WorldWideScience

Sample records for basis biological markers

  1. Biological Basis and Clinical Application of Serum Tumor Markers

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez-Clavijo, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Cancer is the result of the accumulation of changes in molecules with important functions in processes such as cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell death and gene repair. Molecules, substances or altered pathways constitute tumor markers or biomarkers useful in clinical monitoring of cancer patients, because they have demonstrated to be suitable for the valuation of the patient’s treatment and it efficiency. Determination of tumor markers has not been very successful due to the low sensitivity...

  2. Interpretation of results for tumor markers on the basis of analytical imprecision and biological variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sölétormos, G; Schiøler, V; Nielsen, D

    1993-01-01

    Interpretation of results for CA 15.3, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA) during breast cancer monitoring requires data on intra- (CVP) and inter- (CVG) individual biological variation, analytical imprecision (CVA), and indices of individuality. The average CVP a....... Consequently, both CVP and CVA should be considered in criteria for marker evaluation. Because of low indices of individuality, conventional cutoff limits are inappropriate both for initial identification and for follow-up of breast cancer....

  3. Biological basis of detoxication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caldwell, John; Jakoby, William B

    1983-01-01

    This volume considers that premise that most of the major patterns of biological conversion of foreign compounds are known and may have predictive value in assessing the biological course for novel compounds...

  4. Biological Markers and Salivary Cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Gunnarsson, Lars-Gunnar; Harris, Anette

    2011-01-01

    This chapter focuses on salivary cortisol in relation to biological markers. Specifically, associations with conventional cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic abnormalities (body mass index, waist circumference, waist/hip ratio, lipid status, glucose, blood pressure, heart rate and heart rate...

  5. Biological Markers and Salivary Cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Gunnarsson, Lars-Gunnar; Harris, Anette

    2011-01-01

    variability), markers related to inflammation (C-reactive protein, cytokines and tumor necrosis factor-alpha) and other stress hormones (adrenaline and noradrenaline) were studied. The focus was on healthy adult populations; studies on patient populations and pregnant women were excluded. Studies on genome......This chapter focuses on salivary cortisol in relation to biological markers. Specifically, associations with conventional cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic abnormalities (body mass index, waist circumference, waist/hip ratio, lipid status, glucose, blood pressure, heart rate and heart rate...... variations and pharmacological interventions were also excluded. After meeting all exclusion criteria, 42 papers remained. In total, 273 associations between salivary cortisol and any of the markers mentioned were studied, comprising 241 associations on metabolic abnormalities, 30 on inflammation, and 2...

  6. Attachment theory: a biological basis for psychotherapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, J

    1993-10-01

    John Bowlby bemoaned the separation between the biological and psychological approaches in psychiatry, and hoped that attachment theory, which brings together psychoanalysis and the science of ethology, would help bridge the rift between them. Recent findings in developmental psychology have delineated features of parent-infant interaction, especially responsiveness, attunement, and modulation of affect, which lead to either secure or insecure attachment. Similar principles can be applied to the relationship between psychotherapist and patient--the provision of a secure base, the emergence of a shared narrative ('autobiographical competence'), the processing of affect, coping with loss--these are common to most effective psychotherapies and provide the basis for a new interpersonal paradigm within psychotherapy. Attachment theory suggests they rest on a sound ethological and hence biological foundation.

  7. Archaeological data as a basis for repository marker design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, M.F.

    1982-10-01

    This report concerns the development of a marking system for a nuclear waste repository which is very likely to survive for 10,000 years. In order to provide a background on the subject, and for the preliminary design presented in this report, a discussion is presented about the issues involved in human interference with the repository system and the communication of information. A separate chapter summarizes six ancient man-made monuments including: materials, effects of associated textual information on our understanding of the monument, and other features of the ancient monument relevant to marking a repository site. The information presented in the two chapters is used to provide the basis and rationale for a preliminary marker system design presented in a final chapter. 86 refs., 22 figs., 1 tab

  8. Archaeological data as a basis for repository marker design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, M.F.

    1982-10-01

    This report concerns the development of a marking system for a nuclear waste repository which is very likely to survive for 10,000 years. In order to provide a background on the subject, and for the preliminary design presented in this report, a discussion is presented about the issues involved in human interference with the repository system and the communication of information. A separate chapter summarizes six ancient man-made monuments including: materials, effects of associated textual information on our understanding of the monument, and other features of the ancient monument relevant to marking a repository site. The information presented in the two chapters is used to provide the basis and rationale for a preliminary marker system design presented in a final chapter. 86 refs., 22 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Oligothiophenes as Fluorescent Markers for Biological Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Manetto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes some of our results on the application of oligothiophenes as fluorescent markers for biological studies. The oligomers of thiophene, widely known for their semiconductor properties in organic electronics, are also fluorescent compounds characterized by chemical and optical stability, high absorbance and quantum yield. Their fluorescent emission can be easily modulated via organic synthesis by changing the number of thiophene rings and the nature of side-chains. This review shows how oligothiophenes can be derivatized with active groups such as phosphoramidite, N-hydroxysuccinimidyl and 4-sulfotetrafluorophenyl esters, isothiocyanate and azide by which the (biomolecules of interest can be covalently bound. This paper also describes how molecules such as oligonucleotides, proteins and even nanoparticles, tagged with oligothiophenes, can be used in experiments ranging from hybridization studies to imaging of fixed and living cells. Finally, a few multilabeling experiments are described.

  10. Clinical and Biological Markers in Hypereosinophilic Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paneez Khoury

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Hypereosinophilic syndromes (HES are rare, heterogeneous syndromes characterized by markedly elevated eosinophil counts in the blood and/or tissue and evidence of eosinophil-associated pathology. Although parasitic infections, drug hypersensitivity, and other disorders of defined etiology can present as HES (associated HES, treatment is directed at the underlying cause rather than the eosinophilia itself. A number of additional subtypes of HES have been described, based on clinical and laboratory features. These include (1 myeloid HES—a primary disorder of the myeloid lineage, (2 lymphocytic variant HES—eosinophilia driven by aberrant or clonal lymphocytes secreting eosinophil-promoting cytokines, (3 overlap HES—eosinophilia restricted to a single organ or organ system, (4 familial eosinophilia—a rare inherited form of HES, and (5 idiopathic HES. Since clinical manifestations, response to therapy, and prognosis all differ between HES subtypes, this review will focus on clinical and biological markers that serve as markers of disease activity in HES (excluding associated HES, including those that are likely to be useful only in specific clinical subtypes.

  11. On the biological basis of musicality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honing, Henkjan

    2018-03-15

    In recent years, music and musicality have been the focus of an increasing amount of research effort. This has led to a growing role and visibility of the contribution of (bio)musicology to the field of neuroscience and cognitive sciences at large. While it has been widely acknowledged that there are commonalities between speech, language, and musicality, several researchers explain this by considering musicality as an epiphenomenon of language. However, an alternative hypothesis is that musicality is an innate and widely shared capacity for music that can be seen as a natural, spontaneously developing set of traits based on and constrained by our cognitive abilities and their underlying biology. A comparative study of musicality in humans and well-known animal models (monkeys, birds, pinnipeds) will further our insights on which features of musicality are exclusive to humans and which are shared between humans and nonhuman animals, contribute to an understanding of the musical phenotype, and further constrain existing evolutionary theories of music and musicality. © 2018 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of New York Academy of Sciences.

  12. Genetic and biological markers in drug abuse and alcoholism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braude, M.C.; Chao, H.M.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 11 selections. Some of the titles are: Polymorphic Gene Marker Studies; Pharmacogenetic Approaches to the Prediction of Drug Response; Genetic Markers of Drug Abuse in Mouse Models; Genetics as a Tool for Identifying Biological Markers of Drug Abuse; and Studies of an Animal Model of Alcoholism.

  13. Plasma tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 as a biological marker?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, Anne F.; Frederiksen, Camilla B.; Christensen, Ib J.

    2007-01-01

    Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) may be a valuable biological marker in Colorectal Cancer (CRC). However, prospective validation of TIMP-1 as a biological marker should include a series of pre-analytical considerations. TIMP-1 is stored in platelets, which may degranulate during...

  14. Serum and cellular biologic tumor markers in testicular cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javadpour, N.; Lalehzarian, M.

    1987-01-01

    Several serum and cellular biologic tumor markers in testicular cancer are studied. The role of alpha-fetoprotein and human chorionic gonadotropin in staying testicular tumors is reported and the use of radioimmunoassay is considered. (M.A.C.) [pt

  15. Biological markers of Alzheimer?s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Cruz de Souza

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The challenges for establishing an early diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD have created a need for biomarkers that reflect the core pathology of the disease. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF levels of total Tau (T-tau, phosphorylated Tau (P-Tau and beta-amyloid peptide (Aβ42 reflect, respectively, neurofibrillary tangle and amyloid pathologies and are considered as surrogate markers of AD pathophysiology. The combination of low Aβ42 and high levels of T-tau and P-Tau can accurately identify patients with AD at early stages, even before the development of dementia. The combined analysis of the CSF biomarkers is also helpful for the differential diagnosis between AD and other degenerative dementias. The development of these CSF biomarkers has evolved to a novel diagnostic definition of the disease. The identification of a specific clinical phenotype combined with the in vivo evidence of pathophysiological markers offers the possibility to make a diagnosis of AD before the dementia stage with high specificity.

  16. Biological (molecular and cellular) markers of toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shugart, L.R.; D'Surney, S.J.; Gettys-Hull, C.; Greeley, M.S. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Several molecular and cellular markers of genotoxicity were adapted for measurement in the Medaka (Oryzias latipes), and were used to describe the effects of treatment of the organism with diethylnitrosamine (DEN). NO 6 -ethyl guanine adducts were detected, and a slight statistically significant, increase in DNA strand breaks was observed. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that prolonged exposure to high levels of DEN induced alkyltransferase activity which enzymatically removes any O 6 -ethyl guanine adducts but does not result in strand breaks or hypomethylation of the DNA such as might be expected from excision repair of chemically modified DNA. Following a five week continuous DEN exposure with 100 percent renewal of DEN-water every third day, the F values (DNA double strandedness) increased considerably and to similar extent in fish exposed to 25, 50, and 100 ppM DEN. This has been observed also in medaka exposed to BaP

  17. Established and emerging biological activity markers of inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O H; Vainer, B; Madsen, S M

    2000-01-01

    Assessment of disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), i.e., ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), is done using clinical parameters and various biological disease markers. Ideally, a disease marker must: be able to identify individuals at risk of a given disorder......, be disease specific, mirror the disease activity and, finally, be easily applicable for routine clinical purposes. However, no such disease markers have yet been identified for IBD. In this article, classical disease markers including erythrocyte sedimentation rate, acute phase proteins (especially...... orosomucoid and CRP), leukocyte and platelet counts, albumin, neopterin, and beta2-microglobulin will be reviewed together with emerging disease markers such as antibodies of the ANCA/ASCA type, cytokines (e.g., IL-1, IL-2Ralpha, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-alpha, and TNF-alpha receptors) and with various adhesion...

  18. Established and emerging biological activity markers of inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O H; Vainer, B; Madsen, S M

    2000-01-01

    orosomucoid and CRP), leukocyte and platelet counts, albumin, neopterin, and beta2-microglobulin will be reviewed together with emerging disease markers such as antibodies of the ANCA/ASCA type, cytokines (e.g., IL-1, IL-2Ralpha, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-alpha, and TNF-alpha receptors) and with various adhesion......Assessment of disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), i.e., ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), is done using clinical parameters and various biological disease markers. Ideally, a disease marker must: be able to identify individuals at risk of a given disorder......, be disease specific, mirror the disease activity and, finally, be easily applicable for routine clinical purposes. However, no such disease markers have yet been identified for IBD. In this article, classical disease markers including erythrocyte sedimentation rate, acute phase proteins (especially...

  19. Biological markers of generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maron, Eduard; Nutt, David

    2017-06-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a prevalent and highly disabling mental health condition; however, there is still much to learn with regard to pertinent biomarkers, as well as diagnosis, made more difficult by the marked and common overlap of GAD with affective and anxiety disorders. Recently, intensive research efforts have focused on GAD, applying neuroimaging, genetic, and blood-based approaches toward discovery of pathogenetic and treatment-related biomarkers. In this paper, we review the large amount of available data, and we focus in particular on evidence from neuroimaging, genetic, and neurochemical measurements in GAD in order to better understand potential biomarkers involved in its etiology and treatment. Overall, the majority of these studies have produced results that are solitary findings, sometimes inconsistent and not clearly replicable. For these reasons, they have not yet been translated into clinical practice. Therefore, further research efforts are needed to distinguish GAD from other mental disorders and to provide new biological insights into its pathogenesis and treatment.

  20. Cannabinoid Markers in Biological Fluids and Tissues: Revealing Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huestis, Marilyn A; Smith, Michael L

    2018-02-01

    Understanding cannabis and synthetic cannabinoid intake history is vital for treating drug dependence, investigating cannabinoid effects, and providing information to healthcare personnel, medical examiners, and public health officials; this is particularly relevant today with cannabis medicalization and legalization. Required information includes identifying exposure, time of use, frequency of use, relapse, withdrawal, and predicting cannabinoid effects. Recent controlled cannabinoid administration studies enable the development of models and markers to better identify patterns of intake and exposure. Future challenges include developing behavioral markers of cannabis impairment, bringing to market breathalyzers for cannabinoid detection, and identifying markers of recent cannabis intake in diverse biological matrices. We posit that biological monitoring of cannabinoids and metabolites will improve the characterization of cannabis and synthetic cannabinoid intake history. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Clinical utility of autoantibodies and biologic markers in rheumatoid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To review the current and emerging auto-antibodies and biologic markers in rheumatoid arthritis. Data source: Published original research work and reviews were searched in English related to pathophysiology, diagnosis and auto antibodies in rheumatoid arthritis. Study design: Only articles that emphasis on ...

  2. Biological Markers for Alcohol Withdrawal Seizures: A Retrospective Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Karagülle, Deniz; Heberlein, Annemarie; Wilhelm, Julia; Frieling, Helge; Kornhuber, Johannes; Bleich, Stefan; Hillemacher, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Alcohol withdrawal seizures (AWS) are among the most important possible complications during the detoxification treatment of alcohol-dependent patients. Pharmacological therapy is often used during detoxification, but can cause dangerous side effects [Eur Addict Res 2010;16:179– 184]. In separate studies several biological markers have been described as being associated with AWS risk. We investigated the role of homocysteine (HCT), carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) and prolactin ...

  3. The Learning of Biology: A Structural Basis for Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Darrel L.

    1977-01-01

    This article reviews recent research studies and experiences relating the learning theories of Ausubel to biology instruction. Also some suggestions are made for future research on the learning of biology. (MR)

  4. Identification of biological/biochemical marker(s) for preterm delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Poul; Schendel, Diana; Deshpande, Anjali D.

    2001-01-01

    cohort studies involving serial collection of maternal blood samples, newborn cord blood samples, and relevant confounders and other risk factors for PTD. The first study consists of a completed Danish regional cohort of 3000 pregnant women enrolled in a study of microbiological causes of PTD, upon which...... marker effectively accounting for a large proportion of PTD is unlikely to be found. Rather, a search for multiple markers indicative of the multifactorial aetiology of PTD is likely to be more successful. Knowledge gained from the proposed studies will be implemented in a third, clinical intervention...... study against PTD. The first phase of the clinical intervention study will be to establish a risk-assessment model based on the "best" combination of biological/biochemical measures and other factors associated with PTD in order to identify pregnant women at very high risk of PTD. The second phase...

  5. The prognostic value of biological markers in paediatric Hodgkin lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farruggia, Piero; Puccio, Giuseppe; Sala, Alessandra; Todesco, Alessandra; Buffardi, Salvatore; Garaventa, Alberto; Bottigliero, Gaetano; Bianchi, Maurizio; Zecca, Marco; Locatelli, Franco; Pession, Andrea; Pillon, Marta; Favre, Claudio; D'Amico, Salvatore; Provenzi, Massimo; Trizzino, Angela; Zanazzo, Giulio Andrea; Sau, Antonella; Santoro, Nicola; Murgia, Giulio; Casini, Tommaso; Mascarin, Maurizio; Burnelli, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    Many biological and inflammatory markers have been proposed as having a prognostic value at diagnosis of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), but very few have been validated in paediatric patients. We explored the significance of these markers in a large population of 769 affected children. By using the database of patients enrolled in A.I.E.O.P. (Associazione Italiana di Emato-Oncologia Pediatrica) trial LH2004 for paediatric HL, we identified 769 consecutive patients treated with curative intent from 1st June 2004 to 1st April 2014 with ABVD (doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine), or hybrid COPP/ABV (cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisone, procarbazine, doxorubicin, bleomycin and vinblastine) regimens. On multivariate analysis with categorical forms, the 5-year freedom from progression survival was significantly lower in patients with stage IV or elevated value of platelets, eosinophils and ferritin at diagnosis. Furthermore, stage IV and eosinophils seem to maintain their predictive value independently of interim (after IV cycles of chemotherapy) positron emission tomography. Using the combination of four simple markers such as stage IV and elevated levels of platelets, ferritin and eosinophils, it is possible to classify the patients into subgroups with very different outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Quality control of X-ray irradiator by biological markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Miwa; Lukmanul Hakkim, F.; Yoshida, Masahiro; Matsuda, Naoki; Morita, Naoko

    2011-01-01

    The exposure of animals or cultured cells to radiation is the essential and common step in experimental researches to elucidate biological effects of radiation. When an X-ray generator is used as a radiation source, physical parameters including dose, dose rate, and the energy spectrum of X-ray play crucial roles in biological outcome. Therefore, those parameters are the important points to be checked in quality control and to be carefully considered in advance to the irradiation to obtain the accurate and reproductive results. Here we measured radiation dose emitted from the X-ray irradiator for research purposes by using clonogenic survival of cultured mammalian cells as a biological marker in parallel with physical dosimetry. The results drawn from both methods exhibited good consistency in the dose distribution on the irradiation stage. Furthermore, the close relationship was observed between cell survival and the photon energy spectrum by using different filter components. These results suggest that biological dosimetry is applicable to quality control of X-ray irradiator in adjunct to physical dosimetry and that it possibly helps better understanding of the optimal irradiating condition by X-ray users in life-science field. (author)

  7. Towards Space Exploration of Moon, Mars Neos: Radiation Biological Basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellweg, Christine; Baumstark-Khan, Christa; Berger, Thomas; Reitz, Guenther

    2016-07-01

    Radiation has emerged as the most critical issue to be resolved for long-term missions both orbital and interplanetary. Astronauts are constantly exposed to galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) of various energies with a low dose rate. Primarily late tissue sequels like genetic alterations, cancer and non-cancer effects, i.e. cataracts and degenerative diseases of e.g. the central nervous system or the cardiovascular system, are the potential risks. Cataracts were observed to occur earlier and more often in astronauts exposed to higher proportions of galactic ions (Cucinotta et al., 2001). Predictions of cancer risk and acceptable radiation exposure in space are subject to many uncertainties including the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of space radiation especially heavy ions, dose-rate effects and possible interaction with microgravity and other spaceflight environmental factors. The initial cellular response to radiation exposure paves the way to late sequelae and starts with damage to the DNA which complexity depends on the linear energy transfer (LET) of the radiation. Repair of such complex DNA damage is more challenging and requires more time than the repair of simple DNA double strand breaks (DSB) which can be visualized by immunofluorescence staining of the phosphorylated histone 2AX (γH2AX) and might explain the observed prolonged cell cycle arrests induced by high-LET in comparison to low-LET irradiation. Unrepaired or mis-repaired DNA DSB are proposed to be responsible for cell death, mutations, chromosomal aberrations and oncogenic cell transformation. Cell killing and mutation induction are most efficient in an LET range of 90-200 keV/µm. Also the activation of transcription factors such as Nuclear Factor κB (NF-κB) and gene expression shaping the cellular radiation response depend on the LET with a peak RBE between 90 and 300 keV/µm. Such LET-RBE relationships were observed for cataract and cancer induction by heavy ions in laboratory animals

  8. Radiation biology as a basis for multidisciplinary cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoya, N.

    2017-01-01

    The research field of radiation biology has progressed greatly thanks to the advances in molecular biology. DNA in the cell nucleus is the principal target of radiation. The biological effect of radiation can be determined by how the DNA damage is processed in the cell. In order to prevent deleterious biological effects due to DNA damage, the cells possess a system termed 'DNA damage response'. The DNA damage response finally induces cell cycle arrest, activation of DNA repair pathways, or cell death. If accurately repaired, DNA damage will result in survival of cells with no biological effects. If inaccurately repaired, DNA damage may result in survival of cells exhibiting genetic alterations, which can lead to the development of various diseases including cancer. If unrepaired, fatal DNA damage such as the DNA double-strand break will result in cell depth. Since radiation therapy and chemotherapy are designed to specifically kill cancer cells by inducing DNA double-strand breaks, it is important to take advantage of cancer-specific abnormalities in DNA damage response. In this review, I describe the impact of targeting DNA damage response in cancer therapy and show how progress in radiation biology has contributed to the development of novel therapeutic strategies. (author)

  9. Anatomy of the periodontium, a biological basis for radiographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A near-normal radiograph of periradicular tissues was used as the basis for evaluation of some common periradicular radiographic pathologies. Apical periodontitis was 70 (58.33%); alveolar abscess 32 (26.66%); and apical granulomas 15 (12.50%). A background anatomy of the periodontium is advocated as a ...

  10. Investigating the genetic and epigenetic basis of big biological ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the last 15 years, considerable attempts have been undertaken to develop the obligately parthenogenetic marbled crayfishProcambarus virginalis as a new model in biology. Its main advantage is the production of large numbers of offspring thatare genetically identical to the mother, making this crustacean particularly ...

  11. Postextraction Alveolar Ridge Preservation: Biological Basis and Treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Pagni, Giorgio; Pellegrini, Gaia; Giannobile, William V.; Rasperini, Giulio

    2012-01-01

    Following tooth extraction, the alveolar ridge undergoes an inevitable remodeling process that influences implant therapy of the edentulous area. Socket grafting is a commonly adopted therapy for the preservation of alveolar bone structures in combination or not with immediate implant placement although the biological bases lying behind this treatment modality are not fully understood and often misinterpreted. This review is intended to clarify the literature support to socket grafting in ord...

  12. Hydrocarbon biological markers in Carboniferous coals of different maturities from the Ruhr area (northwest Germany)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ten Haven, H.L.; Littke, R.; Rullkoetter, J. (Nuclear Research Centre (KFA), Juelich (West Germany))

    1989-03-01

    A great variety of biological markers has been found in Carboniferous coal samples. Changes in the paleo-depositional environment are reflected by the distribution of bacterial derived hydrocarbons. These biological markers contribute to a significant extent to the aliphatic hydrocarbon fraction of low-maturity coal samples; their absolute contribution to total organic matter has yet not been estimated. Biological markers for gymnosperm were observed, which is in accordance with the phylogenetic evolution of the plant kingdom during the Carboniferous.

  13. Postextraction alveolar ridge preservation: biological basis and treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagni, Giorgio; Pellegrini, Gaia; Giannobile, William V; Rasperini, Giulio

    2012-01-01

    Following tooth extraction, the alveolar ridge undergoes an inevitable remodeling process that influences implant therapy of the edentulous area. Socket grafting is a commonly adopted therapy for the preservation of alveolar bone structures in combination or not with immediate implant placement although the biological bases lying behind this treatment modality are not fully understood and often misinterpreted. This review is intended to clarify the literature support to socket grafting in order to provide practitioners with valid tools to make a conscious decision of when and why to recommend this therapy.

  14. Biological basis of inhalation exposure of radon and its daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Osamu

    1989-01-01

    Since inhalation exposure by radon and its daughters is very specific type of internal exposure, it is necessary to understand its characteristic nature. The specificity originates from the nuclear feature of radon daughters and the biological micro-environment in the respiratory tract. Inhaled radon and its daughters exist in the respiratory tract as ions attached to air dusts and deposit on the mucus surface of the respiratory tract by various mechanisms such as impaction, sedimentation and diffusion. Deposition of radon daughters is predominant around the site of the fourth generation according to Weibel's model. Deposited particles with radon daughters are cleared by muco-ciliary transportation. Its speed is estimated to be about 1.0 cm/min, at the upper region. Alpha decay will happen during transportation in the respiratory tract. Radon has no tissue affinity metabolically. Therefore, the irradiation is limited to the epithelial cells of respiratory tract. The cell components within 30-70 micron in depth are irradiated with alpha particle. Biological effectiveness of alpha radiation is very high compared with beta or gamma radiation. The target cell for carcinogenesis by radon exposure is considered to be the basal cell of epithelium. Lung cancer induced by radon inhalation is recognized to be squamous cell carcinoma, small cell carcinoma, or oat-cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. The modification factors which influence the effect of radon exposure are co-inhalation of ore dust and smoking habit. According to epidemiological studies on lung cancer which occurred in uranium miners, it is suggested that the smoking habit strongly promotes lung cancer induction. (author)

  15. Biological markers as predictors of radiosensitivity in syngeneic murine tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Sei Kyung; Shin, Hyun Soo [Bundang CHA General Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Seong, Jin Sil; Kim, Sung Hee [Yonsei Cancer Center, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-06-15

    We investigated whether a relationship exists between tumor control dose 50 (TCD{sub 50}) or tumor growth delay (TGD) and radiation induced apoptosis (RIA) in syngeneic murine tumors. Also we investigated the biological markers that can predict radiosensitivity in murine tumor system through analysis of relationship between TCD{sub 50}, TGD, RIA and constitutive expression levels of the genetic products regulating RIA. Syngeneic murine tumors such as ovarian adenocarcinoma, mammary carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, fibrosarcoma, hepatocarcinoma were used in this study. C3H/HeJ mice were bred and maintained in our specific pathogen free mouse colony and were 8 {approx} 12 weeks old when used for the experiments. The tumors, growing in the right hind legs of mice, were analyzed for TCD{sub 50}, TGD, and RIA at 8 mm in diameter. The tumors were also analyzed for the constitutive expression levels of p53, p21{sup WAF1/CIP1}, BAX, Bcl-2, Bcl-x{sub L}, Bcl-x{sub S}, and p34. Correlation analysis was performed whether the level of RIA were correlated with TCD{sub 50} or TGD, and the constitutive expression levels of genetic products regulating RIA were correlated with TCD{sub 50}, TGD, RIA. The level of RIA showed a significant positive correlation (R = 0.922, {rho} = 0.026) with TGD, and showed a trend to correlation (R = -0.848), marginally significant correlation with TCD{sub 50} ({rho} = 0.070). It indicates that tumors that respond to radiation with high percentage of apoptosis were more radiosensitive. The constitutive expression levels of p21{sup WAF1/CIP1} and p34 showed a significant correlation either with TCD{sub 50} (R = 0.893, {rho} = 0.041 and R = 0.904, {rho} = 0.035) or with TGD (R = -0.922, {rho} 0.026 and R = -0.890, {rho} = 0.043). The tumors with high constitutive expression levels of p21{sup WAF1/CIP1} or p34 were less radiosensitive than those with low expression. Radiosensitivity may be predicted with the level of RIA in murine tumors. The

  16. Biological markers as predictors of radiosensitivity in syngeneic murine tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Sei Kyung; Shin, Hyun Soo; Seong, Jin Sil; Kim, Sung Hee

    2006-01-01

    We investigated whether a relationship exists between tumor control dose 50 (TCD 50 ) or tumor growth delay (TGD) and radiation induced apoptosis (RIA) in syngeneic murine tumors. Also we investigated the biological markers that can predict radiosensitivity in murine tumor system through analysis of relationship between TCD 50 , TGD, RIA and constitutive expression levels of the genetic products regulating RIA. Syngeneic murine tumors such as ovarian adenocarcinoma, mammary carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, fibrosarcoma, hepatocarcinoma were used in this study. C3H/HeJ mice were bred and maintained in our specific pathogen free mouse colony and were 8 ∼ 12 weeks old when used for the experiments. The tumors, growing in the right hind legs of mice, were analyzed for TCD 50 , TGD, and RIA at 8 mm in diameter. The tumors were also analyzed for the constitutive expression levels of p53, p21 WAF1/CIP1 , BAX, Bcl-2, Bcl-x L , Bcl-x S , and p34. Correlation analysis was performed whether the level of RIA were correlated with TCD 50 or TGD, and the constitutive expression levels of genetic products regulating RIA were correlated with TCD 50 , TGD, RIA. The level of RIA showed a significant positive correlation (R = 0.922, ρ = 0.026) with TGD, and showed a trend to correlation (R = -0.848), marginally significant correlation with TCD 50 (ρ = 0.070). It indicates that tumors that respond to radiation with high percentage of apoptosis were more radiosensitive. The constitutive expression levels of p21 WAF1/CIP1 and p34 showed a significant correlation either with TCD 50 (R = 0.893, ρ = 0.041 and R = 0.904, ρ = 0.035) or with TGD (R = -0.922, ρ 0.026 and R = -0.890, ρ = 0.043). The tumors with high constitutive expression levels of p21 WAF1/CIP1 or p34 were less radiosensitive than those with low expression. Radiosensitivity may be predicted with the level of RIA in murine tumors. The constitutive expression levels of p21 WAF1/CIP1 or p34 can be used as biological

  17. Schizophrenia: from the brain to peripheral markers. A consensus paper of the WFSBP task force on biological markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stober, Gerald; Ben-Shachar, Dorit; Cardon, M

    2009-01-01

    Objective. The phenotypic complexity, together with the multifarious nature of the so-called "schizophrenic psychoses", limits our ability to form a simple and logical biologically based hypothesis for the disease group. Biological markers are defined as biochemical, physiological or anatomical t...

  18. Biological basis of tumor imaging with radiolabeled glucose analogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasey, J.S.; Krohn, K.A.; Nelson, N.; Grunbaum, Z.; Link, J.

    1984-01-01

    Accelerated tumor glycolysis may form the basis for nuclear imaging of tumors with gamma or positron labeled glucose analogs: /sup 18/F-fluorodeoxy-glucose (FDG) or /sup 11/C-deoxyglucose (DG). FDG may be preferable because it crosses some cell membranes more readily than DG, while the latter is a better substrate for glucose hexokinase, the enzyme which phosphorylates the analog to an intermediate trapped in the cell. /sup 14/C-DG and /sup 3/H-FDG were compared in biodistribution studies in C3H mice bearing RIF-1 tumors. The two compounds are cleared very similarly from the blood. At times up to 60 min after injection, tumor, brain, and heart concentrated more /sup 3/H-FDG than /sup 14/C-DG, while liver concentrated more /sup 14/C-DG. Tumor:blood and tumor:liver ratios were higher for /sup 3/H-FDG than for /sup 14/C-DG while tumor:lung ratios were similar. These factors are critical to imaging primary tumors or metastases in these common target organs. Because /sup 18/F-FDG and /sup 3/H-FDG are labeled in different positions, the former is being investigated to see if it retains the superiority of the tritiated compound. Because glycolysis is radioresistant, irradiated and control RIF-1 tumors are being compared to determine if doomed as well as surviving cells will readily concentrate glucose analogs

  19. The biological basis for the control of prenatal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The embryo and fetus have been generally considered to be more sensitive than the adult to the detrimental effects of radiation exposure. In particular, recent re-evaluations of epidemiological data on human population exposed to radiation have suggested that there may be greater sensitivity than heretofore recognized to the induction of mental retardation and reduced intelligence by exposure during gestation. To assist national authorities in evaluating this problem and establishing appropriate protection measures for limiting the dose to the embryo and fetus and, thus, to pregnant or potentially pregnant women, the Nuclear Energy Agency has appointed a Group of Consultants to assemble and evaluate the biological data relevant to the protection of the human conceptus, and to make recommendations for achieving this in the operational practice. The Group has surveyed the human data dealing with the biologcal effects of radiation exposure at low doses, and has supplemented this with information derived from animal studies. The Group has also taken full account of the studies and recommendations issued in this area by other international organizations, primarily the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). This report is published under the responsibility of the Secretary General of the OECD, and does not commit Member governments of the Organization

  20. Uses of chemotherapy together with radiation, and its biological basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Ikuo; Terashima, Toyozo

    1978-01-01

    Effect of use of anticancer drugs together with radiation, especially effects of Actinomycin D (AMD), Bleomycin (BLM), and Adriamycin (Ad) which seemed to have synergistic effect, and other substances which have possibility to have synergistic effect were described. It was clarified that AMD out of them showed synergistic effect to inhibit repair of sublethel damage induced by irradiation in addition to anticancer effect itself. Therefore, it is thought that use of AMD is effective especially to cancer with high radioresistance and it is better to administer this drug just before or just after irradiation. It seems to be better to administer at one time with high concentration in the allowable range. It is difficult to come to a conclusion as to BLM and Ad, generalized as well as the conclusion of AMD, but it seems to be better to use BLM and Ad together with irradiation at the same time. As BLM is highly effective especially to epithelial cells, it must be necessary to investigate whether there is a difference of characteristics between cells. In any case, there are two great factors, the concentration and action time (containing the time remaining in vivo) of drugs, and moreover, another factor, time relation to irradiation is added. Therefore, an experiment schedule is complicated so much, and it is important to study quantitatively on the basis of systematic experimental plan. As to clinical application of them, it is necessary to perform an experiment in vitro which is exullent in estimation and an experiment in vivo which certified the effects in keeping organic cooperation. (Tsunoda, M.)

  1. Alcohol-induced blackout. Phenomenology, biological basis, and gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Mark E; Grant, Jon E

    2010-06-01

    Blackouts from acute alcohol ingestion are defined as the inability to recall events that occurred during a drinking episode and are highly prevalent in both alcoholic and nonalcoholic populations. This article reviews the clinical manifestations, epidemiology, risk factors, cognitive impairment, and neurobiology associated with alcohol-induced blackout, with special emphasis on the neurochemical and neurophysiological basis, and gender differences. Two types of blackout have been identified: en bloc, or complete inability to recall events during a time period, and fragmentary, where memory loss is incomplete. The rapidity of rise in blood alcohol concentration is the most robust predictor of blackout. Alcohol impairs different brain functions at different rates, and cognitive and memory performance are differentially impaired by ascending versus descending blood alcohol concentration. Cognitive and memory impairment occurs before motor impairment, possibly explaining how a drinker appearing fully functional can have little subsequent memory. Blackouts are caused by breakdown in the transfer of short-term memory into long-term storage and subsequent retrieval primarily through dose-dependent disruption of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cell activity. The exact mechanism is believed to involve potentiation of gamma-aminobutyric acid-alpha-mediated inhibition and interference with excitatory hippocampal N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor activation, resulting in decreased long-term potentiation. Another possible mechanism involves disrupted septohippocampal theta rhythm activity because of enhanced medial septal area gamma-aminobutyric acid-ergic neurotransmission. Women are more susceptible to blackouts and undergo a slower recovery from cognitive impairment than men, due in part to the effect of gender differences in pharmacokinetics and body composition on alcohol bioavailability.

  2. Plasma tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 as a biological marker? Pre-analytical considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, Anne Fog; Frederiksen, Camilla; Christensen, Ib Jarle

    2007-01-01

    Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) may be a valuable biological marker in Colorectal Cancer (CRC). However, prospective validation of TIMP-1 as a biological marker should include a series of pre-analytical considerations. TIMP-1 is stored in platelets, which may degranulate during...

  3. Biological markers for kidney injury and renal function in the intensive care unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Royakkers, A.A.N.M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the investigations described in this thesis was to seek for answers to two relevant questions in ICUs in resource-rich settings, i.e., can new biological markers play a role in early recognition of AKI, and can new biological markers predict recovery of renal function in patients who

  4. Radial basis function regression methods for predicting quantitative traits using SNP markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Nanye; Gianola, Daniel; Rosa, Guilherme J M; Weigel, Kent A; Kranis, Andreas; González-Recio, Oscar

    2010-06-01

    A challenge when predicting total genetic values for complex quantitative traits is that an unknown number of quantitative trait loci may affect phenotypes via cryptic interactions. If markers are available, assuming that their effects on phenotypes are additive may lead to poor predictive ability. Non-parametric radial basis function (RBF) regression, which does not assume a particular form of the genotype-phenotype relationship, was investigated here by simulation and analysis of body weight and food conversion rate data in broilers. The simulation included a toy example in which an arbitrary non-linear genotype-phenotype relationship was assumed, and five different scenarios representing different broad sense heritability levels (0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 0.9) were created. In addition, a whole genome simulation was carried out, in which three different gene action modes (pure additive, additive+dominance and pure epistasis) were considered. In all analyses, a training set was used to fit the model and a testing set was used to evaluate predictive performance. The latter was measured by correlation and predictive mean-squared error (PMSE) on the testing data. For comparison, a linear additive model known as Bayes A was used as benchmark. Two RBF models with single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-specific (RBF I) and common (RBF II) weights were examined. Results indicated that, in the presence of complex genotype-phenotype relationships (i.e. non-linearity and non-additivity), RBF outperformed Bayes A in predicting total genetic values using SNP markers. Extension of Bayes A to include all additive, dominance and epistatic effects could improve its prediction accuracy. RBF I was generally better than RBF II, and was able to identify relevant SNPs in the toy example.

  5. [Genetic status of Acanthamoeba spp. Korean isolates on the basis of RAPD markers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Y P; Oh, S H; La, M S; Im, K

    1995-12-01

    Genetic status of Acanthamoeba spp. were tested on the basis of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker analysis. Four previously established Acanthamoeba species, 4 Korean isolates of Acanthamoeba sp., and one American isolate of Acanthamoeba sp. were analyzed by RAPD-PCR using an arbitrary decamer primers. Amplification products were fractionated by agarose gel electrophoresis and stained by ethidium bromide. Eighteen primers produced DNA amplification profiles revealing clear differences among 4 species. Nine of them also produced DNA amplification profiles which included some isolate-specific amplification products. On the basis of amplified fragments by 18 primers, the pairwise similarity indices between A. culbertsoni and other species (i.e., A. hatchetti, A. triangularis, A. polyphaga) were 0.300, 0.308, and 0.313, respectively. Similarity index between A. hatchetti and A. triangularis was 0.833. The mean similarity index among the 3 Korean isolates (YM-2, -3, -4) was 0.959 and 0.832 among them and 2 other species (A. hatchetti and A. triangularis). The mean similarity index among YM-5 and other Korean isolates (YM-2, -3, -4) was 0.237. However, the similarity index between YM-5 and A. culbertsoni was 0.857, which suggests that YM-5 is genetically more similar to A. culbertsoni than other Korean isolates. Phenogram reconstructed by UPGMA method revealed that there are two groups: one group consists of A. hatchetti, A. triangularis, and 3 Korean isolates (YM-2, -3, -4), and the other group consists of A. culbertsoni, A. polyphaga, HOV, and YM-5.

  6. Covariance Association Test (CVAT) Identifies Genetic Markers Associated with Schizophrenia in Functionally Associated Biological Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Palle Duun; Demontis, Ditte; Castro Dias Cuyabano, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    power to detect genetic markers with small effects. Instead, aggregating genetic markers based on biological information might increase the power to identify sets of genetic markers of etiological significance. Several set test methods have been proposed: Here we propose a new set test derived from......Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder with large personal and social costs, and understanding the genetic etiology is important. Such knowledge can be obtained by testing the association between a disease phenotype and individual genetic markers; however, such single-marker methods have limited...

  7. Sequence-Related Amplified Polymorphism (SRAP Markers: A Potential Resource for Studies in Plant Molecular Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel W. H. Robarts

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the past few decades, many investigations in the field of plant biology have employed selectively neutral, multilocus, dominant markers such as inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR, random-amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD, and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP to address hypotheses at lower taxonomic levels. More recently, sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP markers have been developed, which are used to amplify coding regions of DNA with primers targeting open reading frames. These markers have proven to be robust and highly variable, on par with AFLP, and are attained through a significantly less technically demanding process. SRAP markers have been used primarily for agronomic and horticultural purposes, developing quantitative trait loci in advanced hybrids and assessing genetic diversity of large germplasm collections. Here, we suggest that SRAP markers should be employed for research addressing hypotheses in plant systematics, biogeography, conservation, ecology, and beyond. We provide an overview of the SRAP literature to date, review descriptive statistics of SRAP markers in a subset of 171 publications, and present relevant case studies to demonstrate the applicability of SRAP markers to the diverse field of plant biology. Results of these selected works indicate that SRAP markers have the potential to enhance the current suite of molecular tools in a diversity of fields by providing an easy-to-use. highly variable marker with inherent biological significance.

  8. Current concepts for the biological basis of dental implants: foreign body equilibrium and osseointegration dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade, Ricardo; Albrektsson, Tomas; Wennerberg, Ann

    2015-05-01

    To understand the biological basis of osseointegration, one has to understand the 2 main sides of the implant-host interaction: tissue and biomaterial characteristics. This article addresses osseous tissue characteristics, and the potential role of soft tissues in the osseointegration of dental implants. Successful integration is driven by an inflammatory process. Protein adsorption is key for tissue integration with biomaterials. Osseointegration dynamics relate to the in vivo lifetime of the implant. Understanding this biology is important; it opens the door to putting aside heuristic methods and replaces them by methods that produce solutions to achieve a specific biological goal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The genetic and biological basis of feed efficiency in mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to characterize the genetic architecture and biological basis of feed efficiency in lactating Holstein cows. In total, 4,916 cows with actual or imputed genotypes for 60,671 SNP had individual feed intake, milk yield, milk composition, and body weight records. Cows we...

  10. Immune markers in biological monitoring of occupationally exposed workers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuricová, M.; Jahnová, E.; Dušinská, M.; Lišková, A.; Tukinská, J.; Vodička, Pavel; Sulcová, M.; Fuortes, L.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 3 (2001), s. 293-296 ISSN 0006-3088 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : biological monitoring * rubber Subject RIV: FP - Other Medical Disciplines Impact factor: 0.208, year: 2001

  11. Biological Variation and Diagnostic Accuracy of Dehydration Assessment Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    morning urine was collected in a sterile, inert polypropylene cup (Tyco Healthcare Group, Mansfield, MA), and a small aliquot was transferred into a 1.5-mL...biological variation around a homeostatic set point could be attributed to factors largely independent of preanalytic influences. The menstrual cycle

  12. Cellular resistance in radio- and chemotherapy: biological basis and strategies for circumvention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twentyman, P.R.

    1991-01-01

    In this review the author points out that resistance to cytotoxic drugs is a complex, multifactorial phenomenon involving a range of mechanisms. There is accumulating evidence that these are of relevance to both inherent and acquired resistance in the clinic. Demonstration that mechanisms of drug and radiation resistance are closely linked provides a basis for the related patterns of responsiveness observed in clinical practice. Strategies for circumvention of resistance mechanisms will depend for success upon finding ways of improving therapeutic ratio. Optimal clinical trial of resistance circumvention strategies will require the use of quantitative markers of resistance mechanisms in tumour and normal tissues. (author)

  13. Ontology of physics for biology: representing physical dependencies as a basis for biological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Daniel L; Neal, Maxwell L; Bookstein, Fred L; Gennari, John H

    2013-12-02

    In prior work, we presented the Ontology of Physics for Biology (OPB) as a computational ontology for use in the annotation and representations of biophysical knowledge encoded in repositories of physics-based biosimulation models. We introduced OPB:Physical entity and OPB:Physical property classes that extend available spatiotemporal representations of physical entities and processes to explicitly represent the thermodynamics and dynamics of physiological processes. Our utilitarian, long-term aim is to develop computational tools for creating and querying formalized physiological knowledge for use by multiscale "physiome" projects such as the EU's Virtual Physiological Human (VPH) and NIH's Virtual Physiological Rat (VPR). Here we describe the OPB:Physical dependency taxonomy of classes that represent of the laws of classical physics that are the "rules" by which physical properties of physical entities change during occurrences of physical processes. For example, the fluid analog of Ohm's law (as for electric currents) is used to describe how a blood flow rate depends on a blood pressure gradient. Hooke's law (as in elastic deformations of springs) is used to describe how an increase in vascular volume increases blood pressure. We classify such dependencies according to the flow, transformation, and storage of thermodynamic energy that occurs during processes governed by the dependencies. We have developed the OPB and annotation methods to represent the meaning-the biophysical semantics-of the mathematical statements of physiological analysis and the biophysical content of models and datasets. Here we describe and discuss our approach to an ontological representation of physical laws (as dependencies) and properties as encoded for the mathematical analysis of biophysical processes.

  14. Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) Markers in Conservation Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujvari, Beata; Belov, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    Human impacts through habitat destruction, introduction of invasive species and climate change are increasing the number of species threatened with extinction. Decreases in population size simultaneously lead to reductions in genetic diversity, ultimately reducing the ability of populations to adapt to a changing environment. In this way, loss of genetic polymorphism is linked with extinction risk. Recent advances in sequencing technologies mean that obtaining measures of genetic diversity at functionally important genes is within reach for conservation programs. A key region of the genome that should be targeted for population genetic studies is the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC). MHC genes, found in all jawed vertebrates, are the most polymorphic genes in vertebrate genomes. They play key roles in immune function via immune-recognition and -surveillance and host-parasite interaction. Therefore, measuring levels of polymorphism at these genes can provide indirect measures of the immunological fitness of populations. The MHC has also been linked with mate-choice and pregnancy outcomes and has application for improving mating success in captive breeding programs. The recent discovery that genetic diversity at MHC genes may protect against the spread of contagious cancers provides an added impetus for managing and protecting MHC diversity in wild populations. Here we review the field and focus on the successful applications of MHC-typing for conservation management. We emphasize the importance of using MHC markers when planning and executing wildlife rescue and conservation programs but stress that this should not be done to the detriment of genome-wide diversity. PMID:21954351

  15. Unstable representation of sound: a biological marker of dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornickel, Jane; Kraus, Nina

    2013-02-20

    Learning to read proceeds smoothly for most children, yet others struggle to translate verbal language into its written form. Poor readers often have a host of auditory, linguistic, and attention deficits, including abnormal neural representation of speech and inconsistent performance on psychoacoustic tasks. We hypothesize that this constellation of deficits associated with reading disorders arises from the human auditory system failing to respond to sound in a consistent manner, and that this inconsistency impinges upon the ability to relate phonology and orthography during reading. In support of this hypothesis, we show that poor readers have significantly more variable auditory brainstem responses to speech than do good readers, independent of resting neurophysiological noise levels. Thus, neural variability may be an underlying biological contributor to well established behavioral and neural deficits found in poor readers.

  16. Biological markers of drug use in the club setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brenda A; Furr-Holden, Debra; Johnson, Mark B; Holder, Harold; Voas, Robert; Keagy, Carolyn

    2009-03-01

    The prevalence of drug and alcohol use among patrons of clubs featuring electronic music dance events was determined by using biological assays at entrance and exit. Using a portal methodology that randomly selects groups of patrons on arrival at clubs, oral assays for determining level and type of drug use and level of alcohol use were obtained anonymously. Patrons provided self-reported data on their personal characteristics. A total of 362 patrons were interviewed at entrance and provided oral assay data, and 277 provided data at both entrance and exit. Overall, one quarter of all patrons surveyed at entrance were positive for some type of drug use. Based on our exit sample, one quarter of the sample was positive at exit. Individual drugs most prevalent at entrance or exit included cocaine, marijuana, and amphetamines/stimulants. Only the amphetamine/stimulant category increased significantly from entrance to exit. Drug-using patrons arrive at the club already using drugs; few patrons arrive with no drug use and leave with detectable levels of drug use. Clubs vary widely in drug-user prevalence at entrance and exit, suggesting that both events and club policies and practices may attract different types of patrons. Approximately one half of the total entrance sample arrived with detectable alcohol use, and nearly one fifth arrived with an estimated blood alcohol concentration of .08 or greater. Based on our exit sample data, one third of patrons were intoxicated, and slightly less than one fifth were using both drugs and alcohol at exit. Clubs attract a wide array of emerging adults, with both genders and all ethnicities well represented. Clubs also attract emerging adults who are not in college and who are working full time. At clubs featuring electronic music dance events, drug use and/or high levels of alcohol use were detected using biological assays from patrons at entrance and exit from the clubs. Thus, these clubs present a potentially important location

  17. Analytical goal setting in aneuploidy screening: within person biological variability of first trimester biochemical markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Kevin; Cowans, Nicholas J

    2013-02-01

    To determine the average within person biological variability of free-β human chorionic gonadotrophin (free hCGβ), intact hCG and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A), and to establish analytical goals for the measurement of these markers when used in first trimester screening. Free hCGβ, PAPP-A and intact hCG were measured on paired first trimester samples collected during the same pregnancy. Results were converted to Multiple of the Median (MoMs).The overall total variation at each day log was determined from a correlation of the marker MoMs in the log domain. Biological variation was calculated after taking into account analytical variation. The within person biological variability for free hCGβ varied from 1.30% at 2 days separation to 5.25% at 5 days. For PAPP-A this was 1.96% and 5.03%, respectively, and for intact hCG this was 14.59% and 21.09%. All markers exhibit a rapid increase in biological variability as the time separation increased. Setting analytical goals for precision of measurement of first trimester biochemical markers from within person biological variability would suggest that free hCGβ and PAPP-A needs to be measured with a precision of 2.5%, targets close to those set empirically by the Fetal Medicine Foundation and achieved in practice by some analytical system in routine use. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Biological Markers for Pulpal Inflammation: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan-Krister Rechenberg

    Full Text Available Pulpitis is mainly caused by an opportunistic infection of the pulp space with commensal oral microorganisms. Depending on the state of inflammation, different treatment regimes are currently advocated. Predictable vital pulp therapy depends on accurate determination of the pulpal status that will allow repair to occur. The role of several players of the host response in pulpitis is well documented: cytokines, proteases, inflammatory mediators, growth factors, antimicrobial peptides and others contribute to pulpal defense mechanisms; these factors may serve as biomarkers that indicate the status of the pulp. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the presence of biomarkers in pulpitis.The electronic databases of MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus and other sources were searched for English and non-English articles published through February 2015. Two independent reviewers extracted information regarding study design, tissue or analyte used, outcome measures, results and conclusions for each article. The quality of the included studies was assessed using a modification of the Newcastle-Ottawa-Scale.From the initial 847 publications evaluated, a total of 57 articles were included in this review. In general, irreversible pulpitis was associated with different expression of various biomarkers compared to normal controls. These biomarkers were significantly expressed not only in pulp tissue, but also in gingival crevicular fluid that can be collected non-invasively, and in dentin fluid that can be analyzed without extirpating the entire pulpal tissue. Such data may then be used to accurately differentiate diseased from healthy pulp tissue. The interplay of pulpal biomarkers and their potential use for a more accurate and biologically based diagnostic tool in endodontics is envisaged.

  19. A Bayesian spatial model for neuroimaging data based on biologically informed basis functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, Ismael; Oldehinkel, Marianne; van Oort, Erik S B; Garcia-Solis, David; Mir, Pablo; Beckmann, Christian F; Marquand, Andre F

    2017-11-01

    The dominant approach to neuroimaging data analysis employs the voxel as the unit of computation. While convenient, voxels lack biological meaning and their size is arbitrarily determined by the resolution of the image. Here, we propose a multivariate spatial model in which neuroimaging data are characterised as a linearly weighted combination of multiscale basis functions which map onto underlying brain nuclei or networks or nuclei. In this model, the elementary building blocks are derived to reflect the functional anatomy of the brain during the resting state. This model is estimated using a Bayesian framework which accurately quantifies uncertainty and automatically finds the most accurate and parsimonious combination of basis functions describing the data. We demonstrate the utility of this framework by predicting quantitative SPECT images of striatal dopamine function and we compare a variety of basis sets including generic isotropic functions, anatomical representations of the striatum derived from structural MRI, and two different soft functional parcellations of the striatum derived from resting-state fMRI (rfMRI). We found that a combination of ∼50 multiscale functional basis functions accurately represented the striatal dopamine activity, and that functional basis functions derived from an advanced parcellation technique known as Instantaneous Connectivity Parcellation (ICP) provided the most parsimonious models of dopamine function. Importantly, functional basis functions derived from resting fMRI were more accurate than both structural and generic basis sets in representing dopamine function in the striatum for a fixed model order. We demonstrate the translational validity of our framework by constructing classification models for discriminating parkinsonian disorders and their subtypes. Here, we show that ICP approach is the only basis set that performs well across all comparisons and performs better overall than the classical voxel-based approach

  20. Study Finds Association between Biological Marker and Susceptibility to the Common Cold

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Study Finds Association Between Biological Marker and Susceptibility to the Common Cold Share: © BananaStock Preliminary study results suggest that a biomarker may be associated with the ability of young and middle-aged people to fight off a ...

  1. The promise of biological markers for treatment response in first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fond, Guillaume; d'Albis, Marc-Antoine; Jamain, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    Successful treatment of first-episode psychosis is one of the major factors that impacts long-term prognosis. Currently, there are no satisfactory biological markers (biomarkers) to predict which patients with a first-episode psychosis will respond to which treatment. In addition, a non-negligibl...

  2. Biologic basis of TCM syndromes and the standardization of syndrome classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fafeng Cheng

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM syndrome is an integral and essential component of TCM theory, and goes beyond philosophic concepts. This article reviews the concept of TCM syndromes and summarizes research findings on the biologic foundation of syndromes. In addition, insight is provided into the promotion of standardization of syndrome classification by enforcing uniformity of TCM terminology, applying standardized diagnostic criteria and operating procedures to minimize subjective effects. Also incorporating interdisciplinary approaches such as data mining and structure modeling, as well as integrating findings on biomarker research are discussed. Consideration is made of the fundamental TCM aspects of syndrome elements, symptoms, phenotypic features, as well as diseases, to form an integral process in the diagnostic path. We believe that better understanding of the biologic basis of the TCM syndrome and standardization of syndrome classification will improve diagnosis, which in turn will enhance therapeutic efficacy and disease prognosis.

  3. Brain basis of childhood speech and language disorders: are we closer to clinically meaningful MRI markers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Angela; Bonthrone, Alexandra; Liégeois, Frédérique J

    2016-12-01

    Developmental speech and language disorders are common, seen in one in 20 preschool children, in the absence of frank neurological deficits or intellectual impairment. They are a key reason parents seek help from paediatricians. Complex neurogenetic and environmental contributions underpin the disorders, yet few specific causes are known. With the advent of quantitative brain imaging, a growing number of studies have investigated neural contributions. Here, we discuss current MRI approaches and recent findings (January 2014-June 2016) in the field. Five relevant studies were identified (n = 3 - speech disorder and n = 2 - language disorder). Significant variability in MRI approaches and heterogeneity of participant phenotypes was seen. Children with speech disorder had structural and functional anomalies in the left supramarginal gyrus and functional anomalies in the posterior cerebellum bilaterally - regions critical for sensory-motor integration or feedback. Children with language disorder showed increased mean and radial diffusivity of the left arcuate fasciculus, although a widespread cortical and subcortical network of regions was implicated. Limited evidence exists for specific regional brain anomalies in this population. MRI prognostic markers of speech and language ability are not currently available at an individual level. Further work is required to disentangle neurobiological contributions to speech and language disorders for affected children.

  4. [Biological markers for the prognosis of neuroblastoma: proposal of a method of analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combaret, V; Delattre, O; Bénard, J; Favrot, M C

    1998-03-01

    The prognosis of pediatric neuroblastoma depends both on clinical presentation and on certain cellular and molecular characteristics. At the present time, two hypotheses can be drawn to explain both clinical and biological heterogeneity. In the first hypothesis, neuroblastoma progresses from early to late clinical stages through a classical multistep process linked to an accumulation of molecular abnormalities. In the second hypothesis, neuroblastoma represents an heterogeneous group of unrelated diseases, where most of stages I and II or stage IVS neuroblastomas can rather be considered as benign tumors, and stage IV neuroblastoma as a true malignant proliferation. To ascertain relevant biological factors for the prognosis of the disease, it is uppermost important that all investigators agree on biological criteria for analysis when neuroblastoma tissue is available in screened and unscreened populations. This paper reviews the biological tools available for prognosis in neuroblastoma, the priority for analysis of biological markers according to reliability, feasibility, and reproducibility of analysis procedure, and the conditions of tissue storage for further analysis of these biological markers. The standardized biological evaluation of neuroblastoma will allow, first, to collect sufficient data for multivariate analysis of prognostic factors and, second, to better define the putative links between various forms of the disease.

  5. Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 2011

    2011-01-01

    Dry erase whiteboards come with toxic dry erase markers and toxic cleaning products. Dry erase markers labeled "nontoxic" are not free of toxic chemicals and can cause health problems. Children are especially vulnerable to environmental health hazards; moreover, schools commonly have problems with indoor air pollution, as they are more densely…

  6. Social stratification in the Sikh population of Punjab (India) has a genetic basis: evidence from serological and biochemical markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahal, Sukh Mohinder Singh; Virk, Rupinder Kaur; Kaur, Sukhvir; Bansal, Rupinder

    2011-01-01

    The present study was planned to assess whether social stratification in the Sikh population inhabiting the northwest border Indian state of Punjab has any genetic basis. Blood samples were collected randomly from a total of 2851 unrelated subjects belonging to 21 groups of two low-ranking Sikh scheduled caste populations, viz. Mazhabi and Ramdasi, and a high-ranking Jat Sikh caste population of Punjab. The genetic profile of Sikh groups was investigated using a total of nine serobiochemical genetic markers, comprising two blood groups (ABO, RH(D)) and a battery of seven red cell enzyme polymorphisms (ADA, AK1, ESD, PGM1, GLO1, ACP1, GPI), following standard serological and biochemical laboratory protocols. Genetic structure was studied using original allele frequency data and statistical measures of heterozygosity, genic differentiation, genetic distance, and genetic admixture. Great heterogeneity was observed between Sikh scheduled caste and Jat Sikh populations, especially in the RH(D) blood group system, and distribution of ESD, ACP1, and PGM1 enzyme markers was also found to be significantly different between many of their groups. Genetic distance trees demonstrated little or no genetic affinities between Sikh scheduled caste and Jat Sikh populations; the Mazhabi and Ramdasi also showed little genetic relationship. Genetic admixture analysis suggested a higher element of autochthonous tribal extraction in the Ramdasi. The present study revealed much genetic heterogeneity in differently ranking Sikh caste populations of Punjab, mainly attributable to their different ethnic backgrounds, and provided a genetic basis to social stratification present in this religious community of Punjab, India.

  7. Molecular Biological basis for statin resistance in naturally statin-producing organisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rems, Ana; Frandsen, Rasmus John Normand

    Secondary metabolites can be toxic to the organism producing them; therefore gene clusters for biosynthesis of secondary metabolites often include genes responsible for the organism’s self-resistance to the toxic compounds. One such gene cluster is the compactin (ML-236B) cluster in Penicillium...... secretion [1]. The mlcD gene encodes a putative ‘HMG-CoA reductase-like protein’, and mlcE encodes a putative efflux pump. However, the function of these two putative proteins has not yet been confirmed. We aim to elucidate the biological basis for compactin resistance in the compactin-producing organism......, which leads to the synthesis of ergosterol. Following deletion of HMG1 and HMG2 genes in S. cerevisiae, we inserted the mlcD gene into the knockout mutants, and tested the resulted strains for sensitivity to lovastatin. The HMG1 and HMG2 knockout mutants were unable to grow on minimal media and had...

  8. Development of biological movement recognition by interaction between active basis model and fuzzy optical flow division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Bardia; Loo, Chu Kiong

    2014-01-01

    Following the study on computational neuroscience through functional magnetic resonance imaging claimed that human action recognition in the brain of mammalian pursues two separated streams, that is, dorsal and ventral streams. It follows up by two pathways in the bioinspired model, which are specialized for motion and form information analysis (Giese and Poggio 2003). Active basis model is used to form information which is different from orientations and scales of Gabor wavelets to form a dictionary regarding object recognition (human). Also biologically movement optic-flow patterns utilized. As motion information guides share sketch algorithm in form pathway for adjustment plus it helps to prevent wrong recognition. A synergetic neural network is utilized to generate prototype templates, representing general characteristic form of every class. Having predefined templates, classifying performs based on multitemplate matching. As every human action has one action prototype, there are some overlapping and consistency among these templates. Using fuzzy optical flow division scoring can prevent motivation for misrecognition. We successfully apply proposed model on the human action video obtained from KTH human action database. Proposed approach follows the interaction between dorsal and ventral processing streams in the original model of the biological movement recognition. The attained results indicate promising outcome and improvement in robustness using proposed approach.

  9. The influence of framing on clinicians' judgments of the biological basis of behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nancy S; Ahn, Woo-kyoung; Johnson, Samuel G B; Knobe, Joshua

    2016-03-01

    Practicing clinicians frequently think about behaviors both abstractly (i.e., in terms of symptoms, as in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th ed., DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) and concretely (i.e., in terms of individual clients, as in DSM-5 Clinical Cases; Barnhill, 2013). Does abstract/concrete framing influence clinical judgments about behaviors? Practicing mental health clinicians (N = 74) were presented with hallmark symptoms of 6 disorders framed abstractly versus concretely, and provided ratings of their biological and psychological bases (Experiment 1) and the likely effectiveness of medication and psychotherapy in alleviating them (Experiment 2). Clinicians perceived behavioral symptoms in the abstract to be more biologically and less psychologically based than when concretely described, and medication was viewed as more effective for abstractly than concretely described symptoms. These findings suggest a possible basis for miscommunication and misalignment of views between primarily research-oriented and primarily practice-oriented clinicians; furthermore, clinicians may accept new neuroscience research more strongly in the abstract than for individual clients. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Immune function parameters as markers of biological age and predictors of longevity

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Toda, Irene Martínez; Maté, Ianire; Vida, Carmen; Cruces, Julia; De la Fuente, Mónica

    2016-01-01

    Chronological age is not a good indicator of how each individual ages and thus how to maintain good health. Due to the long lifespan in humans and the consequent difficulty of carrying out longitudinal studies, finding valid biomarkers of the biological age has been a challenge both for research and clinical studies. The aim was to identify and validate several immune cell function parameters as markers of biological age. Adult, mature, elderly and long-lived human volunteers were used. The chemotaxis, phagocytosis, natural killer activity and lymphoproliferation in neutrophils and lymphocytes of peripheral blood were analyzed. The same functions were measured in peritoneal immune cells from mice, at the corresponding ages (adult, mature, old and long lived) in a longitudinal study. The results showed that the evolution of these functions was similar in humans and mice, with a decrease in old subjects. However, the long-lived individuals maintained values similar to those in adults. In addition, the values of these functions in adult prematurely aging mice were similar to those in chronologically old animals, and they died before their non-prematurely aging mice counterparts. Thus, the parameters studied are good markers of the rate of aging, allowing the determination of biological age. PMID:27899767

  11. Centromere strength provides the cell biological basis for meiotic drive and karyotype evolution in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmátal, Lukáš; Gabriel, Sofia I; Mitsainas, George P; Martínez-Vargas, Jessica; Ventura, Jacint; Searle, Jeremy B; Schultz, Richard M; Lampson, Michael A

    2014-10-06

    Mammalian karyotypes (number and structure of chromosomes) can vary dramatically over short evolutionary time frames. There are examples of massive karyotype conversion, from mostly telocentric (centromere terminal) to mostly metacentric (centromere internal), in 10(2)-10(5) years. These changes typically reflect rapid fixation of Robertsonian (Rb) fusions, a common chromosomal rearrangement that joins two telocentric chromosomes at their centromeres to create one metacentric. Fixation of Rb fusions can be explained by meiotic drive: biased chromosome segregation during female meiosis in violation of Mendel's first law. However, there is no mechanistic explanation of why fusions would preferentially segregate to the egg in some populations, leading to fixation and karyotype change, while other populations preferentially eliminate the fusions and maintain a telocentric karyotype. Here we show, using both laboratory models and wild mice, that differences in centromere strength predict the direction of drive. Stronger centromeres, manifested by increased kinetochore protein levels and altered interactions with spindle microtubules, are preferentially retained in the egg. We find that fusions preferentially segregate to the polar body in laboratory mouse strains when the fusion centromeres are weaker than those of telocentrics. Conversely, fusion centromeres are stronger relative to telocentrics in natural house mouse populations that have changed karyotype by accumulating metacentric fusions. Our findings suggest that natural variation in centromere strength explains how the direction of drive can switch between populations. They also provide a cell biological basis of centromere drive and karyotype evolution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Biological markers in animals can provide information on exposure and bioavailability of environmental contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shugart, L.R.; Adams, S.M.; Jimenez, B.D.; Talmage, S.S.; McCarthy, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of agents present in the environment seek to identify the extent to which they contribute to the causation of a specific toxic, clinical, or pathological endpoint. The multifactorial nature of disease etiology, long latency periods and the complexity of exposure, all contribute to the difficulty of establishing associations and casual relationships between a specific exposure and an adverse outcome. These barriers to studies of exposures and subsequent risk assessment cannot generally be changed. However, the appropriate use of biological markers in animal species living in a contaminated habitat can provide a measure of potential damage from that exposure and, in some instances, act as a surrogate for human environmental exposures. Quantitative predictivity of the effect of exposure to environmental pollutants is being approached by employing an appropriate array of biological end points. 34 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs

  13. [Evaluation of the concordance between biological markers and clinical activity in inflammatory bowel disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda García, Pablo; Chaparro, María; Gisbert, Javier P

    2015-01-06

    Endoscopy is the gold standard to assess disease severity in inflammatory bowel disease, although it is an invasive procedure. Clinical activity and biological markers have been routinely used to determine disease activity in a non-invasive manner. The aim of this study was to determine concordance between common biological markers (C reactive protein, orosomucoid, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, fibrinogen, platelets, leukocytes, neutrophils and haemoglobin) and clinical activity in inflammatory bowel disease. Consecutive patients with inflammatory bowel disease were included. Clinical activity was evaluated according to the Harvey-Bradshaw index in Crohn's disease and to the partial Mayo score in ulcerative colitis. Serum concentrations of the different biomarkers were analysed. Concordance between clinical activity and elevation of the serological biomarkers was determined using the kappa statistic. In total, 350 patients were included (median age 46 years, Crohn's disease 59%). Eleven percent of patients had clinical activity. Crohn's disease patients had mild clinical activity in 44% of cases, moderate disease in 44% and only 12% of patients had severe clinical activity. In ulcerative colitis, patients had mild, moderate and severe clinical activity in 50, 42 and 8% of cases, respectively. None of the biomarkers included had an acceptable concordance with clinical activity (kappa statistic ≤ 0.30). Concordance between serological biomarkers and clinical activity in inflammatory bowel disease is remarkably low. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Emotional management and biological markers of dietetic regimen in chronic kidney disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Carlo; Aceto, Paola; Luciani, Massimiliano; Fazzari, Erika; Cesari, Valerio; Luciano, Stella; Fortini, Antonio; Berloco, Desiderata; Canulla, Francesco; Bruzzese, Vincenzo; Lai, Silvia

    2017-11-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the association between psychological characteristics and biological markers of adherence in chronic kidney disease patients receiving conservative therapy, hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis (PD), or kidney transplantation. Seventy-nine adult patients were asked to complete the following questionnaires: Toronto Alexithymia scale, Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale, and Short Form Health Survey. Biological markers of adherence to treatment were measured. Peritoneal dialysis patients showed a lower capacity to feel pleasure from sensorial experience (p = .011) and a higher values of phosphorus compared to the other patients' groups (p = .0001). The inability to communicate emotions was negatively correlated with hemoglobin levels (r = -(0).69; p = .001) and positively correlated with phosphorus values in the PD patients (r = .45; p = .050). Findings showed higher psychological impairments and a lower adherence to the treatment in PD patients and suggest the implication of emotional competence in adherence to treatment.

  15. Biological and psychological markers of stress in humans: focus on the Trier Social Stress Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Andrew P; Kennedy, Paul J; Cryan, John F; Dinan, Timothy G; Clarke, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Validated biological and psychological markers of acute stress in humans are an important tool in translational research. The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), involving public interview and mental arithmetic performance, is among the most popular methods of inducing acute stress in experimental settings, and reliably increases hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation. However, although much research has focused on HPA axis activity, the TSST also affects the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary system, the immune system, cardiovascular outputs, gastric function and cognition. We critically assess the utility of different biological and psychological markers, with guidance for future research, and discuss factors which can moderate TSST effects. We outline the effects of the TSST in stress-related disorders, and if these responses can be abrogated by pharmacological and psychological treatments. Modified TSST protocols are discussed, and the TSST is compared to alternative methods of inducing acute stress. Our analysis suggests that multiple readouts are necessary to derive maximum information; this strategy will enhance our understanding of the psychobiology of stress and provide the means to assess novel therapeutic agents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Biological profile of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase as a marker of bone resorption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, H; Iritia, M; Arribas, I; Revilla, M

    1990-12-01

    Tartrate-resistant serum acid phosphatase was measured in 123 subjects, 80 of which were normal and the rest pathologic, in order to define the profile and value of this parameter as a biological marker of osteoclastic activity. Normal subjects were divided into age groups based on the period where skeletal growth ends (under 20 years), at the age of menopause in women (50 years, between 20 and 50 years) and those over 50 years. There was an increase in tartrate-resistant serum acid phosphatase coinciding with puberty and no sex differences were observed after the 50 year mark, when women showed higher values than men (p less than 0.001). Such tartrate-resistant serum acid phosphatase increase, is reflected as higher values in the 50 year group than in the 20 to 50 year group (p less than 0.001), the only age limit where a negative significant correlation between tartrate-resistant serum acid phosphatase values and age could be observed (p less than 0.05). Values were higher up to the age of 20 years (p less than 0.001) than in any other older age group. Levels increased significantly (p less than 0.001 for both groups) in post-menopausal osteoporosis (n = 20) and in Paget's disease of bone (n = 15), and decreased significantly (p less than 0.05) in imperfect osteogenesis (n = 8), thus revealing its value as a biological marker of osteoclastic activity.

  17. Physical activity intensity and biological markers among adults with diabetes: considerations by age and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Pariser, Gina

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies demonstrate a beneficial effect of physical activity (PA) on various biological health outcomes associated with diabetes; however, these studies have been limited by the use of self-report measures of PA. To provide the most accurate association between PA and health among adults with diabetes, the purpose of this study was to examine the association between accelerometer-assessed PA and numerous biological markers associated with diabetes. Data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used. Adult participants with diabetes were included in the present study and wore an ActiGraph 7164 accelerometer. Light and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) intensity was determined from accelerometer-derived estimates. Various biological measures, such as triglycerides and C-reactive protein, were measured from a blood sample. Results showed that both light-intensity and MVPA were inversely associated with several biological health outcomes. Additionally, active adults were less likely to have multiple cardiovascular disease risk factors. Findings also differed by age and gender, suggesting that PA interventions may need to consider the influence that age and gender may have on the efficacy of physical activity interventions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Satellite tracking of sympatric marine megafauna can inform the biological basis for species co-management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Gredzens

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Systematic conservation planning is increasingly used to identify priority areas for protection in marine systems. However, ecosystem-based approaches typically use density estimates as surrogates for animal presence and spatial modeling to identify areas for protection and may not take into account daily or seasonal movements of animals. Additionally, sympatric and inter-related species are often managed separately, which may not be cost-effective. This study aims to demonstrate an evidence-based method to inform the biological basis for co-management of two sympatric species, dugongs and green sea turtles. This approach can then be used in conservation planning to delineate areas to maximize species protection. METHODOLOGY/RESULTS: Fast-acquisition satellite telemetry was used to track eleven dugongs and ten green turtles at two geographically distinct foraging locations in Queensland, Australia to evaluate the inter- and intra-species spatial relationships and assess the efficacy of existing protection zones. Home-range analysis and bathymetric modeling were used to determine spatial use and compared with existing protection areas using GIS. Dugong and green turtle home-ranges significantly overlapped in both locations. However, both species used different core areas and differences existed between regions in depth zone use and home-range size, especially for dugongs. Both species used existing protection areas in Shoalwater Bay, but only a single tracked dugong used the existing protection area in Torres Strait. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Fast-acquisition satellite telemetry can provide evidence-based information on individual animal movements to delineate relationships between dugongs and green turtles in regions where they co-occur. This information can be used to increase the efficacy of conservation planning and complement more broadly based survey information. These species also use similar habitats, making complimentary co

  19. Satellite tracking of sympatric marine megafauna can inform the biological basis for species co-management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gredzens, Christian; Marsh, Helene; Fuentes, Mariana M P B; Limpus, Colin J; Shimada, Takahiro; Hamann, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Systematic conservation planning is increasingly used to identify priority areas for protection in marine systems. However, ecosystem-based approaches typically use density estimates as surrogates for animal presence and spatial modeling to identify areas for protection and may not take into account daily or seasonal movements of animals. Additionally, sympatric and inter-related species are often managed separately, which may not be cost-effective. This study aims to demonstrate an evidence-based method to inform the biological basis for co-management of two sympatric species, dugongs and green sea turtles. This approach can then be used in conservation planning to delineate areas to maximize species protection. Fast-acquisition satellite telemetry was used to track eleven dugongs and ten green turtles at two geographically distinct foraging locations in Queensland, Australia to evaluate the inter- and intra-species spatial relationships and assess the efficacy of existing protection zones. Home-range analysis and bathymetric modeling were used to determine spatial use and compared with existing protection areas using GIS. Dugong and green turtle home-ranges significantly overlapped in both locations. However, both species used different core areas and differences existed between regions in depth zone use and home-range size, especially for dugongs. Both species used existing protection areas in Shoalwater Bay, but only a single tracked dugong used the existing protection area in Torres Strait. Fast-acquisition satellite telemetry can provide evidence-based information on individual animal movements to delineate relationships between dugongs and green turtles in regions where they co-occur. This information can be used to increase the efficacy of conservation planning and complement more broadly based survey information. These species also use similar habitats, making complimentary co-management possible, but important differences exist between locations making it

  20. Developing maximal neuromuscular power: Part 1--biological basis of maximal power production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormie, Prue; McGuigan, Michael R; Newton, Robert U

    2011-01-01

    This series of reviews focuses on the most important neuromuscular function in many sport performances, the ability to generate maximal muscular power. Part 1 focuses on the factors that affect maximal power production, while part 2, which will follow in a forthcoming edition of Sports Medicine, explores the practical application of these findings by reviewing the scientific literature relevant to the development of training programmes that most effectively enhance maximal power production. The ability of the neuromuscular system to generate maximal power is affected by a range of interrelated factors. Maximal muscular power is defined and limited by the force-velocity relationship and affected by the length-tension relationship. The ability to generate maximal power is influenced by the type of muscle action involved and, in particular, the time available to develop force, storage and utilization of elastic energy, interactions of contractile and elastic elements, potentiation of contractile and elastic filaments as well as stretch reflexes. Furthermore, maximal power production is influenced by morphological factors including fibre type contribution to whole muscle area, muscle architectural features and tendon properties as well as neural factors including motor unit recruitment, firing frequency, synchronization and inter-muscular coordination. In addition, acute changes in the muscle environment (i.e. alterations resulting from fatigue, changes in hormone milieu and muscle temperature) impact the ability to generate maximal power. Resistance training has been shown to impact each of these neuromuscular factors in quite specific ways. Therefore, an understanding of the biological basis of maximal power production is essential for developing training programmes that effectively enhance maximal power production in the human.

  1. PINP as a biological response marker during teriparatide treatment for osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krege, J H; Lane, N E; Harris, J M; Miller, P D

    2014-09-01

    Postmenopausal women with severe osteoporosis may require treatment with the bone anabolic drug teriparatide. While changes in bone mineral density (BMD) are one measure of response, BMD changes often require a minimum of one year to observe measureable changes. Biochemical markers of bone turnover change within 1 to 3 months of initiating osteoporosis therapy. Monitoring with a marker such as procollagen type I N propeptide (PINP), an osteoblast-derived protein, during teriparatide treatment may provide clinically useful information for managing patients with osteoporosis. Clinical trials have shown consistent increases in PINP within 3 months of initiating teriparatide, increases that are significantly greater than placebo and significantly different from baseline. Increases in PINP concentrations during teriparatide treatment correlate well with increases in skeletal activity assessed by radioisotope bone scans and quantitative bone histomorphometry parameters. Individuals treated with teriparatide in clinical trials usually experienced an increase in PINP > 10 mcg/L from baseline, while those given placebo usually did not. In the clinical setting, patients experiencing a significant increase in PINP > 10 mcg/L after initiating teriparatide therapy may receive an earlier confirmation of anabolic effect, while those who do not may be assessed for adherence, proper injection technique, or undetected secondary conditions that might mitigate an anabolic response. PINP monitoring may provide information supplemental to BMD monitoring and be a useful aid in managing patients receiving anabolic osteoporosis treatment in the same way that biochemical markers of bone resorption are useful in monitoring antiresorptive therapy. This review examines PINP as a biological response marker during teriparatide treatment for osteoporosis.

  2. Are All Dads Equal? Biology Versus Marriage as a Basis for Paternal Investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofferth, Sandra L.; Anderson, Kermyt G.

    2003-01-01

    Using three different theoretical perspectives, examines the engagement, availability, participation, and warmth of residential fathers in married biological parent, unmarried biological parent, married stepparent, and cohabiting father families. Biology explains less of father involvement than anticipated once differences between fathers are…

  3. The prognostic significance of apoptosis-related biological markers in Chinese gastric cancer patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowen Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The prognosis varied among the patients with the same stage, therefore there was a need for new prognostic and predictive factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of apoptosis-related biological markers such as p53, bcl-2, bax, and c-myc, and clinicopathological features and their prognostic value. METHODS: From 1996 to 2007, 4426 patients had undergone curative D2 gastrectomy for gastric cancer at Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center. Among 501 patients, the expression levels of p53, bcl-2, bax, and c-myc were examined by immunohistochemistry. The prognostic value of biological markers and the correlation between biological markers and other clinicopathological factors were investigated. RESULTS: There were 339 males and 162 females with a mean age of 57. The percentages of positive expression of p53, bcl-2, bax, and c-myc were 65%, 22%, 43%, and 58%, respectively. There was a strong correlation between p53, bax, and c-myc expression (P=0.00. There was significant association between bcl-2, and bax expression (P<0.05. p53 expression correlated with histological grade (P=0.01; bcl-2 expression with pathological stage (P=0.00; bax expression with male (P=0.02, histological grade (P=0.01, Borrmann type (P=0.01, tumor location (P=0.00, lymph node metastasis (P=0.03, and pathological stage (P=0.03; c-myc expression with Borrmann type (P=0.00. bcl-2 expression was related with good survival in univariate analysis (P=0.01. Multivariate analysis showed that bcl-2 expression and pathological stage were defined as independent prognostic factors. There were significant differences of overall 5-year survival rates according to bcl-2 expression or not in stage IIB (P=0.03. CONCLUSION: The expression of bcl-2 was an independent prognostic factor for patients with gastric cancer; it might be a candidate for the gastric cancer staging system.

  4. Biological effect of radiation. Basis for understanding the risk of Fukushima nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaoka, Tatsuhiko

    2011-01-01

    The radionuclide release in the Fukushima Nuclear Accident has induced a tremendous anxiety on possible health effects of low dose radiation. When radiation hits a cell in an organism, it may induce DNA damages which, if not repaired properly, lead to either cell death or genetic mutation. If function of the tissue is lost as a result of cell death, various tissue responses including dysfunction of hematopoietic tissues, sterility and skin responses may occur; these responses are not manifested if the radiation dose is low enough. Genetic mutation is considered to occur, albeit at a low frequency, even if the radiation dose is very small. Cancer is a result of genetic mutation and its probability is considered to rise, albeit slightly, if radiation induces a small amount of additional mutations. These assumptions lead to a notion that there is no 'safety dose' below which radiation does not cause any cancer. On the other hand, the study of atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki provides the most reliable quantitative information on the relationship between radiation dose and accompanying increase in cancer risk. The analysis so far indicates that cancer risk increases by 0.5-fold, compared to a background level, if a human body is exposed to 1 sievert of radiation; at lower doses, the risk is proportional to the dose, but it is impossible to detect cancer risk associated with 100 milli sievert of exposure because of statistical limitations. Although exposure to atomic bomb radiation occurred in a very little instance, the current situation poses a prolonged (i.e., low dose rate) exposure, probably resulting in still lower cancer risk. Still, since current radiation exposure has no benefit, unlike that in medical situations, it is important to reduce it to a level as low as reasonably achievable. I will explain the biological effect of radiation, including its mechanistic basis and effects on the human body, and wish to help the audience to

  5. Pimonidazole: a novel hypoxia marker for complementary study of tumor hypoxia and tumor biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varia, Mahesh A.; Kennedy, Andrew S.; Calkins-Adams, Dennise P.; Rinker, Lillian; Novotny, Debra; Fowler, Wesley C.; Raleigh, James A.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: Tumor hypoxia appears to be associated with treatment resistance and with gene expression that may lead to hypoxia-mediated selection of tumor cells as a source for cell growth and metastases. The objective of this study was to develop complementary techniques of hypoxia detection with molecular markers of cell proliferation and metastases in order to investigate the role of tumor hypoxia in tumor biology. Materials and Methods: Pimonidazole is a 2-nitroimidazole which is reductively-activated and becomes covalently bound to thiol-containing proteins only in hypoxic cells. These adducts can be detected using immunohistochemistry, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay or flow cytometry as a measure of hypoxia in tumors. Quantitative immunohistochemical analysis has been completed for five patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix who were given pimonidazole hydrochloride (0.5 g/m 2 intravenously) followed by cervical biopsies 24 hours later. Informed consent was obtained according to a protocol approved by the Institutional Review Board. A minimum of 3 random biopsies were obtained from the tumors and at least four sections examined from each biopsy site. Formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissue sections were immunostained for pimonidazole binding using a mouse monoclonal antibody. Commercially available monoclonal antibodies were used to detect cell proliferation markers MIB-1 (Ki-67) and to detect vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in tumor cells in contiguous sections. The extent of immunostaining was expressed as the percent of immunostained to total tumor cells as determined by Chalkley point counting. Results: No clinical toxicities were associated with pimonidazole infusion. Immunostaining with pimonidazole antibody was observed in all patients indicating the presence of tumor hypoxia. Qualitatively there is little or no overlap between the areas of hypoxia and proliferation. Quantitative data tabulated below show the

  6. Malignant transformation in vitro: criteria, biological markers, and application in environmental screening of carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borek, C.

    1979-01-01

    Biological markers which distinguish malignantly transformed fibroblasts from their normal counterpart include pleomorphic morphology, lowered requirement for nutritional factors, loss of density inhibition of growth, complex topography as discernible by scanning electron microscopy, loss in surface proteins, incomplete glycosylation of membrane glycolylipids and glycoproteins, increased production of specific proteases, decreased organization of the cytoskeleton, and acquisition of neoantigens. Several of these markers are not consistently found in transformed epithelial cells and therefore cannot serve to distinguish unequivocally neoplastic epithelial cells from the normal counterparts. The only criteria associated with the transformed nature of both fibroblasts and epithelial cells are the ability of the cells to proliferate in semisolid medium and to induce tumors in appropriate hosts. In vitro systems represent a powerful tool for screening the mutagenic/oncogenic potential of physical, chemical, and environmental agents. Fibroblasts rather than epithelial cells are preferred for this purpose at the present time because of the clear-cut phenotypic differences between the normal and the transformed cells. These systems have been useful in establishing that malignant transformation can be induced by doses as low as 1 rad of X rays or 0.1 rad of neutrons, and that fractionation at low dose levelsleads to enhanced transformation. They have been useful in identifying a large number of hazardous chemicals and in evaluating the relationship between the mutagenic and carcinogenic potential of radiation and chemicals

  7. Adverse biological effects of Milan urban PM looking for suitable molecular markers of exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantecca Paride

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The results presented summarise the ones obtained in the coordinated research project Tosca, which extensively analysed the impact of Milan urban PM on human health. The molecular markers of exposure and effects of seasonally and size-fractionated PMs (summer and winter PM10, PM2.5 were investigated in in vitro (human lung cell lines and in vivo (mice systems. The results obtained by the analyses of cytotoxic, pro-inflammatory and genotoxic parameters demonstrate that the biological responses are strongly dependent upon the PM samples seasonal and dimensional variability, that ultimately reflect their chemical composition and source. In fact summer PM10, enriched in crustal elements and endotoxins, was the most cytotoxic and pro-inflammatory fraction, while fine winter PMs induced genotoxic effects and xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (like CYP1B1 production, likely as a consequence of the higher content in combustion derived particles reach in PAHs and heavy toxic metals. These outcomes outline the need of a detailed knowledge of the PMs physico-chemical composition on a local scale, coupled with the biological hazard directly associated to PM exposure. Apparently this is the only way allowing scientists and police-makers to establish the proper relationships between the respirable PM quantity/quality and the health outcomes described by clinicians and epidemiologists.

  8. Biological markers for anxiety disorders, OCD and PTSD - a consensus statement. Part I: Neuroimaging and genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandelow, Borwin; Baldwin, David; Abelli, Marianna; Altamura, Carlo; Dell'Osso, Bernardo; Domschke, Katharina; Fineberg, Naomi A; Grünblatt, Edna; Jarema, Marek; Maron, Eduard; Nutt, David; Pini, Stefano; Vaghi, Matilde M; Wichniak, Adam; Zai, Gwyneth; Riederer, Peter

    2016-08-01

    Biomarkers are defined as anatomical, biochemical or physiological traits that are specific to certain disorders or syndromes. The objective of this paper is to summarise the current knowledge of biomarkers for anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Findings in biomarker research were reviewed by a task force of international experts in the field, consisting of members of the World Federation of Societies for Biological Psychiatry Task Force on Biological Markers and of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology Anxiety Disorders Research Network. The present article (Part I) summarises findings on potential biomarkers in neuroimaging studies, including structural brain morphology, functional magnetic resonance imaging and techniques for measuring metabolic changes, including positron emission tomography and others. Furthermore, this review reports on the clinical and molecular genetic findings of family, twin, linkage, association and genome-wide association studies. Part II of the review focuses on neurochemistry, neurophysiology and neurocognition. Although at present, none of the putative biomarkers is sufficient and specific as a diagnostic tool, an abundance of high-quality research has accumulated that will improve our understanding of the neurobiological causes of anxiety disorders, OCD and PTSD.

  9. Quantitative changes in sets of proteins as markers of biological response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giometti, C.S.; Taylor, J.; Gemmell, M.A.; Tollaksen, S.L. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Lalwani, N.D.; Reddy, J.K. (Northwestern Univ., Chicago, IL (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Exposure to either physical or chemical insults triggers a cascade of bio-chemical events within the target cell. This response requires adjustment within the protein population of the cell, some proteins becoming more abundant (those involved in the cellular response), others less abundant (those not required or counterproductive to the response). Thus, quantitative changes in the global protein population of an exposed biological system may well serve as an indicator of exposure, provided the alterations observed are selective and dose-dependent. In this paper we present results from a study in which liver protein changes induced by exposure of mice to chemicals known to cause peroxisome proliferation and subsequent hepatocellular carcinoma where monitored. Clofibrate, and its chemical analog ciprofibrate, are hypolipidemic drugs. Di-(ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) is a plasticizer used widely in disposable containers for blood products. WY-14643 is a chemical shown to cause hypolipidemic and peroxisome proliferation, similar to clofibrate, ciprofibrate and DEHP, but structurally different from these three chemicals. Thus, two of the four chemicals are structurally similar while the remaining two are very distinct, although all four chemicals cause the same gross biological response. Our results show that although common protein effects are observed in mice exposed to these chemicals, each chemical also causes specific alterations in selective subsets of proteins that could serve as markers of a particular exposure. 13 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Philosophical Basis and Some Historical Aspects of Systems Biology: From Hegel to Noble - Applications for Bioenergetic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saks, Valdur; Monge, Claire; Guzun, Rita

    2009-01-01

    We live in times of paradigmatic changes for the biological sciences. Reductionism, that for the last six decades has been the philosophical basis of biochemistry and molecular biology, is being displaced by Systems Biology, which favors the study of integrated systems. Historically, Systems Biology - defined as the higher level analysis of complex biological systems - was pioneered by Claude Bernard in physiology, Norbert Wiener with the development of cybernetics, and Erwin Schrödinger in his thermodynamic approach to the living. Systems Biology applies methods inspired by cybernetics, network analysis, and non-equilibrium dynamics of open systems. These developments follow very precisely the dialectical principles of development from thesis to antithesis to synthesis discovered by Hegel. Systems Biology opens new perspectives for studies of the integrated processes of energy metabolism in different cells. These integrated systems acquire new, system-level properties due to interaction of cellular components, such as metabolic compartmentation, channeling and functional coupling mechanisms, which are central for regulation of the energy fluxes. State of the art of these studies in the new area of Molecular System Bioenergetics is analyzed. PMID:19399243

  11. Philosophical basis and some historical aspects of systems biology: from Hegel to Noble - applications for bioenergetic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saks, Valdur; Monge, Claire; Guzun, Rita

    2009-03-01

    We live in times of paradigmatic changes for the biological sciences. Reductionism, that for the last six decades has been the philosophical basis of biochemistry and molecular biology, is being displaced by Systems Biology, which favors the study of integrated systems. Historically, Systems Biology - defined as the higher level analysis of complex biological systems - was pioneered by Claude Bernard in physiology, Norbert Wiener with the development of cybernetics, and Erwin Schrödinger in his thermodynamic approach to the living. Systems Biology applies methods inspired by cybernetics, network analysis, and non-equilibrium dynamics of open systems. These developments follow very precisely the dialectical principles of development from thesis to antithesis to synthesis discovered by Hegel. Systems Biology opens new perspectives for studies of the integrated processes of energy metabolism in different cells. These integrated systems acquire new, system-level properties due to interaction of cellular components, such as metabolic compartmentation, channeling and functional coupling mechanisms, which are central for regulation of the energy fluxes. State of the art of these studies in the new area of Molecular System Bioenergetics is analyzed.

  12. Philosophical Basis and Some Historical Aspects of Systems Biology: From Hegel to Noble - Applications for Bioenergetic Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdur Saks

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We live in times of paradigmatic changes for the biological sciences. Reductionism, that for the last six decades has been the philosophical basis of biochemistry and molecular biology, is being displaced by Systems Biology, which favors the study of integrated systems. Historically, Systems Biology - defined as the higher level analysis of complex biological systems - was pioneered by Claude Bernard in physiology, Norbert Wiener with the development of cybernetics, and Erwin Schrödinger in his thermodynamic approach to the living. Systems Biology applies methods inspired by cybernetics, network analysis, and non-equilibrium dynamics of open systems. These developments follow very precisely the dialectical principles of development from thesis to antithesis to synthesis discovered by Hegel. Systems Biology opens new perspectives for studies of the integrated processes of energy metabolism in different cells. These integrated systems acquire new, system-level properties due to interaction of cellular components, such as metabolic compartmentation, channeling and functional coupling mechanisms, which are central for regulation of the energy fluxes. State of the art of these studies in the new area of Molecular System Bioenergetics is analyzed.

  13. New basis set for the prediction of the specific rotation in flexible biological molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baranowska-Łaczkowska, Angelika; Z. Łaczkowski, Krzysztof Z. Łaczkowski; Henriksen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Using a novel method based on increasingly accurate calculations, we obtain the main conformers of a set of flexible molecules. We then employ the recently developed ORP basis set for calculating the specific rotation of the found set carried out at the TD-DFT level of theory. The results are com...

  14. Quality markers based on biological activity: A new strategy for the quality control of traditional Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xin; Zhang, Hongbing; Fan, Shanshan; Zhang, Yidan; Yang, Zhen; Fan, Simiao; Zhuang, Pengwei; Zhang, Yanjun

    2018-02-07

    The quality and quality evaluation system of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) are crucial in the safety and effectiveness assessment of TCM. However, they are also the major bottlenecks that restrict the quality control of TCM. Given the nature of Chinese medicine and the limitations of science and technology, the quality evaluation of TCM involves a few difficulties. Therefore, scholars have conducted considerable amount of research on this topic and obtained promising results. Biological potency and biomarkers have been used to evaluate the quality of TCM. Previous studies provided new strategies and methods to establish a system on quality evaluation. This review aims to provide a new strategy for the quality control of Chinese herbal medicine by combining biological potency and biomarkers based on biological effects. We reviewed the quality evaluation system of Chinese herbal medicine, focusing on quality markers (Q-markers) based on biological effects and the application of these markers in the quality evaluation of Chinese herbal medicine. We also reviewed the factors affecting quality, the difficulties related to the quality evaluation system and the attempt of researchers to improve the quality control of TCM. We propose Q-biomarkers by integration of biological potency and biomarkers to evaluate the quality of TCM. The quality markers provided us significant insights in the process of definition. We further optimised the concept of Q-markers and summarised their definition and properties (including quantification, specificity and related to biological response) in accordance with the requirement of the quality evaluation of TCM. We propose the use of Q-biomarkers in vivo related to specific diseases as a new strategy for the quality evaluation of Chinese herbal medicine. The quality evaluation system of Q-biomarkers would provide a new perspective to standardise and globalise TCM. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Biological markers of oxidative stress: Applications to cardiovascular research and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Ho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is a common mediator in pathogenicity of established cardiovascular risk factors. Furthermore, it likely mediates effects of emerging, less well-defined variables that contribute to residual risk not explained by traditional factors. Functional oxidative modifications of cellular proteins, both reversible and irreversible, are a causal step in cellular dysfunction. Identifying markers of oxidative stress has been the focus of many researchers as they have the potential to act as an “integrator” of a multitude of processes that drive cardiovascular pathobiology. One of the major challenges is the accurate quantification of reactive oxygen species with very short half-life. Redox-sensitive proteins with important cellular functions are confined to signalling microdomains in cardiovascular cells and are not readily available for quantification. A popular approach is the measurement of stable by-products modified under conditions of oxidative stress that have entered the circulation. However, these may not accurately reflect redox stress at the cell/tissue level. Many of these modifications are “functionally silent”. Functional significance of the oxidative modifications enhances their validity as a proposed biological marker of cardiovascular disease, and is the strength of the redox cysteine modifications such as glutathionylation. We review selected biomarkers of oxidative stress that show promise in cardiovascular medicine, as well as new methodologies for high-throughput measurement in research and clinical settings. Although associated with disease severity, further studies are required to examine the utility of the most promising oxidative biomarkers to predict prognosis or response to treatment.

  16. Final report on 'biological effects of tritium as a basis of research and development in nuclear fusion'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    The National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Japan, has undertaken a special study of ''biological effects of tritium as a basis of research and development in nuclear fusion'' over a 5-year period from April 1981 through March 1986. This is a final report, covering incorporation and metabolism of tritium, physical, chemical, and cellular effects of tritium, tritium damage to the mammalian tissue, and human exposure to tritium. The report is organized into five chapters, including ''Study of incorporation of tritium into the living body and its in vivo behavior''; ''Physical and chemical studies for the determination of relative biological effectiveness''; ''Analytical study on biological effects of tritium in cultured mammalian cells''; ''Study of tritium effects on the mammalian tissue, germ cells, and cell transformation''; and ''Changes in the hemopoietic stem cells and lymphocyte subsets in humans after exposure to some internal emitters''. (Namekawa, K.)

  17. Metadiscourse Markers in Biological Research Articles and Journal Impact Factor: Non-Native Writers vs. Native Writers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Javad; Ilghami, Roghayeh

    2016-01-01

    Metadiscourse markers (MDMs) are lexical resources that writers employ to organize their discourse and state their stance towards the content or the reader. This study investigated the frequency with which interactive and interactional MDMs were employed in biological research articles (RAs). It also explored the possible relationship between the…

  18. Prognostic cell biological markers in cervical cancer patients primarily treated with (chemo)radiation : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordhuis, Maartje G; Eijsink, Jasper J H; Roossink, Frank; de Graeff, Pauline; Pras, Elisabeth; Schuuring, Ed; Wisman, G Bea A; de Bock, Geertruida H; van der Zee, Ate G J

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically review the prognostic and predictive significance of cell biological markers in cervical cancer patients primarily treated with (chemo)radiation. A PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane literature search was performed. Studies describing a relation between a cell

  19. "Fair shares": beyond capitalism and socialism, or the biological basis of social justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corning, Peter A

    2003-09-01

    The accumulating scientific evidence -- across many disciplines -- regarding human evolution and the dualities and complexities of human nature indicates that the core ideological assumptions of both capitalism and socialism are simplistic and ultimately irreconcilable. A biologically grounded approach to social justice enables us to articulate a new ideological paradigm that I call ''Fair Shares.'' This paradigm consists of three complementary normative principles. First, goods and services should be distributed to each according to his or her basic needs. Second, surpluses beyond the provisioning of our basic needs should be distributed according to merit. And, third, each of us is obliged in return to contribute to the ''collective survival enterprise'' in accordance with his or her ability. Though none of these three principles is new, in combination they provide a biologically informed middle way between capitalism and socialism. Some of the many issues that are raised by this formulation are also briefly addressed.

  20. Methods for the synthesis of aza(deaza)xanthines as a basis of biologically active compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babkov, D A; Geisman, A N; Novikov, M S; Khandazhinskaya, A L

    2016-01-01

    The review covers methods for the synthesis of aza(deaza)xanthines, i.e., fused pyrrolo-, pyrazolo- and triazolopyrimidine heterocyclic systems, which are common core structures of various biologically active compounds. The extensive range of modern synthetic approaches is organized according to target structures and starting building blocks. The presented material is intended to benefit broad audience of specialists in the fields of organic, medicinal and pharmaceutical chemistry. The bibliography includes 195 references

  1. Methods for the synthesis of aza(deaza)xanthines as a basis of biologically active compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babkov, D. A.; Geisman, A. N.; Khandazhinskaya, A. L.; Novikov, M. S.

    2016-03-01

    The review covers methods for the synthesis of aza(deaza)xanthines, i.e., fused pyrrolo-, pyrazolo- and triazolopyrimidine heterocyclic systems, which are common core structures of various biologically active compounds. The extensive range of modern synthetic approaches is organized according to target structures and starting building blocks. The presented material is intended to benefit broad audience of specialists in the fields of organic, medicinal and pharmaceutical chemistry. The bibliography includes 195 references.

  2. Biological basis for the co-morbidity between smoking and mood disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Mineur, Yann S.; Picciotto, Marina R.

    2009-01-01

    Nicotine dependence is still the major preventable cause of death in the developed world, and has strong comorbity with mood disorders including major depression. Depressed patients are more likely to smoke cigarettes, and quitting can precipitate an episode of depression in some subjects. Interestingly, antidepressants, particularly the atypical antidepressant buproprion, are therapeutics that can help smokers quit. Despite these observations, the underlying biological factors of the relatio...

  3. Cuba: exploring the history of admixture and the genetic basis of pigmentation using autosomal and uniparental markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcheco-Teruel, Beatriz; Parra, Esteban J; Fuentes-Smith, Evelyn; Salas, Antonio; Buttenschøn, Henriette N; Demontis, Ditte; Torres-Español, María; Marín-Padrón, Lilia C; Gómez-Cabezas, Enrique J; Alvarez-Iglesias, Vanesa; Mosquera-Miguel, Ana; Martínez-Fuentes, Antonio; Carracedo, Angel; Børglum, Anders D; Mors, Ole

    2014-07-01

    We carried out an admixture analysis of a sample comprising 1,019 individuals from all the provinces of Cuba. We used a panel of 128 autosomal Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs) to estimate the admixture proportions. We also characterized a number of haplogroup diagnostic markers in the mtDNA and Y-chromosome in order to evaluate admixture using uniparental markers. Finally, we analyzed the association of 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with quantitative estimates of skin pigmentation. In the total sample, the average European, African and Native American contributions as estimated from autosomal AIMs were 72%, 20% and 8%, respectively. The Eastern provinces of Cuba showed relatively higher African and Native American contributions than the Western provinces. In particular, the highest proportion of African ancestry was observed in the provinces of Guantánamo (40%) and Santiago de Cuba (39%), and the highest proportion of Native American ancestry in Granma (15%), Holguín (12%) and Las Tunas (12%). We found evidence of substantial population stratification in the current Cuban population, emphasizing the need to control for the effects of population stratification in association studies including individuals from Cuba. The results of the analyses of uniparental markers were concordant with those observed in the autosomes. These geographic patterns in admixture proportions are fully consistent with historical and archaeological information. Additionally, we identified a sex-biased pattern in the process of gene flow, with a substantially higher European contribution from the paternal side, and higher Native American and African contributions from the maternal side. This sex-biased contribution was particularly evident for Native American ancestry. Finally, we observed that SNPs located in the genes SLC24A5 and SLC45A2 are strongly associated with melanin levels in the sample.

  4. Seawater Incursion Events in a Cretaceous Paleo-lake Revealed by Specific Marine Biological Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, J F; Peng, P A; Liu, M Y; Xi, D P; Song, J Z; Wan, X Q; Wang, C S

    2015-05-07

    Many large paleo-lakes in North China were formed after the Triassic Era. Seawater incursion events (SWIEs) in these lakes have been extensively discussed in the literature, yet lack reliable methodology and solid evidence, which are essential for reconstructing and confirming SWIEs. The present study employs specific marine biological markers (24-n-propyl and 24-isopropyl cholestanes) to trace SWIEs in a dated core taken from the Songliao Basin (SLB). Two SWIEs were identified. The first SWIE from 91.37 to 89.00 Ma, was continuous and variable but not strong, while the second SWIE from 84.72 to 83.72 Ma was episodic and strong. SWIEs caused high total organic carbon (TOC) and negative δ(13)Corg values in the sediments, which were interpreted as an indication of high productivity in the lake, due to the enhancement of nutrient supplies as well as high levels of aqueous CO2, due to the mixing of alkaline seawater and acidic lake water. The SWIEs in SLB were controlled by regional tectonic activity and eustatic variation. Movement direction changes of the Izanagi/Kula Plate in 90 Ma and 84 Ma created faults and triggered SWIEs. A high sea level, from 90 to 84 Ma, also facilitated the occurrence of SWIEs in SLB.

  5. Total and phosphorylated tau protein as biological markers of Alzheimer's disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hampel, Harald

    2012-02-01

    Advances in our understanding of tau-mediated neurodegeneration in Alzheimer\\'s disease (AD) are moving this disease pathway to center stage for the development of biomarkers and disease modifying drug discovery efforts. Immunoassays were developed detecting total (t-tau) and tau phosphorylated at specific epitopes (p-tauX) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), methods to analyse tau in blood are at the experimental beginning. Clinical research consistently demonstrated CSF t- and p-tau increased in AD compared to controls. Measuring these tau species proved informative for classifying AD from relevant differential diagnoses. Tau phosphorylated at threonine 231 (p-tau231) differentiated between AD and frontotemporal dementia, tau phosphorylated at serine 181 (p-tau181) enhanced classification between AD and dementia with Lewy bodies. T- and p-tau are considered "core" AD biomarkers that have been successfully validated by controlled large-scale multi-center studies. Tau biomarkers are implemented in clinical trials to reflect biological activity, mechanisms of action of compounds, support enrichment of target populations, provide endpoints for proof-of-concept and confirmatory trials on disease modification. World-wide quality control initiatives are underway to set required methodological and protocol standards. Discussions with regulatory authorities gain momentum defining the role of tau biomarkers for trial designs and how they may be further qualified for surrogate marker status.

  6. Verification of the systematic position of California brome (Bromus carinatus Hook. and Arn., Poaceae, cv. 'Broma', on the basis of analysis of issr markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Sutkowska

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ‘Broma’ is a grass cultivar belonging to the species Bromus carinatus. In the Lists of Agricultural Plant Varieties of the Research Centre for Cultivar Testing (COBORU, it is shown as Bromus willdenowii (= B. catharticus, B. unioloides (List of Agricultural Plant Varieties 1989-2009, whereas already in 1984 Mirek demonstrated on the basis of morphological analysis that this was a different closely related species – B. carinatus. The aim of the present study was to verify the species affiliation of cv. ‘Broma’. The conducted analysis of ISSR molecular markers included representatives of cv. ‘Broma” as well as of B. carinatus and B. willdenowii. The method used allowed the identification of molecular markers of the above-mentioned taxa. The numerical analysis of the obtained results suggests that cv. ‘Broma’ should be classified in the species B. carinatus, not B. willdenowii.

  7. Zone analysis in biology articles as a basis for information extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuta, Yoko; Korhonen, Anna; Mullen, Tony; Collier, Nigel

    2006-06-01

    In the field of biomedicine, an overwhelming amount of experimental data has become available as a result of the high throughput of research in this domain. The amount of results reported has now grown beyond the limits of what can be managed by manual means. This makes it increasingly difficult for the researchers in this area to keep up with the latest developments. Information extraction (IE) in the biological domain aims to provide an effective automatic means to dynamically manage the information contained in archived journal articles and abstract collections and thus help researchers in their work. However, while considerable advances have been made in certain areas of IE, pinpointing and organizing factual information (such as experimental results) remains a challenge. In this paper we propose tackling this task by incorporating into IE information about rhetorical zones, i.e. classification of spans of text in terms of argumentation and intellectual attribution. As the first step towards this goal, we introduce a scheme for annotating biological texts for rhetorical zones and provide a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the data annotated according to this scheme. We also discuss our preliminary research on automatic zone analysis, and its incorporation into our IE framework.

  8. EuroFIR-BASIS - a combined composition and biological activity database for bioactive compounds in plant-based foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gry, Jørn; Black, Lucinda; Eriksen, Folmer Damsted

    2007-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that certain non-nutrient bioactive compounds promote optimal human health and reduce the risk of chronic disease. An Internet-deployed database, EuroFIR-BASIS, which uniquely combines food composition and biological effects data for plant-based bioactive compounds......, is being developed. The database covers multiple compound classes and 330 major food plants and their edible parts with data sourced from quality-assessed, peer-reviewed literature. The database will be a valuable resource for food regulatory and advisory bodies, risk authorities, epidemiologists...... and researchers interested in diet and health relationships, and product developers within the food industry....

  9. [Physiological Basis of the Improvement of Movement Accuracy with the Use of Stabilographic Training with Biological Feedback].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapilevich, L V; Koshelskaya, E V; Krivoschekov, S G

    2015-01-01

    We studied the physiological parameters of ball hitting by volleyball players in unsupported position and opportunities for their improvement by training with biological feedback. Physiological and biomechanical parameters of a direct attack hit from supported position correlate with biomechanical features ofjump shots. At the same time, the physiological basis of accuracy of shots consists of the improvement of trunk and arm movement coordination in the flight phase, the factors of intramuscular and intermuscular coordination of the hitting arm and the change in the displacement of the center of pressure. The use of computer stabilography training with biological feedback helps to optimize physiological and biomechanical parameters of physical actions in unsupported position, which ultimately causes an increase in the accuracy of jump hitting of the ball. The obtained results open the prospects for applying the method of computer stabilography to improve the performance of accuracy-targeted actions in unsupported position in various sports.

  10. Chemical and protein structural basis for biological crosstalk between PPAR α and COX enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleves, Ann E.; Jain, Ajay N.

    2015-02-01

    We have previously validated a probabilistic framework that combined computational approaches for predicting the biological activities of small molecule drugs. Molecule comparison methods included molecular structural similarity metrics and similarity computed from lexical analysis of text in drug package inserts. Here we present an analysis of novel drug/target predictions, focusing on those that were not obvious based on known pharmacological crosstalk. Considering those cases where the predicted target was an enzyme with known 3D structure allowed incorporation of information from molecular docking and protein binding pocket similarity in addition to ligand-based comparisons. Taken together, the combination of orthogonal information sources led to investigation of a surprising predicted relationship between a transcription factor and an enzyme, specifically, PPAR α and the cyclooxygenase enzymes. These predictions were confirmed by direct biochemical experiments which validate the approach and show for the first time that PPAR α agonists are cyclooxygenase inhibitors.

  11. Does age difference really matter? Facial markers of biological quality and age difference between husband and wife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danel, D P; Dziedzic-Danel, A; Kleisner, K

    2016-08-01

    Information conveyed by facial attractiveness markers such as averageness, bilateral symmetry, and secondary sexual characteristics may play an important adaptive role in human sexual selection. Nonetheless, mate choice also relies on other non-physical characteristics such as, for instance, an individual's age. Women prefer and enter in relationships with older partners, whereas in men the inverse relation is observed. Surprisingly, the link between facial morphological markers of biological quality on the one hand and age disparity between partners on the other hand has been as yet subject of very little research. This study aims to fill this gap. We had used facial photographs and demographic data of heterosexual marriages. Facial cues of biological quality, such as averageness, bilateral symmetry, and sexual dimorphism, were digitally measured using geometric morphometric methods and then associated with spouses' age difference. It turned out that a greater age disparity between spouses correlates, in both partners, with higher scores in facial measures which indicate partners' biological quality. One exception is female facial masculinity - generally regarded as an unattractive marker of a low biological quality - which, too, is associated with higher spouse age disparity. In general, our results show that facial symmetry, averageness, and secondary sexual characteristics may play a role in age-dependent mate choice. We suggest that in marriages where the wife is considerably younger than the husband, wife's greater facial masculinity may increase her perceived age and with it, her perceived maturity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Kamptonema (Microcoleaceae, Cyanobacteria), a new genus derived from the polyphyletic Phormidium on the basis of combined molecular and cytomorphological markers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Strunecký, Otakar; Komárek, Jiří; Šmarda, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 2 (2014), 193-207 ISSN 0032-7786 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/12/1818 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : cyanobacteria * taxonomic revision * polyphasic approach Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.104, year: 2014

  13. Association of physical activity and sedentary behavior with biological markers among U.S. pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Fitzgerald, Elizabeth M; Woekel, Erica; Cardinal, Bradley J

    2013-11-01

    To examine the association between objectively measured light-intensity and moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA), sedentary behaviors, and biological markers in a national sample of U.S. pregnant women, as few studies have examined these relationships among this population. The sample of noninstitutionalized U.S. civilians was selected by a complex, multistage probability design. Data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Examination Survey were used. Two hundred six pregnant women were included in the data analysis. Physical activity and sedentary data were objectively measured via accelerometry (ActiGraph 7164). Biomarker data was obtained in the mobile examination center from urine, blood samples, blood pressure, and anthropometric measurements. Urine and blood samples were obtained to determine pregnancy status, C-reactive protein (CRP), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, total cholesterol, and cotinine as well as fasting glucose, fasting triglycerides, and fasting low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol data. Multivariable regression was employed to examine the association between physical activity, sedentary behavior, and biomarker levels. There was a positive association between sedentary behavior and CRP levels (beta coefficient [b]=0.001, p=0.02) and LDL cholesterol (b=0.12, p=0.02). There was an inverse association between light-intensity physical activity and CRP (b=-0.003; p=0.008) and diastolic blood pressure (b=-0.03; p=0.02), with those engaging in higher levels of MVPA having higher HDL cholesterol (b=6.7; p=0.01). Physical activity and sedentary behavior were favorably associated with various biomarkers among pregnant women, suggesting that healthcare providers should encourage pregnant women to participate in safe forms of physical activity behaviors while also reducing their amount of time spent in sedentary behaviors.

  14. Neuroglobin - a potential biological marker of retinal damage induced by LED light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Z-L; Qiu, S; Chen, X-C; Dai, Z-H; Huang, Y-C; Li, Y-N; Cai, R-H; Lei, H-T; Gu, H-Y

    2014-06-13

    Neuroglobin (NGB), a protein highly expressed in the retina, has been shown to be up-regulated to protect neurons from hypoxic and ischemic injuries. It exhibits neuroprotective functions and plays an important role in the survival of neurons. Recent studies show that light-emitting diode (LED) white light emitted significant amounts of blue light (short-wavelength), which may be harmful to retinal cells, but the studies about biomarkers for evaluating the damage from LED white light are still insufficient. In our study, we found that NGB levels in the retina showed a twofold increase and peaked at 1h after a 1-h exposure to blue light (453 nm) which did not cause damage to the retina. However, retinal damage was observed after 2h of blue-light irradiation, which induced an approximate sevenfold increase of NGB levels as confirmed by Western blot and RT-PCR analysis. Immunofluorescence study demonstrated that NGB was predominantly up-regulated in the ganglion cell layer (GCL), plexiform layer (PL) and photoreceptor layer (PRL). We also examined Ngb mRNA and protein expression in the damaged retina induced by light of other wavelengths given equal photon fluxes. The LED red light (625 nm), green light (527 nm) and blue light (453 nm) increased the expression of NGB and caused TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling-positive cells, especially in the blue-light group. In addition, a negative correlation between NGB and rhodopsin was observed. These findings suggested that there was a correlation between NGB expression and the severity of the retinal damage, indicating NGB's potential function as a biological marker of retinal damage induced by LED light. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Clozapine, chlorpromazine and risperidone dose-dependently reduce emotional hyperthermia, a biological marker of salience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blessing, William W; Blessing, Esther M; Mohammed, Mazher; Ootsuka, Youichirou

    2017-11-01

    We recently introduced a new rat model of emotional hyperthermia in which a salient stimulus activates brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis and tail artery constriction. Antipsychotic drugs, both classical and second generation, act to reduce excessive assignment of salience to objects and events in the external environment. The close association between salient occurrences and increases in body temperature suggests that antipsychotic drugs may also reduce emotional hyperthermia. We determined whether chlorpromazine, clozapine, and risperidone dose dependently reduce emotionally elicited increases in BAT thermogenesis, cutaneous vasoconstriction, and body temperature in rats. Rats, chronically instrumented for measurement of BAT and body temperature and tail artery blood flow, singly housed, were confronted with an intruder rat (confined within a small wire-mesh cage) after systemic pre-treatment of the resident rat with vehicle or antipsychotic agent. BAT and body temperatures, tail blood flow, and behavioral activity were continuously measured. Clozapine (30 μg-2 mg/kg), chlorpromazine (0.1-5 mg/kg), and risperidone (6.25 μg-1 mg/kg) robustly and dose-relatedly reduced intruder-elicited BAT thermogenesis and tail artery vasoconstriction, with consequent dose-related reduction in emotional hyperthermia. Chlorpromazine, a first-generation antipsychotic, as well as clozapine and risperidone, second-generation agents, dose-dependently reduce emotional hyperthermia. Dopamine D 2 receptor antagonist properties of chlorpromazine do not contribute to thermoregulatory effects. Interactions with monoamine receptors are important, and these monoamine receptor interactions may also contribute to the therapeutic effects of all three antipsychotics. Thermoregulatory actions of putative antipsychotic agents may constitute a biological marker of their therapeutic properties.

  16. Using the logical basis of phylogenetics as the framework for teaching biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Morphy D. Santos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the evolutionary theory is widespread in modern worldview. Due to its great explanatory power and pervasiveness, the theory of evolution should be used as the organizing theme in biology teaching. For this purpose, the essential concepts of phylogenetic systematics are useful as a didactic instrument. The phylogenetic method was the first objective set of rules to implement in systematics the evolutionary view that the organisms are all connected at some hierarchical level due to common ancestry, as suggested by Darwin and Wallace. Phylogenetic systematics was firstly proposed by the German Entomologist Willi Hennig in 1950 and had considerably importance in the decrease of the role of essentialism and subjectivity in classificatory studies, becoming one of the paradigms in biological systematics. Based on cladograms, a general phylogenetic reference system allows to the depiction and representation of large amounts of biological information in branching diagrams. Besides, the phylogenetic approach sheds light upon typical misconceptions concerning evolution and related concepts that directly affect students' comprehension about the evolutionary process and the hierarchical structure of the living world. The phylogenetic method is also a form of introducing students to some of the philosophical and scientific idiosyncrasies, providing them the ability to understand concepts such as hypothesis, theory, paradigm and falsifiability. The students are incited to use arguments during the process of accepting or denying scientific hypotheses, which overcomes the mere assimilation of knowledge previously elaborated.A influência da teoria evolutiva é disseminada na visão de mundo moderna. Devido a seu grande poder explanatório e penetração, a teoria da evolução deve ser usada como o tema organizador do ensino de biologia. Para esse propósito, os conceitos essenciais da sistemática filogenética são úteis como instrumentos did

  17. Entendendo o papel de marcadores biológicos no câncer de pulmão Understanding the role of biological markers in lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VERA LUIZA CAPELOZZI

    2001-11-01

    ógicos intermediários.Biological markers are cellular, structural and biochemical components that can define cellular as well as molecular changes in both normal and neoplastic cells. There are two types of biological markers: 1 intermediate markers that evaluate cellular and molecular alterations before malignancy occurs; and 2 diagnostic markers, present in association with malignancy. The identification and validation of biological markers for clinical use are performed in stages: ¨ initial identification in cell cultures of the tumor; ¨ testing of the marker in tissues obtained in biopsies of patients with an established diagnosis of the tumor; ¨ testing of biopsies of normal tissues and tissues with an inflammatory process; ¨ sputum, blood or urine tests for validation as a non-invasive test that can be used in high-risk populations. Sorologic and histopathologic biological markers are cellular, structural and biochemical components found in both normal and neoplastic cells that can be quantitatively assessed by biochemical, immunological and molecular methods in the body fluids or tissues, respectively, and may be associated with malignancies and, possibly, with the neoplastic organ. Biological markers are studied in diverse primary neoplasms. However, few of them proved to be clinically valuable. The role of biological markers in lung cancer patients remains unclear because only a small number of markers has been properly assessed. The aim of this paper is to understand the role of sorologic and histologic biological markers in the prognosis and survival of lung cancer patients based on our previous works. Furthermore, we present a future perspective of the early detection of lung cancer on the basis of the role of intermediate biological markers.

  18. Biological basis for the co-morbidity between smoking and mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mineur, Yann S; Picciotto, Marina R

    2009-01-01

    Nicotine dependence is still the major preventable cause of death in the developed world, and has strong comorbity with mood disorders including major depression. Depressed patients are more likely to smoke cigarettes, and quitting can precipitate an episode of depression in some subjects. Interestingly, antidepressants, particularly the atypical antidepressant buproprion, are therapeutics that can help smokers quit. Despite these observations, the underlying biological factors of the relationship between smoking and depression remain unclear. Results from clinical and pre-clinical studies have seemed somewhat paradoxical because heightened cholinergic activity can induce depression while both nicotine and nicotinic antagonists can be antidepressant-like. These observations can be reconciled by considering that high affinity nicotinic receptors in the brain can be desensitized by chronic nicotine use, leading to blunted cholinergic activity. Based on this hypothesis, nicotinic antagonists have recently been tested as treatments for depression in human subjects, particularly as adjunct therapy along with classical antidepressants. These data suggest that the relationship between smoking and depression may be partially explained by the fact that depressed patients smoke in an effort to self-medicate depressive symptoms by desensitizing their nicotinic receptors. This possibility suggests new avenues for treatment of both nicotine dependence and depressive disorders.

  19. Explaining ADAGIO: a critical review of the biological basis for the clinical effects of rasagiline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenner, Peter; Langston, J William

    2011-11-01

    The ADAGIO study demonstrated a symptomatic benefit for rasagiline in early Parkinson's disease (PD) and suggested a disease-modifying effect. Evidence indicates that mitochondrial dysfunction plays a role in the pathogenesis of PD and that this may be the site of effect for rasagiline. In this systematic review, evidence for the role of mitochondria in the pathogenesis of PD are reviewed in light of other proposed mechanisms of neuronal degeneration and the actions of rasagiline and its component parts, namely propargylamine and the metabolite, aminoindan. Evidence for the role of mitochondria in the pathogenesis and treatment of PD are reviewed in light of other proposed mechanisms of neuronal degeneration and clinical actions of rasagiline. Monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) located in the outer mitochondrial membrane controls dopamine metabolism in early PD, and this is the likely location for the symptomatic action of rasagiline. Accumulating evidence indicates that mitochondrial impairment contributes to dopaminergic neuronal loss in PD, either directly or through other mechanisms such as oxidative stress or protein misfolding. Further rasagiline affects numerous mitochondrial mechanisms that prevent apoptotic cell death including prevention of opening of the mitochondrial transition pore, decreased release of cytochrome C, alterations in pro-antiapoptotic genes and proteins, and the nuclear translocation of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). Thus, the functional neuroprotective actions of rasagiline may not be dependent on MAO-B inhibition, but rather may involve actions of the propargylamine moiety and the aminoindan metabolite. An accumulating body of literature indicates a mitochondrial site of action for rasagiline and highlights the neuroprotective action of the drug, providing strong biological plausibility for disease-modifying effects of the drug such as those observed in ADAGIO. Copyright © 2011 Movement Disorder Society.

  20. Changes in biological markers, particularly hormone receptors, due to pre-operative chemotherapy (epirubicin/docetaxel in operable breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumiko Tashima

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the correlation between biological markers prior to pre-operative chemotherapy with epirubicin and docetaxel (ET therapy and the effect of treatment as well as the clinically significant changes in biological markers before and after chemotherapy. Since April 2002, 52 patients with tumors ≥3 cm in diameter or lymph node metastases have received pre-operative ET chemotherapy. The items investigated were ER/PgR, proliferative activity (MIB-1, etc. The correlation of changes in these factors between pre- and post-treatment status and the clinical and pathological responses was investigated. Clinical response was 82%, BCS rate was 67%. Pathological response was 31.4%. The ER/PgR positive cell rate significantly decreased from 48%/32% to 37%/14%. The MIB-1 decreased from 48% to 27%. The pathological response was significantly high in patients with low ER/PgR-positive rates and those with high MIB-1 values.

  1. The Biological Basis of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy following Blast Injury: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldag, Matt; Armstrong, Regina C; Bandak, Faris; Bellgowan, Patrick S F; Bentley, Timothy; Biggerstaff, Sean; Caravelli, Katrina; Cmarik, Joan; Crowder, Alicia; DeGraba, Thomas J; Dittmer, Travis A; Ellenbogen, Richard G; Greene, Colin; Gupta, Raj K; Hicks, Ramona; Hoffman, Stuart; Latta, Robert C; Leggieri, Michael J; Marion, Donald; Mazzoli, Robert; McCrea, Michael; O'Donnell, John; Packer, Mark; Petro, James B; Rasmussen, Todd E; Sammons-Jackson, Wendy; Shoge, Richard; Tepe, Victoria; Tremaine, Ladd A; Zheng, James

    2017-09-01

    The United States Department of Defense Blast Injury Research Program Coordinating Office organized the 2015 International State-of-the-Science meeting to explore links between blast-related head injury and the development of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Before the meeting, the planning committee examined articles published between 2005 and October 2015 and prepared this literature review, which summarized broadly CTE research and addressed questions about the pathophysiological basis of CTE and its relationship to blast- and nonblast-related head injury. It served to inform participants objectively and help focus meeting discussion on identifying knowledge gaps and priority research areas. CTE is described generally as a progressive neurodegenerative disorder affecting persons exposed to head injury. Affected individuals have been participants primarily in contact sports and military personnel, some of whom were exposed to blast. The symptomatology of CTE overlaps with Alzheimer's disease and includes neurological and cognitive deficits, psychiatric and behavioral problems, and dementia. There are no validated diagnostic criteria, and neuropathological evidence of CTE has come exclusively from autopsy examination of subjects with histories of exposure to head injury. The perivascular accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau (p-tau) at the depths of cortical sulci is thought to be unique to CTE and has been proposed as a diagnostic requirement, although the contribution of p-tau and other reported pathologies to the development of clinical symptoms of CTE are unknown. The literature on CTE is limited and is focused predominantly on head injuries unrelated to blast exposure (e.g., football players and boxers). In addition, comparative analyses of clinical case reports has been challenging because of small case numbers, selection biases, methodological differences, and lack of matched controls, particularly for blast-exposed individuals. Consequently, the

  2. Social and Behavioral Risk Marker Clustering Associated with Biological Risk Factors for Coronary Heart Disease: NHANES 2001–2004

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    Nicholas J. Everage

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Social and behavioral risk markers (e.g., physical activity, diet, smoking, and socioeconomic position cluster; however, little is known whether clustering is associated with coronary heart disease (CHD risk. Objectives were to determine if sociobehavioral clustering is associated with biological CHD risk factors (total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference, and diabetes and whether associations are independent of individual clustering components. Methods. Participants included 4,305 males and 4,673 females aged ≥20 years from NHANES 2001–2004. Sociobehavioral Risk Marker Index (SRI included a summary score of physical activity, fruit/vegetable consumption, smoking, and educational attainment. Regression analyses evaluated associations of SRI with aforementioned biological CHD risk factors. Receiver operator curve analyses assessed independent predictive ability of SRI. Results. Healthful clustering (SRI = 0 was associated with improved biological CHD risk factor levels in 5 of 6 risk factors in females and 2 of 6 risk factors in males. Adding SRI to models containing age, race, and individual SRI components did not improve C-statistics. Conclusions. Findings suggest that healthful sociobehavioral risk marker clustering is associated with favorable CHD risk factor levels, particularly in females. These findings should inform social ecological interventions that consider health impacts of addressing social and behavioral risk factors.

  3. Comparison of the cerebral SPECT and biological markers in the Alzheimer disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravasi, L.; Semah, F.; Steinling, M.; Bombois, S.; Pasquier, F.; Schraen, S.; Buee, L.

    2009-01-01

    This study aim was to compare the contribution of SPECT of cerebral perfusion and bio markers of the cerebrospinal liquid in the diagnosis of Alzheimer disease. Our preliminary conclusions show that the concordance of the SPECT and cerebrospinal liquid is good in the possible Alzheimer disease. the interest of the cerebral SPECT and bio markers of the cerebrospinal liquid, used alone or conjointly, for a more reliable diagnosis of Alzheimer disease must be evaluated of prospective way. (N.C.)

  4. Validation of Alzheimer's disease CSF and plasma biological markers: the multicentre reliability study of the pilot European Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (E-ADNI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buerger, Katharina; Frisoni, Giovanni; Uspenskaya, Olga

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiatives ("ADNI") aim to validate neuroimaging and biochemical markers of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Data of the pilot European-ADNI (E-ADNI) biological marker programme of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma candidate biomarkers are reported. METHODS...

  5. New multi-marker strains and complementing genes for Aspergillus nidulans molecular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohn, James W; Grubbs, Alexander W; Oakley, C Elizabeth; Oakley, Berl R

    2018-02-01

    Technical advances in Aspergillus nidulans enable relatively easy deletion of genomic sequences, insertion of sequences into the genome and alteration of genomic sequences. To extend the power of this system we wished to create strains with several selectable markers in a common genetic background to facilitate multiple, sequential transformations. We have developed an approach, using the recycling of the pyrG selectable marker, that has allowed us to create new deletions of the biA, pabaA, choA, and lysB genes. We have deleted these genes in a strain that carries the commonly used pyrG89, riboB2, and pyroA4 mutations as well as a deletion of the sterigmatocystin gene cluster and a deletion of the nkuA gene, which greatly reduces heterologous integration of transforming sequences. The new deletions are fully, easily and cheaply supplementable. We have created a strain that carries seven selectable markers as well as strains that carry subsets of these markers. We have identified the homologous genes from Aspergillus terreus, cloned them and used them as selectable markers to transform our new strains. The newly created strains transform well and the new deletion alleles appear to be complemented fully by the A. terreus genes. In addition, we have used deep sequencing data to determine the sequence alterations of the venerable and frequently used pyrG89, riboB2 and pyroA4 alleles and we have reannotated the choA gene. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Is Anisakis simplex s.l. a biological marker for stock identification of Strangomera bentincki from Chile?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, M E

    2013-08-01

    The absence of the larval Anisakis simplex s. l. in samples from central Chile but heavy infections in fish from southern localities suggest the existence of two stocks of Strangomera bentincki, one closely associated with the central coast of Chile (landing port San Antonio and Talcahuano, c. 33° 30' S-36° 40' S) and the other associated with southern Chile (landing port Puerto Montt, c. 41° 30' S). Results confirm the usefulness of metazoan parasites, like A. simplex s. l. as biological markers. © 2013 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  7. Pediatric within-day biological variation and quality specifications for 38 biochemical markers in the CALIPER cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Dana; Bevilacqua, Victoria; Colantonio, David A; Pasic, Maria D; Perumal, Nandita; Chan, Man Khun; Adeli, Khosrow

    2014-03-01

    Studies of biological variation provide insight into the physiological changes that occur within and between study participants. Values obtained from such investigations are important for patient monitoring and for establishing quality specifications. In this study we evaluated the short-term biological variation of 38 chemistry, lipid, enzyme, and protein analytes in a pediatric population, assessed the effect of age partitions on interindividual variation, and compared the findings to adult values. Four plasma samples each were obtained within 8 h from 29 healthy children (45% males), age 4-18 years. Samples were stored at -80 °C and analyzed in 3 batches, with samples from 9-10 study participants per batch. Within-person and between-person biological variation values were established using nested ANOVA after exclusion of outliers by use of the Tukey outlier test. Analytical quality specifications were established with the Fraser method. Biological variation coefficients and analytical goals were established for 38 analytes. Age partitioning was required for 6 analytes. Biological variation characteristics of 14 assays (37%) were distinct from adult values found in the Westgard database on biological variation. Biological variation characteristics were established for 2 previously unreported analytes, unconjugated bilirubin and soluble transferrin receptor. This study is the first to examine biological variation and to establish analytical quality specifications on the basis of biological variation for common assays in a pediatric population. These results provide insight into pediatric physiology, are of use for reference change value calculations, clarify the appropriateness of reference interval use, and aid in the development of quality management strategies specific to pediatric laboratories.

  8. Selected biological markers in various vascular lesions of the head and neck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzanna Gronkiewicz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Vascular anomalies are divided according to the contemporary system of classification into two groups: tumors and malformations. However, there is no consensus on juvenile angiofibroma’s place in that system. The general characteristics of selected markers of angiogenesis and tissue remodeling are presented in the series in the context of current knowledge in the field of pathophysiology of vascular lesions. The mentioned markers are currently the subjects of multidirectional studies in oncology, as they take part in the process of neoangiogenesis and proliferation of tumors. Nevertheless, they have not been widely examined in vascular lesions. The indirect goal of that series is to indicate the possible research direction on vascular lesions to determine their molecular profile, to create a more specific system of classification, and above all to develop new diagnostic and treatment methods.

  9. Forging patterns and making waves from biology to geology: a commentary on Turing (1952) 'The chemical basis of morphogenesis'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Philip

    2015-04-19

    Alan Turing was neither a biologist nor a chemist, and yet the paper he published in 1952, 'The chemical basis of morphogenesis', on the spontaneous formation of patterns in systems undergoing reaction and diffusion of their ingredients has had a substantial impact on both fields, as well as in other areas as disparate as geomorphology and criminology. Motivated by the question of how a spherical embryo becomes a decidedly non-spherical organism such as a human being, Turing devised a mathematical model that explained how random fluctuations can drive the emergence of pattern and structure from initial uniformity. The spontaneous appearance of pattern and form in a system far away from its equilibrium state occurs in many types of natural process, and in some artificial ones too. It is often driven by very general mechanisms, of which Turing's model supplies one of the most versatile. For that reason, these patterns show striking similarities in systems that seem superficially to share nothing in common, such as the stripes of sand ripples and of pigmentation on a zebra skin. New examples of 'Turing patterns' in biology and beyond are still being discovered today. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society.

  10. The biological basis of a universal constraint on color naming: cone contrasts and the two-way categorization of colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Youping; Kavanau, Christopher; Bertin, Lauren; Kaplan, Ehud

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have provided evidence for the existence of universal constraints on color categorization or naming in various languages, but the biological basis of these constraints is unknown. A recent study of the pattern of color categorization across numerous languages has suggested that these patterns tend to avoid straddling a region in color space at or near the border between the English composite categories of "warm" and "cool". This fault line in color space represents a fundamental constraint on color naming. Here we report that the two-way categorization along the fault line is correlated with the sign of the L- versus M-cone contrast of a stimulus color. Moreover, we found that the sign of the L-M cone contrast also accounted for the two-way clustering of the spatially distributed neural responses in small regions of the macaque primary visual cortex, visualized with optical imaging. These small regions correspond to the hue maps, where our previous study found a spatially organized representation of stimulus hue. Altogether, these results establish a direct link between a universal constraint on color naming and the cone-specific information that is represented in the primate early visual system.

  11. Biological and Chemical Removal of Primary Cilia Affects Mechanical Activation of Chondrogenesis Markers in Chondroprogenitors and Hypertrophic Chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deren, Matthew E; Yang, Xu; Guan, Yingjie; Chen, Qian

    2016-02-04

    Chondroprogenitors and hypertrophic chondrocytes, which are the first and last stages of the chondrocyte differentiation process, respectively, are sensitive to mechanical signals. We hypothesize that the mechanical sensitivity of these cells depends on the cell surface primary cilia. To test this hypothesis, we removed the primary cilia by biological means with transfection with intraflagellar transport protein 88 (IFT88) siRNA or by chemical means with chloral hydrate treatment. Transfection of IFT88 siRNA significantly reduced the percentage of ciliated cells in both chondroprogenitor ATDC5 cells as well as primary hypertrophic chondrocytes. Cyclic loading (1 Hz, 10% matrix deformation) of ATDC5 cells in three-dimensional (3D) culture stimulates the mRNA levels of chondrogenesis marker Type II collagen (Col II), hypertrophic chondrocyte marker Type X collagen (Col X), and a molecular regulator of chondrogenesis and chondrocyte hypertrophy bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2). The reduction of ciliated chondroprogenitors abolishes mechanical stimulation of Col II, Col X, and BMP-2. In contrast, cyclic loading stimulates Col X mRNA levels in hypertrophic chondrocytes, but not those of Col II and BMP-2. Both biological and chemical reduction of ciliated hypertrophic chondrocytes reduced but failed to abolish mechanical stimulation of Col X mRNA levels. Thus, primary cilia play a major role in mechanical stimulation of chondrogenesis and chondrocyte hypertrophy in chondroprogenitor cells and at least a partial role in hypertrophic chondrocytes.

  12. Biological and Chemical Removal of Primary Cilia Affects Mechanical Activation of Chondrogenesis Markers in Chondroprogenitors and Hypertrophic Chondrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew E. Deren

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Chondroprogenitors and hypertrophic chondrocytes, which are the first and last stages of the chondrocyte differentiation process, respectively, are sensitive to mechanical signals. We hypothesize that the mechanical sensitivity of these cells depends on the cell surface primary cilia. To test this hypothesis, we removed the primary cilia by biological means with transfection with intraflagellar transport protein 88 (IFT88 siRNA or by chemical means with chloral hydrate treatment. Transfection of IFT88 siRNA significantly reduced the percentage of ciliated cells in both chondroprogenitor ATDC5 cells as well as primary hypertrophic chondrocytes. Cyclic loading (1 Hz, 10% matrix deformation of ATDC5 cells in three-dimensional (3D culture stimulates the mRNA levels of chondrogenesis marker Type II collagen (Col II, hypertrophic chondrocyte marker Type X collagen (Col X, and a molecular regulator of chondrogenesis and chondrocyte hypertrophy bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2. The reduction of ciliated chondroprogenitors abolishes mechanical stimulation of Col II, Col X, and BMP-2. In contrast, cyclic loading stimulates Col X mRNA levels in hypertrophic chondrocytes, but not those of Col II and BMP-2. Both biological and chemical reduction of ciliated hypertrophic chondrocytes reduced but failed to abolish mechanical stimulation of Col X mRNA levels. Thus, primary cilia play a major role in mechanical stimulation of chondrogenesis and chondrocyte hypertrophy in chondroprogenitor cells and at least a partial role in hypertrophic chondrocytes.

  13. Perspective Biological Markers for Autism Spectrum Disorders: Advantages of the Use of Receiver Operating Characteristic Curves in Evaluating Marker Sensitivity and Specificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Provvidenza M. Abruzzo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD are a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders. Recognized causes of ASD include genetic factors, metabolic diseases, toxic and environmental factors, and a combination of these. Available tests fail to recognize genetic abnormalities in about 70% of ASD children, where diagnosis is solely based on behavioral signs and symptoms, which are difficult to evaluate in very young children. Although it is advisable that specific psychotherapeutic and pedagogic interventions are initiated as early as possible, early diagnosis is hampered by the lack of nongenetic specific biological markers. In the past ten years, the scientific literature has reported dozens of neurophysiological and biochemical alterations in ASD children; however no real biomarker has emerged. Such literature is here reviewed in the light of Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC analysis, a very valuable statistical tool, which evaluates the sensitivity and the specificity of biomarkers to be used in diagnostic decision making. We also apply ROC analysis to some of our previously published data and discuss the increased diagnostic value of combining more variables in one ROC curve analysis. We also discuss the use of biomarkers as a tool for advancing our understanding of nonsyndromic ASD.

  14. Systems biology guided by Chinese medicine reveals new markers for sub-typing rheumatoid arthritis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wietmarschen, H. van; Yuan, K.; Lu, C.; Gao, P.; Wang, J.; Xiao, C.; Yan, X.; Wang, M.; Schroën, J.; Lu, A.; Xu, G.; Greef, J. van der

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Complex chronic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis have become a major challenge in medicine and for the pharmaceutical industry. New impulses for drug development are needed. OBJECTIVE: A systems biology approach is explored to find subtypes of rheumatoid arthritis patients enabling

  15. Influence of sample collection and preanalytical sample processing on the analyses of biological markers in the European multicentre study IDEFICS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peplies, J; Günther, K; Bammann, K; Fraterman, A; Russo, P; Veidebaum, T; Tornaritis, M; Vanaelst, B; Mårild, S; Molnár, D; Moreno, L A; Ahrens, W

    2011-04-01

    To evaluate the influence of a standardised sampling protocol and process quality across the different IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants) centres on the results of the biochemical measurements. Baseline survey within the community-based intervention study. A total of 16,224 children, aged 2-8 years, enrolled in the IDEFICS baseline survey in 8 European countries. Venous or capillary blood samples were collected from 12,430 children, urine samples from 13,890 children and saliva samples from 14,019 children. A set of quality indicators was recorded for the biological blood, urine and saliva samples collected during the IDEFICS study. Results of blood and urine measurements were analysed and stratified by selected quality indicators. Concentrations of biological markers in blood and urine measured during the IDEFICS baseline survey are associated with several quality indicators assessed in this study. Between-country variations of these biomarkers are described. It was confirmed that fasting has a big influence on the concentration of certain biomarkers. Biomarkers in morning urine samples may be erroneous if the study subjects void during the night or if samples are not taken from the very first morning urine. The analysed data underline that a standardised sampling protocol is of major importance, especially in multicentre studies, but non-compliance is ever present in spite of well-defined standard operation procedures. Deviations from the protocol should therefore always be documented to avoid error pertaining to the concentration of biological markers.

  16. FSH-FSHR3-stem cells in ovary surface epithelium: basis for adult ovarian biology, failure, aging, and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhartiya, Deepa; Singh, Jarnail

    2015-01-01

    Despite extensive research, genetic basis of premature ovarian failure (POF) and ovarian cancer still remains elusive. It is indeed paradoxical that scientists searched for mutations in FSH receptor (FSHR) expressed on granulosa cells, whereas more than 90% of cancers arise in ovary surface epithelium (OSE). Two distinct populations of stem cells including very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) and ovarian stem cells (OSCs) exist in OSE, are responsible for neo-oogenesis and primordial follicle assembly in adult life, and are modulated by FSH via its alternatively spliced receptor variant FSHR3 (growth factor type 1 receptor acting via calcium signaling and the ERK/MAPK pathway). Any defect in FSH-FSHR3-stem cell interaction in OSE may affect folliculogenesis and thus result in POF. Ovarian aging is associated with a compromised microenvironment that does not support stem cell differentiation into oocytes and further folliculogenesis. FSH exerts a mitogenic effect on OSE and elevated FSH levels associated with advanced age may provide a continuous trigger for stem cells to proliferate resulting in cancer, thus supporting gonadotropin theory for ovarian cancer. Present review is an attempt to put adult ovarian biology, POF, aging, and cancer in the perspective of FSH-FSHR3-stem cell network that functions in OSE. This hypothesis is further supported by the recent understanding that: i) cancer is a stem cell disease and OSE is the niche for ovarian cancer stem cells; ii) ovarian OCT4-positive stem cells are regulated by FSH; and iii) OCT4 along with LIN28 and BMP4 are highly expressed in ovarian cancers. © 2015 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  17. Effectiveness of biologic and non-biologic antirheumatic drugs on anaemia markers in 153,788 patients with rheumatoid arthritis: New evidence from real-world data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Sanjoy Ketan; Montvida, Olga; Best, Jennie H; Gale, Sara; Pethoe-Schramm, Attila; Sarsour, Khaled

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate the impact of treatment with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), including IL-6 receptor inhibitor tocilizumab (TCZ), on anaemia markers in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Using the Centricity Electronic Medical Records from USA, patients with rheumatoid arthritis diagnosed between January 2000 and April 2016, who initiated TCZ (n = 3732); tofacitinib (TOFA, n = 3126); other biologic DMARD (obDMARD, n = 55,964); or other non-biologic DMARD (onbDMARD, n = 91,236) were identified. Changes in haemoglobin (Hb) and haematocrit (Hct) over 2 years of treatment initiation were evaluated, adjusting and balancing for confounders. Mean (95% CI) adjusted increase in Hb and Hct levels at 24 months in TCZ group were 0.23g/dL (0.14, 0.42) and 0.96% (0.41, 1.52) respectively. Among patients with anaemia in the TCZ group, Hb and Hct increased significantly by 0.72g/dL and 2.06%, respectively. Patients in the TCZ group were 86% (95% CI of OR: 1.43, 2.00) more likely to increase Hb ≥ 1g/dL compared to the other groups combined. No clinically significant changes in Hb were observed in the other groups. The obDMARD group demonstrated lower Hct increase than TCZ group, while no significant changes were observed in the remaining groups. Compared to those who initiated TCZ therapy after 1 year of diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis, those who initiated earlier were 95% (OR = 1.95; 95% CI: 1.19, 3.21; p biologic and non-biologic DMARDs. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Biological (molecular and cellular) markers of toxicity. Final report, September 15, 1988 - September 14, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shugart, L. R.; D' Surney, S. J.; Gettys-Hull, C.; Greeley, Jr, M. S.

    1991-12-15

    Several molecular and cellular markers of genotoxicity were adapted for measurement in the Medaka (Oryzias latipes), and were used to describe the effects of treatment of the organism with diethylnitrosamine (DEN). NO{sup 6}-ethyl guanine adducts were detected, and a slight statistically significant, increase in DNA strand breaks was observed. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that prolonged exposure to high levels of DEN induced alkyltransferase activity which enzymatically removes any O{sup 6}-ethyl guanine adducts but does not result in strand breaks or hypomethylation of the DNA such as might be expected from excision repair of chemically modified DNA. Following a five week continuous DEN exposure with 100 percent renewal of DEN-water every third day, the F values (DNA double strandedness) increased considerably and to similar extent in fish exposed to 25, 50, and 100 ppM DEN. This has been observed also in medaka exposed to BaP.

  19. A marker of biological ageing predicts adult risk preference in European starlings, Sturnus vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Andrews, Clare; Nettle, Daniel; Reichert, Sophie; Bedford, Tom; Monaghan, Pat; Bateson, Melissa

    2018-01-01

    Why are some individuals more prone to gamble than others? Animals often show preferences between 2 foraging options with the same mean reward but different degrees of variability in the reward, and such risk preferences vary between individuals. Previous attempts to explain variation in risk preference have focused on energy budgets, but with limited empirical support. Here, we consider whether biological ageing, which affects mortality and residual reproductive value, predicts risk preferen...

  20. Biologic markers in axillary node-negative breast cancer: differential expression in invasive ductal carcinoma versus invasive lobular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Angulo, Ana Maria; Sahin, Aysegul; Krishnamurthy, Savitry; Yang, Ying; Kau, Shu-Wan; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N; Cristofanilli, Massimo

    2006-12-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the differential expression of established histopathologic and biologic markers of proliferation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis in invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) in a group of axillary node-negative breast cancers. Two hundred twenty patients with axillary node-negative ILC and IDC who underwent surgery at the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center between 1978 and 1995 had tissue available for analysis. Of these, 206 (94%) had IDC and 14 (6%) had ILC. Estrogen receptors, progesterone receptors, tumor and stromal expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2, CD44, laminin-5, E-cadherin, and topoisomerase-2 were evaluated by immunohistochemical analysis. HER2/neu and alpha6beta4 integrin were evaluated by in situ hybridization. The Fisher exact test was used to calculate significant differences between ILC and IDC. Median age was 59 years. Invasive lobular carcinoma was more likely to occur in patients aged > 50 years. Invasive lobular carcinoma tended to be > 2 cm (50% vs. 39%), have a nuclear grade of 1/2 (100% vs. 72%), be estrogen receptor positive (93% vs. 70%), HER2/neu negative (92% vs. 68%), have high CD44 expression (31% vs. 16%), low stromal vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 expression (36% vs. 47%), no E-cadherin expression (0 vs. 90%), and low laminin-5 expression (15% vs. 25%), compared with IDC. Invasive lobular carcinoma and IDC might be distinct histologic types of breast cancer with different expression of biologic markers. These differences, not all being statistically significant in this small study, might generate hypotheses to develop tailored options for future systemic therapy.

  1. Role of serum eosinophil cationic protein as a biological marker to assess the severity of bronchial asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begum, A.; Sattar, H.; Miah, R.A.; Saleh, A.A.; Hassan, R.; Salam, A

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The study was carried out to evaluate the role of serum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) as a biological marker for the diagnosis and to assess the severity of bronchial asthma. Methodology: This observational cross-sectional study was conducted among 70 bronchial asthma patients and 45 disease controls (tuberculosis-15, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease-15, interstitial lung disease-15) enrolled from patients attending the outpatient department of the National Institute of Disease of the Chest and Hospital (NIDCH), Dhaka, Bangladesh during July 2010 to June 2011. Global Initiative of Asthma Management and Prevention (GINA) criteria were followed for selection of both atopic and non-atopic patients with intermittent or persistent (mild, moderate and severe) asthma. Serum level of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), IgE, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1% predicted) and circulatory eosinophil (CE) count were estimated. Results: Mean serum ECP level (28.8 +- 42.9 vs. 6.82 +- 3.5 ng/mL; P<0.001), IgE level (383.59 - 225.3 vs. 135 +- 131.8 IU/mL; P<0.001) and percent circulatory eosinophil count (9.95 +- 3.7 vs. 5.95 +- 1.4; P<0.024) were all found significantly raised among asthma patients than disease controls but % FEV1 was equivocal. All grades of persistent asthma patients had significantly (P<0.025 and P<0.002) higher mean ECP level than intermittent cases but serum IgE level and CE count did not differ significantly. FEV1 % predicted correlated well among moderate and severe persistent asthma but was equivocal for intermittent and mild persistent cases. Conclusion: This study has reinforced that serum eosinophil cationic protein is a dependable biological marker with more discriminatory power over other indicators for bronchial asthma and to assess its severity. (author)

  2. The establishment of biological reference intervals of nontraditional glycemic markers in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qiang; Shi, De-Bao; Lv, Li-Ying

    2017-09-01

    We established the reference intervals for glycated albumin (GA), fructosamine (FA), and 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG) in a Chinese healthy population. This study enrolled a total of 458 eligible reference individuals, consisted of 226 men and 232 women, aged from 20~79 years (median age 43 years), who attending routine healthy checks. We stratified the subjects according to gender (males and females) and age (20-39, 40-59, and 60-79 years), and combined statistical methods with Lahti algorithm, as well as appropriate clinical consideration, to judge whether partitioning for data was needed. Glycated albumin levels between males and females were statistically different (Preference limits was only 0.31%, which was too small to be clinically relevant. GA levels across the three age groups were statistically different (Preference intervals were 10.38%-13.89% and 10.23%-14.79%, respectively. 1,5-AG levels in males were significant higher than females (PReference intervals for 1,5-AG were 107-367 μmol/L for males and 79-306 μmol/L for females. The absolute difference of the lower reference limits for FA was only 7 μmol/L between males and females. FA levels across the three age groups were not statistically different (P>.05). The reference interval for FA was 220-298 μmol/L. New reference intervals for nontraditional glycemic markers were established based on a Chinese population. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Biological markers for anxiety disorders, OCD and PTSD: A consensus statement. Part II: Neurochemistry, neurophysiology and neurocognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandelow, Borwin; Baldwin, David; Abelli, Marianna; Bolea-Alamanac, Blanca; Bourin, Michel; Chamberlain, Samuel R; Cinosi, Eduardo; Davies, Simon; Domschke, Katharina; Fineberg, Naomi; Grünblatt, Edna; Jarema, Marek; Kim, Yong-Ku; Maron, Eduard; Masdrakis, Vasileios; Mikova, Olya; Nutt, David; Pallanti, Stefano; Pini, Stefano; Ströhle, Andreas; Thibaut, Florence; Vaghi, Matilde M; Won, Eunsoo; Wedekind, Dirk; Wichniak, Adam; Woolley, Jade; Zwanzger, Peter; Riederer, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Biomarkers are defined as anatomical, biochemical or physiological traits that are specific to certain disorders or syndromes. The objective of this paper is to summarise the current knowledge of biomarkers for anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Findings in biomarker research were reviewed by a task force of international experts in the field, consisting of members of the World Federation of Societies for Biological Psychiatry Task Force on Biological Markers and of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology Anxiety Disorders Research Network. The present article (Part II) summarises findings on potential biomarkers in neurochemistry (neurotransmitters such as serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine or GABA, neuropeptides such as cholecystokinin, neurokinins, atrial natriuretic peptide, or oxytocin, the HPA axis, neurotrophic factors such as NGF and BDNF, immunology and CO 2 hypersensitivity), neurophysiology (EEG, heart rate variability) and neurocognition. The accompanying paper (Part I) focuses on neuroimaging and genetics. Although at present, none of the putative biomarkers is sufficient and specific as a diagnostic tool, an abundance of high quality research has accumulated that should improve our understanding of the neurobiological causes of anxiety disorders, OCD and PTSD.

  4. Biological markers for anxiety disorders, OCD and PTSD: A consensus statement. Part II: Neurochemistry, neurophysiology and neurocognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandelow, Borwin; Baldwin, David; Abelli, Marianna; Bolea-Alamanac, Blanca; Bourin, Michel; Chamberlain, Samuel R.; Cinosi, Eduardo; Davies, Simon; Domschke, Katharina; Fineberg, Naomi; Grünblatt, Edna; Jarema, Marek; Kim, Yong-Ku; Maron, Eduard; Masdrakis, Vasileios; Mikova, Olya; Nutt, David; Pallanti, Stefano; Pini, Stefano; Ströhle, Andreas; Thibaut, Florence; Vaghix, Matilde M.; Won, Eunsoo; Wedekind, Dirk; Wichniak, Adam; Woolley, Jade; Zwanzger, Peter; Riederer, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Objective Biomarkers are defined as anatomical, biochemical or physiological traits that are specific to certain disorders or syndromes. The objective of this paper is to summarise the current knowledge of biomarkers for anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Methods Findings in biomarker research were reviewed by a task force of international experts in the field, consisting of members of the World Federation of Societies for Biological Psychiatry Task Force on Biological Markers and of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology Anxiety Disorders Research Network. Results The present article (Part II) summarises findings on potential biomarkers in neurochemistry (neurotransmitters such as serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine or GABA, neuropeptides such as cholecystokinin, neurokinins, atrial natriuretic peptide, or oxytocin, the HPA axis, neurotrophic factors such as NGF and BDNF, immunology and CO2 hypersensitivity), neurophysiology (EEG, heart rate variability) and neurocognition. The accompanying paper (Part I) focuses on neuroimaging and genetics. Conclusions Although at present, none of the putative biomarkers is sufficient and specific as a diagnostic tool, an abundance of high quality research has accumulated that should improve our understanding of the neurobiological causes of anxiety disorders, OCD and PTSD. PMID:27419272

  5. Advances and perspectives from genetic research: development of biological markers in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zetzsche, Thomas; Rujescu, Dan; Hardy, John; Hampel, Harald

    2010-07-01

    Despite important recent advances, a full understanding of the (genetic) etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is still a long way off. Large collaborative efforts are ongoing, as well as the exploration of various sources of genetic variation. Evidence supports the view that Mendelian early-onset familial forms of AD are caused by rare and usually highly penetrant mutations in three genes (APP, PSEN1 and PSEN2). Considering sporadic late-onset AD (LOAD), the APOE epsilon4 allele is by far the best-established risk gene. Recently published large-scale genome-wide analyses point to additionally relevant genetically associated loci, particularly CLU, PICALM and CR1. These susceptibility loci support existing hypotheses about the amyloid, lipid, chaperone and chronic inflammatory mechanisms in AD pathogenesis, and are therefore likely to provide the basis for the development of hypothesis-driven novel biomarker candidates. Additional genes, listed online in AlzGene (e.g., GAB2 or SORL1) have repeatedly shown risk effects in LOAD, and may be true risk genes, but this is much less certain. New epigenetic research provided some evidence that DNA modifications maybe involved in LOAD (e.g., post-mortem studies described both hypo- and hyper-methylation in AD-related susceptibility genes). With respect to biomarkers, elderly nondemented APOE epsilon4 carriers demonstrated distinct cerebrospinal fluid biomarker signatures and alterations of brain glucose metabolism similar to those observed in AD. Future research should evaluate the usefulness of newly detected AD risk genes and epigenetic changes as potential biomarkers towards genetic profiling of AD or for correlation with endophenotypes and therapeutic outcome.

  6. Occupational cosmic radiation exposure in Portuguese airline pilots: study of a possible correlation with oxidative biological markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rodrigo; Folgosa, Filipe; Soares, Paulo; Pereira, Alice S; Garcia, Raquel; Gestal-Otero, Juan Jesus; Tavares, Pedro; Gomes da Silva, Marco D R

    2013-05-01

    Several studies have sought to understand the health effects of occupational exposure to cosmic radiation. However, only few biologic markers or associations with disease outcomes have so far been identified. In the present study, 22 long- and 26 medium-haul male Portuguese airline pilots and 36 factory workers who did not fly regularly were investigated. The two groups were comparable in age and diet, were non-smokers, never treated with ionizing radiation and other factors. Cosmic radiation exposure in pilots was quantified based on direct monitoring of 51 flights within Europe, and from Europe to North and South America, and to Africa. Indirect dose estimates in pilots were performed based on the SIEVERT (Système informatisé d'évaluation par vol de l'exposition au rayonnement cosmique dans les transports aériens) software for 6,039 medium- and 1,366 long-haul flights. Medium-haul pilots had a higher cosmic radiation dose rate than long-haul pilots, that is, 3.3 ± 0.2 μSv/h and 2.7 ± 0.3 μSv/h, respectively. Biological tests for oxidative stress on blood and urine, as appropriate, at two time periods separated by 1 year, included measurements of antioxidant capacity, total protein, ferritin, hemoglobin, creatinine and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8OHdG). Principal components analysis was used to discriminate between the exposed and unexposed groups based on all the biological tests. According to this analysis, creatinine and 8OHdG levels were different for the pilots and the unexposed group, but no distinctions could be made among the medium- and the long-haul pilots. While hemoglobin levels seem to be comparable between the studied groups, they were directly correlated with ferritin values, which were lower for the airline pilots.

  7. Assessment of club patrons' alcohol and drug use: the use of biological markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brenda A; Byrnes, Hilary F; Branner, Amy C; Voas, Robert; Johnson, Mark B

    2013-11-01

    Young adulthood (ages 18-25 years) represents a time when high-risk behaviors, including alcohol and drug use, peak. Electronic music dance events (EMDEs) featured at clubs provide an ecologic niche for these high-risk behaviors. This paper examines the prevalence of alcohol and drug use among EMDE patrons. Examination of personal characteristics associated with exit levels of alcohol and drug use identifies important indicators of risk taking for prevention strategies. Data were collected anonymously during 2010-2012 from 2028 patrons as they entered and exited clubs in the San Francisco Bay area featuring EMDEs. Nearly half were aged ≤25 years. Biological measures of drug and alcohol and self-reported personal characteristics were attained. Analyses were completed in 2012. At entrance, more than one fifth of patrons were positive for drug use and one fourth arrived either impaired (blood alcohol concentration [BAC]: 0.05%-0.079%) or intoxicated (BAC: >0.08%) by alcohol. At exit, one fourth tested positive for drugs, and nearly half were impaired or intoxicated by alcohol. Individual characteristics that were important for levels of risk included prior alcohol use behaviors, sexual identity, ethnic/racial identity, and transportation to the event. Gender did not differentiate for alcohol use but fewer women used drugs. Findings confirm the importance of targeting EMDEs for prevention efforts. EMDEs attract young working adults who are engaged in heavy alcohol and/or drug use. Targeting these social settings for delivering public health prevention strategies regarding alcohol and drug use and related harm is indicated by the findings. © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

  8. A systematic review of secondhand smoke exposure in a car: Attributable changes in atmospheric and biological markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raoof, Sana A; Agaku, Israel T; Vardavas, Constantine I

    2015-05-01

    Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) has been linked to disease, disability, and premature death. While several countries have enacted smoke-free legislations, exposure to SHS may still occur in unregulated private environments, such as in the family car. We performed a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature in PubMed and Web of Science up to May 2013. Articles were selected if they provided a quantitative measure of SHS exposure (biological or atmospheric markers); the study was conducted inside a car; and the assessed exposure was attributable to cigarette combustion. From 202 articles identified, 12 met the inclusion criteria. Among all studies that assessed smoking in cars with at least one window partially open, the particulate matter 2.5 μm or less in diameter (PM2.5) concentrations ranged from 47 μg/m(3) to 12,150 μg/m(3). For studies with all windows closed, PM2.5 ranged from 203.6 μg/m(3) to 13,150 μg/m(3). SHS concentration in a car was mediated by air-conditioning status, extent of airflow, and driving speed. Smoking in cars leads to extremely high exposure to SHS and increased concentration of atmospheric markers of exposure-even in the presence of air-conditioning or increased airflow from open windows. This clearly shows that the only way to protect nonsmokers, especially children, from SHS within cars is by eliminating tobacco smoking. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Prediction for steatosis in type-2 diabetes: clinico-biological markers versus {sup 1}H-MR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guiu, Boris; Krause, Denis; Cercueil, Jean-Pierre [University of Burgundy, INSERM U866, BP 87900, Dijon (France); CHU (University Hospital), Department of Radiology, 2 boulevard Marechal de Lattre de Tassigny, BP 77908, Dijon (France); Crevisy-Girod, Elodie [CHU (University Hospital), Department of Endocrinology, Diabetology, and Metabolic Diseases, BP 77908, Dijon (France); Binquet, Christine [University of Burgundy, INSERM U866, BP 87900, Dijon (France); CHU (University Hospital), Department of Biostatistics and Medical Informatics, BP 77908, Dijon (France); Duvillard, Laurence [University of Burgundy, INSERM U866, BP 87900, Dijon (France); Masson, David [University of Burgundy, INSERM U866, BP 87900, Dijon (France); CHU (University Hospital), Department of Biochemistry, BP 77908, Dijon (France); Lepage, Come; Hamza, Samia; Minello, Anne; Hillon, Patrick [University of Burgundy, INSERM U866, BP 87900, Dijon (France); CHU (University Hospital), Department of Hepatology, BP 77908, Dijon (France); Verges, Bruno; Petit, Jean-Michel [University of Burgundy, INSERM U866, BP 87900, Dijon (France); CHU (University Hospital), Department of Endocrinology, Diabetology, and Metabolic Diseases, BP 77908, Dijon (France)

    2012-04-15

    The SteatoTest, fatty liver index (FLI) and hepatic steatosis index (HSI) are clinico-biological scores of steatosis validated in general or selected populations. Serum adiponectin (s-adiponectin) and retinol binding protein 4 (s-RBP4) are adipokines that could predict liver steatosis. We investigated whether the Steatotest, FLI, HSI, s-adiponectin and s-RBP4 could be valid predictors of liver steatosis in type-2 diabetic (T2D) patients. We enrolled 220 consecutive T2D patients. Reference standard was 3.0 T {sup 1}H-MR spectroscopy (corrected for T1 and T2 decays). Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), Kappa statistic measures of agreement, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were assessed. Median liver fat content was 91 mg triglyceride/g liver tissue (range: 0-392). ICCs among the Steatotest, FLI, HSI, s-adiponectin, s-RBP4 and spectroscopy were low: 0.384, 0.281, 0.087, -0.297 and 0.048. Agreement between scores and spectroscopy was poor (Kappa range: 0.042-0.281). The areas under the ROC curves were low: 0.674, 0.647, 0.637, 0.616 and 0.540. S-adiponectin and s-RBP4 levels were strongly related to the presence of diabetic nephropathy (P = 0.0037 and P = 0.004; Mann-Whitney). The SteatoTest, FLI, HSI, s-adiponectin, s-RBP4 are not valid predictors of steatosis in T2D patients. Clino-biological markers cannot replace {sup 1}H-MR spectroscopy for the assessment of liver fat in this population. (orig.)

  10. Exploration of the genetic and biological basis of feed efficiency in mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the genetic basis underlying variation in feed efficiency in mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows. A genome-wide association study was performed for residual feed intake (RFI) and related traits using a large data set, consisting of nearly 5,000 cows. It wa...

  11. Impact of different welding techniques on biological effect markers in exhaled breath condensate of 58 mild steel welders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmeyer, Frank; Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika; Lehnert, Martin; Kendzia, Benjamin; Bernard, Sabine; Berresheim, Hans; Düser, Maria; Henry, Jana; Weiss, Tobias; Koch, Holger M; Pesch, Beate; Brüning, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Total mass and composition of welding fumes are predominantly dependent on the welding technique and welding wire applied. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of welding techniques on biological effect markers in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) of 58 healthy welders. The welding techniques applied were gas metal arc welding with solid wire (GMAW) (n=29) or flux cored wire (FCAW) (n=29). Welding fume particles were collected with personal samplers in the breathing zone inside the helmets. Levels of leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), and 8-isoprostane (8-iso-PGF(2α)) were measured with immunoassay kits and the EBC pH was measured after deaeration. Significantly higher 8-iso-PGF(2α) concentrations and a less acid pH were detected in EBC of welders using the FCAW than in EBC of welders using the GMAW technique. The lowest LTB(4) concentrations were measured in nonsmoking welders applying a solid wire. No significant influences were found in EBC concentrations of PGE(2) based upon smoking status or type of welding technique. This study suggests an enhanced irritative effect in the lower airways of mild steel welders due to the application of FCAW compared to GMAW, most likely associated with a higher emission of welding fumes.

  12. The biologically equivalent dose BED - Is the approach for calculation of this factor really a reliable basis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, J.M.; Zimmermann, J.

    2000-01-01

    To predict the effect on tumours in radiotherapy, especially relating to irreversible effects, but also to realize the retrospective assessment the so called L-Q-model is relied on at present. Internal specific organ parameters, such as α, β, γ, T p , T k , and ρ, as well as external parameters, so as D, d, n, V, and V ref , were used for determination of the biologically equivalent dose BED. While the external parameters are determinable with small deviations, the internal parameters depend on biological varieties and dispersons: In some cases the lowest value is assumed to be Δ=±25%. This margin of error goes on to the biologically equivalent dose by means of the principle of superposition of errors. In some selected cases (lung, kidney, skin, rectum) these margins of error were calculated exemplarily. The input errors especially of the internal parameters cause a mean error Δ on the biologically equivalent dose and a dispersion of the single fraction dose d dependent on the organ taking into consideration, of approximately 8-30%. Hence it follows only a very critical and cautious application of those L-Q-algorithms in expert proceedings, and in radiotherapy more experienced based decisions are recommended, instead of acting only upon simple two-dimensional mechanistic ideas. (orig.) [de

  13. Putting the Mind in the Brain: Promoting an Appreciation of the Biological Basis to Understanding Human Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, David L.

    2010-01-01

    A surprising number of students in psychology, behavioral science, and related social science classes fail to appreciate the importance of biological mechanisms to understanding behavior. To help teachers promote this understanding, this paper outlines six sources of evidence. These are (a) phylogenetic, (b) genetic/developmental, (c) clinical,…

  14. Biologic markers in immunotoxicology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    National Research Council Staff; Committee on Biologic Markers; Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology; Commission on Life Sciences; Division on Earth and Life Studies; National Research Council; National Academy of Sciences

    1992-01-01

    ... on Environmental Studies and Toxicology Commission on Life Sciences National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1992 i Copyrighttrue Please breaks inserted. are Page files. accidentally typesetting been have may original from the errors not typographic original retained, and from the created cannot be files XML from however, formatti...

  15. A common basis for facilitated legitimate exchange of biological materials proposed by the European Culture Collections' Organisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Fritze

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Being charged with the task of accessioning and supplying of living microbiological material, microbial culture collections are institutions that play a central role between the interests of a variety of user communities. On the one side are the providers of living microbiological material, such as individual scientists, institutions and countries of origin and on the other side are the various kinds of recipients/users of cultures of microorganisms from academia and industry. Thus, providing access to high quality biological material and scientific services while at the same time observing donor countries' rights, intellectual property rights, biosafety and biosecurity aspects poses demanding challenges. E.g. donor countries rights relate to Article 15 of the Convention on Biological Diversity: "Contracting parties …. recognize the sovereign rights of states over their natural resources …. shall facilitate access to resources … and not impose restrictions that run counter to the aims of the Convention. Access to natural resources shall be by mutually agreed terms and subject to prior informed consent ..." The use of a proposed standard contract by culture collections is discussed as a way of contractually safeguarding the existing research commons, while observing the new rights established in the Convention on Biological Diversity as well as other existing and new legislation impacting on the accessibility of living microbial material.

  16. Biological markers of asexuality: Handedness, birth order, and finger length ratios in self-identified asexual men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yule, Morag A; Brotto, Lori A; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2014-02-01

    Human asexuality is defined as a lack of sexual attraction to anyone or anything and it has been suggested that it may be best conceptualized as a sexual orientation. Non-right-handedness, fraternal birth order, and finger length ratio (2D:4D) are early neurodevelopmental markers associated with sexual orientation. We conducted an Internet study investigating the relationship between self-identification as asexual, handedness, number of older siblings, and self-measured finger-lengths in comparison to individuals of other sexual orientation groups. A total of 325 asexuals (60 men and 265 women; M age, 24.8 years), 690 heterosexuals (190 men and 500 women; M age, 23.5 years), and 268 non-heterosexuals (homosexual and bisexual; 64 men and 204 women; M age, 29.0 years) completed online questionnaires. Asexual men and women were 2.4 and 2.5 times, respectively, more likely to be non-right-handed than their heterosexual counterparts and there were significant differences between sexual orientation groups in number of older brothers and older sisters, and this depended on handedness. Asexual and non-heterosexual men were more likely to be later-born than heterosexual men, and asexual women were more likely to be earlier-born than non-heterosexual women. We found no significant differences between sexual orientation groups on measurements of 2D:4D ratio. This is one of the first studies to test and provide preliminary empirical support for an underlying neurodevelopmental basis to account for the lack of sexual attraction characteristic of asexuality.

  17. Discrimination of uranium chemo-toxic and radio-toxic effects: definition of biological markers for evaluating professional risks in nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darolles, Carine

    2010-01-01

    Uranium (U) is a heavy metal that is also considered as an alpha emitter. Thus the origin of U toxicity is both chemical and radiological. The identification of bio-markers to discriminate chemical and radiological toxicity for a given U compound is required to assess accurately the health effects of isotopic mixtures such as depleted U in 235 U with a low specific activity. Data from the literature show that the best candidates are cytogenetic markers. In the present work, the assessment of bio-markers of U contamination was performed on three cellular models (mouse fibroblasts, rat lymphocytes and human lymphocytes) that were exposed to different isotopic mixtures of U. The cytokinesis-block micronucleus (MN) centromere assay was performed to discriminate the chemo-toxic and radio-toxic effects of U. This study showed that the evaluation of micronuclei in bi-nucleated cells could not assess U genotoxicity accurately. Instead, the assessment of centromere-negative micronuclei and nucleo-plasmic bridges correlated with the radio-toxic effects of U. The evaluation of centromere-positive micronuclei and micronuclei in mono-nucleated cells correlated with the chemo-toxic effects of U. These cytogenetic markers should be validated on different biological models and could be proposed to discriminate radiological and chemical toxicity of a given isotopic mixture of U. These four cytogenetic markers could be a useful complement of the classical dosimetric bio-markers for the assessment of internal uranium contamination. (author)

  18. Use of anti-tumor necrosis factor biologics in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis does not change human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 markers: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umekita, Kunihiko; Umeki, Kazumi; Miyauchi, Shunichi; Ueno, Shiro; Kubo, Kazuyoshi; Kusumoto, Norio; Takajo, Ichiro; Nagatomo, Yasuhiro; Okayama, Akihiko

    2015-09-01

    Anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) biologics are effective in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA); however, it is still not clear whether this treatment promotes the development of malignancies such as lymphoma. Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), which is a causative agent of adult T-cell lymphoma (ATL), is prevalent in Japan. Many HTLV-1-positive patients with RA are assumed to exist; however, there have thus far been no reports on the effect of anti-TNF biologics on HTLV-1-positive patients. We analyzed the response to treatment with anti-TNF biologics and change of HTLV-1 markers in two cases of RA. The two cases showed no response based on the European League Against of Rheumatism response criteria 60-96 weeks after administration of anti-TNF biologics (infliximab and etanercept). No signs of ATL were observed and HTLV-1 markers, such as proviral load and clonality of HTLV-1-infected cells, showed no significant change in either of two cases. Therefore, treatment with anti-TNF biologics did not induce activation of HTLV-1, although the effect on RA was not as effective as in HTLV-1-negative patients in this limited study. Further long-term study with a greater number of patients is necessary to clarify the safety and efficacy of anti-TNF biologics in HTLV-1-positive patients with RA.

  19. Green fluorescent protein as a marker for gene expression and cell biology of mycobacterial interactions with macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhandayuthapani, S; Via, L E; Thomas, C A; Horowitz, P M; Deretic, D; Deretic, V

    1995-09-01

    gene expression and a convenient cell biology marker to study mycobacterial interactions with macrophages.

  20. A novel magnet based 3D printed marker wand as basis for repeated in-shoe multi segment foot analysis: a proof of concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eerdekens, Maarten; Staes, Filip; Pilkington, Thomas; Deschamps, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Application of in-shoe multi-segment foot kinematic analyses currently faces a number of challenges, including: (i) the difficulty to apply regular markers onto the skin, (ii) the necessity for an adequate shoe which fits various foot morphologies and (iii) the need for adequate repeatability throughout a repeated measure condition. The aim of this study therefore was to design novel magnet based 3D printed markers for repeated in-shoe measurements while using accordingly adapted modified shoes for a specific multi-segment foot model. Multi-segment foot kinematics of ten participants were recorded and kinematics of hindfoot, midfoot and forefoot were calculated. Dynamic trials were conducted to check for intra and inter-session repeatability when combining novel markers and modified shoes in a repeated measures design. Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated to determine reliability. Both repeatability and reliability were proven to be good to excellent with maximum joint angle deviations of 1.11° for intra-session variability and 1.29° for same-day inter-session variability respectively and ICC values of >0.91. The novel markers can be reliably used in future research settings using in-shoe multi-segment foot kinematic analyses with multiple shod conditions.

  1. Does morality have a biological basis? An empirical test of the factors governing moral sentiments relating to incest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Debra; Tooby, John; Cosmides, Leda

    2003-04-22

    Kin-recognition systems have been hypothesized to exist in humans, and adaptively to regulate altruism and incest avoidance among close genetic kin. This latter function allows the architecture of the kin recognition system to be mapped by quantitatively matching individual variation in opposition to incest to individual variation in developmental parameters, such as family structure and co-residence patterns. Methodological difficulties that appear when subjects are asked to disclose incestuous inclinations can be circumvented by measuring their opposition to incest in third parties, i.e. morality. This method allows a direct test of Westermarck's original hypothesis that childhood co-residence with an opposite-sex individual predicts the strength of moral sentiments regarding third-party sibling incest. Results support Westermarck's hypothesis and the model of kin recognition that it implies. Co-residence duration objectively predicts genetic relatedness, making it a reliable cue to kinship. Co-residence duration predicts the strength of opposition to incest, even after controlling for relatedness and even when co-residing individuals are genetically unrelated. This undercuts kin-recognition models requiring matching to self (through, for example, major histocompatibility complex or phenotypic markers). Subjects' beliefs about relatedness had no effect after controlling for co-residence, indicating that systems regulating kin-relevant behaviours are non-conscious, and calibrated by co-residence, not belief.

  2. The genetic basis of novel water utilisation and drinking behaviour traits and their relationship with biological performance in turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusakovica, Julija; Kremer, Valentin D; Plötz, Thomas; Rohlf, Paige; Kyriazakis, Ilias

    2017-09-29

    There is increasing interest in the definition, measurement and use of traits associated with water use and drinking behaviour, mainly because water is a finite resource and its intake is an important part of animal health and well-being. Analysis of such traits has received little attention, due in part to the lack of appropriate technology to measure drinking behaviour. We exploited novel equipment to collect water intake data in two lines of turkey (A: 27,415 and B: 12,956 birds). The equipment allowed continuous recording of individual visits to the water station in a group environment. Our aim was to identify drinking behaviour traits of biological relevance, to estimate their genetic parameters and their genetic relationships with performance traits, and to identify drinking behaviour strategies among individuals. Visits to the drinkers were clustered into bouts, i.e. time intervals spent in drinking-related activity. Based on this, biologically relevant traits were defined: (1) number of visits per bout, (2) water intake per bout, (3) drinking time per bout, (4) drinking rate, (5) daily bout frequency, (6) daily bout duration, (7) daily drinking time and (8) daily water intake. Heritability estimates for most drinking behaviour traits were moderate to high and the most highly heritable traits were drinking rate (0.49 and 0.50) and daily drinking time (0.35 and 0.46 in lines A and B, respectively). Genetic correlations between drinking behaviour and performance traits were low except for moderate correlations between daily water intake and weight gain (0.46 and 0.47 in lines A and B, respectively). High estimates of breeding values for weight gain were found across the whole range of estimated breeding values for daily water intake, daily drinking time and water intake per bout. We show for the first time that drinking behaviour traits are moderately to highly heritable. Low genetic and phenotypic correlations with performance traits suggest that current

  3. Reaction between peroxynitrite and triphenylphosphonium-substituted arylboronic acid isomers: identification of diagnostic marker products and biological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, Adam; Zielonka, Jacek; Adamus, Jan; Debski, Dawid; Dybala-Defratyka, Agnieszka; Michalowski, Bartosz; Joseph, Joy; Hartley, Richard C; Murphy, Michael P; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman

    2013-06-17

    Aromatic boronic acids react rapidly with peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) to yield phenols as major products. This reaction was used to monitor ONOO(-) formation in cellular systems. Previously, we proposed that the reaction between ONOO(-) and arylboronates (PhB(OH)2) yields a phenolic product (major pathway) and a radical pair PhB(OH)2O(•-)···(•)NO2 (minor pathway). [Sikora, A. et al. (2011) Chem. Res. Toxicol. 24, 687-697]. In this study, we investigated the influence of a bulky triphenylphosphonium (TPP) group on the reaction between ONOO(-) and mitochondria-targeted arylboronate isomers (o-, m-, and p-MitoPhB(OH)2). Results from the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin-trapping experiments unequivocally showed the presence of a phenyl radical intermediate from meta and para isomers, and not from the ortho isomer. The yield of o-MitoPhNO2 formed from the reaction between o-MitoPhB(OH)2 and ONOO(-) was not diminished by phenyl radical scavengers, suggesting a rapid fragmentation of the o-MitoPhB(OH)2O(•-) radical anion with subsequent reaction of the resulting phenyl radical with (•)NO2 in the solvent cage. The DFT quantum mechanical calculations showed that the energy barrier for the dissociation of the o-MitoPhB(OH)2O(•-) radical anion is significantly lower than that of m-MitoPhB(OH)2O(•-) and p-MitoPhB(OH)2O(•-) radical anions. The nitrated product, o-MitoPhNO2, is not formed by the nitrogen dioxide radical generated by myeloperoxidase in the presence of the nitrite anion and hydrogen peroxide, indicating that this specific nitrated product may be used as a diagnostic marker product for ONOO(-). Incubation of o-MitoPhB(OH)2 with RAW 264.7 macrophages activated to produce ONOO(-) yielded the corresponding phenol o-MitoPhOH as well as the diagnostic nitrated product, o-MitoPhNO2. We conclude that the ortho isomer probe reported here is most suitable for specific detection of ONOO(-) in biological systems.

  4. Reaction between peroxynitrite and triphenylphosphonium-substituted arylboronic acid isomers–Identification of diagnostic marker products and biological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, Adam; Zielonka, Jacek; Adamus, Jan; Debski, Dawid; Dybala-Defratyka, Agnieszka; Michalowski, Bartosz; Joseph, Joy; Hartley, Richard C.; Murphy, Michael P.; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman

    2013-01-01

    Aromatic boronic acids react rapidly with peroxynitrite (ONOO−) to yield phenols as major products. This reaction was used to monitor ONOO− formation in cellular systems. Previously, we proposed that the reaction between ONOO− and arylboronates (PhB(OH)2) yields a phenolic product (major pathway) and a radical pair PhB(OH)2O•−…•NO2 (minor pathway). [Sikora A. et al., Chem Res Toxicol 24, 687-97, 2011]. In this study, we investigated the influence of a bulky triphenylphosphonium (TPP) group on the reaction between ONOO− and mitochondria-targeted arylboronate isomers (o-, m-, and p-MitoPhB(OH)2). Results from the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin-trapping experiments unequivocally showed the presence of a phenyl radical intermediate from meta and para isomers, and not from the ortho isomer. The yield of o-MitoPhNO2 formed from the reaction between o-MitoPhB(OH)2 and ONOO− was not diminished by phenyl radical scavengers, suggesting a rapid fragmentation of the o-MitoPhB(OH)2O•− radical anion with subsequent reaction of the resulting phenyl radical with •NO2 in the solvent cage. The DFT quantum mechanical calculations showed that the energy barrier for the dissociation of o-MitoPhB(OH)2O•− radical anion is significantly lower than that of m-MitoPhB(OH)2O•− and p-MitoPhB(OH)2O•− radical anions. The nitrated product, o-MitoPhNO2, is not formed by nitrogen dioxide radical generated by myeloperoxidase in the presence of nitrite anion and hydrogen peroxide, indicating that this specific nitrated product may be used as a diagnostic marker product for ONOO−. Incubation of o-MitoPhB(OH)2 with RAW 264.7 macrophages activated to produce ONOO− yielded the corresponding phenol o-MitoPhOH as well as the diagnostic nitrated product, o-MitoPhNO2. We conclude that the ortho isomer probe reported here is most suitable for specific detection of ONOO− in biological systems. PMID:23611338

  5. Genome Analysis of the First Extensively Drug-Resistant (XDR Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Malaysia Provides Insights into the Genetic Basis of Its Biology and Drug Resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee Sian Kuan

    Full Text Available The outbreak of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB has become an increasing problem in many TB-burdened countries. The underlying drug resistance mechanisms, including the genetic variation favored by selective pressure in the resistant population, are partially understood. Recently, the first case of XDR-TB was reported in Malaysia. However, the detailed genotype family and mechanisms of the formation of multiple drugs resistance are unknown. We sequenced the whole genome of the UM 1072388579 strain with a 2-kb insert-size library and combined with that from previously sequenced 500-bp-insert paired-end reads to produce an improved sequence with maximal sequencing coverage across the genome. In silico spoligotyping and phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that UM 1072388579 strain belongs to an ancestral-like, non-Beijing clade of East Asia lineage. This is supported by the presence of a number of lineage-specific markers, including fadD28, embA, nuoD and pks7. Polymorphism analysis showed that the drug-susceptibility profile is correlated with the pattern of resistance mutations. Mutations in drug-efflux pumps and the cell wall biogenesis pathway such as mmpL, pks and fadD genes may play an important role in survival and adaptation of this strain to its surrounding environment. In this work, fifty-seven putative promoter SNPs were identified. Among them, we identified a novel SNP located at -4 T allele of TetR/acrR promoter as an informative marker to recognize strains of East Asian lineage. Our work indicates that the UM 1072388579 harbors both classical and uncommon SNPs that allow it to escape from inhibition by many antibiotics. This study provides a strong foundation to dissect the biology and underlying resistance mechanisms of the first reported XDR M. tuberculosis in Malaysia.

  6. The possibilities and limitations of neuronavigation method in the treatment of intracranial pathology, on the basis of anatomic registering markers and preoperative magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lickendorf, M.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: The evaluation of technical parameters of the system and the evaluation of the influence of changing intraoperative conditions on the accuracy of the indications of the neuronavigational system has the key meaning in the effectiveness on the work of a neurosurgeon. On the other hand the employment of neuronavigation during an operation on the brain allows to get an insight into the dynamics and directions of the shifts of individual brain structures in regard to themselves and hard integuments. Material and methods: In the experimental part of the work an analysis was done of the theoretical and actual accuracy of indications of the neuronavigational system obtained after the registering process in modal and clinical conditions. In the clinical part of the work, during the operations of 69 patients with the use of the neuronavigational system an analysis was done of the dynamics and the direction of shifts of the brain's surface and the boundaries of pathological focus in regard to the placement and volume of the pathological focus, volume of the peritumorous edema and the usage of the escape of the cerebrospinal fluid, as well as resulting from those shifts the divergence in the indications of the neuronavigational system. Results and conclusions: A smaller accuracy of the neuronavigational system in clinical than in modal conditions was proved. Anatomical registering markers cause the shifts of areas of greatest accuracy to the face area of patients, not including in its range the back sides of the head and there localized 65.4% of pathological focuses. In model and clinical conditions significant differences between computer error of the RMSE registering process and the marker localization error empirically defined were proved. In result of the analysis of the shifts of the cerebral cortex during the operation of tumors: Meta, Astr. II, Astr. III, GBM, vascular and intrachamberal it was proved that the peritumorous edema, the volume of the

  7. Population Genetic Analysis of Theileria annulata from Six Geographical Regions in China, Determined on the Basis of Micro- and Mini-satellite Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Fangyuan; Liu, Zhijie; Liu, Junlong; Liu, Aihong; Salih, Diaeldin A; Li, Youquan; Liu, Guangyuan; Luo, Jianxun; Guan, Guiquan; Yin, Hong

    2018-01-01

    Theileria annulata , a tick-borne apicomplexan protozoan, causes a lymphoproliferative disease of cattle with high prevalence in tropical and sub-tropical regions. Understanding the genetic diversity and structure of local populations will provide more fundamental knowledge for the population genetics and epidemics of protozoa. In this study, 78 samples of T. annulata collected from cattle/yaks representing 6 different geographic populations in China were genotyped using eight micro- and mini-satellite markers. High genetic variation within population, moderate genetic differentiation, and high level of diversity co-occurring with significant linkage disequilibrium were observed, which indicates there is gene flow between these populations in spite of the existence of reproductive and geographical barriers among populations. Furthermore, some degree of genetic differentiation was also found between samples from China and Oman. These findings provide a first glimpse of the genetic diversity of the T. annulata populations in China, and might contribute to the knowledge of distribution, dynamics, and epidemiology of T. annulata populations and optimize the management strategies for control.

  8. Genome-wide association study of biologically informed periodontal complex traits offers novel insights into the genetic basis of periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offenbacher, Steven; Divaris, Kimon; Barros, Silvana P; Moss, Kevin L; Marchesan, Julie T; Morelli, Thiago; Zhang, Shaoping; Kim, Steven; Sun, Lu; Beck, James D; Laudes, Matthias; Munz, Matthias; Schaefer, Arne S; North, Kari E

    2016-05-15

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of chronic periodontitis (CP) defined by clinical criteria alone have had modest success to-date. Here, we refine the CP phenotype by supplementing clinical data with biological intermediates of microbial burden (levels of eight periodontal pathogens) and local inflammatory response (gingival crevicular fluid IL-1β) and derive periodontal complex traits (PCTs) via principal component analysis. PCTs were carried forward to GWAS (∼2.5 million markers) to identify PCT-associated loci among 975 European American adult participants of the Dental ARIC study. We sought to validate these findings for CP in the larger ARIC cohort (n = 821 participants with severe CP, 2031-moderate CP, 1914-healthy/mild disease) and an independent German sample including 717 aggressive periodontitis cases and 4210 controls. We identified six PCTs with distinct microbial community/IL-1β structures, although with overlapping clinical presentations. PCT1 was characterized by a uniformly high pathogen load, whereas PCT3 and PCT5 were dominated by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis, respectively. We detected genome-wide significant signals for PCT1 (CLEC19A, TRA, GGTA2P, TM9SF2, IFI16, RBMS3), PCT4 (HPVC1) and PCT5 (SLC15A4, PKP2, SNRPN). Overall, the highlighted loci included genes associated with immune response and epithelial barrier function. With the exception of associations of BEGAIN with severe and UBE3D with moderate CP, no other loci were associated with CP in ARIC or aggressive periodontitis in the German sample. Although not associated with current clinically determined periodontal disease taxonomies, upon replication and mechanistic validation these candidate loci may highlight dysbiotic microbial community structures and altered inflammatory/immune responses underlying biological sub-types of CP. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  9. Socioeconomic Status and Biological Markers of Health: An Examination of Adults in the United States and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glei, Dana A.; Goldman, Noreen; Ryff, Carol D.; Weinstein, Maxine

    2014-01-01

    Objective The study documents whether socioeconomic status (SES) differentials in biological risk are more widely observed and larger in the United States than Taiwan. Method Data come from the Social Environment and Biomarkers of Aging Study in Taiwan and the Midlife in the United States study. We use regression analyses to test whether four summary measures of biological risk are significantly related to categorical measures of education, income, and subjective social status among four country-sex specific subgroups. Results Physiological dysregulation is significantly, negatively related to SES in both the US and Taiwan, especially for males. The prevalence and magnitude of the relationships are similar in the two countries:12 of 24 possible SES-biological summary score relationships are significant in the US and 11 of 24 are significant in Taiwan. Discussion Overall, SES differentials in biological risk do not appear to be more widely observed or larger in the US than in Taiwan. PMID:24972822

  10. Circulating VEGF as a biological marker in patients with rheumatoid arthritis? Preanalytical and biological variability in healthy persons and in patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hetland, Merete Lund; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Lottenburger, Tine

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Soluble vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a promising biomarker in monitoring rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but studies of pre-analytical and biologic variability are few. METHODS: VEGF was measured by ELISA methods in serum and plasma from healthy persons and RA patients. Pre...

  11. Application of biological markers for the identification of oil-type pollutants in recent sediments: Alluvial formation of the Danube river, Oil refinery Pančevo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rašović Aleksandar S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to examine to which extent the abundance and distribution of certain biological markers may be used for the identification of oil-type pollutants in recent sediments and ground waters. The samples were taken from the area of the Oil Refinery Pančevo (alluvial formation of the Danube River. The organic matter of the investigated samples was isolated using an extraction method with chloroform. The group composition and usual biological markers were analyzed in the obtained extracts. n-Alkanes and acyclic isoprenoids, pristane and phytane were analyzed using gas chromatographie (GC analysis of saturated hydrocarbons. Polycyclic alkanes of the sterane and terpane type were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, i.e. by analyzing the carbamide non-adduct of the total alkane fraction (Single Ion Monitoring SIM-technique. The obtained results indicate that n-alkanes can be used for the identification of oil-type pollutants (for example, if the oil-pollutant is biodegraded or present in very low concentrations, and steranes and triterpanes can be used as very reliable indicators of oil-type pollution in recent sediments and ground waters.

  12. Radiosynthesis of [131I]IAZGP via nucleophilic substitution and its biological evaluation as a hypoxia marker - is specific activity a factor influencing hypoxia-mapping ability of a hypoxia marker?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suehiro, Makiko; Burgman, Paul; Carlin, Sean; Burke, Sean; Yang Guangbin; Ouerfelli, Ouathek; Oehler-Janne, Christoph; O'Donoghue, Joseph; Ling, Clifton; Humm, John

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: The hypoxia marker IAZGP, 1-(6-deoxy-6-iodo-β-D-galactopyranosyl)-2-nitroimidazole, has been labeled with 123 I/ 124 I/ 125 I/ 131 I via iodine-radioiodine exchange, which gives the radiotracer in a specific activity of 10-90 MBq/μmol. We synthesized the same radiotracer possessing several hundred to thousand times higher specific activity (high-SA IAZGP) via nucleophilic substitution and compared its biological behavior with that of conventionally produced IAZGP (low-SA IAZGP) to determine if specific activity is a factor influencing cell uptake kinetics, biodistribution and intratumor microregional localization of the radiotracer. Methods: High-SA [ 131 I]IAZGP was prepared by substitution of the tosyl functionality with [ 131 I]iodide. In vitro uptake of high- and low-SA [ 131 I]IAZGP by HCT8 and HT29 cells was assessed in normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Biodistribution and intratumor localization of high- and low-SA [ 131 I]IAZGP were determined by injection into HT29 tumor-bearing mice. Results: The nucleophilic substitution reaction proceeded efficiently in acetonitrile at 150 o C, giving the final product in an average yield of 42% and an average specific activity of 30 GBq/μmol. In vitro, high-SA [ 131 I]IAZGP was incorporated into the tumor cells with similar kinetics and oxygen dependence to low-SA [ 131 I]IAZGP. In HT29 tumor-bearing mice, biodistributions of high- and low-SA [ 131 I]IAZGP were equivalent. Ex vivo autoradiography revealed heterogeneous intratumor localization of high-SA [ 131 I]IAZGP corresponding closely to distributions of other exogenous and endogenous hypoxia markers. Comparable microregional distribution patterns were observed with low-SA [ 131 I]IAZGP. Conclusions: Radiolabeled IAZGP produced via nucleophilic substitution is validated as an exogenous hypoxia marker. Specific activity does not appear to influence the in vivo hypoxia-mapping ability of the radiotracer.

  13. Parasites as Biological Tags for Stock Discrimination of Beaked Redfish (Sebastes mentella): Parasite Infra-Communities vs. Limited Resolution of Cytochrome Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapper, Regina; Kochmann, Judith; O'Hara, Robert B; Karl, Horst; Kuhn, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The use of parasites as biological tags for discrimination of fish stocks has become a commonly used approach in fisheries management. Metazoan parasite community analysis and anisakid nematode population genetics based on a mitochondrial cytochrome marker were applied in order to assess the usefulness of the two parasitological methods for stock discrimination of beaked redfish Sebastes mentella of three fishing grounds in the North East Atlantic. Multivariate, model-based approaches demonstrated that the metazoan parasite fauna of beaked redfish from East Greenland differed from Tampen, northern North Sea, and Bear Island, Barents Sea. A joint model (latent variable model) was used to estimate the effects of covariates on parasite species and identified four parasite species as main source of differences among fishing grounds; namely Chondracanthus nodosus, Anisakis simplex s.s., Hysterothylacium aduncum, and Bothriocephalus scorpii. Due to its high abundance and differences between fishing grounds, Anisakis simplex s.s. was considered as a major biological tag for host stock differentiation. Whilst the sole examination of Anisakis simplex s.s. on a population genetic level is only of limited use, anisakid nematodes (in particular, A. simplex s.s.) can serve as biological tags on a parasite community level. This study confirmed the use of multivariate analyses as a tool to evaluate parasite infra-communities and to identify parasite species that might serve as biological tags. The present study suggests that S. mentella in the northern North Sea and Barents Sea is not sub-structured.

  14. Parasites as Biological Tags for Stock Discrimination of Beaked Redfish (Sebastes mentella: Parasite Infra-Communities vs. Limited Resolution of Cytochrome Markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Klapper

    Full Text Available The use of parasites as biological tags for discrimination of fish stocks has become a commonly used approach in fisheries management. Metazoan parasite community analysis and anisakid nematode population genetics based on a mitochondrial cytochrome marker were applied in order to assess the usefulness of the two parasitological methods for stock discrimination of beaked redfish Sebastes mentella of three fishing grounds in the North East Atlantic. Multivariate, model-based approaches demonstrated that the metazoan parasite fauna of beaked redfish from East Greenland differed from Tampen, northern North Sea, and Bear Island, Barents Sea. A joint model (latent variable model was used to estimate the effects of covariates on parasite species and identified four parasite species as main source of differences among fishing grounds; namely Chondracanthus nodosus, Anisakis simplex s.s., Hysterothylacium aduncum, and Bothriocephalus scorpii. Due to its high abundance and differences between fishing grounds, Anisakis simplex s.s. was considered as a major biological tag for host stock differentiation. Whilst the sole examination of Anisakis simplex s.s. on a population genetic level is only of limited use, anisakid nematodes (in particular, A. simplex s.s. can serve as biological tags on a parasite community level. This study confirmed the use of multivariate analyses as a tool to evaluate parasite infra-communities and to identify parasite species that might serve as biological tags. The present study suggests that S. mentella in the northern North Sea and Barents Sea is not sub-structured.

  15. Changes in the ER, PgR, HER2, p53 and Ki-67 biological markers between primary and recurrent breast cancer: discordance rates and prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tashima Rumiko

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In breast cancer, ER/PgR, HER2, and Ki-67 are important biological markers for predicting prognosis and making effective treatment decisions. In addition, changes in markers due to relapse are also clinically experienced; however, the frequency and clinical significance are still not fully understood. Thus, changes in markers and their correlations with prognosis were investigated. Patients and Methods Out of the patients with relapse from 1997 to March 2011, there were 97 consecutive patients from whom the lesion was resected and evaluated by immunostaining. The biopsy sites were chest wall, lymph node, ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence, lungs, bones, ovaries and brain. The markers sought were ER, PgR, HER2, p53 and Ki-67. Results The hormone receptor positive rate from the primary tumor to recurrence decreased from 63.9% to 57.7% and from 56.7% to 43.3% for ER and PgR, respectively. Changes in the positive/negative evaluation were seen at the rate of 10.3% and 25.8% for ER and PgR, respectively. The Ki-67 index increased significantly from a mean of 29.1% at primary tumor to 36.3% at relapse. When divided into 2 groups ( Conclusion Estrogen receptor and PgR decreased while Ki-67 increased due to relapse; however, the rate of change was high for PgR and Ki-67. Change in the subtypes was seen in 25%. In addition, PgR at relapse and Ki-67 at primary tumor were significant factors for post-relapse prognosis while PgR becoming negative was a poor prognostic factor. These findings are important for making effective treatment decisions.

  16. The Report-AGE project: a permanent epidemiological observatory to identify clinical and biological markers of health outcomes in elderly hospitalized patients in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustacchini, Silvia; Abbatecola, Angela Marie; Bonfigli, Anna Rita; Chiatti, Carlos; Corsonello, Andrea; Di Stefano, Giuseppina; Galeazzi, Roberta; Fabbietti, Paolo; Lisa, Rosamaria; Guffanti, Enrico E; Provinciali, Mauro; Lattanzio, Fabrizia

    2015-12-01

    Italy is expected to experience the largest growth in persons ≥65 years (>20% by 2020). This demographic shift allows for geriatric research on predictive clinical and biological markers of outcomes related to frailty, re-hospitalization and mortality. To describe rationale and methods of the Report-AGE study project of acute care patients in Italian National Research Center on Aging (INRCA) research hospitals. Report-AGE study is a large observational study on health conditions and outcomes of hospitalized elderly patients (≥65 years). The primary objective of the study is to create a high-level data resource of demographics, comprehensive geriatric assessments, clinical and diagnostic information, as well as biological and molecular markers in all older patients admitted to INRCA Hospitals. Assessments in physical and nutritional parameters, co-morbid health conditions, and associations with frailty parameters are ongoing in older hospitalized adults following an acute event. Study collection began in September 2011. Up to date, there are 3479 patients ≥65 years (mean age: 85 ± 7years) with 1543 men and 1936 women enrolled. Data have been recorded regarding functional and clinical parameters before, during hospital admission and at discharge. Data collection for primary outcome analyses related to re-hospitalization and mortality is estimated for September 2016. This study aims at collecting precise clinical data, comprehensive geriatric assessment, risk factors, and biological data from acute care patients. Data will also be used to identify mechanisms underlying frailty in this specific population. This study provides a descriptive epidemiological collection of the health conditions of older in-patients.

  17. Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I am particularly happy that the Academy is bringing out this document by Professor M S. Valiathan on Ayurvedic Biology. It is an effort to place before the scientific community, especially that of India, the unique scientific opportunities that arise out of viewing Ayurveda from the perspective of contemporary science, its tools ...

  18. Current status on behavioral and biological markers of PTSD: a search for clarity in a conflicting literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, Phillip R; Diamond, David M

    2013-06-01

    Extensive research has identified stereotypic behavioral and biological abnormalities in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), such as heightened autonomic activity, an exaggerated startle response, reduced basal cortisol levels and cognitive impairments. We have reviewed primary research in this area, noting that factors involved in the susceptibility and expression of PTSD symptoms are more complex and heterogeneous than is commonly stated, with extensive findings which are inconsistent with the stereotypic behavioral and biological profile of the PTSD patient. A thorough assessment of the literature indicates that interactions among myriad susceptibility factors, including social support, early life stress, sex, age, peri- and post-traumatic dissociation, cognitive appraisal of trauma, neuroendocrine abnormalities and gene polymorphisms, in conjunction with the inconsistent expression of the disorder across studies, confounds attempts to characterize PTSD as a monolithic disorder. Overall, our assessment of the literature addresses the great challenge in developing a behavioral and biomarker-based diagnosis of PTSD. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Evaluation of stress response using psychological, biological, and electrophysiological markers during immersive simulation of life threatening events in multidisciplinary teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, D A; Darmian-Rafei, I; Nadolny, J; Sosner, P; Ragot, S; Oriot, D

    2017-07-27

    Stress might impair clinical performance in real life and in simulation-based education (SBE). Subjective or objective measures can be used to assess stress during SBE. This monocentric study aimed to evaluate the effects of simulation of life-threatening events on measurements of various stress parameters (psychological, biological, and electrophysiological parameters) in multidisciplinary teams (MDTs) during SBE. The effect of gender and status of participants on stress response was also investigated. Twelve emergency MDTs of 4 individuals were recruited for an immersive simulation session. Stress was assessed by: (1) self-reported stress; (2) Holter analysis, including heart rate and heart rate variability in the temporal and spectral domain (autonomic nervous system); (3) salivary cortisol (hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis). Forty-eight participants (54.2% men, psychological, biological and electrophysiological parameters. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Critical Care Nurses Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Advanced oxidation protein products and malondialdehyde - the new biological markers of oxidative stress - are elevated in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakir, Tansel; Goktas, Bulent; Mutlu, Mehmet F; Mutlu, Ilknur; Bilgihan, Ayse; Erdem, Mehmet; Erdem, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to measure advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) as markers for oxidative stress to evaluate cardiovascular risk in pre- and postmenopausal women and to compare the results with malondialde-hyde (MDA) levels. Twenty premenopausal women and 84 naturally postmenopausal patients were enrolled in the study. AOPP and MDA plasma levels were measured. The postmenopausal group was further subdivided into two groups: postmenopausal age of 40-49 and of 50-59 years. AOPP and MDA levels were compared between premenopausal, 40-49 and 50-59 year old menopausal women. Plasma AOPP and MDA levels in postmenopausal women were increased when compared with their premeno-pausal peers (123.83 ± 55.51 μmol/L vs. 61.59 ± 16.42 μmol/L and 6.50 ± 1.05 μmol/L vs. 5.98 ± 0.77 μmol/L; respectively). Mean plasma AOPP levels in the two menopausal age groups were both significantly higher from the premenopausal group (118.64 ± 59.1 μmol/L vs. 61.59 ± 16.42 μmol/L and 132.31 ± 48.97 μmol/L vs. 61.59 ± 16.42 μmol/L; respectively). No significant difference was found in mean AOPP levels between postmenopausal subjects of 40-49 and 50-59 years age (118.64 ± 59.12 μmol/L vs. 132.31 ± 48.97 μmol/L). Mean plasma MDA levels of each of two postmenopausal age groups were both significantly higher from the premenopausal group (6.50 ± 1.04 μmol/L vs. 5.98 ± 0.77 μmol/L and 6.50 ± 1.10 μmol/L vs. 5.98 ± 0.77 μmol/L; respectively). However, no statistically significant difference between the two postmenopausal age groups (6.50 ± 1.04 μmol/L vs. 6.50 ± 1.10 μmol/L) was found. AOPP and MDA levels are elevated in postmenopausal women as compared to their premenopausal peers, suggesting they can be used as markers for cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women.

  1. Markers of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition reflect tumor biology according to patient age and Gleason score in prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Jędroszka

    Full Text Available Prostate carcinoma (PRAD is one of the most frequently diagnosed malignancies amongst men worldwide. It is well-known that androgen receptor (AR plays a pivotal role in a vast majority of prostate tumors. However, recent evidence emerged stating that estrogen receptors (ERs may also contribute to prostate tumor development. Moreover, progression and aggressiveness of prostate cancer may be associated with differential expression genes of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT. Therefore we aimed to assess the significance of receptors status as well as EMT marker genes expression among PRAD patients in accordance to their age and Gleason score.We analyzed TCGA gene expression profiles of 497 prostate tumor samples according to 43 genes involved in EMT and 3 hormone receptor genes (AR, ESR1, ESR2 as well as clinical characteristic of cancer patients. Then patients were divided into four groups according to their age and 5 groups according to Gleason score. Next, we evaluated PRAD samples according to relationship between the set of variables in different combinations and compared differential expression in subsequent groups of patients. The analysis was applied using R packages: FactoMineR, gplots, RColorBrewer and NMF.MFA analysis resulted in distinct grouping of PRAD patients into four age categories according to expression level of AR, ESR1 and ESR2 with the most distinct group of age less than 50 years old. Further investigations indicated opposite expression profiles of EMT markers between different age groups as well as strong association of EMT gene expression with Gleason score. We found that depending on age of prostate cancer patients and Gleason score EMT genes with distinctly altered expression are: KRT18, KRT19, MUC1 and COL4A1, CTNNB1, SNAI2, ZEB1 and MMP3.Our major observation is that prostate cancer from patients under 50 years old compared to older ones has entirely different EMT gene expression profiles showing potentially

  2. Assessing of organic content in surface sediments of Suez Gulf, Egypt depending on normal alkanes, terpanes and steranes biological markers indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abedel Aziz Elfadly

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Semi-enclosed Suez Gulf records various signals of high anthropic pressures from surrounding regions and the industrialized Suez countries. The sedimentary hydrocarbons have been studied in 6 coastal stations located in the Gulf of Suez. Non-aromatic hydrocarbons were analyzed by GC/FID and GC/MS to assess organic content in surface sediments of Suez Gulf, Egypt depending on alkanes, terpanes and steranes biological markers indicators. The results showed that the hydrocarbons are originated from multiple terrestrial inputs, biogenic, pyrolytic. Several ratios of hydrocarbons indicated the predominance of petrogenic in combination with biogenic hydrocarbons. Al-Attaqa harbor, Suez oil processing company, Al-Nasr Oil Company, AL-Kabanon and EL-Sukhna of Loloha Beach are the main sources of petroleum contamination.

  3. The degree of premature hair graying as an independent risk marker for coronary artery disease: a predictor of biological age rather than chronological age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocaman, Sinan Altan; Çetin, Mustafa; Durakoğlugil, Murtaza Emre; Erdoğan, Turan; Çanga, Aytun; Çiçek, Yüksel; Doğan, Sıtkı; Şahin, Ismail; Şatıroğlu, Omer; Bostan, Mehmet

    2012-09-01

    Age is the most important and uncorrectable coronary risk factor at the moment. The concept of measuring aging biologically rather than only chronologically may be of importance in clinical practice. Hair graying is the most apparent sign of biological aging in humans, yet its mechanism is largely unknown. Today, it is known that cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs), especially in combination, cause premature atherosclerosis. In our opinion, premature hair graying or whitening may represent early atherosclerotic changes as a surrogate of host response to the CVRFs. In this study, we planned to investigate the relationship of hair graying with CVRFs and coronary atherosclerotic burden in order to determine whether it is an independent marker for coronary artery disease (CAD). The current study has a cross-sectional observational design. Two hundred and thirteen men who underwent coronary angiography with a suspicion of CAD were enrolled in the study. The patients were evaluated in terms of age, demographical properties and the CVRFs. Hair whitening score (HWS) was defined according to extent of gray/white hairs (1: pure black; 2: black>white; 3: black=white; 4: white>black; 5: pure white). Coronary atherosclerotic burden was assessed by the Gensini score. Analyses were performed in age-matched normal coronary arteries (NCA) and CAD groups. Linear and logistic regression analyses were used for the multivariate analyses of independent variables associated with hair greying. The CVRFs were higher in CAD group. Hair whitening score (2.7 ± 1.3 vs. 3.3 ± 1.2, p=0.002), hair losing score (1.2 ± 0.9 vs. 1.5 ± 1.0, p=0.038) and xanthelasma rate (24% vs. 45%, p=0.013) were also significantly different between NCA and CAD groups. Age (phair graying. In our study, we found that the degree of gray/white hairs is related to extent of CAD. Our findings also suggested that hair graying is a risk marker for CAD independent of age and other traditional risk factors. Biological age

  4. Physical exercise, fitness and dietary pattern and their relationship with circadian blood pressure pattern, augmentation index and endothelial dysfunction biological markers: EVIDENT study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Eguskiñe

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthy lifestyles may help to delay arterial aging. The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship of physical activity and dietary pattern to the circadian pattern of blood pressure, central and peripheral blood pressure, pulse wave velocity, carotid intima-media thickness and biological markers of endothelial dysfunction in active and sedentary individuals without arteriosclerotic disease. Methods/Design Design: A cross-sectional multicenter study with six research groups. Subjects: From subjects of the PEPAF project cohort, in which 1,163 who were sedentary became active, 1,942 were sedentary and 2,346 were active. By stratified random sampling, 1,500 subjects will be included, 250 in each group. Primary measurements: We will evaluate height, weight, abdominal circumference, clinical and ambulatory blood pressure with the Radial Pulse Wave Acquisition Device (BPro, central blood pressure and augmentation index with Pulse Wave Application Software (A-Pulse and SphymgoCor System Px (Pulse Wave Analysis, pulse wave velocity (PWV with SphymgoCor System Px (Pulse Wave Velocity, nutritional pattern with a food intake frequency questionnaire, physical activity with the 7-day PAR questionnaire and accelerometer (Actigraph GT3X, physical fitness with the cycle ergometer (PWC-170, carotid intima-media thickness by ultrasound (Micromax, and endothelial dysfunction biological markers (endoglin and osteoprotegerin. Discussion Determining that sustained physical activity and the change from sedentary to active as well as a healthy diet improve circadian pattern, arterial elasticity and carotid intima-media thickness may help to propose lifestyle intervention programs. These interventions could improve the cardiovascular risk profile in some parameters not routinely assessed with traditional risk scales. From the results of this study, interventional approaches could be obtained to delay vascular aging that combine physical

  5. Biological Parameters and Molecular Markers of Clone CL Brener - The Reference Organism of the Trypanosoma cruzi Genome Project

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    Bianca Zingales

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available Clone CL Brener is the reference organism used in the Trypanosoma cruzi Genome Project. Some biological parameters of CL Brener were determined: (a the doubling time of epimastigote forms cultured in liver infusion-tryptose (LIT medium at 28oC is 58±13 hr; (b differentiation of epimastigotes to metacyclic trypomastigotes is obtained by incubation in LIT-20% Grace´s medium; (c trypomastigotes infect mammalian cultured cells and perform the complete intracellular cycle at 33 and 37oC; (d blood forms are highly infective to mice; (e blood forms are susceptible to nifurtimox and benznidazole. The molecular typing of CL Brener has been determined: (a isoenzymatic profiles are characteristic of zymodeme ZB; (b PCR amplification of a 24Sa ribosomal RNA sequence indicates it belongs to T. cruzi lineage 1; (c schizodeme, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD and DNA fingerprinting analyses were performed

  6. Clinicopathological variables of sporadic schwannomas of peripheral nerve in 291 patients and expression of biologically relevant markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Eric D; Ingram, Davis; Metcalf-Doetsch, William; Khan, Dilshad; Al Sannaa, Ghadah; Le Loarer, Francois; Lazar, Alexander J F; Slopis, John; Torres, Keila E; Lev, Dina; Pollock, Raphael E; McCutcheon, Ian E

    2017-09-08

    OBJECTIVE While sporadic peripheral schwannomas (SPSs) are generally well treated with surgery, their biology is not well understood. Consequently, treatment options are limited. The aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive description of SPS. The authors describe clinicopathological features and treatment outcomes of patients harboring these tumors, and they assess expression of biomarkers using a clinically annotated tissue microarray. Together, these data give new insight into the biology and management of SPS. METHODS Patients presenting with a primary SPS between 1993 and 2011 (n = 291) were selected from an institutional registry to construct a clinical database. All patients underwent follow-up, and short- and long-term outcomes were assessed. Expression of relevant biomarkers was assessed using a new tissue microarray (n = 121). RESULTS SPSs were generally large (mean 5.5 cm) and frequently painful at presentation (55%). Most patients were treated with surgery (80%), the majority of whom experienced complete resolution (52%) or improvement (18%) of their symptoms. Tumors that were completely resected (85%) did not recur. Some patients experienced short-term (16%) and long-term (4%) complications postoperatively. Schwannomas expressed higher levels of platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β (2.1) than malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) (1.5, p = 0.004) and neurofibromas (1.33, p = 0.007). Expression of human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 was greater in SPSs (0.91) than in MPNSTs (0.33, p = 0.002) and neurofibromas (0.33, p = 0.026). Epidermal growth factor receptor was expressed in far fewer SPS cells (10%) than in MPNSTs (58%, p SPSs more frequently expressed cytoplasmic survivin (66% of tumor cells) than normal nerve (46% of cells), but SPS expressed nuclear survivin in fewer tumor cells than in MPNSTs (24% and 50%, respectively; p = 0.018). CONCLUSIONS Complete resection is curative for SPS. Left untreated, however, these

  7. The impact of acute gastroenteritis on haematological markers used for the athletes biological passport - report of 5 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Y O; Pottgiesser, T

    2011-02-01

    The haematological module of the "Athletes Biological Passport" (ABP) is used to detect blood doping through the longitudinal variation of blood variables, such as haemoglobin concentration (Hb). Sporting federations have opened disciplinary procedures against athletes based on ABP results. Suspicious athletes try to explain the variations in their blood values with dehydration caused by gastrointestinal (GI) problems. The aim of the present report is to describe haemoglobin concentration, a key variable of the ABP, during acute gastroenteritis in athletes. 5 athletes with severe gastroenteritis were studied in retrospective. Blood test results (Hb, white blood cell count (WBC) and differential, CRP) obtained on hospital admission for GI problems were compared to data obtained from the same athletes in states of good health on previous occasions. During GI problems, athletes displayed marked inflammatory constellations with increased CRP and typical WBC shifts. Hb was not affected and remained mostly unchanged. This is in line with basic physiologic fluid regulation, where plasma volume is kept constant, even under conditions of severe dehydration. It is therefore unlikely that fluid loss associated with gastroenteritis will cause athletes blood data to reach levels of abnormality that will be suspicious of blood doping. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Structural basis for species specific inhibition of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (17β-HSD1: computational study and biological validation.

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    Tobias Klein

    Full Text Available 17β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (17β-HSD1 catalyzes the reduction of estrone to estradiol, which is the most potent estrogen in humans. Inhibition of 17β-HSD1 and thereby reducing the intracellular estradiol concentration is thus a promising approach for the treatment of estrogen dependent diseases. In the past, several steroidal and non-steroidal inhibitors of 17β-HSD1 have been described but so far there is no cocrystal structure of the latter in complex with 17β-HSD1. However, a distinct knowledge of active site topologies and protein-ligand interactions is a prerequisite for structure-based drug design and optimization. An elegant strategy to enhance this knowledge is to compare inhibition values obtained for one compound toward ortholog proteins from various species, which are highly conserved in sequence and differ only in few residues. In this study the inhibitory potencies of selected members of different non-steroidal inhibitor classes toward marmoset 17β-HSD1 were determined and the data were compared with the values obtained for the human enzyme. A species specific inhibition profile was observed in the class of the (hydroxyphenylnaphthols. Using a combination of computational methods, including homology modelling, molecular docking, MD simulation, and binding energy calculation, a reasonable model of the three-dimensional structure of marmoset 17β-HSD1 was developed and inhibition data were rationalized on the structural basis. In marmoset 17β-HSD1, residues 190 to 196 form a small α-helix, which induces conformational changes compared to the human enzyme. The docking poses suggest these conformational changes as determinants for species specificity and energy decomposition analysis highlighted the outstanding role of Asn152 as interaction partner for inhibitor binding. In summary, this strategy of comparing the biological activities of inhibitors toward highly conserved ortholog proteins might be an alternative to

  9. High biological variation of serum hyaluronic acid and Hepascore, a biochemical marker model for the prediction of liver fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Enrico; Adams, Leon A; Ching, Helena L; Bulsara, Max; MacQuillan, Gerry C; Jeffrey, Gary P

    2013-05-01

    Serum hyaluronic acid and biochemical models which require hyaluronic acid analysis are commonly used as predictors of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic liver disease, however biological variation data for hyaluronic acid are deficient. Four serial serum samples were obtained at weekly intervals from healthy volunteers and patients with chronic hepatitis B, chronic hepatitis C and non- alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD; 20 in each group). The within-individual week-to-week variation (CVI) and reference change values for hyaluronic acid, α₂-macroglobulin and Hepascore were obtained. Hepascore is calculated from hyaluronic acid, α2-macroglobulin, bilirubin and γ-glutamyltransferase activity. Hyaluronic acid displayed large within-individual variation, the CVI values were 62% in healthy subjects, 38% in hepatitis C, 37% in hepatitis B and 36% in NAFLD patients. Hepascore CVIs were 43% in healthy subjects, 24% in hepatitis C, 28% in hepatitis B and 39% in NAFLD patients. α₂-Macroglobulin was much less variable with CVIs ranging from 4.4% to 7.6%. Bland-Altman plots of week-to-week variations showed rates of significant disagreement for samples collected in any 2 successive weeks varied from 5% in NAFLD patients to 8.3% in healthy subjects. When using non-fasting serum samples, hyaluronic acid and to a lesser extent, the Hepascore model display large within-individual variations in both health and chronic liver disease. This information is critical for interpreting the significance of both single measurements and changes in serial measurements.

  10. Ácidos graxos como marcadores biológicos da ingestão de gorduras Fatty acids as biological markers of fat intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana dos Santos Vaz

    2006-08-01

    of dietary fat intake. The aim of this study is to evidence the metabolic aspects of some fatty acids and their role as markers of dietary fat intake, and to present the analytical methods used in their determination. Analysis of the fatty acid composition of adipose tissue provides long-term information on dietary fat intake, whereas the determination of the fatty acid composition of serum lipid fractions accounts for the short- and medium-term dietary intakes. The essential fatty acids, the saturated fatty acids with an odd number of carbon atoms (15:0 and 17:0 and the trans fatty acids are used as biological markers of dietary fat intake or of these individual components, since they are not synthesized endogenously. Gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography are the main analytical methods used to determine fatty acid composition. At present, the most comprehensive evaluation of dietary fat intake comprises the determination of biological markers in association with dietary assessment methods.

  11. Prognostic factors in non-muscle-invasive bladder tumors - I. Clinical prognostic factors: A review of the experience of the EORTC genito-urinary group - II. Biologic prognostic markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurth, Karl-Heinz; Sylvester, Richard J.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To summarize the most important clinical prognostic factors of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer, as assessed by the European organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Genito-Urinary Group, to present biologic markers involved in urothelial cell carcinoma, and to address

  12. The application of semianalytic method for calculating the thickness of biological shields of nuclear reactors. Part 1. Theoretical basis of a semianalytic method. Attenuation of neutrons' radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukaszek, W.; Kucypera, S.

    1982-01-01

    The basis of a semianalytic method for calculating attenuation of rays (neutron, gamma) in material medium is described. The method was applied in determining the neutrons' flux density in one dimensional Cartesian geometry of the reflector and the shield. (author)

  13. The Road Ahead to Cure Alzheimer’s Disease: Development of Biological Markers and Neuroimaging Methods for Prevention Trials Across all Stages and Target Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavedo, E.; Lista, S.; Khachaturian, Z.; Aisen, P.; Amouyel, P.; Herholz, K.; Jack, C.R.; Sperling, R.; Cummings, J.; Blennow, K.; O’Bryant, S.; Frisoni, G.B.; Khachaturian, A.; Kivipelto, M.; Klunk, W.; Broich, K.; Andrieu, S.; de Schotten, M. Thiebaut; Mangin, J.-F.; Lammertsma, A.A.; Johnson, K.; Teipel, S.; Drzezga, A.; Bokde, A.; Colliot, O.; Bakardjian, H.; Zetterberg, H.; Dubois, B.; Vellas, B.; Schneider, L.S.; Hampel, H.

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a slowly progressing non-linear dynamic brain disease in which pathophysiological abnormalities, detectable in vivo by biological markers, precede overt clinical symptoms by many years to decades. Use of these biomarkers for the detection of early and preclinical AD has become of central importance following publication of two international expert working group’s revised criteria for the diagnosis of AD dementia, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to AD, prodromal AD and preclinical AD. As a consequence of matured research evidence six AD biomarkers are sufficiently validated and partly qualified to be incorporated into operationalized clinical diagnostic criteria and use in primary and secondary prevention trials. These biomarkers fall into two molecular categories: biomarkers of amyloid-beta (Aβ) deposition and plaque formation as well as of tau-protein related hyperphosphorylation and neurodegeneration. Three of the six gold-standard (“core feasible) biomarkers are neuroimaging measures and three are cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analytes. CSF Aβ1-42 (Aβ1-42), also expressed as Aβ1-42 : Aβ1-40 ratio, T-tau, and P-tau Thr181 & Thr231 proteins have proven diagnostic accuracy and risk enhancement in prodromal MCI and AD dementia. Conversely, having all three biomarkers in the normal range rules out AD. Intermediate conditions require further patient follow-up. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at increasing field strength and resolution allows detecting the evolution of distinct types of structural and functional abnormality pattern throughout early to late AD stages. Anatomical or volumetric MRI is the most widely used technique and provides local and global measures of atrophy. The revised diagnostic criteria for “prodromal AD” and “mild cognitive impairment due to AD” include hippocampal atrophy (as the fourth validated biomarker), which is considered an indicator of regional neuronal injury. Advanced image analysis

  14. Large scale fusion of gray matter and resting-state functional MRI reveals common and shared biological markers across the psychosis spectrum in the B-SNIP cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng eWang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To investigate whether aberrant interactions between brain structure and function present similarly or differently across probands with psychotic illnesses (schizophrenia (SZ, schizoaffective disorder (SAD, and bipolar I disorder with psychosis (BP and whether these deficits are shared with their first-degree non-psychotic relatives. A total of 1199 subjects were assessed, including 220 SZ, 147 SAD, 180 psychotic BP, 150 first-degree relatives of SZ, 126 SAD relatives, 134 BP relatives and 242 healthy controls. All subjects underwent structural MRI (sMRI and resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI scanning. Joint independent analysis (jICA was used to fuse sMRI gray matter (GM and rs-fMRI amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (ALFF data to identify the relationship between the two modalities. Joint ICA revealed two significantly fused components. The association between functional brain alteration in a prefrontal-striatal-thalamic-cerebellar network and structural abnormalities in the default mode network (DMN was found to be common across psychotic diagnoses and correlated with cognitive function, social function and Schizo-Bipolar Scale (SBS scores. The fused alteration in the temporal lobe was unique to SZ and SAD. The above effects were not seen in any relative group (including those with cluster-A personality. Using a multivariate fused approach involving two widely used imaging markers we demonstrate both shared and distinct biological traits across the psychosis spectrum. Further, our results suggest that the above traits are psychosis biomarkers rather than endophenotypes.

  15. Evaluation of the marker of hypercoagulability prothrombin fragment F 1+2 in patients with mechanical or biological heart valve prostheses

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    Ferreira Claudia Natália

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether patients with heart valve prostheses and similar International Normalized Ratios (INR have the same level of protection against thromboembolic events, that is, whether the anticoagulation intensity is related to the intensity of hypercoagulability supression. METHODS: INR and plasma levels of prothrombin fragment 1+2 (F1+2 were assessed in blood samples of 27 patients (7 with mechanical heart valves and 20 with biological heart valves and 27 blood samples from healthy donors that were not taking any medication. RESULTS: Increased levels of F1+2 were observed in blood samples of 5 patients with heart valve prostheses taking warfarin. These findings reinforce the idea that even though patients may have INRs, within the therapeutic spectrum, they are not free from new thromboembolic events. CONCLUSION: Determination of the hypercoagulability marker F1+2 might result in greater efficacy and safety for the use of oral anticoagulants, resulting in improved quality of life for patients.

  16. Ecological valuation of mechanic-biological waste treatment and waste combustion on the basis of energy balances and air pollutant balances; Oekologische Bewertung der mechanisch-biologischen Restabfallbehandlung und der Muellverbrennung auf Basis von Energie- und Schadgasbilanzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallmann, R.

    1999-04-01

    The work aims at an ecological valuation of air pollutant emissions and energy consumption as particularly relevant aspects of waste treatment and waste combustion plants, based on new scientific results, in order to draw up ecological budgets and make system comparisons in waste treatment. The target set is particularly effectively achieved by the following: documentation and scientific derivation of relevant boundary conditions, careful surveying and data processing for the purpose of making up an ecological budget, and objective valuation and interpretation of results. The high transparency of the methodics should be emphasized. They make the results obtained conclusive and verifiable. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit ist die oekologische Bewertung der besonders relevanten Aspekte Abluftemissionen und Energieverbrauch von MBA und MVA auf Basis aktueller Forschungsergebnisse als Grundlage fuer Oekobilanzen und Systemvergleiche zur Restabfallbehandlung. Diese Zielvorgabe wird durch die Dokumentation und wissenschaftliche Herleitung relevanter Rahmenbedingungen, sorgfaeltige Erhebung und Aufbereitung der Daten unter Gesichtspunkten der Erstellung einer Oekobilanz und letztendlich aufgrund der objektiven Bewertung und Interpretation der Ergebnisse im besonderen Masse erreicht. Besonders hervorzuheben hierbei ist die hohe Transparenz bei der methodischen Vorgehensweise. Die ermittelten Ergebnisse sind somit nachvollziehbar und ueberpruefbar. (orig.)

  17. Elucidating the Biological Basis for the Reinforcing Actions of Alcohol in the Mesolimbic Dopamine System: The Role of Active Metabolites of Alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald A Deehan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of successful pharmacotherapeutics for the treatment of alcoholism is predicated upon understanding the biological action of alcohol. A limitation of the alcohol research field has been examining the effects of alcohol only and ignoring the multiple biological active metabolites of alcohol. The concept that alcohol is a ‘pro-drug’ is not new. Alcohol is readily metabolized to acetaldehyde within the brain. Acetaldehyde is a highly reactive compound that forms a number of condensation products, including salsolinol and iso-salsolinol (acetaldehyde and dopamine. Recent experiments have established that numerous metabolites of ethanol do have direct CNS action, and could, in part or whole, mediate the reinforcing actions of alcohol within the mesolimbic dopamine system. The mesolimbic dopamine system originates in the ventral tegmental area (VTA and projects to forebrain regions that include the nucleus accumbens (Acb and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC and is thought to be the neurocircuitry governing the rewarding properties of drugs of abuse. Within this neurocircuitry there is convincing evidence that; 1 biologically active metabolites of alcohol can directly or indirectly increase the activity of VTA dopamine neurons, 2 alcohol and alcohol metabolites are reinforcing within the mesolimbic dopamine system, 3 inhibiting the alcohol metabolic pathway inhibits the biological consequences of alcohol exposure, 4 alcohol consumption can be reduced by inhibiting/attenuating the alcohol metabolic pathway in the mesolimbic dopamine system, 5 alcohol metabolites can alter neurochemical levels within the mesolimbic dopamine system, and 6 alcohol interacts with alcohol metabolites to enhance the actions of both compounds. The data indicate that there is a positive relationship between alcohol and alcohol metabolites in regulating the biological consequences of consuming alcohol and the potential of alcohol use escalating to

  18. Marker development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, M.R.

    1987-05-01

    This report is to discuss the marker development for radioactive waste disposal sites. The markers must be designed to last 10,000 years, and place no undue burdens on the future generations. Barriers cannot be constructed that preclude human intrusion. Design specifications for surface markers will be discussed, also marker pictograms will also be covered.

  19. Marine litter in an EBSA (Ecologically or Biologically Significant Area) of the central Mediterranean Sea: Abundance, composition, impact on benthic species and basis for monitoring entanglement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consoli, Pierpaolo; Andaloro, Franco; Altobelli, Chiara; Battaglia, Pietro; Campagnuolo, Silvana; Canese, Simonepietro; Castriota, Luca; Cillari, Tiziana; Falautano, Manuela; Pedà, Cristina; Perzia, Patrizia; Sinopoli, Mauro; Vivona, Pietro; Scotti, Gianfranco; Esposito, Valentina; Galgani, Francois; Romeo, Teresa

    2018-05-01

    Marine litter is commonly observed everywhere in the ocean. In this study, we analyzed 17 km of video footage, collected by a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) at depths ranging between 20 and 220 m, during 19 transects performed on the rocky banks of the Straits of Sicily. Recently, the Contracting Parties of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) recognized this site as an Ecologically or Biologically Significant Area (EBSA). The research aim was to quantify the abundance of marine litter and its impact on benthic fauna. Litter density ranged from 0 items/100 m 2 to 14.02 items/100 m 2 with a mean (±standard error) of 2.13 (±0.84) items/100 m 2 . The observed average density was higher (5.2 items/100 m 2 ) at depths >100 m than at shallower depths (fishing lines contributed to 98.07% of the overall litter density, then representing the dominant source of marine debris. Litter interactions with fauna were frequently observed, with 30% of litter causing "entanglement/coverage" and 15% causing damage to sessile fauna. A total of 16 species showed interaction (entanglement/coverage or damage) with litter items and 12 of these are species of conservation concern according to international directives and agreements (CITES, Berne Convention, Habitat Directive, SPA/BD Protocol, IUCN Red List); we also observed 7 priority habitats of the SPA/BD Protocol. This research will support the implementation of monitoring "Harm" as recommended by the UN Environment/MAP Regional Plan on Marine Litter Management in the Mediterranean, and the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). The institution of a SPAMI in the investigated area could represent a good management action for the protection of this hotspot of biodiversity and to achieve a Good Environmental Status (GES) for the marine environment by 2020, under the MSFD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Synthesis and biological evaluation of nucleoside analogues than contain silatrane on the basis of the structure of acyclovir (ACV) as novel inhibitors of hepatitis B virus (HBV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Anyue; Li, Lingna; Qing, Kuiyou; Qi, Xiaolu; Hou, Leping; Luo, Xintong; Shi, Shaohua; Ye, Faqing

    2013-03-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection causes major public health problems worldwide. Acyclovir (ACV) is mainly used to inhibit herpes simplex virus (HSV) rather than HBV. In this study, we used the combination principle to design and synthesize nucleoside analogues that contain silatrane on the basis of the structure of ACV. We found that the compounds were effective inhibitors of HBV, both in vitro and in vivo. All of the compounds showed suppressive activity on the expression of HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) and HBV e antigen (HBeAg) in the HepG2.2.15 cell line with low cytotoxicity. One of compounds was studied in HBV transgenic mice model, and the test results showed its ability to reduce the levels of HBsAg, HBeAg and HBV DNA by ELASE and qPCR. Furthermore, significant improvement of T lymphocyte was observed after treatment, as evaluated by flow cytometry (FCM). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The influence of molecular markers and methods on inferring the phylogenetic relationships between the representatives of the Arini (parrots, Psittaciformes), determined on the basis of their complete mitochondrial genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urantowka, Adam Dawid; Kroczak, Aleksandra; Mackiewicz, Paweł

    2017-07-14

    Conures are a morphologically diverse group of Neotropical parrots classified as members of the tribe Arini, which has recently been subjected to a taxonomic revision. The previously broadly defined Aratinga genus of this tribe has been split into the 'true' Aratinga and three additional genera, Eupsittula, Psittacara and Thectocercus. Popular markers used in the reconstruction of the parrots' phylogenies derive from mitochondrial DNA. However, current phylogenetic analyses seem to indicate conflicting relationships between Aratinga and other conures, and also among other Arini members. Therefore, it is not clear if the mtDNA phylogenies can reliably define the species tree. The inconsistencies may result from the variable evolution rate of the markers used or their weak phylogenetic signal. To resolve these controversies and to assess to what extent the phylogenetic relationships in the tribe Arini can be inferred from mitochondrial genomes, we compared representative Arini mitogenomes as well as examined the usefulness of the individual mitochondrial markers and the efficiency of various phylogenetic methods. Single molecular markers produced inconsistent tree topologies, while different methods offered various topologies even for the same marker. A significant disagreement in these tree topologies occurred for cytb, nd2 and nd6 genes, which are commonly used in parrot phylogenies. The strongest phylogenetic signal was found in the control region and RNA genes. However, these markers cannot be used alone in inferring Arini phylogenies because they do not provide fully resolved trees. The most reliable phylogeny of the parrots under study is obtained only on the concatenated set of all mitochondrial markers. The analyses established significantly resolved relationships within the former Aratinga representatives and the main genera of the tribe Arini. Such mtDNA phylogeny can be in agreement with the species tree, owing to its match with synapomorphic features in

  2. N-acetylcolchinol O-methyl ether and thiocolchicine, potent analogs of colchicine modified in the C ring. Evaluation of the mechanistic basis for their enhanced biological properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, G.J.; Getahun, Z.; Muzaffar, A.; Brossi, A.; Hamel, E.

    1990-01-01

    Two colchicine analogs with modifications only in the C ring are better inhibitors than colchicine of cell growth and tubulin polymerization. Radiolabeled thiocolchicine (with a thiomethyl instead of a methoxy group at position C-10) and N-acetylcolchinol O-methyl ether (NCME) (with a methoxy-substituted benzenoid instead of the methoxy-substituted tropone C ring) were prepared for comparison with colchicine. Scatchard analysis indicated a single binding site with KD values of 1.0-2.3 microM. Thiocolchicine was bound 2-4 times as rapidly as colchicine, but the activation energies of the reactions were nearly identical (18 kcal/mol for colchicine, 20 kcal/mol for thiocolchicine). NCME bound to tubulin in a biphasic reaction. The faster phase was 60 times as fast as colchicine binding at 37 degrees C, and a substantial reaction occurred at 0 degrees C. The rate of the faster phase of NCME binding changed relatively little as a function of temperature, so the activation energy was only 7.0 kcal/mol. Dissociation reactions were also evaluated, and at 37 degrees C the half-lives of the tubulin-drug complexes were 11 min for NCME, 24 h for thiocolchicine, and 27 h for colchicine. Relative dissociation rates as a function of temperature varied little among the drug complexes. Activation energies for the dissociation reactions were 30 kcal/mol for thiocolchicine, 27 kcal/mol for NCME, and 24 kcal/mol for colchicine. Comparison of the activation energies of association and dissociation yielded free energies for the binding reactions of -20 kcal/mol for NCME, -10 kcal/mol for thiocolchicine, and -6 kcal/mol for colchicine. The greater effectiveness of NCME and thiocolchicine as compared with colchicine in biological assays probably derives from their more rapid binding to tubulin and the lower free energies of their binding reactions

  3. Biomarkers for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A consensus report of the WFSBP task force on biological markers and the World Federation of ADHD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thome, Johannes; Ehlis, Ann-Christine; Fallgatter, Andreas J.; Krauel, Kerstin; Lange, Klaus W.; Riederer, Peter; Romanos, Marcel; Taurines, Regina; Tucha, Oliver; Uzbekov, Marat; Gerlach, Manfred

    Objective. Psychiatric "nosology" is largely based on clinical phenomenology using convention-based diagnostic systems not necessarily reflecting neurobiological pathomechanisms. While progress has been made regarding its molecular biology and neuropathology, the phenotypic characterization of ADHD

  4. (SSR) markers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-07-30

    Jul 30, 2014 ... al., 2004; Lefebvre et al., 2001; Moon et al., 2003; Paran et al., 1998; Prince et al., 1992). These markers have proven to be very useful in assessing genetic diversity and phylogeny, characterization of germplasm and detection of duplicates, parental verification in crosses, gene tagging in marker assisted ...

  5. (RAPD) markers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-21

    Sep 21, 2011 ... RAPD markers reveal polymorphism among some Iranian pomegranate genotypes. Sci. Hortic. 111: 24-29. Shasany AK, Darokar MP, Dhawan S, Gupta AK, Gupta S, Shukla AK,. Patra NK, Khanuja SPS (2005). Use of RAPD and AFLP Markers to. Identify Inter- and Intraspecific Hybrids of Mentha. J. Hered.

  6. Biological Basis for Chemoprevention of Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    During the study interview a thorough history of the menstrual cycle and reproductive experiences of the study participants is obtained from each...cancer.24 The scope of vitamin D deficiency extends well beyond the elderly however, as widespread vitamin D deficiency is common in adolescents and...gene in ras-transformed keratinocytes demonstrates that locally produced 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 suppresses growth and induces differentiation in

  7. The biological basis for environmental quality assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpov, V.I.; Kudritsky, Y.K.; Georgievsky, A.B.

    1991-01-01

    A systematic approach is required to environmental quality assessments with regard to the Baltic regions in order to address the problem of pollution abatement. The proposed systematization of adaptive states stems from the general theory of adaptation. The various types of adaption are described. (AB)

  8. Biological basis of social anxiety disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumi, Takeshi; Yoshioka, Mitsuhiro; Koyama, Tsukasa

    2007-01-01

    Reviewed are functional imaging studies of the brain in social anxiety disorder (SAD) which are being under remarkable progress, to discuss the disease in relation to the neuronal network. Current consensuses on results, their meta-analysis and consideration of regions suggested in those studies are as follows. In MRI and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies, cerebral morphology and blood flow at rest with 99m Tc-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) are normal in SAD. Many studies of SAD by positron emission tomography (PET) with probes such as 15 O-H 2 O and by fMRI have shown an anxiety-induced excess reaction in the amygdaloid body and insula, and certain studies, a reaction change in frontal lobe or cingulate gyrus. Pattern change of cerebral blood flow is observable by SPECT and PET with 11 C-WAY-100635 after treatment of SAD with SSRI (serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitor). Image findings of brain functions in SAD are not contradictory to clinical findings. Discussion of SAD is also made here in relation to posttraumatic stress and panic disorders, and their image findings. (R.T.)

  9. Planar optical waveguide based sandwich assay sensors and processes for the detection of biological targets including protein markers, pathogens and cellular debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Jennifer S [Santa Fe, NM; Swanson, Basil I [Los Alamos, NM; Grace, Karen M [Los Alamos, NM; Grace, Wynne K [Los Alamos, NM; Shreve, Andrew P [Santa Fe, NM

    2009-06-02

    An assay element is described including recognition ligands bound to a film on a single mode planar optical waveguide, the film from the group of a membrane, a polymerized bilayer membrane, and a self-assembled monolayer containing polyethylene glycol or polypropylene glycol groups therein and an assay process for detecting the presence of a biological target is described including injecting a biological target-containing sample into a sensor cell including the assay element, with the recognition ligands adapted for binding to selected biological targets, maintaining the sample within the sensor cell for time sufficient for binding to occur between selected biological targets within the sample and the recognition ligands, injecting a solution including a reporter ligand into the sensor cell; and, interrogating the sample within the sensor cell with excitation light from the waveguide, the excitation light provided by an evanescent field of the single mode penetrating into the biological target-containing sample to a distance of less than about 200 nanometers from the waveguide thereby exciting the fluorescent-label in any bound reporter ligand within a distance of less than about 200 nanometers from the waveguide and resulting in a detectable signal.

  10. Exposure of healthy subjects with emissions from a gas metal arc welding process: part 3--biological effect markers and lung function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, P; Bischof, K; Siry, L; Bertram, J; Schettgen, T; Reisgen, U; Kraus, T; Gube, M

    2013-01-01

    Metal active gas welding (MAG) is a widely-used welding technique resulting in high emissions of welding fume particles. This study investigated whether short-term exposure to these fume particles results in changes in lung function and early stages of inflammatory reactions. Twelve healthy, young male subjects were exposed to MAG fumes for 6 h with three different exposure concentrations in a three-fold cross-over study design. Exposure was performed in the "Aachen Workplace Simulation Laboratory" under controlled conditions with constant fume concentration. Fume concentrations were 0, 1, and 2.5 mg m(-3) in randomized order. Before and after each exposure, spirometry, and impulse oscillometry were performed and breath condensate samples were collected in order to quantify inflammatory markers like Nitrate, Nitrite, Nitrotyrosine, Hydroxyprolin and Malondialdehyde. A significant dependency on the exposure concentration could not be established for any of the endpoint parameters. In healthy, young subjects neither changes in spirometry nor changes in inflammatory markers measured in exhaled breath condensate could be detected after short-term exposure.

  11. Tumors markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi-Mizumoto, N.H.

    1989-01-01

    In order to study blood and cell components alterations (named tumor markers) that may indicate the presence of a tumor, several methods are presented. Aspects as diagnostic, prognostic, therapeutic value and clinical evaluation are discussed. (M.A.C.)

  12. Tumor Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... only a small number of people will test positive for the disease who do not have it—in other words, it will result in very few false-positive results. Although tumor markers are extremely useful in ...

  13. Bone Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Iron-binding Capacity (TIBC, UIBC) Trichomonas Testing Triglycerides Troponin Tryptase Tumor Markers Uric Acid Urinalysis Urine ... Replacement or Calcium Supplementation. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism Vol. 82, No. 6 1904-1910, 1997. N. ...

  14. Diversidade genética de pitayas nativas do cerrado com base em marcadores RAPD Genetic diversity of native pitaya native from brazilian savannas with basis on RAPD markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keize Pereira Junqueira

    2010-09-01

    naturally vegetate on solid rocky sandstone or quartzite, tree trunks and on rocky fields sand soils at Minas Gerais, Goiás, Distrito Federal, Tocantins, Rio de Janeiro and Bahia, with strong evidences that Brazil central region is the biggest pitayas dispersion center, because of wide phenotypic diversity observed in collected accesses. We had the objective to realize genetic diversity study of 13 pitaya accesses maintained at Embrapa Cerrados germoplasm collection through RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA molecular markers. Each access genomic DNA were extracted and fourteen decamer initiators were used to obtain RAPD molecular markers, that were converted in a binary data matrix, from where we estimate genetic distances between accesses and realize grouping and graphic dispersion analysis. 162 RAPD markers were obtained, making 11,57 markers medium per primer. From markers total, 154 (95,06% were polymorphic. Genetic distances varied within 0,088 and 0,848, biggest values observed refer to distance between Unaí, MG access and Seleção Embrapa Cerrados access. The most different access was "Unaí, MG", that showed 0,675 of genetic distance avarege in relation to others accessions. The high genetic distance verified is due to the fact that the referred accesses do not belong to the same species. Pitaya accesses groups had little relation to their geographic origin. The genetic diversity found at brazilian savannas allow to include this biome at pitaya species diversity center, showing good perspectives to studies about this fruit potential.

  15. [Markers of brain tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumagalli, R; Pezzotta, S; Bernini, F; Racagni, G

    1984-05-19

    Biological markers of tumors are compounds or enzymatic activities measurable in body fluids. Their presence or concentration must be linked to tumoral growth. The markers of the central nervous system tumors are detected in CSF. Alpha-feto-protein, carcinoembryonic antigen, human chorionic gonadotropin, adenohypophyseal peptide hormones, enzymes, etc., have found some application in the early diagnosis of leptomeningeal metastasis. Other applications involve the early detection and recurrency of primary brain tumors, as well as the evaluation of efficacy of their therapy. The tests based on the CSF content of desmosterol and polyamines have been studied extensively. Their rationale is discussed and specificity, sensitivity, efficiency and predictive value are considered. Experimental results concerning a new possible biochemical marker, based on CSF concentration of cyclic adenosine monophosphate, are reported.

  16. Biological impact of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) on european eel Definition and validation of bio-marker useful in situ; Impact biologique des hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques (HAP) sur l'anguille europeenne. Definition et validation de biomarqueurs in situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buet, A.

    2002-02-15

    In the natural environment, especially in aquatic ecosystems, the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) can have deleterious effects. The aim of this project was to assess the biological impact of PAH on the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) and to define a series of bio-markers useful in situ. The originality of this field study comes from the variety of the considered factors and the choice of a protected site. Bio-markers validation requires the knowledge of normal variations of the selected parameters. Therefore, the first objective of our study was to assess the effects of natural factors on the eco-physiological characteristics of an eel population collected from the National Reserve of Camargue. Bio-metric and metabolic parameters were measured as well as enzymatic markers of contamination: biotransformation activities (EROD, GST, UDPHT), oxidative stress activities (CAT, SOD, GPx, SeGPx) and membrane activities (ATPases, AChE). The temporal evolutions and the nutritional state influenced significantly the answer of these indicators of contamination in the studied population. On the other hand, the effect of sexual maturity and parasitism by the nematode Anguillicola crassus was reduced. After confirming a local atmospheric contribution in PAH, we tried to understand the accumulation patterns of these compounds within organisms and organs. Therefore, the analysis of PAH were performed on the bile, the liver and the muscle samples of European eels. Whatever the season, the sampling site, the sexual maturity and the sanitary state of eels, the PAH tissue contamination was general but fluctuating. The localization of the contamination gives information about its persistence. Chronologically, bile accumulation reflects a recent intoxication, whereas the liver gives a medium-term contamination image and the muscle impregnation represents a longer-term storage. The PAH concentrated in fat tissues but these concentrations were not systematically

  17. 2,6-Diaminopimelic acid as a biological marker of rumen synthesis and fermentation capacities in the transition period and early lactation of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveta Maskaľová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of different types of available nutrients of total mix rations on fermentation and synthesis capacities of the rumen in Holstein dairy cows divided into groups in the transition period (± 3 weeks after parturition and early lactation (60–80 days in milk. The diets were fed as a total mixed ration. Results obtained with feeding Diet C (high concentration of available nutrients to dairy cows confirmed a significant increase in 2,6-diaminopimelic acid from the initial mean 2.2 μg/ml at 21 days before calving to 6.2 μg/ml (P P P P P < 0.01. All indicators of rumen fermentation and synthesis determined in dairy cows with Diet B (low concentration of available nutrients of the total mix ration according to productive phases were not significant. High regression coefficients of examined indicators of 2,6-diaminopimelic acid to volatile fatty acid (r = 0.813, propionic acid (r = 0.780 and acetic acid (r = 0.635 indicate direct correlation between fermentation and synthesis activities of the rumen. Our results show that 2,6-diaminopimelic acid appears as a perspective marker for the monitoring and evaluation of the synthesis function of the rumen and production of bacterial biomass under breeding conditions.

  18. (SSR) markers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    Unknown. Unknown. V. vinifera L. 2000s. Chile. Stary goru. Ancient variety of Japan. V. vinifera L. 1980s. Japan. Medoc Noir. Unknown. V. vinifera L. 1980s. France. Vidal Blanc. Ugni blanc × seyval blanc. V. vinifera L. 1940s. France. Table 2. Summary of genetic variation statistics for the 19 simple sequence repeat markers ...

  19. (ISSR) markers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-25

    Jul 25, 2011 ... Heredity, 65: 179-188. Galvan MZ, Bornet B, Balatti PA, Branchard M (2003). Inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers as a tool for the assessment of both genetic diversity and gene pool origin in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Euphytica, 132: 297-301. Kojima T, Nagaoka T, Noda K, Ogihara Y ...

  20. Marked biological variance in endocrine and biochemical markers in childhood: establishment of pediatric reference intervals using healthy community children from the CALIPER cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Dana; Colantonio, David; Kyriakopoulou, Lianna; Cohen, Ashley H; Chan, Man Khun; Armbruster, David; Adeli, Khosrow

    2013-09-01

    Reference intervals are indispensable in evaluating laboratory test results; however, appropriately partitioned pediatric reference values are not readily available. The Canadian Laboratory Initiative for Pediatric Reference Intervals (CALIPER) program is aimed at establishing the influence of age, sex, ethnicity, and body mass index on biochemical markers and developing a comprehensive database of pediatric reference intervals using an a posteriori approach. A total of 1482 samples were collected from ethnically diverse healthy children ages 2 days to 18 years and analyzed on the Abbott ARCHITECT i2000. Following the CLSI C28-A3 guidelines, age- and sex-specific partitioning was determined for each analyte. Nonparametric and robust methods were used to establish the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles for the reference intervals as well as the 90% CIs. New pediatric reference intervals were generated for 14 biomarkers, including α-fetoprotein, cobalamin (vitamin B12), folate, homocysteine, ferritin, cortisol, troponin I, 25(OH)-vitamin D [25(OH)D], intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), thyroid-stimulating hormone, total thyroxine (TT4), total triiodothyronine (TT3), free thyroxine (FT4), and free triiodothyronine. The influence of ethnicity on reference values was also examined, and statistically significant differences were found between ethnic groups for FT4, TT3, TT4, cobalamin, ferritin, iPTH, and 25(OH)D. This study establishes comprehensive pediatric reference intervals for several common endocrine and immunochemical biomarkers obtained in a large cohort of healthy children. The new database will be of global benefit, ensuring appropriate interpretation of pediatric disease biomarkers, but will need further validation for specific immunoassay platforms and in local populations as recommended by the CLSI.

  1. PA401, a novel CXCL8-based biologic therapeutic with increased glycosaminoglycan binding, reduces bronchoalveolar lavage neutrophils and systemic inflammatory markers in a murine model of LPS-induced lung inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adage, Tiziana; Del Bene, Francesca; Fiorentini, Francesco; Doornbos, Robert P; Zankl, Christina; Bartley, Michael R; Kungl, Andreas J

    2015-12-01

    promising biologic therapeutic with a novel and unique mechanism of action for interfering with neutrophilic lung inflammation, that also normalizes plasma inflammatory markers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Markers of biological stress in response to a single session of high-intensity interval training and high-volume training in young athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilian, Yvonne; Engel, Florian; Wahl, Patrick; Achtzehn, Silvia; Sperlich, Billy; Mester, Joachim

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) vs high-volume training (HVT) on salivary stress markers [cortisol (sC), testosterone (sT), alpha-amylase (sAA)], metabolic and cardiorespiratory response in young athletes. Twelve young male cyclists (14 ± 1 years; 57.9 ± 9.4 mL min -1  kg -1 peak oxygen uptake) performed one session of HIIT (4 × 4 min intervals at 90-95 % peak power output separated by 3 min of active rest) and one session of HVT (90 min constant load at 60 % peak power output). The levels of sC, sT, their ratio (sT/sC) and sAA were determined before and 0, 30, 60, 180 min after each intervention. Metabolic and cardiorespiratory stress was characterized by blood lactate, blood pH, respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]), ventilation (V E ) and ventilatory equivalent (V E /[Formula: see text]). sC increased 30 and 60 min after HIIT. However, 180 min post exercise, sC decreased below baseline levels in both conditions. sT increased 0 and 30 min after HIIT and 0 min after HVT. sAA and sT/sC ratio did not change significantly over time in HIIT nor HVT. Metabolic and cardiorespiratory stress, evidenced by blood lactate, HR, [Formula: see text], V E , and V E /[Formula: see text] was higher during HIIT compared to HVT. The metabolic and cardiorespiratory stress during HIIT was higher compared to HVT, but based on salivary analyses (cortisol, testosterone, alpha-amylase), we conclude no strong acute catabolic effects neither by HIIT nor by HVT.

  3. Investigating the use of support vector machine classification on structural brain images of preterm-born teenagers as a biological marker.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlton Chu

    Full Text Available Preterm birth has been shown to induce an altered developmental trajectory of brain structure and function. With the aid support vector machine (SVM classification methods we aimed to investigate whether MRI data, collected in adolescence, could be used to predict whether an individual had been born preterm or at term. To this end we collected T1-weighted anatomical MRI data from 143 individuals (69 controls, mean age 14.6y. The inclusion criteria for those born preterm were birth weight ≤ 1500g and gestational age < 37w. A linear SVM was trained on the grey matter segment of MR images in two different ways. First, all the individuals were used for training and classification was performed by the leave-one-out method, yielding 93% correct classification (sensitivity = 0.905, specificity = 0.942. Separately, a random half of the available data were used for training twice and each time the other, unseen, half of the data was classified, resulting 86% and 91% accurate classifications. Both gestational age (R = -0.24, p<0.04 and birth weight (R = -0.51, p < 0.001 correlated with the distance to decision boundary within the group of individuals born preterm. Statistically significant correlations were also found between IQ (R = -0.30, p < 0.001 and the distance to decision boundary. Those born small for gestational age did not form a separate subgroup in these analyses. The high rate of correct classification by the SVM motivates further investigation. The long-term goal is to automatically and non-invasively predict the outcome of preterm-born individuals on an individual basis using as early a scan as possible.

  4. Biomonitoring role of some cellular markers during heat stress-induced changes in highly representative fresh water mollusc, Bellamya bengalensis: Implication in climate change and biological adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Sangita Maiti; Mustafi, Soumyajit Banerjee; Raha, Sanghamitra; Chakraborty, Susanta Kumar

    2018-04-12

    Owing to increasing concern of global climate-change, temperature rise is of great interest which can be primarily evaluated from the seasonal variations in some organisms. Aquatic environment can be extremely stressful to its inhabitants because most of them are poikilothermous. In the present study, attempt was made to evaluate the biological effects of oxidative-stress and adaptive/antioxidant capacities during temperature variations (36-40 °C for 24hrs to 72hrs) in Bellamya bengalensis both in environmental and laboratory conditions by testing some biomarkers like HSP70, catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione reductase (GR). The biomarker potency of the molecules and the anti-oxidative metabolic-network was postulated and extrapolated to find its resemblance to the climate-change associated organismal variations. In a natural and eco-restored environment in the Eastern part of India, 10-20 fold increases in CAT, SOD and HSP70 protein expressions (Western blot results) were noticed in Bellamya paralleling to their increased enzymatic activities (gel zymogram studies) due to the seasonal (summer versus winter) temperature variation. It is evident from the consecutive three years' study that this variation resulted in the unfavorable physico-chemical changes of water quality parameters like dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, alkalinity and consequently decreased the animal density in summer. And that was revived due to their higher reproduction-rate in post rainy/winter season when temperature normalizes resulting in a restoration of favorable environment. In laboratory condition, the reduced GR and increased GPx indicated the oxidative damage as evident by higher tissue MDA level following to higher mortality. Changes in SOD and CAT activities suggest activation of physiological mechanism to scavenge the ROS produced during heat stress. However, when mortality increased at different time points (36

  5. Systems Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiley, H S.

    2006-06-01

    The biology revolution over the last 50 years has been driven by the ascendancy of molecular biology. This was enthusiastically embraced by most biologists because it took us into increasingly familiar territory. It took mysterious processes, such as the replication of genetic material and assigned them parts that could be readily understood by the human mind. When we think of ''molecular machines'' as being the underlying basis of life, we are using a paradigm derived from everyday experience. However, the price that we paid was a relentless drive towards reductionism and the attendant balkanization of biology. Now along comes ''systems biology'' that promises us a solution to the problem of ''knowing more and more about less and less''. Unlike molecular biology, systems biology appears to be taking us into unfamiliar intellectual territory, such as statistics, mathematics and computer modeling. Not surprisingly, systems biology has met with widespread skepticism and resistance. Why do we need systems biology anyway and how does this new area of research promise to change the face of biology in the next couple of decades?

  6. La infección por el virus del papiloma humano, un posible marcador biológico de comportamiento sexual en estudiantes universitarios Human papillomavirus infection is a possible biological marker of sexual behavior among university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A Sánchez-Alemán

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Estimar la prevalencia de infección por el virus del papiloma humano (VPH en estudiantes universitarios y utilizar dicha frecuencia como un marcador biológico para evaluar el comportamiento sexual. Material y métodos. Se realizó un estudio transversal, en estudiantes de la Universidad Autónoma del estado de Morelos, México, durante el periodo 2000-2001. Se aplicó un cuestionario y se colectaron muestras genitales para detectar ADN de los VPH oncogénicos. Los datos se analizaron utilizando pruebas de Ji cuadrada y razones de momios. Resultados. La prevalencia global del VPH en 194 estudiantes fue de 14.4%. Las mujeres con dos o más parejas sexuales durante el último año presentaron mayor riesgo de infección por el VPH (RM 6.0 IC 1.7-21.1, al igual que las que utilizaron anticonceptivos hormonales y espermicidas en su última relación sexual (RM 3.0 IC 1.0-8.7. Los hombres que consumieron cocaína tuvieron más riesgo de infección por el VPH (RM 7.6 IC 1.3-45.1. Conclusiones. La prevalencia del VPH es relativamente alta. La utilización del VPH como un marcador biológico de comportamientos sexuales en mujeres es pertinente; en hombres, es necesario ampliar la muestra.Objective. To estimate the prevalence of Human papillomavirus (HPV among university students and to use it as a biological marker to assess sexual behavior. Material and Methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out between 2000 and 2001 among 194 students at Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Mexico. A data collection instrument was applied and genital samples were taken to detect oncogenic HPV DNA. Data were analyzed using the chi-squared test and odds ratios. Results. Overall HPV prevalence was 14.4%. Women who had had two or more sexual partners during the previous year showed a greater risk of HPV infection (OR 6.0, 95% CI 1.7-21.1, as did women who had used oral contraceptives and spermicides at their latest intercourse (OR 3.0, 95% CI 1

  7. Cerebrospinal fluid and blood biomarkers for neurodegenerative dementias: An update of the Consensus of the Task Force on Biological Markers in Psychiatry of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewczuk, Piotr; Riederer, Peter; O'Bryant, Sid E; Verbeek, Marcel M; Dubois, Bruno; Visser, Pieter Jelle; Jellinger, Kurt A; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; Ramirez, Alfredo; Parnetti, Lucilla; Jack, Clifford R; Teunissen, Charlotte E; Hampel, Harald; Lleó, Alberto; Jessen, Frank; Glodzik, Lidia; de Leon, Mony J; Fagan, Anne M; Molinuevo, José Luis; Jansen, Willemijn J; Winblad, Bengt; Shaw, Leslie M; Andreasson, Ulf; Otto, Markus; Mollenhauer, Brit; Wiltfang, Jens; Turner, Martin R; Zerr, Inga; Handels, Ron; Thompson, Alexander G; Johansson, Gunilla; Ermann, Natalia; Trojanowski, John Q; Karaca, Ilker; Wagner, Holger; Oeckl, Patrick; van Waalwijk van Doorn, Linda; Bjerke, Maria; Kapogiannis, Dimitrios; Kuiperij, H Bea; Farotti, Lucia; Li, Yi; Gordon, Brian A; Epelbaum, Stéphane; Vos, Stephanie J B; Klijn, Catharina J M; Van Nostrand, William E; Minguillon, Carolina; Schmitz, Matthias; Gallo, Carla; Lopez Mato, Andrea; Thibaut, Florence; Lista, Simone; Alcolea, Daniel; Zetterberg, Henrik; Blennow, Kaj; Kornhuber, Johannes

    2017-10-27

    In the 12 years since the publication of the first Consensus Paper of the WFSBP on biomarkers of neurodegenerative dementias, enormous advancement has taken place in the field, and the Task Force takes now the opportunity to extend and update the original paper. New concepts of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the conceptual interactions between AD and dementia due to AD were developed, resulting in two sets for diagnostic/research criteria. Procedures for pre-analytical sample handling, biobanking, analyses and post-analytical interpretation of the results were intensively studied and optimised. A global quality control project was introduced to evaluate and monitor the inter-centre variability in measurements with the goal of harmonisation of results. Contexts of use and how to approach candidate biomarkers in biological specimens other than cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), e.g. blood, were precisely defined. Important development was achieved in neuroimaging techniques, including studies comparing amyloid-β positron emission tomography results to fluid-based modalities. Similarly, development in research laboratory technologies, such as ultra-sensitive methods, raises our hopes to further improve analytical and diagnostic accuracy of classic and novel candidate biomarkers. Synergistically, advancement in clinical trials of anti-dementia therapies energises and motivates the efforts to find and optimise the most reliable early diagnostic modalities. Finally, the first studies were published addressing the potential of cost-effectiveness of the biomarkers-based diagnosis of neurodegenerative disorders.

  8. Uniparental genetic markers in South Amerindians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Bisso-Machado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive review of uniparental systems in South Amerindians was undertaken. Variability in the Y-chromosome haplogroups were assessed in 68 populations and 1,814 individuals whereas that of Y-STR markers was assessed in 29 populations and 590 subjects. Variability in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA haplogroup was examined in 108 populations and 6,697 persons, and sequencing studies used either the complete mtDNA genome or the highly variable segments 1 and 2. The diversity of the markers made it difficult to establish a general picture of Y-chromosome variability in the populations studied. However, haplogroup Q1a3a* was almost always the most prevalent whereas Q1a3* occurred equally in all regions, which suggested its prevalence among the early colonizers. The STR allele frequencies were used to derive a possible ancient Native American Q-clade chromosome haplotype and five of six STR loci showed significant geographic variation. Geographic and linguistic factors moderately influenced the mtDNA distributions (6% and 7%, respectively and mtDNA haplogroups A and D correlated positively and negatively, respectively, with latitude. The data analyzed here provide rich material for understanding the biological history of South Amerindians and can serve as a basis for comparative studies involving other types of data, such as cultural data.

  9. THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE OLD AND NEW BARLEY VARIETIES ON THE BASIS OF HORDEIN POLYMORPHISM WITH RESPECT TO QUALITATIVE PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marián Tomka

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The current registered barley varieties are classified according to their biological and economic characters meeting the growing conditions. Varieties are characterized using molecular markers on the level of protein and DNA. Using starch gel electrophoresis we studied the frequency of hordein alleles, which are potential markers of economically important traits of 30 barley varieties. Among the 26 alleles detected in two main loci (Hrd A, Hrd B, we identified 7 potential markers (A3, A12, A23, B8, B17, B19, B47 with the frequency ranged from 1.18% to 12.14%. Number of these alleles differs over the years and together with number of lines per variety has decreasing tendency. On the basis of the detected alleles we are able to predict malting quality parameters and resistance to most common barley pathogens.

  10. Biological Markers in Pediatric Brain Tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. de Bont (Judith Maria)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe most common solid tumors in children are brain tumors1. Yearly, approximately 2-2.5 per 100,000 children of <15 years of age are diagnosed with a brain tumor1. Despite improved survival rates, brain tumors in children are still the second leading cause of death due to cancer in

  11. Discovery and identification of quality markers of Chinese medicine based on pharmacokinetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jun; Feng, Xinchi; Wang, Kai; Liu, Changxiao; Qiu, Feng

    2018-02-28

    Quality control of Chinese medicine (CM) is an effective measure to ensure the safety and efficacy of CM in clinical practice, which is also a key factor to restrict the modernization process of CM. Various chemical components exist in CM and the determination of several chemical components is the main approach for quality control of vast majority of CM in the present. However, many components determined lack not only specificity, but also biological activities. This is bound to greatly reduce the actual value of quality standard of CM. Professor Changxiao Liu proposed the "quality marker" (Q-marker) concept to ensure the standardization and rationalization for the quality control of CM. As we all know, CMs are taken orally in most cases and could be extensively metabolized in vivo. Both prototype components and the metabolites could be the actual therapeutic material basis. Pharmacokinetic studies could benefit the elucidation of actual therapeutic material basis which is closely related to the identification of Q-markers. Therefore, a new strategy about Q-marker was proposed based on the pharmacokinetic analysis of CM, hoping to provide some ideas for the discovery and identification of Q-marker. The relationship between pharmacokinetic studies and the identification of Q-markers was demonstrated in this review and a new strategy was proposed. Starting from the pharmacokinetic analysis, reverse tracing of the prototype active components and the potential prodrugs in CM were conducted first and the therapeutic material basis were identified as Q-markers. Then, modern analytical techniques and methods were applied to obtain comprehensive quality control for these constituents. Several CMs including gingko biloba, ginseng, Periplocae Cortex, Mori Cortex, Bupleuri Radix and Scutellariae Radix were listed as examples to clarify how the new strategy could be applied. Pharmacokinetic studies play an important role for the elucidation of therapeutic material basis of CM

  12. Marcadores tumorais no câncer de pulmão: um caminho para a terapia biológica Tumor markers in lung cancer: a pathway to biological therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FERNANDO AZEVEDO PACHECO

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Os avanços recentes na genética e na biologia molecular permitiram a identificação de genes e proteínas produzidos ou superexpressados pelos tumores. Tais produtos, os chamados marcadores tumorais, antes utilizados apenas como ferramentas de diagnóstico e prognóstico, vêm atualmente tomando papel importante no desenvolvimento de novas modalidades de tratamento, direcionadas a quebrar o ciclo biológico da progressão tumoral. Neste artigo, revisa-se o papel de alguns marcadores tumorais tradicionalmente conhecidos (CEA, p53, NSE, K-ras, e descrevem-se a prevalência e a função da superexpressão do receptor do fator de crescimento epidérmico (EGFR e do seu produto protéico (p185neu. Novos agentes têm sido desenvolvidos baseando-se no bloqueio da sinalização iniciada pelo EGFR. Destes, destaca-se o ZD1839 (Iressa, uma droga via oral que inibe de modo reversível e seletivo a atividade tirosina-quinase do EGFR, e que vem demonstrando bons resultados tanto isoladamente quanto em combinação com outros agentes quimioterápicos. Tais avanços devem contribuir de modo significativo no tratamento do câncer, principalmente no carcinoma de pulmão do tipo não-pequenas células.Recent advances in genetics and molecular biology lead to the identification of genes and protein products overexpressed by tumors. Such products, called tumor markers, were previously used only as diagnostic and prognostic tools, but are currently being the target of extensive research, with growing evidence that some of them may have an important role in the development of new treatment modalities, targeting the tumor cell biological cycle. In this article, the authors review the role of some of the traditionally known tumor markers (CEA, p53, NSE, K-ras, and describe the prevalence and the role of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR overexpression and its protein product, p185neu. New drugs have been developed, aiming at the blockade of the signaling

  13. Molecular basis for mitochondrial signaling

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book covers recent advances in the study of structure, function, and regulation of metabolite, protein and ion translocating channels, and transporters in mitochondria. A wide array of cutting-edge methods are covered, ranging from electrophysiology and cell biology to bioinformatics, as well as structural, systems, and computational biology. At last, the molecular identity of two important channels in the mitochondrial inner membrane, the mitochondrial calcium uniporter and the mitochondrial permeability transition pore have been established. After years of work on the physiology and structure of VDAC channels in the mitochondrial outer membrane, there have been multiple discoveries on VDAC permeation and regulation by cytosolic proteins. Recent breakthroughs in structural studies of the mitochondrial cholesterol translocator reveal a set of novel unexpected features and provide essential clues for defining therapeutic strategies. Molecular Basis for Mitochondrial Signaling covers these and many more re...

  14. 76 FR 60733 - Safety Zone; Mississippi River, Mile Marker 230 to Mile Marker 234, in the Vicinity of Baton...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    .... Basis and Purpose The Captain of the Port New Orleans has implemented a safety zone from mile marker 230... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Mississippi River, Mile Marker 230 to Mile Marker 234, in the Vicinity of Baton Rouge, LA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule...

  15. Safety Basis Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.J. Garrett

    2002-01-01

    As part of the internal Integrated Safety Management Assessment verification process, it was determined that there was a lack of documentation that summarizes the safety basis of the current Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) site characterization activities. It was noted that a safety basis would make it possible to establish a technically justifiable graded approach to the implementation of the requirements identified in the Standards/Requirements Identification Document. The Standards/Requirements Identification Documents commit a facility to compliance with specific requirements and, together with the hazard baseline documentation, provide a technical basis for ensuring that the public and workers are protected. This Safety Basis Report has been developed to establish and document the safety basis of the current site characterization activities, establish and document the hazard baseline, and provide the technical basis for identifying structures, systems, and components (SSCs) that perform functions necessary to protect the public, the worker, and the environment from hazards unique to the YMP site characterization activities. This technical basis for identifying SSCs serves as a grading process for the implementation of programs such as Conduct of Operations (DOE Order 5480.19) and the Suspect/Counterfeit Items Program. In addition, this report provides a consolidated summary of the hazards analyses processes developed to support the design, construction, and operation of the YMP site characterization facilities and, therefore, provides a tool for evaluating the safety impacts of changes to the design and operation of the YMP site characterization activities

  16. Safety Basis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.J. Garrett

    2002-01-14

    As part of the internal Integrated Safety Management Assessment verification process, it was determined that there was a lack of documentation that summarizes the safety basis of the current Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) site characterization activities. It was noted that a safety basis would make it possible to establish a technically justifiable graded approach to the implementation of the requirements identified in the Standards/Requirements Identification Document. The Standards/Requirements Identification Documents commit a facility to compliance with specific requirements and, together with the hazard baseline documentation, provide a technical basis for ensuring that the public and workers are protected. This Safety Basis Report has been developed to establish and document the safety basis of the current site characterization activities, establish and document the hazard baseline, and provide the technical basis for identifying structures, systems, and components (SSCs) that perform functions necessary to protect the public, the worker, and the environment from hazards unique to the YMP site characterization activities. This technical basis for identifying SSCs serves as a grading process for the implementation of programs such as Conduct of Operations (DOE Order 5480.19) and the Suspect/Counterfeit Items Program. In addition, this report provides a consolidated summary of the hazards analyses processes developed to support the design, construction, and operation of the YMP site characterization facilities and, therefore, provides a tool for evaluating the safety impacts of changes to the design and operation of the YMP site characterization activities.

  17. Symmetry Adapted Basis Sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avery, John Scales; Rettrup, Sten; Avery, James Emil

    In theoretical physics, theoretical chemistry and engineering, one often wishes to solve partial differential equations subject to a set of boundary conditions. This gives rise to eigenvalue problems of which some solutions may be very difficult to find. For example, the problem of finding...... in such problems can be much reduced by making use of symmetry-adapted basis functions. The conventional method for generating symmetry-adapted basis sets is through the application of group theory, but this can be difficult. This book describes an easier method for generating symmetry-adapted basis sets...

  18. Tumour marker expression in blood and lymphatic vessels of human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The behaviour of tumours cannot be effectively assessed on histological tissue sections only, hence, specific bi-ological markers were used to predict tumour behaviour. The biological markers at the same time must provide prognostic information, necessary for the treatment of patients. The immunostaining of antibodies ...

  19. Stereotactic core needle breast biopsy marker migration: An analysis of factors contributing to immediate marker migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ashali; Khalid, Maria; Qureshi, Muhammad M; Georgian-Smith, Dianne; Kaplan, Jonah A; Buch, Karen; Grinstaff, Mark W; Hirsch, Ariel E; Hines, Neely L; Anderson, Stephan W; Gallagher, Katherine M; Bates, David D B; Bloch, B Nicolas

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate breast biopsy marker migration in stereotactic core needle biopsy procedures and identify contributing factors. This retrospective study analyzed 268 stereotactic biopsy markers placed in 263 consecutive patients undergoing stereotactic biopsies using 9G vacuum-assisted devices from August 2010-July 2013. Mammograms were reviewed and factors contributing to marker migration were evaluated. Basic descriptive statistics were calculated and comparisons were performed based on radiographically-confirmed marker migration. Of the 268 placed stereotactic biopsy markers, 35 (13.1%) migrated ≥1 cm from their biopsy cavity. Range: 1-6 cm; mean (± SD): 2.35 ± 1.22 cm. Of the 35 migrated biopsy markers, 9 (25.7%) migrated ≥3.5 cm. Patient age, biopsy pathology, number of cores, and left versus right breast were not associated with migration status (P> 0.10). Global fatty breast density (P= 0.025) and biopsy in the inner region of breast (P = 0.031) were associated with marker migration. Superior biopsy approach (P= 0.025), locally heterogeneous breast density, and t-shaped biopsy markers (P= 0.035) were significant for no marker migration. Multiple factors were found to influence marker migration. An overall migration rate of 13% supports endeavors of research groups actively developing new biopsy marker designs for improved resistance to migration. • Breast biopsy marker migration is documented in 13% of 268 procedures. • Marker migration is affected by physical, biological, and pathological factors. • Breast density, marker shape, needle approach etc. affect migration. • Study demonstrates marker migration prevalence; marker design improvements are needed.

  20. A biosystematic basis for pelagic biodiversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoel, van der S.

    1994-01-01

    Biodiversity can be considered to be a human appreciation of the biological entity diversity. Diversity can be expressed numerically on the basis of taxa found, but it can also be expressed as the contribution of a specimen to the diversity, for which a formula is proposed. Diversity is the sum of

  1. From BASIS to MIRACLES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsapatsaris, Nikolaos; Willendrup, Peter Kjær; E. Lechner, Ruep

    2015-01-01

    Results based on virtual instrument models for the first high-flux, high-resolution, spallation based, backscattering spectrometer, BASIS are presented in this paper. These were verified using the Monte Carlo instrument simulation packages McStas and VITESS. Excellent agreement of the neutron count...... are pivotal to the conceptual design of the next generation backscattering spectrometer, MIRACLES at the European Spallation Source....

  2. Corneomandibular reflex: Anatomical basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Pistacchi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Corneomandibular reflex is a pathological phenomenon evident in cases of severe brainstem damage. It is considered to be a pathological exteroceptive reflex, associated with precentro bulbar tract lesions. The sign is useful in distinguishing central neurological injuries to metabolic disorders in acutely comatose patients, localizing lesions to the upper brainstem area, determining the depth of coma and its evolution, providing evidence of uncal or transtentorial herniation in acute cerebral hemisphere lesions, and it is a marker of supraspinal level impairment in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and multiple sclerosis. This sign was evident in a patient with severe brain damage. We discuss the literature findings and its relevance in prognosis establishment.

  3. Dynamical basis set

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, M.; Heller, E.J.

    1985-01-01

    A new Cartesian basis set is defined that is suitable for the representation of molecular vibration-rotation bound states. The Cartesian basis functions are superpositions of semiclassical states generated through the use of classical trajectories that conform to the intrinsic dynamics of the molecule. Although semiclassical input is employed, the method becomes ab initio through the standard matrix diagonalization variational method. Special attention is given to classical-quantum correspondences for angular momentum. In particular, it is shown that the use of semiclassical information preferentially leads to angular momentum eigenstates with magnetic quantum number Vertical BarMVertical Bar equal to the total angular momentum J. The present method offers a reliable technique for representing highly excited vibrational-rotational states where perturbation techniques are no longer applicable

  4. Design basis 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, G.; Soerensen, P. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1996-09-01

    Design Basis Program 2 (DBP2) is comprehensive fully coupled code which has the capability to operate in the time domain as well as in the frequency domain. The code was developed during the period 1991-93 and succeed Design Basis 1, which is a one-blade model presuming stiff tower, transmission system and hub. The package is designed for use on a personal computer and offers a user-friendly environment based on menu-driven editing and control facilities, and with graphics used extensively for the data presentation. Moreover in-data as well as results are dumped on files in Ascii-format. The input data is organized in a in-data base with a structure that easily allows for arbitrary combinations of defined structural components and load cases. (au)

  5. Ceramic subsurface marker prototypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukens, C.E. [Rockwell International Corp., Richland, WA (United States). Rockwell Hanford Operations

    1985-05-02

    The client submitted 5 sets of porcelain and stoneware subsurface (radioactive site) marker prototypes (31 markers each set). The following were determined: compressive strength, thermal shock resistance, thermal crazing resistance, alkali resistance, color retention, and chemical resistance.

  6. Harmonisation of multi-centre real-time reverse-transcribed PCR results of a candidate prognostic marker in breast cancer: an EU-FP6 supported study of members of the EORTC - PathoBiology Group.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Span, P.N.; Sieuwerts, A.M.; Heuvel, J.J.T.M.; Spyratos, F.; Duffy, M.J.; Eppenberger-Castori, S.; Vacher, S.; O'Brien, K.; McKiernan, E.; Pierce, A.; Vuaroqueaux, V.; Foekens, J.A.; Sweep, C.G.J.; Martens, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    AIM: Assessment of intra- and inter-laboratory variation in multi-centre real-time reverse-transcribed PCR (qRT-PCR)-based mRNA quantification of a prognostic marker in breast cancer using external quality assurance (EQA). METHODS: A questionnaire on the methodologies used and EQA calibrators were

  7. Characterizing the transcriptome and molecular markers information ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ideal model for analysing ecological and comparative genomics. However, the limited genome ... simple sequence repeats. The identified molecular markers are a basis for further ecological analysis, and the transcriptome repor- ted here .... a series of in-house perl scripts to remove reads containing adapter sequences, or ...

  8. Radioactive Waste Management Basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, B.K.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this Radioactive Waste Management Basis is to describe the systematic approach for planning, executing, and evaluating the management of radioactive waste at LLNL. The implementation of this document will ensure that waste management activities at LLNL are conducted in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and the Implementation Guide for DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. Technical justification is provided where methods for meeting the requirements of DOE Order 435.1 deviate from the DOE Manual 435.1-1 and Implementation Guide.

  9. BASIS: an internet resource for network modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillespie Colin S.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing realisation that complex biological processes cannot be understood through the application of ever more reductionist experimental programs alone. Recognising this, we have a constructed a flexible web-service based modelling system called BASIS (Biology of Ageing e-Science Integration and Simulation, which facilitates model construction and development. In particular it allows users to store, share and simulate their models. The system is accessed through web-services using any language (e.g. Python or Java or under any operating system (e.g. Linux or Windows.

  10. Molecular markers of the risk of development of skin cancer in psoriasis patients receiving a phototherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Zhilova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available State Research Center of Dermatovenereology and Cosmetology, Ministry of Healthcare of the Russian Federation Korolenko str., 3, bldg 6, Moscow, 107076, Russia Goal. To study potential molecular and genetic markers of an increased risk of development of malignant skin melanomas on the basis of the assessment of nucleotide replacements of genes in the excision system of DNA repair in psoriasis patients receiving a phototherapy. Materials and methods. Biological blood samples taken from 47 psoriasis patients, 24 patients with malignant skin melanomas and 20 healthy subjects. The following methods were used in the study: clinical, molecular and biological (DNA extraction, amplification, PcR, sequencing. Results. The study revealed molecular markers of an increased risk of development of malignant skin melanomas in psoriasis patients: CC genotype of the XPD gene at the 35931 locus (p = 0.00001; TC genotype of the XPF gene at the 27945 locus (p = 0.0067. It also revealed a molecular marker of an increased risk of development of malignant skin melanomas in healthy people: CC genotype of the XPD gene at the 35931 locus (p = 0.0042.

  11. Genetic basis of cohesinopathies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbero JL

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available José L Barbero Cellular and Molecular Biology Department, Biological Research Center, Madrid, Spain Abstract: Cohesin is a ring-form multifunctional protein complex, which was discovered during a search for molecules that keep sister chromatids together during segregation of chromosomes during cell division. In the past decade, a large number of results have also demonstrated a need for the cohesin complex in other crucial events in the life cycle of the cell, including DNA duplication, heterochromatin formation, DNA double-strand break repair, and control of gene expression. The dynamics of the cohesin ring are modulated by a number of accessory and regulatory proteins, known as cohesin cofactors. Loss of function of the cohesin complex is incompatible with life; however, mutations in the genes encoding for cohesin subunits and/or cohesin cofactors, which have very little or a null effect on chromosome segregation, represent a newly recognized class of human genetic disorders known as cohesinopathies. A number of genetic, biochemical, and clinical approaches, and importantly, animal models, can help us to determine the underlying mechanisms for these human diseases. Keywords: cohesin, cohesinopathies, Cornelia de Lange syndrome, Roberts syndrome, control, gene expression, insulators

  12. Sequence characterized markers for flax seed authentication

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wiesner, Ivo; Wiesnerová, Dana

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 1 (2009), s. 206-213 ISSN 0251-0952 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA521/03/0019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : SCAR markers * cultivar identification * flax seed Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.503, year: 2009

  13. WEST Physics Basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdelle, C.; Artaud, J. F.; Basiuk, V.; Bécoulet, M.; Brémond, S.; Bucalossi, J.; Bufferand, H.; Ciraolo, G.; Colas, L.; Corre, Y.; Courtois, X.; Decker, J.; Delpech, L.; Devynck, P.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Doerner, R. P.; Douai, D.; Dumont, R.; Ekedahl, A.; Fedorczak, N.; Fenzi, C.; Firdaouss, M.; Garcia, J.; Ghendrih, P.; Gil, C.; Giruzzi, G.; Goniche, M.; Grisolia, C.; Grosman, A.; Guilhem, D.; Guirlet, R.; Gunn, J.; Hennequin, P.; Hillairet, J.; Hoang, T.; Imbeaux, F.; Ivanova-Stanik, I.; Joffrin, E.; Kallenbach, A.; Linke, J.; Loarer, T.; Lotte, P.; Maget, P.; Marandet, Y.; Mayoral, M. L.; Meyer, O.; Missirlian, M.; Mollard, P.; Monier-Garbet, P.; Moreau, P.; Nardon, E.; Pégourié, B.; Peysson, Y.; Sabot, R.; Saint-Laurent, F.; Schneider, M.; Travère, J. M.; Tsitrone, E.; Vartanian, S.; Vermare, L.; Yoshida, M.; Zagorski, R.; Contributors, JET

    2015-06-01

    With WEST (Tungsten Environment in Steady State Tokamak) (Bucalossi et al 2014 Fusion Eng. Des. 89 907-12), the Tore Supra facility and team expertise (Dumont et al 2014 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 56 075020) is used to pave the way towards ITER divertor procurement and operation. It consists in implementing a divertor configuration and installing ITER-like actively cooled tungsten monoblocks in the Tore Supra tokamak, taking full benefit of its unique long-pulse capability. WEST is a user facility platform, open to all ITER partners. This paper describes the physics basis of WEST: the estimated heat flux on the divertor target, the planned heating schemes, the expected behaviour of the L-H threshold and of the pedestal and the potential W sources. A series of operating scenarios has been modelled, showing that ITER-relevant heat fluxes on the divertor can be achieved in WEST long pulse H-mode plasmas.

  14. ITER technical basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Following on from the Final Report of the EDA(DS/21), and the summary of the ITER Final Design report(DS/22), the technical basis gives further details of the design of ITER. It is in two parts. The first, the Plant Design specification, summarises the main constraints on the plant design and operation from the viewpoint of engineering and physics assumptions, compliance with safety regulations, and siting requirements and assumptions. The second, the Plant Description Document, describes the physics performance and engineering characteristics of the plant design, illustrates the potential operational consequences foe the locality of a generic site, gives the construction, commissioning, exploitation and decommissioning schedule, and reports the estimated lifetime costing based on data from the industry of the EDA parties

  15. Tantalum markers in radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronson, A.S.; Jonsson, N.; Alberius, P.

    1985-01-01

    The biocompatibility of two types of radiopaque tantalum markers was evaluated histologically. Reactions to pin markers (99.9% purity) and spherical markers (95.2% purity) were investigated after 3-6 weeks in rabbits and 5-48 weeks in children with abnormal growth. Both marker types were firmly attached to bone trabeculae; this was most pronounced in rabbit bone, and no adverse macroscopic reactions were observed. Microscopically, no reactions or only slight fibrosis of bone tissue were detected, while soft tissues only demonstrated a minor inflammatory reaction. Nevertheless, the need for careful preparation and execution of marker implantations is stressed, and particularly avoidance iof the use of emery in sharpening of cannulae. The bioinertness of tantalum was reconfirmed as was its suitability for use as skeletal and soft tissue radiographic markers. (orig.)

  16. Recent advances in candidate-gene and whole-genome approaches to the discovery of anthelmintic resistance markers and the description of drug/receptor interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew C. Kotze

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthelmintic resistance has a great impact on livestock production systems worldwide, is an emerging concern in companion animal medicine, and represents a threat to our ongoing ability to control human soil-transmitted helminths. The Consortium for Anthelmintic Resistance and Susceptibility (CARS provides a forum for scientists to meet and discuss the latest developments in the search for molecular markers of anthelmintic resistance. Such markers are important for detecting drug resistant worm populations, and indicating the likely impact of the resistance on drug efficacy. The molecular basis of resistance is also important for understanding how anthelmintics work, and how drug resistant populations arise. Changes to target receptors, drug efflux and other biological processes can be involved. This paper reports on the CARS group meeting held in August 2013 in Perth, Australia. The latest knowledge on the development of molecular markers for resistance to each of the principal classes of anthelmintics is reviewed. The molecular basis of resistance is best understood for the benzimidazole group of compounds, and we examine recent work to translate this knowledge into useful diagnostics for field use. We examine recent candidate-gene and whole-genome approaches to understanding anthelmintic resistance and identify markers. We also look at drug transporters in terms of providing both useful markers for resistance, as well as opportunities to overcome resistance through the targeting of the transporters themselves with inhibitors. Finally, we describe the tools available for the application of the newest high-throughput sequencing technologies to the study of anthelmintic resistance.

  17. Recent advances in candidate-gene and whole-genome approaches to the discovery of anthelmintic resistance markers and the description of drug/receptor interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotze, Andrew C.; Hunt, Peter W.; Skuce, Philip; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Martin, Richard J.; Sager, Heinz; Krücken, Jürgen; Hodgkinson, Jane; Lespine, Anne; Jex, Aaron R.; Gilleard, John S.; Beech, Robin N.; Wolstenholme, Adrian J.; Demeler, Janina; Robertson, Alan P.; Charvet, Claude L.; Neveu, Cedric; Kaminsky, Ronald; Rufener, Lucien; Alberich, Melanie; Menez, Cecile; Prichard, Roger K.

    2014-01-01

    Anthelmintic resistance has a great impact on livestock production systems worldwide, is an emerging concern in companion animal medicine, and represents a threat to our ongoing ability to control human soil-transmitted helminths. The Consortium for Anthelmintic Resistance and Susceptibility (CARS) provides a forum for scientists to meet and discuss the latest developments in the search for molecular markers of anthelmintic resistance. Such markers are important for detecting drug resistant worm populations, and indicating the likely impact of the resistance on drug efficacy. The molecular basis of resistance is also important for understanding how anthelmintics work, and how drug resistant populations arise. Changes to target receptors, drug efflux and other biological processes can be involved. This paper reports on the CARS group meeting held in August 2013 in Perth, Australia. The latest knowledge on the development of molecular markers for resistance to each of the principal classes of anthelmintics is reviewed. The molecular basis of resistance is best understood for the benzimidazole group of compounds, and we examine recent work to translate this knowledge into useful diagnostics for field use. We examine recent candidate-gene and whole-genome approaches to understanding anthelmintic resistance and identify markers. We also look at drug transporters in terms of providing both useful markers for resistance, as well as opportunities to overcome resistance through the targeting of the transporters themselves with inhibitors. Finally, we describe the tools available for the application of the newest high-throughput sequencing technologies to the study of anthelmintic resistance. PMID:25516826

  18. Strain-specific SCAR markers for the detection of Trichoderma harzianum AS12-2, a biological control agent against Rhizoctonia solani, the causal agent of rice sheath blight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeimi, S; Kocsubé, S; Antal, Zsuzsanna; Okhovvat, S M; Javan-Nikkhah, M; Vágvölgyi, C; Kredics, L

    2011-03-01

    In order to identify a specific marker for T. harzianum AS12-2, a strain capable of controlling rice sheath blight caused by Rhizoctonia solani, UP-PCR was performed using five universal primers (UP) both separately and in pairwise combinations. The application of two UP primers resulted in the amplification of unique fragments from the genomic DNA of T. harzianum AS12-2, clearly distinguishing it from other Trichoderma strains. The unique fragments had no significant sequence homology with any other known sequence available in databases. Based on the sequences of the unique fragments, 14 oligonucleotide primers were designed. Two primer sets amplified a fragment of expected size from the DNA of strain T. harzianum AS12-2 but not from any other examined strains belonging to T. harzianum, to other Trichoderma species assayed, or to other common fungi present in paddy fields of Mazandaran province, Iran. In conclusion, SCAR (sequence characterized amplified regions) markers were successfully identified and rapid, reliable tools were provided for the detection of an effective biocontrol Trichoderma strain, which can facilitate studies of its population dynamics and establishment after release into the natural environment.

  19. Accuracy of marker-assisted selection with auxiliary traits

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Genetic information on molecular markers is increasingly being used in plant and animal improvement programmes particularly as indirect means to improve a metric trait by selection either on an individual basis or on the basis of an index incorporating such information. This paper examines the utility of an index of ...

  20. Accuracy of marker-assisted selection with auxiliary traits

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    ficial selection on individual and/or collateral basis in the form of an index to increase the efficiency of selection was demonstrated by the work of Lande and Thompson. (1990) – herein after referred to as LT. The underlying basis of the MAS is the correlation between the trait and the marker genotype, which gets generated ...

  1. Cognition and Rhetoric: Biological Basis of Meaning and Understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Arenas-Dolz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is twofold: on the one hand, to explore those approaches that understand cognitive processes as embodied and as a result of our interaction with the environment, and not merely as as a information processing system; and, on the other hand, to show their connexion with the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying meaning and understanding, giving and overview of some of the insights from recent studies in neurorhetorics.

  2. The biological basis of language: insight from developmental grammatical impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Lely, Heather K J; Pinker, Steven

    2014-11-01

    Specific language impairment (SLI), a genetic developmental disorder, offers insights into the neurobiological and computational organization of language. A subtype, Grammatical-SLI (G-SLI), involves greater impairments in 'extended' grammatical representations, which are nonlocal, hierarchical, abstract, and composed, than in 'basic' ones, which are local, linear, semantic, and holistic. This distinction is seen in syntax, morphology, and phonology, and may be tied to abnormalities in the left hemisphere and basal ganglia, consistent with new models of the neurobiology of language which distinguish dorsal and ventral processing streams. Delineating neurolinguistic phenotypes promises a better understanding of the effects of genes on the brain circuitry underlying normal and impaired language abilities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A common biological basis of obesity and nicotine addiction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.E. Thorgeirsson (Thorgeir); D.F. Gudbjartsson (Daniel); P. Sulem (Patrick); S. Besenbacher (Søren); U. Styrkarsdottir (Unnur); G. Thorleifsson (Gudmar); G.B. Walters (Bragi); H. Furberg (Helena); P. Sullivan (Patrick); J. Marchini (Jonathan); M.I. McCarthy (M.); V. Steinthorsdottir (Valgerdur); U. Thorsteinsdottir (Unnur); J-A. Zwart (John-Anker); I. Surakka (Ida); J.M. Vink (Jacqueline); N. Amin (Najaf); F. Geller (Frank); T. Rafnar (Thorunn); T. Esko (Tõnu); S. Walter (Stefan); C. Gieger (Christian); R. Rawal (R.); M. Mangino (Massimo); I. Prokopenko (Inga); R. Mägi (Reedik); K. Keskitalo (Kaisu); I.H. Gudjonsdottir (Iris); S. Gretarsdottir (Solveig); H. Stefansson (Hreinn); Y.S. Aulchenko (Yurii); M. Nelis (Mari); K.K.H. Aben (Katja); M. den Heijer (Martin); N. Soranzo (Nicole); A.M. Valdes (Ana Maria); C.J. Steves (Claire); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); A. Hofman (Albert); A. Tönjes (Anke); P. Kovacs (Peter); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); G.A.H.M. Willemsen (Gonneke); N. Vogelzangs (Nicole); A. Döring (Angela); N. Dahmen (N.); B. Nitz (Barbara); S. Ripatti (Samuli); M. Perola (Markus); J. Kettunen (Johannes); A.L. Hartikainen; A. Pouta (Anneli); J. Laitinen (Jaana); M.K. Isohanni (Matti); S. Huei-Yi (Shen); M. Allen (Maxine); M. Krestyaninova (Maria); A. Hall (Anne); J.R. Thompson (John); H. Oskarsson (Hogni); T. Tyrfingsson (Thorarinn); L.A.L.M. Kiemeney (Bart); M.-R. Jarvelin (Marjo-Riitta); V. Salomaa (Veikko); M. Stumvoll (Michael); T.D. Spector (Timothy); H.E. Wichmann (Heinz Erich); A. Metspalu (Andres); N.J. Samani (Nilesh); B.W.J.H. Penninx (Brenda); B.A. Oostra (Ben); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); J. Kaprio (Jaakko); J.R. Gulcher (Jeffrey); Y. Kim (Yunjung); J. Dackor (Jennifer); E.A. Boerwinkle (Eric); N. Franceschini (Nora); D. Ardissino (Diego); L. Bernardinelli (Luisa); P.M. Mannucci (Pier); F. Mauri (Francesco); P.A. Merlini (Piera); D. Absher (Devin); T.L. Assimes (Themistocles); S.P. Fortmann (Stephen); C. Iribarren (Carlos); J.W. Knowles (Joshua); T. Quertermous (Thomas); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); J.C. Bis (Joshua); H. Furberg (Helena); T. Haritunians (Talin); B. McKnight (Barbara); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); K.D. Taylor (Kent); E.L. Thacker (Evan); P. Almgren (Peter); L. Groop (Leif); C. Ladenvall (Claes); M. Boehnke (Michael); A.U. Jackson (Anne); K.L. Mohlke (Karen); H.M. Stringham (Heather); J. Tuomilehto (Jaakko); E.J. Benjamin (Emelia); S.J. Hwang; D. Levy (Daniel); S.R. Preis; R.S. Vasan (Ramachandran Srini); J. Duan (Jubao); P.V. Gejman (Pablo); D.F. Levinson (Douglas); A.R. Sanders (Alan); J. Shi (Jianxin); E.H. Lips (Esther); J.D. McKay (James); A. Agudo (Antonio); L. Barzan (Luigi); V. Bencko (Vladimir); S. Benhamou (Simone); X. Castellsagué (Xavier); C. Canova (Cristina); D.I. Conway (David); E. Fabianova (Eleonora); L. Foretova (Lenka); V. Janout (Vladimir); C.M. Healy (Claire); I. Holcátová (Ivana); K. Kjaerheim (Kristina); P. Lagiou; J. Lissowska (Jolanta); R. Lowry (Ray); T.V. MacFarlane (Tatiana); D. Mates (Dana); L. Richiardi (Lorenzo); P. Rudnai (Peter); N. Szeszenia-Dabrowska (Neonilia); D. Zaridze; A. Znaor (Ariana); M. Lathrop (Mark); P. Brennan (Paul); S. Bandinelli (Stefania); T.M. Frayling (Timothy); J.M. Guralnik (Jack); Y. Milaneschi (Yuri); J.R.B. Perry (John); D. Altshuler (David); R. Elosua (Roberto); S. Kathiresan (Sekar); G. Lucas (Gavin); O. Melander (Olle); C.J. O'Donnell (Christopher); S.M. Schwartz (Stephen); B.F. Voight (Benjamin); G.D. Smith; E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); S.J. Chanock (Stephen); F. Gu (Fangyi); S.E. Hankinson (Susan); D. Hunter (David); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); B.M. Everett (Brendan); G. Paré (Guillaume); P.M. Ridker (Paul); M.D. Li (Ming); H.H. Maes (Hermine); J. Audrain-Mcgovern (Janet); D. Posthuma (Danielle); L.M. Thornton (Laura); C. Lerman (Caryn); J.E. Rose (Jed); J.P.A. Ioannidis (John); P. Kraft (Peter); D.Y. Lin (Dan); J. Liu (Jason); P. Muglia (Pierandrea); D. Waterworth (Dawn); A.D. Pillai (Ajay); P. Muglia (Pierandrea); L. Middleton (Lefkos); W. Berrettini (Wade); C.W. Knouff (Christopher); X. Yuan (Xin); G. Waeber (Gérard); P. Vollenweider (Peter); M. Preisig (Martin); N.J. Wareham (Nick); J.H. Zhao (Jing Hua); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth); I. Barroso (Inês); K-T. Khaw (Kay-Tee); S.M. Grundy (Scott); P. Barter (Phil); R. Mahley (Robert); Y.A. Kesaniemi (Antero); R. McPherson (Ruth); J. Vincent (John); J.S. Strauss (John S); J. Kennedy (James); A.E. Farmer (Anne E); P. Mcguffin (Peter); R.N. Day (Richard); K. Matthews (Keith); A.B. Bakke (Arnold B.); A. Gulsvik (Amund); S. Lucae (Susanne); M. Ising (Marcus); T. Brueckl (Tanja); S. Horstmann (Sonja); J. Heinrich (Joachim); C. Lamina (Claudia); O. Polasek (Ozren); L. Zgaga (Lina); J.E. Huffman (Jennifer); S. Campbell (Susan); J.S. Kooner (Jaspal); J.C. Chambers (John); M.S. Burnett; J. Devaney (Joseph); A.D. Pichard; K.M. Kent (Kenneth); L.F. Satler; J.M. Lindsay (Joseph); R. Waksman (Ron); S.E. Epstein (Stephen); J.F. Wilson (James); S.H. Wild (Sarah); H. Campbell (Harry); V. Vitart (Veronique); M.P. Reilly (Muredach); M. Li (Mingyao); L. Qu (Liming); A. Wilensky (Asaf); W. Matthai (William); H. Hakonarson (Hakon); D.J. Rader (Daniel); A. Franke (Andre); M. Wittig (Michael); A. Schäfer (Arne); M. Uda (Manuela); A. Terracciano; X. Xiao (Xiangjun); F. Busonero; P. Scheet (Paul); D. Schlessinger; D.S. Clair; D. Rujescu (Dan); G.R. Abecasis (Gonçalo); H.J. Grabe (Hans Jörgen); A. Teumer (Alexander); H. Völzke (Henry); A. Petersmann (Astrid); U. John (Ulrich); I. Rudan (Igor); C. Hayward (Caroline); A.F. Wright (Alan); I. Kolcic (Ivana); B.J. Wright (Benjamin); A.J. Balmforth (Anthony); C. Anderson (Carl); T. Ahmed (Tariq); J. Mathew (Joseph); M. Parkes (Miles); J. Satsangi (Jack); M. Caulfield (Mark); P. Munroe (Patricia); M. Farrall (Martin); A. Dominiczak (Anna); H. Worthington (Helen); W. Thomson (Wendy); D.S. Eyre (Dylan Samuel); A. Barton (Anne); V. Mooser (Vincent); C. Francks (Clyde)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractSmoking influences body weight such that smokers weigh less than non-smokers and smoking cessation often leads to weight increase. The relationship between body weight and smoking is partly explained by the effect of nicotine on appetite and metabolism. However, the brain reward system

  4. Physical and biological basis of hadron radiotherapy. Book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-09-01

    The Workshop was a satellite event of the 14 th International Congress of Radiation Research (ICRR-2011). It was held in Cracow, Poland, on the 2 and 3 September 2011, at the Collegium Novum of the Jagiellonian University. The Workshop organized, jointly by the Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Polish Academy of Sciences and the Polish Radiation Research Society, would provide its participants with an opportunity to discuss current topics in proton and carbon radiotherapy, clinical aspects of ion radiotherapy, ion beam dosimetry, unwanted patient exposure, radiobiology for ion radiotherapy and other relevant subjects. Book of Abstracts contains abstracts of 33 oral presentations and 12 posters.

  5. The biological basis for dose limitation to the skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1992-01-01

    Ionizing radiation may cause deterministic effects and cancer. It has been the policy to base dose limits for radiation protection of the skin on the prevention of deterministic effects (1). In the case of cancer in general, dose limitation for radiation protection is based on limiting excess cancer mortality to low levels of radiation. Since skin cancers are seldom lethal, the general radiation protection standards will protect against an increase in excess mortality from skin cancer. However, with the dose limits selected to prevent deterministic effects, there is a significant probability of an excess incidence of skin cancer occurring as a result of exposure during a working lifetime. The induction of skin cancer by radiation is influenced significantly by subsequent exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) from sunlight. This finding raises not only interesting questions about the mechanisms involved, but also about the differences in risk of skin cancer in different populations. The amount and distribution of melanin in the skin determines the degree of the effect of UVR. This paper discusses the mechanisms of the induction of both deterministic and stochastic effects in skin exposed to radiation in relation to radiation protection. (author)

  6. Epigenetics and the Biological Basis of Gene x Environment Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagot, Rosemary C.; Meaney, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Child and adolescent psychiatry is rife with examples of the sustained effects of early experience on brain function. The study of behavioral genetics provides evidence for a relation between genomic variation and personality and with the risk for psychopathology. A pressing challenge is that of "conceptually" integrating findings from…

  7. Investigating the genetic and epigenetic basis of big biological ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Günter Vogt

    2018-02-14

    Feb 14, 2018 ... Its main advantage is the production of large numbers of offspring that are genetically identical to the mother, making this .... repeatedly used in shrimp aquaculture to produce sterile autotriploids (Piferreret al. 2009). Marbled ...... 9: Integument, pigments, and hormonal processes (eds) DE Bliss and LH ...

  8. Biological basis of tree-ring formation: a crash course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyrille Barthélémy Karl Rathgeber

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Wood is of crucial importance for man and biosphere. In this mini review, we present the fundamental processes involved in tree-ring formation and intra-annual dynamics of cambial activity, along with the influences of the environmental factors. During wood formation, new xylem cells produced by the cambium are undergoing profound transformations, passing through successive differentiation stages, which enable them to perform their functions in trees. Xylem cell formation can be divided in five major phases: (1 the division of a cambial mother cell that creates a new cell; (2 the enlargement of this newly formed cell; (3 the deposition of its secondary wall; (4 the lignification of its cell wall; and finally, (5 its programmed cell death. In most regions of the world cambial activity follows a seasonal cycle. At the beginning of the growing season, when temperature increases, the cambium resumes activity, producing new xylem cells. These cells are disposed along radial files, and start their differentiation program according to their birth date, creating typical developmental strips in the forming xylem. The width of these strips smoothly changes along the growing season. Finally, when climatic conditions deteriorate (temperature or water availability in particular, cambial activity stops, soon followed by cell enlargement, and later on by secondary wall deposition. Without a clear understanding of the xylem formation process, it is not possible to comprehend how annual growth rings and typical wood structures are formed, recording seasonal variations of the environment as well as extreme climatic events.

  9. [Biological basis of problematic internet use (PIN) and therapeutic implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauernhofer, Kathrin; Papousek, Ilona; Fink, Andreas; Unterrainer, Human Friedrich; Weiss, Elisabeth M

    2015-01-01

    The repetitive excessive use of internet has led to an increasing number of reports about the negative consequences of overuse and is now viewed as an important public health issue, although the diagnosis of internet addiction remains problematic. Increasing knowledge about the neurobiological mechanism of behavioral addictions will promote future research and is essential for the development of specific and effective treatment. Growing evidence suggests that the neurobiological substrates and pathways of internet addiction resemble those of substance dependency and other forms of behavioral addictions. This paper reviews the current neuroimaging findings and genetic influencing factors for problematic internet use (PIN)/internet addiction. Recent evidence from neuro-scientific studies has pointed out that certain dysfunctions in the prefrontal cortex possibly driven by impaired dopamine neurotransmission are related to symptoms of internet addiction. Finally the literature on psychological and pharmacological interventions for internet addiction will be discussed. However, due to a lack of methodological sound treatment studies in this field it is currently impossible to recommend any evidence-based treatment of internet addiction.

  10. Organisms modeling: The question of radial basis function networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzy Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There exists usually a gap between bio-inspired computational techniques and what biologists can do with these techniques in their current researches. Although biology is the root of system-theory and artifical neural networks, computer scientists are tempted to build their own systems independently of biological issues. This publication is a first-step re-evalution of an usual machine learning technique (radial basis funtion(RBF networks in the context of systems and biological reactive organisms.

  11. (DArT) markers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    age groups of both maternal and paternal maps. The segre- gating markers were classified into two classes; for DArT class 1 consensus marker the selection criterion were of very high stringency parameters with clustering settings; Q >. 70; P > 75; call rate > 90, 100% reproducibility, no dis- cordance, and probability > 0.001 ...

  12. Radiopaque anastomosis marker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, D.P.; Halseth, W.L.

    1977-01-01

    This invention relates to split ring markers fabricated in whole or in part from a radiopaque material, usually metal, having the terminal ends thereof and a medial portion formed to define eyelets by means of which said marker can be sutured to the tissue at the site of an anastomosis to provide a visual indication of its location when examined fluoroscopically

  13. Incorporation of conventional genetic markers and RAPD markers into an RFLP based map in maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coe, E.H. Jr.; McMullen, M.D.; Polacco, M.; Davis, G.L.; Chao, S.

    1998-01-01

    Integration of classical genetic markers, in particular mutants, onto the maize Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) map will provide the tools necessary to further our understanding of plant development and of complex traits. Initially integration was accomplished by visual alignment of common markers and sometimes involved the use of information from several different molecular maps to determine the relative placement of a single mutant. The maize core marker set was designed to provide a common set of markers which could be used for integration of map data. We have completed the mapping, of 56 mutants on chromosome one relative to the core marker set. Phenotypes included whole plant, seedling, and kernel effects and represented a variety of biological processes. Since these mutants were previously located to chromosome arm, mapping required the use of only seven markers per mutant to define the correct bin location. Two mistakes in marker order relative to the classical map were identified, as well as, six groups of mutants which require allelism testing. Placement of mutants and cDNAs into bins using, the core markers provides a necessary resource for identification of gene function in maize. (author)

  14. Development of single locus DNA microsatellite markers in Oryctes ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, 2Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and 3Department of. Cell and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular ... promising genetic marker, suitable for precise discrimination of closely related individuals (Smouse and Chevillon 1998).

  15. VT Roadside Historic Markers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Roadside Historic Site Marker program has proven an effective way to commemorate Vermont’s many people, events, and places of regional, statewide, or national...

  16. A Genome-Wide Association Study to Identify Diagnostic Markers for Human Pathogenic Campylobacter jejuni Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cody J. Buchanan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is a leading human enteric pathogen worldwide and despite an improved understanding of its biology, ecology, and epidemiology, limited tools exist for identifying strains that are likely to cause disease. In the current study, we used subtyping data in a database representing over 24,000 isolates collected through various surveillance projects in Canada to identify 166 representative genomes from prevalent C. jejuni subtypes for whole genome sequencing. The sequence data was used in a genome-wide association study (GWAS aimed at identifying accessory gene markers associated with clinically related C. jejuni subtypes. Prospective markers (n = 28 were then validated against a large number (n = 3,902 of clinically associated and non-clinically associated genomes from a variety of sources. A total of 25 genes, including six sets of genetically linked genes, were identified as robust putative diagnostic markers for clinically related C. jejuni subtypes. Although some of the genes identified in this study have been previously shown to play a role in important processes such as iron acquisition and vitamin B5 biosynthesis, others have unknown function or are unique to the current study and warrant further investigation. As few as four of these markers could be used in combination to detect up to 90% of clinically associated isolates in the validation dataset, and such markers could form the basis for a screening assay to rapidly identify strains that pose an increased risk to public health. The results of the current study are consistent with the notion that specific groups of C. jejuni strains of interest are defined by the presence of specific accessory genes.

  17. The basis of the particle beam therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoh, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    The particle beam therapy has the excellent physical and biological characteristics that are very different from the X-ray used mainly in conventional radiotherapy. Therefore, the particle therapy can treat loco-regional lesions more strongly with less toxicity than conventional radiotherapy. In recent years in Japan, we can use proton and carbon ion as a particle beam therapy. In this article, we describe the overview of the basis, the advantage and weak points about the particle beam therapy, and the differences between proton and carbon ion therapy. (author)

  18. Structural Biology Guides Antibiotic Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyak, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Modern drug discovery programs require the contribution of researchers in a number of specialist areas. One of these areas is structural biology. Using X-ray crystallography, the molecular basis of how a drug binds to its biological target and exerts its mode of action can be defined. For example, a drug that binds into the active site of an…

  19. Acidic catalase in human skin in vivo: a new marker of permanent damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maresca, Vittoria; Flori, Enrica; Fabbri, Claudia; Briganti, Stefania; Mariani, Giustino; Catricalà, Caterina; Picardo, Mauro

    2009-12-01

    Malignant melanoma incidence is increasing rapidly in Western countries. Its prevention requires a deep knowledge of the biological basis of the neoplasm leading to the identification of new biological risk markers. In in-vitro and ex-vivo models we demonstrated that catalase was modified not only in its activity but also in its charge properties after ultraviolet A irradiation through pheomelanin. Here we focus on the electrophoretic behaviour of catalase in the human skin in vivo, in association with cutaneous phototype. Zymographic analysis of the enzyme on skin biopsies from Caucasian population (phototype I-IV), collected from the trunk in autumn-winter, to exclude possible influences of an acute photoexposure, evidenced a protein doublet, representing the coexistence of two active isoforms of catalase with different charge properties. In the skin from low-phototype subjects, the percent contribution of the more acidic component of the doublet was prevalent, inversely correlated with total melanin concentration in hair, and associated with a high number of melanocytic nevi. In summary, this study shows for the first time the existence of an acidic catalase in association with clinically defined risk characteristics in low phototype skin in vivo, contributing to the knowledge of a new biochemical marker of cutaneous photosusceptibility.

  20. Tumour markers in urology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, L.; Fornara, P.; Fabricius, P.G.

    1988-01-01

    The same applies essentially also for the bladder carcinomas: There is no reliable marker for these cancers which would be useful for clinical purposes. TPA has proven to be too non-specific in malignoma-detection and therefore hardly facilitates clinical decision-making in individual cases. The CEA is not sensitive enough to be recommendable for routine application. However, in advanced stages a CEA examination may be useful if applied within the scope of therapeutic efforts made to evaluate efficacy. In cases of carcinomas of the prostate the sour prostate-specific phosphatase (SPP) and, more recently, especially the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) have proven in follow-up and therapy monitoring, whereby the PSA is superior to the SPP. Nevertheless, both these markers should be employed in therapy monitoring because differences in behaviour will be observed when the desired treatment effect is only achieved in one of the two markers producing tumour cell clonuses. Both markers, but especially the PSA, are quite reliably in agreement with the result of the introduced chemo-/hormone therapy, whereby an increase may be a sure indicator of relapse several months previous to clinical symptoms, imaging procedures, so-called routine laboratory results and subjective complaints. However, none of the 2 markers is appropriate for the purposes of screening or early diagnosis of carcinomas of the prostate. (orig.) [de

  1. Markers of erectile dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelvin P Davies

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development and marketing of oral pharmacotherapy that is both noninvasive and successful in treating erectile dysfunction (ED, the quest to identify markers of organic ED lost ground. Indeed, the multi-factorial nature of ED may have led many researchers to conclude that searching for a universal marker of ED was futile. However, the realization that ED is strongly correlated with the overall health of men, and may act as a predictor for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD and diabetes, has stimulated interest in identifying genes that can distinguish organic ED. In addition, the potential ability to suggest to the patient that ED is reversible (i.e., psychogenic with a simple test would be of significance to both the physician and patient, as well as for reimbursement issues for therapy by insurance companies. Such a marker may also act as a non-subjective measure of the degree of ED and the efficacy of treatment. This review discusses the importance of identifying such markers and recent work identifying potential markers in human patients.

  2. Systems Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Systems biology seeks to study biological systems as a whole, contrary to the reductionist approach that has dominated biology. Such a view of biological systems emanating from strong foundations of molecular level understanding of the individual components in terms of their form, function and interactions is promising to ...

  3. Human spermatogonial markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Kopylow, Kathrein; Spiess, Andrej-Nikolai

    2017-12-01

    In this review, we provide an up-to-date compilation of published human spermatogonial markers, with focus on the three nuclear subtypes A dark , A pale and B. In addition, we have extended our recently published list of putative spermatogonial markers with protein expression and RNA-sequencing data from the Human Protein Atlas and supported these by literature evidence. Most importantly, we have put substantial effort in acquiring a comprehensive list of new and potentially interesting markers by refiltering the raw data of 15 published germ cell expression datasets (four human, eleven rodent) and subsequent building of intersections to acquire a robust, cross-species set of spermatogonia-enriched or -specific transcripts. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Human spermatogonial markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrein von Kopylow

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we provide an up-to-date compilation of published human spermatogonial markers, with focus on the three nuclear subtypes Adark, Apale and B. In addition, we have extended our recently published list of putative spermatogonial markers with protein expression and RNA-sequencing data from the Human Protein Atlas and supported these by literature evidence. Most importantly, we have put substantial effort in acquiring a comprehensive list of new and potentially interesting markers by refiltering the raw data of 15 published germ cell expression datasets (four human, eleven rodent and subsequent building of intersections to acquire a robust, cross-species set of spermatogonia-enriched or -specific transcripts.

  5. HBV-DNA as marker of hepatitis B virus infection in autochtho- nous and foreign population of the Molecular Biology Laboratory of the Immuno-Haematology and Blood Transfusion Unit, AO “S. Maria”, Terni, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Cappuccini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Italy has recently become land of immigration of people coming from geographical areas with high or medium endemia of Hepatitis B Virus. HBV-DNA shows the presence of that virus in blood. Materials and Methods. The aim of this study is to value the prevalence of HBV-DNA in patients coming to the Molecular Biology Laboratory of the Immuno-Haematology and Blood Transfusion Unit, AO “S. Maria”, Terni in 2012 focusing the areas of origin. HBV-DNA was analysed in 505 samples of plasma belonging to 328 individuals. The evaluation was related to sex and places of origin. Results. Among the 328 individuals analysed, 149 were positive to HBV-DNA: 88 were Italian and 61 were foreigners. Male positivity to virus was higher than female. Nationality of origin were found for all the subjects except 2. Positive samples belong mostly to individuals from central Europe: 11 to Albania, 28 to Romania, 1 to Ukraine, 4 to Moldova, 1 to Bulgaria. 5 positive individuals were from Asia: 2 from Philippines and 3 from China. One positive man was French and 9 positive individuals were from Africa (Maghreb and Central Sub-Saharan Africa. Last positive individual was of unknown nationality.Conclusions. The HBV prevalence among immigrants changes according to the geographical area of origin and it is higher in many other countries than Italy. Prevention and vaccination together with monitoring of HBV-DNA is strictly necessary for all the population autochthonous and not in this particular historical moment.

  6. Calibration Markers for Digital Templating in Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Kolja Boese

    Full Text Available Digital templating with external calibration markers is the standard method for planning total hip arthroplasty. We determined the geometrical basis of the magnification effect, compared magnification with external and internal calibration markers, and examined the influence on magnification of the position of the calibration markers, patient weight, and body mass index (BMI. A formula was derived to calculate magnification with internal and external calibration markers, informed by 100 digital radiographs of the pelvis. Intraclass correlations between the measured and calculated values and the strength of relationships between magnification, position and distance of calibration markers and height, weight, and BMI were sought. There was a weak correlation between magnification of internal and external calibration markers (r = 0.297-0.361; p < 0.01. Intraclass correlations were 0.882-1.000 (p = 0.000 for all parameters. There were also weak correlations between magnification of internal and external calibration markers and weight and BMI (r = 0.420, p = 0.000; r = 0.428, p = 0.000, respectively. The correlation between external and internal calibration markers was poor, indicating the need for more accurate calibration methods. While weight and BMI weakly correlated with the magnification of markers, future studies should examine this phenomenon in more detail.

  7. Calibration Markers for Digital Templating in Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boese, Christoph Kolja; Lechler, Philipp; Rose, Leonard; Dargel, Jens; Oppermann, Johannes; Eysel, Peer; Geiges, Hansjörg; Bredow, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Digital templating with external calibration markers is the standard method for planning total hip arthroplasty. We determined the geometrical basis of the magnification effect, compared magnification with external and internal calibration markers, and examined the influence on magnification of the position of the calibration markers, patient weight, and body mass index (BMI). A formula was derived to calculate magnification with internal and external calibration markers, informed by 100 digital radiographs of the pelvis. Intraclass correlations between the measured and calculated values and the strength of relationships between magnification, position and distance of calibration markers and height, weight, and BMI were sought. There was a weak correlation between magnification of internal and external calibration markers (r = 0.297-0.361; p < 0.01). Intraclass correlations were 0.882-1.000 (p = 0.000) for all parameters. There were also weak correlations between magnification of internal and external calibration markers and weight and BMI (r = 0.420, p = 0.000; r = 0.428, p = 0.000, respectively). The correlation between external and internal calibration markers was poor, indicating the need for more accurate calibration methods. While weight and BMI weakly correlated with the magnification of markers, future studies should examine this phenomenon in more detail.

  8. (DArT) markers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    wilt and sterility mosaic disease, etc.) stresses. Despite past. ∗For correspondence. E-mail: r.k.varshney@cgiar.org .... Shi Ying Yang et al. Table 2. Details on 466 polymorphic DArT markers. Female specific. Male specific. Total. 198. 268. Class I. 142. 203. Class II. 27. 16. Others. 29. 49. Mapped. 122. 172. Linkage mapping.

  9. Magik Markers Trehvis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Müra-rock'i viljelevast USA duost Magik Markers (ansambel osaleb režissöör Veiko Õunapuu uue mängufilmi "Püha Tõnu kiusamine" võtetel, kontsert 15. nov. Tartus klubis Trehv, vt. www.magikmarkers.audiosport.org.)

  10. The Swift Turbidity Marker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Ahmad Fairuz; MatJafri, Mohd Zubir

    2011-01-01

    The Swift Turbidity Marker is an optical instrument developed to measure the level of water turbidity. The components and configuration selected for the system are based on common turbidity meter design concepts but use a simplified methodology to produce rapid turbidity measurements. This work is aimed at high school physics students and is the…

  11. Biological computation

    CERN Document Server

    Lamm, Ehud

    2011-01-01

    Introduction and Biological BackgroundBiological ComputationThe Influence of Biology on Mathematics-Historical ExamplesBiological IntroductionModels and Simulations Cellular Automata Biological BackgroundThe Game of Life General Definition of Cellular Automata One-Dimensional AutomataExamples of Cellular AutomataComparison with a Continuous Mathematical Model Computational UniversalitySelf-Replication Pseudo Code Evolutionary ComputationEvolutionary Biology and Evolutionary ComputationGenetic AlgorithmsExample ApplicationsAnalysis of the Behavior of Genetic AlgorithmsLamarckian Evolution Genet

  12. Generation and application of SSR markers in avocado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharon, D.; Lavi, U.; Cregan, P.B.; Hillel, J.

    1998-01-01

    Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) DNA markers were generated and applied to avocado. An SSR marker is based on a pair of primers which are synthesized on the basis of DNA sequences flanking a micro satellite. These markers are PCR based, quite polymorphic and abundant in several species. These are the markers, of choice in the human genome. The number of SSR markers in the avocado genome was calculated to be about 45,000, with the A/T micro satellite being the most frequent (1 in 40 kb). SSR markers are quite expensive to generate due to the required multi-step procedure; Screening a genomic library, about 66% of the positive clones turned out after sequencing to be SSR containing clones. In only about 55% of these, was it possible to synthesize primers and, of this group, only about 50% of the markers were useful for typing a specific family. Typing of five avocado cultivars using 59 SSR markers results in one to eight alleles per locus, mean heterozygosity ranging between 0.51 and 0.66 and gene diversity ranging between 0.42 and 0.66. The SSR markers were used to estimate the genetic relationships between various Persea species. The number of alleles in these species ranged between five and twelve with heterozygosity levels between 0.11-0.78 and gene diversity between 0.69-0.89. A preliminary genetic map, based on these SSR markers together with some DNA fingerprints (DFP) and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers, was drawn. The map consists of 12 linkage group having two to five markers each. Linkage analysis with several quantitative trait loci (QTLs) was performed by genetic typing and phenotypic assessment of the progeny of a controlled cross. The results of the interval mapping suggest that the gene(s) coding for the existence of fibers in the flesh, are probably linked to linkage group 3. (author)

  13. An insight into salivary markers in oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna Prasad, Ramnarayan Belur; Sharma, Akhilesh; Babu, Harsha Mysore

    2013-05-01

    Salivary diagnostics has fascinated many researcheres and has been tested as a valuable tool in the diagnosis of many systemic conditions and for drug monitoring. Advances in the field of molecular biology, salivary genomics and proteomics have led to the discovery of new molecular markers for oral cancer diagnosis, therapeutics and prognosis. Oral cancer is a potentially fatal disease and the outcome of the treatment and prognosis largely depends on early diagnosis. Abnormal cellular products elucidated from malignant cells can be detected and measured in various body fluids including saliva and constitute tumor markers. This article discusses the various salivary tumor markers and their role in oral pre-cancer and cancer.

  14. Bone Remodelling Markers in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice Fardellone

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone loss in rheumatoid arthritis (RA patients results from chronic inflammation and can lead to osteoporosis and fractures. A few bone remodeling markers have been studied in RA witnessing bone formation (osteocalcin, serum aminoterminal propeptide of type I collagen (PINP, serum carboxyterminal propeptide of type I collagen (ICTP, bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP, osteocalcin (OC, and bone resorption: C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (I-CTX, N-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (I-NTX, pyridinolines (DPD and PYD, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP. Bone resorption can be seen either in periarticular bone (demineralization and erosion or in the total skeleton (osteoporosis. Whatever the location, bone resorption results from activation of osteoclasts when the ratio between osteoprotegerin and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (OPG/RANKL is decreased under influence of various proinflammatory cytokines. Bone remodeling markers also allow physicians to evaluate the effect of drugs used in RA like biologic agents, which reduce inflammation and exert a protecting effect on bone. We will discuss in this review changes in bone markers remodeling in patients with RA treated with biologics.

  15. The biology of melanoma prognostic factors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spatz, A.; Stock, N.; Batist, G.; Kempen, L.C.L.T. van

    2010-01-01

    Cutaneous melanoma still represents a paradox among all solid tumors. It is the cancer for which the best prognostic markers ever identified in solid tumors are available, yet there is very little understanding of their biological significance. This review focuses on recent biological data that shed

  16. Towards Common Balkan Lexical Evidential Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim M. Makartsev

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A simple listing of lexical evidential markers in Bulgarian, Macedonian and Albanian uncovers unusual problems, because a significant part of the markers are common, both due to genetic relations between the languages (e.g. Bulg. and Maced. spored and to areal factors (e.g. Turk. word güya / gûya was loaned into Bulg. dialectal gyoa, Maced. ǵoa and Alb. gjoja; this marker also exists in Serb.. But these common markers with the same etymology do not necessarily have similar meanings, which is both a theoretical problem for the description of the language data and a practical issue for translation between the languages. As Bulgarian, Macedonian and Albanian have grammatical evidential systems as well, there is a question how the lexical evidential markers interact with evidential forms. Here the distinction between analytic and holistic reading can be quite helpful, as it clarifies the role of each of the components in constructions. In the article it is analysed on the basis of translations between the Balkan languages. The definition of evidentiality I employ in this article is the one stated by A. Aikhenvald: “evidentiality is a linguistic category whose primary meaning is [the] source of information. […] [T]his covers the way in which the information was acquired, without necessarily relating to the degree of [the] speaker’s certainty concerning the statement or whether it is true or not” [Aikhenvald 2004: 3]. It is well known that there is a certain variety of domains for expressing evidentiality; first and foremost there is a distinction between lexical and grammatical markers.1 In the following article I will concentrate on the common lexical evidential markers in Albanian, Bulgarian, and Macedonian, with a short introduction to grammatical evidentiality in these languages. _______________________ 1 As for the grammatical evidential markers in the Balkan languages, there is a tradition of their analysis dating back to the second

  17. Towards Common Balkan Lexical Evidential Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim M. Makartsev

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A simple listing of lexical evidential markers in Bulgarian, Macedonian and Albanian uncovers unusual problems, because a significant part of the markers are common, both due to genetic relations between the languages (e.g. Bulg. and Maced. spored and to areal factors (e.g. Turk. word güya / gûya was loaned into Bulg. dialectal gyoa, Maced. ǵoa and Alb. gjoja; this marker also exists in Serb.. But these common markers with the same etymology do not necessarily have similar meanings, which is both a theoretical problem for the description of the language data and a practical issue for translation between the languages. As Bulgarian, Macedonian and Albanian have grammatical evidential systems as well, there is a question how the lexical evidential markers interact with evidential forms. Here the distinction between analytic and holistic reading can be quite helpful, as it clarifies the role of each of the components in constructions. In the article it is analysed on the basis of translations between the Balkan languages. The definition of evidentiality I employ in this article is the one stated by A. Aikhenvald: “evidentiality is a linguistic category whose primary meaning is [the] source of information. […] [T]his covers the way in which the information was acquired, without necessarily relating to the degree of [the] speaker’s certainty concerning the statement or whether it is true or not” [Aikhenvald 2004: 3]. It is well known that there is a certain variety of domains for expressing evidentiality; first and foremost there is a distinction between lexical and grammatical markers.1 In the following article I will concentrate on the common lexical evidential markers in Albanian, Bulgarian, and Macedonian, with a short introduction to grammatical evidentiality in these languages._______________________1 As for the grammatical evidential markers in the Balkan languages, there is a tradition of their analysis dating back to the second

  18. The urine marker test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elbe, Anne-Marie; Jensen, Stine Nylandsted; Elsborg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urine sample collection for doping control tests is a key component of the World Anti-Doping Agency's fight against doping in sport. However, a substantial number of athletes experience difficulty when having to urinate under supervision. Furthermore, it cannot always be ensured...... that athletes are actually delivering their own urine. A method that can be used to alleviate the negative impact of a supervised urination procedure and which can also identify urine as coming from a specific athlete is the urine marker test. Monodisperse low molecular weight polyethylene glycols (PEGs......) are given orally prior to urination. Urine samples can be traced to the donor by analysis of the PEGs previously given. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the use of the urine marker during urine doping control testing. METHODS: Two studies investigated athletes' acceptance...

  19. Selectable genetic markers for nematode transgenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano-Santini, Rosina; Dupuy, Denis

    2011-06-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been used to study genetics and development since the mid-1970s. Over the years, the arsenal of techniques employed in this field has grown steadily in parallel with the number of researchers using this model. Since the introduction of C. elegans transgenesis, nearly 20 years ago, this system has been extensively used in areas such as rescue experiments, gene expression studies, and protein localization. The completion of the C. elegans genome sequence paved the way for genome-wide studies requiring higher throughput and improved scalability than provided by traditional genetic markers. The development of antibiotic selection systems for nematode transgenesis addresses these requirements and opens the possibility to apply transgenesis to investigate biological functions in other nematode species for which no genetic markers had been developed to date.

  20. Genetic basis of chronic pancreatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, JBMJ; Morsche, RT; van Goor, Harry; Drenth, JPH

    2002-01-01

    Background: Pancreatitis has a proven genetic basis in a minority of patients. Methods: Review of the literature on genetics of pancreatitis. Results: Ever since the discovery that in most patients with hereditary pancreatitis a mutation in the gene encoding for cationic trypsinogen (R122H) was

  1. Ellipsoidal basis for isotropic oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallies, W.; Lukac, I.; Pogosyan, G.S.; Sisakyan, A.N.

    1994-01-01

    The solutions of the Schroedinger equation are derived for the isotropic oscillator potential in the ellipsoidal coordinate system. The explicit expression is obtained for the ellipsoidal integrals of motion through the components of the orbital moment and Demkov's tensor. The explicit form of the ellipsoidal basis is given for the lowest quantum numbers. 10 refs.; 1 tab. (author)

  2. Mixtures of truncated basis functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langseth, Helge; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre; Rumí, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we propose a framework, called mixtures of truncated basis functions (MoTBFs), for representing general hybrid Bayesian networks. The proposed framework generalizes both the mixture of truncated exponentials (MTEs) framework and the mixture of polynomials (MoPs) framework. Similar...

  3. Molecular basis of familial hypercholesterolemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruikman, Caroline S.; Hovingh, Gerard K.; Kastelein, John J. P.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review To provide an overview about the molecular basis of familial hypercholesterolemia. Recent findings Familial hypercholesterolemia is a common hereditary cause of premature coronary heart disease. It has been estimated that 1 in every 250 individuals has heterozygous familial

  4. Grobner Basis Representations of Sudoku

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taalman, Laura; Arnold, Elizabeth; Lucas, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses Grobner bases to explore the inherent structure of Sudoku puzzles and boards. In particular, we develop three different ways of representing the constraints of Sudoku puzzles with a system of polynomial equations. In one case, we explicitly show how a Grobner basis can be used to obtain a more meaningful representation of the…

  5. Basis reduction for layered lattices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.L. Torreão Dassen (Erwin)

    2011-01-01

    htmlabstractWe develop the theory of layered Euclidean spaces and layered lattices. With this new theory certain problems that usually are solved by using classical lattices with a "weighting" gain a new, more natural form. Using the layered lattice basis reduction algorithms introduced here these

  6. Thermodynamic basis for cluster kinetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Lina; Bian, Xiufang; Qin, Xubo

    2006-01-01

    Due to the inaccessibility of the supercooled region of marginal metallic glasses (MMGs) within the experimental time window, we study the cluster kinetics above the liquidus temperature, Tl, to acquire information on the fragility of the MMG systems. Thermodynamic basis for the stability...

  7. Guttation fluid as a physiological marker for selection of nitrogen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FRI Man

    2013-10-30

    Oct 30, 2013 ... A field experiment was conducted during the rainy season of 2008 and 2009 to use guttation fluid as a physiological marker for the screening of more nitrogen efficient rice genotypes on the basis of relationship between Guttation Fluid (GF) oozed by leaf tip and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), grain.

  8. Identification of RAPD marker for the White Backed Plant Hopper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-08

    Mar 8, 2010 ... OPA08-7 as a marker for WBPH resistance among the screened rice genotypes. Key words: Rice, random amplified ... Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out in a reaction volume of 25 μl ... the basis of standard evaluation system for rice at International. Rice Research Station (Khan and Saxena, ...

  9. EasyClone-MarkerFree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabre, Mathew Malcolm Jessop; Jakociunas, Tadas; Stovicek, Vratislav

    2016-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an established industrial host for production of recombinant proteins, fuels and chemicals. To enable stable integration of multiple marker-free overexpression cassettes in the genome of S. cerevisiae, we have developed a vector toolkit EasyClone-MarkerFree. The integr...... standardized genome engineering, and should be of particular interest to researchers working on yeast chassis with limited markers available....

  10. Multiscale Biological Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølich, Simon

    materials are characterized by their hierarchical and composite design, where features with sizes ranging from nanometers to centimeters provide the basis for the functionality of the material. Understanding of biological materials is, while very interesting from a basic research perspective, also valuable...... as inspiration for the development of new materials for medical and technological applications. In order to successfully mimic biological materials we must first have a thorough understanding of their design. As such, the purpose of the characterization of biological materials can be defined as the establishment...... mineral and the organic matrix in biomineralized calcite. High resolution powder diffraction was used to study how calcite in chalk, coccoliths, and mollusk shell is affected by the co-existent organic matrix. The calcified attachment organ in the saddle oyster, Anomia simplex serves as a brilliant...

  11. Molecular basis of neural function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tucek, S.; Stipek, S.; Stastny, F.; Krivanek, J.

    1986-01-01

    The conference proceedings contain abstracts of plenary lectures, of young neurochemists' ESN honorary lectures, lectures at symposia and workshops and poster communications. Twenty abstracts were inputted in INIS. The subject of these were the use of autoradiography for the determination of receptors, cholecystokinin, nicotine, adrenaline, glutamate, aspartate, tranquilizers, for distribution and pharmacokinetics of obidoxime-chloride, for cell proliferation, mitosis of brain cells, DNA repair; radioimmunoassay of cholinesterase, tyrosinase; positron computed tomography of the brain; biological radiation effects on cholinesterase activity; tracer techniques for determination of adrenaline; and studies of the biological repair of nerves. (J.P.)

  12. Electromagnetic Basis of Metabolism and Heredity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Friedemann; Stolc, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    Living organisms control their cellular biological clocks to maintain functional oscillation of the redox cycle, also called the "metabolic cycle" or "respiratory cycle". Organization of cellular processes requires parallel processing on a synchronized time-base. These clocks coordinate the timing of all biochemical processes in the cell, including energy production, DNA replication, and RNA transcription. When this universal time keeping function is perturbed by exogenous induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the rate of metabolism changes. This causes oxidative stress, aging and mutations. Therefore, good temporal coordination of the redox cycle not only actively prevents chemical conflict between the reductive and oxidative partial reactions; it also maintains genome integrity and lifespan. Moreover, this universal biochemical rhythm can be disrupted by ROS induction in vivo. This in turn can be achieved by blocking the electron transport chain either endogenously or exogenously by various metabolites, e.g. hydrogen sulfide (H2S), highly diffusible drugs, and carbon monoxide (CO). Alternatively, the electron transport in vivo can be attenuated via a coherent or interfering transfer of energy from exogenous ultralow frequency (ULF) and extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic (EM) fields, suggesting that-on Earth-such ambient fields are an omnipresent (and probably crucially important) factor for the time-setting basis of universal biochemical reactions in living cells. Our work demonstrated previously un-described evidence for quantum effects in biology by electromagnetic coupling below thermal noise at the universal electron transport chain (ETC) in vivo.

  13. Cellular basis of memory for addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestler, Eric J

    2013-12-01

    DESPITE THE IMPORTANCE OF NUMEROUS PSYCHOSOCIAL FACTORS, AT ITS CORE, DRUG ADDICTION INVOLVES A BIOLOGICAL PROCESS: the ability of repeated exposure to a drug of abuse to induce changes in a vulnerable brain that drive the compulsive seeking and taking of drugs, and loss of control over drug use, that define a state of addiction. Here, we review the types of molecular and cellular adaptations that occur in specific brain regions to mediate addiction-associated behavioral abnormalities. These include alterations in gene expression achieved in part via epigenetic mechanisms, plasticity in the neurophysiological functioning of neurons and synapses, and associated plasticity in neuronal and synaptic morphology mediated in part by altered neurotrophic factor signaling. Each of these types of drug-induced modifications can be viewed as a form of "cellular or molecular memory." Moreover, it is striking that most addiction-related forms of plasticity are very similar to the types of plasticity that have been associated with more classic forms of "behavioral memory," perhaps reflecting the finite repertoire of adaptive mechanisms available to neurons when faced with environmental challenges. Finally, addiction-related molecular and cellular adaptations involve most of the same brain regions that mediate more classic forms of memory, consistent with the view that abnormal memories are important drivers of addiction syndromes. The goal of these studies which aim to explicate the molecular and cellular basis of drug addiction is to eventually develop biologically based diagnostic tests, as well as more effective treatments for addiction disorders.

  14. Lipoprotein (a): a potential biological marker for unruptured intracranial aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, J; Roberts, G; Bolger, C; el Baghdady, A; Bouchier-Hayes, D; Farrell, M; Collins, P

    1997-05-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of intracranial aneurysms (IAs) prior to rupture reduces the high morbidity and mortality associated with their occurrence. Elevated serum lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] level, an independent risk factor for atherogenesis, has been demonstrated in sporadic IA disease (1). The purpose of this study was to assess the degree of correlation between elevated Lp(a) levels and the occurrence of IAs in asymptomatic first degree relatives of index cases from three families exhibiting a familial tendency towards IA development. 25 family members and 41 healthy controls were screened by random serum Lp(a) sampling. All family members received 4-vessel cerebral angiography. Eleven family members were found on angiography to harbour asymptomatic aneurysms and all were successfully treated by surgery. Of these 11, ten had significantly raised serum Lp(a) levels (> 30 mg%). Fourteen family members had negative angiograms. Eight of this latter group, mean age 43.6 +/- 3.8 years, had serum Lp(a) levels above the normal range. Mean Lp(a) levels were 53.7 +/- 1.2 mg% in subjects with aneurysms compared with 22.1 +/- 1.45 mg% in subjects without demonstrable aneurysms and 10.5 +/- 0.48 mg% in the control population. The prevalence of elevated Lp(a) levels in these families and the high degree of association of raised Lp(a) levels with the presence of IAs in several family members warrants follow up of angiographically negative young subjects. We require a case-control study to establish whether particular polymorphisms at the apoprotein (a) gene level are associated with the occurrence of IAs in these families.

  15. Biological Markers of Cognition in Prodromal Huntington's Disease: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Kathryn V.; Kaplan, Richard F.; Snyder, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD), an autosomal-dominant genetic disorder, has historically been viewed as a degenerative movement disorder but it also includes psychiatric symptoms and progressive cognitive decline. There has been a lack of consensus in the literature about whether or not cognitive signs can be detected in carriers before clinical…

  16. Fatty acids as biological markers of fat intake

    OpenAIRE

    Vaz, Juliana dos Santos; Deboni, Fabíola; Azevedo, Mirela Jobim de; Gross, Jorge Luiz; Zelmanovitz, Themis

    2006-01-01

    Os ácidos graxos da dieta têm sido associados ao desenvolvimento de doenças crônicas. Os inquéritos alimentares, utilizados em estudos clínicos e epidemiológicos para estimativa da ingestão de nutrientes, apresentam limitações na coleta de informações. Nesse sentido, a utilização da composição de ácidos graxos do plasma e do tecido adiposo como marcadores do tipo de gordura alimentar pode fornecer uma medida mais acurada da ingestão de gorduras. Esta pesquisa tem como objetivo evidenciar aspe...

  17. Hair cortisol as a biological marker for burnout symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penz, Marlene; Stalder, Tobias; Miller, Robert; Ludwig, Vera M; Kanthak, Magdalena K; Kirschbaum, Clemens

    2018-01-01

    Burnout is a syndrome with negative impact on cognitive performance and mood as a consequence of long-term stress at work. It is further associated with increased risk for mental and physical diseases. One potential pathway to mediate chronic work-stress and adverse health conditions in burnout is through alterations in long-term glucocorticoid secretion. Here, we present cross-sectional data on hair cortisol/cortisone (hairF/hairE) concentrations and burnout from a population-based sample of the Dresden Burnout Study (DBS; N=314 hair samples). Burnout symptoms (emotional exhaustion, cynical attitudes toward work, and reduced efficacy) were assessed with the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS). To control for potential confounds, depressivity was as well assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) screening instrument for major depression. The present findings indicate specific hypercortisolism in participants who suffer from burnout. No significant associations were found between depressivity and hairF/hairE. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Biological Markers of Environmental Carcinogens in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    pathology and questionnaire data to support future studies. These samples were used for complimentary analyses of xenobiotic metabolizing genes (GSTM1...partially support the analyses of polymorphisms in xenobiotic metabolizing genes (GSTM1, NAT2 and CYP1Al). In addition, data and blood samples...broiled meats and the propensity to cook food so that it was blackened or charred. After control for known breast cancer risk factors, none of the

  19. Biological therapeutics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greenstein, Ben; Brook, Daniel A

    2011-01-01

    This introductory textbook covers all the main categories of biological medicines, including vaccines, hormonal preparations, drugs for rheumatoid arthritis and other connective tissue diseases, drugs...

  20. Authorization basis requirements comparison report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brantley, W.M.

    1997-01-01

    The TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) consists of a set of documents identified by TWRS management with the concurrence of DOE-RL. Upon implementation of the TWRS Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) and Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs), the AB list will be revised to include the BIO and TSRs. Some documents that currently form part of the AB will be removed from the list. This SD identifies each - requirement from those documents, and recommends a disposition for each to ensure that necessary requirements are retained when the AB is revised to incorporate the BIO and TSRs. This SD also identifies documents that will remain part of the AB after the BIO and TSRs are implemented. This document does not change the AB, but provides guidance for the preparation of change documentation

  1. Authorization basis requirements comparison report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brantley, W.M.

    1997-08-18

    The TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) consists of a set of documents identified by TWRS management with the concurrence of DOE-RL. Upon implementation of the TWRS Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) and Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs), the AB list will be revised to include the BIO and TSRs. Some documents that currently form part of the AB will be removed from the list. This SD identifies each - requirement from those documents, and recommends a disposition for each to ensure that necessary requirements are retained when the AB is revised to incorporate the BIO and TSRs. This SD also identifies documents that will remain part of the AB after the BIO and TSRs are implemented. This document does not change the AB, but provides guidance for the preparation of change documentation.

  2. Probing community nurses' professional basis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaarup, Clara; Pape-Haugaard, Louise; Jensen, Merete Hartun

    2017-01-01

    Complicated and long-lasting wound care of diabetic foot ulcers are moving from specialists in wound care at hospitals towards community nurses without specialist diabetic foot ulcer wound care knowledge. The aim of the study is to elucidate community nurses' professional basis for treating...... diabetic foot ulcers. A situational case study design was adopted in an archetypical Danish community nursing setting. Experience is a crucial component in the community nurses' professional basis for treating diabetic foot ulcers. Peer-to-peer training is the prevailing way to learn about diabetic foot...... ulcer, however, this contributes to the risk of low evidence-based practice. Finally, a frequent behaviour among the community nurses is to consult colleagues before treating the diabetic foot ulcers....

  3. Hanford Generic Interim Safety Basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavender, J.C.

    1994-09-09

    The purpose of this document is to identify WHC programs and requirements that are an integral part of the authorization basis for nuclear facilities that are generic to all WHC-managed facilities. The purpose of these programs is to implement the DOE Orders, as WHC becomes contractually obligated to implement them. The Hanford Generic ISB focuses on the institutional controls and safety requirements identified in DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports.

  4. Hanford Generic Interim Safety Basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavender, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to identify WHC programs and requirements that are an integral part of the authorization basis for nuclear facilities that are generic to all WHC-managed facilities. The purpose of these programs is to implement the DOE Orders, as WHC becomes contractually obligated to implement them. The Hanford Generic ISB focuses on the institutional controls and safety requirements identified in DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports

  5. Quantum Mechanics predicts evolutionary biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torday, J S

    2018-01-11

    Nowhere are the shortcomings of conventional descriptive biology more evident than in the literature on Quantum Biology. In the on-going effort to apply Quantum Mechanics to evolutionary biology, merging Quantum Mechanics with the fundamentals of evolution as the First Principles of Physiology-namely negentropy, chemiosmosis and homeostasis-offers an authentic opportunity to understand how and why physics constitutes the basic principles of biology. Negentropy and chemiosmosis confer determinism on the unicell, whereas homeostasis constitutes Free Will because it offers a probabilistic range of physiologic set points. Similarly, on this basis several principles of Quantum Mechanics also apply directly to biology. The Pauli Exclusion Principle is both deterministic and probabilistic, whereas non-localization and the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle are both probabilistic, providing the long-sought after ontologic and causal continuum from physics to biology and evolution as the holistic integration recognized as consciousness for the first time. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Mammographic parenchymal texture as an imaging marker of hormonal activity: a comparative study between pre- and post-menopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daye, Dania; Bobo, Ezra; Baumann, Bethany; Ioannou, Antonios; Conant, Emily F.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.; Kontos, Despina

    2011-03-01

    Mammographic parenchymal texture patterns have been shown to be related to breast cancer risk. Yet, little is known about the biological basis underlying this association. Here, we investigate the potential of mammographic parenchymal texture patterns as an inherent phenotypic imaging marker of endogenous hormonal exposure of the breast tissue. Digital mammographic (DM) images in the cranio-caudal (CC) view of the unaffected breast from 138 women diagnosed with unilateral breast cancer were retrospectively analyzed. Menopause status was used as a surrogate marker of endogenous hormonal activity. Retroareolar 2.5cm2 ROIs were segmented from the post-processed DM images using an automated algorithm. Parenchymal texture features of skewness, coarseness, contrast, energy, homogeneity, grey-level spatial correlation, and fractal dimension were computed. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to evaluate feature classification performance in distinguishing between 72 pre- and 66 post-menopausal women. Logistic regression was performed to assess the independent effect of each texture feature in predicting menopause status. ROC analysis showed that texture features have inherent capacity to distinguish between pre- and post-menopausal statuses (AUC>0.5, pcontraception use and hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) use lead to a modest model improvement (AUC=0.78) while texture features maintained significant contribution (p<0.05). The observed differences in parenchymal texture features between pre- and post- menopausal women suggest that mammographic texture can potentially serve as a surrogate imaging marker of endogenous hormonal activity.

  7. Genetic basis of atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Campuzano

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation is the most common sustained arrhythmia and remains as one of main challenges in current clinical practice. The disease may be induced secondary to other diseases such as hypertension, valvular heart disease, and heart failure, conferring an increased risk of stroke and sudden death. Epidemiological studies have provided evidence that genetic factors play an important role and up to 30% of clinically diagnosed patients may have a family history of atrial fibrillation. To date, several rare variants have been identified in a wide range of genes associated with ionic channels, calcium handling protein, fibrosis, conduction and inflammation. Important advances in clinical, genetic and molecular basis have been performed over the last decade, improving diagnosis and treatment. However, the genetics of atrial fibrillation is complex and pathophysiological data remains still unraveling. A better understanding of the genetic basis will induce accurate risk stratification and personalized clinical treatment. In this review, we have focused on current genetics basis of atrial fibrillation.

  8. Is synthetic biology mechanical biology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Sune

    2015-12-01

    A widespread and influential characterization of synthetic biology emphasizes that synthetic biology is the application of engineering principles to living systems. Furthermore, there is a strong tendency to express the engineering approach to organisms in terms of what seems to be an ontological claim: organisms are machines. In the paper I investigate the ontological and heuristic significance of the machine analogy in synthetic biology. I argue that the use of the machine analogy and the aim of producing rationally designed organisms does not necessarily imply a commitment to mechanical biology. The ideal of applying engineering principles to biology is best understood as expressing recognition of the machine-unlikeness of natural organisms and the limits of human cognition. The paper suggests an interpretation of the identification of organisms with machines in synthetic biology according to which it expresses a strategy for representing, understanding, and constructing living systems that are more machine-like than natural organisms.

  9. Managing neurobehavioral capability when social expediency trumps biological imperatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaeth, Andrea M; Goel, Namni; Dinges, David F

    2012-01-01

    Sleep, which is evolutionarily conserved across species, is a biological imperative that cannot be ignored or replaced. However, the percentage of habitually sleep-restricted adults has increased in recent decades. Extended work hours and commutes, shift work schedules, and television viewing are particularly potent social factors that influence sleep duration. Chronic partial sleep restriction, a product of these social expediencies, leads to the accumulation of sleep debt over time and consequently increases sleep propensity, decreases alertness, and impairs critical aspects of cognitive functioning. Significant interindividual variability in the neurobehavioral responses to sleep restriction exists-this variability is stable and phenotypic-suggesting a genetic basis. Identifying vulnerability to sleep loss is essential as many adults cannot accurately judge their level of impairment in response to sleep restriction. Indeed, the consequences of impaired performance and the lack of insight due to sleep loss can be catastrophic. In order to cope with the effects of social expediencies on biological imperatives, identification of biological (including genetic) and behavioral markers of sleep loss vulnerability as well as development of technological approaches for fatigue management are critical. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Biological origins of color categorization

    OpenAIRE

    Skelton, Alice E.; Catchpole, Gemma; Abbott, Joshua T.; Bosten, Jenny M.; Franklin, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The biological basis of the commonality in color lexicons across languages has been hotly debated for decades. Prior evidence that infants categorize color could provide support for the hypothesis that color categorization systems are not purely constructed by communication and culture. Here, we investigate the relationship between infants’ categorization of color and the commonality across color lexicons, and the potential biological origin of infant color categories. We systematically mappe...

  11. Mesoscopic biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper we present a qualitative outlook of mesoscopic biology where the typical length scale is of the order of nanometers and the energy scales comparable to thermal energy. ... National Center for Biological Sciences, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, UAS-GKVK Campus, Bangalore 560 065, India ...

  12. Computational biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Lars Røeboe; Jones, Neil; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2011-01-01

    Computation via biological devices has been the subject of close scrutiny since von Neumann’s early work some 60 years ago. In spite of the many relevant works in this field, the notion of programming biological devices seems to be, at best, ill-defined. While many devices are claimed or proved t...

  13. Mesoscopic biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper we present a qualitative outlook of mesoscopic biology where the typical length scale is of the order of nanometers and the energy scales comparable to thermal energy. Novel biomolecular machines, governed by coded information at the level of DNA and proteins, operate at these length scales in biological ...

  14. Chromosomal location of genomic SSR markers associated with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chromosomal location of genomic SSR markers associated with yellow rust resistance in Turkish bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) ... Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Gebze Institute of Technology, Cayirova Campus, 41700, Gebze, Kocaeli, Turkey; The Scientific and Technological ...

  15. Sequence-characterized markers from Begonia x tuberhybrida Voss..

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wiesner, Ivo; Wiesnerová, Dana

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 73, č. 6 (2008), s. 244-247 ISSN 1611-4426 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS500510566 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : Begonia * genetic markers Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.300, year: 2008

  16. Searching for biological markers of personality : are there neuroendocrine markers of anxiety?

    OpenAIRE

    Armario García, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The existence of stable individual differences in cognitive and emotional capabilities both in animals and humans is well-accepted. The theories of personality assume that such individual differences can be categorized and that the richness of individual differences in humans would be the result of the combination of differences in a few underlying personality factors.

  17. Quantum Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Sergi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A critical assessment of the recent developmentsof molecular biology is presented.The thesis that they do not lead to a conceptualunderstanding of life and biological systems is defended.Maturana and Varela's concept of autopoiesis is briefly sketchedand its logical circularity avoided by postulatingthe existence of underlying living processes,entailing amplification from the microscopic to the macroscopic scale,with increasing complexity in the passage from one scale to the other.Following such a line of thought, the currently accepted model of condensed matter, which is based on electrostatics and short-ranged forces,is criticized. It is suggested that the correct interpretationof quantum dispersion forces (van der Waals, hydrogen bonding, and so onas quantum coherence effects hints at the necessity of includinglong-ranged forces (or mechanisms for them incondensed matter theories of biological processes.Some quantum effects in biology are reviewedand quantum mechanics is acknowledged as conceptually important to biology since withoutit most (if not all of the biological structuresand signalling processes would not even exist. Moreover, it is suggested that long-rangequantum coherent dynamics, including electron polarization,may be invoked to explain signal amplificationprocess in biological systems in general.

  18. Biological Oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyhrman, Sonya

    2004-10-01

    The ocean is arguably the largest habitat on the planet, and it houses an astounding array of life, from microbes to whales. As a testament to this diversity and its importance, the discipline of biological oceanography spans studies of all levels of biological organization, from that of single genes, to organisms, to their population dynamics. Biological oceanography also includes studies on how organisms interact with, and contribute to, essential global processes. Students of biological oceanography are often as comfortable looking at satellite images as they are electron micrographs. This diversity of perspective begins the textbook Biological Oceanography, with cover graphics including a Coastal Zone Color Scanner image representing chlorophyll concentration, an electron micrograph of a dinoflagellate, and a photograph of a copepod. These images instantly capture the reader's attention and illustrate some of the different scales on which budding oceanographers are required to think. Having taught a core graduate course in biological oceanography for many years, Charlie Miller has used his lecture notes as the genesis for this book. The text covers the subject of biological oceanography in a manner that is targeted to introductory graduate students, but it would also be appropriate for advanced undergraduates.

  19. OSR encapsulation basis -- 100-KW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meichle, R.H.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide the basis for a change in the Operations Safety Requirement (OSR) encapsulated fuel storage requirements in the 105 KW fuel storage basin which will permit the handling and storing of encapsulated fuel in canisters which no longer have a water-free space in the top of the canister. The scope of this report is limited to providing the change from the perspective of the safety envelope (bases) of the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) and Operations Safety Requirements (OSR). It does not change the encapsulation process itself

  20. The physical basis of chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Warren, Warren S

    2000-01-01

    If the text you're using for general chemistry seems to lack sufficient mathematics and physics in its presentation of classical mechanics, molecular structure, and statistics, this complementary science series title may be just what you're looking for. Written for the advanced lower-division undergraduate chemistry course, The Physical Basis of Chemistry, Second Edition, offers students an opportunity to understand and enrich the understanding of physical chemistry with some quantum mechanics, the Boltzmann distribution, and spectroscopy. Posed and answered are questions concerning eve

  1. Genetic basis of eye and pigment loss in the cave crustacean, Asellus aquaticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protas, Meredith E.; Trontelj, Peter; Patel, Nipam H.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the process of evolution is one of the great challenges in biology. Cave animals are one group with immense potential to address the mechanisms of evolutionary change. Amazingly, similar morphological alterations, such as enhancement of sensory systems and the loss of eyes and pigmentation, have evolved multiple times in a diverse assemblage of cave animals. Our goal is to develop an invertebrate model to study cave evolution so that, in combination with a previously established vertebrate cave system, we can address genetic questions concerning evolutionary parallelism and convergence. We chose the isopod crustacean, Asellus aquaticus, and generated a genome-wide linkage map for this species. Our map, composed of 117 markers, of which the majority are associated with genes known to be involved in pigmentation, eye, and appendage development, was used to identify loci of large effect responsible for several pigmentation traits and eye loss. Our study provides support for the prediction that significant morphological change can be mediated through one or a few genes. Surprisingly, we found that within population variability in eye size occurs through multiple mechanisms; eye loss has a different genetic basis than reduced eye size. Similarly, again within a population, the phenotype of albinism can be achieved by two different genetic pathways—either by a recessive genotype at one locus or doubly recessive genotypes at two other loci. Our work shows the potential of Asellus for studying the extremes of parallel and convergent evolution—spanning comparisons within populations to comparisons between vertebrate and arthropod systems. PMID:21422298

  2. PMDBase: a database for studying microsatellite DNA and marker development in plants

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Jingyin; Dossa, Komivi; Wang, Linhai; Zhang, Yanxin; Wei, Xin; Liao, Boshou; Zhang, Xiurong

    2016-01-01

    Microsatellite DNAs (or SSRs) are important genomic components involved in many important biological functions. SSRs have been extensively exploited as molecular markers for diverse applications including genetic diversity, linkage/association mapping of gene/QTL, marker-assisted selection, variety identification and evolution analysis. However, a comprehensive database or web service for studying microsatellite DNAs and marker development in plants is lacking. Here, we developed a database, ...

  3. Inflammation markers are associated with cardiovascular diseases risk in adolescents : the Young Hearts project 2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnstok, Nienke J; Twisk, Jos W R; Young, Ian S; Woodside, Jayne V; McFarlane, Cheryl; McEneny, Jane; Hoekstra, T.; Murray, Liam J; Boreham, Colin A G

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: The traditional approach for identifying subjects at risk from cardiovascular diseases (CVD) is to determine the extent of clustering of biological risk factors adjusted for lifestyle. Recently, markers of endothelial dysfunction and low grade inflammation, including high sensitivity

  4. Markers of hepatic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballería, Llorenç; Torán, Pere; Caballería, Joan

    2017-10-18

    Chronic liver diseases constitute a major health problem. Chronic liver inflammation, defined by the degree of hepatic fibrosis, is asymptomatic in a significant percentage of patients; hence, the disease often remains undiagnosed until it has reached very advanced phases and, frequently, when the damage is irreversible. Ideally, patients should be screened during the initial phases of chronic inflammation, thus allowing for the effective management of the natural evolution of the disease by stopping or delaying its course. Standard diagnostic methods (transaminase determination or abdominal ultrasonography) do not allow for the early diagnosis of the degree of fibrosis. A liver biopsy is the invasive method of choice to screen for fibrosis, however, due to its limitations, non-invasive diagnostic methods such as elastography or serological markers are increasingly used as a good alternative for the early diagnosis of the degree of fibrosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Cancer and tumour markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osifo, B.

    1999-02-01

    Cancer has been a major cause of death world wide and in Nigeria there are six commonest forms of manifestation of cancer known. Of these prostrate cancer is the highest with 16% occurrence of all known cancers according to a study by the Histopathology Department of the UCH. Many factors, amongst them dietary, environmental, lifestyle, age and sedentary work are possible causes. With the global rise in incidents, the IAEA initiated the Tumour Marker Project as a means of screening cancers in 15 African countries including Nigeria. In Nigeria, 4 groups of the commonest cancers have been chosen for screening. These are prostrate cancer, primary liver cancer, cancer of the GI tract and trophoblastic cancer

  6. Tumor markers in colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Luís César [UNIFESP; Matos, Delcio [UNIFESP

    2002-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a clinical entity of a persistent relevance in clinical practice and its early diagnosis is a determinant factor to obtain better therapeutic results. Tumor markers are helpful means for a better approach to individuals with such neoplasm. In the present review, the authors analyze the phases in which surgical-clinical treatment markers must be used: diagnosis, determination of tumor stage, establishment of prognosis and detection of recurrence. Current and future markers...

  7. Molecular marker applications in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Alice C; Tollenaere, Reece; Dalton-Morgan, Jessica; Batley, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Individuals within a population of a sexually reproducing species will have some degree of heritable genomic variation caused by mutations, insertion/deletions (INDELS), inversions, duplications, and translocations. Such variation can be detected and screened using molecular, or genetic, markers. By definition, molecular markers are genetic loci that can be easily tracked and quantified in a population and may be associated with a particular gene or trait of interest. This chapter will review the current major applications of molecular markers in plants.

  8. Biological Motion Perception in Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Cusack

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Typically developing adults can readily recognize human actions, even when conveyed to them via point-like markers placed on the body of the actor (Johansson, 1973. Previous research has suggested that children affected by autism spectrum disorder (ASD are not equally sensitive to this type of visual information (Blake et al, 2003, but it remains unknown why ASD would impact the ability to perceive biological motion. We present evidence which looks at how adolescents and adults with autism are affected by specific factors which are important in biological motion perception, such as (eg, inter-agent synchronicity, upright/inverted, etc.

  9. Quadratic Hedging of Basis Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardy Hulley

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines a simple basis risk model based on correlated geometric Brownian motions. We apply quadratic criteria to minimize basis risk and hedge in an optimal manner. Initially, we derive the Föllmer–Schweizer decomposition for a European claim. This allows pricing and hedging under the minimal martingale measure, corresponding to the local risk-minimizing strategy. Furthermore, since the mean-variance tradeoff process is deterministic in our setup, the minimal martingale- and variance-optimal martingale measures coincide. Consequently, the mean-variance optimal strategy is easily constructed. Simple pricing and hedging formulae for put and call options are derived in terms of the Black–Scholes formula. Due to market incompleteness, these formulae depend on the drift parameters of the processes. By making a further equilibrium assumption, we derive an approximate hedging formula, which does not require knowledge of these parameters. The hedging strategies are tested using Monte Carlo experiments, and are compared with results achieved using a utility maximization approach.

  10. Biochemical markers of bone turnover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Deog Yoon

    1999-01-01

    Biochemical markers of bone turnover has received increasing attention over the past few years, because of the need for sensitivity and specific tool in the clinical investigation of osteoporosis. Bone markers should be unique to bone, reflect changes of bone less, and should be correlated with radiocalcium kinetics, histomorphometry, or changes in bone mass. The markers also should be useful in monitoring treatment efficacy. Although no bone marker has been established to meet all these criteria, currently osteocalcin and pyridinium crosslinks are the most efficient markers to assess the level of bone turnover in the menopausal and senile osteoporosis. Recently, N-terminal telopeptide (NTX), C-terminal telopeptide (CTX) and bone specific alkaline phosphatase are considered as new valid markers of bone turnover. Recent data suggest that CTX and free deoxypyridinoline could predict the subsequent risk of hip fracture of elderly women. Treatment of postmenopausal women with estrogen, calcitonin and bisphosphonates demonstrated rapid decrease of the levels of bone markers that correlated with the long-term increase of bone mass. Factors such as circadian rhythms, diet, age, sex, bone mass and renal function affect the results of biochemical markers and should be appropriately adjusted whenever possible. Each biochemical markers of bone turnover may have its own specific advantages and limitations. Recent advances in research will provide more sensitive and specific assays

  11. Biochemical markers of bone turnover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Deog Yoon [College of Medicine, Kyunghee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-08-01

    Biochemical markers of bone turnover has received increasing attention over the past few years, because of the need for sensitivity and specific tool in the clinical investigation of osteoporosis. Bone markers should be unique to bone, reflect changes of bone less, and should be correlated with radiocalcium kinetics, histomorphometry, or changes in bone mass. The markers also should be useful in monitoring treatment efficacy. Although no bone marker has been established to meet all these criteria, currently osteocalcin and pyridinium crosslinks are the most efficient markers to assess the level of bone turnover in the menopausal and senile osteoporosis. Recently, N-terminal telopeptide (NTX), C-terminal telopeptide (CTX) and bone specific alkaline phosphatase are considered as new valid markers of bone turnover. Recent data suggest that CTX and free deoxypyridinoline could predict the subsequent risk of hip fracture of elderly women. Treatment of postmenopausal women with estrogen, calcitonin and bisphosphonates demonstrated rapid decrease of the levels of bone markers that correlated with the long-term increase of bone mass. Factors such as circadian rhythms, diet, age, sex, bone mass and renal function affect the results of biochemical markers and should be appropriately adjusted whenever possible. Each biochemical markers of bone turnover may have its own specific advantages and limitations. Recent advances in research will provide more sensitive and specific assays.

  12. Biological Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Biological Pathways Fact Sheet Enter Search Term(s): Español Research Funding An Overview Bioinformatics Current Grants Education and Training Funding Extramural Research News Features ...

  13. An integrated 4249 marker FISH/RH map of the canine genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahairas Gregory G

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 156 breeds of dog recognized by the American Kennel Club offer a unique opportunity to map genes important in genetic variation. Each breed features a defining constellation of morphological and behavioral traits, often generated by deliberate crossing of closely related individuals, leading to a high rate of genetic disease in many breeds. Understanding the genetic basis of both phenotypic variation and disease susceptibility in the dog provides new ways in which to dissect the genetics of human health and biology. Results To facilitate both genetic mapping and cloning efforts, we have constructed an integrated canine genome map that is both dense and accurate. The resulting resource encompasses 4249 markers, and was constructed using the RHDF5000-2 whole genome radiation hybrid panel. The radiation hybrid (RH map features a density of one marker every 900 Kb and contains 1760 bacterial artificial chromosome clones (BACs localized to 1423 unique positions, 851 of which have also been mapped by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH. The two data sets show excellent concordance. Excluding the Y chromosome, the map features an RH/FISH mapped BAC every 3.5 Mb and an RH mapped BAC-end, on average, every 2 Mb. For 2233 markers, the orthologous human genes have been established, allowing the identification of 79 conserved segments (CS between the dog and human genomes, dramatically extending the length of most previously described CS. Conclusions These results provide a necessary resource for the canine genome mapping community to undertake positional cloning experiments and provide new insights into the comparative canine-human genome maps.

  14. The neural basis of human tool use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy A Orban

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we propose that the neural basis for the spontaneous, diversified human tool use is an area devoted to the execution and observation of tool actions, located in the left anterior supramarginal gyrus (aSMG. The aSMG activation elicited by observing tool use is typical of human subjects, as macaques show no similar activation, even after an extensive training to use tools. The execution of tool actions, as well as their observation, requires the convergence upon aSMG of inputs from different parts of the dorsal and ventral visual streams. Non semantic features of the target object may be provided by the posterior parietal cortex (PPC for tool-object interaction, paralleling the well-known PPC input to AIP for hand-object interaction. Semantic information regarding tool identity, and knowledge of the typical manner of handling the tool, could be provided by inferior and middle regions of the temporal lobe. Somatosensory feedback and technical reasoning, as well as motor and intentional constraints also play roles during the planning of tool actions and consequently their signals likewise converge upon aSMG.We further propose that aSMG may have arisen though duplication of monkey AIP and invasion of the duplicate area by afferents from PPC providing distinct signals depending on the kinematics of the manipulative action. This duplication may have occurred when Homo Habilis or Homo Erectus emerged, generating the Oldowan or Acheulean Industrial complexes respectively. Hence tool use may have emerged during hominid evolution between bipedalism and language.We conclude that humans have two parietal systems involved in tool behavior: a biological circuit for grasping objects, including tools, and an artifactual system devoted specifically to tool use. Only the latter allows humans to understand the causal relationship between tool use and obtaining the goal, and is likely to be the basis of all technological developments.

  15. Language from a biological perspective

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2004-12-31

    Dec 31, 2004 ... The faculty of language is unique to the human species. This implies that there are human-specific biological changes that lie at the basis of human language. However, it is not clear what the nature of such changes are, and how they could be shaped by evolution. In this paper, emphasis is laid on ...

  16. Oral cancer risk and molecular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimenos-Küstner, Eduardo; Font-Costa, Imma; López-López, José

    2004-01-01

    The clinical appearance and, especially, the degree of dysplasia that may be shown by pre-cancerous lesions in the oral cavity suggest a potential for malignisation. An increasing number of studies are seeking new, more specific markers that would help to determine the degree of cell alteration and enable a better understanding of the degree of malignant degeneration of these cells. The present review considers the most recent findings for these markers, grouping them into families: tumour growth markers; markers of tumour suppression and anti-tumour response; angiogenesis markers; markers of tumour invasion and metastatic potential; cell surface markers; intracellular markers; markers derived from arachidonic acid; and enzymatic markers.

  17. Tumor markers in clinical oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novakovic, S.

    2004-01-01

    The subtle differences between normal and tumor cells are exploited in the detection and treatment of cancer. These differences are designated as tumor markers and can be either qualitative or quantitative in their nature. That means that both the structures that are produced by tumor cells as well as the structures that are produced in excessive amounts by host tissues under the influence of tumor cells can function as tumor markers. Speaking in general, the tumor markers are the specific molecules appearing in the blood or tissues and the occurrence of which is associated with cancer. According to their application, tumor markers can be roughly divided as markers in clinical oncology and markers in pathology. In this review, only tumor markers in clinical oncology are going to be discussed. Current tumor markers in clinical oncology include (i) oncofetal antigens, (ii) placental proteins, (iii) hormones, (iv) enzymes, (v) tumor-associated antigens, (vi) special serum proteins, (vii) catecholamine metabolites, and (viii) miscellaneous markers. As to the literature, an ideal tumor marker should fulfil certain criteria - when using it as a test for detection of cancer disease: (1) positive results should occur in the early stages of the disease, (2) positive results should occur only in the patients with a specific type of malignancy, (3) positive results should occur in all patients with the same malignancy, (4) the measured values should correlate with the stage of the disease, (5) the measured values should correlate to the response to treatment, (6) the marker should be easy to measure. Most tumor markers available today meet several, but not all criteria. As a consequence of that, some criteria were chosen for the validation and proper selection of the most appropriate marker in a particular malignancy, and these are: (1) markers' sensitivity, (2) specificity, and (3) predictive values. Sensitivity expresses the mean probability of determining an elevated tumor

  18. ATP concentration as possible marker of liver damage at leukaemia treatment: confocal microscopy-based experimental study and numerical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malashchenko, V.; Zyubin, A.; Babak, S.; Lavrova, A.

    2017-04-01

    We consider the method of confocal microscopy as a convenient instrument for determination of chemical compounds in biological tissues and cells. In particular, we study the dynamics of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration that could be used as a bio-marker of energy metabolism pathologies at the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). On the basis of data obtained by the confocal microscopy, the values of ATP concentration have been calculated for each case. Possible correlations with other characteristics of pathology processes obtained from plasma of leukemia patients show that ATP value could be a prognostic factor of the treatment success. The role of ATP in the drug metabolism switching is also discussed within the context of kinetic modelling of metabolism processes leading to the production of 6-Thioguanosine monophosphate, which is a principal acting agent in chemotherapy.

  19. 10 CFR 830.202 - Safety basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety basis. 830.202 Section 830.202 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT Safety Basis Requirements § 830.202 Safety basis. (a) The contractor responsible for a hazard category 1, 2, or 3 DOE nuclear facility must establish and maintain the safety basis...

  20. Neurobiological Basis of Insight in Schizophrenia: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Rose Mary; Vorderstrasse, Allison

    2016-01-01

    Insight in schizophrenia is defined as awareness into illness, symptoms, and need for treatment and has long been associated with cognition, other psychopathological symptoms, and several adverse clinical and functional outcomes. However, the biological basis of insight is not clearly understood. The aim of this systematic review was to critically evaluate and summarize advances in the study of the biological basis of insight in schizophrenia and to identify gaps in this knowledge. A literature search of PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and EMBASE databases was conducted using search terms to identify articles relevant to the biology of insight in schizophrenia published in the last 6 years. Articles that focused on etiology of insight in schizophrenia and those that examined the neurobiology of insight in schizophrenia or psychoses were chosen for analysis. Articles on insight in conditions other than schizophrenia or psychoses and which did not investigate the neurobiological underpinnings of insight were excluded from the review. Twenty-six articles met the inclusion criteria for this review. Of the 26 articles, 3 focused on cellular abnormalities and 23 were neuroimaging studies. Preliminary data identify the prefrontal cortex, cingulate cortex, and regions of the temporal and parietal lobe (precuneus, inferior parietal lobule) and hippocampus as the neural correlates of insight. A growing body of literature attests to the neurobiological basis of insight in schizophrenia. Current evidence supports the neurobiological basis of insight in schizophrenia and identifies specific neural correlates for insight types and its dimensions. Further studies that examine the precise biological mechanisms of insight are needed to apply this knowledge to effective clinical intervention development.

  1. The Genetic Basis of Mendelian Phenotypes: Discoveries, Challenges, and Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Chong, Jessica X.; Buckingham, Kati J.; Jhangiani, Shalini N.; Boehm, Corinne; Sobreira, Nara; Smith, Joshua D.; Harrell, Tanya M.; McMillin, Margaret J.; Wiszniewski, Wojciech; Gambin, Tomasz; Coban Akdemir, Zeynep H.; Doheny, Kimberly; Scott, Alan F.; Avramopoulos, Dimitri; Chakravarti, Aravinda

    2015-01-01

    Discovering the genetic basis of a Mendelian phenotype establishes a causal link between genotype and phenotype, making possible carrier and population screening and direct diagnosis. Such discoveries also contribute to our knowledge of gene function, gene regulation, development, and biological mechanisms that can be used for developing new therapeutics. As of February 2015, 2,937 genes underlying 4,163 Mendelian phenotypes have been discovered, but the genes underlying ∼50% (i.e., 3,152) of...

  2. Marker Detection in Aerial Images

    KAUST Repository

    Alharbi, Yazeed

    2017-04-09

    The problem that the thesis is trying to solve is the detection of small markers in high-resolution aerial images. Given a high-resolution image, the goal is to return the pixel coordinates corresponding to the center of the marker in the image. The marker has the shape of two triangles sharing a vertex in the middle, and it occupies no more than 0.01% of the image size. An improvement on the Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG) is proposed, eliminating the majority of baseline HOG false positives for marker detection. The improvement is guided by the observation that standard HOG description struggles to separate markers from negatives patches containing an X shape. The proposed method alters intensities with the aim of altering gradients. The intensity-dependent gradient alteration leads to more separation between filled and unfilled shapes. The improvement is used in a two-stage algorithm to achieve high recall and high precision in detection of markers in aerial images. In the first stage, two classifiers are used: one to quickly eliminate most of the uninteresting parts of the image, and one to carefully select the marker among the remaining interesting regions. Interesting regions are selected by scanning the image with a fast classifier trained on the HOG features of markers in all rotations and scales. The next classifier is more precise and uses our method to eliminate the majority of the false positives of standard HOG. In the second stage, detected markers are tracked forward and backward in time. Tracking is needed to detect extremely blurred or distorted markers that are missed by the previous stage. The algorithm achieves 94% recall with minimal user guidance. An average of 30 guesses are given per image; the user verifies for each whether it is a marker or not. The brute force approach would return 100,000 guesses per image.

  3. Internal dosimetry technical basis manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-20

    The internal dosimetry program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) consists of radiation protection programs and activities used to detect and evaluate intakes of radioactive material by radiation workers. Examples of such programs are: air monitoring; surface contamination monitoring; personal contamination surveys; radiobioassay; and dose assessment. The objectives of the internal dosimetry program are to demonstrate that the workplace is under control and that workers are not being exposed to radioactive material, and to detect and assess inadvertent intakes in the workplace. The Savannah River Site Internal Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual (TBM) is intended to provide a technical and philosophical discussion of the radiobioassay and dose assessment aspects of the internal dosimetry program. Detailed information on air, surface, and personal contamination surveillance programs is not given in this manual except for how these programs interface with routine and special bioassay programs.

  4. Internal dosimetry technical basis manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The internal dosimetry program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) consists of radiation protection programs and activities used to detect and evaluate intakes of radioactive material by radiation workers. Examples of such programs are: air monitoring; surface contamination monitoring; personal contamination surveys; radiobioassay; and dose assessment. The objectives of the internal dosimetry program are to demonstrate that the workplace is under control and that workers are not being exposed to radioactive material, and to detect and assess inadvertent intakes in the workplace. The Savannah River Site Internal Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual (TBM) is intended to provide a technical and philosophical discussion of the radiobioassay and dose assessment aspects of the internal dosimetry program. Detailed information on air, surface, and personal contamination surveillance programs is not given in this manual except for how these programs interface with routine and special bioassay programs

  5. FLAMMABLE GAS TECHNICAL BASIS DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRIPPS, L.J.

    2005-02-18

    This document describes the qualitative evaluation of frequency and consequences for double shell tank (DST) and single shell tank (SST) representative flammable gas accidents and associated hazardous conditions without controls. The evaluation indicated that safety-significant SSCs and/or TSRS were required to prevent or mitigate flammable gas accidents. Discussion on the resulting control decisions is included. This technical basis document was developed to support of the Tank Farms Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) and describes the risk binning process for the flammable gas representative accidents and associated represented hazardous conditions. The purpose of the risk binning process is to determine the need for safety-significant structures, systems, and components (SSC) and technical safety requirement (TSR)-level controls for a given representative accident or represented hazardous condition based on an evaluation of the event frequency and consequence.

  6. FLAMMABLE GAS TECHNICAL BASIS DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRIPPS, L.J.

    2005-03-03

    This document describes the qualitative evaluation of frequency and consequences for DST and SST representative flammable gas accidents and associated hazardous conditions without controls. The evaluation indicated that safety-significant structures, systems and components (SSCs) and/or technical safety requirements (TSRs) were required to prevent or mitigate flammable gas accidents. Discussion on the resulting control decisions is included. This technical basis document was developed to support WP-13033, Tank Farms Documented Safety Analysis (DSA), and describes the risk binning process for the flammable gas representative accidents and associated represented hazardous conditions. The purpose of the risk binning process is to determine the need for safety-significant structures, systems, and components (SSC) and technical safety requirement (TSR)-level controls for a given representative accident or represented hazardous condition based on an evaluation of the event frequency and consequence.

  7. [Neurobiological basis of depressive disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoppel, C; Bielau, H; Bogerts, B; Northoff, G

    2006-12-01

    Depressive disorders belong to the most frequent diseases worldwide showing a lifetime prevalence of up to 20%. Moreover they are one of the leading causes for the amount of years lived with disability. Increasing knowledge about the pathological mechanisms underlying depressive syndromes is obtained by using modern neurobiological research-techniques. Thereby some older theories that have been the basis of emotion-research for decades--like the monoamine hypothesis--have been strengthened. In addition new aspects of the pathological processes underlying depressive disturbances have been unraveled. In this review established models and recent findings will be discussed, to bridge various research-fields, ranging from genetics, epigenetics and morphological changes to the functional consequences of depression. Finally therapeutic implications that could be derived from these results will be presented, showing up putative possibilities for diagnosis and treatment of depressive syndromes.

  8. Genotyping of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) cultivars by DNA markers: interlaboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunihisa, Miyuki; Ueda, Hiroshi; Fukino, Nobuko; Matsumoto, Satoru

    2009-01-01

    Fourteen Japanese laboratories validated the reproducibility of genotyping by 25 cleavage amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) markers for discrimination of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) cultivars. Both the sensitivity and specificity rate of 12 markers were 100%, those of another 12 were >95%, and those of 1 were >90%. These results indicate that the method of genotyping by the CAPS markers was highly reproducible and could provide a useful basis for practical identification of strawberry cultivars. This is the first report of the statistical validation of crop genotyping by DNA markers.

  9. EuroFIR eBASIS: application for health claims submissions and evaluations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiely, M.; Black, L.J.; Plumb, J.; Kroon, P.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Larsen, J.C.; Speijers, G.; Kapsokefalou, M.; Sheehan, D.; Gry, J.; Finglas, P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The European Food Information Resource (EuroFIR) network has established the eBASIS (Bioactive Substances in Food Information System) online food composition and biological effects database for plant-derived bioactive compounds (phytochemicals). On the basis of submitted evidence, the

  10. Epistemological basis of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouailhetas, Yannick; Acar, Maria E.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Regarding natural phenomena understood or not, the absolute truth must be somewhere. In fact, there is no evidence that neither nature nor the phenomena that it includes were 'created' to be understood. Except for the fact that Man appeared through the same process, with his curiosity, capacity to perceive and manipulate, his greed for power and fears. In general, the attitude towards questions for which the absolute truth has not been reached varies from ignorance/indifference to the search of knowledge through scientific methodology, and may even be based on beliefs. The fact that the interaction between ionizing radiations and living beings results in biological effect is true. That the biological effect of high doses of radiation, absorbed outside the context of medicine, is hazardous for the irradiated individuals also seems to be true. That any dose is dangerous, or not, is debatable: the available information and knowledge are not consistent enough to end the question; and so, the absolute truth remains hidden. Radiological Protection is founded on the principle that any increase of dose results in an increase in the risk of cancer, and that this risk must be kept as low as possible. It is therefore based on this 'belief' that the international organisms of radiological protection emit recommendations aiming the protection of people and the environment. What is interesting about this question is that because of restrictions imposed by regulating agencies, populations, members of the public and the environment are properly protected against harmful effects of ionizing radiations, which makes the truth no longer interesting. Radiological Protection is a requirement associated to all activities involving nuclear energy. It satisfies several interests and opposes others. The greater the opposed interests and the perception that the absolute truth can represent dialectic advantage to one of the parts, the greater the perception of the importance of its

  11. Testing theories about ethnic markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Holm; Petersen, Michael Bang; Høgh-Olesen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, evolutionary psychologists and anthropologists have debated whether ethnic markers have evolved to solve adaptive problems related to interpersonal coordination or to interpersonal cooperation. In the present study, we add to this debate by exploring how individuals living...... speakers. Taken together, the results suggest that humans utilize ethnic markers of unfamiliar individuals to coordinate behavior rather than to cooperate....

  12. Biological Correlates of Empathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Timucin Oral

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Empathy can be defined as the capacity to know emotionally what another is experiencing from within the frame of reference of that other person and the capacity to sample the feelings of another or it can be metaphorized as to put oneself in another’s shoes. Although the concept of empathy was firstly described in psychological theories, researches studying the biological correlates of psychological theories have been increasing recently. Not suprisingly, dinamically oriented psychotherapists Freud, Kohut, Basch and Fenichel had suggested theories about the biological correlates of empathy concept and established the basis of this modality decades ago. Some other theorists emphasized the importance of empathy in the early years of lifetime regarding mother-child attachment in terms of developmental psychology and investigated its role in explanation of psychopathology. The data coming from some of the recent brain imaging and animal model studies also seem to support these theories. Although increased activity in different brain regions was shown in many of the brain imaging studies, the role of cingulate cortex for understanding mother-child relationship was constantly emphasized in nearly all of the studies. In addition to these studies, a group of Italian scientists has defined a group of neurons as “mirror neurons” in their studies observing rhesus macaque monkeys. Later, they also defined mirror neurons in human studies, and suggested them as “empathy neurons”. After the discovery of mirror neurons, the hopes of finding the missing part of the puzzle for understanding the biological correlates of empathy raised again. Although the roles of different biological parameters such as skin conductance and pupil diameter for defining empathy have not been certain yet, they are going to give us the opportunity to revise the inconsistent basis of structural validity in psychiatry and to stabilize descriptive validity. In this review, the

  13. Functional Basis of Microorganism Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chengsheng; Delmont, Tom O; Vogel, Timothy M; Bromberg, Yana

    2015-08-01

    Correctly identifying nearest "neighbors" of a given microorganism is important in industrial and clinical applications where close relationships imply similar treatment. Microbial classification based on similarity of physiological and genetic organism traits (polyphasic similarity) is experimentally difficult and, arguably, subjective. Evolutionary relatedness, inferred from phylogenetic markers, facilitates classification but does not guarantee functional identity between members of the same taxon or lack of similarity between different taxa. Using over thirteen hundred sequenced bacterial genomes, we built a novel function-based microorganism classification scheme, functional-repertoire similarity-based organism network (FuSiON; flattened to fusion). Our scheme is phenetic, based on a network of quantitatively defined organism relationships across the known prokaryotic space. It correlates significantly with the current taxonomy, but the observed discrepancies reveal both (1) the inconsistency of functional diversity levels among different taxa and (2) an (unsurprising) bias towards prioritizing, for classification purposes, relatively minor traits of particular interest to humans. Our dynamic network-based organism classification is independent of the arbitrary pairwise organism similarity cut-offs traditionally applied to establish taxonomic identity. Instead, it reveals natural, functionally defined organism groupings and is thus robust in handling organism diversity. Additionally, fusion can use organism meta-data to highlight the specific environmental factors that drive microbial diversification. Our approach provides a complementary view to cladistic assignments and holds important clues for further exploration of microbial lifestyles. Fusion is a more practical fit for biomedical, industrial, and ecological applications, as many of these rely on understanding the functional capabilities of the microbes in their environment and are less concerned with

  14. Biological preconcentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manginell, Ronald P [Albuquerque, NM; Bunker, Bruce C [Albuquerque, NM; Huber, Dale L [Albuquerque, NM

    2008-09-09

    A biological preconcentrator comprises a stimulus-responsive active film on a stimulus-producing microfabricated platform. The active film can comprise a thermally switchable polymer film that can be used to selectively absorb and desorb proteins from a protein mixture. The biological microfabricated platform can comprise a thin membrane suspended on a substrate with an integral resistive heater and/or thermoelectric cooler for thermal switching of the active polymer film disposed on the membrane. The active polymer film can comprise hydrogel-like polymers, such as poly(ethylene oxide) or poly(n-isopropylacrylamide), that are tethered to the membrane. The biological preconcentrator can be fabricated with semiconductor materials and technologies.

  15. Influence of Biologic Subtype of Inflammatory Breast Cancer on Response to Neoadjuvant Therapy and Cancer Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieken, Tina J; Murphy, Brittany L; Boughey, Judy C; Degnim, Amy C; Glazebrook, Katrina N; Hoskin, Tanya L

    2017-10-07

    Few data exist on the influence of tumor biologic subtype on treatment response and outcomes for inflammatory breast cancer (IBC). We examined a contemporary cohort of IBC patients treated with current targeted systemic therapies, selected on the basis of tumor biologic subtype, to evaluate pathologic treatment response and cancer outcomes across biologic subtypes. We studied 57 clinical stage T4dM0 IBC patients operated on at our institution from October 2008 to July 2015. Comparisons across biologic subtypes were performed by Wilcoxon rank-sum or chi-square tests; Kaplan-Meier and log-rank tests were used to analyze survival outcomes. All patients received neoadjuvant systemic therapy; 54 (95%) completed postmastectomy radiation. Ninety-one percent (52/57) had clinically node-positive disease at presentation. Pathologic complete response (pCR) rates in the breast and axilla differed significantly by approximated biologic subtype, defined as estrogen receptor (ER) positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) negative; and HER-2 positive and ER negative/HER-2 negative (all P biologic subtype. Five-year DFS was 46% for patients with ER-positive/HER-2-negative tumors, 82% for HER-2-positive tumors, and 33% for ER-negative/HER-2-negative tumors (P biologic subtypes. Multimodal treatment and modern systemic therapies have markedly improved DFS and BCSS. These data provide further evidence to suggest that IBC is not a distinct biologic entity transcending standard breast tumor marker subclassification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Biological rhythms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halberg, F.

    1975-01-01

    An overview is given of basic features of biological rhythms. The classification of periodic behavior of physical and psychological characteristics as circadian, circannual, diurnal, and ultradian is discussed, and the notion of relativistic time as it applies in biology is examined. Special attention is given to circadian rhythms which are dependent on the adrenocortical cycle. The need for adequate understanding of circadian variations in the basic physiological indicators of an individual (heart rate, body temperature, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, etc.) to ensure the effectiveness of prophylactic and therapeutic measures is stressed.

  17. A comparison of biological and cultural evolution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This review begins with a definition of biological evolution and a description of its general principles. This is followed by a presentation of the biological basis of culture, specifically the concept of social selection. Further, conditions for cultural evolution are proposed, including a suggestion for language being the cultural ...

  18. E. Biological effects of radiation on man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This report firstly summarises information on the biological hazards of radiation and their relation to radiation dose, and hence estimates the biological risks associated with nuclear power production. Secondly, it describes the basis and present status of radiation protection standards in the nuclear power industry

  19. A comparison of biological and cultural evolution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. This review begins with a definition of biological evolution and a description of its general principles. This is followed by a presentation of the biological basis of culture, specifically the concept of social selection. Further, conditions for cultural evolution are proposed, including a suggestion for language being the ...

  20. Molecular Basis of Bacterial Longevity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kieran B. Pechter

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that many bacteria can survive in a growth-arrested state for long periods of time, on the order of months or even years, without forming dormant structures like spores or cysts. How is such longevity possible? What is the molecular basis of such longevity? Here we used the Gram-negative phototrophic alphaproteobacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris to identify molecular determinants of bacterial longevity. R. palustris maintained viability for over a month after growth arrest due to nutrient depletion when it was provided with light as a source of energy. In transposon sequencing (Tn-seq experiments, we identified 117 genes that were required for long-term viability of nongrowing R. palustris cells. Genes in this longevity gene set are annotated to play roles in a number of cellular processes, including DNA repair, tRNA modification, and the fidelity of protein synthesis. These genes are critically important only when cells are not growing. Three genes annotated to affect translation or posttranslational modifications were validated as bona fide longevity genes by mutagenesis and complementation experiments. These genes and others in the longevity gene set are broadly conserved in bacteria. This raises the possibility that it will be possible to define a core set of longevity genes common to many bacterial species.

  1. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert; E. Schneider

    2009-12-01

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 25 cost modules—23 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, transuranic, and high-level waste.

  2. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert; E. Schneider

    2008-03-01

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 25 cost modules—23 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, transuranic, and high-level waste.

  3. Conceptual basis of outcome measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, R A

    1995-01-01

    Because of its treatment configuration and the assumption of long-term benefit, rehabilitation has had a continuing interest in the measurement of outcomes. The utility of outcome indicators rests on their conceptual foundations, the technical development of measures and validation research. Some measures, particularly of functional status, have become increasingly sophisticated with the application of psychometric and statistical analysis techniques. Less effort has been devoted to an elaboration of their theoretical basis. A first step is an examination of the assumptions underlying outcome measures, the purpose of this article. Central to an understanding is clarification of definitions of key terms such as outcomes, independence, impairment, disability and handicap. All outcome measures must be seen as part of a social context of norms and expectations. However, most norms in rehabilitation are implied rather than explicit. The assumptions behind several common outcomes are examined with suggestions for ways to increase their utility. The ability of rehabilitation to compete in the current climate, stressing cost-effectiveness, will depend heavily on the robustness of outcome measures.

  4. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert

    2007-04-01

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 26 cost modules—24 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, and high-level waste.

  5. Basis Document for Sludge Stabilization

    CERN Document Server

    Risenmay, H R

    2001-01-01

    DOE-RL recently issued Safety Evaluation Report (SER) amendments to the PFP Final Safety Analysis Report, HNF-SD-CP-SAR-021 Rev. 2. The Justification for Continued Operations for 2736-ZB and plutonium oxides in BTCs Safety Basis change (letter DOE-RL ABD-074) was approved by one of the SERs. Also approved by SER was the revised accident analysis for Magnesium Hydroxide Precipitation Process (MHPP) gloveboxes HC-230C-3 and HC-230C-5 containing increased glovebox inventories and corresponding increases in seismic release consequence. Numerous implementing documents require revision and issuance to implement the SER approvals. The SER plutonium oxides into BTCs specifically limited the SER scope to ''pure or clean oxides, i.e., 85 wt% or grater Pu, in this feed change'' (SER Section 3.0 Base Information paragraph 4 [page 11]). Comprehensive USQ Evaluation PFP-2001-12 addressed the packaging of Pu alloy metals into BTCs, and the packaging of Pu alloy oxides (powders) into food pack cans and determined that the ac...

  6. Frameworking memory and serotonergic markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Alfredo

    2017-07-26

    The evidence for neural markers and memory is continuously being revised, and as evidence continues to accumulate, herein, we frame earlier and new evidence. Hence, in this work, the aim is to provide an appropriate conceptual framework of serotonergic markers associated with neural activity and memory. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) has multiple pharmacological tools, well-characterized downstream signaling in mammals' species, and established 5-HT neural markers showing new insights about memory functions and dysfunctions, including receptors (5-HT1A/1B/1D, 5-HT2A/2B/2C, and 5-HT3-7), transporter (serotonin transporter [SERT]) and volume transmission present in brain areas involved in memory. Bidirectional influence occurs between 5-HT markers and memory/amnesia. A growing number of researchers report that memory, amnesia, or forgetting modifies neural markers. Diverse approaches support the translatability of using neural markers and cerebral functions/dysfunctions, including memory formation and amnesia. At least, 5-HT1A, 5-HT4, 5-HT6, and 5-HT7 receptors and SERT seem to be useful neural markers and therapeutic targets. Hence, several mechanisms cooperate to achieve synaptic plasticity or memory, including changes in the expression of neurotransmitter receptors and transporters.

  7. Application of tumor markers in the immunodiagnosis of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelder, F.B.; Barr, L.H.; Goldman, L.I.

    1983-01-01

    Recently, research directed toward the detection of both tumor-specific and tumor-related products has intensified for several reasons. 1. The growing knowledge of tumor metabolism has lead some investigators to hypothesize that most, if not all, malignant tumors produce these substances. 2. The use of multiple tumor markers appears more valuable than application of single markers. 3. The availability of highly sensitive and specific immunological methods provides the tools to measure substances which previously could not be assayed. 4. As additional information evolves, the events associated with malignant transformation and tumor behaviour may become clear. Tumor-related products include immune markers, altered cell surface membranes, as well as fetal and/or ectopic proteins, to name but a few. The synthesis of fetal and/or ectopic proteins occurs in several cancers. These have served as the basis for most immunodiagnostic tests and comprise the major thrust of this review

  8. Marine Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewees, Christopher M.; Hooper, Jon K.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)

  9. Mesoscopic biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper we present a qualitative outlook of mesoscopic biology where the typical length scale is of the order of nanometers and the energy scales comparable to thermal energy. Novel biomolecular machines, governed by coded information at the level of DNA and proteins, operate at these length scales in ...

  10. Scaffolded biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minelli, Alessandro

    2016-09-01

    Descriptions and interpretations of the natural world are dominated by dichotomies such as organism vs. environment, nature vs. nurture, genetic vs. epigenetic, but in the last couple of decades strong dissatisfaction with those partitions has been repeatedly voiced and a number of alternative perspectives have been suggested, from perspectives such as Dawkins' extended phenotype, Turner's extended organism, Oyama's Developmental Systems Theory and Odling-Smee's niche construction theory. Last in time is the description of biological phenomena in terms of hybrids between an organism (scaffolded system) and a living or non-living scaffold, forming unit systems to study processes such as reproduction and development. As scaffold, eventually, we can define any resource used by the biological system, especially in development and reproduction, without incorporating it as happens in the case of resources fueling metabolism. Addressing biological systems as functionally scaffolded systems may help pointing to functional relationships that can impart temporal marking to the developmental process and thus explain its irreversibility; revisiting the boundary between development and metabolism and also regeneration phenomena, by suggesting a conceptual framework within which to investigate phenomena of regular hypermorphic regeneration such as characteristic of deer antlers; fixing a periodization of development in terms of the times at which a scaffolding relationship begins or is terminated; and promoting plant galls to legitimate study objects of developmental biology.

  11. Biological digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosevear, A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the biological degradation of non-radioactive organic material occurring in radioactive wastes. The biochemical steps are often performed using microbes or isolated enzymes in combination with chemical steps and the aim is to oxidise the carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulphur to their respective oxides. (U.K.)

  12. Biology Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Outlines a variety of laboratory procedures, techniques, and materials including construction of a survey frame for field biology, a simple tidal system, isolation and applications of plant protoplasts, tropisms, teaching lung structure, and a key to statistical methods for biologists. (DS)

  13. Inflammatory Genetic Markers of Prostate Cancer Risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tindall, Elizabeth A.; Hayes, Vanessa M. [Cancer Genetics Group, Children’s Cancer Institute Australia for Medical Research, Lowy Cancer Research Centre, University of New South Wales, PO Box 81, Randwick, NSW 2031 (Australia); University of New South Wales, Kensington Campus, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Petersen, Desiree C., E-mail: dpetersen@ccia.unsw.edu.au [Cancer Genetics Group, Children’s Cancer Institute Australia for Medical Research, Lowy Cancer Research Centre, University of New South Wales, PO Box 81, Randwick, NSW 2031 (Australia)

    2010-06-08

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in Western society males, with incidence rates predicted to rise with global aging. Etiology of prostate cancer is however poorly understood, while current diagnostic tools can be invasive (digital rectal exam or biopsy) and/or lack specificity for the disease (prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing). Substantial histological, epidemiological and molecular genetic evidence indicates that inflammation is important in prostate cancer pathogenesis. In this review, we summarize the current status of inflammatory genetic markers influencing susceptibility to prostate cancer. The focus will be on inflammatory cytokines regulating T-helper cell and chemokine homeostasis, together with the Toll-like receptors as key players in the host innate immune system. Although association studies indicating a genetic basis for prostate cancer are presently limited mainly due to lack of replication, larger and more ethnically and clinically defined study populations may help elucidate the true contribution of inflammatory gene variants to prostate cancer risk.

  14. Inflammatory Genetic Markers of Prostate Cancer Risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tindall, Elizabeth A.; Hayes, Vanessa M.; Petersen, Desiree C.

    2010-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in Western society males, with incidence rates predicted to rise with global aging. Etiology of prostate cancer is however poorly understood, while current diagnostic tools can be invasive (digital rectal exam or biopsy) and/or lack specificity for the disease (prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing). Substantial histological, epidemiological and molecular genetic evidence indicates that inflammation is important in prostate cancer pathogenesis. In this review, we summarize the current status of inflammatory genetic markers influencing susceptibility to prostate cancer. The focus will be on inflammatory cytokines regulating T-helper cell and chemokine homeostasis, together with the Toll-like receptors as key players in the host innate immune system. Although association studies indicating a genetic basis for prostate cancer are presently limited mainly due to lack of replication, larger and more ethnically and clinically defined study populations may help elucidate the true contribution of inflammatory gene variants to prostate cancer risk

  15. Partitioning of genomic variance using biological pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Stefan McKinnon; Janss, Luc; Madsen, Per

    and that these variants are enriched for genes that are connected in biological pathways or for likely functional effects on genes. These biological findings provide valuable insight for developing better genomic models. These are statistical models for predicting complex trait phenotypes on the basis of SNP...... action of multiple SNPs in genes, biological pathways or other external findings on the trait phenotype. As proof of concept we have tested the modelling framework on several traits in dairy cattle....

  16. Leerteoretiese basis van die andragogie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. A. Simpson

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available Learning theory basis of andragogy. A cursory glance at andragogy creates the impression that humanistic learning theory plays an all encompassing role in the learner centered approach andragogy espouses. A closer look, however, reveals that Knowles (1973, after having made an intensive study of learning theory, created an extensive framework within which human resource development can take place. The fact that Knowles attracted critique from different areas, led to a need to ascertain the role different learning theories, if any, played in the emergence of andragogy. Having looked at the assumptions displayed by the andragogical approach, as well as a comparison of different learning theories and their connection with andragogy, it became clear that andragogy contains elements of various learning theories in an adapted way. These adaptations resulted in an approach to adult education in which learners are given the opportunity to be part of the learning process in such a way that they themselves contribute to the development which takes place. Opsomming Met 'n eerste oogopslag wil dit voorkom asof humanistiese leerteorie 'n oorheersende rol in die leerdergesentreerde benadering van andragogie speel. By nadere ondersoek blyk dit egter dat Knowles (1973, na 'n deeglike studie van verskillende leerteoretiese beginsels, 'n omvangryke raamwerk geskep het waarbinne, aan die hand van verskeie aangepaste leerteoretiese beginsels, menslike hulpbronontwikkeling kan plaasvind. As gevolg van die feit dat Knowles vanuit verskillende oorde kritiek op die lyf geloop het, is besluit om die rol wat verskillende leerteorieë in andragogie speel, te bestudeer. Dit blyk dat andragogie nie net elemente van verskillende leerteorieë bevat nie, maar dat toepaslike aspekte van die teoriee wat ondersoek is, benut en aangepas is om 'n geintegreerde benadering te bewerkstellig waarin veral volwassene-leerders by leergeleenthede en hulle selfontwikkeling betrek word.

  17. Geriatric neuro-oncology: from mythology to biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Michael; Platten, Michael; Roth, Patrick; Wick, Wolfgang

    2011-12-01

    Age has remained one of the most important determinants of risk for the development of certain brain tumors, of benefit from and tolerance of brain tumor treatment, and overall outcome. Regarding these three aspects, there are major differences across the spectrum of primary brain tumors depending on specific histology. Here, we review recent advances in understanding the biological basis of the prognostic marker 'age' in neuro-oncology. Contemporary population-based studies confirm the strong prognostic impact of age in many brain tumors. Elderly patients continue to be treated less aggressively than younger patients with the same tumors. However, biological factors may contribute to the negative prognostic impact of age. For instance, among gliomas, mutations of the isocitrate dehydrogenase genes, which are prognostically favorable, are much more common in younger patients. Moreover, complete responses defined by neuroimaging were much less durable in elderly as opposed to younger patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma in the German Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma Study Group trial. A combination of age-adapted patterns of care and treatment-independent, tumor-intrinsic factors contributes to the poorer outcome of elderly patients with brain tumors. These factors need to be better distinguished and understood in order to improve outcome in elderly brain tumor patients.

  18. Natural hybridization in tropical spikerushes of Eleocharis subgenus Limnochloa (Cyperaceae): Evidence from morphology and DNA markers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Košnar, J.; Košnar, Ji.; Macek, Petr; Herbstová, Miroslava; Rejmánková, E.; Stech, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 7 (2010), s. 1229-1240 ISSN 0002-9122 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516; CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : Belize * Cyperaceae * DNA markers * hybridization Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology; EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology (BU-J) Impact factor: 3.052, year: 2010

  19. Tumor Markers: At a Glance

    OpenAIRE

    NS Manikantan; Dhanya Balakrishnan; AD Manoj Kumar; Brijesh Shetty

    2014-01-01

    Tumor markers are biochemical substances elaborated by tumor cells due to either the cause or effect of malignant process. produced by host in response to a tumor that can be used to differentiate a tumor from normal tissue or to determine the presence of a tumor based on measurements in blood or secretions.1 These markers can be normal endogenous products that are produced at a greater rate in cancer cells or the products of newly switched on genes th...

  20. Biologic Scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Alessandra; Naranjo, Juan Diego; Londono, Ricardo; Badylak, Stephen F

    2017-09-01

    Biologic scaffold materials composed of allogeneic or xenogeneic extracellular matrix are commonly used for the repair and functional reconstruction of injured and missing tissues. These naturally occurring bioscaffolds are manufactured by the removal of the cellular content from source tissues while preserving the structural and functional molecular units of the remaining extracellular matrix (ECM). The mechanisms by which these bioscaffolds facilitate constructive remodeling and favorable clinical outcomes include release or creation of effector molecules that recruit endogenous stem/progenitor cells to the site of scaffold placement and modulation of the innate immune response, specifically the activation of an anti-inflammatory macrophage phenotype. The methods by which ECM biologic scaffolds are prepared, the current understanding of in vivo scaffold remodeling, and the associated clinical outcomes are discussed in this article. Copyright © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  1. Prolactin genomics and biology in herbivores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Circulating prolactin concentrations are typically reduced in animals suffering from tall fescue toxicosis, and have become a standard biological marker for tall fescue toxicosis. Wild-type endophyte infestations of tall fescue pastures result in forage containing ergot alkaloids. Ergot alkaloids ...

  2. Biologic therapy in inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theede, Klaus; Dahlerup, Jens Frederik; Fallingborg, Jan

    2013-01-01

    is not preferred. Further treatment strategy depends on the response to induction therapy. Treatment efficacy is assessed by symptoms, clinical markers, paraclinical parameters and possibly by endoscopy. Effect of maintenance therapy should be evaluated at least every 26-52 weeks. During treatment with biologic...

  3. Molecular and biological interactions in colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heer, Pieter de

    2007-01-01

    The current thesis discusses the use of molecular and biological tumor markers to predict clinical outcome. By studying several key processes in the develepment of cancer as regulation of cell motility (non-receptor protein tyrosin adesion kinases, FAK, Src and paxillin, Apoptosis (caspase-3

  4. Parameters of biological activity in colorectal cancer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svobodová, Š.; Topolčan, O.; Holubec jr., L.; Levý, M.; Pecen, Ladislav; Svačina, Š.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 1 (2011), s. 373-378 ISSN 0250-7005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : colorectal cancer * biological activity * prognosis * tumor markers * angiogenetic factors * metalloproteinases * adhesion molecules Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology Impact factor: 1.725, year: 2011

  5. Impact of marker ascertainment bias on genomic selection accuracy and estimates of genetic diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Heslot

    Full Text Available Genome-wide molecular markers are often being used to evaluate genetic diversity in germplasm collections and for making genomic selections in breeding programs. To accurately predict phenotypes and assay genetic diversity, molecular markers should assay a representative sample of the polymorphisms in the population under study. Ascertainment bias arises when marker data is not obtained from a random sample of the polymorphisms in the population of interest. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS is rapidly emerging as a low-cost genotyping platform, even for the large, complex, and polyploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L. genome. With GBS, marker discovery and genotyping occur simultaneously, resulting in minimal ascertainment bias. The previous platform of choice for whole-genome genotyping in many species such as wheat was DArT (Diversity Array Technology and has formed the basis of most of our knowledge about cereals genetic diversity. This study compared GBS and DArT marker platforms for measuring genetic diversity and genomic selection (GS accuracy in elite U.S. soft winter wheat. From a set of 365 breeding lines, 38,412 single nucleotide polymorphism GBS markers were discovered and genotyped. The GBS SNPs gave a higher GS accuracy than 1,544 DArT markers on the same lines, despite 43.9% missing data. Using a bootstrap approach, we observed significantly more clustering of markers and ascertainment bias with DArT relative to GBS. The minor allele frequency distribution of GBS markers had a deficit of rare variants compared to DArT markers. Despite the ascertainment bias of the DArT markers, GS accuracy for three traits out of four was not significantly different when an equal number of markers were used for each platform. This suggests that the gain in accuracy observed using GBS compared to DArT markers was mainly due to a large increase in the number of markers available for the analysis.

  6. Impact of Marker Ascertainment Bias on Genomic Selection Accuracy and Estimates of Genetic Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heslot, Nicolas; Rutkoski, Jessica; Poland, Jesse; Jannink, Jean-Luc; Sorrells, Mark E.

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide molecular markers are often being used to evaluate genetic diversity in germplasm collections and for making genomic selections in breeding programs. To accurately predict phenotypes and assay genetic diversity, molecular markers should assay a representative sample of the polymorphisms in the population under study. Ascertainment bias arises when marker data is not obtained from a random sample of the polymorphisms in the population of interest. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) is rapidly emerging as a low-cost genotyping platform, even for the large, complex, and polyploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genome. With GBS, marker discovery and genotyping occur simultaneously, resulting in minimal ascertainment bias. The previous platform of choice for whole-genome genotyping in many species such as wheat was DArT (Diversity Array Technology) and has formed the basis of most of our knowledge about cereals genetic diversity. This study compared GBS and DArT marker platforms for measuring genetic diversity and genomic selection (GS) accuracy in elite U.S. soft winter wheat. From a set of 365 breeding lines, 38,412 single nucleotide polymorphism GBS markers were discovered and genotyped. The GBS SNPs gave a higher GS accuracy than 1,544 DArT markers on the same lines, despite 43.9% missing data. Using a bootstrap approach, we observed significantly more clustering of markers and ascertainment bias with DArT relative to GBS. The minor allele frequency distribution of GBS markers had a deficit of rare variants compared to DArT markers. Despite the ascertainment bias of the DArT markers, GS accuracy for three traits out of four was not significantly different when an equal number of markers were used for each platform. This suggests that the gain in accuracy observed using GBS compared to DArT markers was mainly due to a large increase in the number of markers available for the analysis. PMID:24040295

  7. Biological radioprotector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanescu, Ioan; Titescu, Gheorghe; Tamaian, Radu; Haulica, Ion; Bild, Walther

    2002-01-01

    According to the patent description, the biological radioprotector is deuterium depleted water, DDW, produced by vacuum distillation with an isotopic content lower than natural value. It appears as such or in a mixture with natural water and carbon dioxide. It can be used for preventing and reducing the ionizing radiation effects upon humans or animal organisms, exposed therapeutically, professionally or accidentally to radiation. The most significant advantage of using DDW as biological radioprotector results from its way of administration. Indeed no one of the radioprotectors currently used today can be orally administrated, what reduces the patients' compliance to prophylactic administrations. The biological radioprotector is an unnoxious product obtained from natural water, which can be administrated as food additive instead of drinking water. Dose modification factor is according to initial estimates around 1.9, what is a remarkable feature when one takes into account that the product is toxicity-free and side effect-free and can be administrated prophylactically as a food additive. A net radioprotective action of the deuterium depletion was evidenced experimentally in laboratory animals (rats) hydrated with DDW of 30 ppm D/(D+H) concentration as compared with normally hydrated control animals. Knowing the effects of irradiation and mechanisms of the acute radiation disease as well as the effects of administration of radiomimetic chemicals upon cellular lines of fast cell division, it appears that the effects of administrating DDW result from stimulation of the immunity system. In conclusion, the biological radioprotector DDW presents the following advantages: - it is obtained from natural products without toxicity; - it is easy to be administrated as a food additive, replacing the drinking water; - besides radioprotective effects, the product has also immunostimulative and antitumoral effects

  8. Crusts: biological

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belnap, Jayne; Elias, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    Biological soil crusts, a community of cyanobacteria, lichens, mosses, and fungi, are an essential part of dryland ecosystems. They are critical in the stabilization of soils, protecting them from wind and water erosion. Similarly, these soil surface communities also stabilized soils on early Earth, allowing vascular plants to establish. They contribute nitrogen and carbon to otherwise relatively infertile dryland soils, and have a strong influence on hydrologic cycles. Their presence can also influence vascular plant establishment and nutrition.

  9. An insight into salivary markers in oral cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramnarayan Belur Krishna Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Salivary diagnostics has fascinated many researcheres and has been tested as a valuable tool in the diagnosis of many systemic conditions and for drug monitoring. Advances in the field of molecular biology, salivary genomics and proteomics have led to the discovery of new molecular markers for oral cancer diagnosis, therapeutics and prognosis. Oral cancer is a potentially fatal disease and the outcome of the treatment and prognosis largely depends on early diagnosis. Abnormal cellular products elucidated from malignant cells can be detected and measured in various body fluids including saliva and constitute tumor markers. This article discusses the various salivary tumor markers and their role in oral pre-cancer and cancer.

  10. Statistics for Sleep and Biological Rhythms Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klerman, Elizabeth B; Wang, Wei; Phillips, Andrew J K; Bianchi, Matt T

    2017-02-01

    This article is part of a Journal of Biological Rhythms series exploring analysis and statistical topics relevant to researchers in biological rhythms and sleep research. The goal is to provide an overview of the most common issues that arise in the analysis and interpretation of data in these fields. In this article, we address issues related to the collection of multiple data points from the same organism or system at different times, since such longitudinal data collection is fundamental to the assessment of biological rhythms. Rhythmic longitudinal data require additional specific statistical considerations, ranging from curve fitting to threshold definitions to accounting for correlation structure. We discuss statistical analyses of longitudinal data including issues of correlational structure and stationarity, markers of biological rhythms, demasking of biological rhythms, and determining phase, waveform, and amplitude of biological rhythms.

  11. Marine biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index

  12. The correlation between internal and external markers for abdominal tumors: Implications for respiratory gating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gierga, David P.; Brewer, Johanna; Sharp, Gregory C.; Betke, Margrit; Willett, Christopher G.; Chen, George T.Y.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The correlation of the respiratory motion of external patient markers and abdominal tumors was examined. Data of this type are important for image-guided therapy techniques, such as respiratory gating, that monitor the movement of external fiducials. Methods and Materials: Fluoroscopy sessions for 4 patients with internal, radiopaque tumor fiducial clips were analyzed by computer vision techniques. The motion of the internal clips and the external markers placed on the patient's abdominal skin surface were quantified and correlated. Results: In general, the motion of the tumor and external markers were well correlated. The maximum amount of peak-to-peak craniocaudal tumor motion was 2.5 cm. The ratio of tumor motion to external-marker motion ranged from 0.85 to 7.1. The variation in tumor position for a given external-marker position ranged from 2 to 9 mm. The period of the breathing cycle ranged from 2.7 to 4.5 seconds, and the frequency patterns for both the tumor and the external markers were similar. Conclusions: Although tumor motion generally correlated well with external fiducial marker motion, relatively large underlying tumor motion can occur compared with external-marker motion and variations in the tumor position for a given marker position. Treatment margins should be determined on the basis of a detailed understanding of tumor motion, as opposed to relying only on external-marker information

  13. Network biology methods integrating biological data for translational science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebek, Gurkan; Koyutürk, Mehmet; Price, Nathan D; Chance, Mark R

    2012-07-01

    The explosion of biomedical data, both on the genomic and proteomic side as well as clinical data, will require complex integration and analysis to provide new molecular variables to better understand the molecular basis of phenotype. Currently, much data exist in silos and is not analyzed in frameworks where all data are brought to bear in the development of biomarkers and novel functional targets. This is beginning to change. Network biology approaches, which emphasize the interactions between genes, proteins and metabolites provide a framework for data integration such that genome, proteome, metabolome and other -omics data can be jointly analyzed to understand and predict disease phenotypes. In this review, recent advances in network biology approaches and results are identified. A common theme is the potential for network analysis to provide multiplexed and functionally connected biomarkers for analyzing the molecular basis of disease, thus changing our approaches to analyzing and modeling genome- and proteome-wide data.

  14. Enhanced cross-species utility of conserved microsatellite markers in shorebirds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Székely Tamás

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microsatellite markers are popular genetic markers frequently used in forensic biology. Despite their popularity, the characterisation of polymorphic microsatellite loci and development of suitable markers takes considerable effort. Newly-available genomic databases make it feasible to identify conserved genetic markers. We examined the utility and characteristics of conserved microsatellite markers in Charadriiformes (plovers, sandpipers, gulls and auks. This order harbours many species with diverse breeding systems, life histories and extraordinary migration biology whose genetics warrant investigation. However, research has been largely restrained by the limited availability of genetic markers. To examine the utility of conserved microsatellite loci as genetic markers we collated a database of Charadriiformes microsatellites, searched for homologues in the chicken genome and tested conserved markers for amplification and polymorphism in a range of charadriiform species. Results Sixty-eight (42% of 161 charadriiform microsatellite loci were assigned to a single location in the chicken genome based on their E-value. Fifty-five primers designed from conserved microsatellite loci with an E-value of E-10 or lower amplified across a wider range of charadriiform species than a control group of primers from ten anonymous microsatellite loci. Twenty-three of 24 examined conserved markers were polymorphic, each in on average 3 of 12 species tested. Conclusion Genomic sequence databases are useful tools to identify conserved genetic markers including those located in non-coding regions. By maximising primer sequence similarity between source species and database species, markers can be further improved and provide additional markers to study the molecular ecology of populations of non-model organisms.

  15. Molecular Markers in Cancer Diagnosis and Management: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    SELVAM, Nataraja Thamizh; ELUMALAI, Preetham; VENKATAKRISHNAN, V.; DAMODARKUMAR, S.

    2011-01-01

    Cancer is a family of diseases that involve uncontrolled cell division and tissue invasiveness. It may affect almost any tissue of the body. Lung, prostate, breast, colorectal and stomach are the five most common cancers in the world. More than 10 million people are diagnosed with cancer every year. Tumour markers are biological substances which can be measured in blood and other body fluids. Increased concentration indicates the presence of a tumour. Many different substances can be used as ...

  16. The Mathematical Basis of Mendelian Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, B.

    1972-01-01

    Applies set theory to the mono- and dihybrid Mendelian genetic crosses, multiple allelism, sex linkage, and linkage to show the application of mathematics to biology teaching (and of biology examples to mathematics instruction). (AL)

  17. Characterization and Amplification of Gene-Based Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) Markers in Date Palm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yongli; Keremane, Manjunath; Prakash, Channapatna S; He, Guohao

    2017-01-01

    The paucity of molecular markers limits the application of genetic and genomic research in date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.). Availability of expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences in date palm may provide a good resource for developing gene-based markers. This study characterizes a substantial fraction of transcriptome sequences containing simple sequence repeats (SSRs) from the EST sequences in date palm. The EST sequences studied are mainly homologous to those of Elaeis guineensis and Musa acuminata. A total of 911 gene-based SSR markers, characterized with functional annotations, have provided a useful basis not only for discovering candidate genes and understanding genetic basis of traits of interest but also for developing genetic and genomic tools for molecular research in date palm, such as diversity study, quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping, and molecular breeding. The procedures of DNA extraction, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of these gene-based SSR markers, and gel electrophoresis of PCR products are described in this chapter.

  18. Metaphase chromosome aberrations as markers of radiation exposure and dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, A.L.; Khan, M.A.; Jostes, R.F.; Cross, F.T.

    1992-10-01

    Chromosome aberration frequency provides the most reliable biological marker of dose for detecting acute accidental radiation exposure. Significant radiation-induced changes in the frequency of chromosome aberrations can be detected at very low doses. Our paper provides information on using molecular chromosome probes paints'' to score chromosome damage and illustrates how technical advances make it possible to understand mechanisms involved during formation of chromosome aberrations. In animal studies chromosome aberrations provide a method to relate cellular damage to cellular dose. Using an In vivo/In vitro approach aberrations provided a biological marker of dose from radon progeny exposure which was used to convert WLM to dose in rat tracheal epithelial cells. Injection of Chinese hamsters with [sup 144]Ce which produced a low dose rate exposure of bone marrow to either low-LET radiation increased the sensitivity of the cells to subsequent external exposure to [sup 60]Co. These studies demonstrated the usefulness of chromosome damage as a biological marker of dose and cellular responsiveness.

  19. Metaphase chromosome aberrations as markers of radiation exposure and dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, A.L.; Khan, M.A.; Jostes, R.F.; Cross, F.T.

    1992-10-01

    Chromosome aberration frequency provides the most reliable biological marker of dose for detecting acute accidental radiation exposure. Significant radiation-induced changes in the frequency of chromosome aberrations can be detected at very low doses. Our paper provides information on using molecular chromosome probes ``paints`` to score chromosome damage and illustrates how technical advances make it possible to understand mechanisms involved during formation of chromosome aberrations. In animal studies chromosome aberrations provide a method to relate cellular damage to cellular dose. Using an In vivo/In vitro approach aberrations provided a biological marker of dose from radon progeny exposure which was used to convert WLM to dose in rat tracheal epithelial cells. Injection of Chinese hamsters with {sup 144}Ce which produced a low dose rate exposure of bone marrow to either low-LET radiation increased the sensitivity of the cells to subsequent external exposure to {sup 60}Co. These studies demonstrated the usefulness of chromosome damage as a biological marker of dose and cellular responsiveness.

  20. Metaphase chromosome aberrations as markers of radiation exposure and dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, A.L.; Khan, M.A.; Jostes, R.F.; Cross, F.T.

    1992-10-01

    Chromosome aberration frequency provides the most reliable biological marker of dose for detecting acute accidental radiation exposure. Significant radiation-induced changes in the frequency of chromosome aberrations can be detected at very low doses. Our paper provides information on using molecular chromosome probes ''paints'' to score chromosome damage and illustrates how technical advances make it possible to understand mechanisms involved during formation of chromosome aberrations. In animal studies chromosome aberrations provide a method to relate cellular damage to cellular dose. Using an In vivo/In vitro approach aberrations provided a biological marker of dose from radon progeny exposure which was used to convert WLM to dose in rat tracheal epithelial cells. Injection of Chinese hamsters with 144 Ce which produced a low dose rate exposure of bone marrow to either low-LET radiation increased the sensitivity of the cells to subsequent external exposure to 60 Co. These studies demonstrated the usefulness of chromosome damage as a biological marker of dose and cellular responsiveness

  1. [Circadian markers and genes in bipolar disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeim, S; Boudebesse, C; Etain, B; Belliviera, F

    2015-09-01

    Bipolar disorder is a severe and complex multifactorial disease, characterized by alternance of acute episodes of depression and mania/hypomania, interspaced by euthymic periods. The etiological determinants of bipolar disorder yet, are still poorly understood. For the last 30 years, chronobiology is an important field of investigation to better understand the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder. We conducted a review using Medline, ISI Database, EMBase, PsyInfo up to January 2015, using the following keywords combinations: "mood disorder", "bipolar disorder", "depression", "unipolar disorder", "major depressive disorder", "affective disorder", for psychiatric conditions; and "circadian rhythms", "circadian markers", "circadian gene", "clock gene", "melatonin" for circadian rhythms. The search critera was presence of word in any field of the article. Quantitative and qualitative circadian abnormalities are associated with bipolar disorders both during acute episodes and euthymic periods, suggesting that these altered circadian rhythms may represent biological trait markers of the disorder. These circadian dysfunctions were assessed by various validated tools including polysomnography, actigraphy, sleep diaries, chronotype assessments and blood melatonin/cortisol measures. Other altered endogenous circadian activities have also been reported in bipolar patients, such as hormones secretion, core body temperature or fibroblasts activity. Moreover, these markers were also altered in healthy relatives of bipolar patients, suggesting a degree of heritability. Several genetic association studies have also showed associations between multiple circadian genes and bipolar disorder, such as CLOCK, ARTNL1, GSK3β, PER3, NPAS2, NR1D1, TIMELESS, RORA, RORB, and CSNK1ε. Thus, these circadian gene variants may contribute to the genetic susceptibility of the disease. Furthermore, the study of the clock system may help to better understand some phenotypic aspects like the

  2. Pancreatic cancer stem cell markers and exosomes - the incentive push

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiler, Sarah; Wang, Zhe; Zöller, Margot

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PaCa) has the highest death rate and incidence is increasing. Poor prognosis is due to late diagnosis and early metastatic spread, which is ascribed to a minor population of so called cancer stem cells (CSC) within the mass of the primary tumor. CSC are defined by biological features, which they share with adult stem cells like longevity, rare cell division, the capacity for self renewal, differentiation, drug resistance and the requirement for a niche. CSC can also be identified by sets of markers, which for pancreatic CSC (Pa-CSC) include CD44v6, c-Met, Tspan8, alpha6beta4, CXCR4, CD133, EpCAM and claudin7. The functional relevance of CSC markers is still disputed. We hypothesize that Pa-CSC markers play a decisive role in tumor progression. This is fostered by the location in glycolipid-enriched membrane domains, which function as signaling platform and support connectivity of the individual Pa-CSC markers. Outside-in signaling supports apoptosis resistance, stem cell gene expression and tumor suppressor gene repression as well as miRNA transcription and silencing. Pa-CSC markers also contribute to motility and invasiveness. By ligand binding host cells are triggered towards creating a milieu supporting Pa-CSC maintenance. Furthermore, CSC markers contribute to the generation, loading and delivery of exosomes, whereby CSC gain the capacity for a cell-cell contact independent crosstalk with the host and neighboring non-CSC. This allows Pa-CSC exosomes (TEX) to reprogram neighboring non-CSC towards epithelial mesenchymal transition and to stimulate host cells towards preparing a niche for metastasizing tumor cells. Finally, TEX communicate with the matrix to support tumor cell motility, invasion and homing. We will discuss the possibility that CSC markers are the initial trigger for these processes and what is the special contribution of CSC-TEX. PMID:27468191

  3. Biological biomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorge-Herrero, E. [Servicio de Cirugia Experimental. Clinica Puerta de Hierro, Madrid (Spain)

    1997-05-01

    There are a number of situations in which substances of biological origin are employed as biomaterials. Most of them are macromolecules derived from isolated connective tissue or the connective tissue itself in membrane form, in both cases, the tissue can be used in its natural form or be chemically treated. In other cases, certain blood vessels can be chemically pretreated and used as vascular prostheses. Proteins such as albumin, collagen and fibrinogen are employed to coat vascular prostheses. Certain polysaccharides have also been tested for use in controlled drug release systems. Likewise, a number of tissues, such as dura mater, bovine pericardium, procine valves and human valves, are used in the preparation of cardiac prostheses. We also use veins from animals or humans in arterial replacement. In none of these cases are the tissues employed dissimilar to the native tissues as they have been chemically modified, becoming a new bio material with different physical and biochemical properties. In short, we find that natural products are being utilized as biomaterials and must be considered as such; thus, it is necessary to study both their chemicobiological and physicomechanical properties. In the present report, we review the current applications, problems and future prospects of some of these biological biomaterials. (Author) 84 refs.

  4. Systems Biology: Impressions from a Newcomer Graduate Student in 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Melanie Rae

    2016-01-01

    As a newcomer, the philosophical basis of systems biology seems intuitive and appealing, the underlying philosophy being that the whole of a living system cannot be completely understood by the study of its individual parts. Yet answers to the questions "What is systems biology?" and "What constitutes a systems biology approach in…

  5. Systems biology and biomarker discovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodland, Karin D.

    2010-12-01

    Medical practitioners have always relied on surrogate markers of inaccessible biological processes to make their diagnosis, whether it was the pallor of shock, the flush of inflammation, or the jaundice of liver failure. Obviously, the current implementation of biomarkers for disease is far more sophisticated, relying on highly reproducible, quantitative measurements of molecules that are often mechanistically associated with the disease in question, as in glycated hemoglobin for the diagnosis of diabetes [1] or the presence of cardiac troponins in the blood for confirmation of myocardial infarcts [2]. In cancer, where the initial symptoms are often subtle and the consequences of delayed diagnosis often drastic for disease management, the impetus to discover readily accessible, reliable, and accurate biomarkers for early detection is compelling. Yet despite years of intense activity, the stable of clinically validated, cost-effective biomarkers for early detection of cancer is pathetically small and still dominated by a handful of markers (CA-125, CEA, PSA) first discovered decades ago. It is time, one could argue, for a fresh approach to the discovery and validation of disease biomarkers, one that takes full advantage of the revolution in genomic technologies and in the development of computational tools for the analysis of large complex datasets. This issue of Disease Markers is dedicated to one such new approach, loosely termed the 'Systems Biology of Biomarkers'. What sets the Systems Biology approach apart from other, more traditional approaches, is both the types of data used, and the tools used for data analysis - and both reflect the revolution in high throughput analytical methods and high throughput computing that has characterized the start of the twenty first century.

  6. System requirements and design description for the document basis database interface (DocBasis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehman, W.J.

    1997-01-01

    This document describes system requirements and the design description for the Document Basis Database Interface (DocBasis). The DocBasis application is used to manage procedures used within the tank farms. The application maintains information in a small database to track the document basis for a procedure, as well as the current version/modification level and the basis for the procedure. The basis for each procedure is substantiated by Administrative, Technical, Procedural, and Regulatory requirements. The DocBasis user interface was developed by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC)

  7. Serum markers of liver fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veidal, Sanne Skovgård; Bay-Jensen, Anne-Christine; Tougas, Gervais

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fibrosis is a central histological feature of chronic liver diseases and is characterized by the accumulation and reorganization of the extracellular matrix. The gold standard for assessment of fibrosis is histological evaluation of a percutaneous liver biopsy. Albeit a considerable......-epitopes, may be targeted for novel biochemical marker development in fibrosis. We used the recently proposed BIPED system (Burden of disease, Investigative, Prognostic, Efficacy and Diagnostic) to characterise present serological markers. METHODS: Pubmed was search for keywords; Liver fibrosis, neo......, a systematic use of the neo-epitope approach, i.e. the quantification of peptide epitopes generated from enzymatic cleavage of proteins during extracellular remodeling, may prove productive in the quest to find new markers of liver fibrosis....

  8. Molecular basis and ecological relevance of aphid body colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchida, Tsutomu

    2016-10-01

    Aphids are small phloem sap-feeding insects, and show color polymorphism even within the same species. Crossing experiments have revealed the inheritance pattern of the body color. Coloration of aphids is determined by mainly three pigments, melanin, carotenoid, and aphin, and is influenced by both abiotic and biotic environmental factors. Aphid body colors also seem to correspond with specific biological functions under various environments. Partly due to the presence of natural enemies in the environment, a variety of physiological and behavioral responses have evolved in each color form. Thus, predation is one of the most significant external factors for maintaining body color polymorphisms. In addition, endosymbiont infections also influence aphid body color and prey-predator interactions. However, many unsolved questions remain regarding the molecular basis for and biological functions of aphid body colors. Further work, including the development of molecular techniques for comprehensive functional analysis, is needed in these areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Towards uranium dose-effects relationships for bio markers of oxidative stress in fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buet, A.; Camilleri, V.; Simon, O.; Garnier-Laplace, J.

    2004-01-01

    Within the Envirhom program, the bioavailability of uranium, a widely spread metal in fresh waters, has been studied in various organisms to gain understanding of metal-organisms interactions. Experiments are still in progress to establish a comprehensive basis of early and delayed involved toxicological mechanisms. Uranium is known to be both radio-toxic and chemo-toxic. The cellular damage of radiation, but also of heavy metal exposure, is mainly associated with an oxidative injury due to the formation of reactive oxygen species. Moreover, the intensity of oxidative damages is dependant on the efficiency of antioxidant defense systems of the organism. In this context, short-term experiments were performed with juvenile rainbow trout (Onchorynchus mykiss) in order to (1) assess the response of some antioxidant parameters and other potential bio-markers and (2) to better characterize the kinetics of the responses in relation with U concentrations and exposure duration. Trout were exposed by direct pathway to a range of U concentrations in water (low, medium and high: 20, 100 and 500 μg U.L -1 respectively) during 10 days. Several antioxidant parameters were measured: the rate of reduced glutathione (GSH) that plays a major role in cellular detoxification and antioxidant defense, and the activities of superoxide dismutases (SOD) and catalase that are involved in the detoxification of oxygen reactive species. The activity of glutathione reductase (GR), that restores the pool of GSH was measured, as well as the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), a marker of neurotoxicity. In parallel, U analysis were performed in gill, skin, muscle, skeleton, intestine, liver, kidneys and body residues of exposed trout in order to assess the dependence of biological responses with a potential uranium bioaccumulation in fish tissues. (author)

  10. Estimating the CCSD basis-set limit energy from small basis sets: basis-set extrapolations vs additivity schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spackman, Peter R.; Karton, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Coupled cluster calculations with all single and double excitations (CCSD) converge exceedingly slowly with the size of the one-particle basis set. We assess the performance of a number of approaches for obtaining CCSD correlation energies close to the complete basis-set limit in conjunction with relatively small DZ and TZ basis sets. These include global and system-dependent extrapolations based on the A + B/L α two-point extrapolation formula, and the well-known additivity approach that uses an MP2-based basis-set-correction term. We show that the basis set convergence rate can change dramatically between different systems(e.g.it is slower for molecules with polar bonds and/or second-row elements). The system-dependent basis-set extrapolation scheme, in which unique basis-set extrapolation exponents for each system are obtained from lower-cost MP2 calculations, significantly accelerates the basis-set convergence relative to the global extrapolations. Nevertheless, we find that the simple MP2-based basis-set additivity scheme outperforms the extrapolation approaches. For example, the following root-mean-squared deviations are obtained for the 140 basis-set limit CCSD atomization energies in the W4-11 database: 9.1 (global extrapolation), 3.7 (system-dependent extrapolation), and 2.4 (additivity scheme) kJ mol –1 . The CCSD energy in these approximations is obtained from basis sets of up to TZ quality and the latter two approaches require additional MP2 calculations with basis sets of up to QZ quality. We also assess the performance of the basis-set extrapolations and additivity schemes for a set of 20 basis-set limit CCSD atomization energies of larger molecules including amino acids, DNA/RNA bases, aromatic compounds, and platonic hydrocarbon cages. We obtain the following RMSDs for the above methods: 10.2 (global extrapolation), 5.7 (system-dependent extrapolation), and 2.9 (additivity scheme) kJ mol –1

  11. Estimating the CCSD basis-set limit energy from small basis sets: basis-set extrapolations vs additivity schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spackman, Peter R.; Karton, Amir, E-mail: amir.karton@uwa.edu.au [School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The University of Western Australia, Perth, WA 6009 (Australia)

    2015-05-15

    Coupled cluster calculations with all single and double excitations (CCSD) converge exceedingly slowly with the size of the one-particle basis set. We assess the performance of a number of approaches for obtaining CCSD correlation energies close to the complete basis-set limit in conjunction with relatively small DZ and TZ basis sets. These include global and system-dependent extrapolations based on the A + B/L{sup α} two-point extrapolation formula, and the well-known additivity approach that uses an MP2-based basis-set-correction term. We show that the basis set convergence rate can change dramatically between different systems(e.g.it is slower for molecules with polar bonds and/or second-row elements). The system-dependent basis-set extrapolation scheme, in which unique basis-set extrapolation exponents for each system are obtained from lower-cost MP2 calculations, significantly accelerates the basis-set convergence relative to the global extrapolations. Nevertheless, we find that the simple MP2-based basis-set additivity scheme outperforms the extrapolation approaches. For example, the following root-mean-squared deviations are obtained for the 140 basis-set limit CCSD atomization energies in the W4-11 database: 9.1 (global extrapolation), 3.7 (system-dependent extrapolation), and 2.4 (additivity scheme) kJ mol{sup –1}. The CCSD energy in these approximations is obtained from basis sets of up to TZ quality and the latter two approaches require additional MP2 calculations with basis sets of up to QZ quality. We also assess the performance of the basis-set extrapolations and additivity schemes for a set of 20 basis-set limit CCSD atomization energies of larger molecules including amino acids, DNA/RNA bases, aromatic compounds, and platonic hydrocarbon cages. We obtain the following RMSDs for the above methods: 10.2 (global extrapolation), 5.7 (system-dependent extrapolation), and 2.9 (additivity scheme) kJ mol{sup –1}.

  12. Biological aspects of chemoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourhis, J.; Mornex, F.

    1998-01-01

    Radio-chemotherapy combinations, especially their concomitant associations, are widely used in the treatment of cancer. The development of these associations has been so far related more to clinical research than to laboratory experiments. The biological basis of the use of these agents relies on their complementarity which concerns the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in lethality (hypoxia, sensitivity throughout the cycle, DNA repair, apoptosis), spatial and temporal cooperation, etc. Laboratory experiments can determine favorable conditions for additivity, or supra-additivity, but also for infra-additive interactions as well as real antagonism which should be avoided in the clinic. It is however often difficult to transfer this information into the clinic since the conditions which allow additivity or supra-additivity are generally very narrow, and unlikely to be realised in the patient. General clinical conditions are more compatible with infra-additive interactions. (author)

  13. The Infinitive Marker across Scandinavian

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ken Ramshøj

    2007-01-01

    In this paper I argue that the base-position of the infinitive marker in the Scandinavian languages and English share a common origin site. It is inserted as the top-most head in the VP-domain. The cross-linguistic variation in the syntactic distribution of the infinitive marker can be accounted...... for by assuming that it undergoes head movement. This movement is optional in Danish, English, Norwegian, and Early Modern Danish and is not feature-driven. In Faroese, Icelandic, and Swedish, on the other hand, it is triggered by φ-feature checking on Finº. In Icelandic and Swedish these φ-features are strong...

  14. Serum Calprotectin in Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Promising Diagnostic Marker, How Far Is It Related to Activity and Sonographic Findings?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.E. Mansour

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: Calprotectin was found to have high association with laboratory and ultrasonography markers of inflammation in RA patients, so it is recommended for use as a marker of inflammatory activity in RA patients especially for the follow-up of patients on biological therapy to assess its efficacy.

  15. Biological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trott, K.R.

    1973-01-01

    Following an introduction into the field of cellular radiation effect considering the most important experimental results, the biological significance of the colony formation ability is brought out. The inactivation concept of stem cells does not only prove to be good, according to the present results, in the interpretation of the pathogenesis of acute radiation effects on moult tissue, it also enables chronicle radiation injuries to be interpreted through changes in the fibrous part of the organs. Radiation therapy of tumours can also be explained to a large extent by the radiation effect on the unlimited reproductiveness of tumour cells. The more or less similar dose effect curves for healthy and tumour tissue in practice lead to intermittent irradiation. The dependence of the intermittent doses and intervals on factors such as Elkind recovery, synchronisation, redistribution, reoxygenation, repopulation and regeneration are reviewed. (ORU/LH) [de

  16. Marker-assisted selection using ridge regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, J C; Thompson, R; Denham, M C

    2000-04-01

    In cross between inbred lines, linear regression can be used to estimate the correlation of markers with a trait of interest; these marker effects then allow marker assisted selection (MAS) for quantitative traits. Usually a subset of markers to include in the model must be selected: no completely satisfactory method of doing this exists. We show that replacing this selection of markers by ridge regression can improve the mean response to selection and reduce the variability of selection response.

  17. Fluoroscopic tracking of multiple implanted fiducial markers using multiple object tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Xiaoli; Sharp, Greg C; Jiang, Steve B

    2007-01-01

    other hand, our proposed system can track markers well and can also successfully detect tracking failures. Failure rate was calculated on a per-frame-per-marker basis for the proposed tracking system. When the system considered breathing pattern information, it had a 0% failure rate 75% of the time and 0.4% failure rate 25% of the time. However, when the system did not consider breathing patterns, it had a much higher failure rate, in the range of 1.2%-12%. Both examples of the proposed system yielded low e 95 (the maximum marker tracking error at 95% confidence level)-less than 1.5 mm

  18. Biology relevant to space radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1996-01-01

    The biological effects of the radiations to which mankind on earth are exposed are becoming known with an increasing degree of detail. This knowledge is the basis of the estimates of risk that, in turn, fosters a comprehensive and evolving radiation protection system. The substantial body of information has been, and is being, applied to questions about the biological effects of radiation is space and the associated risk estimates. The purpose of this paper is not to recount all the biological effect of radiation but to concentrate on those that may occur as a result from exposure to the radiations encountered in space. In general, the biological effects of radiation in space are the same as those on earth. However, the evidence that the effects on certain tissues by the heaviest-charged particles can be interpreted on the basis of our knowledge about other high-LET radiation is equivocal. This specific question will be discussed in greater detail later. It is important to point out the that there are only limited data about the effects on humans of two components of the radiations in space, namely protons and heavy ions. Thus predictions of effects on space crews are based on experimental systems exposed on earth at rates and fluences that are higher than those in space and one the effects of gamma or x rays with estimates of the equivalent doses using quality factors

  19. Creating biological nanomaterials using synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, MaryJoe K; Ruder, Warren C

    2014-02-01

    Synthetic biology is a new discipline that combines science and engineering approaches to precisely control biological networks. These signaling networks are especially important in fields such as biomedicine and biochemical engineering. Additionally, biological networks can also be critical to the production of naturally occurring biological nanomaterials, and as a result, synthetic biology holds tremendous potential in creating new materials. This review introduces the field of synthetic biology, discusses how biological systems naturally produce materials, and then presents examples and strategies for incorporating synthetic biology approaches in the development of new materials. In particular, strategies for using synthetic biology to produce both organic and inorganic nanomaterials are discussed. Ultimately, synthetic biology holds the potential to dramatically impact biological materials science with significant potential applications in medical systems.

  20. Creating biological nanomaterials using synthetic biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, MaryJoe K; Ruder, Warren C

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic biology is a new discipline that combines science and engineering approaches to precisely control biological networks. These signaling networks are especially important in fields such as biomedicine and biochemical engineering. Additionally, biological networks can also be critical to the production of naturally occurring biological nanomaterials, and as a result, synthetic biology holds tremendous potential in creating new materials. This review introduces the field of synthetic biology, discusses how biological systems naturally produce materials, and then presents examples and strategies for incorporating synthetic biology approaches in the development of new materials. In particular, strategies for using synthetic biology to produce both organic and inorganic nanomaterials are discussed. Ultimately, synthetic biology holds the potential to dramatically impact biological materials science with significant potential applications in medical systems. (review)

  1. Determination of Design Basis Earthquake ground motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Muneaki

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes principle of determining of Design Basis Earthquake following the Examination Guide, some examples on actual sites including earthquake sources to be considered, earthquake response spectrum and simulated seismic waves. In sppendix of this paper, furthermore, seismic safety review for N.P.P designed before publication of the Examination Guide was summarized with Check Basis Earthquake. (J.P.N.)

  2. Determination of Design Basis Earthquake ground motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Muneaki [Japan Atomic Power Co., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    This paper describes principle of determining of Design Basis Earthquake following the Examination Guide, some examples on actual sites including earthquake sources to be considered, earthquake response spectrum and simulated seismic waves. In sppendix of this paper, furthermore, seismic safety review for N.P.P designed before publication of the Examination Guide was summarized with Check Basis Earthquake. (J.P.N.)

  3. 42 CFR 460.2 - Basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Basis, Scope, and Definitions § 460.2 Basis. This part implements sections 1894, 1905(a), and 1934 of the Act, which authorize the following: (a) Medicare payments to, and coverage of benefits under, PACE. (b) The...

  4. 14 CFR 1203.100 - Legal basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Legal basis. 1203.100 Section 1203.100 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Scope § 1203.100 Legal basis. (a) Executive Order 12958 (hereinafter referred to as “the Order”). The...

  5. 21 CFR 120.9 - Legal basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Legal basis. 120.9 Section 120.9 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION HAZARD ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP) SYSTEMS General Provisions § 120.9 Legal basis...

  6. The Molecular Biology of Pestiviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tautz, Norbert; Tews, Birke Andrea; Meyers, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    Pestiviruses are among the economically most important pathogens of livestock. The biology of these viruses is characterized by unique and interesting features that are both crucial for their success as pathogens and challenging from a scientific point of view. Elucidation of these features at the molecular level has made striking progress during recent years. The analyses revealed that major aspects of pestivirus biology show significant similarity to the biology of human hepatitis C virus (HCV). The detailed molecular analyses conducted for pestiviruses and HCV supported and complemented each other during the last three decades resulting in elucidation of the functions of viral proteins and RNA elements in replication and virus-host interaction. For pestiviruses, the analyses also helped to shed light on the molecular basis of persistent infection, a special strategy these viruses have evolved to be maintained within their host population. The results of these investigations are summarized in this chapter. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Echinococcus metacestode: in search of viability markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottstein, Bruno; Wang, Junhua; Blagosklonov, Oleg; Grenouillet, Frédéric; Millon, Laurence; Vuitton, Dominique A; Müller, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that most humans infected with Echinococcus spp. exhibit resistance to disease. When infection leads to disease, the parasite is partially controlled by host immunity: in case of immunocompetence, the normal alveolar echinococcosis (AE) or cystic echinococcosis (CE) situation, the metacestode grows slowly, and first clinical signs appear years after infection; in case of impaired immunity (AIDS; other immunodeficiencies), uncontrolled proliferation of the metacestode leads to rapidly progressing disease. Assessing Echinococcus multilocularis viability in vivo following therapeutic interventions in AE patients may be of tremendous benefit when compared with the invasive procedures used to perform biopsies. Current options are F18-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), which visualizes periparasitic inflammation due to the metabolic activity of the metacestode, and measurement of antibodies against recEm18, a viability-associated protein, that rapidly regresses upon metacestode inactivation. For Echinococcus granulosus, similar prognosis-associated follow-up parameters are still lacking but a few candidates may be listed. Other possible markers include functional and diffusion-weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), and measurement of products from the parasite (circulating antigens or DNA), and from the host (inflammation markers, cytokines, or chemokines). Even though some of them have been promising in pilot studies, none has been properly validated in an appropriate number of patients until now to be recommended for further use in clinical settings. There is therefore still a need to develop reliable tools for improved viability assessment to provide the sufficient information needed to reliably withdraw anti-parasite benzimidazole chemotherapy, and a basis for the development of new alternative therapeutic tools. © B. Gottstein et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2014.

  8. The molecular basis of jaundice: An old symptom revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzin, Silvia; Masutti, Flora; Vitek, Libor; Tiribelli, Claudio

    2017-08-01

    Increased serum bilirubin level is a widely used diagnostic marker for hepatic illnesses. Nevertheless, mild elevation of unconjugated serum bilirubin (such as in Gilbert syndrome) has been recently demonstrated to correlate with low risk of chronic inflammatory and/or oxidative stress-mediated diseases. In accord, a low serum bilirubin level has emerged as an important predisposing factor or a biomarker of these pathologic conditions including cardiovascular, tumour, and possibly neurodegenerative diseases. Bilirubin possesses multiple biological actions with interaction in a complex network of enzymatic and signalling pathways. The fact that the liver is the main organ controlling the bioavailability of bilirubin emphasizes the central role of this organ in human health. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Prognostic markers of canine pyometra

    OpenAIRE

    M.C. Sant'Anna; L.G.P. Giordano; K.K.M.C. Flaiban; E.E. Muller; M.I.M. Martins

    2014-01-01

    The pyometra is a disease that affects middle age and elderly female dogs during diestrus. Hormonal, microbiological, biochemical and hematological aspects are well described. However, few studies have evaluated the role of each in the prognosis of canine pyometra. The aim of this study was to identify markers associated with clinical worsening of dogs with pyometra. We prospectively evaluated 80 dogs with pyometra tre...

  10. Tumour markers in gynaecological practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adewole, I.F.

    1999-02-01

    Gynaecological cancers are fairly common in developing countries and represent about 26 % f all cancers. Application of cervical cytology screening nationally has made cervical cancer one of the most preventable malignant diseases thus eliminating the challenges of advanced cancer management. Tumour markers has played a most crucial role in this respect

  11. Morse basis expansion applied to diatomic molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Emanuel F. de, E-mail: eflima@rc.unesp.br [Departamento de Estatística, Matemática Aplicada e Computação, Instituto de Geociências e Ciências Exatas, Universidade Estadual Paulista – UNESP, Rio Claro, São Paulo 13506-900 (Brazil)

    2012-02-20

    This work explores the use of the eigenfunctions of the Morse potential with a infinite barrier at long range to solve the radial Schrödinger equation for diatomic molecules. Analytical formulas are obtained for the kinetic energy operator matrix elements in the Morse basis. The Morse basis expansion is applied to find the vibrational–rotational levels of the sodium molecule in the electronic ground state. -- Highlights: ► The Morse potential basis is invoked to find the rovibrational levels of diatomic molecules. ► Analytical formulas for the kinetic energy operator in the Morse basis are obtained. ► The results of the Morse basis expansion show good agreement with the Fourier Grid technique.

  12. Understanding and capturing NSSS design basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palo, W.J.; Miller, B.

    1993-01-01

    Changes to, and technical evaluations of nuclear generating station designs are often warranted. Comprehensive documentation and understanding of the NSSS Design Basis are essential to support these activities. Effective configuration management tools are also needed to maintain the plant within design basis limits. Efficient design basis reconstitution can be realized via: In-depth understanding of the design process; Utilization of effective data collection methodology; State of the art data basing tools. A database can be created to generate a Design Basis Manual (DBM). This database can communicate electronically with other plant databases. A living document vice a static snapshot of the plant design is the goal. A design basis database can serve as the cornerstone for a global electronic information control system

  13. Identification of the Current Licensing Basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurtz, E.F.; Kaskie, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    Current Licensing Basis (CLB) is the combination of regulatory requirements and the related licensee commitments to implement those requirements. Knowledge of these requirements could significantly influence the utility in resources expenditure and regulatory posture. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issues regulatory requirements after reviewing licensing commitments to address specific regulations. All other commitments not addressed in regulatory requirement documents are within a utility's span of control for commercial application (i.e., cost, personnel safety, power production, etc.). The purpose of the paper will be to inform non-licensing personnel as to the benefits of understanding Current Licensing Basis, as well as providing a basic background. This paper discusses the concept of Current Licensing Basis, how the development of Current Licensing Basis is useful to the utility from a resource allocation and safety improvement perspective, how the Current Licensing Basis is compiled, and what benefits can be derived from it

  14. National survey on internal quality control for tumour markers in clinical laboratories in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Zhong, Kun; Yuan, Shuai; He, Falin; Du, Yuxuan; Hu, Zhehui; Wang, Zhiguo

    2018-06-15

    This survey was initiated to obtain knowledge on the current situation of internal quality control (IQC) practice for tumour markers (TMs) in China. Additionally, we tried to acquire the most appropriate quality specifications. This survey was a current status survey. The IQC information had been collected via online questionnaires. All of 1821 clinical laboratories which participated in the 2016 TMs external quality assessment (EQA) programme had been enrolled. The imprecision evaluation criteria were the minimal, desirable, and optimal allowable imprecisions based on biological variations, and 1/3 total allowable error (TEa) and 1/4 TEa. A total of 1628 laboratories answered the questionnaires (89%). The coefficients of variation (CVs) of the IQC of participant laboratories varied greatly from 1% (5 th percentile) to 13% (95 th percentile). More than 82% (82 - 91%) of participant laboratories two types of CVs met 1/3 TEa except for CA 19-9. The percentiles of current CVs were smaller than cumulative CVs. A number of 1240 laboratories (76%) reported their principles and systems used. The electrochemiluminescence was the most used principle (45%) and had the smallest CVs. The performance of laboratories for TMs IQC has yet to be improved. On the basis of the obtained results, 1/3 TEa would be realistic and attainable quality specification for TMs IQC for clinical laboratories in China.

  15. [The Biology of Learning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo-Cabal, Gerardo

    2012-01-01

    The effort to relate mental and biological functioning has fluctuated between two doctrines: 1) an attempt to explain mental functioning as a collective property of the brain and 2) as one relatied to other mental processes associated with specific regions of the brain. The article reviews the main theories developed over the last 200 years: phrenology, the psuedo study of the brain, mass action, cellular connectionism and distributed processing among others. In addition, approaches have emerged in recent years that allows for an understanding of the biological determinants and individual differences in complex mental processes through what is called cognitive neuroscience. Knowing the definition of neuroscience, the learning of memory, the ways in which learning occurs, the principles of the neural basis of memory and learning and its effects on brain function, among other things, allows us the basic understanding of the processes of memory and learning and is an important requirement to address the best manner to commit to the of training future specialists in Psychiatry. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  16. Biology with neutron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaccai, Giuseppe

    1993-01-01

    Neutron diffraction, elastic and inelastic neutron scattering experiments provide important information on the structure, interactions and dynamics of biological molecules. This arises from the unique properties of the neutron and of its interaction with matter. Coherent and incoherent neutron scattering amplitudes and cross-sections are very different for H and 2 H (deuterium). Deuterium labelling by chemical or biochemical methods and H 2 O: 2 H 2 O exchange is the basis of high resolution crystallography experiments to locate functionally important H-atoms in protein molecules. It is also very important in low resolution crystallography and small angle scattering experiments to solve large complex structures, such as protein-nucleic acid complexes or biological membrane systems, by using contrast variation techniques. The energies of neutrons with a wavelength of the order of 1 - 10 A are similar to thermal energies and inelastic neutron scattering experiments have been done with different energy resolutions (≥∼ 1 μeV) to characterise the functional dynamics of proteins in solution and in membranes. (author)

  17. Advances in the study of serum tumor markers of lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wenjie Qi; Xuechang Li; Jingbo Kang

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer is among the most prevalently occurring carcinomas worldwide, and reducing lung cancer mortality depends on early detection, diagnosis, and treatment. Given the rapid development of molecular biology and modern techniques for diagnosis and treatment, the study of serum tumor markers has gained extensive application in early diagnosis, treatment effect monitoring, and prognosis evaluation. Serum tumor markers possess the advantages of easy detection, noninvasive operation, and cost...

  18. Biochemical Markers in Neurocritical Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omidvar Rezae

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available During the past two decades, a variety of serum or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF biochemical markers in daily clinical practice have been recommended to diagnose and monitor diverse diseases or pathologic situations. It will be essential to develop a panel of biomarkers, to be suitable for evaluation of treatment efficacy, representing distinct phases of injury and recovery and consider the temporal profile of those. Among the possible and different biochemical markers, S100b appeared to fulfill many of optimized criteria of an ideal marker. S100b, a cytosolic low molecular weight dimeric calciumbinding protein from chromosome 21, synthesized in glial cells throughout the CNS, an homodimeric diffusible, belongs to a family of closely related protein, predominantly expressed by astrocytes and Schwann cells and a classic immunohistochemical marker for these cells, is implicated in brain development and neurophysiology. Of the 3 isoforms of S-100, the BB subunit (S100B is present in high concentrations in central and peripheral glial and Schwann cells, Langerhans and anterior pituitary cells, fat, muscle, and bone marrow tissues. The biomarker has shown to be a sensitive marker of clinical and subclinical cerebral damage, such as stroke, traumatic brain injury, and spinal cord injury. Increasing evidence suggests that the biomarker plays a double function as an intracellular regulator and an extracellular signal of the CNS. S100b is found in the cytoplasm in a soluble form and also is associated with intracellular membranes, centrosomes, microtubules, and type III intermediate filaments. Their genomic organization now is known, and many of their target proteins have been identified, although the mechanisms of regulating S100b secretion are not completely understood and appear to be related to many factors, such as the proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a, interleukin (IL-1b, and metabolic stress. 

  19. Nanoelectronics Meets Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieber, Charles

    2012-02-01

    Nanoscale materials enable unique opportunities at the interface between the physical and life sciences, and the interface between nanoelectronic devices and biological systems makes possible communication between these two diverse systems at the length scale relevant to biological function. In this presentation, the development of nanowire nanoelectronic devices and their application as powerful tools for the life sciences will be discussed. First, a brief introduction to nanowire nanoelectronic devices as well as comparisons to other electrophysiological tools will be presented to illuminate the unique strengths and opportunities enabled at the nanoscale. Second, illustration of detection capabilities including signal-to-noise and applications for real-time label-free detection of biochemical markers down to the level of single molecules will be described. Third, the use of nanowire nanoelectronics for building interfaces to cells and tissue will be reviewed. Multiplexed measurements made from nanowire devices fabricated on flexible and transparent substrates recording signal propagation across cultured cells, acute tissue slices and intact organs will be illustrated, including quantitative analysis of the high simultaneous spatial and temporal resolution achieved with these nanodevices. Specific examples of subcellular and near point detection of extracellular potential will be used to illustrate the unique capabilities, such as recording localized potential changes due to neuronal activities simultaneously across many length scales, which provide key information for functional neural circuit studies. Last, emerging opportunities for the creation of powerful new probes based on controlled synthesis and/or bottom-up assembly of nanomaterials will be described with an emphasis on nanowire probes demonstrating the first intracellular transistor recordings, and the development of ``cyborg'' tissue. The prospects for blurring the distinction between nanoelectronic

  20. COMPLICATIONS OF ALCOHOLIC LIVER DISEASE AND DIAGNOSTIC MARKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Ilić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholism is one of the leading diseases affecting people’s health and immunity worldwide. Nearly 30 thousand people in the USA die from chronic liver damage. The liver is the central organ in the metabolism of alcohol. Alcohol is primarily a hepatotoxic agent. Hepatotoxicity of alcohol is clinically manifested by the development of alcoholic fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis and alcoholic cirrhosis. It is characterized by appropriate symptomatology, depending on the degree of liver damage. Excessive use of alcohol for a long period of time, along with malnutrition, genetic and ethnic predisposition, leads to alcoholic cirrhosis and the development of its complications. Portal hypertension damages other organs and organ systems, causing hepatopulmonary syndrome, hepatorenal syndrome, hepatic encephalopathy, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, etc. For these reasons, alcoholism reduction is given priority, as well as reduction of morbidity and mortality of people with alcoholic chronic liver damage. Therefore, early diagnosis of alcohol abuse is necessary, as well as timely diagnosis of different degrees of alcoholic liver damage. The diagnosis of chronic alcoholic liver damage is set on the basis of confirmed data of alcohol consumption; liver function test (serum markers aminotransferase, gammaglutamyl transferase, prothrombin time, serum bilirubin and albumin level; serum markers of liver fibrosis. Fibrosis markers are directly involved in sedimentation and dissolution of extracellular matrix, i.e. in the process of fibrogenesis and fibrinolysis of liver tissues. They include markers and enzymes of metabolism, as well as cytokines and chemokines.

  1. NABIC marker database: A molecular markers information network of agricultural crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang-Kug; Seol, Young-Joo; Lee, Dong-Jun; Jeong, In-Seon; Yoon, Ung-Han; Lee, Gang-Seob; Hahn, Jang-Ho; Park, Dong-Suk

    2013-01-01

    In 2013, National Agricultural Biotechnology Information Center (NABIC) reconstructs a molecular marker database for useful genetic resources. The web-based marker database consists of three major functional categories: map viewer, RSN marker and gene annotation. It provides 7250 marker locations, 3301 RSN marker property, 3280 molecular marker annotation information in agricultural plants. The individual molecular marker provides information such as marker name, expressed sequence tag number, gene definition and general marker information. This updated marker-based database provides useful information through a user-friendly web interface that assisted in tracing any new structures of the chromosomes and gene positional functions using specific molecular markers. The database is available for free at http://nabic.rda.go.kr/gere/rice/molecularMarkers/

  2. Mesangial cell biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abboud, Hanna E.

    2012-01-01

    Mesangial cells originate from the metanephric mesenchyme and maintain structural integrity of the glomerular microvascular bed and mesangial matrix homeostasis. In response to metabolic, immunologic or hemodynamic injury, these cells undergo apoptosis or acquire an activated phenotype and undergo hypertrophy, proliferation with excessive production of matrix proteins, growth factors, chemokines and cytokines. These soluble factors exert autocrine and paracrine effects on the cells or on other glomerular cells, respectively. MCs are primary targets of immune-mediated glomerular diseases such as IGA nephropathy or metabolic diseases such as diabetes. MCs may also respond to injury that primarily involves podocytes and endothelial cells or to structural and genetic abnormalities of the glomerular basement membrane. Signal transduction and oxidant stress pathways are activated in MCs and likely represent integrated input from multiple mediators. Such responses are convenient targets for therapeutic intervention. Studies in cultured MCs should be supplemented with in vivo studies as well as examination of freshly isolated cells from normal and diseases glomeruli. In addition to ex vivo morphologic studies in kidney cortex, cells should be studied in their natural environment, isolated glomeruli or even tissue slices. Identification of a specific marker of MCs should help genetic manipulation as well as selective therapeutic targeting of these cells. Identification of biological responses of MCs that are not mediated by the renin–angiotensin system should help development of novel and effective therapeutic strategies to treat diseases characterized by MC pathology.

  3. Mesangial cell biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abboud, Hanna E., E-mail: Abboud@uthscsa.edu

    2012-05-15

    Mesangial cells originate from the metanephric mesenchyme and maintain structural integrity of the glomerular microvascular bed and mesangial matrix homeostasis. In response to metabolic, immunologic or hemodynamic injury, these cells undergo apoptosis or acquire an activated phenotype and undergo hypertrophy, proliferation with excessive production of matrix proteins, growth factors, chemokines and cytokines. These soluble factors exert autocrine and paracrine effects on the cells or on other glomerular cells, respectively. MCs are primary targets of immune-mediated glomerular diseases such as IGA nephropathy or metabolic diseases such as diabetes. MCs may also respond to injury that primarily involves podocytes and endothelial cells or to structural and genetic abnormalities of the glomerular basement membrane. Signal transduction and oxidant stress pathways are activated in MCs and likely represent integrated input from multiple mediators. Such responses are convenient targets for therapeutic intervention. Studies in cultured MCs should be supplemented with in vivo studies as well as examination of freshly isolated cells from normal and diseases glomeruli. In addition to ex vivo morphologic studies in kidney cortex, cells should be studied in their natural environment, isolated glomeruli or even tissue slices. Identification of a specific marker of MCs should help genetic manipulation as well as selective therapeutic targeting of these cells. Identification of biological responses of MCs that are not mediated by the renin–angiotensin system should help development of novel and effective therapeutic strategies to treat diseases characterized by MC pathology.

  4. Bomb pulse biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falso, Miranda J. Sarachine [Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, Mail Stop L-397, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Buchholz, Bruce A., E-mail: buchholz2@llnl.gov [Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, Mail Stop L-397, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    The past decade has seen an explosion in use of the {sup 14}C bomb pulse to do fundamental cell biology. Studies in the 1960s used decay counting to measure tissue turnover when the atmospheric {sup 14}C/C concentration was changing rapidly. Today bulk tissue measurements are of marginal interest since most of the carbon in the tissue resides in proteins, lipids and carbohydrates that turn over rapidly. Specific cell types with specialized functions are the focus of cell turnover investigations. Tissue samples need to be fresh or frozen. Fixed or preserved samples contain petroleum-derived carbon that has not been successfully removed. Cell or nuclear surface markers are used to sort specific cell types, typically by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Specific biomolecules need to be isolated with high purity and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurements must accommodate samples that generally contain less than 40 {mu}g of carbon. Furthermore, all separations must not add carbon to the sample. Independent means such as UV absorbance must be used to confirm molecule purity. Approaches for separating specific proteins and DNA and combating contamination of undesired molecules are described.

  5. Genetic diversity in some local chicken breeds using microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cassandro

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Genetic relationships among Veneto native breeds of chickens were studied on the basis of microsatellites polymorphisms. A total of 100 DNA samples from 2 local chicken breeds (45 Robusta Lionata and 43 Robusta Maculata and a commercial broiler line (12 Golden Comet were analyzed using 19 microsatellite markers. The average number of alleles per locus was 4.05 and the expected heterozigosity resulted lower for the local breeds than the broiler line. The Robusta Lionata breed and the broiler line showed a significant deficit and excess of heterozygotes, respectively, deviating from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Nei’s standard genetic distances corrected for bias due to sampling of individuals (Da, based on allele frequencies, were calculated among breeds. The local breeds resulted very similar confirming the same genetic origin. The results suggested that microsatellite markers are a useful tool for studying the genetic diversity among local chicken breeds.

  6. Monoclonal carcinoembryonic antigen radioimmunoassay in prostatic cancer: Validation of the method and comparison to some other tumor-associated markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanovic, V.; Ignjatovic, M.; Milosavljevic, B.; Dinic, A.; Nis Univ.

    1987-01-01

    The use of a monoclonal CEA RIA and of some other biological markers for a diagnosis of prostatic cancer was investigated. The increased level of serum CEA was found in both prostatic cancer and in non-malignant disease. The low sensitivity of the CEA monoclonal assay precludes its use for a clinical diagnosis of prostatic cancer. The simultaneous use of some other biological markers (PAP, TPA, β2-microglobulin and ferritin) did increase sensitivity. However, further studies should be directed to a much more specific and sensitive marker of the human prostatic adenocarcinoma. (orig.) [de

  7. Early bichemical markers of effects: Enzyme induction, oncogene activation and markers of oxidative damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Henrik E.; Loft, Steffen

    1995-01-01

    Early bichemical marker, enzyme induction, oncogene activation, oxidative damage, low-density lipoprotein......Early bichemical marker, enzyme induction, oncogene activation, oxidative damage, low-density lipoprotein...

  8. 26 CFR 1.1014-4 - Uniformity of basis; adjustment to basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Basis Rules of General Application § 1.1014-4 Uniformity of basis... to property acquired by bequest, devise, or inheritance relate back to the death of the decedent... prescribing a general uniform basis rule for property acquired from a decedent is, on the one hand, to tax the...

  9. 75 FR 64071 - Basis Reporting by Securities Brokers and Basis Determination for Stock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ... Reporting by Securities Brokers and Basis Determination for Stock; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol... Reporting by Securities Brokers and Basis Determination for Stock AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS... taxpayers to compute the basis of certain stock by averaging. The regulations affect brokers and custodians...

  10. Tumor markers kits development for use in radioimmunometric assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, B.

    1997-01-01

    The immunoassays such as RIA and IRMA are now widely used through the world for the quantitation of a variety of substances in the biological fluid for their high sensibility and specificity which required simple equipments. These techniques are also very used in Algeria for an effective amelioration of public heath The assays kits of RIA/IRMA of thyroid hormones are the most used, followed by peptidic hormones, steroids hormones and IRMA Tumor Markers (T.M) kits. In spite of the important demand, of tumor markers kits for the diagnosis and follow up of cancers their use are always insufficient due to the high cost. The research contract programme proposed by IAEA on the theme 'The Developments of IRMA Tumor Markers Kits' of prostate specific Antigen (PSA) and Tissue Polypeptide Specific Antigen (TPS) will allowed us to produce locally with best quality-price, the main reagents for PSA and TPS IRMA assays kits for diagnosis and follow up the prostate and breast cancers which are very spready in the country. This report include the following points: Generalities on the use of tumor markers in Algeria, programme for the Development of the PSA IRMA assay (schedule of protocols applied for each reagents; annual planning for assessing the programme activities) and conclusion

  11. Screening of highly informative and representative microsatellite markers for genotyping of major cultivated cotton varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, M; Yang, W H; Wang, F; Xu, H X; Wang, Y Q; Zhou, D Y; Fang, D; Ma, L; Feng, X A

    2014-11-27

    We screened and assessed published cotton simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers to establish a set of core SSR markers suitable for cotton major cultivars in China and analyzed genetic diversity based on the core marker set. Using a stepwise screening strategy, 12 leading cultivars for preliminary screening and 96 cultivars for rescreening were evaluated. A total of 184 polymorphic SSR markers were initially screened from 3299 candidates, and a core set of 52 SSR markers with wide genome coverage (2 markers per chromosome) was obtained. Among 96 major cultivars, 273 amplification genotypes were generated using the core marker set. Polymorphism information content values ranged from 0.28-0.83, with an average value of 0.56. The core SSR marker set detected on denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis indicated that the band genotype was either a single or double band on conventional cultivars, while most were double bands (65.4%). Among 56 hybrids, the average heterozygosis rate was 35.8%, ranging from 7.1-55.4%. Eighteen of 96 cultivars had distinct band genotypes. The genetic diversity analyzed using the of NTSYS-pc V2.10 software indicated that the Yangtze River valley cotton region had the highest polymorphic level, followed by Xinjiang and then the Yellow River valley. The genetic basis of conventional cultivars was narrower than that of hybrids. The core marker set can be used for fingerprint construction, variety identification, and purity tests of major cotton cultivars in China.

  12. Endometriosis and possible inflammation markers

    OpenAIRE

    Meng-Hsing Wu; Kuei-Yang Hsiao; Shaw-Jenq Tsai

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. Infiltration of peritoneal macrophages and local proinflammatory mediators in the peritoneal microenvironment affect ovarian function and pelvic anatomy leading to the symptoms and signs of endometriosis. The identification of a noninvasive marker for endometriosis will facilitate early diagnosis and treatment of this disease. This review provides an overview of local microenvironmental inflammation and systemic inflam...

  13. Endometriosis and possible inflammation markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Hsing Wu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. Infiltration of peritoneal macrophages and local proinflammatory mediators in the peritoneal microenvironment affect ovarian function and pelvic anatomy leading to the symptoms and signs of endometriosis. The identification of a noninvasive marker for endometriosis will facilitate early diagnosis and treatment of this disease. This review provides an overview of local microenvironmental inflammation and systemic inflammation biomarkers in endometriosis.

  14. Predictive markers of radiation pneumonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provatopoulou, X; Athanasiou, E; Gounaris, A

    2008-01-01

    Radiation pneumonitis is an acute-phase response to radiation therapy and a common complication that affects a patient's quality of life. Under the need to reduce the incidence and severity of radiation-induced pulmonary complications as well as to identify patients at risk, several investigations on potential predictive markers of radiation pneumonitis have been conducted. The present study reviews the currently available knowledge on biomolecules of potential predictive value for radiation pneumonitis.

  15. Molecular markers for thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrero Rodriguez, Maria Teresa; Sinconegui Gomez, Belkys; Cruz Cruz, Anaisa

    2015-01-01

    The importance of the study of the thyroid nodule lies in excluding the possibility of a malignant lesion because the majority of lesions are benign but there is a malignancy risk of 5 to 10%. Most of them are well differentiated carcinomas originating in the follicular epithelium. In spite of the fact that the majority are benign lesions, distinguishing them from carcinomas is crucial to treatment and adequate follow-up. Fine-needle biopsy allows making the diagnosis in most of cases. However, this method is restricted, particularly when diagnosing follicular lesions. In an effort to improve the diagnostic accuracy of biopsy and to provide new diagnosing criteria, a number of molecular markers have been put forward, some of which has wide range of approval whereas others still awaits to be validated for further implementation. This article presented an updated review of molecular markers with higher number of evidence, more accessible and potentially usable from a methodological viewpoint for diagnosis of the thyroid nodule before surgery. The importance of the study of the thyroid nodule lies in excluding the possibility of a malignant lesion because the majority of lesions are benign but there is a malignancy risk of 5 to 10%. Most of them are well differentiated carcinomas originating in the follicular epithelium. In spite of the fact that the majority are benign lesions, distinguishing them from carcinomas is crucial to treatment and adequate follow-up. Fine-needle biopsy allows making the diagnosis in most of cases. However, this method is restricted, particularly when diagnosing follicular lesions. In an effort to improve the diagnostic accuracy of biopsy and to provide new diagnosing criteria, a number of molecular markers have been put forward, some of which has wide range of approval whereas others still awaits to be validated for further implementation. This article presented an updated review of molecular markers with higher number of evidence, more

  16. Irreducible representation basis for unitary groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babutsidze, T.D.; Machabeli, I.Z.

    1982-01-01

    A general method is presented for construction of a complete basis for finite-dimensional irreducible representations of those subgroups of the general linear group GLsub(n) for which irreps of GLsub(n) remain irreducible after the contraction from GLsub(n) to the subgroup in view. Using the constructed basis, the reduction coefficients for contraction of irreps of the group to those of its subgroups are calculated, as well as matrix elements for some physical operators [ru

  17. Biological origins of color categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, Alice E; Catchpole, Gemma; Abbott, Joshua T; Bosten, Jenny M; Franklin, Anna

    2017-05-23

    The biological basis of the commonality in color lexicons across languages has been hotly debated for decades. Prior evidence that infants categorize color could provide support for the hypothesis that color categorization systems are not purely constructed by communication and culture. Here, we investigate the relationship between infants' categorization of color and the commonality across color lexicons, and the potential biological origin of infant color categories. We systematically mapped infants' categorical recognition memory for hue onto a stimulus array used previously to document the color lexicons of 110 nonindustrialized languages. Following familiarization to a given hue, infants' response to a novel hue indicated that their recognition memory parses the hue continuum into red, yellow, green, blue, and purple categories. Infants' categorical distinctions aligned with common distinctions in color lexicons and are organized around hues that are commonly central to lexical categories across languages. The boundaries between infants' categorical distinctions also aligned, relative to the adaptation point, with the cardinal axes that describe the early stages of color representation in retinogeniculate pathways, indicating that infant color categorization may be partly organized by biological mechanisms of color vision. The findings suggest that color categorization in language and thought is partially biologically constrained and have implications for broader debate on how biology, culture, and communication interact in human cognition.

  18. Embedding filtering criteria into a wrapper marker selection method for brain tumor classification: an application on metabolic peak area ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kounelakis, M G; Zervakis, M E; Giakos, G C; Postma, G J; Buydens, L M C; Kotsiakis, X

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify reliable sets of metabolic markers that provide accurate classification of complex brain tumors and facilitate the process of clinical diagnosis. Several ratios of metabolites are tested alone or in combination with imaging markers. A wrapper feature selection and classification methodology is studied, employing Fisher's criterion for ranking the markers. The set of extracted markers that express statistical significance is further studied in terms of biological behavior with respect to the brain tumor type and grade. The outcome of this study indicates that the proposed method by exploiting the intrinsic properties of data can actually reveal reliable and biologically relevant sets of metabolic markers, which form an important adjunct toward a more accurate type and grade discrimination of complex brain tumors

  19. Marine Carotenoids and Cardiovascular Risk Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenza Speranza

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Marine carotenoids are important bioactive compounds with physiological activities related to prevention of degenerative diseases.found principally in plants, with potential antioxidant biological properties deriving from their chemical structure and interaction with biological membranes. They are substances with very special and remarkable properties that no other groups of substances possess and that form the basis of their many, varied functions and actions in all kinds of living organisms. The potential beneficial effects of marine carotenoids have been studied particularly in astaxanthin and fucoxanthin as they are the major marine carotenoids. Both these two carotenoids show strong antioxidant activity attributed to quenching singlet oxygen and scavenging free radicals. The potential role of these carotenoids as dietary anti-oxidants has been suggested to be one of the main mechanisms for their preventive effects against cancer and inflammatory diseases. The aim of this short review is to examine the published studies concerning the use of the two marine carotenoids, astaxanthin and fucoxanthin, in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

  20. [Important issues of biological safety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishchenko, G G

    2007-01-01

    The problem of biological security raises alarm due to the real growth of biological threats. Biological security includes a wide scope of problems, the solution of which becomes a part of national security as a necessary condition for the constant development of the country. A number of pathogens, such as human immunodeficiency virus, exotic Ebola and Lassa viruses causing hemorrhagic fever,rotaviruses causing acute intestinal diseases, etc. were first discovered in the last century. Terrorist actions committed in the USA in 2001 using the anthrax pathogen made the problem of biological danger even more important. In Russian Federation, biological threats are counteracted through the united state policy being a part of general state security policy. The biological Security legislation of Russian Federation is chiefly based on the 1992 Federal Law on Security. On the basis of cumulated experience, the President of Russia ratified Basics of Russian Federation's State Policy for Chemical and Biological Security for the Period through 2010 and Beyond on 4 December, 2003. The document determines the main directions and stages of the state development in the area of chemical and biological security. The Federal target program Russian Federation's National Program for Chemical and Biological Security is being developed, and its development is to be completed soon in order to perfect the national system for biological security and fulfill Basics of Russian Federation's State Policy for Chemical and Biological Security for the Period through 2010 and Beyond, ratified by the President. The new global strategy for control over infectious diseases, presented in the materials of Saint Petersburg summit of the Group of Eight, as well as the substantive part of its elements in Sanitary International Standards, are to a large degree an acknowledgement of the Russian Federation's experience and the algorithm for fighting extremely dangerous infections. This Russia's experience has

  1. New approach for isolation of VNTR markers.

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, Y; Carlson, M; Krapcho, K; Kanamori, M; White, R

    1988-01-01

    Elsewhere we have reported an efficient method for isolating VNTR (Variable Number of Tandem Repeats) markers. Several of the VNTR markers isolated in those experiments were sequenced, and a DNA sequence of 9 bp (GNNGTGGG) emerged as an apparent consensus sequence for VNTR markers. To confirm this result and to develop more VNTR markers, we synthesized nine different 18-base-long oligonucleotides whose sequences each included GNNGTGGG. When 102 cosmid clones selected by these oligonucleotides...

  2. Thermodynamic basis for expressing dose logarithmically

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waddell, William J.

    2008-01-01

    The current explanations for using a logarithmic scale for the dose of a chemical, administered to a biological system, have all been empirical. There is a fundamental, thermodynamic reason why a logarithmic scale must be used. The chemical potential is the effect that a chemical exerts on any system, including biological systems. The chemical potential of a chemical in any system is directly proportional to the logarithm of its activity or concentration. Lack of understanding of this concept and the consequent use of a linear scale for dose has led to misinterpretation of many biological experiments

  3. Characterization of novel polymorphic microsatellite markers from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    polymorphic microsatellite markers from the cDNA library of Japanese scallop Mizuhopecten yessoensis and cross-species amplification in bay scallop ... Keywords. microsatellite markers; cDNA library; Mizuhopecten yessoensis; Argopecten irradians. .... EST databases as a source for molecular markers: lessons from.

  4. 49 CFR 195.410 - Line markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... markers is impractical and would not serve the purpose for which markers are intended; and (ii) The local...) The word “Warning,” “Caution,” or “Danger” followed by the words “Petroleum (or the name of the hazardous liquid transported) Pipeline”, or “Carbon Dioxide Pipeline,” all of which, except for markers in...

  5. Markers and residual time to AIDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geskus, R. B.

    2002-01-01

    The value of immunological and virological markers as predictors of progression to AIDS, or death by AIDS, is a topic of much current interest. Mostly, the influence of markers is investigated in a time-dependent or a baseline proportional hazard model, relating time-varying or baseline marker

  6. (EST-SSR) markers in radi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user2

    2013-02-27

    Feb 27, 2013 ... newer molecular marker systems, such as microsatellite. *Corresponding ... recent years, a few molecular marker systems including random ...... markers for estimating genetic diversity in cucumber. Biologia. Plantarum. 55(3):577-580. Huang H, Lu J, Ren Z, Hunter W, Dowd SE, Dang P (2011). Mining and.

  7. Approaches to establish Q-markers for the quality standards of traditional Chinese medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenzhi; Zhang, Yibei; Wu, Wanying; Huang, Luqi; Guo, Dean; Liu, Changxiao

    2017-07-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has played a pivotal role in maintaining the health of Chinese people and is now gaining increasing acceptance around the global scope. However, TCM is confronting more and more concerns with respect to its quality. The intrinsic "multicomponent and multitarget" feature of TCM necessitates the establishment of a unique quality and bioactivity evaluation system, which is different from that of the Western medicine. However, TCM is investigated essentially as "herbal medicine" or "natural product", and the pharmacopoeia quality monographs are actually chemical-markers-based, which can ensure the consistency only in the assigned chemical markers, but, to some extent, have deviated from the basic TCM theory. A concept of "quality marker" (Q-marker), following the "property-effect-component" theory, is proposed. The establishment of Q-marker integrates multidisciplinary technologies like natural products chemistry, analytical chemistry, bionics, chemometrics, pharmacology, systems biology, and pharmacodynamics, etc. Q-marker-based fingerprint and multicomponent determination conduce to the construction of more scientific quality control system of TCM. This review delineates the background, definition, and properties of Q-marker, and the associated technologies applied for its establishment. Strategies and approaches for establishing Q-marker-based TCM quality control system are presented and highlighted with a few TCM examples.

  8. Identification of stock components using morphological markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdam, B J; Grabowski, T B; Marteinsdóttir, G

    2012-10-01

    This study investigated the development of a quantitative method for distinguishing stock components of Icelandic cod Gadus morhua based on visual examination of morphology. The stock is known to be structured into genetically distinct geographic components (north and south of Iceland) and behavioural types that spawn sympatrically. Differences in morphology were tested between locations, genotypes (a proxy for behaviour) and sexes. Results show morphological markers on the head, fins and body of G. morhua that are correlated with the sex, genotype of the fish at the pantophysin (pan-I) locus and the location at which the fish were caught. Females were found to have relatively deep bodies, and the pan-I(BB) genotype (associated with deep-water feeding behaviour) have greater gaps between their fins. Overall, morphology is more useful for distinguishing sympatric genotypes but less powerful at identifying genetically distinct geographic sub-populations, perhaps because counter-gradient evolution reduces phenotypic differences even with an underlying genetic cause. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  9. New markers in pelvic inflammatory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shun-Fa; Wu, Tzu-Fan; Tsai, Hsiu-Ting; Lin, Long-Yau; Wang, Po-Hui

    2014-04-20

    Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a common infection in women of reproductive age. However, diagnosis of PID can be difficult due to the wide variation in the symptoms and signs, ranging from subtle or mild symptoms to severe pain in the lower abdomen. Clinical diagnosis alone has only 87% sensitivity and 50% specificity. Therefore, identifying biological factors that are useful for early diagnosis and correlating their expression with the severity of PID could provide significant benefits to women suffering from PID. Pentraxin 3 (PTX3), E-cadherin, myeloperoxidase, stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) and the matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9)/MMP-2 ratio are potential candidates for detecting PID reliably. As PID is often subtle, highly sensitive PID detection methods are needed to promote the prevention of severe sequelae. Growth arrest-specific 6 (Gas6), in combination with its soluble tyrosine kinase receptor, sAxl, could elevate the sensitivity to 92%, which was higher than all other markers tested. Moreover, PTX3, D-dimer and YKL-40 concentrations can predict the clinical course of PID. Although single nucleotide polymorphisms of biomarker genes are not associated with the development of PID, myeloperoxidase SNP -463 G/A and SDF-1 SNP 801 G/A may affect the aggravated expression of their biomarkers in PID. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Molecular genetic markers of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Grishina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer (BC is the second most common type of cancer worldwide and affects 1 in 8 women over the course of their lifetime. A personalized approach to treating BC can substantially increase efficiency and consequently maintain the active life of many people. This encourages investigators and physicians to better understand tumor biology in order to make a correct diagnosis, to determine recurrence risk, and to choose adequate therapy. This paper discusses the bases for the molecular classification of BC into its expression subtypes, as well as current prognostic kits that assist oncologists in classifying the subtypes of cancer and in predicting the development of the disease. The existing test systems are not universal, each of them is applicable only to a limited group of patients, but they totally cover a considerable number of cases. The tumor gene mutations in BC, which have been characterized by up-to-date methods, can serve as predictive markers for the efficiency of targeted therapy.

  11. Biological effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This fourth chapter presents: cell structure and metabolism; radiation interaction with biological tissues; steps of the production of biological effect of radiation; radiosensitivity of tissues; classification of biological effects; reversibility, transmissivity and influence factors; pre-natal biological effects; biological effects in therapy and syndrome of acute irradiation

  12. Genetic basis of a cognitive complexity metric.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narelle K Hansell

    Full Text Available Relational complexity (RC is a metric reflecting capacity limitation in relational processing. It plays a crucial role in higher cognitive processes and is an endophenotype for several disorders. However, the genetic underpinnings of complex relational processing have not been investigated. Using the classical twin model, we estimated the heritability of RC and genetic overlap with intelligence (IQ, reasoning, and working memory in a twin and sibling sample aged 15-29 years (N = 787. Further, in an exploratory search for genetic loci contributing to RC, we examined associated genetic markers and genes in our Discovery sample and selected loci for replication in four independent samples (ALSPAC, LBC1936, NTR, NCNG, followed by meta-analysis (N>6500 at the single marker level. Twin modelling showed RC is highly heritable (67%, has considerable genetic overlap with IQ (59%, and is a major component of genetic covariation between reasoning and working memory (72%. At the molecular level, we found preliminary support for four single-marker loci (one in the gene DGKB, and at a gene-based level for the NPS gene, having influence on cognition. These results indicate that genetic sources influencing relational processing are a key component of the genetic architecture of broader cognitive abilities. Further, they suggest a genetic cascade, whereby genetic factors influencing capacity limitation in relational processing have a flow-on effect to more complex cognitive traits, including reasoning and working memory, and ultimately, IQ.

  13. Psychological and Biological Perspectives on Altruism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Martin L.

    1978-01-01

    Explores the case for viewing altruism as an inherent part of human nature. Postulates an altruistic disposition or motive to act which is under the control of perceptual and cognitive processes. Presents psychological evidence complementing this view. Discusses social implications of a biological basis for human altruism. (RH)

  14. On the use of locally dense basis sets in the calculation of EPR hyperfine couplings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milhøj, Birgitte Olai; Hedegård, Erik D.; Sauer, Stephan P. A.

    2013-01-01

    The usage of locally dense basis sets in the calculation of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) hyperne coupling constants is investigated at the level of Density Functional Theory (DFT) for two model systems of biologically important transition metal complexes: One for the active site in the c...

  15. Messina: a novel analysis tool to identify biologically relevant molecules in disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Pinese

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Morphologically similar cancers display heterogeneous patterns of molecular aberrations and follow substantially different clinical courses. This diversity has become the basis for the definition of molecular phenotypes, with significant implications for therapy. Microarray or proteomic expression profiling is conventionally employed to identify disease-associated genes, however, traditional approaches for the analysis of profiling experiments may miss molecular aberrations which define biologically relevant subtypes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we present Messina, a method that can identify those genes that only sometimes show aberrant expression in cancer. We demonstrate with simulated data that Messina is highly sensitive and specific when used to identify genes which are aberrantly expressed in only a proportion of cancers, and compare Messina to contemporary analysis techniques. We illustrate Messina by using it to detect the aberrant expression of a gene that may play an important role in pancreatic cancer. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Messina allows the detection of genes with profiles typical of markers of molecular subtype, and complements existing methods to assist the identification of such markers. Messina is applicable to any global expression profiling data, and to allow its easy application has been packaged into a freely-available stand-alone software package.

  16. From Subordinate Marker to Discourse Marker: que in Andean Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna María Escobar

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an analysis of a redundant use of que ('that' found in Andean Spanish as an expression which has undergone a grammaticalization process. Evidence suggests that the function of que as subordinate marker is much more generalized in this variety than in other dialects of Spanish. que is found to be used as a marker introducing both nominal and adjectival clauses, suggesting that adjectival subordinates behave as nominal subordinates in this variety of Spanish. An intrusive que appears in restricted syntactic and semantic contexts with clauses that have nominal and adjectival functions, and even appears replacing adverbial expressions in some adverbial subordinates (temporal, spatial, and manner. Furthermore, it is found to be sensitive to the degree of the argument’s thematic/semantic function in the subordinate clause. In particular, it seems to occur more often with low-agency arguments in adjectival and nominal contexts, and, in nominal subordinates, tends to appear with a restricted set of epistemic and evidential main verbs (e.g. creer 'to believe', saber 'to know', decir 'to say'. The analysis suggests that que has developed a new function in this variety of Spanish, namely, one of indicating that the information contained in the subordinate clause does not constitute background information (as would be expected in non-contact varieties of Spanish but instead contains information relevant to the discourse.

  17. Measurement of basis weight by radiation gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchnea, A.

    1981-01-01

    For accurate measurement of the basis weight (mass per unit area) of a material such as paper between a radioactive source and an ionization chamber the apparatus is calibrated by using a plurality of standards of known basis weight to provide a relationship between basis weight and the output current of the chamber which includes at least terms of the second order and preferably terms of higher orders. The major portion of the radiation path is enclosed in airtight chambers which are sufficiently rigid that the density therein is independent of ambient temperature and pressure variations. The accuracy is increased by measuring ambient temperature and pressure fluctuations, and linearly compensating for resultant density variations in the air gap through which the paper web passes. A wheel holding the standards is induced by a motor and a perforated encoding disc. (author)

  18. Virulence Markers of Dengue Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-20

    pathogenetic mechanism from dengue-2 and dengue-4 viruses . Additional detailed epidemiological, virological and clinical evaluation on dengue-1 and...Soawy Ca saoouj Virulence Markers of Dengue Viruses (U) 12. PCIRSONAL AUTHORS) James L. Hardy, Ph.D. and Srisakul C. Kliks, Ph.D. 13a. TYPE Of REPORT...17. COSATI COOLS I& S UBiJECT TERMS0,G ’-mPJ!’ iwin.. - fl OV nu0a mef) FIELD I GROUP SUS-GROUIP Dengue viruses , dengue hemorrhagic fever, virulence

  19. Biochemical Markers in Meconium Passage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Gün Eryýlmaz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available        The understanding of the mechanism and pathophysiology pertaining to intrauterine release of meconium is limited. An undesired condition of delivery, meconium passage can lead to respiratory difficulty and meconium aspiration syndrome. Since its mechanism has not been fully revealed, early prediction and prevention is not possible.In this review article, an effort is made to gather the most current information on the mechanism of meconium release. Also, based on the probable pathologic mechanisms, an explanation is provided on the potential markers that can aid in early detection of meconium passage.

  20. Identification of two genetic markers that distinguish pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains of Acanthamoeba spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, D K; Vodkin, M H; Novak, R J; Visvesvara, G; McLaughlin, G L

    1997-01-01

    Species-level identification of Acanthamoeba isolates is difficult and gives little or no indication of the isolate's pathogenicity. We identified two amplification-based genetic markers that were highly correlated with pathogenicity in Acanthamoeba spp. One marker, designed to amplify a 485-bp fragment of the small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene (ssrDNA), was preferentially amplified from the nonpathogenic strains; amplifications from the pathogenic strains yielded anomalous fragments of 650 and 900 bp. A second marker was developed on the basis of the anomalous 650-bp fragment. Primers to this sequence preferentially amplified a noncoding locus (called Ac6) only from the pathogenic strains. These two genetic markers may be useful for identification of pathogenic Acanthamoeba spp. strains.