

    2017-08-01

    Increased serum bilirubin level is a widely used diagnostic marker for hepatic illnesses. Nevertheless, mild elevation of unconjugated serum bilirubin (such as in Gilbert syndrome) has been recently demonstrated to correlate with low risk of chronic inflammatory and/or oxidative stress-mediated diseases. In accord, a low serum bilirubin level has emerged as an important predisposing factor or a biomarker of these pathologic conditions including cardiovascular, tumour, and possibly neurodegenerative diseases. Bilirubin possesses multiple biological actions with interaction in a complex network of enzymatic and signalling pathways. The fact that the liver is the main organ controlling the bioavailability of bilirubin emphasizes the central role of this organ in human health. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Mesangial cell biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abboud, Hanna E., E-mail: Abboud@uthscsa.edu

    2012-05-15

    Mesangial cells originate from the metanephric mesenchyme and maintain structural integrity of the glomerular microvascular bed and mesangial matrix homeostasis. In response to metabolic, immunologic or hemodynamic injury, these cells undergo apoptosis or acquire an activated phenotype and undergo hypertrophy, proliferation with excessive production of matrix proteins, growth factors, chemokines and cytokines. These soluble factors exert autocrine and paracrine effects on the cells or on other glomerular cells, respectively. MCs are primary targets of immune-mediated glomerular diseases such as IGA nephropathy or metabolic diseases such as diabetes. MCs may also respond to injury that primarily involves podocytes and endothelial cells or to structural and genetic abnormalities of the glomerular basement membrane. Signal transduction and oxidant stress pathways are activated in MCs and likely represent integrated input from multiple mediators. Such responses are convenient targets for therapeutic intervention. Studies in cultured MCs should be supplemented with in vivo studies as well as examination of freshly isolated cells from normal and diseases glomeruli. In addition to ex vivo morphologic studies in kidney cortex, cells should be studied in their natural environment, isolated glomeruli or even tissue slices. Identification of a specific marker of MCs should help genetic manipulation as well as selective therapeutic targeting of these cells. Identification of biological responses of MCs that are not mediated by the renin–angiotensin system should help development of novel and effective therapeutic strategies to treat diseases characterized by MC pathology.

  15. Bomb pulse biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falso, Miranda J. Sarachine [Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, Mail Stop L-397, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Buchholz, Bruce A., E-mail: buchholz2@llnl.gov [Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, Mail Stop L-397, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    The past decade has seen an explosion in use of the {sup 14}C bomb pulse to do fundamental cell biology. Studies in the 1960s used decay counting to measure tissue turnover when the atmospheric {sup 14}C/C concentration was changing rapidly. Today bulk tissue measurements are of marginal interest since most of the carbon in the tissue resides in proteins, lipids and carbohydrates that turn over rapidly. Specific cell types with specialized functions are the focus of cell turnover investigations. Tissue samples need to be fresh or frozen. Fixed or preserved samples contain petroleum-derived carbon that has not been successfully removed. Cell or nuclear surface markers are used to sort specific cell types, typically by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Specific biomolecules need to be isolated with high purity and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurements must accommodate samples that generally contain less than 40 {mu}g of carbon. Furthermore, all separations must not add carbon to the sample. Independent means such as UV absorbance must be used to confirm molecule purity. Approaches for separating specific proteins and DNA and combating contamination of undesired molecules are described.

  16. Mesangial cell biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abboud, Hanna E.

    2012-01-01

    Mesangial cells originate from the metanephric mesenchyme and maintain structural integrity of the glomerular microvascular bed and mesangial matrix homeostasis. In response to metabolic, immunologic or hemodynamic injury, these cells undergo apoptosis or acquire an activated phenotype and undergo hypertrophy, proliferation with excessive production of matrix proteins, growth factors, chemokines and cytokines. These soluble factors exert autocrine and paracrine effects on the cells or on other glomerular cells, respectively. MCs are primary targets of immune-mediated glomerular diseases such as IGA nephropathy or metabolic diseases such as diabetes. MCs may also respond to injury that primarily involves podocytes and endothelial cells or to structural and genetic abnormalities of the glomerular basement membrane. Signal transduction and oxidant stress pathways are activated in MCs and likely represent integrated input from multiple mediators. Such responses are convenient targets for therapeutic intervention. Studies in cultured MCs should be supplemented with in vivo studies as well as examination of freshly isolated cells from normal and diseases glomeruli. In addition to ex vivo morphologic studies in kidney cortex, cells should be studied in their natural environment, isolated glomeruli or even tissue slices. Identification of a specific marker of MCs should help genetic manipulation as well as selective therapeutic targeting of these cells. Identification of biological responses of MCs that are not mediated by the renin–angiotensin system should help development of novel and effective therapeutic strategies to treat diseases characterized by MC pathology.

  17. Markers and residual time to AIDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geskus, R. B.

    2002-01-01

    The value of immunological and virological markers as predictors of progression to AIDS, or death by AIDS, is a topic of much current interest. Mostly, the influence of markers is investigated in a time-dependent or a baseline proportional hazard model, relating time-varying or baseline marker

  18. Marine Carotenoids and Cardiovascular Risk Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenza Speranza

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Marine carotenoids are important bioactive compounds with physiological activities related to prevention of degenerative diseases.found principally in plants, with potential antioxidant biological properties deriving from their chemical structure and interaction with biological membranes. They are substances with very special and remarkable properties that no other groups of substances possess and that form the basis of their many, varied functions and actions in all kinds of living organisms. The potential beneficial effects of marine carotenoids have been studied particularly in astaxanthin and fucoxanthin as they are the major marine carotenoids. Both these two carotenoids show strong antioxidant activity attributed to quenching singlet oxygen and scavenging free radicals. The potential role of these carotenoids as dietary anti-oxidants has been suggested to be one of the main mechanisms for their preventive effects against cancer and inflammatory diseases. The aim of this short review is to examine the published studies concerning the use of the two marine carotenoids, astaxanthin and fucoxanthin, in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

  19. Biochemical markers for prediction of preclampsia: review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monte, Santo

    2011-07-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is one of the most common diseases worldwide, complicating ~5% of all pregnancies.Although no major progress has been achieved in the treatment of PE, our ability to identify women at highrisk has increased considerably during the past decade.The early identification of patients with an increased risk for preeclampsia is therefore one of the most important goals in obstetrics. Today, several markers may offer the potential to be used, most likely in a combinatory analysis, as predictors or diagnostic tools. We present here the current knowledge on the biology of preeclampsia and review several biochemical markers which may be used to monitor preeclampsia in a future, that, we hope, is not to distant from today.

  20. Approaches to establish Q-markers for the quality standards of traditional Chinese medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenzhi; Zhang, Yibei; Wu, Wanying; Huang, Luqi; Guo, Dean; Liu, Changxiao

    2017-07-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has played a pivotal role in maintaining the health of Chinese people and is now gaining increasing acceptance around the global scope. However, TCM is confronting more and more concerns with respect to its quality. The intrinsic "multicomponent and multitarget" feature of TCM necessitates the establishment of a unique quality and bioactivity evaluation system, which is different from that of the Western medicine. However, TCM is investigated essentially as "herbal medicine" or "natural product", and the pharmacopoeia quality monographs are actually chemical-markers-based, which can ensure the consistency only in the assigned chemical markers, but, to some extent, have deviated from the basic TCM theory. A concept of "quality marker" (Q-marker), following the "property-effect-component" theory, is proposed. The establishment of Q-marker integrates multidisciplinary technologies like natural products chemistry, analytical chemistry, bionics, chemometrics, pharmacology, systems biology, and pharmacodynamics, etc. Q-marker-based fingerprint and multicomponent determination conduce to the construction of more scientific quality control system of TCM. This review delineates the background, definition, and properties of Q-marker, and the associated technologies applied for its establishment. Strategies and approaches for establishing Q-marker-based TCM quality control system are presented and highlighted with a few TCM examples.

  1. Riesz basis for strongly continuous groups.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, Heiko J.

    Given a Hilbert space and the generator of a strongly continuous group on this Hilbert space. If the eigenvalues of the generator have a uniform gap, and if the span of the corresponding eigenvectors is dense, then these eigenvectors form a Riesz basis (or unconditional basis) of the Hilbert space.

  2. Determination of Design Basis Earthquake ground motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Muneaki

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes principle of determining of Design Basis Earthquake following the Examination Guide, some examples on actual sites including earthquake sources to be considered, earthquake response spectrum and simulated seismic waves. In sppendix of this paper, furthermore, seismic safety review for N.P.P designed before publication of the Examination Guide was summarized with Check Basis Earthquake. (J.P.N.)

  3. Determination of Design Basis Earthquake ground motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Muneaki [Japan Atomic Power Co., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    This paper describes principle of determining of Design Basis Earthquake following the Examination Guide, some examples on actual sites including earthquake sources to be considered, earthquake response spectrum and simulated seismic waves. In sppendix of this paper, furthermore, seismic safety review for N.P.P designed before publication of the Examination Guide was summarized with Check Basis Earthquake. (J.P.N.)

  4. Parallel Algorithms for Groebner-Basis Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-25

    22209 ELEMENT NO. NO. NO. ACCESSION NO. 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) * PARALLEL ALGORITHMS FOR GROEBNER -BASIS REDUCTION 12. PERSONAL...All other editions are obsolete. Productivity Engineering in the UNIXt Environment p Parallel Algorithms for Groebner -Basis Reduction Technical Report

  5. From Subordinate Marker to Discourse Marker: que in Andean Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna María Escobar

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an analysis of a redundant use of que ('that' found in Andean Spanish as an expression which has undergone a grammaticalization process. Evidence suggests that the function of que as subordinate marker is much more generalized in this variety than in other dialects of Spanish. que is found to be used as a marker introducing both nominal and adjectival clauses, suggesting that adjectival subordinates behave as nominal subordinates in this variety of Spanish. An intrusive que appears in restricted syntactic and semantic contexts with clauses that have nominal and adjectival functions, and even appears replacing adverbial expressions in some adverbial subordinates (temporal, spatial, and manner. Furthermore, it is found to be sensitive to the degree of the argument’s thematic/semantic function in the subordinate clause. In particular, it seems to occur more often with low-agency arguments in adjectival and nominal contexts, and, in nominal subordinates, tends to appear with a restricted set of epistemic and evidential main verbs (e.g. creer 'to believe', saber 'to know', decir 'to say'. The analysis suggests that que has developed a new function in this variety of Spanish, namely, one of indicating that the information contained in the subordinate clause does not constitute background information (as would be expected in non-contact varieties of Spanish but instead contains information relevant to the discourse.

  6. Reconfiguration of face expressions based on the discrete capture data of radial basis function interpolation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Guangguo; ZHOU Dongsheng; WEI Xiaopeng; ZHANG Qiang

    2012-01-01

    Compactly supported radial basis function can enable the coefficient matrix of solving weigh linear system to have a sparse banded structure, thereby reducing the complexity of the algorithm. Firstly, based on the compactly supported radial basis function, the paper makes the complex quadratic function (Multiquadric, MQ for short) to be transformed and proposes a class of compactly supported MQ function. Secondly, the paper describes a method that interpolates discrete motion capture data to solve the motion vectors of the interpolation points and they are used in facial expression reconstruction. Finally, according to this characteris- tic of the uneven distribution of the face markers, the markers are numbered and grouped in accordance with the density level, and then be interpolated in line with each group. The approach not only ensures the accuracy of the deformation of face local area and smoothness, but also reduces the time complexity of computing.

  7. Understanding and capturing NSSS design basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palo, W.J.; Miller, B.

    1993-01-01

    Changes to, and technical evaluations of nuclear generating station designs are often warranted. Comprehensive documentation and understanding of the NSSS Design Basis are essential to support these activities. Effective configuration management tools are also needed to maintain the plant within design basis limits. Efficient design basis reconstitution can be realized via: In-depth understanding of the design process; Utilization of effective data collection methodology; State of the art data basing tools. A database can be created to generate a Design Basis Manual (DBM). This database can communicate electronically with other plant databases. A living document vice a static snapshot of the plant design is the goal. A design basis database can serve as the cornerstone for a global electronic information control system

  8. Advanced Test Reactor Safety Basis Upgrade Lessons Learned Relative to Design Basis Verification and Safety Basis Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G. L. Sharp; R. T. McCracken

    2004-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a pressurized light-water reactor with a design thermal power of 250 MW. The principal function of the ATR is to provide a high neutron flux for testing reactor fuels and other materials. The reactor also provides other irradiation services such as radioisotope production. The ATR and its support facilities are located at the Test Reactor Area of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). An audit conducted by the Department of Energy's Office of Independent Oversight and Performance Assurance (DOE OA) raised concerns that design conditions at the ATR were not adequately analyzed in the safety analysis and that legacy design basis management practices had the potential to further impact safe operation of the facility.1 The concerns identified by the audit team, and issues raised during additional reviews performed by ATR safety analysts, were evaluated through the unreviewed safety question process resulting in shutdown of the ATR for more than three months while these concerns were resolved. Past management of the ATR safety basis, relative to facility design basis management and change control, led to concerns that discrepancies in the safety basis may have developed. Although not required by DOE orders or regulations, not performing design basis verification in conjunction with development of the 10 CFR 830 Subpart B upgraded safety basis allowed these potential weaknesses to be carried forward. Configuration management and a clear definition of the existing facility design basis have a direct relation to developing and maintaining a high quality safety basis which properly identifies and mitigates all hazards and postulated accident conditions. These relations and the impact of past safety basis management practices have been reviewed in order to identify lessons learned from the safety basis upgrade process and appropriate actions to resolve possible concerns with respect to the current ATR safety

  9. 76 FR 35104 - Safety Zone; Waterway Closure, Atchafalaya River From Mile Marker 117 (Morgan City Railroad...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Waterway Closure, Atchafalaya River From Mile Marker 117 (Morgan City Railroad Bridge... with rising flood water in the Atchafalaya River. Basis and Purpose Captain of the Port Morgan City... safety zone is located on the specified waters of the Atchafalaya River between MM 117 (Morgan City...

  10. On the Informativeness of Dominant and Co-Dominant Genetic Markers for Bayesian Supervised Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guillot, Gilles; Carpentier-Skandalis, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    We study the accuracy of a Bayesian supervised method used to cluster individuals into genetically homogeneous groups on the basis of dominant or codominant molecular markers. We provide a formula relating an error criterion to the number of loci used and the number of clusters. This formula...

  11. Evaluation of four single-locus markers for leishmania species discrimination by sequencing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Auwera, Gert; Ravel, Christophe; Verweij, Jaco J.; Bart, Aldert; Schönian, Gabriele; Felger, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    Several genetic markers have been described for discriminating Leishmania species. In most reported cases, one or a few polymorphisms are the basis of species identification, and the methods were validated on a limited number of strains from a particular geographical region. Therefore, most

  12. A genetic linkage map of willow (Salix viminalis) based on AFLP and microsatelite markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanley, S.; Barker, J.H.A.; Ooijen, van J.W.; Aldam, C.; Harris, S.L.; Ahman, I.; Larsson, S.; Karp, A.

    2002-01-01

    The genus Salix (willow) contains a number of species of great value as biomass crops. Efforts to breed varieties with improved biomass yields and resistances to pests and diseases are limited by the lack of knowledge on the genetic basis of the traits. We have used AFLP and microsatellite markers

  13. On the use of Locally Dense Basis Sets in the Calculation of EPR Hyperfine Couplings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegård, Erik D.; Sauer, Stephan P. A.; Milhøj, Birgitte O.

    2013-01-01

    The usage of locally dense basis sets in the calculation of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) hyperne coupling constants is investigated at the level of Density Functional Theory (DFT) for two model systems of biologically important transition metal complexes: One for the active site in the c......The usage of locally dense basis sets in the calculation of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) hyperne coupling constants is investigated at the level of Density Functional Theory (DFT) for two model systems of biologically important transition metal complexes: One for the active site...

  14. On the use of locally dense basis sets in the calculation of EPR hyperfine couplings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milhøj, Birgitte Olai; Hedegård, Erik D.; Sauer, Stephan P. A.

    2013-01-01

    The usage of locally dense basis sets in the calculation of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) hyperne coupling constants is investigated at the level of Density Functional Theory (DFT) for two model systems of biologically important transition metal complexes: One for the active site in the c......The usage of locally dense basis sets in the calculation of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) hyperne coupling constants is investigated at the level of Density Functional Theory (DFT) for two model systems of biologically important transition metal complexes: One for the active site...

  15. Biological origins of color categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, Alice E; Catchpole, Gemma; Abbott, Joshua T; Bosten, Jenny M; Franklin, Anna

    2017-05-23

    The biological basis of the commonality in color lexicons across languages has been hotly debated for decades. Prior evidence that infants categorize color could provide support for the hypothesis that color categorization systems are not purely constructed by communication and culture. Here, we investigate the relationship between infants' categorization of color and the commonality across color lexicons, and the potential biological origin of infant color categories. We systematically mapped infants' categorical recognition memory for hue onto a stimulus array used previously to document the color lexicons of 110 nonindustrialized languages. Following familiarization to a given hue, infants' response to a novel hue indicated that their recognition memory parses the hue continuum into red, yellow, green, blue, and purple categories. Infants' categorical distinctions aligned with common distinctions in color lexicons and are organized around hues that are commonly central to lexical categories across languages. The boundaries between infants' categorical distinctions also aligned, relative to the adaptation point, with the cardinal axes that describe the early stages of color representation in retinogeniculate pathways, indicating that infant color categorization may be partly organized by biological mechanisms of color vision. The findings suggest that color categorization in language and thought is partially biologically constrained and have implications for broader debate on how biology, culture, and communication interact in human cognition.

  16. Physiologic Basis for Understanding Quantitative Dehydration Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    using both single and serial measures of Posm. FIGURE 3. Means [men (C); women (n)] from 4 basal plasma osmo- lality samples under conditions of ad...Esmaeelpour M, Walsh NP. Tear fluid osmolarity as a potential marker of hydration status. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2011;43: 1590 –7. 73. Stachenfeld NS, Splenser AE

  17. Biological Activity and Phytochemical Study of Scutellaria platystegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani Mousavi, Seyedeh Neda; Delazar, Abbas; Nazemiyeh, Hossein; Khodaie, Laleh

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine biological activity and phytochemical study of Scutellaria platystegia (family Labiatae). Methanolic (MeOH) extract of aerial parts of S. platystegia and SPE fractions of methanolic extract (specially 20% and 40% methanolic fractions), growing in East-Azarbaijan province of Iran were found to have radical scavenging activity by DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl -1- pycryl hydrazyl) assay. Dichloromethane (DCM) extract of this plant exhibited animalarial activity by cell free method providing IC50 at 1.1876 mg/mL. Crude extracts did not exhibit any toxicity assessed by brine shrimp lethality assay. Phytochemical study of methanolic extract by using reverse phase HPLC method and NMR instrument for isolation and identification of pure compounds respectively, yielded 2-(4- hydroxy phenyl) ethyl-O-β-D- glucopyranoside from 10% and apigenin 7-O-glucoside, verbascoside and martynoside from 40% SPE fraction. Occurance of verbascoside and martynoside as biochemical markers appeared to be widespread in this genus. Antioxidant and antimalarial activity of MeOH and DCM extracts, respectively, as well as no general toxicity of them could provide a basis for further in-vitro and in-vivo studies and clinical trials to develop new therapeutical alternatives.

  18. Corneal markers of diabetic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Nicola; Edwards, Katie; Shahidi, Ayda M; Sampson, Geoff P; Russell, Anthony W; Malik, Rayaz A; Efron, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    Diabetic neuropathy is a significant clinical problem that currently has no effective therapy, and in advanced cases, leads to foot ulceration and lower limb amputation. The accurate detection, characterization and quantification of this condition are important in order to define at-risk patients, anticipate deterioration, monitor progression, and assess new therapies. This review evaluates novel corneal methods of assessing diabetic neuropathy. Two new noninvasive corneal markers have emerged, and in cross-sectional studies have demonstrated their ability to stratify the severity of this disease. Corneal confocal microscopy allows quantification of corneal nerve parameters and noncontact corneal esthesiometry, the functional correlate of corneal structure, assesses the sensitivity of the cornea. Both these techniques are quick to perform, produce little or no discomfort for the patient, and are suitable for clinical settings. Each has advantages and disadvantages over traditional techniques for assessing diabetic neuropathy. Application of these new corneal markers for longitudinal evaluation of diabetic neuropathy has the potential to reduce dependence on more invasive, costly, and time-consuming assessments, such as skin biopsy.

  19. Biological effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This fourth chapter presents: cell structure and metabolism; radiation interaction with biological tissues; steps of the production of biological effect of radiation; radiosensitivity of tissues; classification of biological effects; reversibility, transmissivity and influence factors; pre-natal biological effects; biological effects in therapy and syndrome of acute irradiation

  20. Source Identification of Human Biological Materials and Its Prospect in Forensic Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, K N; Gui, C; Gao, Y; Yang, F; Zhou, H G

    2016-06-01

    Source identification of human biological materials in crime scene plays an important role in reconstructing the crime process. Searching specific genetic markers to identify the source of different human biological materials is the emphasis and difficulty of the research work of legal medical experts in recent years. This paper reviews the genetic markers which are used for identifying the source of human biological materials and studied widely, such as DNA methylation, mRNA, microRNA, microflora and protein, etc. By comparing the principles and methods of source identification of human biological materials using different kinds of genetic markers, different source of human biological material owns suitable marker types and can be identified by detecting single genetic marker or combined multiple genetic markers. Though there is no uniform standard and method for identifying the source of human biological materials in forensic laboratories at present, the research and development of a series of mature and reliable methods for distinguishing different human biological materials play the role as forensic evidence which will be the future development direction. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine.

  1. 26 CFR 1.1014-4 - Uniformity of basis; adjustment to basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Basis Rules of General Application § 1.1014-4 Uniformity of basis... to property acquired by bequest, devise, or inheritance relate back to the death of the decedent... prescribing a general uniform basis rule for property acquired from a decedent is, on the one hand, to tax the...

  2. Profiling tumor-associated markers for early detection of malignant mesothelioma: an epidemiologic study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Amati, M.; Tomasetti, M.; Scartozzi, M.; Mariotti, L.; Alleva, R.; Pignotti, E.; Borghi, B.; Valentino, M.; Governa, M.; Neužil, Jiří; Santarelli, L.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 1 (2008), s. 163-170 ISSN 1055-9965 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500520602 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514; CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : malignant mesothelioma * tumor markers * asbestos Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.770, year: 2008

  3. Checking the Course of Colorectal Carcinoma Follow up Using Mathematical Classification of Tumor Marker Profiles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holubec jr., L.; Botterlich, N.; Topolčan, O.; Finek, J.; Pikner, R.; Pecen, Ladislav; Holubec, L.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 23, Suppl.1 (2002), s. 57 ISSN 1010-4283. [Meeting of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine /30./. 08.09.2002-12.09.2002, Boston] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 438 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : tumor markers * colorectal CA * mathematical classification Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  4. Molecular genetic diversity of Punica granatum L. (pomegranate) as revealed by microsatellite DNA markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is one of the oldest known edible fruits and more and more it arouse interest of scientific community given its numerous biological activities. However, information about its genetic resources and characterization using reliable molecular markers are still scarce. In...

  5. Can microsatellite markers resolve phylogenetic relationships between closely related crested newt species (Triturus cristatus superspecies)?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikulíček, P.; Crnobrnja-Isailović, J.; Piálek, Jaroslav

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 4 (2007), s. 467-474 ISSN 0173-5373 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/01/0695; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : crested newt * microsatelitte markers Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.929, year: 2007

  6. 21 CFR 120.9 - Legal basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION HAZARD ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP) SYSTEMS General Provisions § 120.9 Legal basis. Failure of a processor to have and to implement a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP... implementation of its HACCP system. ...

  7. 29 CFR 541.605 - Fee basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... DELIMITING THE EXEMPTIONS FOR EXECUTIVE, ADMINISTRATIVE, PROFESSIONAL, COMPUTER AND OUTSIDE SALES EMPLOYEES Salary Requirements § 541.605 Fee basis. (a) Administrative and professional employees may be paid on a...

  8. Messina: a novel analysis tool to identify biologically relevant molecules in disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Pinese

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Morphologically similar cancers display heterogeneous patterns of molecular aberrations and follow substantially different clinical courses. This diversity has become the basis for the definition of molecular phenotypes, with significant implications for therapy. Microarray or proteomic expression profiling is conventionally employed to identify disease-associated genes, however, traditional approaches for the analysis of profiling experiments may miss molecular aberrations which define biologically relevant subtypes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we present Messina, a method that can identify those genes that only sometimes show aberrant expression in cancer. We demonstrate with simulated data that Messina is highly sensitive and specific when used to identify genes which are aberrantly expressed in only a proportion of cancers, and compare Messina to contemporary analysis techniques. We illustrate Messina by using it to detect the aberrant expression of a gene that may play an important role in pancreatic cancer. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Messina allows the detection of genes with profiles typical of markers of molecular subtype, and complements existing methods to assist the identification of such markers. Messina is applicable to any global expression profiling data, and to allow its easy application has been packaged into a freely-available stand-alone software package.

  9. Metabolic markers in sports medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banfi, Giuseppe; Colombini, Alessandra; Lombardi, Giovanni; Lubkowska, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Physical exercise induces adaptations in metabolism considered beneficial for health. Athletic performance is linked to adaptations, training, and correct nutrition in individuals with genetic traits that can facilitate such adaptations. Intense and continuous exercise, training, and competitions, however, can induce changes in the serum concentrations of numerous laboratory parameters. When these modifications, especially elevated laboratory levels, result outside the reference range, further examinations are ordered or participation in training and competition is discontinued or sports practice loses its appeal. In order to correctly interpret commonly used laboratory data, laboratory professionals and sport physicians need to know the behavior of laboratory parameters during and after practice and competition. We reviewed the literature on liver, kidney, muscle, heart, energy, and bone parameters in athletes with a view to increase the knowledge about clinical chemistry applied to sport and to stimulate studies in this field. In liver metabolism, the interpretation of serum aminotransferases concentration in athletes should consider the release of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) from muscle and of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) mainly from the liver, when bilirubin can be elevated because of continuous hemolysis, which is typical of exercise. Muscle metabolism parameters such as creatine kinase (CK) are typically increased after exercise. This parameter can be used to interpret the physiological release of CK from muscle, its altered release due to rhabdomyolysis, or incomplete recovery due to overreaching or trauma. Cardiac markers are released during exercise, and especially endurance training. Increases in these markers should not simply be interpreted as a signal of cardiac damage or wall stress but rather as a sign of regulation of myocardial adaptation. Renal function can be followed in athletes by measuring serum creatinine concentration, but it should

  10. Myelography conducted on an outpatient basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kausch, W

    1981-03-01

    The introduction of the non-ionogenic product metrizamide made lumbosacral myelography a low-risk, invasive diagnostic procedure. Examination carried out on an outpatient basis does not involve greater risks or side effects than examination on a inpatient basis. However, it is essential that - apart from informing the patient properly - the patient shows discipline and remains available for the examining physician during a period of 36 hours.

  11. Marker based standardization of polyherbal formulation (SJT-DI-02 by high performance thin layer chromatography method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhakti J Ladva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preparation of highly standardized herbal products with respect to chemical composition and biological activity is considered to be a valuable approach in this field. SJT-DI-02 polyherbal formulation was successfully developed at our institute and filed for patent at Mumbai patent office. Objective: The present work was marker based standardization of patented, novel and efficacious polyherbal formulation namely SJT-DI-02 for the treatment of diabetes. The SJT-DI-02 was comprised of dried extracts of rhizomes of Acorus calamus, leaves of Aegle marmelose, fruits of Benincasa hispida, roots of Chlorophytum arendinaceum, seeds of Eugenia jambolana, leaves of Ocimum sanctum, pericarp of Punica granatum, seeds of Tamarindus indica. Selected plants were collected, dried and extracted with suitable solvents. The formulation was prepared by mixing different fractions of extracts. Materials and Methods: For successful and best standardization, first of all selection and procurement was carried out. Selection is done on the basis of therapeutic efficacy and amount of the marker present in the particular plant part. At the time of procurement side by side phytochemical screening and estimation of phytoconstituents was carried out. After completion of preliminary screening using characterized markers, we tried to develop best TLC systems using selected solvent composition. Finally well-developed TLC systems were applied in HPTLC. In the present study polyherbal formulation was standardized by using different four markers. TLC Densitometric methods were developed using HPTLC for the quantification of these marker compounds. Solvent systems were optimized to achieve best resolution of the marker compounds from other components of the sample extract. The identity of the bands in the sample extracts were confirmed by comparing the Rf and the absorption spectra by overlaying their UV absorption spectra with those of their respective standards. The

  12. Inflammatory markers in blood and serum tumor markers predict survival in patients with epithelial appendiceal neoplasms undergoing surgical cytoreduction and intraperitoneal chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Terence C; Chong, Chanel H; Liauw, Winston; Zhao, Jing; Morris, David L

    2012-08-01

    The study examines the role inflammatory and tumor markers as biomarkers to preoperatively predict outcome in patients with epithelial appendiceal neoplasm undergoing cytoreduction and intraperitoneal chemotherapy. Associations between baseline variables, tumor markers [CEA (carcinoembyronic antigen], CA125, CA199), inflammatory markers including neutrophils-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were examined in patients undergoing surgical cytoreduction and intraperitoneal chemotherapy for epithelial appendiceal neoplasm. A total of 174 patients with epithelial appendiceal neoplasm (low-grade pseudomyxoma, n = 117; appendiceal cancer, n = 57) underwent cytoreduction. On univariate analysis, all 3 inflammatory and tumor markers predicted for both PFS and OS, respectively; NLR ≤ 2.6 (P = 0.01, P = 0.002), PLR ≤ 166 (P = 0.006, P = 0.016), CRP ≤ 12.5 (P = 0.001, P = 0.008), CEA (P 37 (P = 0.003), and a CRP > 12.5 (P = 0.013). A higher peritoneal cancer index (PCI > 24) was associated with elevation in CEA > 12, CA125 > 39, CA199 > 37, PLR > 166 and CRP > 12. The tumor histologic subtype was associated with CA 199 levels. The results from this investigation suggest that preoperative inflammatory markers in blood and serologic tumor markers may predict outcomes and are associated with tumor biology in patients with epithelial appendiceal neoplasm undergoing cytoreduction and intraperitoneal chemotherapy treatment.

  13. Thermodynamic basis for expressing dose logarithmically

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waddell, William J.

    2008-01-01

    The current explanations for using a logarithmic scale for the dose of a chemical, administered to a biological system, have all been empirical. There is a fundamental, thermodynamic reason why a logarithmic scale must be used. The chemical potential is the effect that a chemical exerts on any system, including biological systems. The chemical potential of a chemical in any system is directly proportional to the logarithm of its activity or concentration. Lack of understanding of this concept and the consequent use of a linear scale for dose has led to misinterpretation of many biological experiments

  14. Use of DNA markers in forest tree improvement research

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.B. Neale; M.E. Devey; K.D. Jermstad; M.R. Ahuja; M.C. Alosi; K.A. Marshall

    1992-01-01

    DNA markers are rapidly being developed for forest trees. The most important markers are restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), polymerase chain reaction- (PCR) based markers such as random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), and fingerprinting markers. DNA markers can supplement isozyme markers for monitoring tree improvement activities such as; estimating...

  15. Molecular Markers for Food Traceability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Martins-Lopes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA analysis with molecular markers has opened a way to understand complex organism's genome. It is presently being widely applied across different fields, where food takes a preeminent position. Constant outbreaks of foodborne illnesses are increasing consumer's attention towards more detailed information related to what they are consuming. This overview reports on the areas where food traceability has been considered, and the problems that still remain to be bypassed in order to be widely applied. An outline of the most broadly used PCR-based methods for food traceability is described. Applications in the area of detection of genetically modified organisms, protected denomination of origin, allergenic and intolerance reactions are detailed in order to understand the dimension of the performed studies.

  16. [Classification of organisms and structuralism in biology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasil'eva, L I

    2001-01-01

    Structuralism in biology is the oldest trend oriented to the search for natural "laws of forms" comparable with laws of growth of crystal, was revived at the end of 20th century on the basis of structuralist thought in socio-humanitarian sciences. The development of principal ideas of the linguistic structuralism in some aspects is similar to that of biological systematics, especially concerning the relationships between "system" and "evolution". However, apart from this general similarity, biological structuralism is strongly focused on familiar problems of the origin of diversity in nature. In their striving for the renovation of existing views, biological structuralists oppose the neo-darwinism emphasizing the existence of "law of forms", that are independent on heredity and genetic "determinism". The trend to develop so-called "rational taxonomy" is also characteristic of biological structuralism but this attempt failed being connected neither with Darwin's historicism nor with Plato's typology.

  17. Iterative h-minima-based marker-controlled watershed for cell nucleus segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyuncu, Can Fahrettin; Akhan, Ece; Ersahin, Tulin; Cetin-Atalay, Rengul; Gunduz-Demir, Cigdem

    2016-04-01

    Automated microscopy imaging systems facilitate high-throughput screening in molecular cellular biology research. The first step of these systems is cell nucleus segmentation, which has a great impact on the success of the overall system. The marker-controlled watershed is a technique commonly used by the previous studies for nucleus segmentation. These studies define their markers finding regional minima on the intensity/gradient and/or distance transform maps. They typically use the h-minima transform beforehand to suppress noise on these maps. The selection of the h value is critical; unnecessarily small values do not sufficiently suppress the noise, resulting in false and oversegmented markers, and unnecessarily large ones suppress too many pixels, causing missing and undersegmented markers. Because cell nuclei show different characteristics within an image, the same h value may not work to define correct markers for all the nuclei. To address this issue, in this work, we propose a new watershed algorithm that iteratively identifies its markers, considering a set of different h values. In each iteration, the proposed algorithm defines a set of candidates using a particular h value and selects the markers from those candidates provided that they fulfill the size requirement. Working with widefield fluorescence microscopy images, our experiments reveal that the use of multiple h values in our iterative algorithm leads to better segmentation results, compared to its counterparts. © 2016 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. © 2016 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  18. Global Distribution of Human-Associated Fecal Genetic Markers in Reference Samples from Six Continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, René E; Reischer, Georg H; Ixenmaier, Simone K; Derx, Julia; Blaschke, Alfred Paul; Ebdon, James E; Linke, Rita; Egle, Lukas; Ahmed, Warish; Blanch, Anicet R; Byamukama, Denis; Savill, Marion; Mushi, Douglas; Cristóbal, Héctor A; Edge, Thomas A; Schade, Margit A; Aslan, Asli; Brooks, Yolanda M; Sommer, Regina; Masago, Yoshifumi; Sato, Maria I; Taylor, Huw D; Rose, Joan B; Wuertz, Stefan; Shanks, Orin C; Piringer, Harald; Mach, Robert L; Savio, Domenico; Zessner, Matthias; Farnleitner, Andreas H

    2018-05-01

    Numerous bacterial genetic markers are available for the molecular detection of human sources of fecal pollution in environmental waters. However, widespread application is hindered by a lack of knowledge regarding geographical stability, limiting implementation to a small number of well-characterized regions. This study investigates the geographic distribution of five human-associated genetic markers (HF183/BFDrev, HF183/BacR287, BacHum-UCD, BacH, and Lachno2) in municipal wastewaters (raw and treated) from 29 urban and rural wastewater treatment plants (750-4 400 000 population equivalents) from 13 countries spanning six continents. In addition, genetic markers were tested against 280 human and nonhuman fecal samples from domesticated, agricultural and wild animal sources. Findings revealed that all genetic markers are present in consistently high concentrations in raw (median log 10 7.2-8.0 marker equivalents (ME) 100 mL -1 ) and biologically treated wastewater samples (median log 10 4.6-6.0 ME 100 mL -1 ) regardless of location and population. The false positive rates of the various markers in nonhuman fecal samples ranged from 5% to 47%. Results suggest that several genetic markers have considerable potential for measuring human-associated contamination in polluted environmental waters. This will be helpful in water quality monitoring, pollution modeling and health risk assessment (as demonstrated by QMRAcatch) to guide target-oriented water safety management across the globe.

  19. PROTEOMIC AND EPIGENOMIC MARKERS OF SEPSIS-INDUCED DELIRIUM (SID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adonis eSfera

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In elderly population sepsis is one of the leading causes of intensive care unit (ICU admissions in the United States. Sepsis-induced delirium (SID is the most frequent cause of delirium in ICU (1. Together delirium and SID represent under recognized public health problems which place an increasing financial burden on the US health care system, currently estimated at 143 to 152 billion dollars per year (2. The interest in SID was recently reignited as it was demonstrated that, contrary to prior beliefs, cognitive deficits induced by this condition may be irreversible and lead to dementia (3-4. Conversely, it is construed that diagnosing SID early or mitigating its full blown manifestations may preempt geriatric cognitive disorders. Biological markers specific for sepsis and SID would facilitate the development of potential therapies, monitor the disease process and at the same time enable elderly individuals to make better informed decisions regarding surgeries which may pose the risk of complications, including sepsis and delirium.This article proposes a battery of peripheral blood markers to be used for diagnostic and prognostic purposes in sepsis and SID. Though each individual marker may not be specific enough, we believe that together as a battery they may achieve the necessary accuracy to answer two important questions: who may be vulnerable to the development of sepsis, and who may develop SID and irreversible cognitive deficits following sepsis?

  20. The biological effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sykes, D.A.

    1979-01-01

    The hazards of radiations to man are briefly covered in this paper. The natural background sources of radiations are stated and their resulting doses are compared to those received voluntarily by man. The basis of how radiations cause biological damage is given and the resulting somatic effects are shown for varying magnitude of dose. Risk estimates are given for cancer induction and genetic effects are briefly discussed. Finally four case studies of radiation damage to humans are examined exemplifying the symptoms of large doses of radiations [af

  1. Genetic basis of a cognitive complexity metric.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narelle K Hansell

    Full Text Available Relational complexity (RC is a metric reflecting capacity limitation in relational processing. It plays a crucial role in higher cognitive processes and is an endophenotype for several disorders. However, the genetic underpinnings of complex relational processing have not been investigated. Using the classical twin model, we estimated the heritability of RC and genetic overlap with intelligence (IQ, reasoning, and working memory in a twin and sibling sample aged 15-29 years (N = 787. Further, in an exploratory search for genetic loci contributing to RC, we examined associated genetic markers and genes in our Discovery sample and selected loci for replication in four independent samples (ALSPAC, LBC1936, NTR, NCNG, followed by meta-analysis (N>6500 at the single marker level. Twin modelling showed RC is highly heritable (67%, has considerable genetic overlap with IQ (59%, and is a major component of genetic covariation between reasoning and working memory (72%. At the molecular level, we found preliminary support for four single-marker loci (one in the gene DGKB, and at a gene-based level for the NPS gene, having influence on cognition. These results indicate that genetic sources influencing relational processing are a key component of the genetic architecture of broader cognitive abilities. Further, they suggest a genetic cascade, whereby genetic factors influencing capacity limitation in relational processing have a flow-on effect to more complex cognitive traits, including reasoning and working memory, and ultimately, IQ.

  2. Elevated tumour marker: an indication for imaging?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McMahon, Colm J

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of imaging examinations in patients with elevated tumour markers when (a) the tumour marker is not validated for as a primary diagnostic test; (b) the patient had no personal history of cancer and (c) the patient had no other imaging indication. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients without known cancer who had abnormal carcinoembryonic antigen, CA19-9, CA125 and\\/or CA15-3 serology over a one-year period were included. A retrospective medical record review was performed to assess the number of these cases who underwent imaging because of \\'elevated tumour marker\\' in the absence of a clinical indication for imaging. The number and result of these imaging studies were evaluated. RESULTS: Eight hundred and nineteen patients were included. Of those, 25 patients (mean age: 67.8 [range 41-91] y), were imaged to evaluate: \\'elevated tumour marker\\'. They underwent 29 imaging studies (mean [+\\/-standard deviation (SD)] per patient = 1.2 [+\\/-0.4]), and had 42 elevated tumour marker serology tests (mean [+\\/-SD] per patient = 1.7 [+\\/-0.7]). Four patients had >1 imaging test. No patient had an imaging study which diagnosed a malignancy or explained the elevated tumour marker. CONCLUSION: The non-judicious use of tumour markers can prompt further unnecessary investigations including imaging. In this study, there was no positive diagnostic yield for imaging performed for investigation of \\'elevated tumour marker\\'. \\'Elevated tumour marker\\

  3. Elimination of ghost markers during dual sensor-based infrared tracking of multiple individual reflective markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroian, G.; Falco, T.; Seuntjens, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    The accuracy of dose delivery in radiotherapy is affected by the uncertainty in tumor localization. Motion of internal anatomy due to physiological processes such as respiration may lead to significant displacements which compromise tumor coverage and generate irradiation of healthy tissue. Real-time tracking with infrared-based systems is often used for tracking thoracic motion in radiation therapy. We studied the origin of ghost markers ('crosstalk') which may appear during dual sensor-based infrared tracking of independent reflective markers. Ghost markers occur when two or more reflective markers are coplanar with each other and with the sensors of the two camera-based infrared tracking system. Analysis shows that sensors are not points but they have a finite extent and this extent determines for each marker a 'ghost volume'. If one reflective marker enters the ghost volume of another marker, ghost markers will be reported by the tracking system; if the reflective markers belong to a surface their 'ghost volume' is reduced to a 'ghost surface' (ghost zone). Appearance of ghost markers is predicted for markers taped on the torso of an anthropomorphic phantom. This study illustrates the dependence of the shape, extent, and location of the ghost zones on the shape of the anthropomorphic phantom, the angle of view of the tracking system, and the distance between the tracking system and the anthropomorphic phantom. It is concluded that the appearance of ghost markers can be avoided by positioning the markers outside the ghost zones of the other markers. However, if this is not possible and the initial marker configuration is ghost marker-free, ghost markers can be eliminated during real-time tracking by virtue of the fact that they appear in the coordinate data sequence only temporarily

  4. Sunflower Hybrid Breeding: From Markers to Genomic Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrijevic, Aleksandra; Horn, Renate

    2017-01-01

    In sunflower, molecular markers for simple traits as, e.g., fertility restoration, high oleic acid content, herbicide tolerance or resistances to Plasmopara halstedii, Puccinia helianthi , or Orobanche cumana have been successfully used in marker-assisted breeding programs for years. However, agronomically important complex quantitative traits like yield, heterosis, drought tolerance, oil content or selection for disease resistance, e.g., against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum have been challenging and will require genome-wide approaches. Plant genetic resources for sunflower are being collected and conserved worldwide that represent valuable resources to study complex traits. Sunflower association panels provide the basis for genome-wide association studies, overcoming disadvantages of biparental populations. Advances in technologies and the availability of the sunflower genome sequence made novel approaches on the whole genome level possible. Genotype-by-sequencing, and whole genome sequencing based on next generation sequencing technologies facilitated the production of large amounts of SNP markers for high density maps as well as SNP arrays and allowed genome-wide association studies and genomic selection in sunflower. Genome wide or candidate gene based association studies have been performed for traits like branching, flowering time, resistance to Sclerotinia head and stalk rot. First steps in genomic selection with regard to hybrid performance and hybrid oil content have shown that genomic selection can successfully address complex quantitative traits in sunflower and will help to speed up sunflower breeding programs in the future. To make sunflower more competitive toward other oil crops higher levels of resistance against pathogens and better yield performance are required. In addition, optimizing plant architecture toward a more complex growth type for higher plant densities has the potential to considerably increase yields per hectare. Integrative approaches

  5. Sunflower Hybrid Breeding: From Markers to Genomic Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrijevic, Aleksandra; Horn, Renate

    2018-01-01

    In sunflower, molecular markers for simple traits as, e.g., fertility restoration, high oleic acid content, herbicide tolerance or resistances to Plasmopara halstedii, Puccinia helianthi, or Orobanche cumana have been successfully used in marker-assisted breeding programs for years. However, agronomically important complex quantitative traits like yield, heterosis, drought tolerance, oil content or selection for disease resistance, e.g., against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum have been challenging and will require genome-wide approaches. Plant genetic resources for sunflower are being collected and conserved worldwide that represent valuable resources to study complex traits. Sunflower association panels provide the basis for genome-wide association studies, overcoming disadvantages of biparental populations. Advances in technologies and the availability of the sunflower genome sequence made novel approaches on the whole genome level possible. Genotype-by-sequencing, and whole genome sequencing based on next generation sequencing technologies facilitated the production of large amounts of SNP markers for high density maps as well as SNP arrays and allowed genome-wide association studies and genomic selection in sunflower. Genome wide or candidate gene based association studies have been performed for traits like branching, flowering time, resistance to Sclerotinia head and stalk rot. First steps in genomic selection with regard to hybrid performance and hybrid oil content have shown that genomic selection can successfully address complex quantitative traits in sunflower and will help to speed up sunflower breeding programs in the future. To make sunflower more competitive toward other oil crops higher levels of resistance against pathogens and better yield performance are required. In addition, optimizing plant architecture toward a more complex growth type for higher plant densities has the potential to considerably increase yields per hectare. Integrative approaches

  6. Sunflower Hybrid Breeding: From Markers to Genomic Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Dimitrijevic

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In sunflower, molecular markers for simple traits as, e.g., fertility restoration, high oleic acid content, herbicide tolerance or resistances to Plasmopara halstedii, Puccinia helianthi, or Orobanche cumana have been successfully used in marker-assisted breeding programs for years. However, agronomically important complex quantitative traits like yield, heterosis, drought tolerance, oil content or selection for disease resistance, e.g., against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum have been challenging and will require genome-wide approaches. Plant genetic resources for sunflower are being collected and conserved worldwide that represent valuable resources to study complex traits. Sunflower association panels provide the basis for genome-wide association studies, overcoming disadvantages of biparental populations. Advances in technologies and the availability of the sunflower genome sequence made novel approaches on the whole genome level possible. Genotype-by-sequencing, and whole genome sequencing based on next generation sequencing technologies facilitated the production of large amounts of SNP markers for high density maps as well as SNP arrays and allowed genome-wide association studies and genomic selection in sunflower. Genome wide or candidate gene based association studies have been performed for traits like branching, flowering time, resistance to Sclerotinia head and stalk rot. First steps in genomic selection with regard to hybrid performance and hybrid oil content have shown that genomic selection can successfully address complex quantitative traits in sunflower and will help to speed up sunflower breeding programs in the future. To make sunflower more competitive toward other oil crops higher levels of resistance against pathogens and better yield performance are required. In addition, optimizing plant architecture toward a more complex growth type for higher plant densities has the potential to considerably increase yields per hectare

  7. Estimation of absorbed doses on the basis of cytogenetic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevchenko, V.A.; Rubanovich, A.V.; Snigiryova, G.P.

    1998-01-01

    Long-term studies in the field of radiation cytogenetics have resulted in the discovery of relationship between induction of chromosome aberrations and the type of ionizing radiation, their intensity and dose. This has served as a basis of biological dosimetry as an area of application of the revealed relationship, and has been used in the practice to estimate absorbed doses in people exposed to emergency irradiation. The necessity of using the methods of biological dosimetry became most pressing in connection with the Chernobyl accident in 1986, as well as in connection with other radiation situations that occurred in nuclear industry of the former USSR. The materials presented in our works demonstrate the possibility of applying cytogenetic methods for assessing absorbed doses in populations of different regions exposed to radiation as a result of accidents at nuclear facilities (Chernobyl, the village Muslymovo on the Techa river, the Three Mile Island nuclear power station in the USA where an accident occurred in 1979). Fundamentally, new possibilities for retrospective dose assessment are provided by the FISH-method that permits the assessment of absorbed doses after several decades since the exposure occurred. In addition, the application of this method makes it possible to restore the dynamics of unstable chromosome aberrations (dicentrics and centric rings), which is important for further improvement of the method of biological dosimetry based on the analysis of unstable chromosome aberrations. The purpose of our presentation is a brief description of the cytogenetic methods used in biological dosimetry, consideration of statistical methods of data analysis and a description of concrete examples of their application. (J.P.N.)

  8. Development and application of sequence-tagged microsatellite site (STMS) markers in chickpea (Cicer arietinum), banana (Musa spp.) and their major pathogens, Ascochyta rabiei and Mycosphaerella fijiensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, P.; Kaemmer, D.; Paff, T.; Geistlinger, J.; Neu, C.; Kahl, G.

    2001-01-01

    DNA markers of various kinds have found widespread application in many facets of plant breeding and plant pathogen control. Yet another marker type, sequence-tagged microsatellite (STMS) markers, provides the markers of choice for nearly every crop because of their co-dominant nature, reliability, ease of application and high polymorphic information content. We report here on the development of a whole set of STMS markers and the respective, selected primer sequences for two important crops, chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and banana (Musa acuminata), and for their most devastating fungal pathogens, Ascochyta rabiei and Mycosphaerella fijiensis, respectively. These markers were generated either by direct screening of size-selected genomic libraries with microsatellite-complementary oligonucleotides, or by enrichment of DNA fragments containing microsatellite sequences. A total of 69 markers for chickpea, 15 markers for M. acuminata, 19 markers for A rabiei and 11 markers for M. fijiensis, selected on the basis of their high information content and ease of use are presented here. These can be applied for mapping of the respective genomes, for various population studies, and cultivar and isolate identification. We further demonstrate that several of these markers can potentially be applied across species boundaries and thus could increase the marker repertoire also for other species of the genus Cicer, Musa and for Ascochyta-type pathogens of bean, and potentially also of lentil and pea. (author)

  9. Genotyping by Sequencing in Almond: SNP Discovery, Linkage Mapping, and Marker Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi N. Goonetilleke

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In crop plant genetics, linkage maps provide the basis for the mapping of loci that affect important traits and for the selection of markers to be applied in crop improvement. In outcrossing species such as almond (Prunus dulcis Mill. D. A. Webb, application of a double pseudotestcross mapping approach to the F1 progeny of a biparental cross leads to the construction of a linkage map for each parent. Here, we report on the application of genotyping by sequencing to discover and map single nucleotide polymorphisms in the almond cultivars “Nonpareil” and “Lauranne.” Allele-specific marker assays were developed for 309 tag pairs. Application of these assays to 231 Nonpareil × Lauranne F1 progeny provided robust linkage maps for each parent. Analysis of phenotypic data for shell hardness demonstrated the utility of these maps for quantitative trait locus mapping. Comparison of these maps to the peach genome assembly confirmed high synteny and collinearity between the peach and almond genomes. The marker assays were applied to progeny from several other Nonpareil crosses, providing the basis for a composite linkage map of Nonpareil. Applications of the assays to a panel of almond clones and a panel of rootstocks used for almond production demonstrated the broad applicability of the markers and provide subsets of markers that could be used to discriminate among accessions. The sequence-based linkage maps and single nucleotide polymorphism assays presented here could be useful resources for the genetic analysis and genetic improvement of almond.

  10. Intestinal Stem Cell Markers in the Intestinal Metaplasia of Stomach and Barrett's Esophagus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Gun Jang

    Full Text Available Gastric intestinal metaplasia (IM is a highly prevalent preneoplastic lesion; however, the molecular mechanisms regulating its development remain unclear. We have previously shown that a population of cells expressing the intestinal stem cell (ISC marker LGR5 increases remarkably in IM. In this study, we further investigated the molecular characteristics of these LGR5+ cells in IM by examining the expression profile of several ISC markers. Notably, we found that ISC markers-including OLFM4 and EPHB2-are positively associated with the CDX2 expression in non-tumorous gastric tissues. This finding was confirmed in stomach lesions with or without metaplasia, which demonstrated that OLFM4 and EPHB2 expression gradually increased with metaplastic progression. Moreover, RNA in situ hybridization revealed that LGR5+ cells coexpress several ISC markers and remained confined to the base of metaplastic glands, reminiscent to that of normal intestinal crypts, whereas those in normal antral glands expressed none of these markers. Furthermore, a large number of ISC marker-expressing cells were diffusely distributed in gastric adenomas, suggesting that these markers may facilitate gastric tumorigenesis. In addition, Barrett's esophagus (BE-which is histologically similar to intestinal metaplasia-exhibited a similar distribution of ISC markers, indicating the presence of a stem cell population with intestinal differentiation potential. In conclusion, we identified that LGR5+ cells in gastric IM and BE coexpress ISC markers, and exhibit the same expression profile as those found in normal intestinal crypts. Taken together, these results implicate an intestinal-like stem cell population in the pathogenesis of IM, and provide an important basis for understanding the development and maintenance of this disease.

  11. Marker-assisted selection in fish and shellfish breeding schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, V.

    2007-01-01

    The main goals of breeding programmes for fish and shellfish are to increase the profitability and sustainability of aquaculture. Traditionally, these have been carried out successfully using pedigree information by selecting individuals based on breeding values predicted for traits measured on candidates using an 'animal model'. This methodology assumes that phenotypes are explained by a large number of genes with small effects and random environmental deviations. However, information on individual genes with medium or large effects cannot be used in this manner. In selective breeding programmes using pedigree information, molecular markers have been used primarily for parentage assignment when tagging individual fish is difficult and to avoid causing common environmental effects from rearing families in separate tanks. The use of these techniques in such conventional breeding programmes is discussed in detail. Exploiting the great biological diversity of many fish and shellfish species, different experimental designs may use either chromosomal manipulations or large family sizes to increase the likelihood of finding the loci affecting quantitative traits, the so-called QTL, by screening the segregation of molecular markers. Using information on identified loci in breeding schemes in aquaculture is expected to be cost-effective compared with traditional breeding methods only when the accuracy of predicting breeding values is rather low, e.g. for traits with low heritability such as disease resistance or carcass quality. One of the problems facing aquaculture is that some of the resources required to locate QTL accurately, such as dense linkage maps, are not yet available for the many species. Recently, however, information from expressed sequence tag (EST) databases has been used for developing molecular markers such as microsatellites and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Marker-assisted selection (MAS) or genome-wide marker-assisted selection (G-MAS) using

  12. Molecular markers in the epidemiology and diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte-Escalante, Esperanza; Frías-De-León, María Guadalupe; Zúñiga, Gerardo; Martínez-Herrera, Erick; Acosta-Altamirano, Gustavo; Reyes-Montes, María Del Rocío

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of coccidioidomycosis in endemic areas has been observed to increase daily. To understand the causes of the spread of the disease and design strategies for fungal detection in clinical and environmental samples, scientists have resorted to molecular tools that allow fungal detection in a natural environment, reliable identification in clinical cases and the study of biological characteristics, such as reproductive and genetic structure, demographic history and diversification. We conducted a review of the most important molecular markers in the epidemiology of Coccidioides spp. and the diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis. A literature search was performed for scientific publications concerning the application of molecular tools for the epidemiology and diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis. The use of molecular markers in the epidemiological study and diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis has allowed for the typing of Coccidioides spp. isolates, improved understanding of their mode of reproduction, genetic variation and speciation and resulted in the development specific, rapid and sensitive strategies for detecting the fungus in environmental and clinical samples. Molecular markers have revealed genetic variability in Coccidioides spp. This finding influences changes in the epidemiology of coccidioidomycosis, such as the emergence of more virulent or antifungal resistant genotypes. Furthermore, the molecular markers currently used to identify Coccidioides immitis and Coccidioides posadasii are specific and sensitive. However, they must be validated to determine their application in diagnosis. This manuscript is part of the series of works presented at the "V International Workshop: Molecular genetic approaches to the study of human pathogenic fungi" (Oaxaca, Mexico, 2012). Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Development and evaluation of microsatellite markers for Acer miyabei (Sapindaceae), a threatened maple species in East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeki, Ikuyo; Hirao, Akira S; Kenta, Tanaka

    2015-06-01

    Twelve microsatellite markers were developed and characterized in a threatened maple species, Acer miyabei (Sapindaceae), for use in population genetic analyses. Using Ion Personal Genome Machine (PGM) sequencing, we developed microsatellite markers with perfect di- and trinucleotide repeats. These markers were tested on a total of 44 individuals from two natural populations of A. miyabei subsp. miyabei f. miyabei in Hokkaido Island, Japan. The number of alleles per locus ranged from two to eight. The observed and expected heterozygosities per locus ranged from 0.05 to 0.75 and from 0.05 to 0.79, respectively. Some of the markers were successfully transferred to the closely related species A. campestre, A. platanoides, and A. pictum. The developed markers will be useful in characterizing the genetic structure and diversity of A. miyabei and will help to understand its spatial genetic variation, levels of inbreeding, and patterns of gene flow, thereby providing a basis for conservation.

  14. From quality markers to data mining and intelligence assessment: A smart quality-evaluation strategy for traditional Chinese medicine based on quality markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Gang; Zhang, Tiejun; Hou, Yuanyuan; Ding, Guoyu; Jiang, Min; Luo, Guoan

    2018-01-31

    The quality of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) forms the foundation of its clinical efficacy. The standardization of TCM is the most important task of TCM modernization. In recent years, there has been great progress in the quality control of TCM. However, there are still many issues related to the current quality standards, and it is difficult to objectively evaluate and effectively control the quality of TCM. To face these challenge, we summarized the current quality marker (Q-marker) research based on its characteristics and benefits, and proposed a reasonable and intelligentized quality evaluation strategy for the development and application of Q-markers. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole/time-of-flight with partial least squares-discriminant analysis was suggested to screen the chemical markers from Chinese medicinal materials (CMM), and a bioactive-guided evaluation method was used to select the Q-markers. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), based on the distinctive wavenumber zones or points from the Q-markers, was developed for its determination. Then, artificial intelligence algorithms were used to clarify the complex relationship between the Q-markers and their integral functions. Internet and mobile communication technology helped us to perform remote analysis and determine the information feedback of test samples. The quality control research, evaluation, standard establishment and quality control of TCM must be based on the systematic analysis of Q-markers to study and describe the material basis of TCM efficacy, define the chemical markers in the plant body, and understand the process of herb drug acquisition, change and transmission laws affecting metabolism and exposure. Based on the advantages of chemometrics, new sensor technologies, including infrared spectroscopy, hyperspectral imaging, chemical imaging, electronic nose and electronic tongue, have become increasingly important in the quality evaluation of CMM. Inspired by the

  15. Measurement of basis weight by radiation gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchnea, A.

    1981-01-01

    For accurate measurement of the basis weight (mass per unit area) of a material such as paper between a radioactive source and an ionization chamber the apparatus is calibrated by using a plurality of standards of known basis weight to provide a relationship between basis weight and the output current of the chamber which includes at least terms of the second order and preferably terms of higher orders. The major portion of the radiation path is enclosed in airtight chambers which are sufficiently rigid that the density therein is independent of ambient temperature and pressure variations. The accuracy is increased by measuring ambient temperature and pressure fluctuations, and linearly compensating for resultant density variations in the air gap through which the paper web passes. A wheel holding the standards is induced by a motor and a perforated encoding disc. (author)

  16. Dyneins: structure, biology and disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    King, Stephen M

    2012-01-01

    .... From bench to bedside, Dynein: Structure, Biology and Disease offers research on fundamental cellular processes to researchers and clinicians across developmental biology, cell biology, molecular biology, biophysics, biomedicine...

  17. A reductionist approach to extract robust molecular markers from microarray data series - Isolating markers to track osseointegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Anwesha; Banerjee, Satarupa; Dhara, Santanu; Chakravorty, Nishant

    2017-04-01

    Complexities in the full genome expression studies hinder the extraction of tracker genes to analyze the course of biological events. In this study, we demonstrate the applications of supervised machine learning methods to reduce the irrelevance in microarray data series and thereby extract robust molecular markers to track biological processes. The methodology has been illustrated by analyzing whole genome expression studies on bone-implant integration (ossointegration). Being a biological process, osseointegration is known to leave a trail of genetic footprint during the course. In spite of existence of enormous amount of raw data in public repositories, researchers still do not have access to a panel of genes that can definitively track osseointegration. The results from our study revealed panels comprising of matrix metalloproteinases and collagen genes were able to track osseointegration on implant surfaces (MMP9 and COL1A2 on micro-textured; MMP12 and COL6A3 on superimposed nano-textured surfaces) with 100% classification accuracy, specificity and sensitivity. Further, our analysis showed the importance of the progression of the duration in establishment of the mechanical connection at bone-implant surface. The findings from this study are expected to be useful to researchers investigating osseointegration of novel implant materials especially at the early stage. The methodology demonstrated can be easily adapted by scientists in different fields to analyze large databases for other biological processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Biological conversion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, C.D.

    A system for bioconversion of organic material comprises a primary bioreactor column wherein a biological active agent (zymomonas mobilis) converts the organic material (sugar) to a product (alcohol), a rejuvenator column wherein the biological activity of said biological active agent is enhanced, and means for circulating said biological active agent between said primary bioreactor column and said rejuvenator column.

  19. Translational environmental biology: cell biology informing conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traylor-Knowles, Nikki; Palumbi, Stephen R

    2014-05-01

    Typically, findings from cell biology have been beneficial for preventing human disease. However, translational applications from cell biology can also be applied to conservation efforts, such as protecting coral reefs. Recent efforts to understand the cell biological mechanisms maintaining coral health such as innate immunity and acclimatization have prompted new developments in conservation. Similar to biomedicine, we urge that future efforts should focus on better frameworks for biomarker development to protect coral reefs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Deciphering the language between biological and synthetic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo A. Netti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical signals propagating through aqueous environment are at the basis of the language utilized by living systems to exchange information. In the last years, molecular biology has partly disclosed the grammar and the syntax of this complex language revealing the fascinating world of molecular communication that is the foundation of biological development.