WorldWideScience

Sample records for basin mineral resources

  1. Mineral resource areas of the Yellowstone River Basin, Montana and Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Mineral resource areas are defined as those areas with a high likelihood of containing occurrences of valuable mineral deposits. A variety of sources of minerals...

  2. Mineral resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.

    Marine minerals have been center of attraction to mankind since ancient times. The technological advances in the recent years show that the retrieval of underwater minerals from deep-sea can no longer be a dream. Marine minerals are terrigenous...

  3. Sandstone copper assessment of the Chu-Sarysu Basin, Central Kazakhstan: Chapter E in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Box, Stephen E.; Syusyura, Boris; Hayes, Timothy S.; Taylor, Cliff D.; Zientek, Michael L.; Hitzman, Murray W.; Seltmann, Reimar; Chechetkin, Vladimir; Dolgopolova, Alla; Cossette, Pamela M.; Wallis, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Mineral resource assessments represent a synthesis of available information to estimate the location, quality, and quantity of undiscovered mineral resources in the upper part of the Earth’s crust. This report presents a probabilistic mineral resource assessment of undiscovered sandstone copper deposits within the late Paleozoic Chu-Sarysu Basin in central Kazakhstan by the U.S. Geological Survey as a contribution to a global assessment of mineral resources. The purposes of this study are to: (1) provide a database of known sandstone copper deposits and significant prospects in this area, (2) delineate permissive areas (tracts) for undiscovered sandstone copper deposits within 2 km of the surface at a scale of 1:1,000,000, (3) estimate numbers of undiscovered deposits within these permissive tracts at several levels of confidence, and (4) provide probabilistic estimates of amounts of copper (Cu), silver (Ag), and mineralized rock that could be contained in undiscovered deposits within each tract. The assessment uses the three-part form of mineral resource assessment based on mineral deposit models (Singer, 1993; Singer and Menzie, 2010).

  4. Porphyry copper assessment of Central America and the Caribbean Basin: Chapter I in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Floyd; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Ludington, Stephen; Zürcher, Lukas; Nelson, Carl E.; Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Miller, Robert J.; Moring, Barry C.

    2014-01-01

    Mineral resource assessments provide a synthesis of available information about distributions of mineral deposits in the Earth’s crust. The U.S. Geological Survey prepared a probabilistic mineral resource assessment of undiscovered resources in porphyry copper deposits in Central America and the Caribbean Basin in collaboration with geoscientists from academia and the minerals industry. The purpose of the study was to (1) delineate permissive areas (tracts) for undiscovered porphyry copper deposits within 1 kilometer of the surface at a scale of 1:1,000,000; (2) provide a database of known porphyry copper deposits and significant prospects; (3) estimate numbers of undiscovered deposits within the permissive tracts; and (4) provide probabilistic estimates of amounts of copper, molybdenum, gold, and silver that could be contained in undiscovered deposits. The assessment was done using a three-part mineral resource assessment based on established mineral deposit models. Permissive tracts were delineated based primarily on distributions of mapped igneous rocks related to magmatic arcs that formed in tectonic settings associated with convergent plate margins. Five permissive tracts were delineated: the Early Cretaceous through Eocene Santiago tract, the Late Cretaceous through Oligocene Chortis tract, the Paleocene through Oligocene Darién tract, the Miocene and Pliocene Cocos tract, and the Eocene to Holocene Lesser Antilles tract. These tracts range in size from about 3,000 to about 204,000 square kilometers.

  5. Geology and undiscovered resource assessment of the potash-bearing Central Asia Salt Basin, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Afghanistan: Chapter AA in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Jeff; Orris, Greta J.; Dunlap, Pamela; Cocker, Mark D.; Bliss, James D.

    2016-03-23

    Undiscovered potash resources in the Central Asia Salt Basin (CASB) of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Afghanistan were assessed as part of a global mineral resource assessment led by the U.S. Geological Survey. The term “potash” refers to potassium-bearing, water-soluble salts derived from evaporite basins, where seawater dried up and precipitated various salt compounds; the word for the element “potassium” is derived from potash. Potash is produced worldwide at amounts exceeding 30 million metric tons per year, mostly for use in fertilizers. The term “potash” is used by industry to refer to potassium chloride, as well as potassium in sulfate, nitrate, and oxide forms. For the purposes of this assessment, the term “potash” refers to potassium ores and minerals and potash ore grades. Resource and production values are usually expressed by industry in terms of K2O (potassium oxide) or muriate of potash (KCl, potassium chloride).

  6. Mineral Resources Data System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Mineral resource occurrence data covering the world, most thoroughly within the U.S. This database contains the records previously provided in the Mineral Resource...

  7. Oceans: Geochemistry and mineral resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joao, H.M.; Paropkari, A

    With increased exploitation of the onshore mineral resources, oceans that cover almost 71% of earth's surface and known as storehouse of minerals, provide a suitable alternative. Amongst the various underwater mineral resources, placer deposits...

  8. Mineral resources of Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compiled and edited by Wright, Nancy A.; Williams, Paul L.

    1974-01-01

    Although the existence of mineral deposits in Antarctica is highly probable, the chances of finding them are quite small. Minerals have been found there in great variety but only as occurrences. Manganese nodules, water (as ice), geothermal energy, coal, petroleum, and natural gas are potential resources that could perhaps be exploited in the future. On the basis of known mineral occurrences in Antarctica and relationships between geologic provinces of Antarctica and those of neighboring Gondwana continents, the best discovery probability for a base-metal deposit in any part of Antarctica is in the Andean orogen; it is estimated to be 0.075 (75 chances in 1,000).

  9. Discussion on Nontraditional Mineral Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, the authors introduce the concept of nontraditional mineral resources, and pro pose the major system of nontraditional mineral resources, including nontraditional resources, research methods, mining and mineral economics. Then the authors conclude that the research on nontraditional mineral resources is not only significant to satisfication the human needs in the 21st century, but also important to the development of the present geological theory.

  10. In-place oil shale resources in the saline-mineral and saline-leached intervals, Parachute Creek Member of the Green River Formation, Piceance Basin, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdwell, Justin E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Johnson, Ronald C.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Dietrich, John D.

    2014-01-01

    A recent U.S. Geological Survey analysis of the Green River Formation of the Piceance Basin in western Colorado shows that about 920 and 352 billion barrels of oil are potentially recoverable from oil shale resources using oil-yield cutoffs of 15 and 25 gallons per ton (GPT), respectively. This represents most of the high-grade oil shale in the United States. Much of this rich oil shale is found in the dolomitic Parachute Creek Member of the Green River Formation and is associated with the saline minerals nahcolite and halite, or in the interval where these minerals have been leached by groundwater. The remaining high-grade resource is located primarily in the underlying illitic Garden Gulch Member of the Green River Formation. Of the 352 billion barrels of potentially recoverable oil resources in high-grade (≥25 GPT) oil shale, the relative proportions present in the illitic interval, non-saline R-2 zone, saline-mineral interval, leached interval (excluding leached Mahogany zone), and Mahogany zone were 3.1, 4.5, 36.6, 23.9, and 29.9 percent of the total, respectively. Only 2 percent of high-grade oil shale is present in marginal areas where saline minerals were never deposited.

  11. Assessment of metallic mineral resources in the Humboldt River Basin, Northern Nevada, with a section on Platinum-Group-Element (PGE) Potential of the Humboldt Mafic Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Alan R.; Ludington, Steve; Mihalasky, Mark J.; Peters, Stephen G.; Theodore, Ted G.; Ponce, David A.; John, David A.; and Berger, Byron R.; Zientek, Michael L.; Sidder, Gary B.; Zierenberg, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    The Humboldt River Basin is an arid to semiarid, internally drained basin that covers approximately 43,000 km2 in northern Nevada. The basin contains a wide variety of metallic and nonmetallic mineral deposits and occurrences, and, at various times, the area has been one of the Nation's leading or important producers of gold, silver, copper, mercury, and tungsten. Nevada currently (2003) is the third largest producer of gold in the world and the largest producer of silver in the United States. Current exploration for additional mineral deposits focuses on many areas in northern Nevada, including the Humboldt River Basin.

  12. Book review: Mineral resource estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalasky, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    Mineral Resource Estimation is about estimating mineral resources at the scale of an ore deposit and is not to be mistaken with mineral resource assessment, which is undertaken at a significantly broader scale, even if similar data and geospatial/geostatistical methods are used. The book describes geological, statistical, and geostatistical tools and methodologies used in resource estimation and modeling, and presents case studies for illustration. The target audience is the expert, which includes professional mining geologists and engineers, as well as graduate-level and advanced undergraduate students.

  13. The Role of Heat in the Development of Energy and Mineral Resources in the Northern Basin and Range Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Richard L.

    It is now just over a decade since OPEC escalated the price of oil and triggered a flurry of alternate energy research and changing energy consumption practices. One scientific impact of that historical economic turning point was the launching of geothermal exploration programs of unprecedented intensity that focused on Cenozoic volcanic rocks and active, as well as fossil, geothermal systems. The good science that was already being done on such rocks and systems was both accelerated and diluted by government-funded research and energy industry exploration efforts. After the initial flood of detailed reports, gray literature, and documents interred in company files, we are observing the appearance of syntheses of just what happened and what progress was achieved during the geothermal boom (which has now wilted to the quiet development of a few most promising sites). Recent examples of geothermal synthesis literature include the book Geothermal Systems by L. Rybach and L.J. Muffler (John Wiley, New York, 1981), publications like Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries Paper 15 by G.R. Priest et al. (1983) entitled “Geology and geothermal resources of central Oregon Cascade range,” and informative maps like the U.S. Geological Survey series summarizing late Cenozoic volcanic rock distribution and age (R.G. Luedke and R.L. Smith, maps 1-1091 A to D, 1979 to 1982), and state and regional geothermal resources maps (NOAA National Geophysical Data Center, 1977-1982). The book under review here is part of this second literature wave, a useful primary reference, collection of syntheses, and literature guide but certainly not unique.

  14. U.S. Geological Survey Mineral Resources Program—Mineral resource science supporting informed decisionmaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Aleeza M.; Doebrich, Jeff L.

    2016-09-19

    The USGS Mineral Resources Program (MRP) delivers unbiased science and information to increase understanding of mineral resource potential, production, and consumption, and how mineral resources interact with the environment. The MRP is the Federal Government’s sole source for this mineral resource science and information. Program goals are to (1) increase understanding of mineral resource formation, (2) provide mineral resource inventories and assessments, (3) broaden knowledge of the effects of mineral resources on the environment and society, and (4) provide analysis on the availability and reliability of mineral supplies.

  15. Aggregation of estimated numbers of undiscovered deposits: an R-script with an example from the Chu Sarysu Basin, Kazakhtan: Chapter B in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuenemeyer, John H.; Zientek, Michael L.; Box, Stephen E.

    2011-01-01

    Mineral resource assessments completed by the U.S. Geological Survey during the past three decades express geologically based estimates of numbers of undiscovered mineral deposits as probability distributions. Numbers of undiscovered deposits of a given type are estimated in geologically defined regions. Using Monte Carlo simulations, these undiscovered deposit estimates are combined with tonnage and grade models to derive a probability distribution describing amounts of commodities and rock that could be present in undiscovered deposits within a study area. In some situations, it is desirable to aggregate the assessment results from several study areas. This report provides a script developed in open-source statistical software, R, that aggregates undiscovered deposit estimates of a given type, assuming independence, total dependence, or some degree of correlation among aggregated areas, given a user-specified correlation matrix.

  16. Mineral Resource Data System: Conterminous US

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — MRDS describes metallic and nonmetallic mineral resources throughout the world. Included are deposit name, location, commodity, deposit description, geologic...

  17. A Review of Mineral Resources and GIS Applications in Mineral Resource Assessment in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Yunxuan; Wang Lei; Liu Wansong; Xu Huiping; Sun Fengyue

    2000-01-01

    Northeast China is one of the regions in China that possesses a great abundance of mineral resources.Coal, petroleum, natural gas, gold, iron, magnesite, graphite, talc, molding sand, glass sand and some others account for large portion in reserves and yields of that in the whole country. The region faced also shortages of copper, molybdenum, oil shale, zirconium, tantalum, rare earth, and beryllium, although they have large reserves,but limited by economical and technical factors. Geological mapping and mineral exploration activities have been intensive. Only the north part of Daxinanling Mountains in the region leaves unexplored. GIS applications in mineral resource assessment in the region start not long. Databases for GIS applications are on the way of construction.Well - trained technical staff and expertise do not meet the demand.This article reviews the situation of mineral resources and GIS applications for mineral resource assessment in the region. Suggestions on multi - lateral cooperation and GIS training are also made.

  18. U.S. Geological Survey Mineral Resources Program - Science Supporting Mineral Resource Stewardship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropschot, S.J.

    2007-01-01

    The United States is the world's largest user of mineral resources. We use them to build our homes and cities, fertilize our food crops, and create wealth that allows us to buy goods and services. Individuals rarely use nonfuel mineral resources in their natural state - we buy light bulbs, not the silica, soda ash, lime, coal, salt, tungsten, copper, nickel, molybdenum, iron, manganese, aluminum, and zinc used to convert electricity into light. The USGS Mineral Resources Program (MRP) is the sole Federal source of scientific information and unbiased research on nonfuel mineral potential, production, and consumption, as well as on the environmental effects of minerals. The MRP also provides baseline geochemical, geophysical, and mineral-deposit data used to understand environmental issues related to extraction and use of mineral resources. Understanding how minerals, water, plants, and organisms interact contributes to our understanding of the environment, which is essential for maintaining human and ecosystem health. To support creation of economic and national security policies in a global context, MRP collects and analyzes data on essential mineral commodities from around the world.

  19. Xinjiang Integrates Mineral Resources of 11 Major Mining Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>According to reports,from this year,Xinjiang, a large mineral resource province,will implement mineral resource integration of 11 major mining areas involving minerals including coal, iron,copper and bentonite,so as to further adjust the structure of mineral exploitation and optimize the distribution of resources.

  20. Mineral resources of Peru's ancient societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, W.E.

    2003-01-01

    Northern Peru has an exceptionally rich archaeological heritage that includes metalwork, ceramics and textiles. The success of at least a half-dozen pre-Columbian societies dating back 3,000 years and subsequent Spanish colonization in the 1400s has rested on the effective use of northern Peru's abundant resources. In the summer of 2000, my son Matt and I learned about that connection firsthand by volunteering at the Santa Rita B archaeological site in the Chao Valley near Trujillo in northern Peru. Riding donkey-back through the Andes and talking with local people, we got our hands dirty in the rich archaeology and geology of the area. We were able to correlate mineral occurrences to their various roles in society - opening a window into the region's fascinating past. From construction to metallurgy, pre-Columbian societies flourished and advanced because of their understanding and use of the available mineral resources.

  1. MINERAL RESOURCES OF THE SISAK REGION, CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Jurković

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, on the basis of the author's knowledge, for the first time, chronostratigraphic and genetic classification of all known mineral resources located in the central part of Croatia (Sisak, Petrinja, Glina, Dvor na Uni, Hrvatska Kostajnica and Novska, is given in more detail. Metallic and nonmetallic mineral resources, coal, oil, gas as well as drinking water, water for balneology and industry related spatially and/or genetically with the Upper Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic deposits, are presented. Taking into consideration the present days level of research, the past extent of the exploitation as well as genetic potential of each own estimate of their long term prospects with regard to the economy of the Croatia (the paper is published in Croatian.

  2. Global mineral resource assessment: porphyry copper assessment of Mexico: Chapter A in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Ludington, Steve; Gray, Floyd; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Cendejas-Cruz, Francisco; Espinosa, Enrique; Pérez-Segura, Efrén; Valencia-Moreno, Martín; Rodríguez-Castañeda, José Luis; Vásquez-Mendoza, Rigobert; Zürcher, Lukas

    2010-01-01

    Mineral resource assessments provide a synthesis of available information about distributions of mineral deposits in the Earth’s crust. A probabilistic mineral resource assessment of undiscovered resources in porphyry copper deposits in Mexico was done as part of a global mineral resource assessment. The purpose of the study was to (1) delineate permissive areas (tracts) for undiscovered porphyry copper deposits within 1 km of the surface at a scale of 1:1,000,000; (2) provide a database of known porphyry copper deposits and significant prospects; (3) estimate numbers of undiscovered deposits within those permissive tracts; and (4) provide probabilistic estimates of amounts of copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), gold (Au), and silver (Ag) that could be contained in undiscovered deposits for each permissive tract. The assessment was conducted using a three-part form of mineral resource assessment based on mineral deposit models (Singer, 1993). Delineation of permissive tracts primarily was based on distributions of mapped igneous rocks related to magmatic arcs that formed in tectonic settings associated with subduction boundary zones. Using a GIS, map units were selected from digital geologic maps based on lithology and age to delineate twelve permissive tracts associated with Jurassic, Laramide (~90 to 34 Ma), and younger Tertiary magmatic arcs. Stream-sediment geochemistry, mapped alteration, regional aeromagnetic data, and exploration history were considered in conjunction with descriptive deposit models and grade and tonnage models to guide estimates.

  3. Geothermal resources of California sedimentary basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C.F.; Grubb, F.V.; Galanis, S.P.

    2004-01-01

    The 2004 Department of Energy (DOE) Strategic Plan for geothermal energy calls for expanding the geothermal resource base of the United States to 40,000 MW of electric power generating potential. This will require advances in technologies for exploiting unconventional geothermal resources, including Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) and geopressured geothermal. An investigation of thermal conditions in California sedimentary basins through new temperature and heat flow measurements reveals significant geothermal potential in some areas. In many of the basins, the combined cooling effects of recent tectonic and sedimentary processes result in relatively low (geothermal gradients. For example, temperatures in the upper 3 km of San Joaquin, Sacramento and Ventura basins are typically less than 125??C and do not reach 200??c by 5 km. By contrast, in the Cuyama, Santa Maria and western Los Angeles basins, heat flow exceeds 80 mW/m2 and temperatures near or above 200??C occur at 4 to 5 km depth, which represents thermal conditions equivalent to or hotter than those encountered at the Soultz EGS geothermal site in Europe. Although the extractable geothermal energy contained in these basins is not large relative to the major California producing geothermal fields at The Geysers or Salton Sea, the collocation in the Los Angeles basin of a substantial petroleum extraction infrastructure and a major metropolitan area may make it attractive for eventual geothermal development as EGS technology matures.

  4. Mineral resources estimation based on block modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargawa, Waterman Sulistyana; Amri, Nur Ali

    2016-02-01

    The estimation in this paper uses three kinds of block models of nearest neighbor polygon, inverse distance squared and ordinary kriging. The techniques are weighting scheme which is based on the principle that block content is a linear combination of the grade data or the sample around the block being estimated. The case study in Pongkor area, here is gold-silver resource modeling that allegedly shaped of quartz vein as a hydrothermal process of epithermal type. Resources modeling includes of data entry, statistical and variography analysis of topography and geological model, the block model construction, estimation parameter, presentation model and tabulation of mineral resources. Skewed distribution, here isolated by robust semivariogram. The mineral resources classification generated in this model based on an analysis of the kriging standard deviation and number of samples which are used in the estimation of each block. Research results are used to evaluate the performance of OK and IDS estimator. Based on the visual and statistical analysis, concluded that the model of OK gives the estimation closer to the data used for modeling.

  5. Hyperspectral surveying for mineral resources in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; Graham, Garth E.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kelley, Karen D.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Hubbard, Bernard E.

    2016-07-07

    Alaska is a major producer of base and precious metals and has a high potential for additional undiscovered mineral resources. However, discovery is hindered by Alaska’s vast size, remoteness, and rugged terrain. New methods are needed to overcome these obstacles in order to fully evaluate Alaska’s geology and mineral resource potential. Hyperspectral surveying is one method that can be used to rapidly acquire data about the distributions of surficial materials, including different types of bedrock and ground cover. In 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey began the Alaska Hyperspectral Project to assess the applicability of this method in Alaska. The primary study area is a remote part of the eastern Alaska Range where porphyry deposits are exposed. In collaboration with the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and the National Park Service, the U.S. Geological Survey is collecting and analyzing hyperspectral data with the goals of enhancing geologic mapping and developing methods to identify and characterize mineral deposits elsewhere in Alaska.

  6. Water resources of the Chad Basin Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklyn R. Kaloko

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available River basin development is seen as a very effective means of improving agricultural productivity. In the Chad Basin area of the Sahelian Zone of the West African Sub-Region, the water resources have been harnessed to ensure viable agricultural programmes for Nigeria. However,the resultant successes have met by many problems that range from physical to socio-economic and of which water losses have been the most threatening. The study has called for the use of Hexa.deconal (C1-OH film on the water surface of the Chad as a means of reducing evaporation.

  7. Classification of Mineral Resources Associated and Accompanied with Coal Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The paper discusses the concept of mineral resources associated with coal measures. A rational and scientific classification of such mineral resources becomes more necessary with the development of science and technology. A classification scheme is proposed based on compositions and physical properties and the utilization of these associated minerals.

  8. Aggregate and Mineral Resources - Industrial Mineral Mining Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — An Industrial Mineral Mining Operation is a DEP primary facility type related to the Industrial Mineral Mining Program. The sub-facility types are listed below:Deep...

  9. NATURAL GAS RESOURCES IN DEEP SEDIMENTARY BASINS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thaddeus S. Dyman; Troy Cook; Robert A. Crovelli; Allison A. Henry; Timothy C. Hester; Ronald C. Johnson; Michael D. Lewan; Vito F. Nuccio; James W. Schmoker; Dennis B. Riggin; Christopher J. Schenk

    2002-02-05

    From a geological perspective, deep natural gas resources are generally defined as resources occurring in reservoirs at or below 15,000 feet, whereas ultra-deep gas occurs below 25,000 feet. From an operational point of view, ''deep'' is often thought of in a relative sense based on the geologic and engineering knowledge of gas (and oil) resources in a particular area. Deep gas can be found in either conventionally-trapped or unconventional basin-center accumulations that are essentially large single fields having spatial dimensions often exceeding those of conventional fields. Exploration for deep conventional and unconventional basin-center natural gas resources deserves special attention because these resources are widespread and occur in diverse geologic environments. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated that 939 TCF of technically recoverable natural gas remained to be discovered or was part of reserve appreciation from known fields in the onshore areas and State waters of the United. Of this USGS resource, nearly 114 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of technically-recoverable gas remains to be discovered from deep sedimentary basins. Worldwide estimates of deep gas are also high. The U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment 2000 Project recently estimated a world mean undiscovered conventional gas resource outside the U.S. of 844 Tcf below 4.5 km (about 15,000 feet). Less is known about the origins of deep gas than about the origins of gas at shallower depths because fewer wells have been drilled into the deeper portions of many basins. Some of the many factors contributing to the origin of deep gas include the thermal stability of methane, the role of water and non-hydrocarbon gases in natural gas generation, porosity loss with increasing thermal maturity, the kinetics of deep gas generation, thermal cracking of oil to gas, and source rock potential based on thermal maturity and kerogen type. Recent experimental simulations

  10. Current Picture for China’s Mineral Resource Availability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志

    2008-01-01

    Economic growth and structural change has caused China to consume an increasingly immense amount of mineral resources. This article is intended to present a fundamental picture of mineral resource shortages facing China through an in-depth analysis of mineral reserves, demand and supply as well as structure. We believe that China will continue to face a shortage of certain representative minerals resources in the foreseeable future. As a result, China has to rely on imports of such minerals to meet surging domestic demand.

  11. Geology, geochemistry, geophysics, mineral occurrences, and mineral resource assessment for the commonwealth of Puerto Rico

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Geologic map with faults, along with additional scientific information needed for mineral resource assessment (geochemical analyses, mineral occurrences, geologic...

  12. Land, water and mineral resources in science education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, N.J.

    1987-01-01

    This volume, the fourth in a nine-volume series concerned with different aspects of science education at all levels, examines the value of teaching about natural resources; the content areas which might be included; and the teaching strategies that may be appropriate. Contents (partial): Preface; Introduction; Education for the use of land, water and mineral resources; Land Use; Viewpoint; Land use: its human uses; Environmental deterioration; Using local resources; Soil and land: activity module for the primary level; Water Resources; Possible activities; Water and health for the primary level; Sewage; Mineral Resources; Types of minerals, their uses and identification; Traditional prospecting; Techniques of mineral exploration; Student activities; Mining and processing; The impact of mineral resource development.

  13. Characteristics of Heavy Minerals in Tertiary System of Western Qaidamu Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG De-hua; WANG Chao-yong

    2005-01-01

    According to tectonic position and mineral inclusions, supply resource in western Qaidamu basin is divided into the front of Aerjinshan mountain and the front of Qimantageshan mountain. The former is mainly composed of zircon, garnet inclusions, indicating that its mother rocks are mainly metamorphic rocks. Gas and zircon, iron ore, carbon grain inclusions is common in the front of Qimantage mountain, indicating that its mother rock are mainly magmatite and mixed metamorphic rocks. The supply resource is abundant and tectonic movement is active in the joint of the two mountains. The western Qaidamu basin is further divided into 6 heavy mineral sub-regions according to their features of association and stable coefficient of heavy mineral. They are approximately corresponding to their sedimentary environment. Of the 6 sub-regions, the unstable region is corresponding to fluvial fan, middle stable region is corresponding to river-alluvial plain-delta, stable region is corresponding to river-alluvial plain -delta-offshore. The fragment transported distance is presumed based on stable coefficient. In vertical, stable coefficient of heavy mineral becomes small from Xiaganchai formation to Xiayoushashan formation, indicating that the supply resource became nearer and nearer.

  14. Mineral resource of the month: vermiculite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Arnold O.

    2014-01-01

    Vermiculite comprises a group of hydrated, laminar magnesium-aluminum-iron silicate minerals resembling mica. They are secondary minerals, typically altered biotite, iron-rich phlogopite or other micas or clay-like minerals that are themselves sometimes alteration products of amphibole, chlorite, olivine and pyroxene. Vermiculite deposits are associated with volcanic ultramafic rocks rich in magnesium silicate minerals, and flakes of the mineral range in color from black to shades of brown and yellow. The crystal structure of vermiculite contains water molecules, a property that is critical to its processing for common uses.

  15. Mineral Resource Information System for Field Lab in the Osage Mineral Reservation Estate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, H.B.; Johnson, William I.

    1999-04-27

    The Osage Mineral Reservation Estate is located in Osage County, Oklahoma. Minerals on the Estate are owned by members of the Osage Tribe who are shareholders in the Estate. The Estate is administered by the Osage Agency, Branch of Minerals, operated by the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). Oil, natural gas, casinghead gas, and other minerals (sand, gravel, limestone, and dolomite) are exploited by lessors. Operators may obtain from the Branch of Minerals and the Osage Mineral Estate Tribal Council leases to explore and exploit oil, gas, oil and gas, and other minerals on the Estate. Operators pay a royalty on all minerals exploited and sold from the Estate. A mineral Resource Information system was developed for this project to evaluate the remaining hydrocarbon resources located on the Estate. Databases on Microsoft Excel spreadsheets of operators, leases, and production were designed for use in conjunction with an evaluation spreadsheet for estimating the remaining hydrocarbons on the Estate.

  16. MRPM: three visual basic programs for mineral resource potential mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yongliang

    2004-11-01

    A traditional method for mineral resource potential mapping is to superimpose a number of indicator maps, and to combine geological information with or without the use of multivariate statistical models. More recently, GISs have become widely applied in mineral resource assessment and many statistical models for geological information synthesis have been proposed. GIS-based mineral resource potential mapping has facilitated modern mineral resource assessment. As a contribution to publicly available computer software for GIS-based mineral resource assessment, integrated three Visual Basic programs have been developed on MapInfo platform. The programs integrate map patterns using weights of evidence, applied general C-F, and evidence theory models, and generate posterior probability, combined certainty factor, and combined basic probability assignment maps, respectively. The software is demonstrated by a case study based on a real data set.

  17. Temporo-spatial Coordinates of Evolution of the Ordos Basin and Its Mineralization Responses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Chiyang; ZHAO Hongge; ZHAO Junfeng; WANG Jianqiang; ZHANG Dongdong; YANG Minghui

    2008-01-01

    The Ordos basin was developed from Mid-Late Triassic to Early Cretaceous, and then entered into its later reformation period since the Late Cretaceous. Its main body bears the features of an intra-cratonic basin. The basin also belongs to a multi-superposed basin which has overlapped on the large-scale basins of the Early and Late Paleozoic. Currently, Ordos basin has become a residual basin experienced reformation of various styles since the Late Cretaceous. It's suggested that there were at least four obvious stages of tectonic deformations existing during the basin's evolution, dividing the evolution and sedimentation into four stages. The prior two stages were of the most prosperous, during which the lake basin was broad, the deposition range was more than twice larger than the current residual basin, resulting in major oil- and coal-bearing strata. The two stages were separated by regional uplift fluctuations in the area. At the end of the Yan'an Stage, the depositional interruption and erosion were lasting for a short period of time. The third one is the Mid- Jurassic Zhiluo-Anding stage, in which the sedimentation extent was still broad but the lake area was obviously reduced. In the Late Jurassic tectonic deformation was intensive. A thrust-nappe belt was formed on the basin's western margin while conglomerate of different thickness were accumulated within the foredeep of the eastern side. The central and eastern parts of the basin were subject to erosion and reformation. A regional framework with "uplift in the east and depression in the west" took shape in the area west of the Yellow River. In the Early Cretaceous sediments were widely distributed, unconformably overlapping the former western margin thrust belt and the ridges on the northern and southern borders. There are abundant energy resources such as oil, natural gas, coal and uranium deposits formed in Ordos Basin. The main stages of generation, mineralization and positioning of the multiple energy

  18. Oil shale and nahcolite resources of the Piceance Basin, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2010-01-01

    This report presents an in-place assessment of the oil shale and nahcolite resources of the Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin of western Colorado. The Piceance Basin is one of three large structural and sedimentary basins that contain vast amounts of oil shale resources in the Green River Formation of Eocene age. The other two basins, the Uinta Basin of eastern Utah and westernmost Colorado, and the Greater Green River Basin of southwest Wyoming, northwestern Colorado, and northeastern Utah also contain large resources of oil shale in the Green River Formation, and these two basins will be assessed separately. Estimated in-place oil is about 1.5 trillion barrels, based on Fischer a ssay results from boreholes drilled to evaluate oil shale, making it the largest oil shale deposit in the world. The estimated in-place nahcolite resource is about 43.3 billion short tons.

  19. Mineral resources and constraints on China’s economic growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李钢; 陈志; 崔云

    2009-01-01

    This article conducts an empirical study of how access to mineral resources can constrain China’s economic growth.The authors reckon that due to the relatively low price elasticity of supply and demand in relation to mineral resources over the short run,access to mineral resources places pronounced constraints on economic growth in the short run,but only marginal constraints on economic growth in the long run.This split is the result of alternate resource substitution and technological progress.In this article,the authors have calculated the actual effects of access to mineral resources on China’s economic growth using 2001-2006 mineral resource import and export data.The results of these calculations show that,in the short run,access to mineral resources is increasingly placing constraints on China’s economic growth.The value of these constraints rose from 4.96% of GDP in 2006 to 5.74% of GDP in 2007 (estimated).Contrastingly,in the long run,the constraints that access to mineral resources place on China’s economic growth are quite limited at approximately 0.23% of GDP.

  20. Principles of Probabilistic Regional Mineral Resource Estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Frits Agterberg

    2011-01-01

    Five principal sources of uncertainty in quantitative mineral resource estimation are listed and illustrated by means of a simple example (mosaic model) and a case history study for large copper deposits in the Abitibi area of the Canadian Shield.Abitibi copper potential originally was estimated on the basis of 1968 estimates of production and reserves totalling 3. 12 Mt Cu.This prognostication now could be evaluated on the basis of 2008 copper production and reserves totalling 9. 50 Mt Cu. An earlier hindsight study performed on the basis of 1977 data (totalling 5. 23 Mt Cu) showed seven new discoveries occurring either in the immediate vicinities of known deposits or on broad regional copper anomalies predicted from the 1968 inputs. By 1977,the global geographic distribution pattern of large copper deposits in the Abitibi area had stabilized. During the next 30 years,new copper was essentially found close to existing deposits, much of it deeper down in the Earth's crust. In this paper, uncertainties associated with copper ore tonnage are analyzed by comparison of 2008 data with 1968 data using (a) log-log plots of size versus rank, and (b) lognormal QQ-plots. Straight lines fitted by least squares on these plots show that 1968 slopes provide good estimates of 2008 slopes but 1968 intercepts are much less than 2008 intercepts. In each linear log-weight versus logrank plot, the slope is related to fractal dimension of a Pareto frequency distribution, and in a lognormal QQ-plot it is determined by logarithmic variance The difference between 2008 and 1968 intercepts represents the increase in copper ore production and reserves from 1968 to 2008. The Pareto model fits actual copper and massive sulphides increase over the past 40 years better than the lognormal frequency distribution model for 10 km× 10 km cells on favorable environments in the Abitibi area.

  1. A DYNAMIC EVALUATION MODEL OF MINERAL RESOURCE PROPERTY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    芮建伟; 冯志亮

    2000-01-01

    Based on the value theory of mineral resource, a dynamic evaluation model of mineral resource property is erected, which not only takes the factors of extractions into consideration but also those of explorations. The solution process of the model is described and the differential solution is presented. Then the paper comes to the conclusion that the differential solution is also the optimal depletion path of the resource.

  2. Mineral Resource Team 2010 Activities Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-29

    of the Himalayas where the Indian subcontinent collided with Eurasia, the country’s unique geological foundation created thousands of mineral...on or below the paleo -ocean floor. Some VMS deposits are distinctive in that Cu ores formed by hydrothermal circulation and exhalation of minerals

  3. Mineral resources and geo-engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathi Habashi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Metals used in everyday life are produced from ores occurring in the Earth’s crust. Geological processes are known to concentrate minerals to form ores of economic value. Mineral processing engineers concentrate these ores by mechanical and physico-chemical methods while the extractive metallurgist extracts the metals by chemical means.

  4. Earth mineral resource of the month: asbestos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virta, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    The article discusses the characteristics and feature of asbestos. According to the author, asbestos is a generic name for six needle-shaped minerals that possess high tensile strengths, flexibility, and resistance to chemical and thermal degradation. These minerals are actinolite, amosite, anthophyllite, chrysolite, crocilodite and tremolite. Asbestos is used for strengthening concrete pipe, plastic components, and gypsum plasters.

  5. Mineral resource of the Month: Clay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virta, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    Clays were one of the first mineral commodities used by people. Clay pottery has been found in archeological sites that are 12,000 years old, and clay figurines have been found in sites that are even older.

  6. Mineral Features of Surface Sediments and Analysis of Solid-State Mineral Resources in Southeastern China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    With the development of modern industry and the increase of human demand, it is increasingly important to prospect and exploit marine mineral resources. Based on the oceanic geological investigation references obtained from the regional geological surveying and mapping of China Sea (“Shantoufu, F-50” 1: 1 000 000) and on the data (“Marine Engineering Geological Investigation Project in the Pearl River Mouth basin in the South China Sea” 1: 200 000), the authors elaborate the grain size composition, mineral composition, mineral features and distribution pattern of the surface sediments in the sea at 114°- 120°E and 20°-24°N. Moreover, the analysis of the regional solid-state mineral resources in the coast of iFujian, Guangdong and the west of Taiwan, shows that the main resources include littoral/neritic placers, littoral/neritic sandy gravel and ferromanganese nodule (crust). In addition, the future focus should be on the placers and sandy gravels in this littoral area.

  7. Mineral resource of the month: arsenic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, William E.

    2008-01-01

    Arsenic has a long and varied history: Although it was not isolated as an element until the 13th century, it was known to the ancient Chinese, Egyptians and Greeks in compound form in the minerals arsenopyrite, realgar and orpiment. In the 1400s, “Scheele’s Green” was first used as an arsenic pigment in wallpaper, and leached arsenic from wallpaper may have contributed to Napoleon’s death in 1821. The 1940s play and later movie, Arsenic and Old Lace, dramatizes the metal’s more sinister role. Arsenic continues to be an important mineral commodity with many modern applications.

  8. Mineral resource of the month: magnesium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Deborah A.

    2012-01-01

    Magnesium is the eighthmost abundant element in Earth’s crust, and the second-most abundant metal ion in seawater. Although magnesium is found in more than 60 minerals, only brucite, dolomite, magnesite and carnallite are commercially important for their magnesium content. Magnesium and its compounds also are recovered from seawater, brines found in lakes and wells, and bitterns (salts).

  9. Mineral resource of the month: thorium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2009-01-01

    This article provides information on thorium. Thorium is a natural radioactive element that can be found with other minerals. It can be used to generate power, produce light and transmit energy. Thorium has a potential to be used as a nuclear fuel. This element was discovered by Swedish chemist and mineralogist Jóns Jakob Berzelius in 1828.

  10. Oil shale resources of the Uinta Basin, Utah and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed a comprehensive assessment of in-place oil in oil shales of the Eocene Green River Formation of the Uinta Basin of eastern Utah and western Colorado. The oil shale interval was subdivided into eighteen roughly time-stratigraphic intervals, and each interval was assessed for variations in gallons per ton, barrels per acre, and total barrels in each township. The Radial Basis Function extrapolation method was used to generate isopach and isoresource maps, and to calculate resources. The total inplace resource for the Uinta Basin is estimated at 1.32 trillion barrels. This is only slightly lower than the estimated 1.53 trillion barrels for the adjacent Piceance Basin, Colorado, to the east, which is thought to be the richest oil shale deposit in the world. However, the area underlain by oil shale in the Uinta Basin is much larger than that of the Piceance Basin, and the average gallons per ton and barrels per acre values for each of the assessed oil shale zones are significantly lower in the depocenter in the Uinta Basin when compared to the Piceance Basin. These relations indicate that the oil shale resources in the Uinta Basin are of lower grade and are more dispersed than the oil shale resources of the Piceance Basin.

  11. Mineral resource of the month: perlite

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2010-01-01

    The article talks about perlite, which is a mineral used as an aggregate for lightweight construction products, filler for paints and horticultural soil blends. Perlite comes from viscous lava, mined and processed to produce lightweight material that competes with pumice, exfoliated vermiculite and expanded clay and shale. It is mined in about 35 countries that include Greece, Japan and the U.S. Other uses include insulation, concrete and plaster aggregate, and stonewashing.

  12. Mineral resource of the month: niobium (columbium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, John F.

    2007-01-01

    It’s not just diamonds associated with conflict in Africa. Coltan, short for columbite-tantalite (a blend of niobium — also called columbium — and tantalum minerals), is linked with the recent conflicts in the Congo that involved several African countries. The metallic ore, which is processed to separate out niobium and the very valuable tantalum (see Geotimes, August 2004), is believed to be smuggled out and sold to help finance the armed conflicts.

  13. Mineral resource of the month: tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shedd, Kim B.

    2012-01-01

    The article offers information on tungsten. It says that tungsten is a metal found in chemical compounds such as in the scheelite and ore minerals wolframite. It states that tungsten has the highest melting point and it forms a compound as hard as diamond when combined with carbon. It states that tungsten can be used as a substitute for lead in fishing weights, ammunition, and hunting shot. Moreover, China started to export tungsten materials and products instead of tungsten raw materials.

  14. Mineral resource of the month: beryllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    The article discusses information about Beryllium. It notes that Beryllium is a light metal that has a gray color. The metal is used in the production of parts and devices including bearings, computer-chip heat sinks, and output windows of X-ray tubes. The article mentions Beryllium's discovery in 1798 by French chemist, Louis-Nicolas Vanquelin. It cites that bertrandite and beryl are the principal mineral components for the commercial production of beryllium.

  15. Mineral Resources and Their Comprehensive Utilization in China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@It was said that mineral resources in oceans might be a reliable source for the material production. Ocean water is regarded as a huge “liquid deposit” for its ability to dissolve many kinds of elements. The total amount of elements in ocean water is greater than that in land. At the seafloor or below, occur a large number of mineral resources besides those in the water.China Sea, situated in the junction between North China block, Yangtze block and the Pacific plate and the Philippines plate, is excellent in ore-forming geological conditions, resulting in the presence of many kinds of deposits and abundant reserves. Mineral resources found in China Sea mainly include oil-gas resources, sea-beach placer and submarine coalfield.In addition, the manganese nodule and cobalt-rich crust are also discovered in South China Sea. Furthermore, the hydrothermal metalliferous deposit and gas hydrate may also be present in South China Sea.

  16. Mineral resource of the month: boron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crangle, Robert D.

    2012-01-01

    The article offers information on the mineral, boron. Boron compounds, particularly borates, have more commercial applications than its elemental relative which is a metalloid. Making up the 90% of the borates that are used worldwide are colemanite, kernite, tincal, and ulexite. The main borate deposits are located in the Mojave Desert of the U.S., the Tethyan belt in southern Asia, and the Andean belt of South America. Underground and surface mining are being used in gathering boron compounds. INSETS: Fun facts;Boron production and consumption.

  17. The application of GIS in identifying mineral resources in Libya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekhibi, Soliman; Wadi, Monira; Said, Ali

    2012-04-01

    In any country, natural mineral resources are considered the back-bone for the development of the industry and the country's economical growth. Exploration and mining for mineral ores and manufacturing and marketing these ores will add value to the country's national income. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technology has an advantage over other information systems because it combines the conventional query operations with the ability to display and analyze spatial data from maps, satellite imagery, and aerial photography. Knowing the importance of mineral ores as a pilar of the economy this paper concentrates on mineral resources in Libya. Geographic information systems (GIS) was used for identifying mineral resources in Libya. Geodatabases were designed and all available information were stored in these geodatabases. The information was collected from scientific researchers, and geological and mining studies. The database also, included the Libyan international boundaries, the administrative boundaries and the oil and gas fields and pipelines, and such maps as geophysical and geological maps. Thus a comprehensive database was created containing all the information available concerning mineral resources in Libya.

  18. Atchafalaya Basin (Water and Land Resources), Louisiana Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Atchafalaya Basin (Water and Land Resources), Louisiana, study is being conducted in response to resolutions adopted by the United States Senate and House of...

  19. 30 CFR 250.246 - What mineral resource conservation information must accompany the DPP or DOCD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What mineral resource conservation information... Coordination Documents (docd) § 250.246 What mineral resource conservation information must accompany the DPP or DOCD? The following mineral resource conservation information, as applicable, must accompany...

  20. Aggregate and Mineral Resources, This data set consists of mineral deposit areas (KMDAs) for locatable minerals., Published in 1993, Arizona State Land Department.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Aggregate and Mineral Resources dataset as of 1993. It is described as 'This data set consists of mineral deposit areas (KMDAs) for locatable minerals.'. Data...

  1. Geospatial analysis identifies critical mineral-resource potential in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Susan; Labay, Keith; Jacques, Katherine; Landowski, Claire

    2017-03-03

    Alaska consists of more than 663,000 square miles (1,717,000 square kilometers) of land—more than a sixth of the total area of the United States—and large tracts of it have not been systematically studied or sampled for mineral-resource potential. Many regions of the State are known to have significant mineral-resource potential, and there are currently six operating mines in the State along with numerous active mineral exploration projects. The U.S. Geological Survey and the Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys have developed a new geospatial tool that integrates and analyzes publicly available databases of geologic information and estimates the mineral-resource potential for critical minerals, which was recently used to evaluate Alaska. The results of the analyses highlight areas that have known mineral deposits and also reveal areas that were not previously considered to be prospective for these deposit types. These results will inform land management decisions by Federal, State, and private landholders, and will also help guide future exploration activities and scientific investigations in Alaska.

  2. Problems and countermeasures on main mineral resource sustainable supply in northeastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang LIU; Shouyi LI; Jian GUAN; Tingting ZHANG; Ying CHU; Jing ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    northeastern China is an important old industrial base in China. Mineral resources are the foundation of industry development. However, because of long-term exploitation of mineral resources in northeastern China, the mineral resources reserves decrease gradually and some mineral resources are nearly exhausted, which restricts revitalization and sustainable development of the northeast old industrial base. On the basis of the comprehensive analysis of development and utilization status of mineral resources and supply and demand situation of main mineral resources in northeastern China, the authors put forward countermeasures on main mineral resources sustainable supply in northeastern China.

  3. 76 FR 18780 - Integrated Water Resource Management Plan, Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project, Benton...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Integrated Water Resource Management Plan, Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement... Integrated Water Resource Management Plan, Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project. The Washington State...; and (4) identify a comprehensive approach for efficient management of basin water supplies....

  4. The Ministry of Land and Resources Supports the Western Region to Intensify Efforts in Prospecting and Developing Advantageous Mineral Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>The Ministry of Land and Resources supports the western region to intensify efforts in prospecting, developing and utilizing advantageous mineral resources including petrol, natural gas, and coal resources, build advantageous mineral economy, speed up the development of nonferrous metals, key building materials, and non metal mineral resources with obvious

  5. Version 3.0 of EMINERS - Economic Mineral Resource Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Joseph S.

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative mineral resource assessment, as developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), consists of three parts: (1) development of grade and tonnage mineral deposit models; (2) delineation of tracts permissive for each deposit type; and (3) probabilistic estimation of the numbers of undiscovered deposits for each deposit type. The estimate of the number of undiscovered deposits at different levels of probability is the input to the EMINERS (Economic Mineral Resource Simulator) program. EMINERS uses a Monte Carlo statistical process to combine probabilistic estimates of undiscovered mineral deposits with models of mineral deposit grade and tonnage to estimate mineral resources. Version 3.0 of the EMINERS program is available as this USGS Open-File Report 2004-1344. Changes from version 2.0 include updating 87 grade and tonnage models, designing new templates to produce graphs showing cumulative distribution and summary tables, and disabling economic filters. The economic filters were disabled because embedded data for costs of labor and materials, mining techniques, and beneficiation methods are out of date. However, the cost algorithms used in the disabled economic filters are still in the program and available for reference for mining methods and milling techniques. The release notes included with this report give more details on changes in EMINERS over the years. EMINERS is written in C++ and depends upon the Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0 programming environment. The code depends heavily on the use of Microsoft Foundation Classes (MFC) for implementation of the Windows interface. The program works only on Microsoft Windows XP or newer personal computers. It does not work on Macintosh computers. For help in using the program in this report, see the "Quick-Start Guide for Version 3.0 of EMINERS-Economic Mineral Resource Simulator" (W.J. Bawiec and G.T. Spanski, 2012, USGS Open-File Report 2009-1057, linked at right). It demonstrates how to execute EMINERS software

  6. Platinum-group elements in southern Africa: mineral inventory and an assessment of undiscovered mineral resources: Chapter Q in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zientek, Michael L.; Causey, J. Douglas; Parks, Heather L.; Miller, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    The platinum-group elements, platinum, palladium, rhodium, ruthenium, iridium, and osmium, possess unique physical and chemical characteristics that make them indispensable to modern technology and industry. However, mineral deposits that are the main sources of these elements occur only in three countries in the world, raising concerns about potential disruption in mineral supply. Using information in the public domain, mineral resource and reserve information has been compiled for mafic and ultramafic rocks in South Africa and Zimbabwe that host most of the world’s platinum-group element resources.

  7. Preliminary Mineral Resource Assessment of Selected Mineral Deposit Types in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludington, Steve; Orris, Greta J.; Bolm, Karen S.; Peters, Stephen G.; ,

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Wise decision-making and management of natural resources depend upon credible and reliable scientific information about the occurrence, distribution, quantity and quality of a country's resource base. Economic development decisions by governments require such information to be part of a Mineral Resource Assessment. Such Mineral Assessments are also useful to private citizens and international investors, consultants, and companies prior to entry and investment in a country. Assessments can also be used to help evaluate the economic risks and impact on the natural environment associated with development of resources. In February 2002, at the request of the Department of State and the then U.S. Ambassador to Afghanistan (Robert P. Finn), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) prepared a detailed proposal addressing natural resources issues critical to the reconstruction of Afghanistan. The proposal was refined and updated in December 2003 and was presented as a 5-year work plan to USAID-Kabul in February 2004. USAID-Kabul currently funds this plan and this report presents a part of the preliminary results obligated for fiscal year 2006. A final Preliminary Assessment of the Non Fuel Mineral Resource of Afghanistan will be completed and delivered at the end of fiscal year 2007. Afghanistan has abundant metallic and non-metallic resources, but the potential resources have never been systematically assessed using modern methods. Much of the existing mineral information for Afghanistan was gathered during the 1950s and continued in the late 1980s until the departure of the geologic advisors from the Soviet Union. During this period, there were many mineral-related activities centered on systematic geologic mapping of the country, collection of geochemical and rock samples, implementation of airborne geophysical surveys, and exploration focused on the discovery of large mineral deposits. Many reports, maps, charts, and tables were produced at that time. Some of

  8. Groundwater Systems and Resources in the Ordos Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Guangcai; LIANG Yongping; SU Xiaosi; ZHAO Zhenghong; TAO Zhengping; YIN Lihe; YANG Yuncheng; WANG Xiaoyong

    2008-01-01

    The Ordos Basin is.a large-scalesedimentary basin in northwestern China. The hydrostratigraphic units from bottom to top are pre-Cambrian metamorphic rocks, Lower Paleozoic carbonate rocks, Upper Paleozoic to Mesozoic clastic rocks and Cenozoic deposits. The total thickness is up to 6000 m. Three groundwater systems are present in the Ordos Basin, based on the geological settings, I.e. The karst groundwater system, the Cretaceous dastic groundwater system and the Quaternary groundwater system. This paper describes systematically the groundwater flow patterns of each system and overall assessment of groundwater resources.

  9. The Gas Resources Assessment Expert System of the Songliao Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The gas resources assessment expert system is one of the advanced methods for appraising oil and gas resources. The establishment of a knowledge base is the focal task in developing the expert system. This paper presents a summary of the mechanism and the major controlling factors in the formation of gas pools in the southeast uplift of the Songliao basin. Then an appropriate assessment model is established for trapping the gas resources and a knowledge base built in the expert system to realize the model. By using the expert system to appraise the gas-bearing probability of 25 major traps of the Quantou and Denglouku Formations in the Shiwu-Dehui area, the authors have proved that the expert system is suitable for appraising traps in the Songliao basin and similar basins.

  10. Mineral Occurrence data for the Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance and Uinta Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This legacy database lists occurrences of minerals identified in the Green River Formation in the Uinta and Piceance Basins, Utah and Colorado using X-ray...

  11. Techniques and strategies for data integration in mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautwein, Charles M.; Dwyer, John L.

    1991-01-01

    The Geologic and the National Mapping divisions of the U.S. Geological Survey have been involved formally in cooperative research and development of computer-based geographic information systems (GISs) applied to mineral-resource assessment objectives since 1982. Experience in the Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program (CUSMAP) projects including the Rolla, Missouri; Dillon, Montana; Butte, Montana; and Tonopah, Nevada 1?? ?? 2?? quadrangles, has resulted in the definition of processing requirements for geographically and mineral-resource data that are common to these studies. The diverse formats of data sets collected and compiled for regional mineral-resource assessments necessitate capabilities for digitally encoding and entering data into appropriate tabular, vector, and raster subsystems of the GIS. Although many of the required data sets are either available or can be provided in a digital format suitable for direct entry, their utility is largely dependent on the original intent and consequent preprocessing of the data. In this respect, special care must be taken to ensure the digital data type, encoding, and format will meet assessment objectives. Data processing within the GIS is directed primarily toward the development and application of models that can be used to describe spatially geological, geophysical, and geochemical environments either known or inferred to be associated with specific types of mineral deposits. Consequently, capabilities to analyze spatially, aggregate, and display relations between data sets are principal processing requirements. To facilitate the development of these models within the GIS, interfaces must be developed among vector-, raster-, and tabular-based processing subsystems to reformat resident data sets for comparative analyses and multivariate display of relations.

  12. Iowa State Mining and Mineral Resources Research Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-08-01

    This final report describes the activities of the Iowa State Mining and Mineral Resources Research Institute (ISMMRRI) at Iowa State University for the period July 1, 1989, to June 30, 1990. Activities include research in mining- and mineral-related areas, education and training of scientists and engineers in these fields, administration of the Institute, and cooperative interactions with industry, government agencies, and other research centers. During this period, ISMMRRI has supported research efforts to: (1) Investigate methods of leaching zinc from sphalerite-containing ores. (2) Study the geochemistry and geology of an Archean gold deposit and of a gold-telluride deposit. (3) Enchance how-quality aggregates for use in construction. (4) Pre-clean coal by triboelectric charging in a fluidized-bed. (5) Characterize the crystal/grain alignment during processing of yttrium-barium-copper-perovskite (1-2-3) superconductors. (5) Study the fluid inclusion properties of a fluorite district. (6) Study the impacts of surface mining on community planning. (7) Assess the hydrophobicity of coal and pyrite for beneficiation. (8) Investigate the use of photoacoustic absorption spectroscopy for monitoring unburnt carbon in the exhaust gas from coal-fired boilers. The education and training program continued within the interdepartmental graduate minor in mineral resources includes courses in such areas as mining methods, mineral processing, industrial minerals, extractive metallurgy, coal science and technology, and reclamation of mined land. In addition, ISMMRRI hosted the 3rd International Conference on Processing and Utilization of High-Sulfur Coals in Ames, Iowa. The Institute continues to interact with industry in order to foster increased cooperation between academia and the mining and mineral community.

  13. Mineral resources: Research objectives for continental scientific drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    The importance of a scientific drilling program to study mineralized hydrothermal systems has been emphasized in numerous workshops and symposia. To some degree the present report, prepared by the Panel on Mineral Resources of the Continental Scientific Drilling Committee, both reinforces and expands upon earlier recommendations. The report of the Los Alamos workshop, Continental Scientific Drilling Program, placed a major emphasis on maximizing the industry and government, supplementing these efforts with holes drilled solely for scientific purposes. Although the present report notes the importance of opportunities for scientific investigations added on to current, mission-oriented drilling activities, the Panel on Mineral Resources recognized that such opportunities are limited and thus focused on holes dedicated to broad scientific objectives. In the present report, the panel has developed a program that will provide answers to many scientific questions that have existed for almost 100 years concerning mineralized hydrothermal systems. The committee notes that research drilling may lead to results in addition to those anticipated, results that will provide new directions and ideas of equal or greater value that those basic ones originally posed. 58 refs.

  14. Research on Mineral Resource Prediction by GA-ANN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩万林; 张幼蒂

    2002-01-01

    Fault recognition and coal seam thickness forecast are important problems in mineral resource prediction. Knowledge of multiple disciplines, which include mining engineering, mine geology, seismic prospecting etc, was used synthetically. Artificial neural network was combined with genetic algorithm to found integrated AI method of genetic algorithm-artificial neural network(GA-ANN). Fault recognition and coal seam thickness forecast were carried to completion by case studies. And the research results are satisfactory.

  15. A Complex Systems Model Approach to Quantified Mineral Resource Appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettings, M.E.; Bultman, M.W.; Fisher, F.S.

    2004-01-01

    For federal and state land management agencies, mineral resource appraisal has evolved from value-based to outcome-based procedures wherein the consequences of resource development are compared with those of other management options. Complex systems modeling is proposed as a general framework in which to build models that can evaluate outcomes. Three frequently used methods of mineral resource appraisal (subjective probabilistic estimates, weights of evidence modeling, and fuzzy logic modeling) are discussed to obtain insight into methods of incorporating complexity into mineral resource appraisal models. Fuzzy logic and weights of evidence are most easily utilized in complex systems models. A fundamental product of new appraisals is the production of reusable, accessible databases and methodologies so that appraisals can easily be repeated with new or refined data. The data are representations of complex systems and must be so regarded if all of their information content is to be utilized. The proposed generalized model framework is applicable to mineral assessment and other geoscience problems. We begin with a (fuzzy) cognitive map using (+1,0,-1) values for the links and evaluate the map for various scenarios to obtain a ranking of the importance of various links. Fieldwork and modeling studies identify important links and help identify unanticipated links. Next, the links are given membership functions in accordance with the data. Finally, processes are associated with the links; ideally, the controlling physical and chemical events and equations are found for each link. After calibration and testing, this complex systems model is used for predictions under various scenarios.

  16. Clay Mineral Distribution Patterns of Tertiary Continental Oil-bearing Basins in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Xingyuan

    1996-01-01

    @@ Induction This paper studies the clay mineral distribution patterns of Tertiary continental oil-bearing basins in China. More than 9 000 shale samples from Paleogene (E) to Neogene (N) Series distributed in Bohai Gulf, Subei, Jianghan,Nanxiang, Zhoukou, Sanshui, Beibu Bay, East China Sea,Hetao, Juiquan, Qaidam and Tarim basins, and so on.

  17. Dynamic evaluation of groundwater resources in Zhangye Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiNa Mi; HongLang Xiao; ZhengLiang Yin; ShengChun Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater resource is vital to the sustainable development of socio-economics in arid and semi-arid regions of Northwest China. An estimation of the groundwater resources variation in Zhangye Basin was made during 1985–2013 based on long-term groundwater observation data and geostatistical method. The results show that from 1985 to 2013, groundwater storage exhibited tremendous dissimilarity on temporal and spatial scale for the whole Zhangye Basin, especially before and after implementation of the water diversion policy. Trend of groundwater storage varied from quick to slow decline or increase. The accumulative groundwater storage decreased nearly 47.52×108 m3, and annual average depletion rate reached 1.64×108 m3/a. Among which, the accumulative groundwater storage of the river and well water mixed irrigation district decreased by 37.48×108 m3, accounting for about 78.87% of the total groundwater depletion of the Zhangye Basin. Accumulative depletion of groundwater storage varied in respective irrigation districts. Though groundwater resources depletion rate slowed down from 2005, the overall storage in the whole basin and re-spective districts during 1985–2013 was still in a severe deficit such that, the groundwater resource was in a rather negative balance, which could threaten the local aquifer. This is the joint effect of climate change and human activities, however human activities, such as water diversion policy and groundwater exploitation, became increasingly intense. Our research results could provide a reasonable estimation for the groundwater balance in Zhangye Basin, providing a scientific basis for water resources unified planning and, this method can provide a relatively reliable way of estimation for large scale groundwater resources.

  18. A Water Resources Planning Tool for the Jordan River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Bonzi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Jordan River basin is subject to extreme and increasing water scarcity. Management of transboundary water resources in the basin is closely intertwined with political conflicts in the region. We have jointly developed with stakeholders and experts from the riparian countries, a new dynamic consensus database and—supported by hydro-climatological model simulations and participatory scenario exercises in the GLOWA (Global Change and the Hydrological Cycle Jordan River project—a basin-wide Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP tool, which will allow testing of various unilateral and multilateral adaptation options under climate and socio-economic change. We present its validation and initial (climate and socio-economic scenario analyses with this budget and allocation tool, and invite further adaptation and application of the tool for specific Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM problems.

  19. Mineral Resources: Reserves, Peak Production and the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence D. Meinert

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The adequacy of mineral resources in light of population growth and rising standards of living has been a concern since the time of Malthus (1798, but many studies erroneously forecast impending peak production or exhaustion because they confuse reserves with “all there is”. Reserves are formally defined as a subset of resources, and even current and potential resources are only a small subset of “all there is”. Peak production or exhaustion cannot be modeled accurately from reserves. Using copper as an example, identified resources are twice as large as the amount projected to be needed through 2050. Estimates of yet-to-be discovered copper resources are up to 40-times more than currently-identified resources, amounts that could last for many centuries. Thus, forecasts of imminent peak production due to resource exhaustion in the next 20–30 years are not valid. Short-term supply problems may arise, however, and supply-chain disruptions are possible at any time due to natural disasters (earthquakes, tsunamis, hurricanes or political complications. Needed to resolve these problems are education and exploration technology development, access to prospective terrain, better recycling and better accounting of externalities associated with production (pollution, loss of ecosystem services and water and energy use.

  20. Influence of desert mineral resource exploitation on the spatial structure of the urban system in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Xiaolei(张小雷)

    2002-01-01

    The strategic mineral resource exploration has important influence on the modern urbansystem in arid areas. Large amounts of investment on oil and gas industry have important effect onthe infrastructure which includes cities and communications, and this will become an importantfactor of changing the urban structure of Xinjiang. In the 1950s, Kelamayi and Dushanzi cities haveappeared by the petroleum exploration in the west of the Juggar Basin, which not only changedthe single role of Xinjiang oasis agricultural city but also made the distribution of cites broken fromnatural oasis for the first time, and the network trend of urban spatial structures emerged. In recentyears, the large-scale petroleum exploration in Tuha, Juggar and Tarim Basins gives local citiesmore chance of rapid development. Especially, a large-scale communication construction, with the552 km desert highway as representative, totally changed the traditional oasis spacial structure ofthe urban system in the Tarim Basin. The influence on the spacial structure of the urban system byoil exploration in a large-scale reserve basin can be divided into four stages.

  1. Conceptual Model of Water Resources in the Kabul Basin, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Thomas J.; Akbari, M. Amin; Ashoor, M. Hanif; Chornack, Michael P.; Coplen, Tyler B.; Emerson, Douglas G.; Hubbard, Bernard E.; Litke, David W.; Michel, Robert L.; Plummer, L. Niel; Rezai, M. Taher; Senay, Gabriel B.; Verdin, James P.; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.

    2010-01-01

    The United States (U.S.) Geological Survey has been working with the Afghanistan Geological Survey and the Afghanistan Ministry of Energy and Water on water-resources investigations in the Kabul Basin under an agreement supported by the United States Agency for International Development. This collaborative investigation compiled, to the extent possible in a war-stricken country, a varied hydrogeologic data set and developed limited data-collection networks to assist with the management of water resources in the Kabul Basin. This report presents the results of a multidisciplinary water-resources assessment conducted between 2005 and 2007 to address questions of future water availability for a growing population and of the potential effects of climate change. Most hydrologic and climatic data-collection activities in Afghanistan were interrupted in the early 1980s as a consequence of war and civil strife and did not resume until 2003 or later. Because of the gap of more than 20 years in the record of hydrologic and climatic observations, this investigation has made considerable use of remotely sensed data and, where available, historical records to investigate the water resources of the Kabul Basin. Specifically, this investigation integrated recently acquired remotely sensed data and satellite imagery, including glacier and climatic data; recent climate-change analyses; recent geologic investigations; analysis of streamflow data; groundwater-level analysis; surface-water- and groundwater-quality data, including data on chemical and isotopic environmental tracers; and estimates of public-supply and agricultural water uses. The data and analyses were integrated by using a simplified groundwater-flow model to test the conceptual model of the hydrologic system and to assess current (2007) and future (2057) water availability. Recharge in the basin is spatially and temporally variable and generally occurs near streams and irrigated areas in the late winter and early

  2. Investigations needed to stimulate the development of Jordan's mineral resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvey, V.E.

    1979-01-01

    The level of living that any society can attain is a direct function of the use it makes of all kinds of raw materials (soil, water, metals, nonmetals, etc.), all kinds of energy (both animate and inanimate), and all kinds of human ingenuity; and is an inverse function of the size of the population that must share the collective product. The relation between raw materials, energy and ingenuity is such that use of a large amount of one may offset the need for large amounts of others. The most vital raw materials are water, soil, and construction materials, for these are needed in large quantities and are hard to import. Metals, chemicals, and inanimate energy are necessary for industrialization. The more of these minerals a nation possess, the better, but not nation can hope to be self-sufficient in all of the m and therefore must trade for some essential materials. Jordan’s natural resources have been little explored. The grantitc-metamorphic terrane in the southeastern part of the Kingdom could contain deposits of tungsten, rare earths, feldspar, mica, fluorite etc. and the sedimentary terrane over much of the rest of the county is favorable for the occurrence of oil. Even if none of these minerals is found, however, Jordan’s other mineral resource, if fully explored and developed in the light of modern technology, will support a far higher level of living than her people now enjoy. Very likely she can increase her rainfall by about 10 percent by cloud seeding, and she undeveloped supplies in both surface and ground water that are sufficient to nearly double her usable water supply. Even if she does not have oil or have it in large quantities, she can buy it cheaply from neighboring counties, and in addition has undeveloped sources of hydroelectric power, large reserves of bituminous limestone, large reserves of nuclear power as uranium in phosphate rock, and can use solar and wind power for special purposes. Her large supplies of construction, fertilizer, and

  3. Can multfractals be used for mineral resource appraisal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agterberg, Frits

    2016-04-01

    Various models have been proposed for modeling the worldwide resources of minerals and hydrocarbons. Most of these models assume either a lognormal or a Pareto distribution for the high-value tails of the size-frequency distributions of known deposits and assume that undiscovered deposits would satisfy these statistical models as well. The lognormal size distribution often provides a good fit to all sizes except for the largest deposits. Pareto-type models allow for tails that are thicker than those of the lognormal. With respect to the spatial distribution of the deposits, various statistical discrete frequency distribution models including the Poisson and negative binomial are commonly used. However, these models are based on the assumption that mean point concentration is independent of size of area used for measuring deposit density. Fractal-multifractal point distribution models can provide better results. A good approach to worldwide deposit modeling would consist of (1) quantification of 2-D boundaries of permissive terrains for different types of deposits; (2) assuming that the mineral deposits are spatially distributed as fractals or multifractals; and (3) adopting Pareto-type frequency distributions for the largest mineral deposits. In this paper, examples will be presented of cases in which (a) the fractal/multifractal approach provides better results for spatial distribution of deposits than classical statistical models, and (b) the Pareto is performing better than the lognormal as size distribution model for the largest mineral deposits. In recent years, large worldwide mineral deposit data bases have become available. Statistical analysis of these data confirms the idea that amounts of metals in ore deposits generally satisfy the lognormal model except in their high-value Pareto-type frequency distribution tails.

  4. Near real time water resources data for river basin management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, R. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Twenty Data Collection Platforms (DCP) are being field installed on USGS water resources stations in the Delaware River Basin. DCP's have been successfully installed and are operating well on five stream gaging stations, three observation wells, and one water quality monitor in the basin. DCP's have been installed at nine additional water quality monitors, and work is progressing on interfacing the platforms to the monitors. ERTS-related water resources data from the platforms are being provided in near real time, by the Goddard Space Flight Center to the Pennsylvania district, Water Resources Division, U.S. Geological Survey. On a daily basis, the data are computer processed by the Survey and provided to the Delaware River Basin Commission. Each daily summary contains data that were relayed during 4 or 5 of the 15 orbits made by ERTS-1 during the previous day. Water resources parameters relays by the platforms include dissolved oxygen concentrations, temperature, pH, specific conductance, well level, and stream gage height, which is used to compute stream flow for the daily summary.

  5. Mother Lode: The Untapped Rare Earth Mineral Resources of Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    hundreds of Bq/m 3 of air; the recommended safety limits for civilian exposure are 3.5 mSv/year and 0.15 Bq/m 3 , respectively. 37 REO Mining – a...Commission for Asia and the Pacific. Atlas of Mineral Resources of the ESCAP Region, Vol. 6, Viet Nam. ST/ESCAP/831. Bangkok : UNESCAP, 1990. “US$ 35.5... Bangkok ), July 19, 2013. ProQuest (1400734925). “VINACOMIN and Japanese Firm to Exploit and Process Rare Earth in Lai Chau.” Vietnam National

  6. Metallic Mineral Resources Assessment and Analysis System Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the aim and the design structure of the metallic mineral resources assessment and analysis system. This system adopts an integrated technique of data warehouse composed of affairs-processing layer and analysis-application layer. The affairs-processing layer includes multiform databases (such as geological database, geophysical database, geochemical database),while the analysis application layer includes data warehouse, online analysis processing and data mining. This paper also presents in detail the data warehouse of the present system and the appropriate spatial analysis methods and models. Finally, this paper presents the prospect of the system.

  7. Literature and information related to the natural resources of the North Aleutian Basin of Alaska.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stull, E.A.; Hlohowskyj, I.; LaGory, K. E.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-01-31

    The North Aleutian Basin Planning Area of the Minerals Management Service (MMS) is a large geographic area with significant natural resources. The Basin includes most of the southeastern part of the Bering Sea Outer Continental Shelf, including all of Bristol Bay. The area supports important habitat for a wide variety of species and globally significant habitat for birds and marine mammals, including several federally listed species. Villages and communities of the Alaska Peninsula and other areas bordering or near the Basin rely on its natural resources (especially commercial and subsistence fishing) for much of their sustenance and livelihood. The offshore area of the North Aleutian Basin is considered to have important hydrocarbon reserves, especially natural gas. In 2006, the MMS released a draft proposed program, 'Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Leasing Program, 2007-2012' and an accompanying draft programmatic environmental impact statement (EIS). The draft proposed program identified two lease sales proposed in the North Aleutian Basin in 2010 and 2012, subject to restrictions. The area proposed for leasing in the Basin was restricted to the Sale 92 Area in the southwestern portion. Additional EISs will be needed to evaluate the potential effects of specific lease actions, exploration activities, and development and production plans in the Basin. A full range of updated multidisciplinary scientific information will be needed to address oceanography, fate and effects of oil spills, marine ecosystems, fish, fisheries, birds, marine mammals, socioeconomics, and subsistence in the Basin. Scientific staff at Argonne National Laboratory were contracted to assist MMS with identifying and prioritizing information needs related to potential future oil and gas leasing and development activities in the North Aleutian Basin. Argonne focused on three related tasks: (1) identify and gather relevant literature published since 1996, (2) synthesize and

  8. Qualitative assessment of selected areas of the world for undiscovered sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits: Chapter Y in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zientek, Michael L.; Wintzer, Niki E.; Hayes, Timothy S.; Parks, Heather L.; Briggs, Deborah A.; Causey, J. Douglas; Hatch, Shyla A.; Jenkins, M. Christopher; Williams, David J.; Zientek, Michael L.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Johnson, Kathleen M.

    2015-12-14

    A qualitative mineral resource assessment of sediment-hosted stratabound copper mineralized areas for undiscovered copper deposits was performed for 10 selected areas of the world. The areas, in alphabetical order, are (1) Belt-Purcell Basin, United States and Canada; (2) Benguela and Cuanza Basins, Angola; (3) Chuxiong Basin, China; (4) Dongchuan Group rocks, China; (5) Egypt–Israel–Jordan Rift, Egypt, Israel, and Jordan; (6) Maritimes Basin, Canada; (7) Neuquén Basin, Argentina; (8) Northwest Botswana Rift, Botswana and Namibia; (9) Redstone Copperbelt, Canada; and (10) Salta Rift System, Argentina. This assessment (1) outlines the main characteristics of the areas, (2) classifies known deposits by deposit model subtypes, and (3) ranks the areas according to their potential to contain undiscovered copper deposits.

  9. Fluid flow and mineralization of Youjiang Basin in the Yunnan-Guizhou-Guangxi area, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国芝; 胡瑞忠; 苏文超; 朱赖民

    2003-01-01

    Comprehensive studies, based on isotope geochemistry of C, H, O, S and Sr, chronology, common element and trace element geochemistry of fluid inclusions for the epithermal Au, As, Sb and Hg deposits in the Youjiang Basin and its peripheral areas, suggested that the ore fluid was the basin fluid with abundant metallic elements and the large-scale fluid flow of the same source in the late Yenshan stage was responsible for huge epithermal mineralization and silicification. The ore fluid flowed from the basin to the platform between the basin and the platform and migrated from the inter-platform basin to the isolated platform in the Youjiang Basin. The synsedimentary faults and paleokast surface acted respectively as main conduits for vertical and lateral fluid flow.

  10. Selected social phenomena following the extraction of mineral resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocoń Paweł

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The author, due to the didactic needs and seeing a small gap in the way of presenting scientific data on the area of social science, have decided to present this work hoping that it will influence on widening both the social science and geography knowledge of the recipients, having connected the development and creation of certain social phenomena with particular economic activity, that is, the extraction of mineral resources. The aim of the hereby text is to present such social phenomena like organizational culture, discourse and social capital. The notions mentioned above ought to concern not only students, but also the specialists and scientists dealing with any of those two fields, as it seems prudent to follow the path of closely connecting two major issues emerging from two distinctively separate areas of science if that may help to better understand how such mixture influence people’s behaviour and allows to draw conclusion on the effect such actions may have on community or society. Moreover, such fact was prior for the author to decide to work on the problem of protests for mining in the future. On the other hand, the article may help in organizing the process of exploitation of mineral resources in the different organizations involved in this type of activity.

  11. Probe into Problem-Related Nontraditional Mineral Resources Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@The discovery of and research into the nontraditional mineral resources, both in theory and in practice for the next century,are commented in this paper.The nontraditional mineral resources prognostication is very important for the research into and the discovery of the history of typical deposits all over the world.The emphasis of the present research is laid on new kinds of deposits. The processes and approaches of the discovery of new kinds of deposits should be studied carefully. The research into gold ores that we have done so far concludes the following 5 points. (1) Through finding the alluvial gold, we could obtain primary gold deposits such as Tuanjiegou porphyroid gold deposit in Heilongjiang Province. (2) Through geochemical prospecting, we might discover new types of deposits such as Carlin gold deposit in USA. (3) Some deposits might be discovered around a large-scale deposit. For example, a few large-scale altered gold deposits have been discovered around Linglong in Shandong Province.

  12. Framework for Assessing Water Resource Sustainability in River Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, J.; Goodwin, P.; Swanson, D.

    2013-12-01

    As the anthropogenic footprint increases on Earth, the wise use, maintenance, and protection of freshwater resources will be a key element in the sustainability of development. Borne from efforts to promote sustainable development of water resources is Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM), which promotes efficiency of water resources, equity in water allocation across different social and economic groups, and environmental sustainability. Methodologies supporting IWRM implementation have largely focused on the overall process, but have had limited attention on the evaluation methods for ecologic, economic, and social conditions (the sustainability criterion). Thus, assessment frameworks are needed to support the analysis of water resources and evaluation of sustainable solutions in the IWRM process. To address this need, the River Basin Analysis Framework (RBAF) provides a structure for understanding water related issues and testing the sustainability of proposed solutions in river basins. The RBAF merges three approaches: the UN GEO 4 DPSIR approach, the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment approach, and the principles of sustainable development. Merging these approaches enables users to understand the spatiotemporal interactions between the hydrologic and ecologic systems, evaluate the impacts of disturbances (drivers, pressures) on the ecosystem goods and services (EGS) and constituents of human well-being (HWB), and identify and employ analytical methods and indicators in the assessments. The RBAF is comprised of a conceptual component (RBAF-C) and an analytical component (RBAF-A). For each disturbance type, the RBAF-C shows the potential directional change in the hydrologic cycle (peak flows, seasonality, etc.), EGS (drinking water supply, water purification, recreational opportunities, etc.), and HWB (safety, health, access to a basic materials), thus allowing users insight into potential impacts as well as providing technical guidance on the methods and

  13. Theory and Method of Mineral Resource Prediction Based on Synthetic Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Shicheng; Ye Shuisheng; Zhou Dongdai

    2003-01-01

    Metallogenic prognosis of synthetic information uses the geological body and the mineral resource body as a statistical unit to interpret synthetically the information of geology, geophysics, geochemistry and remote sensing from the evolution of geology and puts all the information into one entire system by drawing up digitalized interpretation maps of the synthetic information. On such basis, different grades and types of mineral resource prospecting models and predictive models of synthetic information can be established. Hence, a new integrated prediction system will be formed of metallogenic prognosis (qualitative prediction), mineral resources statistic prediction (determining targets) and mineral resources prediction (determining resources amount).

  14. On resource survey of natural mineral drugs in eastern Jilin and their sustaining application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    There are rich natural resources of natural mineral drugs in eastern Jilin Province. Systematic resource investigation can elevate fractional conversion of this area' s mineral drugs resources superiority. Research on natural mineral drugs of this area can upgrade the translation rate of resource superiority and accelerate the development of local medical industry, especially, it can provide scientific data for founding the strategic design of Chinese traditional medicine's trademark of Jilin Changbai Mountain. Since the resource of mineral drugs can not be regenerated, it must be exploited scientifically, utilized reasonably and protected effectively its sustaining application.

  15. Rare earth minerals and resources in the world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanazawa, Yasuo [Human Resource Department, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba 305-8568 (Japan)]. E-mail: y.kanazawa@aist.go.jp; Kamitani, Masaharu [Institute for Geo-Resources and Environment, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba 305-8567 (Japan)

    2006-02-09

    About 200 rare earth (RE) minerals are distributed in a wide variety of mineral classes, such as halides, carbonates, oxides, phosphates, silicates, etc. Due to the large ionic radii and trivalent oxidation state, RE ions in the minerals have large coordination numbers (c.n.) 6-10 by anions (O, F, OH). Light rare earth elements (LREEs) tend to occupy the larger sites of 8-10 c.n. and concentrate in carbonates and phosphates. On the other hand, heavy rare earth elements (HREEs) and Y occupy 6-8 c.n. sites and are abundant in oxides and a part of phosphates. Only a few mineral species, such as bastnaesite (Ce,La)(CO{sub 3})F, monazite (Ce,La)PO{sub 4}, xenotime YPO{sub 4}, and RE-bearing clay have been recovered for commercial production. Bayan Obo, China is the biggest RE deposit in the world. One of probable hypotheses for ore geneses is that the deposit might be formed by hydrothermal replacement of carbonate rocks of sedimentary origin. The hydrothermal fluid may be derived from an alkaline-carbonatite intrusive series. Following Bayan Obo, more than 550 carbonatite/alkaline complex rocks constitute the majority of the world RE resources. The distribution is restricted to interior and marginal regions of continents, especially Precambrian cratons and shields, or related to large-scale rift structures. Main concentrated areas of the complexes are East African rift zones, northern Scandinavia-Kola peninsula, eastern Canada and southern Brazil. Representative sedimentary deposits of REE are placer- and conglomerate-types. The major potential countries are Australia, India, Brazil, and Malaysia. Weathered residual deposits have been formed under tropical and sub-tropical climates. Bauxite and laterite nickel deposit are the representative. Ion adsorption clay without radioactive elements is known in southern China. Weathering processes concentrate REE in a particular clay mineral-layer in the weathered crusts whose source were originally REE-rich rocks like granite

  16. Mineral resources of high-tech metals in Russia: State of the art and outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortnikov, N. S.; Volkov, A. V.; Galyamov, A. L.; Vikent'ev, I. V.; Aristov, V. V.; Lalomov, A. V.; Murashov, K. Yu.

    2016-03-01

    Seven main ore-forming systems—porphyry and epithermal; orogenic related to granitic intrusions; magmatic ultramafic; volcanic-hosted massive sulfide and volcanic-sedimentary; sedimentary basins; related to alkaline magmatic activity; and placers and weathering mantles—are sources of high-tech critical metals. The following promising types of ore deposits containing high-tech critical metals as by-products are recognized: Cu-Mo porphyry, Fe-Cu-Au and Pb-Zn skarn, base-metal epithermal, volcanic-hosted massive sulfide, base-metal stratiform, various tin deposits, and placers containing rare metals including REE. The mineral resources of critical metals in Russia are compared with those known in other countries. The contents of high-tech critical metals in ores of some noble-metal deposits of the Russian Northeast are reported. It is shown that the subsurface of Russia possesses considerable mineral resource potential for hightech critical metals, which allows new enterprises to be created or production of operating enterprises to increase.

  17. Ore-bearing Formations and Mineral Resource Prospects of the Peripheral Areas of the Tarim Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The tectonic development of the Tarim block has experienced four stages, i. e. Earth's core accretion and block formation in the Precambrian, margin splitting, opening-closing and piecing up in the Early Palaeozoic, rift formation and plate unification in the Late Palaeozoic, and basin-mountain coupling and landform shaping in the Meso-Cenozoic, forming six ore-bearing formations and ore deposits of various genetic types in the Tianshan Mountains, Kunlun Mountains and Altun Mountains. In the peripheral areas of Tarim there are four giant intercontinental metallogenic belts passing through, the Central Tianshan and southwestern Tianshan belts in the former USSR and the Qinling-Qilian-Kunlun and Palaeo-Tethys belts in China. According to the macro-analysis on the nearly one thousand known deposits (occurrences) and geophysical-geochemical anomalies, and the information from reconnaissance in some areas, the region has very good prospects for mineral resources. Some of the metallogenic belts may well become the reserve bases for exploration of mineral resources in China.

  18. Evolution Stages of Oasis Economy and Its Dependence on Natural Resources in Tarim River Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAO Xuning; YANG Degang; ZHANG Xinhuan

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines spatio-temporal characteristics of an oasis economy and its relationship with water and mineral resources in the Turim River Basin from 1965 to 2005. A spatial autocorrelation model, the center of gravity model, and index system of the regional central city are used to probe the evolution laws of spatial structure of oasis economy. The study finds that: 1) The economic centre of gravity, whose variation track during this period follows linear rote law, was moving from headstream to middle reaches of the Tarim River. 2) Positive spatial autocorrelation which showed a waving and ascending trend of regional economy was significant and the neighbor effect of regional economic growth was strengthened continuously. 3) The regional economic centre was located in Hotan City before 1980, moved to Aksu City during the 1980s and to Korla City after 1990. We conclude that above all, during the recent four decades the evolution of the oasis economy in this region has gone through three stages: a traditional agriculture stage (before 1980), oasis agriculture and agricultural product processing stage (1980-1990) and oasis energy industry stage (after 1990). Furthermore, the dependence degree of the oasis economy on natural resources in different stages are studied by using dominance index, regression model, and grey relation method, which shows that an oasis economy highly depends on water resources in the oasis agriculture and agricultural product processing stage while it depends more on mineral resources such as oil and natural gas during the oasis energy industry stage.

  19. 36 CFR 293.15 - Gathering information about resources other than minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WILDERNESS-PRIMITIVE AREAS § 293.15 Gathering information about resources other... information about resources, other than minerals, in National Forest Wilderness, except that any such activity... excavations for the purpose of gathering information about resources, other than minerals, shall apply...

  20. Early Pleistocene aquatic resource use in the Turkana Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Will; Braun, David R; Harris, Jack W K; McCoy, Jack T; Richmond, Brian G

    2014-12-01

    Evidence for the acquisition of nutritionally dense food resources by early Pleistocene hominins has implications for both hominin biology and behavior. Aquatic fauna may have comprised a source of highly nutritious resources to hominins in the Turkana Basin at ∼1.95 Ma. Here we employ multiple datasets to examine the issue of aquatic resource use in the early Pleistocene. This study focuses on four components of aquatic faunal assemblages (1) taxonomic diversity, (2) skeletal element proportion, (3) bone fragmentation and (4) bone surface modification. These components are used to identify associations between early Pleistocene aquatic remains and hominin behavior at the site of FwJj20 in the Koobi Fora Fm. (Kenya). We focus on two dominant aquatic species: catfish and turtles. Further we suggest that data on aquatic resource availability as well as ethnographic examples of aquatic resource use complement our observations on the archaeological remains from FwJj20. Aquatic food items provided hominins with a valuable nutritional alternative to an exclusively terrestrial resource base. We argue that specific advantages afforded by an aquatic alternative to terrestrial resources include (1) a probable reduction in required investment of energy relative to economic return in the form of nutritionally dense food items, (2) a decrease in the technological costs of resource acquisition, and (3) a reduced level of inter-specific competition associated with carcass access and an associated reduction of predation risk relative to terrestrial sources of food. The combined evidence from FwJj20 suggests that aquatic resources may have played a substantial role in early Pleistocene diets and these resources may have been overlooked in previous interpretations of hominin behavior.

  1. Application of GIS in Mineral Resource Prediction of Synthetic Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye Shuisheng; Wang Shicheng; Li Deqiong

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces the formation mechanism and synthetic information prediction of large and superlarge deposits in Shandong Province by analyzing and studying on the GIS platform. The authors established a prospecting model of synthetic information from large and superlarge gold deposit concentration region, and the multi-source spatial database from concentration region of deposits and anomalies. On the basis of the spatial database, a target map layer, a model map layer and a predictive map layer were set up. Based on these map layers, geological variables of the model unit and predictive unit were extracted, then launched location and quantitative prediction of the gold deposit concentration region. The achievement of predicting large and superlarge deposits by the GIS platform has enabled the authors to design automation (or semi-automatic) interpretation subsystems, namely geophysics, geochemistry, geologic prospecting and comprehensive prognosis, and a set of the applicable GIS softwarefor mineral resources prognosis of synthetic information.

  2. Active Learning Techniques Applied to an Interdisciplinary Mineral Resources Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aird, H. M.

    2015-12-01

    An interdisciplinary active learning course was introduced at the University of Puget Sound entitled 'Mineral Resources and the Environment'. Various formative assessment and active learning techniques that have been effective in other courses were adapted and implemented to improve student learning, increase retention and broaden knowledge and understanding of course material. This was an elective course targeted towards upper-level undergraduate geology and environmental majors. The course provided an introduction to the mineral resources industry, discussing geological, environmental, societal and economic aspects, legislation and the processes involved in exploration, extraction, processing, reclamation/remediation and recycling of products. Lectures and associated weekly labs were linked in subject matter; relevant readings from the recent scientific literature were assigned and discussed in the second lecture of the week. Peer-based learning was facilitated through weekly reading assignments with peer-led discussions and through group research projects, in addition to in-class exercises such as debates. Writing and research skills were developed through student groups designing, carrying out and reporting on their own semester-long research projects around the lasting effects of the historical Ruston Smelter on the biology and water systems of Tacoma. The writing of their mini grant proposals and final project reports was carried out in stages to allow for feedback before the deadline. Speakers from industry were invited to share their specialist knowledge as guest lecturers, and students were encouraged to interact with them, with a view to employment opportunities. Formative assessment techniques included jigsaw exercises, gallery walks, placemat surveys, think pair share and take-home point summaries. Summative assessment included discussion leadership, exams, homeworks, group projects, in-class exercises, field trips, and pre-discussion reading exercises

  3. Shungites: origin and classification of a new carbon mineral resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivankin, P.F.; Galdobina, L.P.; Kalinin, Yu.K.

    1987-10-01

    The discovery of a new mineral resource in Karelia-shungite- and the confirmation of the finding in the geological literature have a long history. In 1876, local peasants found black stones near the village of Shun'ga, which were taken to be coal and called Olenets anthracite. A discussion began on the nature of this strange anthracite, which did not burn in furnaces. The found of the Karelian geological school, A.A. Inostrantsev, was the first to doubt that Olenets anthracite was really coal, and he named it shungite. Shungites, very unusual, barely combustible high-carbon rocks, have a variety of potential uses. Although details remain obscure, the authors propose a metasomatic origin involving migration and reduction of carbonaceous compounds driven by igneous intrusions. 10 references.

  4. Ocean mineral resources and international law. Kaiyo shigen to kokusaiho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuhara, T. (Kokushikan University, Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-05-05

    Interest to marine resources existing in sea water and on ocean bottoms is heightening. Applicable international laws vary depending on a location of discovery of ocean bottom mineral resources, whether it is within inland waters, territorial waters, continental platform, exclusive economic zone, high seas, or on deep sea bottoms. This report focuses on this fact, and explains the history of how the applicable articles came into existence, and the trends of international administration. The sovereignty of a coastal country on continental platforms and exclusive economic zones is limited to investigations and developments, rather than admitted generally to the space itself. Since these sea areas remain having the nature of high seas, the sovereign power is not an absolute power, and must not prevent freedom of navigation or freedom of laying submarine cables. Investigations and developments in these sea areas are imposed with duties of preventing and reducing environmental contamination (Article 194), but these are the common sense duties in the international laws, regardless of whether being bound by the very article. 16 refs.

  5. Characteristics and genesis of clay minerals in the northern margin of the Qaidam Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Linlin; Jiang Bo; Peng Dehua; Yin Chengming; Zeng Chunlin

    2011-01-01

    In order to develop appropriate reservoir protection measures in the northern margin of the Qaidam Basin and improve its oil and gas recovery efficiency, characteristics of clay minerals from eleven clay rock samples from the northern margin of the Qaidam Basin were investigated using X-ray diffraction analysis, the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and energy spectrum analysis. Clay mineral composition and distribution characteristics of the main hydrocarbon reservoirs, I.e., from the Jurassic and Paleogene-Neogene, were explored. We analyzed the main factors which affected these attributes. The results show that the major clay minerals in the northern margin are chlorite, kaolinite, illite, smectite and illite/smectite inter-stratified minerals, Illite is the most widely spread clay mineral in this area.Chlorite is mainly found in the entire Neogene and in shallow horizons of the Paleogene. Smectite is enriched in the shallow Paleogene-Neogene. There are large amounts of kaolinite and illite/smectite inter-stratified minerals in the Jurassic. The major factors affecting the different development of clay minerals in the region are properties of parent rocks, paleoclimate and paleowater media conditions,diagenesis transformation, tectonic and terrain conditions.

  6. Mineral resource assessment of selected areas in Clark and Nye Counties, Nevada [Chapters A-L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludington, Steve

    2006-01-01

    During 2004-2006, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a mineral resource assessment of selected areas administered by the Bureau of Land Management in Clark and Nye Counties, Nevada. The purpose of this study is to provide the BLM with information for land planning and management and, specifically, to determine mineral resource potential in accordance with regulations in 43 CFR 2310, which governs the withdrawal of public lands. The Clark County Conservation of Public Land and Natural Resources Act of 2002 (Public Law 107-282) temporarily withdraws a group of areas designated as Areas of Critical Environmental Concern (ACECs) from mineral entry, pending final approval of an application for permanent withdrawal by the BLM. This study provides information about mineral resource potential of the ACECs. Existing information was compiled about the ACECs, including geology, geophysics, geochemistry, and mineral-deposit information. Field examinations of selected areas and mineral occurrences were conducted to determine their geologic setting and mineral potential.

  7. Quantifying the Recoverable Resources of Companion Metals: A Preliminary Study of Australian Mineral Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin M. Mudd

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The long-term availability of mineral resources is crucial in underpinning human society, technology, and economic activity, and in managing anthropogenic environmental impacts. This is increasingly true for metals that do not generally form the primary product of mines (“host” metals, such as copper or iron, but are recovered as by-products (or sometimes co-products during the processing of primary ores. For these “companion” metals, it is therefore useful to develop methodologies to estimate the recoverable resource, i.e., the amount that could, if desired, be extracted and put into use over the next several decades. We describe here a methodological approach to estimating the recoverable resources of companion metals in metal ores, using preliminary data for some particular host/companion pairs in Australia as examples.

  8. Integrated Water Resources Management Improving Langat Basin Ecosystem Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazlin B. Mokhtar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The ecosystem provides us with all the goods and services that form the base of our economic, social cultural and spiritual life. Good scientific information will be required for managing the environment by using the Ecosystem approach. The groundwater is considered as a possible supplementary of alternative water source, and some factories already started shifting their water source from surface water to groundwater. Uncontrolled use of groundwater, however, may induce serious environmental problems, e.g., land subsidence, saltwater intrusion to the aquifer. The establishment of a balanced multi-sector and integrated groundwater resources and environmental management plan is deemed urgent to attain a sustainable groundwater resources use and to maintain a favorable groundwater quality in the Langat Basin. To achieve sustainable lifestyle in large scale ecosystem requires integrated and holistic approaches from all stakeholders. Through Aquifer Storage Recovery (ASR it was determined a revolutionized water resources management, providing a sustainable supply while minimizing the environmental impact of surface storage. By using underground geologic formations to store water, by integrated water resources management advisory system (IWRMAS aquifer recharge can now easily applied to obviate water resource and environmental problems, including seasonal shortages, emergency storage, ground subsidence and saline intrusion.

  9. Elemental distributions in surficial sediments and potential offshore mineral resources from the western continental margin of India. Part 2. Potential offshore mineral resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Paropkari, A.L.; Mascarenhas, A.; Rao, Ch.M.; PrakashBabu, C.; Murty, P.S.N.

    patterns of ten selected elements is surficial sediments. Part 2 projects the potential offshore mineral resources. Target areas for future exploration and indicated and exploration strategies are recommended. Appendix 1 is a compilation of the bibliography...

  10. Managing Water Resource Challenges in the Congo River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloysius, N. R.

    2015-12-01

    Water resources in the tropical regions are under pressure from human appropriation and climate change. Current understanding of interactions between hydrology and climate in the tropical regions is inadequate. This is particularly true for the Congo River Basin (CRB), which also lacks hydroclimate data. Global climate models (GCM) show limited skills in simulating CRB's climate, and their future projections vary widely. Yet, GCMs provide the most credible scenarios of future climate, based upon which changes in water resources can be predicted with coupled hydrological models. The objectives of my work are to i) elucidate the spatial and temporal variability of water resources by developing a spatially explicit hydrological model suitable for describing key processes and fluxes, ii) evaluate the performance of GCMs in simulating precipitation and temperature and iii) develop a set of climate change scenarios for the basin. In addition, I also quantify the risks and reliabilities in smallholder rain-fed agriculture and demonstrates how available water resources can be utilized to increase crop yields. Key processes and fluxes of CRB's hydrological cycle are amply characterized by the hydrology model. Climate change projections are evaluated using a multi-model ensemble approach under different greenhouse gas emission scenarios. The near-term projections of climate and hydrological fluxes are not affected by emission scenarios. However, towards the mid-21st century, projections are emission scenario dependent. Available freshwater resources are projected to increase in the CRB, except in the semiarid southeast. These increases present new opportunities and challenges for augmenting human appropriation of water resources. By evaluating agricultural water requirements, and timing and availability of precipitation, I challenge the conventional wisdom that low agriculture productivities in the CRB are primarily attributable to nutrient limitation. Results show that

  11. Harnessing Water and Resources from Clay Minerals on Mars and Planetary Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, J. L.

    2017-02-01

    Clay minerals provide a source of water, metals, and cations that can be harvested to provide resources for human exploration on Mars, asteroids, etc. Planning how to access these resources from clays could be a vital component of human exploration.

  12. China will Implement Total Mining Volume Control on Advantageous Mineral Resources Such As Rare Earth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    On the end of January,the Ministry of Land and Resources convened the third round of mineral resource planning compilation work video conference,which made re-mobilization and re-deployment for a new round of planning compilation work.According to report from the China Land and Resources News,the third round of mineral resource plan compilation will place focus on

  13. Thermo-mineral waters from the Cerna Valley Basin (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Povara

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In the south-west of the Southern Carpathians, upstream from the confluence of Cerna with Belareca, an aquifer complex has developed, strongly influenced by hydrogeothermal phenomena, acting within two major geological structures, the Cerna Syncline and the Cerna Graben. The complex consists mainly in Jurassic and Cretaceous carbonate rocks, as well as in the upper part of the Cerna Granite, highly fractured, tectonically sunken into the graben. As a result of the tectonic processes which occurred after the end of the Jurassic-Cretaceous sedimentation cycle, limestones may be encountered at 1100 m altitude in the Mehedinţi Mountains, at 150 ¬¬600 m in the Cerna Syncline or sunken into the Cerna Graben down to depths of 1075 m. In certain sections along Cerna, graben limestones outcrop in an intricate relationship with those of the slopes, facilitating the existence of very large scale uni- or bidirectional hydrodynamic links. The geothermal investigations have shown the existence of some areas with values of the geothermal gradient falling into the 110-200°C/km interval, and temperatures of 13.8-16°C at the depth of 30 m (VELICIU, 1978. The zone with the maximal flux intensity is situated between the Băile Herculane railway station and the Crucea Ghizelei Well, an area where 24 sources (10 wells and 14 springs are known. The geothermal anomaly is also extended to the south (Topleţ, north (Mehadia and north-east (Piatra Puşcată, a fact which is stressed by the existence of hypothermal springs with low mineralization. The physical-chemical parameters of the sources show a strong, north-south, variability. At the entire thermo-mineral reservoir scale, the temperature of the water sources, the total mineralization and the H2S quantity are increasing from the north to the south, and the pH and natural radioactivity are diminishing with the same trend.

  14. Coalbed methane resources of the Appalachian Basin, eastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milici, Robert C.; Hatch, Joseph R.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.

    2010-01-01

    In 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessed the technically recoverable, undiscovered coalbed-gas resources in the Appalachian basin and Black Warrior basin Assessment Provinces as about 15.5 trillion cubic feet. Although these resources are almost equally divided between the two areas, most of the production occurs within relatively small areas within these Provinces, where local geological and geochemical attributes have resulted in the generation and retention of large amounts of methane within the coal beds and have enhanced the producibility of the gas from the coal. In the Appalachian basin, coalbed methane (CBM) tests are commonly commercial where the cumulative coal thickness completed in wells is greater than three meters (10 ft), the depth of burial of the coal beds is greater than 100 m (350 ft), and the coal is in the thermogenic gas window. In addition to the ubiquitous cleating within the coal beds, commercial production may be enhanced by secondary fracture porosity related to supplemental fracture systems within the coal beds. In order to release the methane from microporus coal matrix, most wells are dewatered prior to commercial production of gas. Two Total Petroleum Systems (TPS) were defined by the USGS during the assessment: the Pottsville Coal-bed gas TPS in Alabama, and the Carboniferous Coal-bed Gas TPS in Pennsylvania, Ohio, West Virginia, eastern Kentucky, Virginia, Tennessee, and Alabama. These were divided into seven assessment units, of which three had sufficient data to be assessed. Production rates are higher in most horizontal wells drilled into relatively thick coal beds, than in vertical wells; recovery per unit area is greater, and potential adverse environmental impact is decreased.

  15. Water resources of the Ipswich River basin, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammel, Edward A.; Baker, John Augustus; Brackley, Richard A.

    1966-01-01

    Water resources of the Ipswich River basin are at resent {1960) used principally for municipal supply to about 379,000 person's in 16 towns and cities in or near the river basin. By the year 2000 municipal use of water in this region will probably be more than twice the current use, and subsidiary uses of water, especially for recreation, also will have increased greatly. To meet the projected needs, annual pumpage of water from the Ipswich River could be increased from current maximums of about 12 mgd (million galleons a day) to about 45 mgd without reducing average base flows in the river, provided that the increased withdrawals would be restricted to periods of high streamflow. In addition, considerably more pumpage could be derived from streamflow by utilizing base-flow discharge; however, the magnitude of such use could be determined only in relation to factors such as concurrent ground-water use, the disposal of waste water, and the amount of streamflow required to dilute the pollution load to acceptable levels. Under present conditions, little or no increase in diversion of streamflow would be warranted in the upstream rafts of the basin during the summer and early fall of each year, and only a moderate increase could be made in the lower reaches of the stream during the same period. Annual rainfall in the basin averages about 42.5 inches, and represents the water initially available for use. Of this amount, an average of about 20.5 inches is returned to the a.tmosphere by evapotranspiration. The remainder, about 22 inches, runs off as streamflow in the Ipswich River or is diverted from the basin by pumpage. The average annual stream runoff, amounting to about 47 billion gallons, is a measure of the water actually available for man's use. The amounts of water used by municipalities in recent years are less than 10 percent of the available supply. Large supplies of ground water may be obtained under water-table conditions from the stratified glacial drift

  16. Review of Biohydrometallurgical Metals Extraction from Polymetallic Mineral Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen R. Watling

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This review has as its underlying premise the need to become proficient in delivering a suite of element or metal products from polymetallic ores to avoid the predicted exhaustion of key metals in demand in technological societies. Many technologies, proven or still to be developed, will assist in meeting the demands of the next generation for trace and rare metals, potentially including the broader application of biohydrometallurgy for the extraction of multiple metals from low-grade and complex ores. Developed biotechnologies that could be applied are briefly reviewed and some of the difficulties to be overcome highlighted. Examples of the bioleaching of polymetallic mineral resources using different combinations of those technologies are described for polymetallic sulfide concentrates, low-grade sulfide and oxidised ores. Three areas for further research are: (i the development of sophisticated continuous vat bioreactors with additional controls; (ii in situ and in stope bioleaching and the need to solve problems associated with microbial activity in that scenario; and (iii the exploitation of sulfur-oxidising microorganisms that, under specific anaerobic leaching conditions, reduce and solubilise refractory iron(III or manganese(IV compounds containing multiple elements. Finally, with the successful applications of stirred tank bioleaching to a polymetallic tailings dump and heap bioleaching to a polymetallic black schist ore, there is no reason why those proven technologies should not be more widely applied.

  17. Managing raw materials scarcity : safeguarding the availability of geologically scarce mineral resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henckens, M.L.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    Will the earth be able to keep on providing future generations of sufficient mineral resources, given the growing world population in combination with a growing GDP per world citizen? The research objectives were: To find out what geological scarcity means, which mineral resources are geologically s

  18. Assessment of undiscovered continuous oil resources in the Wolfcamp shale of the Midland Basin, Permian Basin Province, Texas, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Lillis, Paul G.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Le, Phuong A.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Finn, Thomas M.

    2016-11-15

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed technically recoverable mean resources of 20 billion barrels of oil and 16 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Wolfcamp shale in the Midland Basin part of the Permian Basin Province, Texas.

  19. Assessment of raw-mineral resources exploration influence on economic security of russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Gennad’evich Shelomentsev

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the impact of development of mineral resources on the economic security of Russia. The main branch of the national economy, to which mineral resources have a significant impact, are reviewed. The authors examine the economic security in terms of strategictypes of mineralresources of the nationaleconomy and thecompetitiveness of mineralresources and theirreproduction in thelong term, as well as theimpact of mineral resources development on theregionaleconomy. It isconcluded that the primary socioeconomic development of the regions demands, on the one hand, rapid reproduction and development of mineral resources, and on the other hand, infrastructure of thereclaimed subsoil. The paper presents the activities of the state and recommendations on the formation of public policy in the sphere of economic security at the federal, sectoral and regional levels. The findings are based on the evaluation of the role of mineral resources in the leading economies, developing countries and Russia

  20. Mineral Resources of the Antelope Wilderness Study Area, Nye County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardyman, Richard F.; Poole, Forrest G.; Kleinhampl, Frank J.; Turner, Robert L.; Plouff, Donald; Duval, Joe S.; Johnson, Fredrick L.; Benjamin, David A.

    1987-01-01

    margin of the study area have moderate mineral resource potential for gold and silver in sediment-hosted, disseminated, epithermal (low-temperature) gold-silver deposits (fig. 1). These rocks consist of folded and thrust-faulted, fine-grained clastic sediments and limestone and dolomite that locally have been brecciated and hydrothermally altered. The alteration (locally, strong silicification) and geochemical associations of these rocks indicate a favorable environment for such deposits. Exploration for disseminated gold deposits in the same geologic environment is currently being conducted just south of the study area. The remainder of the study area has low resource potential for epithermal gold and silver vein deposits in the Tertiary volcanic rocks. The Cenozoic sedimentary basins adjacent to the fault-bounded mountain block have moderate potential for petroleum resources; the study area itself has low potential for petroleum resources.

  1. Nonfuel mineral resources in the United States-Mexico border region; a progress report on information available from the Center for Inter-American Mineral Resource Investigations (CIMRI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orris, G.J.; Page, N.J.; Staude, J.G.; Bolm, K.S.; Carbonaro, M.M.; Gray, Floyd; Long, K.R.

    1993-01-01

    The exploitation of minerals has played a significant role in population growth and development of the U.S.Mexico border region. Recent proposed changes in regulations related to mining in the United States and changes in mining and investment regulations in Mexico have led to increased mineral exploration and development in Mexico, especially in the border region. As a preliminary step in the study of the mineral industry of this area, the Center for Inter-American Mineral Resource Investigations (CIMRI) of the U.S. Geological Survey has compiled mine and occurrence data for nonfuel minerals in the border region. Analysis of this information indicates that a wide variety of metallic and industrial mineral commodities are present which can be used in agriculture, infrastructure, environmental improvement, and other industries. Therefore, mining will continue to play a significant role in the economy of this region.

  2. Study on the rights and interests value of mineral resources and its evaluation method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hai-bin(刘海滨); RUI Jian-wei(芮建伟)

    2004-01-01

    The rights and interests value of mineral resources includes the prospecting rights value and the mining rights value. The mining rights value is made up of the mineral resources value and the compensation value based on the inputs of capitals and labors in different exploration stage, the prospecting rights value should be equal to exploration differential rent of resources. According to the stage characteristic of mineral resources exploration and development, the initial evaluating methods and models are used to evaluate the prospecting rights and mining rights value.

  3. Oscillation of mineral compositions in Core SG-1b, western Qaidam Basin, NE Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiaomin; Li, Minghui; Wang, Zhengrong; Wang, Jiuyi; Li, Jiao; Liu, Xiaoming; Zan, Jinbo

    2016-09-01

    Uplift of the Tibetan Plateau since the Late Miocene has greatly affected the nature of sediments deposited in the Qaidam Basin. However, due to the scarcity of continuously dated sediment records, we know little about how minerals responded to this uplift. In order to understand this response, we here present results from the high-resolution mineral profile from a borehole (7.3–1.6 Ma) in the Basin, which shows systematic oscillations of various evaporite and clay minerals that can be linked to the variation of regional climate and tectonic history. In particular, x-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses show that carbonate minerals consist mainly of calcite and aragonite, with minor ankerite and dolomite. Evaporates consist of gypsum, celesite and halite. Clay minerals are principally Fe-Mg illite, mixed layers of illite/smectite and chlorite, with minor kaolinite and smectite. Following implications can be drawn from the oscillations of these minerals phases: (a) the paleolake was brackish with high salinity after 7.3 Ma, while an abrupt change in the chemical composition of paleolake water (e.g. Mg/Ca ratio, SO42‑ concentration, salinity) occurred at 3.3 Ma; (b) the three changes at ~6.0 Ma, 4.5–4.1 Ma and 3.3 Ma were in response to rapid erosions/uplift of the basin; (c) pore water or fluid was Fe/Mg-rich in 7.3–6.0 Ma, Mg-rich in 6.0–4.5 Ma, and K-rich in 4.1–1.6 Ma and (d) evaporation rates were high, but weaker than today’s.

  4. Aggregate and Mineral Resources - INDUSTRIAL_MINERALS_POINTS_IN: Industrial Mineral Data in Indiana (Indiana Geological Survey, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — INDUSTRIAL_MINERALS_POINTS_IN is a shapefile that shows the distribution of stratigraphic data for various industrial minerals in Indiana. These data were derived...

  5. Geothermal resources of the northern gulf of Mexico basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, P.H.

    1970-01-01

    Published geothermal gradient maps for the northern Gulf of Mexico basin indicate little or no potential for the development of geothermal resources. Results of deep drilling, from 4000 to 7000 meters or more, during the past decade however, define very sharp increases in geothermal gradient which are associated with the occurrence of abnormally high interstitial fluid pressure (geopressure). Bounded by regional growth faults along the landward margin of the Gulf Basin, the geopressured zone extends some 1300 km from the Rio Grande (at the boundary between the United States and Mexico) to the mouth of the Mississippi river. Gulfward, it extends to an unknown distance across the Continental Shelf. Within geopressured deposits, geothermal gradients range upwards to 100 ??C/km, being greatest within and immediately below the depth interval in which the maximum pressure gradient change occurs. The 120 ??C isogeotherm ranges from about 2500 to 5000 m below sea level, and conforms in a general way with depth of occurrence of the top of the geopressured zone. Measured geostatic ratios range upward to 0.97; the maximum observed temperature is 273 ??C, at a depth of 5859 m. Dehydration of montmorillonite, which comprises 60 to 80 percent of clay deposited in the northern Gulf Basin during the Neogene, occurs at depths where temperature exceeds about 80 ??C, and is generally complete at depths where temperature exceeds 120 ??C. This process converts intracrystalline and bound water to free pore water, the volume produced being roughly equivalent to half the volume of montmorillonite so altered. Produced water is fresh, and has low viscosity and density. Sand-bed aquifers of deltaic, longshore, or marine origin form excellent avenues for drainage of geopressured deposits by wells, each of which may yield 10,000 m3 or more of superheated water per day from reservoirs having pressures up to 1000 bars at depths greater than 5000 m. ?? 1971.

  6. Integrated water resources management in the Ruhr River Basin, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, H; Evers, P; Albrecht, D R

    2003-01-01

    The Ruhr, with an average flow of 80.5 m3/s at its mouth, is a comparatively small tributary to the Rhine River that has to perform an important task: to secure the water supply of more than 5 million people and of the industry in the densely populated region north of the river. The complex water management system and network applied by the Ruhrverband in the natural Ruhr River Basin has been developed step by step, over decades since 1913. And from the beginning, its major goal has been to achieve optimal conditions for the people living in the region. For this purpose, a functional water supply and wastewater disposal infrastructure has been built up. The development of these structures required and still requires multi-dimensional planning and performance. Since the river serves as receiving water and at the same time as a source of drinking water, the above-standard efforts of Ruhrverband for cleaner water also help to conserve nature and wildlife. Ruhrverband has summed up its environmental awareness in the slogan: "For the people and for the environment". This basic water philosophy, successfully applied to the Ruhr for more than 80 years, will be continued in accordance with the new European Water Framework Directive, enacted in 2000, which demands integrated water resources management in natural river basins, by including the good ecological status of surface waterbodies as an additional goal.

  7. Sustainable Management of Mineral Resources-another view on criticality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellmer, F.-W.

    2012-04-01

    Generally investigations of criticality capture the supply risks on one hand and on the other hand the impact on the economy, the vulnerability to supply disruptions. The classification is a relative one and the analyses are always only a snapshot of a dynamic system: in the seventies of the last century chromium was generally considered the most critical metal. Today others are considered far more critical. These are especially the rare earth and the platinum group elements. Regardless in which direction technology develops these elements together with the steel alloy and electronic metal elements will most probably be the decisive elements to produce the high-tech products necessary for the well-being of Europe in the 21st century. These elements- often in small quantities- have a high economic lever effect. In a new research programme of the German Ministry of Education and Research they have been termed, therefore: economic-strategic raw materials. This paper will concentrate not so much on the critical materials as such, but on the factors critical in the background, critical to produce them: water, energy and the social acceptance of mining —the license to operate. From the point of sustainable management of mineral resources an important question with regard to critical aspects is also, how fast and to what extent mankind is able to reactivate the secondary materials in the technosphere to replace resource requirements from the geosphere under the limiting factors to minimize the environmental impact and energy needs. There will always be losses which have to be compensated from the geosphere (thermodynamical impossibility of a 100% closed loop, losses due to different redox potential, losses due to dispersal effects like wear and corrosion), however losses occurring today due to low scrap values can be minimized by better technology. Developments are well under way to replace more and more relative proportions of the major metal needs by material from the

  8. Water resources inventory of Connecticut Part 8: Quinnipiac River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzaferro, David L.; Handman, Elinor H.; Thomas, Mendall P.

    1978-01-01

    potentially available from stratified drift was estimated on the basis of hydraulic characteristics of the aquifers and evaluation of natural and induced recharge. Long-term yields estimated for 14 favorable areas of stratified drift range from 0.8 to 16.1 mgd (million gallons per day), but detailed verification studies are needed before development. The natural quality of water in the report area is good. The water is generally low in dissolved solid and is soft to moderately hard. Surface water is less mineralized than ground water, especially during high flow when it is primarily surface runoff. A median dissolved-solids concentration of 117 mg/l (milligrams per liter) and a median hardness of 58 mg/l was determined for water samples collected at 20 sites on 16 streams during high flow. A median dissolved-solids concentration of 146 mg/l and a median hardness of 82 mg/l was determined for samples collected at the same sites during low flow. In contrast water from 130 wells had a median dissolved-solids concentration of 188 mg/l and a median hardness of 110 mg/l. Iron and manganese occur in objectionable concentrations in parts of the report area, particularly in water from streams draining swamps and in water from aquifers rich in iron- and manganese-bearing minerals. Concentrations of iron in excess of 0.3 mg/l were found in 40 percent of the high-streamflow samples, 59 percent of the low-streamflow samples and 20 percent of the ground-water samples. Human activities have modified the quality of water in much of the basin. Wide and erratic fluctuations in concentration of dissolved solids in streams, high bacterial content of the Quinnipiac River, and locally high nitrate and chloride concentrations in ground water are evidence of man's influence. Streams, wetlands, and some aquifers along the southern boundary of the basin contain salty water. Overpumping has caused extensive saltwater intrusion in aquifers in the southern and eastern parts of New Haven. The total amount

  9. Mineral resources of the Sagebrush Focal Areas of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Warren C.; Frost, Thomas P.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Zientek, Michael L.

    2016-08-19

    Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5089 and accompanying data releases are the products of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Sagebrush Mineral-Resource Assessment (SaMiRA). The assessment was done at the request of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to evaluate the mineral-resource potential of some 10 million acres of Federal and adjacent lands in Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming. The need for this assessment arose from the decision by the Secretary of the Interior to pursue the protection of large tracts of contiguous habitat for the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in the Western United States. One component of the Department of the Interior plan to protect the habitat areas includes withdrawing selected lands from future exploration and development of mineral and energy resources, including copper, gold, silver, rare earth elements, and other commodities used in the U.S. economy. The assessment evaluates the potential for locatable minerals such as gold, copper, and lithium and describes the nature and occurrence of leaseable and salable minerals for seven Sagebrush Focal Areas and additional lands in Nevada (“Nevada additions”) delineated by BLM. Supporting data are available in a series of USGS data releases describing mineral occurrences (the USGS Mineral Deposit Database or “USMIN”), oil and gas production and well status, previous mineral-resource assessments that covered parts of the areas studied, and a compilation of mineral-use cases based on data provided by BLM, as well as results of the locatable mineral-resource assessment in a geographic information system. The present assessment of mineral-resource potential will contribute to a better understanding of the economic and environmental trade-offs that would result from closing approximately 10 million acres of Federal lands to mineral entry.

  10. Mineral supply for sustainable development requires resource governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Saleem H.; Giurco, Damien; Arndt, Nicholas; Nickless, Edmund; Brown, Graham; Demetriades, Alecos; Durrheim, Ray; Enriquez, Maria Amélia; Kinnaird, Judith; Littleboy, Anna; Meinert, Lawrence D.; Oberhänsli, Roland; Salem, Janet; Schodde, Richard; Schneider, Gabi; Vidal, Olivier; Yakovleva, Natalia

    2017-03-01

    Successful delivery of the United Nations sustainable development goals and implementation of the Paris Agreement requires technologies that utilize a wide range of minerals in vast quantities. Metal recycling and technological change will contribute to sustaining supply, but mining must continue and grow for the foreseeable future to ensure that such minerals remain available to industry. New links are needed between existing institutional frameworks to oversee responsible sourcing of minerals, trajectories for mineral exploration, environmental practices, and consumer awareness of the effects of consumption. Here we present, through analysis of a comprehensive set of data and demand forecasts, an interdisciplinary perspective on how best to ensure ecologically viable continuity of global mineral supply over the coming decades.

  11. Porphyry copper assessment of eastern Australia: Chapter L in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Len, Richard A.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Zientek, Michael L.; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Jaireth, Subhash; Cossette, Pamela M.; Wallis, John C.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts national and global assessments of resources (mineral, energy, water, and biologic) to provide science in support of decision making. Mineral resource assessments provide syntheses of available information about where mineral deposits are known and suspected to occur in the Earth’s crust and which commodities may be present, together with estimates of amounts of resources that may be present in undiscovered deposits. The USGS collaborated with geologists of the Geological Survey of New South Wales and Geoscience Australia (formerly the Australian Geological Survey Organisation) on an assessment of Phanerozoic-age porphyry copper resources in Australia. Porphyry copper deposits contain about 11 percent of the identified copper resources in Australia. This study addresses resources of known porphyry copper deposits and expected resources of undiscovered porphyry copper deposits in eastern Australia.

  12. Literature and information related to the natural resources of the North Aleutian Basin of Alaska.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stull, E.A.; Hlohowskyj, I.; LaGory, K. E.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-01-31

    The North Aleutian Basin Planning Area of the Minerals Management Service (MMS) is a large geographic area with significant natural resources. The Basin includes most of the southeastern part of the Bering Sea Outer Continental Shelf, including all of Bristol Bay. The area supports important habitat for a wide variety of species and globally significant habitat for birds and marine mammals, including several federally listed species. Villages and communities of the Alaska Peninsula and other areas bordering or near the Basin rely on its natural resources (especially commercial and subsistence fishing) for much of their sustenance and livelihood. The offshore area of the North Aleutian Basin is considered to have important hydrocarbon reserves, especially natural gas. In 2006, the MMS released a draft proposed program, 'Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Leasing Program, 2007-2012' and an accompanying draft programmatic environmental impact statement (EIS). The draft proposed program identified two lease sales proposed in the North Aleutian Basin in 2010 and 2012, subject to restrictions. The area proposed for leasing in the Basin was restricted to the Sale 92 Area in the southwestern portion. Additional EISs will be needed to evaluate the potential effects of specific lease actions, exploration activities, and development and production plans in the Basin. A full range of updated multidisciplinary scientific information will be needed to address oceanography, fate and effects of oil spills, marine ecosystems, fish, fisheries, birds, marine mammals, socioeconomics, and subsistence in the Basin. Scientific staff at Argonne National Laboratory were contracted to assist MMS with identifying and prioritizing information needs related to potential future oil and gas leasing and development activities in the North Aleutian Basin. Argonne focused on three related tasks: (1) identify and gather relevant literature published since 1996, (2) synthesize and

  13. Overview of the Practical and Theoretical Approaches to the Estimation of Mineral Resources. A Financial Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leontina Pavaloaia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Mineral resources represent an important natural resource whose exploitation, unless it is rational, can lead to their exhaustion and the collapse of sustainable development. Given the importance of mineral resources and the uncertainty concerning the estimation of extant reserves, they have been analyzed by several national and international institutions. In this article we shall present a few aspects concerning the ways to approach the reserves of mineral resources at national and international level, by considering both economic aspects and those aspects concerned with the definition, classification and aggregation of the reserves of mineral resources by various specialized institutions. At present there are attempts to homogenize practices concerning these aspects for the purpose of presenting correct and comparable information.

  14. Ancient bronze coins from Mediterranean basin: LAMQS potentiality for lead isotopes comparative analysis with former mineral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrisi, L.; Italiano, A.; Torrisi, A.

    2016-11-01

    Bronze coins coming from the area of the Mediterranean basin, dated back the II-X Cent. A.D., were analyzed using different physical analytical techniques. Characteristic X-ray fluorescence was used with electrons and photons, in order to investigate the elemental composition of both the surface layers and bulk. Moreover, the quadrupole mass spectrometry coupled to laser ablation (LAMQS technique) in high vacuum was used to analyse typical material compounds from surface contamination. Mass spectrometry, at high resolution and sensitivity, extended up to 300 amu, allowed measuring the 208Pb/206Pb and 207Pb/206Pb isotopic ratios into the coins. Quantitative relative analyses of these isotopic ratios identify the coin composition such as a "fingerprint" depending on the mineral used to extract the lead. Isotopic ratios in coins can be compared to those of the possible minerals used to produce the bronze alloy. A comparison between the measured isotope ratios in the analyzed coins and the literature database, related to the mineral containing Pb as a function of its geological and geophysical extraction mine, is presented. The analysis, restricted to old coins and the mines of the Mediterranean basin, indicates a possible correlation between the coin compositions and the possible geological sites of the extracted mineral.

  15. Study on the discontinuance evalution theory of the minerals resource construction item

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Guo-chen; REN Feng-yu; ZHONG Wei-qing

    2008-01-01

    The period of the minerals resource construction items is very long, which af-fected largely by the changeable market. The discontinuance evalution theory and content of construction item about the resource used up and economic evalution theories of the invest were brought forward from the two aspects of the resource using value and the in-come rate.

  16. The Ministry of Land and Natural Resources is Preparing to Delete the Approval Right for Mineral Resources Geological Prospecting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>Yu Haifeng, Deputy Director of Geological Prospecting Department and Executive Deputy Director of the Mineral Prospecting Office under the Ministry of Land and Natural Resources, disclosed at the recently concluded National Prospecting Meeting for 2013 that, the Ministry of Land and Natural Resources is con

  17. Ministry of Land and Resources Plans to Find Out Support Capabilities of Mineral Resources including Copper, Lead, Zinc and Nickel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>On September 10,the Ministry of Land and Resources(MLR)revealed on its website that it decided to carry out a research on the support capability of main mineral resources in China for national economy and social development by 2020,2025 and 2030.According to MLR,China’s research and argumentation on support capacity of important

  18. Proceedings for a Workshop on Deposit Modeling, Mineral Resource Assessment, and Their Role in Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briskey, Joseph A.; Schulz, Klaus J.

    2007-01-01

    Preface The world's use of nonfuel mineral resources continues to increase to support a growing population and increasing standards of living. The ability to meet this increasing demand is affected especially by concerns about possible environmental degradation associated with minerals production and by competing land uses. What information does the world need to support global minerals development in a sustainable way? Informed planning and decisions concerning sustainability and future mineral resource supply require a long-term perspective and an integrated approach to resource, land use, economic, and environmental management worldwide. Such perspective and approach require unbiased information on the global distribution of identified and especially undiscovered resources, the economic and political factors influencing their development, and the potential environmental consequences of their exploitation. The U.S. Geological Survey and the former Deposit Modeling Program of the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) sponsored a workshop on 'Deposit Modeling, Mineral Resource Assessment, and Their Role in Sustainable Development' at the 31st International Geological Congress (IGC) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, on August 18-19, 2000. The purpose of the workshop was to review the state-of-the-art in mineral deposit modeling and resource assessment and to examine the role of global assessments of nonfuel mineral resources in sustainable development. The workshop addressed questions such as the following: Which of the available mineral deposit models and assessment methods are best suited for predicting the locations, deposit types, and amounts of undiscovered nonfuel mineral resources remaining in the world? What is the availability of global geologic, mineral deposit, and mineral exploration information? How can mineral resource assessments be used to address economic and

  19. Composition of sandstone and heavy minerals implies the provenance of Kuqa Depression in Jurassic, Tarim basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Chaodong; LIN Changsong; SHEN Yanping; FENG Xue

    2005-01-01

    The petrological characteristics and heavy mineral assembly of the Jurassic System in Kuqa Basin are consistent with the tectonic evolution, which is the major factor controlling the filling process of Kuqa Basin. Controlled by the source areas at the both sides of the Basin, the matrixes are dominated by sedimentary rock, high-grade metamorphic rock, acid magmatic rock, and the highest heavy mineral assemblage of zircon-garnet-magnetite in the content. According to heavy mineral indexes, the Jurassic strata can be classified into three rhythmic units of heavy mineral. The lower sequence contains abundant heavy minerals and relatively high content of detritus and its matrixes primarily came form the recycling orogen. The assemblage of "zircon-garnet-magnetite" indicates that the sedimentary area in the early evolution period of the basin is relatively near the provenance. The middle sequence is different from the lower sequence in the heavy mineral assemblage and has the different characteristics from that of source rock. The heavy mineral assemblage is "garnet-zircon" with the highest content of garnet and its main matrices are the high-grade metamorphic rock, acid magmatic rock and hydrothermal vein at the northeastern edge of the basin. The middle and upper sequences are characterized by the clast provenance, which is primarily from the recycling orogen at the northern edge of the basin and secondarily from the southern uplift. As a result of the two provenances, the strata with apparent changes of heavy mineral assemblage and index better coincides with the interfaces of the secondary strata sequences, which reflects the denudation history and the filling process of the orogen at the northern edge of the basin.

  20. Arc-related porphyry molybdenum deposit model: Chapter D in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ryan D.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R., II

    2012-01-01

    This report provides a descriptive model for arc-related porphyry molybdenum deposits. Presented within are geological, geochemical, and mineralogical characteristics that differentiate this deposit type from porphyry copper and alkali-feldspar rhyolite-granite porphyry molybdenum deposits. The U.S. Geological Survey's effort to update existing mineral deposit models spurred this research, which is intended to supplement previously published models for this deposit type that help guide mineral-resource and mineral-environmental assessments.

  1. ADVANCES IN HYDROGEOCHEMICAL INDICATORS FOR THE DISCOVERY OF NEW GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES IN THE GREAT BASIN, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, Stuart F [Colorado School of Mines; Spycher, Nicolas [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Sonnenthal, Eric [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Dobson, Patrick [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    2013-05-20

    This report summarizes the results of Phase I work for a go/no go decision on Phase II funding. In the first objective, we assessed the extent to which fluid-mineral equilibria controlled deep water compositions in geothermal systems across the Great Basin. Six systems were evaluated: Beowawe; Desert Peak; Dixie Valley; Mammoth; Raft River; Roosevelt. These represent a geographic spread of geothermal resources, in different geological settings and with a wide range of fluid compositions. The results were used for calibration/reformulation of chemical geothermometers that reflect the reservoir temperatures in producing reservoirs. In the second objective, we developed a reactive -transport model of the Desert Peak hydrothermal system to evaluate the processes that affect reservoir fluid geochemistry and its effect on solute geothermometry. This included testing geothermometry on “reacted” thermal water originating from different lithologies and from near-surface locations where the temperature is known from the simulation. The integrated multi-component geothermometer (GeoT, relying on computed mineral saturation indices) was tested against the model results and also on the systems studied in the first objective.

  2. Historical perspectives: the European commercial exploitation of Arctic mineral resources after 1500 AD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruse, Frigga

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the commercial exploitation of Arctic mineral resources by European newcomers to the region. Minerals in demand were extracted in the North and transported to European markets for financial gain. This practice is bound up in the wider colonial history of the North and its disco

  3. Mineral waters of the Pannonian basin spas in the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimo Atila

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The fact itself that thermo-mineral waters and mud have healing effects has always attracted attention throughout the history to exploit, explore and study their benefit on the human body. Modern lifestyle and the speed of life endanger man’s psycho-physical health. This is why people more often return to old time proven values, the nature and natural health resorts. Objective. To establish hydro-geological conditions for the formation of mineral water and to summarize their balneological characteristics in spas, i.e., in rehabilitation centres of the Pannonian basin of the Republic of Serbia, where underground waters are still actively exploited for balneotherapy. Methods. By retrospective descriptive analysis, a recapitulation of hydro-geological conditions for the formation of mineral waters was made and their balneological characteristics were established in eight spas of the Pannonian basin. Results. The healing spas of the Pannonian basin are predominated by HCO3 (2.9 g/l - 4.6% milival, iodic (up to 6.5 mg/l, slightly alkaline (pH up to 8.1 thermal-mineral water (temperature up to 72°C, bounty to 36.6 l/s with a significant content of Br (up to 8.1 mg/l, Fe (to 6.0 mg/l, metaboron (up to 60 mg/l and metasilicon acid (up to 95 mg/l. They are used for external application, bathing and showering. Conclusion. Once the Pannonian Sea (the Paratethys, today a wide plain terrain is a tectonic depression of the lower Pannonian pont age with compact type aquifers. In the geological column of sedimentary rocks a large underground aquifer was formed with free water of high mineralization, high temperature and geothermal properties above the average in relation to the European hydrogeological standards. Therefore, the Pannonian basin can be rightly called a thermal valley with the predominance of sodium hydro-carbonate (alkaline iodine healing water of enviable abundance and reserves.

  4. Mineral composite assessment of Kelkit River Basin in Turkey by means of remote sensing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hakan Mete Dogan

    2009-12-01

    Utilizing remote sensing (RS) and geographic information systems (GIS) tools, mineral composite characteristics (ferrous minerals (FM), iron oxide (IO), and clay minerals (CM)) of the Kelkit River Basin (15913.07 km2) in Turkey were investigated and mapped. Mineral composite (MC) index maps were produced from three LANDSAT-ETM+ satellite images taken in 2000. Resulting MC index maps were summarized in nine classes by using ‘natural breaks’ classification method in GIS. Employing bi-variety correlation analysis, relationships among index maps were investigated. According to the results, FM and IO index maps showed positive correlation, while CM index map is negatively correlated with FM and IO index maps. Negative correlations between iron and clay variables suggested that the dominant clay minerals of the study area might be smectite, illite, kaolinite, and chlorite, which have little or no iron content. Using field data for which their geographic coordinates had been determined by global positioning system (GPS), developed MC maps were verified, and found dependable for environmental and ecological modeling studies.

  5. Mineral resources of the southern half of Zone III Santander, Norte de Santander and Boyaca, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Dwight Edward; Goldsmith, Richard; Cruz, Bruna B.; Restrepo, Jaime; Hernan, A.

    1970-01-01

    are being explored and sampled at the present time (1969). A little lead has been mined and smelted in the past but operations were on a very small scale and of short duration. Small amounts of lead, zinc, and copper minerals accompany dolomite replacement of Cretaceous limestone in a few scattered places, and several promising prospects are being investigated by means of trenches and drilling. One magnetite and several hematite prospects were examined but none offers any potential for economic development. Thick beds of gypsum in Lower Cretaceous limestone on Mesa de Los Santos, south of Bucaramanga are being quarried from outcrops for use in cement manufacture. The deposit was discovered shortly before the present project began, and although its extent beneath overlying strata is not yet determined by drilling, it appears to be in a small evaporite basin of about three kilometers in radius. Reserves of gypsum are large, but future development will have to be by underground mining. Outcrops of Cretaceous limestone of high purity are widespread and are more than adequate to meet all demands, which at present are for cement and calcined lime, road construction material, and to a small extent for agricultural lime and polished decorative stone. Upper Paleozoic limestone of the Diamante Formation crops out in a few places; it has been used near Bucaramanga for cement manufacture. Marble is present in several localities of the Santander massif in Lower Paleozoic and Devonian rocks. Impurities, fractures, and solution cavities render most of it unsuitable for decorative purposes, but selected parts are used in floor tile and terrazo. Recrystallized limestone of the Diamante Formation in the same area, usually referred to as marble, is of uniform high purity throughout a thick and uninterrupted section, and offers a good source of limestone raw material. A little is now used for agricultural lime. The potential of this resource has not been fully evalua

  6. Mapping the Mineral Resource Base for Mineral Carbon-Dioxide Sequestration in the Conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krevor, S.C.; Graves, C.R.; Van Gosen, B. S.; McCafferty, A.E.

    2009-01-01

    This database provides information on the occurrence of ultramafic rocks in the conterminous United States that are suitable for sequestering captured carbon dioxide in mineral form, also known as mineral carbon-dioxide sequestration. Mineral carbon-dioxide sequestration is a proposed greenhouse gas mitigation technology whereby carbon dioxide (CO2) is disposed of by reacting it with calcium or magnesium silicate minerals to form a solid magnesium or calcium carbonate product. The technology offers a large capacity to permanently store CO2 in an environmentally benign form via a process that takes little effort to verify or monitor after disposal. These characteristics are unique among its peers in greenhouse gas disposal technologies. The 2005 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage suggested that a major gap in mineral CO2 sequestration is locating the magnesium-silicate bedrock available to sequester the carbon dioxide. It is generally known that silicate minerals with high concentrations of magnesium are suitable for mineral carbonation. However, no assessment has been made in the United States that details their geographical distribution and extent, nor has anyone evaluated their potential for use in mineral carbonation. Researchers at Columbia University and the U.S. Geological Survey have developed a digital geologic database of ultramafic rocks in the conterminous United States. Data were compiled from varied-scale geologic maps of magnesium-silicate ultramafic rocks. The focus of our national-scale map is entirely on ultramafic rock types, which typically consist primarily of olivine- and serpentine-rich rocks. These rock types are potentially suitable as source material for mineral CO2 sequestration.

  7. Assessment of continuous oil resources in the Wolfcamp shale of the Midland Basin, Permian Basin Province, Texas, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaswirth, Stephanie B.

    2017-03-06

    The U.S. Geological Survey completed a geology-based assessment of undiscovered, technically recoverable continuous petroleum resources in the Wolfcamp shale in the Midland Basin part of the Permian Basin Province of west Texas. This is the first U.S. Geological Survey evaluation of continuous resources in the Wolfcamp shale in the Midland Basin. Since the 1980s, the Wolfcamp shale in the Midland Basin has been part of the “Wolfberry” play. This play has traditionally been developed using vertical wells that are completed and stimulated in multiple productive stratigraphic intervals that include the Wolfcamp shale and overlying Spraberry Formation. Since the shift to horizontal wells targeting the organic-rich shale of the Wolfcamp, more than 3,000 horizontal wells have been drilled and completed in the Midland Basin Wolfcamp section. The U.S. Geological Survey assessed technically recoverable mean resources of 20 billion barrels of oil and 16 trillion cubic feet of associated gas in the Wolfcamp shale in the Midland Basin.

  8. Water resources and ecological conditions in the Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG; Yudong(宋郁东); WANG; Ranghui(王让会); PENG; Yongsheng(彭永生)

    2002-01-01

    Temporal sequential analyses of the hydrological observational data in the Tarim Ba-sin over the last forty years revealed an annual increase of 2 × 107m3 in the water quantities at thethree headstreams of the upper courses and an annual decrease of 3 × 107m3 in the water flowfrom Alaer, which is on the upper main stream. A prediction of the trends indicates that there canbe severe situations under which intermittent water interceptions occur. By means of approximateestimations on vegetative water consumption through phreatic evaporation combined with a quotaassessment, the ecological water demands required to maintain the ecological environment in themainstream area over the three different targeted years of 2005, 2010 and 2030 are defined asstanding at 31.86× 108m3, 36.27× 108m3 and 41.04× 108m3 respectively. Ecological fragility in-dexes are established on the basis of the selection of environmental sensitivity factors. Rationalevaluations give proof that the lower reaches of the mainstream have already turned into zoneswhere their ecological environments are gravely damaged. Multi-objective optimization should beconducted and protective schemes be framed within the threshold limits of the bearing capacitiesof water resources and the environment.

  9. Biofuel Expansion and Water Resources in the Ivinhema Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libra, J. M.; King, C.; Xavier, A.; Scanlon, B. R.

    2014-12-01

    Brazil produces approximately a quarter the world's yearly ethanol demand, making it a global leader in biofuel production. The repercussions for local water resources in areas of intensive biofuel expansion, however, remain uncertain. To assess the effects of various land-use change scenarios on water sustainability in Brazil, this study models a small catchment currently experiencing soybean and sugarcane expansion using the Stockholm Environment Institute's Water Evaluation and Planning software (WEAP). The catchment, the Ivinhema basin in Southern Mato Grosso do Sul, has experienced extensive sugarcane expansion since the mid-1990s - a trend that is expected to continue. The model uses climatic data, soil characteristics, and agricultural production trends in the region from 1990 - 2012 to simulate known streamflows, using the WEAP-MABIA method. The model predicts flow impacts under a number of different future climatic and land-use scenarios. The results will be used to inform the ICONE's Brazil Land Use Model (BLUM), which models the economics of land use.

  10. Geology and mineral resources of central Antioquia Department (Zone IIA), Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, R.B.; Alvarez A., Jairo; Rico H., Hector

    1973-01-01

    Antioquian batholith. Displacement along the great Romeral wrench fault may have begun in the Cretaceous. Plutonism continued into the Cenozoic, exemplified by the hornblende-diorite Sabanalarga pluton. Intermontane basins were filled with molasse derived from the erosion of adjacent highlands; Tertiary sedimentation in marshy areas included organic carboniferous matter subsequently converted to lignite or subbituminous coal. The Sabanalarga fault system originated in the Late Tertiary; intermittent displacement continued on the older wrench faults such as the Romeral. Epeirogenic uplift, which probably began in the Pliocene and continued through the Pleistocene and Holocene, brought on renewed erosion which has sculptured the mountains into their present form. Mineral resources in subzone IIA are varied but not of outstanding importance. Gold and silver mining, significant in past centuries, is minor today. Ferruginous laterite on serpentinite once considered as a potential source of iron ore is not economically exploitable. IMN has explored nickeliferous laterite at the extreme northwest corner of subzone IIA; this is a potential resource, exploitable only after exhaustion of the larger and richer nickel laterite deposit at Cerro Matoso, farther to the north and outside the boundaries of Zone If. Known deposits of mercury, chromium, manganese, and copper are small, with limited economic potential. Nonmetallic resources include raw materials for cement, including portland cement. Saprolite clay is widely used in making common red brick and tile, still a dominant construction material in all but the most modern multistory buildings. Aggregate materials are varied and abundant. Kaolin of good quality near La Union is important as a ceramic raw mineral filler. Tertiary subbituminous coal beds are an important energy resource in western subzone IIA, and have a good potential for greater development. Deposits of sodic feldspar, talc, decorative stone, and silica a

  11. U.S. Geological Survey Energy and Minerals science strategy: a resource lifecycle approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Richard C.; Kolak, Jonathan J.; Bills, Donald J.; Bowen, Zachary H.; Cordier, Daniel J.; Gallegos, Tanya J.; Hein, James R.; Kelley, Karen D.; Nelson, Philip H.; Nuccio, Vito F.; Schmidt, Jeanine M.; Seal, Robert R., II

    2013-01-01

    The economy, national security, and standard of living of the United States depend heavily on adequate and reliable supplies of energy and mineral resources. Based on population and consumption trends, the Nation’s use of energy and minerals can be expected to grow, driving the demand for ever broader scientific understanding of resource formation, location, and availability. In addition, the increasing importance of environmental stewardship, human health, and sustainable growth places further emphasis on energy and mineral resources research and understanding. Collectively, these trends in resource demand and the interconnectedness among resources will lead to new challenges and, in turn, require cutting- edge science for the next generation of societal decisions. The long and continuing history of U.S. Geological Survey contributions to energy and mineral resources science provide a solid foundation of core capabilities upon which new research directions can grow. This science strategy provides a framework for the coming decade that capitalizes on the growth of core capabilities and leverages their application toward new or emerging challenges in energy and mineral resources research, as reflected in five interrelated goals.

  12. Research and application of mineral resources assessment by weights of evidence model based on SIG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuanyuan Chuai; Keyan Xiao; Yihua Xuan; Shaobin Zhan

    2006-01-01

    Geological data are usually of the characteristics of multi-source, large amount and multi-scale. The construction of Spatial Information Grid overcomes the shortages of personal computers when dealing with geological data. The authors introduce the definition, architecture and flow of mineral resources assessment by weights of evidence model based on Spatial Information Grid (SIG). Meanwhile, a case study on the prediction of copper mineral occurrence in the Middle-Lower Yangtze metallogenic belt is given. The results show that mineral resources assessement based on SIG is an effective new method which provides a way of sharing and integrating distributed geospatial information and improves the efficiency greatly.

  13. Sustainability of Water Resources in Arid Ecosystems: A View from Hei River Basin, China (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, C.; Cheng, G.; Xiao, H.; Ma, R.

    2009-12-01

    The northwest of China is characterized by an arid climate and fragile ecosystems. With irrigated agriculture, the region is a prolific producer of cotton, wheat, and maize with some of the highest output per acre in the country. The region is also rich in ore deposits, with the reserves of numerous minerals ranked at or near the top in the country. However, the sustainability of irrigated agriculture and economic development in the region is threaten by severe eco-environmental problems resulting from both global changes and human activities, such as desertification, salinization, groundwater depletion, and dust storms. All these problems are a direct consequence of water scarcity. As global warming accelerates and rapid economic growth continues, the water shortage crisis is expected to worsen. To improve the bleak outlook for the health of ecosystem and environment in northwest China, the Chinese government has invested heavily in ecosystem restoration and watershed management in recent years. However, the effectiveness of such measures and actions depends on scientific understanding of the complex interplays among ecological, hydrological and socioeconomic factors. This presentation is intended to provide an overview of a major new research initiative supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China to study the integration of ecological principles, hydrological processes and socioeconomic considerations toward more sustainable exploitation of surface water and groundwater resources in the Hei River Basin in northwest China. The Hei River Basin is an inland watershed located at the center of the arid region in East Asia, stretching from Qilianshan Mountains in the south to the desert in the north bordering China’s Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region and Mongolia. The total area of Hei River Basin is approximately 130,000 km2. The research initiative builds on existing research infrastructure and ecohydrological data and seeks to reveal complex

  14. Analysis of stream sediment reconnaissance data for mineral resources from the Montrose NTMS Quadrangle, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyth, M.; Broxton, D.; McInteer, C.; Averett, W.R.; Stablein, N.K.

    1980-06-01

    Multivariate statistical analysis to support the National Uranium Resource Evaluation and to evaluate strategic and other commercially important mineral resources was carried out on Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance data from the Montrose quadrangle, Colorado. The analysis suggests that: (1) the southern Colorado Mineral Belt is an area favorable for uranium mineral occurrences; (2) carnotite-type occurrences are likely in the nose of the Gunnison Uplift; (3) uranium mineral occurrences may be present along the western and northern margins of the West Elk crater; (4) a base-metal mineralized area is associated with the Uncompahgre Uplift; and (5) uranium and base metals are associated in some areas, and both are often controlled by faults trending west-northwest and north.

  15. Occurrence model for volcanogenic beryllium deposits: Chapter F in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Nora K.; Hofstra, Albert H.; Lindsey, David A.; Seal, Robert R., II; Jaskula, Brian W.; Piatak, Nadine M.

    2012-01-01

    Current global and domestic mineral resources of beryllium (Be) for industrial uses are dominated by ores produced from deposits of the volcanogenic Be type. Beryllium deposits of this type can form where hydrothermal fluids interact with fluorine and lithophile-element (uranium, thorium, rubidium, lithium, beryllium, cesium, tantalum, rare earth elements, and tin) enriched volcanic rocks that contain a highly reactive lithic component, such as carbonate clasts. Volcanic and hypabyssal high-silica biotite-bearing topaz rhyolite constitutes the most well-recognized igneous suite associated with such Be deposits. The exemplar setting is an extensional tectonic environment, such as that characterized by the Basin and Range Province, where younger topaz-bearing igneous rock sequences overlie older dolomite, quartzite, shale, and limestone sequences. Mined deposits and related mineralized rocks at Spor Mountain, Utah, make up a unique economic deposit of volcanogenic Be having extensive production and proven and probable reserves. Proven reserves in Utah, as reported by the U.S. Geological Survey National Mineral Information Center, total about 15,900 tons of Be that are present in the mineral bertrandite (Be4Si2O7(OH)2). At the type locality for volcanogenic Be, Spor Mountain, the tuffaceous breccias and stratified tuffs that host the Be ore formed as a result of explosive volcanism that brought carbonate and other lithic fragments to the surface through vent structures that cut the underlying dolomitic Paleozoic sedimentary rock sequences. The tuffaceous sediments and lithic clasts are thought to make up phreatomagmatic base surge deposits. Hydrothermal fluids leached Be from volcanic glass in the tuff and redeposited the Be as bertrandite upon reaction of the hydrothermal fluid with carbonate clasts in lithic-rich sections of tuff. The localization of the deposits in tuff above fluorite-mineralized faults in carbonate rocks, together with isotopic evidence for the

  16. Preliminary Assessment of Non-Fuel Mineral Resources of Afghanistan, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Afghanistan has abundant mineral resources, including known deposits of copper, iron, barite, sulfur, talc, chromium, magnesium, salt, mica, marble, rubies, emeralds, lapis lazuli, asbestos, nickel, mercury, gold and silver, lead, zinc, fluorspar, bauxite, beryllium, and lithium (fig. 1). Between 2005 and 2007, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) funded a cooperative study by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Afghanistan Geological Survey (AGS) to assess the non-fuel mineral resources of Afghanistan as part of the effort to aid in the reconstruction of that country. An assessment is an estimation or evaluation, in this instance of undiscovered non-fuel mineral resources. Mineral resources are materials that are in such form that economic extraction of a commodity is currently or potentially feasible. In this assessment, teams of scientists from the USGS and the AGS compiled information about known mineral deposits and then evaluated the possible occurrence of undiscovered deposits of all types. Quantitative probabilistic estimates were made for undiscovered deposits of copper, mercury, rare-earth elements, sulfur, chromite, asbestos, potash, graphite, and sand and gravel. These estimates were made for undiscovered deposits at depths less than a kilometer. Other deposit types were considered and discussed in the assessment, but quantitative estimates of numbers of undiscovered deposits were not made. In addition, the assessment resulted in the delineation of 20 mineralized areas for further study, of which several may contain resources amenable to rapid development.

  17. Mineral resource of the month: cultured quartz crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2008-01-01

    The article presents information on cultured quartz crystals, a mineral used in mobile phones, computers, clocks and other devices controlled by digital circuits. Cultured quartz, which is synthetically produced in large pressurized vessels known as autoclaves, is useful in electronic circuits for precise filtration, frequency control and timing for consumer and military use. Several ingredients are used in producing cultured quartz, including seed crystals, lascas, a solution of sodium hydroxide or sodium carbonate, lithium salts and deionized water.

  18. Mineral resource of the month: platinum group metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loferski, Patricia J.

    2010-01-01

    The article focuses on platinum group metals (PGMs) and their properties. According to the author, PGMs, which include iridium, osmium, palladium, platinum, rhodium, and ruthenium, are among the rarest mineral commodities in the Earth's crust. PGMs are primarily used as catalytic converters that clean harmful exhaust from vehicle engines. They are also used in the chemical industry as catalysts in the production of nitric acid and in the petroleum refining industry.

  19. Geophysical investigation of a mineral groundwater resource in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiero, Daniele; Godio, Alberto; Naldi, Mario; Yigit, Ercan

    2010-08-01

    The hydrogeological conditions in Uludag (Nilufer River catchment, Bursa, Turkey) were assessed, using time-domain electromagnetic soundings, electrical resistivity and induced polarisation tomography, to detect the most promising zones for new water-well siting, in order to increase the quantity of water for bottling. The hydrogeological model is quite complex: deep mineral and thermal water rises from a main vertical fault which separates two lithological complexes. The highly mineralised (deep) water is naturally mixed with low mineralised water at a shallow depth, 30-40 m; the mixed mineral water is found in some surface springs and shallow wells, while the highly mineralised water is found at depth in some unused deep wells located close to the main fault. All the water points (springs and wells) are located inside a “mineral water belt” on the north side of the Nilufer River. The geophysical survey confirmed the hydrogeological model and highlighted four promising zones for well siting (zones with very low electrical resistivity and high induced polarisation anomalies, corresponding to the main water-bearing faults). One of the geophysical anomalies, the furthest from the exploited sources, was verified by means of a test well; the drilling results have confirmed the water mixing model.

  20. MLR will Continue to Control the Total Exploitation Quantity of Advantageous Mineral Resources Including Rare Earth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>According to Wang Min,Vice Minister of Land and Resources and chief of China Geological Survey,for some time to come the MLR will continue to implement the policy of controlling the total exploitation quantity of advantageous mineral resources,exercising

  1. Discussion on origin of clay minerals in outcropped sandstone from Lower Cretaceous Chengzihe Formation and Muling Formation in Jixi Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jianying; LIU Li; QU Xiyu

    2009-01-01

    Clay minerals in the outcropped sandstone from Lower Cretaceous Chengzihe Formation and Muling Formation in Jixi Basin were analyzed by X-ray diffraction. The results show that the clay minerals mainly consist of illite, kaollinite and illite/smectite, which can be divided into two types: kaolinite- and illite/smectite types. The outcropped sandstone occurred in middle diagenetic stage-A on the basis of the clay mineral composition. The development factor of the formation of kaolinite type clay mineral is caused mainly by the organic acid from the coal-bearing formation and mudstone during the diagenesis process in Lower Cretaceous Chengzihe Formation and Muling Formation in the Jixi Basin. The weak hydrodynamic force of sedimentary facies made the sandstone leaching condition poor, which is the reason forming the aggregation of clay minerals of the illite/smectite-and illite types.

  2. Assessment of continuous oil and gas resources of the Cooper Basin, Australia, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Le, Phuong A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2016-07-15

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean continuous resources of 482 million barrels of oil and 29.8 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Cooper Basin of Australia.

  3. Water Resources Inventory and Assessment for Kern National Wildlife Refuge and Tulare Basin Wildlife Management Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment report for Kern National Wildlife Refuge and Tulare Basin Wildlife Management Area describes hydrologic information,...

  4. Assessment of Permian coalbed gas resources of the Karoo Basin Province, South Africa and Lesotho, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Klett, Timothy R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2017-02-21

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resources of 5.27 trillion cubic feet of coalbed gas in the Karoo Basin Province.

  5. Final unioned polygon coverage used in coal resource calculations, San Juan Basin, CO and NM (sjbfing)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a shapefile and the final unioned polygon coverage used to calculate coal resources of the Fruitland Formation, San Juan Basin coal assessment area, Colorado...

  6. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Lusitanian Basin Province, Portugal, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Klett, Timothy R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Le, Phuong A.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Paxton, Stanley T.

    2016-11-04

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed mean undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 121 million barrels of oil and 212 billion cubic feet of gas in the Lusitanian Basin Province, Portugal.

  7. Raster Dataset Model of Nahcolite Resources in the Piceance Basin, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — ESRI GRID raster datasets were created to display and quantify nahcolite resources for eight oil shale zones in the Piceance Basin, Colorado as part of a 2009...

  8. Assessment of coalbed gas resources of the Central and South Sumatra Basin Provinces, Indonesia, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Finn, Thomas M.

    2016-12-09

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean of 20 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered, technically recoverable coalbed gas resource in the Central and South Sumatra Basin Provinces of Indonesia.

  9. Faults in the Hanna and Carbon Basins, from 1999 National Coal Resource Assessment (hbcbfltg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This ArcView shapefile contains a line representation of the major faults in the Hanna and Carbon Basin areas. The shapefile is part of the National Coal resource...

  10. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of the Cooper and Eromanga Basins, Australia, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Le, Phuong A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Pitman, Janet K.

    2016-05-12

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean conventional resources of 68 million barrels of oil and 964 billion cubic feet of gas in the Cooper and Eromanga Basins of Australia.

  11. Progress Report on the fish and wildlife resources of Virginia Lake Basin, Territory of Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is a progress report on the fish and wildlife resources of Virginia Lake Basin. This report specifically looks at the potential for hydroelectric power...

  12. Potential mineral resources, Payette National Forest, Idaho: description and probabilistic estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Johnson, Bruce R.; Cookro, Theresa M.; Lund, Karen; Watts, Kenneth C.; King, Harley D.; Kleinkopf, Merlin D.; Pitkin, James A.; Sanchez, J. David; Causey, J. Douglas

    1998-01-01

    The Payette National Forest (PNF), in west-central Idaho, is geologically diverse and contains a wide variety of mineral resources. Mineral deposit types are grouped into locatable, leasable, and salable categories. The PNF has substantial past production and identified resources of locatable commodities, including gold, silver, copper, zinc, tungsten, antimony, mercury, and opal. Minor lignitic coal is the only leasable mineral resource known to be present in the PNF. Resources of salable commodities in the PNF include sand-and-gravel, basalt for crushed-rock aggregate, and minor gypsum. Locatable mineral resources are geographically divided between eastern and western parts of the PNF. The western PNF lies west of the Riggins-to-Cascade highway (US 95 - Idaho 55), and the eastern PNF is east of that highway. The western and eastern parts of the PNF are geologically distinctive and have different types of locatable mineral deposits, so their locatable mineral resources are described separately. Within the western and eastern parts of the PNF, locatable deposit types generally are described in order of decreasing geologic age. An expert panel delineated tracts considered geologically permissive and (or) favorable for the occurrence of undiscovered mineral deposits of types that are known to be present within or near the PNF. The panel also estimated probabilities for undiscovered deposits, and used numerical simulation, based on tonnage-grade distribution models, to derive estimates of in-situ metals contained. These estimates are summarized in terms of mean and median measures of central tendency. Most grade and tonnage distributions appear to be log-normal, with the median lower than the mean. Inasmuch as the mean is influenced by the largest deposits in the model tonnage-grade distribution, the median provides a lower measure of central tendency and a more conservative estimation of undiscovered resources.

  13. OIL RESOURCES EXPLORATION AND POTENTIAL OF QAIDAM BASIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Chengming; Jiang Bo; Han Qinpeng; Wu Jianfeng

    2007-01-01

    @@ Located in the northern Qinghai-Tibet plateau, Qaidam Basin is surrounded by the East Kunlun Mountains in the south, Qilian Mountains in the north, and Altun Mountains in the west. With an area of 121,000 square kilometers (km2), Qaidam Basin is about 850 kilometers (km) long from east to west and 150~300 km wide from south to north.

  14. Evolution of the Pannonian basin and its geothermal resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horváth, F.; Musitz, B.; Balázs, A.; Végh, A.; Uhrin, A.; Nádor, A.; Koroknai, B.; Pap, N.; Tóth, T.; Wórum, G.

    2015-01-01

    The Pannonian basin is an integral part of the convergence zone between the Eurasian and Nubian plates characterized by active subductions of oceanic and continental plates, and formation of backarc basins. The first part of this paper presents an overview of the evolution of the Alpine-Mediterranea

  15. Stratiform chromite deposit model: Chapter E in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Ruth F.; Taylor, Ryan D.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R., II

    2012-01-01

    A new descriptive stratiform chromite deposit model was prepared which will provide a framework for understanding the characteristics of stratiform chromite deposits worldwide. Previous stratiform chromite deposit models developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have been referred to as Bushveld chromium, because the Bushveld Complex in South Africa is the only stratified, mafic-ultramafic intrusion presently mined for chromite and is the most intensely researched. As part of the on-going effort by the USGS Mineral Resources Program to update existing deposit models for the upcoming national mineral resource assessment, this revised stratiform chromite deposit model includes new data on the geological, mineralogical, geophysical, and geochemical attributes of stratiform chromite deposits worldwide. This model will be a valuable tool in future chromite resource and environmental assessments and supplement previously published models used for mineral resource evaluation.

  16. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the West Siberian Basin Province, Russia, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, T.R.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, using a geology-based assessment methodology, estimated mean volumes of technically recoverable, conventional, undiscovered petroleum resources at 8 billion barrels of crude oil, 670 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 21 billion barrels of natural gas liquids for the West Siberian Basin Province in Russia as part of a program to estimate petroleum resources for priority basins throughout the world.

  17. Western Mineral and Environmental Resources Science Center--providing comprehensive earth science for complex societal issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, David G.; Wallace, Alan R.; Schneider, Jill L.

    2010-01-01

    Minerals in the environment and products manufactured from mineral materials are all around us and we use and come into contact with them every day. They impact our way of life and the health of all that lives. Minerals are critical to the Nation's economy and knowing where future mineral resources will come from is important for sustaining the Nation's economy and national security. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Resources Program (MRP) provides scientific information for objective resource assessments and unbiased research results on mineral resource potential, production and consumption statistics, as well as environmental consequences of mining. The MRP conducts this research to provide information needed for land planners and decisionmakers about where mineral commodities are known and suspected in the earth's crust and about the environmental consequences of extracting those commodities. As part of the MRP scientists of the Western Mineral and Environmental Resources Science Center (WMERSC or 'Center' herein) coordinate the development of national, geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral-resource databases and the migration of existing databases to standard models and formats that are available to both internal and external users. The unique expertise developed by Center scientists over many decades in response to mineral-resource-related issues is now in great demand to support applications such as public health research and remediation of environmental hazards that result from mining and mining-related activities. Western Mineral and Environmental Resources Science Center Results of WMERSC research provide timely and unbiased analyses of minerals and inorganic materials to (1) improve stewardship of public lands and resources; (2) support national and international economic and security policies; (3) sustain prosperity and improve our quality of life; and (4) protect and improve public health, safety, and environmental quality. The MRP

  18. Mineral resource of the month: natural and synthetic zeolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virta, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    Volcanic rocks containing natural zeolites — hydrated aluminosilicate minerals that contain alkaline and alkaline-earth metals — have been mined worldwide for more than 1,000 years for use as cements and building stone. For centuries, people thought natural zeolites occurred only in small amounts inside cavities of volcanic rock. But in the 1950s and early 1960s, large zeolite deposits were discovered in volcanic tuffs in the western United States and in marine tuffs in Italy and Japan. And since then, similar deposits have been found around the world, from Hungary to Cuba to New Zealand. The discovery of these larger deposits made commercial mining of natural zeolite possible.

  19. Mineral deposit formation in Phanerozoic sedimentary basins of north-east Africa: the contribution of weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germann, Klaus; Schwarz, Torsten; Wipki, Mario

    1994-12-01

    The intra- and epicontinental basins in north-east Africa (Egypt, Sudan) bear ample evidence of weathering processes repeatedly having contributed to the formation of mineral deposits throughout the Phanerozoic. The relict primary weathering mantle of Pan-African basement rocks consists of kaolinitic saprolite, laterite (in places bauxitic) and iron oxide crust. On the continent, the reaccumulation of eroded weathering-derived clay minerals (mainly kaolinite) occurred predominantly in fluvio-lacustrine environments, and floodplain and coastal plain deposits. Iron oxides, delivered from ferricretes, accumulated as oolitic ironstones in continental and marine sediments. Elements leached from weathering profiles accumulated in continental basins forming silcrete and alunite or in the marine environment contributing to the formation of attapulgite/saprolite and phosphorites. The Early Paleozoic Tawiga bauxitic laterite of northern Sudan gives a unique testimony of high latitude lateritic weathering under global greenhouse conditions. It formed in close spatial and temporal vicinity to the Late Ordovician glaciation in north Africa. The record of weathering products is essentially complete for the Late Cretaceous/Early Tertiary. From the continental sources in the south to the marine sinks in the north, an almost complete line of lateritic and laterite-derived deposits of bauxitic kaolin, kaolin, iron oxides and phosphates is well documented.

  20. Peak Nothing: Recent Trends in Mineral Resource Production

    CERN Document Server

    Rustad, James R

    2011-01-01

    The production histories of seventeen raw materials are analyzed with the logistic model. Although many of these resources have exhibited logistic behavior in the past, they now show exponential or super-exponential growth. In most cases, the transition has occurred in the last ten to twenty years.

  1. Heavy Oil and Natural Bitumen Resources in Geological Basins of the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Richard F.; Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.

    2007-01-01

    Heavy oil and natural bitumen are oils set apart by their high viscosity (resistance to flow) and high density (low API gravity). These attributes reflect the invariable presence of up to 50 weight percent asphaltenes, very high molecular weight hydrocarbon molecules incorporating many heteroatoms in their lattices. Almost all heavy oil and natural bitumen are alteration products of conventional oil. Total resources of heavy oil in known accumulations are 3,396 billion barrels of original oil in place, of which 30 billion barrels are included as prospective additional oil. The total natural bitumen resource in known accumulations amounts to 5,505 billion barrels of oil originally in place, which includes 993 billion barrels as prospective additional oil. This resource is distributed in 192 basins containing heavy oil and 89 basins with natural bitumen. Of the nine basic Klemme basin types, some with subdivisions, the most prolific by far for known heavy oil and natural bitumen volumes are continental multicyclic basins, either basins on the craton margin or closed basins along convergent plate margins. The former includes 47 percent of the natural bitumen, the latter 47 percent of the heavy oil and 46 percent of the natural bitumen. Little if any heavy oil occurs in fore-arc basins, and natural bitumen does not occur in either fore-arc or delta basins.

  2. Raton Coal Basin boundary, 1999 Coal Resource Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This ArcView shape file contains a polygon representing the extent of the Raton Coal Basin boundary. This theme was created specifically for the National Coal...

  3. North Park Basin, Colorado, for 1999 National Coal Resource Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This ArcView shapefile contains a polygon representing the extent of the North Park coal basin boundary. This theme was created specifically for the National Coal...

  4. Mineral and energy resource assessment maps of the Mount Katmai, Naknek, and western Afognak quadrangles, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, S.E.; Riehle, J.R.; Magoon, L.B.; Campbell, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    On the basis of new geologic mapping and exploration geochemical studies, we have provided a mineral and energy resource assessment of the Mount Katmai, Naknek, and western Afognak quadrangles, Alaska. We delineate four tracts of ground that have metallic mineral resources. The mineral deposit types considered in each tract are summarized in table 4. Estimates of the number of undiscovered mineral deposits have been made for porphyry copper and polymetallic vein deposits. We estimate that one undiscovered porphyry copper deposit is present in the Katmai study area at the ten percent probability level. Although the sampling density may be too low to give an accurate estimate of the number of undiscovered polymetallic vein deposits, we suggest that, at a minimum, there is a five percent probability for five or more undiscovered polymetallic vein deposits in the Katmai study area. In addition, several areas have potential for undiscovered porphyry molybdenum, massive sulfide, and epithermal gold and mercury deposits.

  5. Characteristics of Oil-gas Resources in Sichuan Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ran Longhui

    2006-01-01

    @@ Sichuan Basin, a large and old oil-bearing superimposed basin in western China, has an acreage of190 thousand square kilometers. Its superimposed strata are composed of 7000-12000 meters of sedimentary rock from the Sinian to the Quaternary, in which the strata are mainly marine carbonate below the Middle Triassic and terrestrial clastic rock above the Upper Triassic. For more than 50 years, CNPC has been working in the basin for oil-gas exploration and development and has discovered so far 106 gas fields and 14 oil fields with proven gas reserves achieving 840 billion cubic meters (bcm)and annual gas and crude production reaching 12 bcm and 145 thousand tons respectively. Oil/gas fields in Sichuan Province is currently China's largest gas-producing region. Recent exploration and development practices show that gas reserves and production of the basin are still in the upsoaring stage and an understanding of oilgas distribution in the basin is of vital importance for a sustainable development of natural gas in the basin.

  6. Clay mineral association in the salt formation of the Transylvanian Basin and its paleoenvironmental significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Bican-Bris̡an

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The investigated clay fraction was separated from salt samples recovered from three boreholes located in the Praid salt deposit area. For comparison, samples collected from Turda deposit (Franz Josef adit, the Rudolf and Ghizele chambers and from the salt massif from Sărăţel were also analyzed. The qualitative investigations evidenced a clay minerals association dominated by illite and chlorite accompanied by subordinate amounts of kaolinite, smectite, fibrous clays (sepiolite, palygorskite, and in minor amounts, by 14/14 chlorite/vermiculite and chlorite/smectite interstratifications. A quantitative evaluation (% including a standard graphical representation was performed only for the borehole samples (Praid, according to the vertical distribution. The genetical interpretation of the identified clay minerals association took into account the influence of the sedimentation mechanisms and the climate control on the mineral phases. The environment of formation for the salt in the Transylvanian Basin was defined by the presence of specific climatic factors, also suggested by the palynological investigations.

  7. Iowa State Mining and Mineral Resources Research Institute: Semi-annual report, 1 July 1987--31 December 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markuszewski, R.; Pedrick, J.

    1988-02-01

    This semi-annual report describes the activities of the Iowa State Mining and Mineral Resources Research Institute (ISMMRRI) at Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, for the period of July 1, 1987 to December 31, 1987. Thirteen graduate research projects in the areas of Mineral Processing, Mining Engineering, Mineral Characterization, and Mined-Land Reclamation, and Fuel Science are described. The graduate students are associated with several different academic departments and are all minoring in Mineral Resources.

  8. Treasure hunt of mineral resources: a serious game in a virtual world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boniello, Annalisa

    2015-04-01

    This posterdescribes a geoscience activities on mineral resources for students of 14-18 years old. The activities are created as a treasure hunt of mineral resources, students must pass test and solve questions, search mineral in different environments: near a volcanos, in the river, in a lake, in a cave, under the sea and on a mountain. The activity is created using a virtual environment a virtual world built with a software, Opensim, a opensource software. In this virtual world every student as avatar, a virtual rapresentation of himself, search information, objects, mineral as in a serious game, a digital serious game. In the serious game buit as a treasure hunt, students interact with environment in a learning by doing, and they interact with other students in a cooperative learning and a collaborative environment. In the hunt there is a challenge that student must overcome: understanding what is a mineral resource collecting data on mineral analyzing environments where they are created so the students can improve motivation and learn, and improve scientific skills.

  9. Australasian code for reporting of mineral resources and ore reserves (the JORC code)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    The latest revision of the Code first published in 1989 becomes effective in September 1999. It was prepared by the Joint Ores Reserves Committee of the Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Australian Institute of Geoscientists and Minerals Council of Australia (JORC). It sets out minimum standards, recommendations and guidelines for public reporting of exploration results, mineral resources and ore reserves in Australasia. In this edition, the guidelines, which were previously separated from the Code, have been placed after the respective Code clauses. The Code is applicable to all solid minerals, including diamonds, other gemstones and coal for which public reporting is required by the Australian and New Zealand Stock Exchanges.

  10. Water resources data, Texas water year 1998, volume 3. Colorado River basin, Lavaca River basin, Guadalupe River basin, Nueces River basin, Rio Grande basin, and intervening coastal basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandara, S.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Andrews, F.L.; Barbie, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1998 water year for Texas are presented in four volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water-quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 3 contains records for water discharge at 126 gaging stations; stage only at 3 gaging stations; stage and contents at 15 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 62 gaging stations; and data for 35 partial-record stations comprised of 8 flood-hydrograph, 14 low-flow, and 18 creststage, and 5 miscellaneous stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  11. Water resources data, Texas water year 1998, volume 1. Arkansas River basin, Red River basin, Sabine River basin, Neches River basin, Trinity River Basin, and intervening coastal basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandara, S.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Andrews, F.L.; Barbie, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1998 water year for Texas are presented in four volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water-quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 1 contains records for water discharge at 112 gaging stations; stage only at 5 gaging stations; stage and contents at 33 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 65 gaging stations; and data for 12 partial-record stations comprised of 7 flood-hydrograph, 2 low-flow, and 3 crest-stage stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  12. Resource nationalism in Indonesia—Effects of the 2014 mineral export ban

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, Graham W.

    2016-09-27

    Resource nationalism encompasses a broad range of political and economic actions taken by Governments to regulate the extraction of natural resources within their borders. Policies such as increased tariffs or export restrictions can have far-reaching economic effects on international trade. As the Governments of several developing countries consider enacting nationalistic policies, an examination of the 2014 mineral export ban in Indonesia provides an instructive example of the possible impacts of resource nationalism. Significant changes in the production and trade of unprocessed (that is, ores and concentrates) and processed (that is, refined metal) aluminum, copper, and nickel before and after the export ban form the basis of this study.The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Minerals Information Center (NMIC) tracks production and trade of mineral commodities between producer and consumer countries. Materials flow studies clarify the effects of an export ban on different mineral commodities by assessing changes in production, processing capacity, and trade. Using extensive data collection and monitoring procedures, the USGS NMIC investigated the effects of resource nationalism on the flow of mineral commodities from Indonesia to the global economy.

  13. Formation of the Devonian Fengtai Hydrothermal Brine Basin and the Metallogeny of Gold and Lead-Zinc Mineralizations in Shaanxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The study of the relationships between the hydrothermal sedimentary formations and the gold and lead-zinc mineralizations in the Devonian Fengtai basin in Shaanxi shows that there was a hydrothermal brine sedimentary event which was inserted into the normal sedimentary background from the late Middle Devonian to the early Late Devonian. This event is closely related to gold and lead-zinc mineralizations in this area.

  14. A framework for quantitative assessment of impacts related to energy and mineral resource development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Seth S.; Diffendorfer, James; Balistrieri, Laurie S.; Berger, Byron R.; Cook, Troy A.; Gautier, Donald L.; Gallegos, Tanya J.; Gerritsen, Margot; Graffy, Elisabeth; Hawkins, Sarah; Johnson, Kathleen; Macknick, Jordan; McMahon, Peter; Modde, Tim; Pierce, Brenda; Schuenemeyer, John H.; Semmens, Darius; Simon, Benjamin; Taylor, Jason; Walton-Day, Katie

    2013-01-01

    Natural resource planning at all scales demands methods for assessing the impacts of resource development and use, and in particular it requires standardized methods that yield robust and unbiased results. Building from existing probabilistic methods for assessing the volumes of energy and mineral resources, we provide an algorithm for consistent, reproducible, quantitative assessment of resource development impacts. The approach combines probabilistic input data with Monte Carlo statistical methods to determine probabilistic outputs that convey the uncertainties inherent in the data. For example, one can utilize our algorithm to combine data from a natural gas resource assessment with maps of sage grouse leks and piñon-juniper woodlands in the same area to estimate possible future habitat impacts due to possible future gas development. As another example: one could combine geochemical data and maps of lynx habitat with data from a mineral deposit assessment in the same area to determine possible future mining impacts on water resources and lynx habitat. The approach can be applied to a broad range of positive and negative resource development impacts, such as water quantity or quality, economic benefits, or air quality, limited only by the availability of necessary input data and quantified relationships among geologic resources, development alternatives, and impacts. The framework enables quantitative evaluation of the trade-offs inherent in resource management decision-making, including cumulative impacts, to address societal concerns and policy aspects of resource development.

  15. Ground-water resources in the Hood Basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Stephen J.

    1983-01-01

    The Hood Basin, an area of 1,035 square miles in north-central Oregon, includes the drainage basins of all tributaries of the Columbia River between Eagle Creek and Fifteenmile Creek. The physical characteristics and climate of the basin are diverse. The Wasco subarea, in the eastern half of the basin, has moderate relief, mostly intermittent streams, and semiarid climate. The Hood subarea, in the western half, has rugged topography, numerous perennial streams, and a humid climate.Water-bearing geologic units that underlie the basin include volcanic, volcaniclastic, and sedimentary rocks of Miocene to Holocene age, and unconsolidated surficial deposits of Pleistocene and Holocene age. The most important water-bearing unit, the Columbia River Basalt Group, underlies almost the entire basin. Total thickness probably exceeds 2,000 feet, but by 1980 only the upper 1,000 feet or less had been developed by wells. Wells in this unit generally yield from 15 to 1,000 gallons per minute and a few yield as much as 3,300 gallons per minute.The most productive aquifer in the Columbia River Basalt Group is The Dalles Ground Water Reservoir, a permeable zone of fractured basalt about 25 to 30 square miles in extent that underlies the city of The Dalles. During the late 1950's and mid-1960's, withdrawals of 15,000 acre-feet per year or more caused water levels in the aquifer to decline sharply. Pumpage had diminished to about 5,000 acre-feet per year in 1979 and water levels have stabilized, indicating that ground water recharge and discharge, including the pumping, are in balance.The other principal geologic units in the basin have more limited areal distribution and less saturated thickness than the Columbia River Basalt Group. Generally, these units are capable of yielding from a few to a hundred gallons per minute to wells.Most of the ground water in the basin is chemically suitable for domestic, irrigation, or other uses. Some ground water has objectionable concentrations of

  16. Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation Model for Water Resources Carrying Capacity in Tarim River Basin, Xinjiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Lihong; CHEN Yaning; LI Weihong; ZHAO Ruifeng

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the method of comprehensive evaluation of water resources carrying capacity and sets up an evaluation model applying the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method. Based on the data of nature, society, economics and water resources of the Tarim River Basin in 2002, we evaluated the water resources carrying capacity of the basin by means of the model. The results show that the comprehensive grades are 0.438 and 0.454 for Aksu and Kashi prefectures respectively, where the current water resources exploitation and utilization has reached a relative high degree and there is only a very limited water carrying capacity, 0.620 for Kizilsu Kirgiz Autonomous Prefecture, where water resources carrying capacity is much higher, and in between for Hotan Prefecture and Bayingolin Mongolian Autonomous Prefecture. As a whole, the comprehensive grade of the Tarim River Basin is 0.508 and the current water resources exploitation and utilization has reached a relative high degree. Thus, we suggest that the integrated management of the water resources in the basin should be strengthened in order to utilize water resources scientifically and sustainably.

  17. Assessment of coal geology, resources, and reserve base in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, David C.; Luppens, James A.

    2013-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated in-place resources of 1.07 trillion short tons of coal in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana. Of that total, with a maximum stripping ratio of 10:1, recoverable coal was 162 billion tons. The estimate of economically recoverable resources was 25 billion tons.

  18. Porphyry copper assessment of British Columbia and Yukon Territory, Canada: Chapter C in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalasky, Mark J.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Frost, Thomas P.; Ludington, Steve

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey does regional, national, and global assessments of resources (mineral, energy, water, biologic) to provide science in support of land management and decision making. Mineral resource assessments provide a synthesis of available information about where mineral deposits are known and suspected to be in the Earth’s crust, which commodities may be present, and estimates of amounts of resources that may be present in undiscovered deposits.

  19. Water resources inventory of Connecticut Part 2: Shetucket River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Mendall P.; Bednar, Gene A.; Thomas, Chester E.; Wilson, William E.

    1967-01-01

    The Shetucket River basin has a relatively abundant supply of water of generally good quality which is derived from precipitation that has fallen on the basin. Annual precipitation has ranged from about 30 inches to 75 inches and has averaged about 45 inches over a 35-year period. Approximately 20 inches of water are returned to the atmosphere each year by evaporation and transpiration; the remainder of the annual precipitation either flows overland to streams or percolates downward to the water table and ultimately flows out of the basin in the Shetucket River or as underflow through the deposits beneath. During the autumn and winter months precipitation normally is sufficient to cause a substantial increase in the amount of water stored underground and in surface reservoirs within the basins whereas in the summer most of the precipitation is lost through evaporation and transpiration, resulting in sharply reduced streamflow and lowered groundwater levels. The mean monthly storage of water in the basin on an average is 3.5 inches higher in November than it is in June.

  20. 矿产资源核算研究%Study on mineral resources accounting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范振林

    2014-01-01

    Mineral resources are an important foundation for economic and social development .The value accounting is an important proposition in today ’ s economic and social development and ecological civilization construction in the process ,become the focus of attention at present ,governments around the world and theory circle .This paper analyzed the present situation of research on resource accounting , content ,methods and the existing problems ,defines the connotation and objects of mineral resources accounting ,it discusses the basic theory of mineral resources accounting ,the significance and the method , constructs the basic framework of mineral resource accounting .%矿产资源是经济社会发展的重要基础。其价值核算是当今经济社会发展和生态文明建设进程中一个重要命题,成为目前世界各国政府及理论界普遍关注的焦点问题。本文分析了资源核算的研究现状、内容、方法及存在的问题,界定了矿产资源核算的内涵及对象,论述了矿产资源核算的理论基础、意义及方法,构建了矿产资源核算的基本框架。

  1. 探矿权价款计量研究%Study on mineral resources accounting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范振林

    2016-01-01

    矿业权价款是一项中国特有的矿业法律制度.其计量核算是当今经济社会发展和市场经济推进进程中一个重要命题,成为目前理论界及矿业企业普遍关注的焦点问题.本文分析了矿业权价款的内涵、历史沿革及存在的问题,论述了探矿权价款理论基础、方法和适用范围,构建了基于区域分异、不同经济行为和勘查阶段的计量适用方法.%Mineral resources are an important foundation for economic and social development. The value accounting is an important proposition in today's economic and social development and ecological civilization construction in the process,become the focus of attention at present,governments around the world and theory circle. This paper analyzed the present situation of research on resource accounting, content,methods and the existing problems,defines the connotation and objects of mineral resources accounting,it discusses the basic theory of mineral resources accounting,the significance and the method, constructs the basic framework of mineral resource accounting.

  2. Nahcolite and halite deposition through time during the saline mineral phase of Eocene Lake Uinta, Piceance Basin, western Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ronald C.; Brownfield, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    Halite and the sodium bicarbonate mineral nahcolite were deposited during the saline phase of Eocene Lake Uinta in the Piceance Basin, western Colorado. Variations in the area of saline mineral deposition through time were interpreted from studies of core and outcrop. Saline minerals were extensively leached by groundwater, so the original extent of saline deposition was estimated from the distribution of empty vugs and collapse breccias. Vugs and breccias strongly influence groundwater movement, so determining where leaching has occurred is an important consideration for in-situ oil shale extraction methods currently being developed. Lake Uinta formed when two smaller fresh water lakes, one in the Uinta Basin of eastern Utah and the other in the Piceance Basin of western Colorado, expanded and coalesced across the Douglas Creek arch, an area of comparatively low subsidence rates. Salinity increased shortly after this expansion, but saline mineral deposition did not begin until later, after a period of prolonged infilling created broad lake-margin shelves and a comparatively small deep central lake area. These shelves probably played a critical role in brine evolution. A progression from disseminated nahcolite and nahcolite aggregates to bedded nahcolite and ultimately to bedded nahcolite and halite was deposited in this deep lake area during the early stages of saline deposition along with rich oil shale that commonly shows signs of slumping and lateral transport. The area of saline mineral and rich oil shale deposition subsequently expanded, in part due to infilling of the compact deep area, and in part because of an increase in water flow into Lake Uinta, possibly due to outflow from Lake Gosiute to the north. Finally, as Lake Uinta in the Piceance Basin was progressively filled from north to south by volcano-clastic sediment, the saline depocenter was pushed progressively southward, eventually covering much of the areas that had previously been marginal shelves

  3. Estimate of the Geothermal Energy Resource in the Major Sedimentary Basins in the United States (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esposito, A.; Porro, C.; Augustine, C.; Roberts, B.

    2012-09-01

    Because most sedimentary basins have been explored for oil and gas, well logs, temperatures at depth, and reservoir properties such as depth to basement and formation thickness are well known. The availability of this data reduces exploration risk and allows development of geologic exploration models for each basin. This study estimates the magnitude of recoverable geothermal energy from 15 major known U.S. sedimentary basins and ranks these basins relative to their potential. The total available thermal resource for each basin was estimated using the volumetric heat-in-place method originally proposed by (Muffler, 1979). A qualitative recovery factor was determined for each basin based on data on flow volume, hydrothermal recharge, and vertical and horizontal permeability. Total sedimentary thickness maps, stratigraphic columns, cross sections, and temperature gradient information was gathered for each basin from published articles, USGS reports, and state geological survey reports. When published data were insufficient, thermal gradients and reservoir properties were derived from oil and gas well logs obtained on oil and gas commission databases. Basin stratigraphy, structural history, and groundwater circulation patterns were studied in order to develop a model that estimates resource size, temperature distribution, and a probable quantitative recovery factor.

  4. A magnetic survey of mineral resources in northeastern Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista Rodriguez, Jose Alberto [Instituto Superior Minero Metalurgico de Moa (Cuba)

    2006-01-15

    Interpretation of the aeromagnetic survey of northeastern Cuba at scale 1 50 000 is presented. Mainly ophiolitic rocks are characterized by a high magnetic response. The aeromagnetic data was reduced to the pole and the horizontal and vertical gradients, as well as the upward continuation were calculated. To define areas of serpentinized ultrabasic rocks at surface and depth, the magnetic field transformations were interpreted. We discuss lateral extension of outcrops, thickness variation of the ophiolitic rocks, basement extension and fault zones. Hydrothermal alterations indicate associated precious metal secondary mineralization. Operations are planned to limit damage to mining by siliceous material in Fe+Ni laterites. [Spanish] Cuba, en la cual afloran fundamentalmente rocas ofioliticas caracterizadas por un alto grado de magnetizacion. Los datos aeromagneticos fueron reducidos al polo y luego se realizaron los calculos de gradientes horizontales y verticales y la continuacion analitica ascendente. A partir de los resultados de estas transformaciones se delimitaron zonas donde predominan las rocas ultrabasicas serpentinizadas tanto en superficie como en profundidad, definiendose la extension lateral de estas rocas por debajo de las rocas que afloran en superficie. Tambien se estimaron las variaciones de los espesores de las rocas ofioliticas, el basamento de las rocas que afloran, la presencia de estructuras disyuntivas, y se proponen nuevas estructuras de este tipo. Por ultimo se delimitan las zonas de alteracion hidrotermal, lo cual posee gran importancia, ya que con las mismas se pueden vincular mineralizaciones de metales preciosos. Ademas, su delimitacion en depositos lateriticos permite orientar los trabajos de explotacion minera, teniendo en cuenta el dano que causa al proceso metalurgico la presencia de material silicio en las lateritas Fe+Ni.

  5. Economic filters for evaluating porphyry copper deposit resource assessments using grade-tonnage deposit models, with examples from the U.S. Geological Survey global mineral resource assessment: Chapter H in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Menzie, W. David

    2012-01-01

    An analysis of the amount and location of undiscovered mineral resources that are likely to be economically recoverable is important for assessing the long-term adequacy and availability of mineral supplies. This requires an economic evaluation of estimates of undiscovered resources generated by traditional resource assessments (Singer and Menzie, 2010). In this study, simplified engineering cost models were used to estimate the economic fraction of resources contained in undiscovered porphyry copper deposits, predicted in a global assessment of copper resources. The cost models of Camm (1991) were updated with a cost index to reflect increases in mining and milling costs since 1989. The updated cost models were used to perform an economic analysis of undiscovered resources estimated in porphyry copper deposits in six tracts located in North America. The assessment estimated undiscovered porphyry copper deposits within 1 kilometer of the land surface in three depth intervals.

  6. Ammonium minerals from burning coal-dumps of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (Poland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parafiniuk, J.; Kruszewski, L. [University of Warsaw, Warsaw (Poland)

    2009-07-01

    Abstract: Assemblages composed of 11 ammonium minerals, mainly sulphates and chlorides, were recorded from four burning coal-dumps (BCD) in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin. Most of them are newly recorded from Poland. Minerals were identified using PXRD and SEM with EDS analyses. Salammoniac, NH{sub 4}Cl, and tschermigite, (NH{sub 4})Al(SO4)(2) center dot 12H(2)O are the most common species on the BCD studied. Kremersite, (NH{sub 4},K)(2)(FeCl{sub 5}(H{sub 2}O)), is rare and coexists with members of the ammonioalunite-ammoniojarosite series. Boussingaultite, (NH{sub 4})(2)Mg(SO4){sub 2} {center_dot} 6H{sub 2}O, and more rarely clairite, (NH{sub 4})(2)Fe{sub -3}(SO4){sub 4}(OH){sub 3} {center_dot} 3H{sub 2}O, and mascagnite, (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO4, accompany numerous Mg, Al, Fe and Ca sulphate minerals. These usually occur as very fine admixtures forming coatings, small nodules or porous masses and were found on the BCD surface close to gas vents. Also a massive sulphate crust was found in the deeper part of the BCD nearby the fire zone. This crust is composed mainly of anhydrous sulphates: godovikovite, (NH{sub 4})(Al,Fe)(SO4){sub 2}, and very minor sabieite, (NH{sub 4})Fe(SO4)(2), and efremovite, (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}Mg{sub -2}(SO4){sub 3}, which were transformed into different hydrated sulphates in the outer zone of the crust. The fibrous or dendritic habit of many ammonium minerals, and the vesicular texture of some sulphate aggregates, point to their crystallization from the gas phase. Some ammonia minerals may also have developed through hydration of previously formed phases or precipitated from locally formed aqueous solutions due to cooling or evaporation. The appearance of ammonia minerals on BCD can be a useful indicator of the presence of underground fires.

  7. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Statistical Treatments for Estimation of Mineral and Energy Resources

    CERN Document Server

    Fabbri, A; Sinding-Larsen, R

    1988-01-01

    This volume contains the edited papers prepared by lecturers and participants of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on "Statistical Treatments for Estimation of Mineral and Energy Resources" held at II Ciocco (Lucca), Italy, June 22 - July 4, 1986. During the past twenty years, tremendous efforts have been made to acquire quantitative geoscience information from ore deposits, geochemical, geophys ical and remotely-sensed measurements. In October 1981, a two-day symposium on "Quantitative Resource Evaluation" and a three-day workshop on "Interactive Systems for Multivariate Analysis and Image Processing for Resource Evaluation" were held in Ottawa, jointly sponsored by the Geological Survey of Canada, the International Association for Mathematical Geology, and the International Geological Correlation Programme. Thirty scientists from different countries in Europe and North America were invited to form a forum for the discussion of quantitative methods for mineral and energy resource assessment. Since then, not ...

  8. An Analysis of the Published Mineral Resource Estimates of the Haji-Gak Iron Deposit, Afghanistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutphin, David M., E-mail: dsutphin@usgs.gov; Renaud, Karine M.; Drew, Lawrence J. [U.S. Geological Survey (United States)

    2011-12-15

    The Haji-Gak iron deposit of eastern Bamyan Province, eastern Afghanistan, was studied extensively and resource calculations were made in the 1960s by Afghan and Russian geologists. Recalculation of the resource estimates verifies the original estimates for categories A (in-place resources known in detail), B (in-place resources known in moderate detail), and C{sub 1} (in-place resources estimated on sparse data), totaling 110.8 Mt, or about 6% of the resources as being supportable for the methods used in the 1960s. C{sub 2} (based on a loose exploration grid with little data) resources are based on one ore grade from one drill hole, and P{sub 2} (prognosis) resources are based on field observations, field measurements, and an ore grade derived from averaging grades from three better sampled ore bodies. C{sub 2} and P{sub 2} resources are 1,659.1 Mt or about 94% of the total resources in the deposit. The vast P{sub 2} resources have not been drilled or sampled to confirm their extent or quality. The purpose of this article is to independently evaluate the resources of the Haji-Gak iron deposit by using the available geologic and mineral resource information including geologic maps and cross sections, sampling data, and the analog-estimating techniques of the 1960s to determine the size and tenor of the deposit.

  9. Porphyry copper assessment of the Tibetan Plateau, China: Chapter F in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludington, Steve; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Mars, John L.; Miller, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collaborated with the China Geological Survey to conduct a mineral-resource assessment of resources in porphyry copper deposits on the Tibetan Plateau in western China. This area hosts several very large porphyry deposits, exemplified by the Yulong and Qulong deposits, each containing at least 7,000,000 metric tons (t) of copper. However, large parts of the area are underexplored and are likely to contain undiscovered porphyry copper deposits.

  10. Development, evolution, and destruction of the saline mineral area of Eocene Lake Uinta, Piceance Basin, western Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ronald C.; Brownfield, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Halite and the sodium bicarbonate mineral nahcolite were deposited in Eocene-age saline Lake Uinta in the Piceance Basin, northwestern Colorado. Variations in the areal extent of saline mineral deposition through time were studied using descriptions of core and outcrop. Saline minerals have been extensively leached by groundwater, and the original extent of saline deposition was determined from the distribution of empty vugs and collapse breccias. Because vugs and breccias strongly influence groundwater movement, determining where leaching has occurred is an important consideration for in-situ oil shale extraction methods currently being developed.

  11. Availability of mineral resources for society; Disponibilidad y retos actuales de los recursos minerales para la sociedad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, J. G.; Espi, J. A.

    2014-06-01

    Trends in global mineral production and expanding uses of mineral resources foretell a bright future, although with significant challenges, for exploration and development. Demand for mineral resources is likely to remain high and grow to meet increases in world population and standards of living. Significant challenges include meeting future demand with new discoveries and developing the resources in environmentally, socially, and economically sustainable ways. A historical perspective from the last 50 years on finding new mineral districts, discovering new types of ore deposits, and using new technologies in exploration suggests that the world will not run out of mineral resources. It is likely that substitution and recycling will play increasingly major roles in meeting global mineral demand. New technologies for ocean mining will help add to the resource base. Historical perspectives also suggest that mining scams will continue, and environmental, health, and safety concerns will be major factors in deciding where future mines will be located and how they will be operated. (Author)

  12. Oil Resources Potential and Exploration of Ordos Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Hua; Luo Anxiang; Fu Jinhua; Xi Shengli

    2007-01-01

    @@ Ordos Basin has experienced nearly a century of oil-gas exploration since China's first oil exploratory well (Yan-1 well) was drilled in 1907 in Yanchang County, Shaanxi Province. A good prospect for sustained and steady development of oil and gas was thereby opened based on the efforts made by generations of petroleum geologists and oil workers.

  13. Water resources of the Yadkin-Pee Dee River Basin, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Robert Eugene; LeGrand, H.E.; Billingsley, G.A.

    1957-01-01

    Sufficient water is available in the basin of the Yadkin and Pee Dee Rivers to meet present requirements and those for many years to come if water use increases at about the present rate. Data presented in this report show that the average annual streamflow from approximately 82 percent of the basin area during the 25-year period, 1929-53, was about 6,200 mgd, representing essentially the total available water supply. Comparison of the available water supply to the estimated withdrawal use (excluding water power) of both surface and ground water of 600 mgd indicates the relative utilization of the water resources of the basin at present. If proper pollution controls are observed and practiced so that water in the various streams may be reused several times, the potential water available is even greater than indicated by the above comparison. Preliminary studies indicate that the quantity of water now being withdrawn from ground-water reservoirs in the basin is only a fraction of the total that may be obtained from this source. Twenty-eight of the 64 municipalities having public water-supply systems use surface water; however, as the largest cities in the area use surface supplies, about 85 percent of the water used for public supplies is from surface sources. Of the 20 complete-record stream-gaging stations now in operation in this area 7 have been in operation for 24 years or longer. Periodic measurements of the rate of flow have been made at 31 additional sites on streams scattered widely over the basin. All available streamflow data including those for 1953 are summarized in either graphic or tabular form, or both. Because of the critically low flows occurring during the drought of 1954, several illustrations include data for 1954 and the early months of 1955 for comparison with the minima of previous years. Adequate water for domestic use is available from wells throughout the basin. The consolidated rocks of the Piedmont furnish water for small industries and

  14. Iron and manganese shuttles control the formation of authigenic phosphorus minerals in the euxinic basins of the Baltic Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jilbert, T.; Slomp, C.P.

    2013-01-01

    Microanalysis of epoxy resin-embedded sediments is used to demonstrate the presence of authigenic iron (Fe) (II) phosphates and manganese (Mn)-calcium (Ca)-carbonate-phosphates in the deep euxinic basins of the Baltic Sea. These minerals constitute major burial phases of phosphorus (P) in this area,

  15. Spatial database for a global assessment of undiscovered copper resources: Chapter Z in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicken, Connie L.; Dunlap, Pamela; Parks, Heather L.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Zientek, Michael L.; Zientek, Michael L.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Johnson, Kathleen M.

    2016-07-13

    As part of the first-ever U.S. Geological Survey global assessment of undiscovered copper resources, data common to several regional spatial databases published by the U.S. Geological Survey, including one report from Finland and one from Greenland, were standardized, updated, and compiled into a global copper resource database. This integrated collection of spatial databases provides location, geologic and mineral resource data, and source references for deposits, significant prospects, and areas permissive for undiscovered deposits of both porphyry copper and sediment-hosted copper. The copper resource database allows for efficient modeling on a global scale in a geographic information system (GIS) and is provided in an Esri ArcGIS file geodatabase format.

  16. A heavy mineral viewpoint on sediment provenance and environment in the Qiongdongnan Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiaofeng; ZHANG Daojun; ZHAI Shikui; LIU Xinyu; CHEN Hongyan; LUO Wei; LI Na; XIU Chun

    2015-01-01

    Based on heavy mineral data in core samples from eleven drillings, supplemented by paleontological, element geochemical and seismic data, the evolution of sediment provenance and environment in the Qiongdongnan Basin (QDNB) was analysed. The results show that the basement in the QDNB was predominantly composed of terrigenous sediments. Since the Oligocene the QDNB has gradually undergone transgressions and evolution processes in sedimentary environment from terrestrial-marine transitional to littoral-neritic, neritic, and bathyal roughly. The water depth showed a gradually increasing trend and was generally greater in the southern region than that in the northern region in the same time. With changes in sedimentary environment, provenances of the strata (from the Yacheng Formation to the Yinggehai Formation) showed principal characteristics of multi-sources, evolving from autochthonous source, short source to distant source step by step. During the Early Oligocene, the sediments were mainly proximal basaltic pyroclastic source and adjacent terrigenous clastic source, afterwards were becoming distant terrigenous clastic sources, including Hainan Island on the north, Yongle Uplift on the south, Shenhu Uplift on the northeast, the Red River System on the northwest and Indochina Peninsula on the southwest, or even a wider region. The Hainan Island provenance began to develop during the Early Oligocene and has become a main provenance in the QDNB since the Middle Miocene. The provenances from Yongle Uplift and Shenhu Uplift most developed from the Late Oligocene to the Early Miocene and gradually subsided during the Middle Miocene. During the Late Miocene, as a main source of sediments filled in the central canyon, the Red River System provenance added to the QDNB massively, whose impact terminated at the end of the Pliocene. The western Yinggehai Basin (YGHB) provenance derived from Indochina Peninsula had developed from the Pliocene on to the Pleistocene. In addition

  17. Present Situation and Exploration Potentialities of Natural Gas Resources in Ordos Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Ordos Basin is the second largest sedimentary basin in China, with an area of 370 thousand km2. Since the first onshore oil well was drilled successfully in northern Shaanxi of China, there has been a century of oil and gas exploration in the basin, and it may be said that the oil exploration has a long history, but for natural gas exploration, it still may be regarded as a new area, because large-scale research, exploration, and development of natural gas in the basin have relatively lagged. The four big gas fields of Jingbian, Sulige, Yulin, and Uxin Banner with respective reserves of more than one hundred giga cubic meters were discovered since 1990s[1]. Therefore,the basin has a great resources potential of natural gas and a low discovery ratio of gas reserves. The natural gas industry has broad prospects of development.

  18. Coexistence and inherence of diverse energy resources in the Ordos Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG Xiangchun; WANG Mingzhen; HAN Zuozhen

    2006-01-01

    The Ordos Basin is abundant in oil, natural gas, coal, coalbed gas and sandstone-type uranium deposits. Oil pools are hosted mainly in the Triassic and Jurassic systems in the southern part of the basin. Gas reservoirs which occur dominantly in the northern part of the basin are situated vertically beneath the oil pools. Coal measures are widely distributed in the Carboniferous, Permian, Jurassic and Triassic systems. Developed at the margin of the basin are the sandstone-type uranium deposits and coalbed gas. The investigations of sources and timing of various energy resources indicated that there are certain genetic connections among them. Especially the contributions of coal measures to natural gas, the supplement of coalbed gas to deep basin gas and the reduction of uranium deposits by natural gas are relatively remarkable.

  19. GIS-A Tool to Change Traditional Way of Mineral Resources Appraisal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Because of the wide application of digital spatial information technology to geology, a large spatial database in geology, geophysics, geochemistry and remote sensing is constructed, resulting in a change in conditions, methods and targets of mineral resources appraisal (MRA). In this paper, the difference between the GIS-base MRA and the traditional MRA is studied.

  20. Mineral resource potential map of the Muddy Mountains Wilderness Study Area, Clark County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohannon, Robert G.; Leszcykowski, Andrew M.; Esparza, Leon E.; Rumsey, Clayton M.

    1982-01-01

    The Muddy Mountains Wilderness Study Area (WSA 050-0229), Clark County, Nevada, has a high potential for mineral deposits of calcium borates and lithium. The known and potential mineral deposits are concentrated in the east-central and south-central parts of the study area (see map). Zeolites (in particular clinoptilolite) are present in some tuff beds throughout much of the study area, and this resource potential is probably moderate to high. Stream-sediment sampling suggests that the Muddy Mountains area has little potential for mineral deposits of metals (other than lithium). Clay minerals are mined at one locality in the (!rea (see map). Building stone and silica sand have moderate to low potential in some places. Oil and gas potential within the study area is low, but complete evaluation of its potential is not possible without drilling.

  1. Estimate of Geothermal Energy Resource in Major U.S. Sedimentary Basins (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porro, C.; Augustine, C.

    2012-04-01

    This study estimates the magnitude of geothermal energy from fifteen major known US sedimentary basins and ranks these basins relative to their potential. Because most sedimentary basins have been explored for oil and gas, well logs, temperatures at depth, and reservoir properties are known. This reduces exploration risk and allows development of geologic exploration models for each basin as well as a relative assessment of geologic risk elements for each play. The total available thermal resource for each basin was estimated using the volumetric heat-in-place method originally proposed by Muffler (USGS). Total sedimentary thickness maps, stratigraphic columns, cross sections, and temperature gradient Information were gathered for each basin from published articles, USGS reports, and state geological survey reports. When published data was insufficient, thermal gradients and reservoir properties were derived from oil and gas well logs obtained on oil and gas commission websites. Basin stratigraphy, structural history, and groundwater circulation patterns were studied in order to develop a model that estimates resource size and temperature distribution, and to qualitatively assess reservoir productivity.

  2. Water resources of the Clarion River and Redbank Creek basins, northwestern Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckwalter, Theodore F.; Dodge, C.H.; Schiner, G.R.; Koester, H.F.

    1981-01-01

    The Clarion River and Redbank Creek basin occupy 1,280 and 545 square miles, respectively, in northwatern Pennsylvania. The area is mostly in Clerion, Elk, and Jefferson Counties and is approximately 70 miles long and 30 miles wide. All drainage is to the Allegheny River. Sedimentary rocks of Late Devionian Early Mississippian, and Pennsylvanian age underlie the area. Rocks of Late Devonian age underlie the entire area and crop out in the deep stream valleys in the north. Lower Mississippian rocks generally crop out in strips along major stream valleys; the strips are narrow in the south and broaden northward. Pennsylvanian rocks cover most of the interfluvial areas between major streams. The Upper Devonian and Lower Mississippian rocks are composed mostly of alternating sandstone and shale. Sandstone may intertongue laterally with shale. The Pennsylvanian rocks are most heterogeneous and contain many commercial coal beds. The major mineral resources are bituminous coal, petroleum, and natural gas. Narly all coal production is from strip mining in Clarion, Elk, and Jefferson Counties. Total coal production exceeded 8 million short tons in 1976. The basins are south and east of the major oil-producing regions in Pennsylvania, but more than 50,000 barrels of crude oil were produced here in 1975. Commercial quantities of natural gas are also obtained. Thirty-three public water-supply systems furnish about two-thirds of the water for domestic use. Surface water is the source of about 90 percent of public-supply water. The remainder is from wells and springs. In an average year, 64 percent of the precipitation in the Clarion River basin and 60 percent in the Redbank Creek basin leave the area as streamflow. The percentage of annuual discharge from each basin that is base runoff averaged 53 and 51 percent, respectively, during 1972-75. Only 4 of 10 stream-gaging stations recorded an average 10-year, 7-consecutive day low flow of at least 0.15 cubic feet per second per

  3. Application of Dempster-Shafer theory in mineral resource potential mapping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The Dempster-Shafer theory has been successfully applied to mineral resource potential mapping in GIS environmental. In this applied form, basic probability assignment and combined basic probability assignment are applied to measuring map pattern and map pattern combination, respectively; and the environment composed of the only two singleton sets (deposit set and non-deposit set), is used for expressing the entire map area. For a subarea in which the certain map pattern combination exists, the combined basic probability assignment corresponding to the map pattern combination existing in this subarea, expresses the belief of inferring the subarea belonging to the deposit set from the evidence that the corresponding map pattern combination existing in the subarea. Thus, it may be served as a statistical index measuring the relative mineral resource potentials of the subarea. And it may be determined like 1) dividing the map area into a series of small equal-sized grid cells and then select the training sample set composed of the well-known grid cells or the entire grid cells; 2) estimating the basic probability assignments corresponding to each map pattern fromthe training sample set; 3) determining the map pattern combination existing in each cell, and then appling the Dempster's Rule of Combination to integrating the all basic probability assignments corresponding to the map patterns existing in the cell into the combined basic probability assignment. Mineral resource potential mapping with the Dempster-Shafer theory is demonstrated on a case study to select mineral resource targets. The experimental results manifest that the model can be compared with the weights of evidence model in the effectiveness of mineral resource target selection.

  4. Water resources optimization and eco-environmental protection in Qaidam Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In order to realize sustainable development of the arid area of Northwest China, rational water resources exploitation and optimization are primary prerequisites. Based on the essential principle of sustainable development, this paper puts forward a general idea on water resources optimization and eco-environmental protection in Qaidam Basin, and identifies the competitive multiple targets of water resources optimization. By some qualitative methods such as Input-output Model & AHP Model and some quantitative methods such as System Dynamics Model & Produce Function Model, some standard plans of water resources optimization come into being. According to the Multiple Targets Decision by the Closest Value Model, the best plan of water resources optimization, eco-environmental protection and sustainable development in Qaidam Basin is finally decided.

  5. Petroleum geology and resources of the Dnieper-Donets Basin, Ukraine and Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmishek, Gregory F.

    2001-01-01

    the Dnieper-Donets basin. Discovered reserves of the system are 1.6 billion barrels of oil and 59 trillion cubic feet of gas. More than one-half of the reserves are in Lower Permian rocks below the salt seal. Most of remaining reserves are in upper Visean-Serpukhovian (Lower Carboniferous) strata. The majority of discovered fields are in salt-cored anticlines or in drapes over Devonian horst blocks; little exploration has been conducted for stratigraphic traps. Synrift Upper Devonian carbonate reservoirs are almost unexplored. Two identified source-rock intervals are the black anoxic shales and carbonates in the lower Visean and Devonian sections. However, additional source rocks possibly are present in the deep central area of the basin. The role of Carboniferous coals as a source rock for gas is uncertain; no coal-related gas has been identified by the limited geochemical studies. The source rocks are in the gas-generation window over most of the basin area; consequently gas dominates over oil in the reserves. Three assessment units were identified in the Dnieper-Donets Paleozoic total petroleum system. The assessment unit that contains all discovered reserves embraces postrift Carboniferous and younger rocks. This unit also contains the largest portion of undiscovered resources, especially gas. Stratigraphic and combination structural and stratigraphic traps probably will be the prime targets for future exploration. The second assessment unit includes poorly known synrift Devonian rocks. Carbonate reef reservoirs along the basin margins probably will contain most of the undiscovered resources. The third assessment unit is an unconventional, continuous, basin-centered gas accumulation in Carboniferous low-permeability clastic rocks. The entire extent of this accumulation is unknown, but it occupies much of the basin area. Resources of this assessment unit were not estimated quantitatively.

  6. Water resources simulation in the Rio Grande basin using coupled models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, E.P.; Winter, C.L.; Bossert, J.E.

    1999-04-01

    Regional assessments of water resources under global climate change require models that can resolve management, land use, and climate effects. Los Alamos National Laboratory is developing a coupled model of water resources that places a river basin in its global context. The upper Rio Grande basin above El Paso, Texas is the testbed for this model. The model structure and computational approach are emphasize and issues such as nonlinear feedback between components and spatial and temporal scaling of processes are discussed. Using simulations of regional meteorology, the effects of high spatial resolution simulations on the distribution of precipitation are demonstrated.

  7. Critical Minerals and Energy–Impacts and Limitations of Moving to Unconventional Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin C. McLellan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The nexus of minerals and energy becomes ever more important as the economic growth and development of countries in the global South accelerates and the needs of new energy technologies expand, while at the same time various important minerals are declining in grade and available reserves from conventional mining. Unconventional resources in the form of deep ocean deposits and urban ores are being widely examined, although exploitation is still limited. This paper examines some of the implications of the transition towards cleaner energy futures in parallel with the shifts through conventional ore decline and the uptake of unconventional mineral resources. Three energy scenarios, each with three levels of uptake of renewable energy, are assessed for the potential of critical minerals to restrict growth under 12 alternative mineral supply patterns. Under steady material intensities per unit of capacity, the study indicates that selenium, indium and tellurium could be barriers in the expansion of thin-film photovoltaics, while neodymium and dysprosium may delay the propagation of wind power. For fuel cells, no restrictions are observed.

  8. Lung cancer in uranium miners: A tissue resource and pilot study. Final performance report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samet, J.; Gilliland, F.D.

    1998-08-13

    This project incorporates two related research projects directed toward understanding respiratory carcinogenesis in radon-exposed former uranium miners. The first project involved a continuation of the tissue resource of lung cancer cases from former underground uranium miners and comparison cases from non-miners. The second project was a pilot study for a proposed longitudinal study of respiratory carcinogenesis in former uranium miners. The objectives including facilitating the investigation of molecular changes in radon exposed lung cancer cases, developing methods for prospectively studying clinical, cytologic, cytogenetic, and molecular changes in the multi-event process of respiratory carcinogenesis, and assessing the feasibility of recruiting former uranium miners into a longitudinal study that collected multiple biological specimens. A pilot study was conducted to determine whether blood collection, induced sputum, bronchial brushing, washings, and mucosal biopsies from participants at two of the hospitals could be included efficiently. A questionnaire was developed for the extended study and all protocols for specimen collection and tissue handling were completed. Resource utilization is in progress at ITRI and the methods have been developed to study molecular and cellular changes in exfoliated cells contained in sputum as well as susceptibility factors.

  9. Preliminary publications book 2 from project on mineral resources, metallogenesis, and tectonics of northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokleberg, Warren J.; Miller, Robert J.; Naumova, Vera V.; Khanchuk, Alexander I.; Parfenov, Leonid M.; Kuzmin, Mikhail I.; Bounaeva, Tatiana M.; Obolenskiy, Alexander A.; Rodionov, Sergey M.; Seminskiy, Zhan V.; Diggles, Michael F.

    2003-01-01

    This is the Web version of a CD-ROM publication. This report consists of summary major compilations and syntheses accomplished in the six-year project through April 2003 for the study on the Mineral Resources, Metallogenesis, and Tectonics of Northeast Asia (Eastern and Southern Siberia, Mongolia, Northeastern China, South Korea, and Japan). The major scientific goals and benefits of the project are to: (1) provide a comprehensive international data base on the mineral resources of the region that is the first, extensive knowledge available in English; (2) provide major new interpretations of the origin and crustal evolution of mineralizing systems and their host rocks, thereby enabling enhanced, broad-scale tectonic reconstructions and interpretations; and (3) promote trade and scientific and technical exchanges between the North America and Northeast Asia. Data from the project are providing sound scientific data and interpretations for commercial firms, governmental agencies, universities, and individuals that are developing new ventures and studies in the project area, and for land-use planning studies that deal with both mineral potential issues. Northeast Asia has vast potential for known and undiscovered mineral deposits; however, little information existed in English in the West until publication of products from this project. Consequently, data and interpretations from the project are providing basic knowledge for major scientific, commercial, national, and international endeavors by other interested individuals and groups.

  10. Beryllium—A critical mineral commodity—Resources, production, and supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, Graham W.; Foley, Nora K.; Jaskula, Brian W.; Ayuso, Robert A.

    2016-11-14

    Beryllium is a lightweight metallic element used in a wide variety of specialty and industrial applications. As a function of its unique chemical and physical properties, such as a high stiffness-to-weight ratio, resistance to temperature extremes, and high thermal conductivity, beryllium cannot be easily replaced by substitute materials in applications where combinations of these properties make it the material of choice. Because the number of beryllium producers is limited and the use of substitute materials in specific defense-related applications that are vital to national security is inadequate, several studies have categorized beryllium as a critical and strategic material. This categorization has led to the United States Government recommending that beryllium be stockpiled for use in the event of a national emergency. As of December 31, 2015, the National Defense Stockpile inventory of hot-pressed beryllium metal powder, structured beryllium metal powder, and vacuum-cast beryllium metal totaled 78 metric tons (t).The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Resources Program supports research on the occurrence, quality, quantity, and availability of mineral resources vital to the economy and national security. The USGS, through its National Minerals Information Center (NMIC), collects, analyzes, and disseminates information on more than 90 nonfuel mineral commodities from more than 180 countries. This fact sheet provides information on the production, consumption, supply chain, geology, and resource availability of beryllium in a global context.

  11. MINERAL RESOURCE REPRODUCTION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM UNDER MODERN FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. K. Mikhailov

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to geological exploration planning. The author assesses the current state of such planning, marks its internal inconsistency and inefficiency. The author proves the system of phased zoning as the basis for the targeted planning of mineral resource development, gives a characteristic of the selected geological and economic areas and mineral centers of economic development in Russia as a result of zoning. The author substantiates a proposition that concentration of the Federal budget and private investments within the centers of economic development contribute to achieving the goals in question.

  12. Analysis of groundwater recoverable resource by numerical method in Linfen Basin of Shanxi, North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liping BAI; Yeyao WANG; Jinsheng WANG

    2008-01-01

    Calculation of the groundwater recoverable resource is the main part of groundwater resource evaluation. The three-dimensional groundwater flow model in Linfen Basin was established by GMS software. Then the numerical model was calibrated by observed groundwater level from February to December in 2 000. Based on the calibrated model, the groundwater recoverable resource is calculated. The simulation result shows that under the given value of the groundwater recoverable resource, the groundwater level would decrease significantly in the first 1 000 days, while the water level would drop slowly in 1 000 to 2 000 days, and the water level change tend to be stable after 2000 days.

  13. Coal-Bed Methane Resource of Mesozoic Basins in Jiamusi Landmass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Chengrun; Wu Wei; Zheng Qingdao

    2002-01-01

    As a new-replacement of energy resource, coal bed methane is the important gas resource with great strategic significance. There are several number of Mesozoic coal-bearing basins in Jiamusi landmass, eastern Heilongjiang Province. Theresult of the resource assessment revealed that the total resource less than 1 500 m,s depth in the area is about 2 100×108m3. It shows that Jiamusi landmass has great potential of coal-bed gas and is one of the most prospecting districts for developing coal-bed gas in CBM-province Northeast China.

  14. Clay minerals in surface sediments of the Pearl River drainage basin and their contribution to the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU ZhiFei; Christophe COLIN; HUANG Wei; CHEN Zhong; Alain TRENTESAUX; CHEN JianFang

    2007-01-01

    Clay minerals have played a significant role in the study of the East Asian monsoon evolution in the South China Sea by being able to track oceanic current variations and to reveal contemporaneous paleoclimatic changes prevailing in continental source areas. As one of the most important rivers inputting terrigenous matters to the northern South China Sea, the Pearl River was not previously paid attention to from the viewpoint of clay mineralogy. This paper presents a detailed study on clay minerals in surface sediments collected from the Pearl River drainage basin (including all three main channels,various branches, and the Lingdingyang in the estuary) by using the X-ray diffraction (XRD) method.The results indicate that the clay mineral assemblage consists dominantly of kaolinite (35%-65%),lesser abundance of chlorite (20%-35%) and illite (12%-42%), and very scare smectite occurrences (generally <5%). Their respective distribution does not present any obvious difference throughout the Pearl River drainage basin. However, downstream the Pearl River to the northern South China Sea, the clay mineral assemblage varies significantly: kaolinite decreases gradually, smectite and illite increase gradually. Additionally, illite chemistry index steps down and illite crystallinity steps up. These variations indicate the contribution of major kaolinite, lesser illite and chlorite, and very scarce smectite to the northern South China Sea from the Pearl River drainage basin. The maximum contribution of clay minerals from the Pearl River is 72% to the northern margin and only 15% to the northern slope of the South China Sea. In both glacials and interglacials, kaolinite indicates that the ability of mechanical erosion occurred in the Pearl River drainage basin.

  15. Assessment of Climate Change Effects on Water Resources in the Yellow River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The water resources in the Yellow River basin (YRB are vital to social and economic development in North and Northwest China. The basin has a marked continental monsoon climate and its water resources are especially vulnerable to climate change. Projected runoff in the basin for the period from 2001 to 2030 was simulated using the variable infiltration capacity (VIC macroscale hydrology model. VIC was first calibrated using observations and then was driven by the precipitation and temperature projected by the RegCM3 high-resolution regional climate model under the IPCC scenario A2. Results show that, under the scenario A2, the mean annual temperature of the basin could increase by 1.6°C, while mean annual precipitation could decrease by 2.6%. There could be an 11.6% reduction in annual runoff in the basin according to the VIC projection. However, there are marked regional variations in these climate change impacts. Reductions of 13.6%, 25.7%, and 24.6% could be expected in the regions of Hekouzhen to Longmen, Longmen to Sanmenxia, and Sanmenxia to Huayuankou, respectively. Our study suggests that the condition of water resources in the YRB could become more severe in the period from 2001 to 2030 under the scenario A2.

  16. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin, Canada, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higley, Debra

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey recently completed a geoscience-based assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of provinces within the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. The Western Canada Sedimentary Basin primarily comprises the (1) Alberta Basin Province of Alberta, eastern British Columbia, and the southwestern Northwest Territories; (2) the Williston Basin Province of Saskatchewan, southeastern Alberta, and southern Manitoba; and (3) the Rocky Mountain Deformed Belt Province of western Alberta and eastern British Columbia. This report is part of the U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Resources Project assessment of priority geologic provinces of the world. The assessment was based on geoscience elements that define a total petroleum system (TPS) and associated assessment unit(s). These elements include petroleum source rocks (geochemical properties and petroleum generation, migration, and accumulation), reservoir description (reservoir presence, type, and quality), and petroleum traps (trap and seal types, and timing of trap and seal formation relative to petroleum migration). Using this framework, the Elk Point-Woodbend Composite TPS, Exshaw-Fernie-Mannville Composite TPS, and Middle through Upper Cretaceous Composite TPS were defined, and four conventional assessment units within the total petroleum systems were quantitatively assessed for undiscovered resources in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin.

  17. Climate Change and its Impact on Water Resources in the Huai River Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZUO Qiting; CHEN Yaobin; TAO Jie

    2012-01-01

    Rainfall and air temperature data from six meteorological stations above the Bengbu Sluice and hydrological and water resources evaluation data from the Bengbu Hydrological Station in the Huai River Basin from 1961 to 2008 are used to analyze the impact of changes in climatic factors on the amount of water resources in the Basin. There was a general trend of rise in its average annual air temperature, with the highest increase of 0.289℃/10a recorded at Bengbu in Anhui Province. Rising rainfall was mainly observed in the western part of the study area, while rainfall actually declined in the eastern part, i.e. the middle reaches of the Huai River. The Average rainfall in the study area was in a vaguely declining trend. In other words, the rainfall in the Basin is still much affected by natural fluctuations. On the whole, there was a trend of gradual decrease in the quantity of the Basin's water resources for the period under study. Water resources quantity is found to fall with decreasing rainfall and rising air temperature. Regression analysis is used to establish a mathematical model between water resources quantity and climatic factors (i.e. air temperature and rainfall) in order to explore the impact of climate change on water resources in the Basin. Moreover, various scenarios are set to quantitatively analyze the response of water resources to climate change. Sensitivity analysis shows that changes in rainfall have a much bigger impact on its water resources quantity than changes in its air temperature.

  18. ENGINEERING ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE FOR STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT OF EQUITABLE RESOURCE DISTRIBUTION IN NILE BASIN

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Uganda, Tanzania, the Sudan, South Sudan, Rwanda, Kenya, Ethiopia, Egypt, DR Congo, and Burundi all make entitlement claims to the ecological system of the Nile Basin.  This region is rich in resources, yet prone to interstate conflict, drought, and other vulnerabilities.  Water resource conservation systems, alternative purification systems, and rainfall stimulation systems programmed by artificial intelligence can facilitate the establishment of transboundary partnerships that red...

  19. Integration of hydrologic and water allocation models in basin-scale water resources management considering crop pattern and climate change: Karkheh River Basin in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paradigm of integrated water resources management requires coupled analysis of hydrology and water resources in a river basin. Population growth and uncertainties due to climate change make historic data not a reliable source of information for future planning of water resources, hence necessit...

  20. Using Stochastic Dynamic Programming to Support Water Resources Management in the Ziya River Basin, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Claus; Cardenal, Silvio Javier Pereira; Liu, Suxia;

    2015-01-01

    of stochastic dynamic programming, to optimize water resources management in the Ziya River basin. Natural runoff from the upper basin was estimated with a rainfall-runoff model autocalibrated using in situ measured discharge. The runoff serial correlation was described by a Markov chain and used as input...... for the optimization model. This model was used to assess the economic impacts of ecosystem minimum flow constraints, limited groundwater pumping, and the middle route of the South–North Water Transfer Project (SNWTP). A regional climate shift has exacerbated water scarcity and increased water values, resulting...... in stricter water management. The results show that the SNWTP reduces the impacts of water scarcity and impacts optimal water management in the basin. The presented modeling framework provides an objective basis for the development of tools to avoid overpumping groundwater resources at minimum costs....

  1. Water resources of the Penobscot River basin, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrows, Harold Kilbrith; Babb, Cyrus Cates

    1912-01-01

    This report on the Penobscot River drainage system, the largest and one of the most important in Maine, has been compiled chiefly from the records, reports, and maps of the United States Geological Survey and from the results of surveys made in cooperation with the Maine State Survey Commission. The report includes all data on precipitation, stream flow, water storage, and water power that were available at the end of the calendar year 1909 and is accompanied by plans and profiles of the principal rivers, lakes, and ponds in the basin (Pis. XIII-XIX, at end of volume). Stream-flow data for 1910 and 1911 will be published in Water-Supply Papers 281 and 301, respectively.

  2. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Taoudeni Basin Province, Mali and Mauritania, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Marra, Kristen R.; Hawkins, Sarah J.

    2016-03-31

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resources of 160 million barrels of conventional oil, 1,880 billion cubic feet of conventional gas, 602 million barrels of shale oil, and 6,395 billion cubic feet of shale gas in the Taoudeni Basin Province in Mali and Mauritania.

  3. Assessment of undiscovered continuous gas resources of the Ordos Basin Province, China, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Marra, Kristen R.; Mercier, Tracey J.

    2016-01-11

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean resources of 28 trillion cubic feet of tight gas and 5.6 trillion cubic feet of coalbed gas in upper Paleozoic rocks in the Ordos Basin Province, China.

  4. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the North Sakhalin Basin Province, Russia, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, T.R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Wandrey, Craig J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Cook, Troy A.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2011-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated volumes of undiscovered, technically recoverable, conventional petroleum resources for the North Sakhalin Basin Province of Russia. The mean volumes were estimated at 5.3 billion barrels of crude oil, 43.8 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 0.8 billion barrels of natural gas liquids.

  5. 76 FR 9595 - Notice of Public Meetings: Sierra Front Northwestern Basin Resource Advisory Council, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ... Great Basin Resource Advisory Council (RAC) will meet in Carson City, Nevada and Gerlach, Nevada. The... Main Street, Gerlach, Nevada, with an overnight field trip to Soldier Meadow Ranch north of the Black... sources for wild horses, livestock and wildlife, tour of new Black Rock NCA facility in Gerlach,...

  6. Assessment of potential shale gas and shale oil resources of the Norte Basin, Uruguay, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy; Klett, Timothy R.; Gautier, Donald L.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Weaver, Jean N.; Brownfield, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Using a performance-based geological assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 13.4 trillion cubic feet of potential technically recoverable shale gas and 0.5 billion barrels of technically recoverable shale oil resources in the Norte Basin of Uruguay.

  7. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Paris Basin, France, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Le, Phoung A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Leathers, Heidi M.

    2015-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 222 million barrels of unconventional oil; 2,092 billion cubic feet of unconventional gas; 18 million barrels of conventional oil; and 47 billion cubic feet of conventional gas resources in the Paris Basin of France.

  8. Assessment of undiscovered gas resources of the Thrace Basin, Turkey, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Marra, Kristen R.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Brownfield, Michael E.

    2016-01-27

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resources of 787 billion cubic feet of conventional gas and 1,630 billion cubic feet of unconventional gas in the Thrace Basin, Turkey.

  9. Assessment of continuous oil and gas resources of the South Sumatra Basin Province, Indonesia, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Klett, Timothy R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Le, Phuong A.; Hawkins, Sarah J.

    2016-12-09

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resources of 689 million barrels of continuous shale oil and 3.9 trillion cubic feet of shale gas in the South Sumatra Basin Province in Indonesia.

  10. Adaptation tot changing water resources in the Ganges basin, northern India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moors, E.J.; Groot, A.M.E.; Biemans, H.; Terwisscha van Scheltinga, C.T.H.M.; Siderius, C.; Stoffel, M.

    2011-01-01

    An ensemble of regional climate model (RCM) runs from the EU HighNoon project are used to project future air temperatures and precipitation on a 25 km grid for the Ganges basin in northern India, with a view to assessing impact of climate change on water resources and determining what multi-sector a

  11. Assessment of tight-gas resources in Canyon sandstones of the Val Verde Basin, Texas, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Klett, Timothy R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Marra, Kristen R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Pitman, Janet K.

    2016-07-08

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed mean resources of 5 trillion cubic feet of gas and 187 million barrels of natural gas liquids in tight-gas assessment units in the Canyon sandstones of the Val Verde Basin, Texas.

  12. Assessment of Permian tight oil and gas resources in the Junggar basin of China, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher J.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Klett, Timothy R.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Finn, Thomas M.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Le, Phuong A.; Drake, Ronald M.

    2017-04-05

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resources of 764 million barrels of oil and 3.5 trillion cubic feet of gas in tight reservoirs in the Permian Lucaogou Formation in the Junggar basin of northwestern China.

  13. Effects of hydrocarbon generation on fluid flow in the Ordos Basin and its relationship to uranium mineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunji Xue

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The Ordos Basin of North China is not only an important uranium mineralization province, but also a major producer of oil, gas and coal in China. The genetic relationship between uranium mineralization and hydrocarbons has been recognized by a number of previous studies, but it has not been well understood in terms of the hydrodynamics of basin fluid flow. We have demonstrated in a previous study that the preferential localization of Cretaceous uranium mineralization in the upper part of the Ordos Jurassic section may have been related to the interface between an upward flowing, reducing fluid and a downward flowing, oxidizing fluid. This interface may have been controlled by the interplay between fluid overpressure related to disequilibrium sediment compaction and which drove the upward flow, and topographic relief, which drove the downward flow. In this study, we carried out numerical modeling for the contribution of oil and gas generation to the development of fluid overpressure, in addition to sediment compaction and heating. Our results indicate that when hydrocarbon generation is taken into account, fluid overpressure during the Cretaceous was more than doubled in comparison with the simulation when hydrocarbon generation was not considered. Furthermore, fluid overpressure dissipation at the end of sedimentation slowed down relative to the no-hydrocarbon generation case. These results suggest that hydrocarbon generation may have played an important role in uranium mineralization, not only in providing reducing agents required for the mineralization, but also in contributing to the driving force to maintain the upward flow.

  14. Genetic Modeling of GIS-Based Cell Clusters and Its Application in Mineral Resources Prediction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a synthetic analysis method for multi-sourced geological data from geographic information system (GIS). In the previous practices of mineral resources prediction, a usually adopted methodology has been statistical analysis of cells delimitated based on thoughts of random sampiing. That might lead to insufficient utilization of local spatial information, for a cell is treated as a point without internal structure. We now take "cell clusters", i. e. , spatial associations of cells, as basic units of statistics, thus the spatial configuration information of geological variables is easier to be detected and utilized, and the accuracy and reliability of prediction are improved. We build a linear multi-discriminating model for the clusters via genetic algorithm. Both the right-judgment rates and the in-class vs. between-class distance ratios are considered to form the evolutional adaptive values of the population. An application of the method in gold mineral resources prediction in east Xinjiang, China is presented.

  15. "Three-Component" Digital Prospecting Method:A New Approach for Mineral Resources Quantitative Prediction and Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Pengda; Chen Jianping; Chen Jianguo; Zhang Shouting; Chen Yongqing

    2004-01-01

    "Three-component" method consists of three close-connected aspects: geological anomaly, diversity of mineralization and mineral deposit spectrum. All these three concepts are not new separately, but it is a new approach to combine these three aspects in one single concept for quantitative mineral resources prediction and assessment and it is also the first time to conduct a more detailed study in each aspect. Investigation and clarification of geological anomalies, diversity of mineralization and spectrum of mineral deposits are realized by digitization and quantification of ore forming controlling factors, ore-existing symbols or marks, characteristics of mineralization and regulation of ore-genesis and laws of distribution. These procedures lead to construction of a "digital model" for mineral resources prediction and assessment.

  16. Porphyry copper assessment of western Central Asia: Chapter N in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Byron R.; Mars, John L.; Denning, Paul D.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Zientek, Michael L.; Dicken, Connie L.; Drew, Lawrence J.; with contributions from Alexeiev, Dmitriy; Seltmann, Reimar; Herrington, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted an assessment of resources associated with porphyry copper deposits in the western Central Asia countries of Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and Tajikistan and the southern Urals of Kazakhstan and Russia as part of a global mineral resource assessment. The purpose of the study was to (1) delineate permissive areas (tracts) for undiscovered porphyry copper deposits; (2) compile a database of known porphyry copper deposits and significant prospects; (3) where data permit, estimate numbers of undiscovered deposits within those permissive tracts; and (4) provide probabilistic estimates the amounts of copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), gold (Au), and silver (Ag) that could be contained in those undiscovered deposits.

  17. Porphyry copper assessment of Southeast Asia and Melanesia: Chapter D in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Dicken, Connie L.; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Ludington, Steve; Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Setiabudi, Bambang Tjahjono; Sukserm, Wudhikarn; Sunuhadi, Dwi Nugroho; Wah, Alexander Yan Sze; Zientek, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collaborated with member countries of the Coordinating Committee for Geoscience Programmes in East and Southeast Asia (CCOP) on an assessment of the porphyry copper resources of Southeast Asia and Melanesia as part of a global mineral resource assessment. The region hosts world-class porphyry copper deposits and underexplored areas that are likely to contain undiscovered deposits. Examples of known porphyry copper deposits include Batu Hijau and Grasberg in Indonesia; Panguna, Frieda River, and Ok Tedi in Papua New Guinea; and Namosi in Fiji.

  18. The Design and Implementation of "The GIS Based Mineral Resource Management Information System"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang,Chunming; Sun,Huoran; Jiang,Shaofei; Zhao, Zhigang

    2005-01-01

    It is described in detail in this paper the entire development process of "The GIS Based Mineral Resource Management Information System" exercising software engineering principles together with GIS technology, database analysis and design techniques etc. It is designed to implement the standardization of geological data storage and management, to provide an efficient retrieval system and a visualization tool for data analysis,thus lays a solid foundation for profound exploration and utilization of geological data.

  19. Assessment of undiscovered continuous oil and gas resources in the Dnieper-Donets Basin and North Carpathian Basin Provinces, Ukraine, Romania, Moldova, and Poland, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Timothy R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2016-11-30

    Using a geology-based methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resources of 13 million barrels of oil and 2,643 billion cubic feet of natural gas in the Dnieper-Donets Basin and North Carpathian Basin Provinces of Ukraine, Romania, Moldova, and Poland.

  20. Managing water resources for sustainable development: the case of integrated river basin management in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, X; Ravesteijn, W; Frostell, B; Wennersten, R

    2010-01-01

    The emerging water crisis in China shows that the current institutional frameworks and policies with regard to water resources management are incapable of achieving an effective and satisfactory situation that includes Integrated River Basin Management (IRBM). This paper analyses this framework and related policies, examines their deficiencies in relation to all water stress problems and explores alternatives focusing on river basins. Water resources management reforms in modern China are reviewed and the main problems involved in transforming the current river management system into an IRBM-based system are analysed. The Huai River basin is used as an example of current river basin management, with quantitative data serving to show the scale and scope of the problems in the country as a whole. The institutional reforms required are discussed and a conceptual institutional framework is proposed to facilitate the implementation of IRBM in China. In particular, the roles, power and responsibilities of River Basin Commissions (RBCs) should be legally strengthened; the functions of supervising, decision-making and execution should be separated; and cross-sectoral legislation, institutional coordination and public participation at all levels should be promoted.

  1. 3D geological modeling for mineral resource assessment of the Tongshan Cu deposit, Heilongjiang Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gongwen Wang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional geological modeling (3DGM assists geologists to quantitatively study in three-dimensional (3D space structures that define temporal and spatial relationships between geological objects. The 3D property model can also be used to infer or deduce causes of geological objects. 3DGM technology provides technical support for extraction of diverse geoscience information, 3D modeling, and quantitative calculation of mineral resources. Based on metallogenic concepts and an ore deposit model, 3DGM technology is applied to analyze geological characteristics of the Tongshan Cu deposit in order to define a metallogenic model and develop a virtual borehole technology; a BP neural network and a 3D interpolation technique were combined to integrate multiple geoscience information in a 3D environment. The results indicate: (1 on basis of the concept of magmatic-hydrothermal Cu polymetallic mineralization and a porphyry Cu deposit model, a spatial relational database of multiple geoscience information for mineralization in the study area (geology, geophysics, geochemistry, borehole, and cross-section data was established, and 3D metallogenic geological objects including mineralization stratum, granodiorite, alteration rock, and magnetic anomaly were constructed; (2 on basis of the 3D ore deposit model, 23,800 effective surveys from 94 boreholes and 21 sections were applied to establish 3D orebody models with a kriging interpolation method; (3 combined 23,800 surveys involving 21 sections, using VC++ and OpenGL platform, virtual borehole and virtual section with BP network, and an improved inverse distance interpolation (IDW method were used to predict and delineate mineralization potential targets (Cu-grade of cell not less than 0.1%; (4 comparison of 3D ore bodies, metallogenic geological objects of mineralization, and potential targets of mineralization models in the study area, delineated the 3D spatial and temporal relationship and causal

  2. The United Nations framework classification for fossil energy and mineral reserves and resources 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, D.; Lynch-Bell, M.; Ross, J.; Heiberg, S.; Griffiths, C.; Klett, T.

    2011-01-01

    Effective resource management in a globalizing economy requires accurate assessments of fossil energy and minerals resources. The recoverable quantities must be described and categorized in a manner that is consistent with scientific and social/economic information describing the economy as well as with the information describing the projects to recover them. A number of different standards have evolved over time in response to various professional needs Under a mandate given by the United Nations Economic and Social Council, the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) has cooperated with Governments, regulatory agencies, industry, international organizations, and professional organizations (including Committee for Mineral Reserves International Reporting Standards (CRIRSCO), the Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE), the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG), and the Society of Petroleum Evaluation Engineers (SPEE)), as well as with outstanding experts, to define a global classification for extractive activities (including oil, gas, heavy oil and bitumen extraction) that reflects the principal concerns of existing petroleum and mineral classifications. The United Nations Framework Classification for Fossil Energy and Mineral Reserves and Resources-2009 (UNFC-2009) aims to serve the following four principal needs: 1. The needs in international energy and mineral studies to formulate robust and long-sighted policies. 2. The needs of governments in managing their resources accordingly, allowing market prices to be transferred to the wellhead with as little loss as possible. 3. The industries' needs for information while deploying technology, management and finance to secure energy supplies and capture value efficiently within the established frameworks to serve its host countries, shareholders and stakeholders. 4. The financial community's need for information to allocate capital appropriately, providing reduced costs and improved long

  3. The impacts of climate change on water resources in the Second Songhua River Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, J. S.; Yao, X. L.; Sun, W. C.; Li, Z. J.

    2016-08-01

    The Northeast China Plain is one of the main grain growing regions in China. Due to the high latitude and black soil ecological system, the crop growth in there is vulnerable to climate change, which makes it important to evaluate the influences of climate change on water resources. In this study, the influences of climate change on water resources of a typical basin in northeast China, the Second Songhua River Basin were assessed using the SWAT model. Ensemble downscaled output from sixteen GCMs for A1B emission scenario in 2050s was adopted as the regional climate scenario and was used to drive SWAT model to predict hydrological changes. The prediction shows that mean evapotranspiration of whole basin increases in most time of a year. Stream flow of Fuyu gauging station downstream this basin exhibits a decrease trend from April to June, November and December, and increases in the remaining period of the year. It is indicated that water resources may not be sufficient in spring for irrigation and the possibility of flood in summer may increases, indicating countermeasures should be made to ensure agricultural water use and prevent possible damages of flood on crop.

  4. Decentralized water resources management in Mozambique: Challenges of implementation at the river basin level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inguane, Ronaldo; Gallego-Ayala, Jordi; Juízo, Dinis

    In the context of integrated water resources management implementation, the decentralization of water resources management (DWRM) at the river basin level is a crucial aspect for its success. However, decentralization requires the creation of new institutions on the ground, to stimulate an environment enabling stakeholder participation and integration into the water management decision-making process. In 1991, Mozambique began restructuring its water sector toward operational decentralized water resources management. Within this context of decentralization, new legal and institutional frameworks have been created, e.g., Regional Water Administrations (RWAs) and River Basin Committees. This paper identifies and analyzes the key institutional challenges and opportunities of DWRM implementation in Mozambique. The paper uses a critical social science research methodology for in-depth analysis of the roots of the constraining factors for the implementation of DWRM. The results obtained suggest that RWAs should be designed considering the specific geographic and infrastructural conditions of their jurisdictional areas and that priorities should be selected in their institutional capacity building strategies that match local realities. Furthermore, the results also indicate that RWAs have enjoyed limited support from basin stakeholders, mainly in basins with less hydraulic infrastructure, in securing water availability for their users and minimizing the effect of climate variability.

  5. Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: index maps of included studies: Chapter B.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Leslie F.; Trippi, Michael H.; Kinney, Scott A.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter B.1 of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Professional Paper 1708 provides index maps for many of the studies described in other chapters of the report. Scientists of the USGS and State geological surveys studied coal and petroleum resources in the central and southern Appalachian structural basins. In the southern Appalachian basin, studies focused on the coal-bearing parts of the Black Warrior basin in Alabama. The scientists used new and existing geologic data sets to create a common spatial geologic framework for the fossil-fuel-bearing strata of the central Appalachian basin and the Black Warrior basin in Alabama.

  6. Coalbed-methane production in the Appalachian basin: Chapter G.2 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milici, Robert C.; Polyak, Désirée E.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    Coalbed methane (CBM) occurs in coal beds of Mississippian and Pennsylvanian (Carboniferous) age in the northern, central, and southern Appalachian basin coal regions, which extend almost continuously from Pennsylvania southward to Alabama. Most commercial CBM production in the Appalachian basin is from three structural subbasins: (1) the Dunkard basin in Pennsylvania, Ohio, and northern West Virginia; (2) the Pocahontas basin in southern West Virginia, eastern Kentucky, and southwestern Virginia; and (3) part of the Black Warrior basin in Alabama. The cumulative CBM production in the Dunkard basin through 2005 was 17 billion cubic feet (BCF), the production in the Pocahontas basin through 2006 was 754 BCF, and the production in the part of the Black Warrior basin in Alabama through 2007 was 2.008 TCF. CBM development may be regarded as mature in Alabama, where annual production from 1998 through 2007 was relatively constant and ranged from 112 to 121 BCF. An opportunity still exists for additional growth in the Pocahontas basin. In 2005, annual CBM production in the Pocahontas basin in Virginia and West Virginia was 85 BCF. In addition, opportunities are emerging for producing the large, diffuse CBM resources in the Dunkard basin as additional wells are drilled and technology improves.

  7. Sustainable development and the exploitation of mineral and energy resources: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellmer, F.-W.; Becker-Platen, J. D.

    2002-04-01

    Natural resources, e.g., metals, industrial minerals, water, and soil, are the essential basis for our economy and well-being. We have to know where these raw materials come from and how they are mined. Sustainable development requires the maintenance, rational use and enhancement of natural resources, as well as a balanced consideration of ecology, economy and social justice. Four general rules concerning the implementation of sustainable development for renewable and non-renewable resources are discussed. Examples of the consumption of selected materials from historical times to the present day are presented, as well as of regional distribution, usage (in contrast to consumption), lifetimes of resources, the supply-and-demand cycle, recycling and substitution in modern times. To fulfill the requirement of sustainable development, the efficiency with which resources are utilized has to be improved. The learning process, often driven by financial rewards, leads from one technology to a better one, thus increasing the efficiency of the use of a resource or commodity. Examples of learning curves are discussed. Industrial countries have to transfer their advanced technologies to developing countries in order to avoid undesirable development in the mining industry and use of natural resources in those regions. The use of the best available technology by the mining industry, taking into account economic considerations, and the necessity to establish environmental guidelines are essential if environmental impact of the production of non-renewable resources is to be minimized. Far more critical than the production of non-renewable resources under the aspect of sustainable development and the capacity of the pollutant sinks of the Earth is the element of natural attenuation with regard to the resources soil and water.

  8. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Dnieper-Donets Basin Province and Pripyat Basin Province, Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, T.R.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, using a geology-based assessment methodology, estimated mean volumes of technically recoverable, conventional, undiscovered petroleum resources at 84 million barrels of crude oil, 4.7 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 130 million barrels of natural gas liquids for the Dnieper-Donets Basin Province and 39 million barrels of crude oil, 48 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 1 million barrels of natural gas liquids for the Pripyat Basin Province. The assessments are part of a program to estimate these resources for priority basins throughout the world.

  9. Modeling the Impact of Climate Change on Water Resources in the Senegal River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbaye, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    In this study we assess the impact of climate change on water resources by using uncorrected and bias corrected data from the regional climate model REMO simulations over the Senegal River Basin. Both simulations were used as input of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology - Hydrological Model over the Upper Senegal Basin.Applying the bias correction simulations of present day climate (1971-2000) substantially improved for both temporal and spatial variations of the analyzed climate parameters (precipitation, temperature) when compared to observations and independent station data. Additionally, the bias corrected input give better representation of the mean river flow, the low flows (10th percentile) and the high flows (90thpercentile) at the outlet of the USB.For the future, the regional climate model projections for precipitation show a general decrease by the end of 21stcentury (2071-2100) for both scenarios RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 and datasets in the majority of the basin, except the Guinean highlands where a slight increase is found. In case of the potential changes of the maximum consecutive number of dry days and wet days, the northern basin is likely to face the most pronounced increase of dry days and decrease of wet days, although slight increase of heavy rainfall is found with similar spatial patterns in both data. Furthermore, a general temperature increase is projected over the entire basin for both scenarios, but more pronounced under the RCP8.5 scenario. Warm night's percent is found to be higher than warm day's percent. As for the potential changes of the basin's hydrology, a general decrease of river discharge, runoff, actual evapotranspiration, soil moisture is found under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 in all simulations. The decrease is higher under RCP8.5 with uncorrected data in the northern basin. However, there are some localized increases of runoff in some parts of the basin. Furthermore, the available water resources are projected to substantially decrease

  10. Geology and mineral resources of the North-Central Idaho Sagebrush Focal Area: Chapter C in Mineral resources of the Sagebrush Focal Areas of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Karen; Zürcher, Lukas; Hofstra, Albert H.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Benson, Mary Ellen; Box, Stephen E.; Anderson, Eric D.; Bleiwas, Donald I.; DeAngelo, Jacob; Drake, Ronald M.; Fernette, Gregory L.; Giles, Stuart A.; Glen, Jonathan M. G.; Haacke, Jon E.; Horton, John D.; John, David A.; Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Rockwell, Barnaby W.; San Juan, Carma A.; Shaffer, Brian N.; Smith, Steven M.; Williams, Colin F.

    2016-10-04

    This report is temporarily unavailableSummaryThe U.S. Department of the Interior has proposed to withdraw approximately 10 million acres of Federal lands from mineral entry (subject to valid existing rights) from 12 million acres of lands defined as Sagebrush Focal Areas (SFAs) in Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming (for further discussion on the lands involved see Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5089–A). The purpose of the proposed action is to protect the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and its habitat from potential adverse effects of locatable mineral exploration and mining. The U.S. Geological Survey Sagebrush Mineral-Resource Assessment (SaMiRA) project was initiated in November 2015 and supported by the Bureau of Land Management to (1) assess locatable mineral-resource potential and (2) to describe leasable and salable mineral resources for the seven SFAs and Nevada additions.This chapter summarizes the current status of locatable, leasable, and salable mineral commodities and assesses the potential of locatable minerals in the North-Central Idaho SFA, which extends from east-central to south-central Idaho. The geologically complex area is composed of many different rock units that locally contain potential mineral resources.

  11. Geology and mineral resources of the North-Central Idaho Sagebrush Focal Area: Chapter C in Mineral resources of the Sagebrush Focal Areas of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Karen; Zürcher, Lukas; Hofstra, Albert H.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Benson, Mary Ellen; Box, Stephen E.; Anderson, Eric D.; Bleiwas, Donald I.; DeAngelo, Jacob; Drake, Ronald M.; Fernette, Gregory L.; Giles, Stuart A.; Glen, Jonathan M. G.; Haacke, Jon E.; Horton, John D.; John, David A.; Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Rockwell, Barnaby W.; San Juan, Carma A.; Shaffer, Brian N.; Smith, Steven M.; Williams, Colin F.

    2016-10-04

    SummaryThe U.S. Department of the Interior has proposed to withdraw approximately 10 million acres of Federal lands from mineral entry (subject to valid existing rights) from 12 million acres of lands defined as Sagebrush Focal Areas (SFAs) in Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming (for further discussion on the lands involved see Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5089–A). The purpose of the proposed action is to protect the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and its habitat from potential adverse effects of locatable mineral exploration and mining. The U.S. Geological Survey Sagebrush Mineral-Resource Assessment (SaMiRA) project was initiated in November 2015 and supported by the Bureau of Land Management to (1) assess locatable mineral-resource potential and (2) to describe leasable and salable mineral resources for the seven SFAs and Nevada additions.This chapter summarizes the current status of locatable, leasable, and salable mineral commodities and assesses the potential of locatable minerals in the North-Central Idaho SFA, which extends from east-central to south-central Idaho. The geologically complex area is composed of many different rock units that locally contain potential mineral resources.

  12. Quick-start guide for version 3.0 of EMINERS - Economic Mineral Resource Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawiec, Walter J.; Spanski, Gregory T.

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative mineral resource assessment, as developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), consists of three parts: (1) development of grade and tonnage mineral deposit models; (2) delineation of tracts permissive for each deposit type; and (3) probabilistic estimation of the numbers of undiscovered deposits for each deposit type (Singer and Menzie, 2010). The estimate of the number of undiscovered deposits at different levels of probability is the input to the EMINERS (Economic Mineral Resource Simulator) program. EMINERS uses a Monte Carlo statistical process to combine probabilistic estimates of undiscovered mineral deposits with models of mineral deposit grade and tonnage to estimate mineral resources. It is based upon a simulation program developed by Root and others (1992), who discussed many of the methods and algorithms of the program. Various versions of the original program (called "MARK3" and developed by David H. Root, William A. Scott, and Lawrence J. Drew of the USGS) have been published (Root, Scott, and Selner, 1996; Duval, 2000, 2012). The current version (3.0) of the EMINERS program is available as USGS Open-File Report 2004-1344 (Duval, 2012). Changes from version 2.0 include updating 87 grade and tonnage models, designing new templates to produce graphs showing cumulative distribution and summary tables, and disabling economic filters. The economic filters were disabled because embedded data for costs of labor and materials, mining techniques, and beneficiation methods are out of date. However, the cost algorithms used in the disabled economic filters are still in the program and available for reference for mining methods and milling techniques included in Camm (1991). EMINERS is written in C++ and depends upon the Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0 programming environment. The code depends heavily on the use of Microsoft Foundation Classes (MFC) for implementation of the Windows interface. The program works only on Microsoft Windows XP or newer

  13. Digital data in support of studies and assessments of coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: Chapter I.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippi, Michael H.; Kinney, Scott A.; Gunther, Gregory; Ryder, Robert T.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    The Appalachian basin is a mature basin containing abundant oil, gas, and coal resources. Its fossil-fuel-bearing strata range in age from Cambrian to Permian and extend over the States of New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Ohio, West Virginia, Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, Georgia, and Alabama. The basin has provided abundant fossil fuels to support the Nation’s economic growth for at least 150 years and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessments suggest that substantial untapped resources remain. A merger of new and old geologic data and ideas is required to locate and extract those remaining resources.

  14. Coal geology and assessment of coal resources and reserves in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luppens, James A.; Scott, David C.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents the final results of the first assessment of both coal resources and reserves for all significant coal beds in the entire Powder River Basin, northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana. The basin covers about 19,500 square miles, exclusive of the part of the basin within the Crow and Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservations in Montana. The Powder River Basin, which contains the largest resources of low-sulfur, low-ash, subbituminous coal in the United States, is the single most important coal basin in the United States. The U.S. Geological Survey used a geology-based assessment methodology to estimate an original coal resource of about 1.16 trillion short tons for 47 coal beds in the Powder River Basin; in-place (remaining) resources are about 1.15 trillion short tons. This is the first time that all beds were mapped individually over the entire basin. A total of 162 billion short tons of recoverable coal resources (coal reserve base) are estimated at a 10:1 stripping ratio or less. An estimated 25 billion short tons of that coal reserve base met the definition of reserves, which are resources that can be economically produced at or below the current sales price at the time of the evaluation. The total underground coal resource in coal beds 10–20 feet thick is estimated at 304 billion short tons.

  15. The utilization of water resources and its variation tendency in Tarim River Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Mao; XU Hailiang; SONG Yudong

    2006-01-01

    Water resources efficient utilization is the key to ecological improvement and economic development in Tarim River Basin. It is necessary to analyze the water resources utilization and its variation tendency in the whole river basin. Based on the monitored data and formation at eight meteorological stations and fifteen hydrological stations, the method of time series, regression analysis are applied to analyzing the water resources utilization and variation trend in the headstreams and mainstream areas especially in recent 10 years. The quantitative results indicate that inflows of the headstream areas have an increasing trend to different extent in the past 40years. The runoff increasing trend is more significant from1994 to 2002, which show the water resources condition in the headstreams is at an advantage.However, under the condition of water increase with the volume of 25×108 m3 in headstreams in recent 10years, the mainstream water flowing from the headstreams has increased less than 0.9985×108 m3. In addition, the runoff at the different hydrologic stations along the Tarim River has a significant linear decreasing trend. It is shown that the degraded trend of ecological environment in the mainstream areas hardly changes even if the Tarim River Basin is in the special water period for ten consecutive years.

  16. Mapping Water Resources, Allocation and Consumption in the Mills River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodes, J.; Jeuland, M. A.; Barros, A. P.

    2014-12-01

    Mountain basins and the headwaters of river basins along the foothills of major mountain ranges are undergoing rapid environmental change due to urban development, land acquisition by investors, population increase, and climate change. Classical water infrastructure in these regions is primarily designed to meet human water demand associated with agriculture, tourism, and economic development. Often overlooked and ignored is the fundamental interdependence of human water demand, ecosystem water demand, water rights and allocation, and water supply. A truly sustainable system for water resources takes into account ecosystem demand along with human infrastructure and economic demand, as well as the feedbacks that exist between them. Allocation policies need to take into account basin resilience that is the amount of stress the system can handle under varying future scenarios. Changes in stress on the system can be anthropogenic in the form of population increase, land use change, economic development, or may be natural in the form of climate change and decrease in water supply due to changes in precipitation. Mapping the water rights, supply, and demands within the basin can help determine the resiliency and sustainability of the basin. Here, we present a coupled natural human system project based in the French Broad River Basin, in the Southern Appalachians. In the first phase of the project, we are developing and implementing a coupled hydro-economics modeling framework in the Mills River Basin (MRB), a tributary of the French Broad. The Mills River Basin was selected as the core basin for implementing a sustainable system of water allocation that is adaptive and reflects the interdependence of water dependent sectors. The headwaters of the Mills River are in the foothills of the Appalachians, and are currently under substantial land use land cover (LULC) change pressure for agricultural purposes. In this regard, the MRB is representative of similar headwater

  17. Porphyry copper assessment of the Tethys region of western and southern Asia: Chapter V in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zürcher, Lukas; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Mars, John C.; Ludington, Stephen; Zientek, Michael L.; Dunlap, Pamela; Wallis, John C.; Drew, Lawrence J.; Sutphin, David M.; Berger, Byron R.; Herrington, Richard J.; Billa, Mario; Kuşcu, Ilkay; Moon, Charles J.; Richards, Jeremy P.; Zientek, Michael L.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Johnson, Kathleen M.

    2015-11-18

    A probabilistic mineral resource assessment of undiscovered resources in porphyry copper deposits in the Tethys region of western and southern Asia was carried out as part of a global mineral resource assessment led by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The purpose of the study was to delineate geographic areas as permissive tracts for the occurrence of porphyry copper deposits at a scale of 1:1,000,000 and to provide probabilistic estimates of amounts of copper likely to be contained in undiscovered porphyry copper deposits in those tracts. The team did the assessment using the USGS three-part form of mineral resource assessment, which is based on (1) mineral deposit and grade-tonnage models constructed from known deposits as analogs for undiscovered deposits, (2) delineation of permissive tracts based on geoscientific information, and (3) estimation of numbers of undiscovered deposits.

  18. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Timan-Pechora Basin Province, Russia, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, C.J.; Bird, K.J.; Charpentier, R.R.; Gautier, D.L.; Houseknecht, D.W.; Klett, T.R.; Moore, T.; Pawlewicz, M.J.; Pittman, J.; Tennyson, M.E.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the Timan-Pechora Basin Province in Russia as part of the USGS Circum-Arctic Oil and Gas Resource Appraisal program. Geologically, the Timan-Pechora Basin Province is a triangular-shaped cratonic block bounded by the northeast-southwest trending Ural Mountains and the northwest-southeast trending Timan Ridge. The northern boundary is shared with the South Barents Sea Province (fig.1). The Timan-Pechora Basin Province has a long history of oil and gas exploration and production. The first field was discovered in 1930 and, after 75 years of exploration, more than 230 fields have been discovered and more than 5,400 wells have been drilled. This has resulted in the discovery of more than 16 billion barrels of oil and 40 trillion cubic feet of gas.

  19. A quantified study method and its application to sustainable management of water resources in arid basins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZUO QiTing; ZHOU KeFa; XIA Jun; CHEN Xi; WANG YongQin

    2007-01-01

    According to the features of the basins in arid areas, in this paper a quantified study framework of sustainable management of water resources is developed, and the contents include mainly the quantification rules, index system, basic models and quantification method. A quantified study method (M-D method) about sustainable management of water resources is put forward based on the simulation and integrative development degree. In the method, the fuzzy subordinatness description and the multi-rule integration are used to calculate the integrative development degree so as to quantitatively describe the sustainable development degree of economic society; the mathematical simulation is used to quantitatively describe the interactions between water resources, economic society and ecosystems so as to lay a foundation for quantitatively giving expression to the development situation of economic society related to the management of water resources; based on the organic combination of these two,quantification rules and other constraint conditions, a quantified model of water resources management is developed. The M-D method is applied to developing a scientific scheme of water resources management in the Bosten Lake Basin, Xinjiang, China.

  20. Assessment of climate change impact on water resources in the Upper Senegal basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamine Mbaye, Mamadou; Hagemann, Stefan; Haensler, Andreas; Stacke, Tobias; Thierno Gaye, Amadou

    2015-04-01

    This study assesses the potential impacts of climate change on water resources and the effect of statistical bias correction on the projected climate change signal in hydrological variables over the Upper Senegal Basin (West Africa). Original and bias corrected climate data from the regional climate model REMO were used as input for the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology-Hydrology Model (MPI-HM) to simulate river discharge, runoff, soil moisture and evapotranspiration. The results during the historical period (1971-2000) show that using the bias corrected input yields a better representation of the mean river flow regimes and the 10th and 90th percentiles of river flow at the outlet of the Upper Senegal Basin (USB). The Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient is 0.92 using the bias corrected input, which demonstrates the ability of the model in simulating river flow. The percent bias of 3.88% indicates a slight overestimation of the river flow by the model using the corrected input. The evaluation demonstrates the ability of the bias correction and its necessity for the simulation of historical river regimes. As for the potential changes of hydrological variables by the end of 21st century (2071-2100), a general decrease of river discharge, runoff, actual evapotranspiration, soil moisture is found under two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) in all simulations. The decrease is higher under RCP8.5 with uncorrected data in the northern basin. However, there are some localized increases in some parts of the basin (e.g Guinean Highlands). The projected climate change signal of these above variables has the same spatial pattern and tendency for the uncorrected and bias corrected data although the magnitude of the corrected signal is somewhat lower than that uncorrected. Furthermore, the available water resources are projected to substantially decrease by more than -50% in the majority of the basin (especially in driest and hottest northern basin

  1. Geologic and mineral and water resources investigations in western Colorado, using Skylab EREP data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K. (Principal Investigator); Prost, G. L.; Knepper, D. H.; Sawatzky, D. L.; Huntley, D.; Weimer, R. J.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Skylab photographs are superior to ERTS images for photogeologic interpretation, primarily because of improved resolution. Lithologic contacts can be detected consistently better on Skylab S190A photos than on ERTS images. Color photos are best; red and green band photos are somewhat better than color-infrared photos; infrared band photos are worst. All major geologic structures can be recognized on Skylab imagery. Large folds, even those with very gentle flexures, can be mapped accurately and with confidence. Bedding attitudes of only a few degrees are recognized; vertical exaggeration factor is about 2.5X. Mineral deposits in central Colorado may be indicated on Skylab photos by lineaments and color anomalies, but positive identification of these features is not possible. S190A stereo color photography is adequate for defining drainage divides that in turn define the boundaries and distribution of ground water recharge and discharge areas within a basin.

  2. Mineral-Resource Assessment of Northern Nye County, Nevada - A Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludington, Steve; John, David A.; Muntean, John L.; Hanson, Andrew D.; Castor, Stephen B.; Henry, Christopher D.; Wintzer, Niki; Cline, Jean S.; Simon, Adam C.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV), and Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology (NBMG), which is a part of the University of Nevada, Reno (UNR), have completed the first year of data collection and analysis in preparation for a new mineral- and energy-resource assessment of northern Nye County, Nevada. This report provides information about work completed before October 1, 2009. Existing data are being compiled, including geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and mineral-deposit information. Field studies are underway, which are primarily designed to address issues raised during the review of existing information. In addition, new geochemical studies are in progress, including reanalyzing existing stream-sediment samples with modern methods, and analyzing metalliferous black shales.

  3. Performance evaluation of River Basin Organizations to implement integrated water resources management using composite indexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego-Ayala, Jordi; Juízo, Dinis

    In the Southern African Development Community region, Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) principles and tools are being implemented through the existing regional framework for water resources development and management. The IWRM approach is applied at river basin level seeking a balance between the economic efficiency, social equity and environmental sustainability in water resources management and development. This paper uses composite indexes to analyze the performance of River Basin Organizations (RBOs) as key implementing agents of the IWRM framework. The assessment focuses on three RBOs that fall under the Regional Water Administration for Southern Mozambique (ARA-Sul) jurisdiction, namely: Umbeluzi, Incomati and Limpopo River Basin Management Units. The analysis focus on the computation of a set of multidimensional key performance indicators developed by Hooper (2010) but adapted to the Mozambican context. This research used 24 out of 115 proposed universal key performance indicators. The indicators for this case study were selected based on their suitability to evaluate performance in line with the legal and institutional framework context that guides the operations of RBOs in Mozambique. Finally these indicators were integrated in a composite index, using an additive and multiplicative aggregation method coupled with the Analytic Hierarchy Process technique employed to differentiate the relative importance of the various indicators considered. The results demonstrate the potential usefulness of the methodology developed to analyze the RBOs performance and proved useful in identifying the main performance areas in need of improvement for better implementation of IWRM at river basin level in Mozambique. This information should support both the IWRM framework adaptation to local context and the implementation at river basin level in order to improve water governance.

  4. Assessing Climate Change Impacts on Water Resources in the Songhua River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengping Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Songhua River Basin (SRB in Northeast China is one of the areas most sensitive to global climate change because of its high-latitude location. In this study, we conducted a modeling assessment on the potential change of water resources in this region for the coming three decades using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT. First, we calibrated and validated the model with historical streamflow records in this basin. Then, we applied the calibrated model for the period from 2020 to 2049 with the projected and downscaled climatic data under two emission scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5. The study results show: (1 The SWAT model performed very well for both the calibration and validation periods in the SRB; (2 The projected temperatures showed a steady, significant increase across the SRB under both scenarios, especially in two sub-basins, the Nenjiang River Basin (NRB and the Lower SRB (LSRB. With regard to precipitation, both scenarios showed a decreasing trend in the NRB and LSRB but an increasing trend in the Upper Songhua River Basin (USRB; and (3, generally, the hydrologic modeling suggested a decreasing trend of streamflow for 2020–2049. Compared to baseline conditions (1980–2009, the streamflow in the NRB and LSRB would decrease by 20.3%–37.8%, while streamflow in the USRB would experience an increase of 9.68%–17.7%. These findings provide relevant insights into future surface water resources, and such information can be helpful for resource managers and policymakers to develop effective eco-environment management plans and strategies in the face of climate change.

  5. Water resources data Texas water year 2002, volume 1. Arkansas River basin, Red River basin, Sabine River basin, Neches River basin, and intervening coastal basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandara, Susan C.

    2003-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2002 water year for Texas are presented in six volumes and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 1 contains records for water discharge at 63 gaging stations; stage only at 3 gaging stations; stage and contents at 34 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 35 gaging stations; and data for 8 partial-record stations comprised of 6 flood-hydrograph and 2 low-flow stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  6. Water resources data Texas water year 2000, volume 1. Arkansas River basin, Red River basin, Sabine River basin, Neches River basin, and intervening coastal basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandara, S.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Barbie, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2000 water year for Texas are presented in six volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water-quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 1 contains records for water discharge at 68 gaging stations; stage only at 3 gaging stations; stage and contents at 37 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 39 gaging stations; and data for 9 partial-record stations comprised of 6 flood-hydrograph and 3 low-flow stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  7. Water resources data Texas water year 2001, volume 1. Arkansas River basin, Red River basin, Sabine River basin, Neches River basin, and intervening coastal basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandara, Susan C.

    2002-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2001 water year for Texas are presented in six volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water-quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 1 contains records for water discharge at 68 gaging stations; stage only at 3 gaging stations; stage and contents at 30 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 40 gaging stations; and data for 12 partial-record stations comprised of 6 flood-hydrograph and 6 low-flow stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  8. Water resources data Texas water year 1999, volume 1. Arkansas River basin, Red River basin, Sabine River basin, Neches River basin, and intervening coastal basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandara, S.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Barbie, D.L.; Jones, R.E.

    2000-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1999 water year for Texas are presented in six volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water-quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 1 contains records for water discharge at 71 gaging stations; stage only at 3 gaging stations; stage and contents at 23 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 47 gaging stations; and data for 9 partial-record stations comprised of 6 flood-hydrograph and 3 low-flow stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  9. Water resources data Texas water year 2003, volume 1. Arkansas River basin, Red River basin, Sabine River basin, Neches River basin, and intervening coastal basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandara, Susan C.

    2004-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2003 water year for Texas are presented in six volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water-quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 1 contains records for water discharge at 72 gaging stations; stage only at 3 gaging stations; stage and contents at 35 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 28 gaging stations; and data for 9 partial-record stations comprised of 6 flood-hydrograph and 3 low-flow stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  10. Water resources data Texas, water year 2004, volume 1. Arkansas River basin, Red River basin, Sabine River basin, Neches River basin, and intervening coastal basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Susan C. Aragon; Reece, Brian D.; Eames, Deanna R.

    2005-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2004 water year for Texas are presented in six volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water-quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 1 contains records for water discharge at 72 gaging stations; stage only at 3 gaging stations; elevation at 29 lakes and reservoirs; content at 6 lakes and reservoirs; and water quality at 26 gaging stations. Also included are data for 9 partial-record stations comprised of 6 flood-hydrograph and 3 low-flow stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  11. Web GIS design and realization for groundwater resources in the Yellow River basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO; Jianguo; GONG; Huili; ZHAO; Wenji; ZHANG; Xiaosong; Y

    2004-01-01

    This article brings forward a design and realization scheme of Web GIS in the Yellow River basin for the management of groundwater resources. The main goals are to manage and share data of massive-scale, to support the research of groundwater resources in the Yellow River basin. In this paper we point out the necessity and feasibility of building the distributed Web GIS for geographical research objects on a large scale.We put forward some solutions for the construction of this kind of system including a holistic deployment strategy in the Internet, a scheme of distributed data storage and management, a design of application structure based on three tires architecture by each province and how they collaborate with each other. It also illuminates how the application server works, and sets forth the relations among databases which work together in this system.

  12. Estimating resource costs of compliance with EU WFD ecological status requirements at the river basin scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riegels, Niels; Jensen, Roar; Benasson, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Resource costs of meeting EU WFD ecological status requirements at the river basin scale are estimated by comparing net benefits of water use given ecological status constraints to baseline water use values. Resource costs are interpreted as opportunity costs of water use arising from water...... scarcity. An optimization approach is used to identify economically efficient ways to meet WFD requirements. The approach is implemented using a river basin simulation model coupled to an economic post-processor; the simulation model and post-processor are run from a central controller that iterates until...... an allocation is found that maximizes net benefits given WFD requirements. Water use values are estimated for urban/domestic, agricultural, industrial, livestock, and tourism water users. Ecological status is estimated using metrics that relate average monthly river flow volumes to the natural hydrologic regime...

  13. Geological characteristics and resource potentials of oil shale in Ordos Basin, Center China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yunlai, Bai; Yingcheng, Zhao; Long, Ma; Wu-jun, Wu; Yu-hu, Ma

    2010-09-15

    It has been shown that not only there are abundant oil, gas, coal, coal-bed gas, groundwater and giant uranium deposits but also there are abundant oil shale resources in Ordos basin. It has been shown also that the thickness of oil shale is, usually, 4-36m, oil-bearing 1.5%-13.7%, caloric value 1.66-20.98MJ/kg. The resource amount of oil shale with burial depth less than 2000 m is over 2000x108t (334). Within it, confirmed reserve is about 1x108t (121). Not only huge economic benefit but also precious experience in developing oil shale may be obtained in Ordos basin.

  14. Impact of climate change and variability on water resources in Heihe River Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NHANGJishi; KANGErsi; LANYongchao; CHENRensheng

    2003-01-01

    Studies indicate that the climate has experienced a dramatic change in the Heihe River Basin with scope of temperature rise reaching 0.5-1 .1℃ in the 1990s compared to the mean value of the period 1960-1990, precipitation increased 18.5 mm in the 1990s compared to the 1950s, and 6.5mm in the 1990s compared to the mean value of the period 1960-1990, water resources decreased 2.6 × l03 m3 in the 1990s compared to the 1950s, and 0.4 × l08 m3 in the 1990s compared to the mean value of the period 1960-1990. These changes have exerted a greater effect on the local environment and socio-economy, and also made the condition worsening in water resources utilizations in the Heihe Rver Basin.

  15. Framework for the assessment of interaction between CO2 geological storage and other sedimentary basin resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, K; Whittaker, S; Varma, S; Bekele, E; Langhi, L; Hodgkinson, J; Harris, B

    2016-02-01

    Sedimentary basins around the world considered suitable for carbon storage usually contain other natural resources such as petroleum, coal, geothermal energy and groundwater. Storing carbon dioxide in geological formations in the basins adds to the competition for access to the subsurface and the use of pore space where other resource-based industries also operate. Managing potential impacts that industrial-scale injection of carbon dioxide may have on other resource development must be focused to prevent potential conflicts and enhance synergies where possible. Such a sustainable coexistence of various resource developments can be accomplished by implementing a Framework for Basin Resource Management strategy (FBRM). The FBRM strategy utilizes the concept of an Area of Review (AOR) for guiding development and regulation of CO2 geological storage projects and for assessing their potential impact on other resources. The AOR is determined by the expected physical distribution of the CO2 plume in the subsurface and the modelled extent of reservoir pressure increase resulting from the injection of the CO2. This information is used to define the region to be characterised and monitored for a CO2 injection project. The geological characterisation and risk- and performance-based monitoring will be most comprehensive within the region of the reservoir containing the carbon dioxide plume and should consider geological features and wells continuously above the plume through to its surface projection; this region defines where increases in reservoir pressure will be greatest and where potential for unplanned migration of carbon dioxide is highest. Beyond the expanse of the carbon dioxide plume, geological characterisation and monitoring should focus only on identified features that could be a potential migration conduit for either formation water or carbon dioxide.

  16. The Impacts of Climate Change on Hydrology and Water Resources in Zayandeh-Rood Basin - Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrishamchi, A.; Azaranfar, A.; Ghasemi, S.; Tajrishy, M.; Marino, M. A.; Abrishamchi, A.

    2007-12-01

    Increasing concentration of greenhouse gases may have significant consequences on the global climate. If climate change occurs, changes in temperature and precipitation may have profound impacts on hydrologic processes, water resources and water uses such as agriculture. In Zayandeh-River Basin of Iran, agriculture is an important economic activity and is the main water user. Climate change may exacerbate the already contentious water supply situation in the basin. This paper focuses on the impact of climate change on hydrology and water resources of Zayandeh-Rood river basin. GCM models do not have suitable spatial resolution for regional assessment, so GCM outputs should be downscaled to the regional scale. In this paper, statistical downscaling is used in two difference methods (probability and regression) for downscaling the CGCM2 model outputs under A2 and B2 scenarios for two periods: 2021-2050 (immediate future) and 2071-2100 (far future). Temperature and precipitation projections from the downscaled GCM outputs were used as inputs to the hydrologic model. To study the impact of climate change on the water resources in the basin, an operational model was used to simulate the operation of the Zayandeh-Rood reservoir under different hydrologic projections. Both scenarios showed similar increases in temperature while they have less agreement in the amount and rate of precipitation they projected. The results of this study also show that the water resources in the study area are sensitive to changes in temperature and precipitation projections. The reservoir simulations provide information on the timing and rate of changes expected in water supply. The methodology developed can be used to predict the impacts of new or updated predictions of climate change. Vulnerability to climate change may be characterized as a function of three components: sensitivity, exposure, and adaptive capacity. In this study, only the first component and infrastructure as an indicator

  17. Aquatic and Wildlife Resources of the Meramec River Basin, Missouri. A Selected Bibliography,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-02-01

    8217 Jag_ kwo CAquatic and Wildlife Resources of the Meramec River Basin, Missouri A Selected Bibliography c Prepared by Donald E. Simpson and Fred B. Samson...Missouri. A Selected Bibliography S. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTNOR(.) Donald E. Simpson and Fred B. Samson S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMSR,) 9...Reservoir tailwater. Proc. S.E. Assoc. Game Fish Comm. 22:245-248. (35,72) 678. Beeman , H.W. 1924. Habits and propagation of the smallmouth black bass

  18. Existing opportunities to adapt the Rio Grande/Bravo Basin Water Resources Allocation Framework

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The study of the Rio Grande/Bravo (RGB) Basin water allocation demonstrates how the United States (U.S.) and Mexico have consolidated a transboundary framework based on water sharing. However, the water supply no longer meets the ever-increasing demand for water or the expectations of different stakeholders. This paper explores opportunities for an enhanced management regime that will address past problems and better examine how to balance demands for a precious resource and environmental nee...

  19. Clinoptilolite and associated authigenic minerals in Miocene tuffaceous rocks in the Goose Creek Basin, Cassia County, Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brownfield, M.E.; Hildebrand, R.T.

    1985-01-01

    Miocene tuffaceous fluviolacustrine deposits in the southeastern part of the Goose Creek basin contain a variety of authigenic minerals, including clinoptilolite, smectite, pyrite, gypsum, and calcite. Clinoptilolite is the primary mineral in the diagenetically altered rhyolitic vitric tuffs in the study area. These zeolitic tuffs locally attain thicknesses of as much as 30 meters. Examinations of samples of the altered tuff beds using the scanning electron microscope reveal that the clinoptilolite usually occurs as clean, well-formed tabular crystals about 0.005 mm across in a matrix of smectite. Prismatic clinoptilolite crystals, as much as 0.06 mm long, are present in the larger vugs. During the Miocene, thick beds of air-fall rhyolitic vitric volcanic ash accumulated in the Goose Creek basin in a coalescing fluviolacustrine depositional setting. In the southeastern part of the basin, the volcanic ash was deposited in a lacustrine fan delta, where it was partly reworked and interbedded with sandstone and siltstone. Diagenetic alteration of the ash beds proceeded in an open hydrologic system. Solution and hydrolysis by ground water initially altered the glass shards to form smectite and silica gel. Clinoptilolite subsequently precipitated on the altered shard surfaces. The paragenesis of pyrite, gypsum, and calcite in the zeolitic tuffs is uncertain.

  20. Examination of brine contamination risk to aquatic resources from petroleum development in the Williston Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Robert A.; Thamke, Joanna N.; Smith, Bruce D.; Tangen, Brian A.; Chesley-Preston, Tara; Preston, Todd M.

    2011-01-01

    U.S. Geological Survey scientists and cooperating partners are examining the potential risk to aquatic resources (for example, wetlands, streams) by contamination from saline waters (brine) produced by petroleum development in the Williston Basin of Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota. The primary goals of this study are to provide a science-based approach to assess potential risk of brine contamination to aquatic systems and to help focus limited monitoring and mitigation resources on the areas of greatest need. These goals will be accomplished through field investigations that quantify brine movement and risk assessments using remotely-sensed and other spatial datasets.

  1. Existing Opportunities to Adapt the Rio Grande/Bravo Basin Water Resources Allocation Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzma Fabiola Nava

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The study of the Rio Grande/Bravo (RGB Basin water allocation demonstrates how the United States (U.S. and Mexico have consolidated a transboundary framework based on water sharing. However, the water supply no longer meets the ever-increasing demand for water or the expectations of different stakeholders. This paper explores opportunities for an enhanced management regime that will address past problems and better examine how to balance demands for a precious resource and environmental needs. Based on an overview of the RGB Basin context and the water allocation framework, as well as a discussion on stakeholders’ ability to achieve solutions, this paper explores three key questions: (1 Does the current binational water allocation framework meet current and future human and environmental needs? (2 How can the U.S.-Mexico water allocation framework be adapted to balance social and environmental water demands so it can support and preserve the RGB Basin ecosystem? (3 What are the main opportunities to be explored for expanding the U.S.-Mexico water resources allocation framework? The U.S.-Mexico water resources framework is subject to broad interpretation and may be adapted to the circumstances taking the fullest advantage of its flexibility. Policy recommendations highlight the existing flexibility of the binational framework, the potential to move forward with an ad hoc institutional arrangement, and the creation of political will to achieve change through stakeholders recommendations.

  2. Benefits Evaluation of Water Resources Used for Ecosystem in Shiyang River Basin of Gansu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Xiaoling; KANG Shaozhong; LI Fusheng; ZHANG Lu; TONG Ling

    2009-01-01

    Among the numerous inland river basins in the arid northwest China, Shiyang River basin is known for its most serious water shortage that constrains its social and economic developments and for some of the worst eco-logical and environmental deterioration in China. The research on the value of water resources used for ecosystem is the basis for reasonable allocation of water resources between users of ecosystem and economic system. In this paper the concept of dynamic value for the ecosystem services is proposed. A modified coefficient for the ecosys-tem service value per unit area is proposed according to the cover degrees of biomes combined with expert consul-tation. Based on the developmental stage coefficient and scarcity of ecological resources, a dynamic evaluation method is proposed. The theoretical formula and simple calculation formula of the sharing benefits coefficient and benefits per unit ecological water utilization are proposed. The result shows that the benefit of unit ecological water utilization in the lower reach was greater than that in the upper reach in the Shiyang River basin.

  3. Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Water Resources in the Kunhar River Basin, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan is one of the most highly water-stressed countries in the world and its water resources are greatly vulnerable to changing climatic conditions. The present study investigates the possible impacts of climate change on the water resources of the Kunhar River basin, Pakistan, under A2 and B2 scenarios of HadCM3, a global climate model. After successful development of the hydrological modeling system (HEC-HMS for the basin, streamflow was simulated for three future periods (2011–2040, 2041–2070, and 2071–2099 and compared with the baseline period (1961–1990 to explore the changes in different flow indicators such as mean flow, low flow, median flow, high flow, flow duration curves, temporal shift in peaks, and temporal shifts in center-of-volume dates. From the results obtained, an overall increase in mean annual flow was projected in the basin under both A2 and B2 scenarios. However, while summer and autumn showed a noticeable increase in streamflow, spring and winter showed decreased streamflow. High and median flows were predicted to increase, but low flow was projected to decrease in the future under both scenarios. Flow duration curves showed that the probability of occurrence of flow is likely to be more in the future. It was also noted that peaks were predicted to shift from June to July in the future, and the center-of-volume date—the date at which half of the annual flow passes—will be delayed by about 9–17 days in the basin, under both A2 and B2 scenarios. On the whole, the Kunhar basin will face more floods and droughts in the future due to the projected increase in high flow and decrease in low flow and greater temporal and magnitudinal variations in peak flows. These results highlight how important it is to take cognizance of the impact of climate change on water resources in the basin and to formulate suitable policies for the proper utilization and management of these resources.

  4. Assessment of coal geology, resources, and reserves in the Montana Powder River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haacke, Jon E.; Scott, David C.; Osmonson, Lee M.; Luppens, James A.; Pierce, Paul E.; Gunderson, Jay A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize geology, coal resources, and coal reserves in the Montana Powder River Basin assessment area in southeastern Montana. This report represents the fourth assessment area within the Powder River Basin to be evaluated in the continuing U.S. Geological Survey regional coal assessment program. There are four active coal mines in the Montana Powder River Basin assessment area: the Spring Creek and Decker Mines, both near Decker; the Rosebud Mine, near Colstrip; and the Absaloka Mine, west of Colstrip. During 2011, coal production from these four mines totaled approximately 36 million short tons. A fifth mine, the Big Sky, had significant production from 1969-2003; however, it is no longer in production and has since been reclaimed. Total coal production from all five mines in the Montana Powder River Basin assessment area from 1968 to 2011 was approximately 1.4 billion short tons. The Rosebud/Knobloch coal bed near Colstrip and the Anderson, Dietz 2, and Dietz 3 coal beds near Decker contain the largest deposits of surface minable, low-sulfur, subbituminous coal currently being mined in the assessment area. A total of 26 coal beds were identified during this assessment, 18 of which were modeled and evaluated to determine in-place coal resources. The total original coal resource in the Montana Powder River Basin assessment area for the 18 coal beds assessed was calculated to be 215 billion short tons. Available coal resources, which are part of the original coal resource remaining after subtracting restrictions and areas of burned coal, are about 162 billion short tons. Restrictions included railroads, Federal interstate highways, urban areas, alluvial valley floors, state parks, national forests, and mined-out areas. It was determined that 10 of the 18 coal beds had sufficient areal extent and thickness to be evaluated for recoverable surface resources ([Roland (Baker), Smith, Anderson, Dietz 2, Dietz 3, Canyon, Werner

  5. Data points (drill locations) used to assess coal resources in the San Juan Basin, CO and NM (sjbptsg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a shapefile and coverage of data points used in the assessment of coal resources of the Fruitland Formation in the San Juan Basin, Colorado and New Mexico....

  6. Pawcatuck River and Narragansett Bay Drainage Basins. Water and Related Land Resources Study. Blackstone River Watershed. Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    weee ir noww md Id I b Wock number) --The eight appendices to the main report provides descriptive material abbut the Blackstone River Basin. Appendices...PNB area). The team concentrated on water supply, water quality, recreation, marine management, flooding and erosion, minerals extraction and the...basin consists of gently rolling wooded hills. Peters River originates in Bellingham, Massachusetts, just north of Silver Lake. It flows southwesterly

  7. The mineral resource base of the European sector of the northeastern USSR. Mineral'no-syr'evye resursy evropeiskogo Severo-Vostoka SSSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishman, M.V.

    1981-01-01

    The primary results of geological exploration and scientific research operations, which were conducted in the Kom', ASSR and the Nenets Autonomous Region from 1974-1978, are given. The basic directions of the operations for developing the mineral resource base of the European sector of the northeastern USSR for 1980-1985 are proposed.

  8. Integrated water resources assessment and management in the Kharaa River Basin, Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibisch, Ralf; Karthe, Daniel; Hofmann, Jürgen; Borchardt, Dietrich

    2016-04-01

    A comprehensive study on hydrology, hydro-morphology, climatology, water physico-chemistry and ecology was conducted in the Kharaa River Basin (Mongolia) between 2006 and 2013. The assessment provided a detailed characterization of water resources for the first time and serves as a scientific basis to develop an integrated water resources management (IWRM) in the region. Following European water management approaches we identified "water bodies" as the smallest management sub-unit within the river basin, based on characteristic abiotic and biocenotic features. Four clearly identifiable water bodies in the Kharaa River main channel and seven water bodies in the tributaries were delineated. In order to achieve a good ecological status of the surface water bodies, type-specific undisturbed reference states of various aquatic ecosystems were identified and current deviations thereof were assessed. Based on the assessment a set of water management measures was developed. With regards to water quality and quantity, the upper reaches of the Kharaa River basin were classified as having a "good" ecological and chemical status. Compared to these natural reference conditions in the upper reaches, the initial risk assessment identified several "hot spot" regions with impacted water bodies in the middle and lower basin. Therefore, the affected water bodies are at risk of not achieving the good ecological and/or chemical status for surface waters. The use of natural references conditions offers a sound scientific base to assess the impact of anthropogenic activities across the Kharaa River basin. Based on the scientific results and practical experiences from a seven-year project in the region, the potentials and limitations of IWRM implementation will be discussed in the presentation.

  9. Petroleum geology and resources of the North Caspian Basin, Kazakhstan and Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmishek, Gregory F.

    2001-01-01

    on the Kashagan structure offshore in the Caspian Sea is probably also of the supergiant status. Major oil and gas reserves are located in carbonate reservoirs in reefs and structural traps of the subsalt sequence. Substantially smaller reserves are located in numerous fields in the suprasalt sequence. These suprasalt fields are largely in shallow Jurassic and Cretaceous clastic reservoirs in salt dome-related traps. Petroleum source rocks are poorly identified by geochemical methods. However, geologic data indicate that the principal source rocks are Upper Devonian to Lower Permian deep-water black-shale facies stratigraphically correlative to shallow-shelf carbonate platforms on the basin margins. The main stage of hydrocarbon generation was probably in Late Permian and Triassic time, during deposition of thick orogenic clastics. Generated hydrocarbons migrated laterally into adjacent subsalt reservoirs and vertically, through depressions between Kungurian salt domes where the salt is thin or absent, into suprasalt clastic reservoirs. Six assessment units have been identified in the North Caspian basin. Four of them include Paleozoic subsalt rocks of the basin margins, and a fifth unit, which encompasses the entire total petroleum system area, includes the suprasalt sequence. All five of these assessment units are underexplored and have significant potential for new discoveries. Most undiscovered petroleum resources are expected in Paleozoic subsalt carbonate rocks. The assessment unit in subsalt rocks with the greatest undiscovered potential occupies the south basin margin. Petroleum potential of suprasalt rocks is lower; however, discoveries of many small to medium size fields are expected. The sixth identified assessment unit embraces subsalt rocks of the central basin areas. The top of subsalt rocks in these areas occurs at depths ranging from 7 to 10 kilometers and has not been reached by wells. Undiscovered resources of this unit did not rec

  10. Variability of mineral dust deposition in the western Mediterranean basin and South-East of France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vincent

    2015-12-01

    deposition events are recorded at only one station, suggesting that the dust provenance, transport, and deposition processes (i.e. wet vs. dry of dust are different and specific for the different deposition sites in the Mediterranean studied area. The results also show that wet deposition is the main way of deposition for mineral dust in the western Mediterranean basin, but the contribution of dry deposition is far to be negligible, and contributes by 15 to 46 % to the major dust deposition events, depending on the sampling site.

  11. Mineral resource potential map of the Blanco Mountain and Black Canyon roadless areas, Inyo and Mono counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diggles, Michael F.; Blakely, Richard J.; Rains, Richard L.; Schmauch, Steven W.

    1983-01-01

    On the basis of geologic, geochemical, and geophysical investigations and a survey of mines and prospects, the mineral resource potential for gold, silver, lead, zinc, tungsten, and barite of the Blanco Mountain and Black Canyon Roadless Areas is judged to be low to moderate, except for one local area that has high potential for gold and tungsten resources.

  12. Geology and mineral resources of the North-Central Montana Sagebrush Focal Area: Chapter D in Mineral resources of the Sagebrush Focal Areas of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauk, Jeffrey L.; Zientek, Michael L.; Hearn, B. Carter; Parks, Heather L.; Jenkins, M. Christopher; Anderson, Eric D.; Benson, Mary Ellen; Bleiwas, Donald I.; DeAngelo, Jacob; Denning, Paul D.; Dicken, Connie L.; Drake, Ronald M.; Fernette, Gregory L.; Folger, Helen W.; Giles, Stuart A.; Glen, Jonathan M. G.; Granitto, Matthew; Haacke, Jon E.; Horton, John D.; Kelley, Karen D.; Ober, Joyce A.; Rockwell, Barnaby W.; San Juan, Carma A.; Sangine, Elizabeth S.; Schweitzer, Peter N.; Shaffer, Brian N.; Smith, Steven M.; Williams, Colin F.; Yager, Douglas B.

    2016-10-04

    SummaryThe U.S. Department of the Interior has proposed to withdraw approximately 10 million acres of Federal lands from mineral entry (subject to valid existing rights) from 12 million acres of lands defined as Sagebrush Focal Areas (SFAs) in Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming (for further discussion on the lands involved see Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5089–A). The purpose of the proposed action is to protect the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and its habitat from potential adverse effects of locatable mineral exploration and mining. The U.S. Geological Survey Sagebrush Mineral-Resource Assessment (SaMiRA) project was initiated in November 2015 and supported by the Bureau of Land Management to (1) assess locatable mineral-resource potential and (2) to describe leasable and salable mineral resources for the seven SFAs and Nevada additions.This chapter summarizes the current status of locatable, leasable, and salable mineral commodities and assesses the potential of locatable minerals in the North-Central Montana SFA. The proposed withdrawal area that is evaluated in this report is located in north-central Montana, and includes parts of Fergus, Petroleum, Phillips, and Valley Counties.

  13. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Azov-Kuban Basin Province, Ukraine and Russia, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, T.R.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, using a geology-based assessment methodology, estimated mean volumes of technically recoverable, conventional, undiscovered petroleum resources at 218 million barrels of crude oil, 4.1 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 94 million barrels of natural gas liquids for the Azov-Kuban Basin Province as part of a program to estimate petroleum resources for priority basins throughout the world.

  14. Geologic Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the North Cuba Basin, Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    Petroleum generation in the North Cuba Basin is primarily the result of thrust loading of Jurassic and Cretaceous source rocks during formation of the North Cuba fold and thrust belt in the Late Cretaceous to Paleogene. The fold and thrust belt formed as Cuban arc-forearc rocks along the leading edge of the Caribbean plate translated northward during the opening of the Yucatan Basin and collided with the passive margin of southern North America in the Paleogene. Petroleum fluids generated during thrust loading migrated vertically into complex structures in the fold and thrust belt, into structures in the foreland basin, and possibly into carbonate reservoirs along the margins of the Yucatan and Bahama carbonate platforms. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) defined a Jurassic-Cretaceous Composite Total Petroleum System (TPS) and three assessment units (AU)-North Cuba Fold and Thrust Belt AU, North Cuba Foreland Basin AU, and the North Cuba Platform Margin Carbonate AU-within this TPS based mainly on structure and reservoir type (fig. 1). There is considerable geologic uncertainty as to the extent of petroleum migration that might have occurred within this TPS to form potential petroleum accumulations. Taking this geologic uncertainty into account, especially in the offshore area, the mean volumes of undiscovered resources in the composite TPS of the North Cuba Basin are estimated at (1) 4.6 billion barrels of oil (BBO), with means ranging from an F95 probability of 1 BBO to an F5 probability of 9 BBO; and (2) 8.6 trillion cubic feet of of gas (TCFG), of which 8.6 TCFG is associated with oil fields, and about 1.2 TCFG is in nonassociated gas fields in the North Cuba Foreland Basin AU.

  15. Aggregate resource alternatives : future options for meeting aggregate minerals supply from outside National Parks and Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty.

    OpenAIRE

    Mankelow, J M; Bate, R; Bide, T.; Mitchell, C; Linley, K.; Hannis, S.; Cameron, D.

    2010-01-01

    The town and country planning system aims to make the best use of land for society as a whole, taking into account a wide range of issues which have a land use dimension; by sustaining the natural environment in which those activities take place; and by managing the resources on which they depend. As mineral resources, and particularly construction mineral resources (principally aggregates), are used to create the ‘goods’ that society ‘needs’ (e.g., housing and infrastructure development), th...

  16. Minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaquero, M. P.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available The possible changes in the mineral composition of food during frying could be the consequence of losses by leaching, or changes in concentrations caused by exchanges between the food and culinary fat of other compounds. The net result depends on the type of food, the frying fat used and the frying process. Moreover, the modifications that frying produces in other nutrients could indirectly affect the availability of dietary minerals. The most outstanding ones are those that can take place in the fat or in the protein. With respect to the interactions between frying oils and minerals, we have recent knowledge concerning the effects of consuming vegetable oils used in repeated fryings of potatoes without turnover, on the nutritive utilization of dietary minerals. The experiments have been carried out in pregnant and growing rats, which consumed diets containing, as a sole source of fat, the testing frying oils or unused oils. It seems that the consumption of various frying oils, with a polar compound content lower or close to the maximum limit of 25% accepted for human consumption, does not alter the absorption and metabolism of calcium, phosphorous, iron or copper. Magnesium absorption from diets containing frying oils tends to increase but the urinary excretion of this element increases, resulting imperceptible the variations in the magnesium balance. The urinary excretion of Zn also increased although its balance remained unchanged. Different studies referring to the effects of consuming fried fatty fish on mineral bioavailability will also be presented. On one hand, frying can cause structural changes in fish protein, which are associated with an increase in iron absorption and a decrease in body zinc retention. The nutritive utilization of other elements such as magnesium, calcium and copper seems to be unaffected. On the other hand; it has been described that an excess of fish fatty acids in the diet produces iron depletion, but when fatty

  17. Multiple provenance of rift sediments in the composite basin-mountain system: Constraints from detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology and heavy minerals of the early Eocene Jianghan Basin, central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lulu; Mei, Lianfu; Liu, Yunsheng; Luo, Jin; Min, Caizheng; Lu, Shengli; Li, Minghua; Guo, Libin

    2017-03-01

    Zircon U-Pb geochronology and heavy minerals are used in combination to provide valuable insights into the provenance of the early Eocene Jianghan Basin, central China. Five samples for zircon U-Pb dating and eighty-five samples for heavy mineral analysis were collected from drill cores or cuttings of the Xingouzui Formation. Most analyzed zircons are of magmatic origin, with oscillatory zoning. Detrital zircons from sample M96 located on eastern basin have two dominant age groups of 113-158 Ma and 400-500 Ma, and the other samples located on southern basin have three prominent age populations at 113-158 Ma, 400-500 Ma and 700-1000 Ma. Samples on different parts of the basin show distinct differences in heavy mineral compositions and they apparently divide into two groups according to the content of rutile (higher or lower than 4%). The spatial variations of zircon-tourmaline-rutile (ZTR) indices are marked by some noticeable increasing trends from basin margins to the inner part of the basin. Compared with the potential source areas, this study clarifies the multiple source characteristics of the Jianghan basin in the composite basin-mountain system. The majority of clastic material was supplied from the north source area through rift-trough sediment-transport pathways, and the eastern, southern and northwestern source areas also contributed detritus to the basin. This clastic material is broadly dispersed in the basin. The early Eocene paleogeography implies that rift architecture and rifting process had an important influence on sediment dispersal. This study shows that integrated zircon U-Pb geochronology and heavy mineral analysis is a useful and powerful method to identify sediment provenance.

  18. DEVELOPING SUSTAINABILITY INDICATORS FOR WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT IN TIETÊ-JACARÉ BASIN, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele de Almeida Corrêa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a tool to assist in developing water resources management, focusing on the sustainability concept, by a Basin Committee. This tool consists of a set of sustainability indicators for water resources management denominated CISGRH, which was identified by a conceptual and empirical review to meet the specific needs of the study herein - the basin committee of Tietê-J acaré Rivers (CBH-TJ. The framework of CISGRH came about through consecutive consultation processes. In the first consultation, the priority problems were identified for the study objectives, listing some possible management sustainability indicators. These preliminary indicators were also submitted to academic specialists and technicians working in CBH-TJ for a new consultation process. After these consultation stages, the CISGRH analysis and structuring were introduced. To verify the indicators’ adaptation and to compose a group as proposed by the study, these were classified according to specific sustainability principles for water resources management. The objective of the CISGRH implementation is to diagnose current conditions of water resources and its management, as well as to evaluate future conditions evidenced by tendencies and interventions undertaken by the committee.

  19. The Impact of Water Diversion on Groundwater Resources in an Inland River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, L.; Zheng, C.

    2012-12-01

    The Heihe River Basin (HRB) is one of the most intensely exploited and ecologically stressed inland river basins in the world. The HRB is characterized by three distinct ecohydrological systems: the mountainous upper reach where most of the water resources for the HRB originate from the rainfall, snow and permafrost; the middle reach with an arid climate and irrigated agriculture; and the lower reach dominated by wide stretches of Gobi desert. The study site, Zhangye Basin, is situated in the middle reach. It contains 92% population of the HRB and consumes about 80% of water resources as a regional agricultural and industrial center. To improve the deteriorating health of the ecosystems in the lower HRB, the Chinese government initiated the Heihe Water Diversion Project (HWDP) in 2000, which stipulated that at least 0.95 billion cubic meters of surface water must be delivered from the middle reach to the lower reach annually. A three-dimensional groundwater flow model has been developed for the Zhangye Basin to understand groundwater-surface water interactions in the Zhangye Basin and assess how the HWDP project has impacted the groundwater availability and water budgets in the region. The flow model has been reasonably calibrated using multiple sources of field data. The output of the groundwater model provided estimates of head differences before and after the HWDP project between 1999 and 2010. The results show that the groundwater level has declined widely, except in the Zhangye urban area where the groundwater level has increased by 0.5 to 7m and a few other localized spots. The calculated water budgets indicate that the spring discharge to the Heihe River has been continuously decreasing, and the total river leakage to the aquifer has been increasing. These results are in reasonable agreement with those from previous studies based on independent water balance calculation. The groundwater model is being integrated with surface water and land use data to

  20. Resource Assessment of the In-Place and Potentially Recoverable Deep Natural Gas Resource of the Onshore Interior Salt Basins, North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini; Paul Aharon; Donald A. Goddard; Roger Barnaby

    2006-04-26

    The principal research effort for the first half of Year 3 of the project has been resource assessment. Emphasis has been on estimating the total volume of hydrocarbons generated and the potential amount of this resource that is classified as deep (>15,000 ft) gas in the North Louisiana Salt Basin, the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, the Manila Subbasin and the Conecuh Subbasin. The amount of this resource that has been expelled, migrated and entrapped is also the focus of the first half of Year 3 of this study.

  1. The Indus basin in the framework of current and future water resources management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laghari, A. N.; Vanham, D.; Rauch, W.

    2012-04-01

    The Indus basin is one of the regions in the world that is faced with major challenges for its water sector, due to population growth, rapid urbanisation and industrialisation, environmental degradation, unregulated utilization of the resources, inefficient water use and poverty, all aggravated by climate change. The Indus Basin is shared by 4 countries - Pakistan, India, Afghanistan and China. With a current population of 237 million people which is projected to increase to 319 million in 2025 and 383 million in 2050, already today water resources are abstracted almost entirely (more than 95% for irrigation). Climate change will result in increased water availability in the short term. However in the long term water availability will decrease. Some current aspects in the basin need to be re-evaluated. During the past decades water abstractions - and especially groundwater extractions - have augmented continuously to support a rice-wheat system where rice is grown during the kharif (wet, summer) season (as well as sugar cane, cotton, maize and other crops) and wheat during the rabi (dry, winter) season. However, the sustainability of this system in its current form is questionable. Additional water for domestic and industrial purposes is required for the future and should be made available by a reduction in irrigation requirements. This paper gives a comprehensive listing and description of available options for current and future sustainable water resources management (WRM) within the basin. Sustainable WRM practices include both water supply management and water demand management options. Water supply management options include: (1) reservoir management as the basin is characterised by a strong seasonal behaviour in water availability (monsoon and meltwater) and water demands; (2) water quality conservation and investment in wastewater infrastructure; (3) the use of alternative water resources like the recycling of wastewater and desalination; (4) land use

  2. The Indus basin in the framework of current and future water resources management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Laghari

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Indus basin is one of the regions in the world that is faced with major challenges for its water sector, due to population growth, rapid urbanisation and industrialisation, environmental degradation, unregulated utilization of the resources, inefficient water use and poverty, all aggravated by climate change. The Indus Basin is shared by 4 countries – Pakistan, India, Afghanistan and China. With a current population of 237 million people which is projected to increase to 319 million in 2025 and 383 million in 2050, already today water resources are abstracted almost entirely (more than 95% for irrigation. Climate change will result in increased water availability in the short term. However in the long term water availability will decrease. Some current aspects in the basin need to be re-evaluated. During the past decades water abstractions – and especially groundwater extractions – have augmented continuously to support a rice-wheat system where rice is grown during the kharif (wet, summer season (as well as sugar cane, cotton, maize and other crops and wheat during the rabi (dry, winter season. However, the sustainability of this system in its current form is questionable. Additional water for domestic and industrial purposes is required for the future and should be made available by a reduction in irrigation requirements. This paper gives a comprehensive listing and description of available options for current and future sustainable water resources management (WRM within the basin. Sustainable WRM practices include both water supply management and water demand management options. Water supply management options include: (1 reservoir management as the basin is characterised by a strong seasonal behaviour in water availability (monsoon and meltwater and water demands; (2 water quality conservation and investment in wastewater infrastructure; (3 the use of alternative water resources like the recycling of wastewater and desalination; (4

  3. Quantitative multi-scale analysis of mineral distributions and fractal pore structures for a heterogeneous Junger Basin shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y. D.; Liu, K. Y.; Yang, Y. S.; Ren, Y. Q.; Hu, T.; Deng, B.; Xiao, T. Q.

    2016-04-01

    Three dimensional (3D) characterization of shales has recently attracted wide attentions in relation to the growing importance of shale oil and gas. Obtaining a complete 3D compositional distribution of shale has proven to be challenging due to its multi-scale characteristics. A combined multi-energy X-ray micro-CT technique and data-constrained modelling (DCM) approach has been used to quantitatively investigate the multi-scale mineral and porosity distributions of a heterogeneous shale from the Junger Basin, northwestern China by sub-sampling. The 3D sub-resolution structures of minerals and pores in the samples are quantitatively obtained as the partial volume fraction distributions, with colours representing compositions. The shale sub-samples from two areas have different physical structures for minerals and pores, with the dominant minerals being feldspar and dolomite, respectively. Significant heterogeneities have been observed in the analysis. The sub-voxel sized pores form large interconnected clusters with fractal structures. The fractal dimensions of the largest clusters for both sub-samples were quantitatively calculated and found to be 2.34 and 2.86, respectively. The results are relevant in quantitative modelling of gas transport in shale reservoirs.

  4. Water accounting for stressed river basins based on water resources management models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro-Monzonís, María; Solera, Abel; Ferrer, Javier; Andreu, Joaquín; Estrela, Teodoro

    2016-09-15

    Water planning and the Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) represent the best way to help decision makers to identify and choose the most adequate alternatives among other possible ones. The System of Environmental-Economic Accounting for Water (SEEA-W) is displayed as a tool for the building of water balances in a river basin, providing a standard approach to achieve comparability of the results between different territories. The target of this paper is to present the building up of a tool that enables the combined use of hydrological models and water resources models to fill in the SEEA-W tables. At every step of the modelling chain, we are capable to build the asset accounts and the physical water supply and use tables according to SEEA-W approach along with an estimation of the water services costs. The case study is the Jucar River Basin District (RBD), located in the eastern part of the Iberian Peninsula in Spain which as in other many Mediterranean basins is currently water-stressed. To guide this work we have used PATRICAL model in combination with AQUATOOL Decision Support System (DSS). The results indicate that for the average year the total use of water in the district amounts to 15,143hm(3)/year, being the Total Water Renewable Water Resources 3909hm(3)/year. On the other hand, the water service costs in Jucar RBD amounts to 1634 million € per year at constant 2012 prices. It is noteworthy that 9% of these costs correspond to non-conventional resources, such as desalinated water, reused water and water transferred from other regions.

  5. Assessment of undiscovered petroleum resources of the Amerasia Basin Petroleum Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houseknecht, David W.; Bird, Kenneth J.; Garrity, Christopher P.

    2012-01-01

    The Amerasia Basin Petroleum Province encompasses the Canada Basin and the sediment prisms along the Alaska and Canada margins, outboard from basinward margins (hingelines) of the rift shoulders that formed during extensional opening of the Canada Basin. The province includes the Mackenzie delta and slope, the outer shelves and marine slopes along the Arctic margins of Alaska and Canada, and the deep Canada Basin. The province is divided into four assessment units (AUs): (1) The Canning-Mackenzie deformed margin AU is that part of the rifted margin where the Brooks Range orogenic belt has overridden the rift shoulder and is deforming the rifted-margin prism of sediment outboard of the hingeline. This is the only part of the Amerasia Basin Province that has been explored and—even though more than 3 billion barrels of oil equivalent (BBOE) of oil, gas, and condensate have been discovered—none has been commercially produced. (2) The Alaska passive margin AU is the rifted-margin prism of sediment lying beneath the Beaufort outer shelf and slope that has not been deformed by tectonism. (3) The Canada passive margin AU is the rifted-margin prism of sediment lying beneath the Arctic outer shelf and slope (also known as the polar margin) of Canada that has not been deformed by tectonism. (4) The Canada Basin AU includes the sediment wedge that lies beneath the deep Canada Basin, north of the marine slope developed along the Alaska and Canada margins. Mean estimates of risked, undiscovered, technically recoverable resources include more than 6 billion barrels of oil (BBO), more than 19 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of associated gas, and more than 16 TCF of nonassociated gas in the Canning-Mackenzie deformed margin AU; about 1 BBO, about 3 TCF of associated gas, and about 3 TCF of nonassociated gas in the Alaska passive margin AU; and more than 2 BBO, about 7 TCF of associated gas, and about 8 TCF of nonassociated gas in the Canada passive margin AU. Quantities of natural

  6. Present state and outlook of mineral resources in Peru; Peru no chika shigen no genjo to shorai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, A. [Mitsui Mineral Development Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-07-05

    This paper introduces the present state and outlook of mineral resources in Peru. Peru is a great mineral resource country in the world. Silver (the third in the world in 1993), lead (the fifth), zinc (the fourth), tin (the fifth), copper (the sixth), gold (the fourteenth), and iron are occurred as main mineral resources. Peru was laid waste due to long-term colonial rule by Spain. After the independence, confusion caused by the political distrust and breakdown of national economy was continued. Mineral resources were not utilized, effectively. Based on the nationalism of mineral resources, mines were nationalized after the 1970`s. Thus, mines lost the international competitive power due to the withdrawal of overseas capitals. Recently, based on the privatization policy, national mines have been sold through bids with participation of foreign capitals. Law systems for the development have been also arranged, which results in the ambitious participation of major mining companies in the world for the development. Survey companies have gone into the exploration. Prevention of environmental pollution, such as waste water quality standards, has been promoted. Environmental pollution by the illegal alluvial mining is serious. The government is promoting the positive measures. 7 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. 矿产资源刑法立法问题研究%Research on Penal Mineral Resources Legislation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙红雨; 刘文燕

    2014-01-01

    Construction of environment-friendly society and circular economy,exploitation of mineral resources development strategy for a sustainable society has a close relationship.This article looks at criminal legislation of mineral resources, Discusses the status quo of China's existing criminal law and lack of mineral resources, with the success stories of developed criminal legislation on mineral resources, ,explore China's mineral resources criminal legislation in line with the recommendations to improve the situation of China.%环境友好型社会与循环经济体系的建设,矿产资源开采对于社会的可持续发展战略有着密不可分的关系。着眼于矿产资源的刑法立法问题,讨论了我国现有矿产资源刑法现状与不足,结合发达国家关于矿产资源的刑法立法成功案例,探索中国矿产资源刑法立法符合中国国情的改善建议。

  8. Geothermal Resource Analysis and Structure of Basin and Range Systems, Especially Dixie Valley Geothermal Field, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Blackwell; Kenneth Wisian; Maria Richards; Mark Leidig; Richard Smith; Jason McKenna

    2003-08-14

    Publish new thermal and drill data from the Dizie Valley Geothermal Field that affect evaluation of Basin and Range Geothermal Resources in a very major and positive way. Completed new geophysical surveys of Dizie Valley including gravity and aeromagnetics and integrated the geophysical, seismic, geological and drilling data at Dizie Valley into local and regional geologic models. Developed natural state mass and energy transport fluid flow models of generic Basin and Range systems based on Dizie Valley data that help to understand the nature of large scale constraints on the location and characteristics of the geothermal systems. Documented a relation between natural heat loss for geothermal and electrical power production potential and determined heat flow for 27 different geothermal systems. Prepared data set for generation of a new geothermal map of North American including industry data totaling over 25,000 points in the US alone.

  9. Optimally managing water resources in large river basins for an uncertain future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehl, Edwin A.; Conrads, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Managers of large river basins face conflicting needs for water resources such as wildlife habitat, water supply, wastewater assimilative capacity, flood control, hydroelectricity, and recreation. The Savannah River Basin for example, has experienced three major droughts since 2000 that resulted in record low water levels in its reservoirs, impacting local economies for years. The Savannah River Basin’s coastal area contains municipal water intakes and the ecologically sensitive freshwater tidal marshes of the Savannah National Wildlife Refuge. The Port of Savannah is the fourth busiest in the United States, and modifications to the harbor have caused saltwater to migrate upstream, reducing the freshwater marsh’s acreage more than 50 percent since the 1970s. There is a planned deepening of the harbor that includes flow-alteration features to minimize further migration of salinity. The effectiveness of the flow-alteration features will only be known after they are constructed.

  10. Water resources of the Black Sea Basin at high spatial and temporal resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouholahnejad, Elham; Abbaspour, Karim C.; Srinivasan, Raghvan; Bacu, Victor; Lehmann, Anthony

    2014-07-01

    The pressure on water resources, deteriorating water quality, and uncertainties associated with the climate change create an environment of conflict in large and complex river system. The Black Sea Basin (BSB), in particular, suffers from ecological unsustainability and inadequate resource management leading to severe environmental, social, and economical problems. To better tackle the future challenges, we used the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to model the hydrology of the BSB coupling water quantity, water quality, and crop yield components. The hydrological model of the BSB was calibrated and validated considering sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. River discharges, nitrate loads, and crop yields were used to calibrate the model. Employing grid technology improved calibration computation time by more than an order of magnitude. We calculated components of water resources such as river discharge, infiltration, aquifer recharge, soil moisture, and actual and potential evapotranspiration. Furthermore, available water resources were calculated at subbasin spatial and monthly temporal levels. Within this framework, a comprehensive database of the BSB was created to fill the existing gaps in water resources data in the region. In this paper, we discuss the challenges of building a large-scale model in fine spatial and temporal detail. This study provides the basis for further research on the impacts of climate and land use change on water resources in the BSB.

  11. The Effects of Climate Change on the Hydrology and Water Resources of the Colorado River Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, N.S.; Wood, A.W.; Voisin, N.; Lettenmaier, D.P.; Palmer, R.N. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 164 Wilcox Hall, P.O. Box 352700, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-2700 (United States)

    2004-07-01

    The potential effects of climate change on the hydrology and water resources of the Colorado River basin are assessed by comparing simulated hydrologic and water resources scenarios derived from downscaled climate simulations of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Center for Atmospheric Research Parallel Climate Model (PCM) to scenarios driven by observed historical (1950-1999) climate. PCM climate scenarios include an ensemble of three 105-year future climate simulations based on projected 'business-as-usual' (BAU) greenhouse gas emissions and a control climate simulation based on static 1995 greenhouse gas concentrations. Downscaled transient temperature and precipitation sequences were extracted from PCM simulations, and were used to drive the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) macroscale hydrology model to produce corresponding streamflow sequences. Results for the BAU scenarios were summarized into Periods 1, 2, and 3 (2010-2039, 2040-2069, 2070-2098). Average annual temperature changes for the Colorado River basin were 0.5C warmer for control climate, and 1.0, 1.7, and 2.4C warmer for Periods 1-3, respectively, relative to the historical climate. Basin-average annual precipitation for the control climate was slightly (1%) less than for observed historical climate, and 3, 6, and 3% less for future Periods 1-3, respectively. Annual runoff in the control run was about 10% lower than for simulated historical conditions, and 14, 18, and 17% less for Periods 1-3, respectively. Analysis of water management operations using a water management model driven by simulated streamflows showed that streamflows associated with control and future BAU climates would significantly degrade the performance of the water resources system relative to historical conditions, with average total basin storage reduced by 7% for the control climate and 36, 32 and 40% for Periods 1-3, respectively. Releases from Glen Canyon Dam to the Lower Basin (mandated by the Colorado

  12. Necessity and feasibility for an ET-based modern water resources management strategy: A case study of soil water resources in the Yellow River Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The necessity and feasibility of an ET-based modern water resources management was analyzed to improve assessment of critical water resources scarcity in the region/basin. This analysis was based on the whole water cycle process and its analysis object is evapotranspiration (ET), a main consumption component in the water resources dynamic transformation process. A case study was undertaken by selecting soil water resources in the Yellow River Basin and employing the WEP-L distributed hydrological model with physics mechanisms. This paper discusses the amount and consumption efficiency of soil-water resources according to completely simulated results of water cycle elements throughout the basin. Results indicate that it is important for the ET-based modern water resources management strategy to alleviate water resources scarcity because it may not only avoid unused water wasting but also improve water use efficiency. Therefore, an ET-based modern water resources management scheme is a good complement to the traditional water resources demand management system.

  13. The parasitoids of the asparagus miner (Diptera: Agromyzidae): field parasitism and the influence of food resources on life history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, William R; Gibson, Gary A P; Szendrei, Zsofia

    2014-12-01

    The goals of this study were to identify pupal parasitoids of the asparagus miner, Ophiomyia simplex Loew (Diptera: Agromyzidae), and examine the effect of different diets and floral resources on the lifespan of adult asparagus miners and their parasitoids. We also measured the effect of parasitism on stem damage caused by the asparagus miner. The identity and abundance of the parasitoids of the asparagus miner were determined in asparagus fields in Michigan from weekly asparagus miner pupal collections during the 2010-2013 seasons. Twelve species of hymenopterous parasitoids were reared from asparagus miner pupae, including Chorebus rondanii (Giard) (Ichneumonoidea: Braconidae), 10 species in three families of Chalcidoidea, and one species of Bethylidae (Chrysidoidea), that represent new host records for the asparagus miner. C. rondanii and Thinodytes cephalon (Walker) (Pteromalidae) were the most common parasitoids. The effects of different diets and flowers on the lifespan of the pest and parasitoid adults were also evaluated. Buckwheat resulted in the shortest life span for the asparagus miner, whereas Riddell's goldenrod significantly increased its lifespan relative to the control. Parasitoid lifespan was doubled when individuals were fed sugar-rich diets. In the field, parasitoids preferred stems that contained more pupae and damage. The two most commonly reared parasitoids should be considered as targets for future conservation biological control efforts of the asparagus miner.

  14. Scenario analysis for integrated water resources planning and management under uncertainty in the Zayandehrud river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safavi, Hamid R.; Golmohammadi, Mohammad H.; Sandoval-Solis, Samuel

    2016-08-01

    The goal of this study is to develop and analyze three scenarios in the Zayandehrud river basin in Iran using a model already built and calibrated by Safavi et al. (2015) that has results for the baseline scenario. Results from the baseline scenario show that water demands will be supplied at the cost of depletion of surface and ground water resources, making this scenario undesirable and unsustainable. Supply Management, Demand Management, and Meta (supply and demand management) scenarios are the selected scenarios in this study. They are to be developed and declared into the Zayandehrud model to assess and evaluate the imminent status of the basin. Certain strategies will be employed for this purpose to improve and rectify the current management policies. The five performance criteria of time-based and volumetric reliability, resilience, vulnerability, and maximum deficit will be employed in the process of scenario analysis and evaluation. The results obtained from the performance criteria will be summed up into a so-called 'Water Resources Sustainability Index' to facilitate comparison among the likely trade-offs. Uncertainties arising from historical data, management policies, rainfall-runoff model, demand priorities, and performance criteria are considered in the proposed conceptual framework and modeled by appropriate approaches. Results show that the Supply Management scenario can be used to improve upon the demand supply but that it has no tangible effects on the improvement of the resources in the study region. In this regard, the Demand Management scenario is found to be more effective than the water supply one although it still remains unacceptable. Results of the Meta scenario indicate that both the supply and demand management scenarios must be applied if the water resources are to be safeguarded against degradation and depletion. In other words, the supply management scenario is necessary but not adequate; rather, it must be coupled to the demand

  15. Integrated Assessment of Mineral Resources and Environment in Mid-South of Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    On the bases of the field survey and a large number of testing data, we process the qualitative and quantitative assessment of the mine environment in the mid-south of Shandong Province using the following grade- I factors:the surface subsidence in mining area, the three wastes of mine industries, the pollution sources, the surface water pollution, the underground water pollution and the air pollution. By means of emitting factor judgment and water quality indexes, we locate pollution sources, main pollutants, pollution type and pollution grade in the study area. Using the MAPGIS, we draw a zonality map of the mine environment. This paper attempts to offer a concrete example, including valuable assessment method, data and conclusion, for the assessment of mine environment from the integrated assessment of mineral resources and mine environment.This research is oriented towards the sustainable development and the ecological environment optimization.

  16. DEVELOPMENT THE GENERAL BUDGET COSTS AT AN ENTERPRISE OF EXPLOITATION OF MINERAL RESOURCES IN THE COAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DINA IONELA CLAUDIA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Considering the fact that the goal of any enterprise, and those that operate in the field of extracting coal, mineral resources aims at maintaining balance relationship between revenue and expenditure, the problem faced by the management of the companies is finding those methods which allow the sizing and control of this type of relationship. For this purpose it shall draw up a document of financial forecasting, namely "the budget of revenue and expenditure", emerged as "an instrument of harmonization and improvement of the relationship between revenue and expenditure", which due to its mining over a specific period of time, usually one year and broken down by quarters, financial revenue and expenditure, thus ensuring steady financial relationship. In the present work we, as starting from general considerations realiarea the budget, to introduce a new model of its întrocmirea taking into account the secificitatea of coal mining of ore extraction.

  17. Who owns the Moon? extraterrestrial aspects of land and mineral resources ownership

    CERN Document Server

    Pop, Virgiliu

    2008-01-01

    This work investigates the permissibility and viability of property rights on the celestial bodies, particularly the extraterrestrial aspects of land and mineral resources ownership. In lay terms, it aims to find an answer to the question "Who owns the Moon?" After critically analyzing and dismantling with legal arguments the trivial issue of sale of extraterrestrial real estate, the book addresses the apparent silence of the law in the field of landed property in outer space, scrutinizing whether the factual situation on the extraterrestrial realms calls for legal regulations. The legal status of asteroids and the relationship between appropriation under international law and civil law appropriation are duly examined, as well as different property patterns – such as the commons regime, the Common Heritage of the Mankind, and the Frontier paradigm. Virgiliu Pop is one of world's specialists in the area of space property rights. A member of the International Institute of Space Law, Virgiliu has authored seve...

  18. History of the exploitation of thermo-mineral resources in Campi Flegrei and Ischia, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomelli, Lisetta; Scandone, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Thermo-mineral springs are widely spread over the volcanic areas of Campi Flegrei and Ischia, and on the western side of the city of Naples. Their use has, since long, been known by local inhabitants because they were one of the main curative therapies in the past. The fortune and use of the thermal springs have been affected by the volcanic eruptions that occurred in different times in these areas. The exploitation of geothermal springs in Campi Flegrei suffered a decisive decline after the eruption of Monte Nuovo in 1538. Conversely, after that eruption, in Ischia Island there was a progressive increase of the use of thermal spring therapy. The use of geothermal resources for electric generation has not been implemented in Campi Flegrei because of the difficulty in using hypersaline fluids, whereas in Ischia, local authorities preferred only the development of touristic activity based on geothermal springs.

  19. USGS mineral-resource assessment of Sagebrush Focal Areas in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, David G.; Frost, Thomas P.; Day, Warren C.; ,

    2016-10-04

    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists have completed an assessment of the mineral-resource potential of nearly 10 million acres of Federal and adjacent lands in Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming. The assessment of these lands, identified as Sagebrush Focal Areas, was done at the request of the Bureau of Land Management. The assessment results will be used in the decision-making process that the Department of the Interior is pursuing toward the protection of large areas of contiguous sagebrush habitat for the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in the Western United States. The detailed results of this ambitious study are published in the five volumes of USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5089 and seven accompanying data releases.

  20. Cluster approach to forming innovative model of developing mineral resources base of Russia’s regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Gennad'evich Shelomentsev

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the necessity of applying innovative model of developing mineral resources base of Russia’s regions and relevance of cluster approach for forming this model are proved. Components of process of clustering in the case of innovative developing mineral raw complex are proposed and analyzed: consolidation of socioeconomic potential of region, consolidation of potential of different branches of people’s activities, consolidation of processes of primary (wining sector in the single chain. In particular, the first component implies concentration of population in certain centers of gravitation. The second component implies consolidation of education, fundamental as well as applying science and production. The creating of administrative nets is necessary for that. For the realization of the first and the second components, the availability of clustering organization is necessary. The third component of process of clustering implies in prospect the adding of increasing amount of stages of product manufacturing. Eventually, the multi-stage structure of innovative process is analyzed.

  1. Seasonal Changes in Forage Nutrients and Mineral Contents in Water Resources,Forage and Yak Blood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎萍

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports results of a study conducted to investigate the concentrations of seven mineral elements in yak blood, forage and water resources around the Qinghai Lake in Qinghai Province in different seasons. Meanwhile, the nutritional compositions of the forage were also surveyed. The results suggest that the mineral elements and the forage nutrients change in a seasonal pattern. In yak blood,the sodium(Na)concentration varies from 0.291 to 0.034 mg/mL,and this is lower than the normal value. In the forage,the ratio calcium(Ca)to phosphorus(P)is 4.06~7.47:1 and potassium(K)to Na 30~27:1. These results indicate that the nutrition of the yak in the area is deficient in Na but high in K. For the withered forage sampled in February,the protein content is only 31.14% of the total protein in the forage growing at puerile stage in June. The severe loss of protein by 68. 9% and decrease of effective nutrients in the wintered forage are considered to be the reasons resulting in the poor condition of yak in winter and spring seasons.

  2. Mineral resources of parts of the Departments of Antioquia and Caldas, Zone II, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, R.B.; Feininger, Tomas; Barrero, L.; Dario, Rico H.; ,; Alvarez, A.

    1970-01-01

    The mineral resources of an area of 40,000 sq km, principally in the Department of Antioquia, but including small parts of the Departments of Caldas, C6rdoba, Risaralda, and Tolima, were investigated during the period 1964-68. The area is designated Zone II by the Colombian Inventario Minero Nacional(lMN). The geology of approximately 45 percent of this area, or 18,000 sq km, has been mapped by IMN. Zone II has been a gold producer for centuries, and still produces 75 percent of Colombia's gold. Silver is recovered as a byproduct. Ferruginous laterites have been investigated as potential sources of iron ore but are not commercially exploitable. Nickeliferous laterite on serpentinite near Ure in the extreme northwest corner of the Zone is potentially exploitable, although less promising than similar laterites at Cerro Matoso, north of the Zone boundary. Known deposits of mercury, chromium, manganese, and copper are small and have limited economic potentia1. Cement raw materials are important among nonmetallic resources, and four companies are engaged in the manufacture of portland cement. The eastern half of Zone II contains large carbonate rock reserves, but poor accessibility is a handicap to greater development at present. Dolomite near Amalfi is quarried for the glass-making and other industries. Clay saprolite is abundant and widely used in making brick and tiles in backyard kilns. Kaolin of good quality near La Union is used by the ceramic industry. Subbituminous coal beds of Tertiary are an important resource in the western part of the zone and have good potential for greater development. Aggregate materials for construction are varied and abundant. Deposits of sodic feldspar, talc, decorative stone, and silica are exploited on a small scale. Chrysotils asbestos deposits north of Campamento are being developed to supply fiber for Colombia's thriving asbestos-cement industry, which is presently dependent upon imported fiber. Wollastonite and andalusite are

  3. Assessment of undiscovered sandstone copper deposits of the Kodar-Udokan area, Russia: Chapter M in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zientek, Michael L.; Chechetkin, Vladimir S.; Parks, Heather L.; Box, Stephen E.; Briggs, Deborah A.; Cossette, Pamela M.; Dolgopolova, Alla; Hayes, Timothy S.; Seltmann, Reimar; Syusyura, Boris; Taylor, Cliff D.; Wintzer, Niki E.

    2014-01-01

    Mineral resource assessments integrate and synthesize available information as a basis for estimating the location, quality, and quantity of undiscovered mineral resources. This probabilistic mineral resource assessment of undiscovered sandstone copper deposits within Paleoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks of the Kodar-Udokan area in Russia is a contribution to a global assessment led by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The purposes of this study are to (1) delineate permissive areas (tracts) to indicate where undiscovered sandstone-hosted copper deposits may occur within 2 km of the surface, (2) provide a database of known sandstone copper deposits and significant prospects, (3) estimate numbers of undiscovered deposits within these permissive tracts at several levels of confidence, and (4) provide probabilistic estimates of amounts of copper (Cu) and mineralized rock that could be contained in undiscovered deposits within each tract. The workshop for the assessment, held in October 2009, used a three-part form of mineral resource assessment as described by Singer (1993) and Singer and Menzie (2010).

  4. Brine contamination to aquatic resources from oil and gas development in the Williston Basin, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Robert A.; Contributions by Chesley-Preston, Tara L.; Coleman, James L.; Haines, Seth S.; Jenni, Karen E.; Nieman, Timothy L.; Peterman, Zell E.; van der Burg, Max Post; Preston, Todd M.; Smith, Bruce D.; Tangen, Brian A.; Thamke, Joanna N.; Gleason, Robert A.; Tangen, Brian A.

    2014-01-01

    The Williston Basin, which includes parts of Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota in the United States and the provinces of Manitoba and Saskatchewan in Canada, has been a leading domestic oil and gas producing region for more than one-half a century. Currently, there are renewed efforts to develop oil and gas resources from deep geologic formations, spurred by advances in recovery technologies and economic incentives associated with the price of oil. Domestic oil and gas production has many economic benefits and provides a means for the United States to fulfill a part of domestic energy demands; however, environmental hazards can be associated with this type of energy production in the Williston Basin, particularly to aquatic resources (surface water and shallow groundwater) by extremely saline water, or brine, which is produced with oil and gas. The primary source of concern is the migration of brine from buried reserve pits that were used to store produced water during recovery operations; however, there also are considerable risks of brine release from pipeline failures, poor infrastructure construction, and flow-back water from hydraulic fracturing associated with modern oilfield operations. During 2008, a multidisciplinary (biology, geology, water) team of U.S. Geological Survey researchers was assembled to investigate potential energy production effects in the Williston Basin. Researchers from the U.S. Geological Survey participated in field tours and met with representatives from county, State, tribal, and Federal agencies to identify information needs and focus research objectives. Common questions from agency personnel, especially those from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, were “are the brine plumes (plumes of brine-contaminated groundwater) from abandoned oil wells affecting wetlands on Waterfowl Production Areas and National Wildlife Refuges?” and “are newer wells related to Bakken and Three Forks development different than the older

  5. Resource Assessment of the In-Place and Potentially Recoverable Deep Natural Gas Resource of the Onshore Interior Salt Basins, North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini; Donald A. Goddard

    2004-10-28

    The objectives of the study are: to perform resource assessment of the in-place deep (>15,000 ft) natural gas resource of the onshore interior salt basins of the North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas through petroleum system identification, characterization and modeling and to use the petroleum system based resource assessment to estimate the volume of the in-place deep gas resource that is potentially recoverable and to identify those areas in the interior salt basins with high potential to recover commercial quantities of the deep gas resource. The principal research effort for Year 1 of the project is data compilation and petroleum system identification. The research focus for the first nine (9) months of Year 1 is on data compilation and for the remainder of the year the emphasis is on petroleum system identification.

  6. The Basin Water Resources Management System and Its Innovation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xun; Pomponio

    2008-01-01

    Water provides the origin of human survival and prosperity,and the basic resource for the maintenance of terrestrial eco-systems,their biodiversity,productivity and ecological services.With China’s recent,rapid growth both in population and economic development,the water shortage has become one of the most constraints on its ecological restoration and socio-economic development,especially in the arid inland regions of northwest China.At first glance,this water shortage in China appears to be a resource crisis.But second,an in-depth analysis reveals that the water shortage crisis arises mainly resulting from the poor water management system and operating mechanism that cannot facilitate fair allocation and efficient utilization of water resources both regionally and nationally and thus is viewed as a crisis of water manage-ment.The solution of China’s water shortage and low-efficient utilization problem will,in particular,require a fundamen-tal and substantial reform or innovation of the existing water management system and operating mechanism.In this paper,we address explicitly the problems existed in the current water management system,explore the basic theory of water re-sources management and provide some insights into the way how to establish a river basin based integrated water re-sources management system in China.

  7. Triassic fluid mobilization and epigenetic lead-zinc sulphide mineralization in the Transdanubian Shear Zone (Pannonian Basin, Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benkó Zsolt

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A combined fluid inclusion, fluid inclusion plane, lead isotope and K/Ar radiometric age dating work has been carried out on two lead-zinc mineralizations situated along the Periadriatic-Balaton Lineament in the central part of the Pannonian Basin, in order to reveal their age and genetics as well as temporal-spatial relationships to other lead-zincfluorite mineralization in the Alp-Carpathian region. According to fluid inclusion studies, the formation of the quartzfluorite- galena-sphalerite veins in the Velence Mts is the result of mixing of low (0-12 NaCl equiv. wt. % and high salinity (10-26 CaCl2 equiv. wt. % brines. Well-crystallized (R3-type illite associated with the mineralized hydrothermal veins indicates that the maximum temperature of the hydrothermal fluids could have been around 250 °C. K/Ar radiometric ages of illite, separated from the hydrothermal veins provided ages of 209-232 Ma, supporting the Mid- to Late-Triassic age of the hydrothermal fluid flow. Fluid inclusion plane studies have revealed that hydrothermal circulation was regional in the granite, but more intensive around the mineralized zones. Lead isotope signatures of hydrothermal veins in the Velence Mts (206Pb/204Pb = 18.278-18.363, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.622-15.690 and 208Pb/204Pb = 38.439-38.587 and in Szabadbattyán (206Pb/204Pb = 18.286-18.348, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.667-15.736 and 208Pb/204Pb = 38.552-38.781 form a tight cluster indicating similar, upper crustal source of the lead in the two mineralizations. The nature of mineralizing fluids, age of the fluid flow, as well as lead isotopic signatures of ore minerals point towards a genetic link between epigenetic carbonate-hosted stratiform-stratabound Alpine-type lead-zinc-fluorite deposits in the Southern and Eastern Alps and the studied deposits in the Velence Mts and at Szabadbattyán. In spite of the differences in host rocks and the depth of the ore precipitation, it is suggested that the studied deposits along the

  8. THE ANALYSIS OF THE GEOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC MINERAL RESOURCES IN THE RAIL ROAD CORRIDOR "URAL INDUSTRIAL – URAL POLAR"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.P. Pakhomov

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The article brings forth the geological-economic analysis of the mineral resource in the area of the transport corridor "Urals industrial – Urals Polar". Given is the analysis of the potential finding of coal on the territory, chromate and other important excavations, the whereabouts of which are more easily approachable for the acquiring with the condition of building a railroad with the path of station Polunochnoye-Obskaya. Given are the possible masses of the delivery of the products accordingly. Distinguished is the size of the investments, that are needed for the mineral resources of the given territory.

  9. Assessment of Coal Geology, Resources, and Reserves in the Gillette Coalfield, Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luppens, James A.; Scott, David C.; Haacke, Jon E.; Osmonson, Lee M.; Rohrbacher, Timothy J.; Ellis, Margaret S.

    2008-01-01

    The Gillette coalfield, within the Powder River Basin in east-central Wyoming, is the most prolific coalfield in the United States. In 2006, production from the coalfield totaled over 431 million short tons of coal, which represented over 37 percent of the Nation's total yearly production. The Anderson and Canyon coal beds in the Gillette coalfield contain some of the largest deposits of low-sulfur subbituminous coal in the world. By utilizing the abundance of new data from recent coalbed methane development in the Powder River Basin, this study represents the most comprehensive evaluation of coal resources and reserves in the Gillette coalfield to date. Eleven coal beds were evaluated to determine the in-place coal resources. Six of the eleven coal beds were evaluated for reserve potential given current technology, economic factors, and restrictions to mining. These restrictions included the presence of railroads, a Federal interstate highway, cities, a gas plant, and alluvial valley floors. Other restrictions, such as thickness of overburden, thickness of coal beds, and areas of burned coal were also considered. The total original coal resource in the Gillette coalfield for all eleven coal beds assessed, and no restrictions applied, was calculated to be 201 billion short tons. Available coal resources, which are part of the original coal resource that is accessible for potential mine development after subtracting all restrictions, are about 164 billion short tons (81 percent of the original coal resource). Recoverable coal, which is the portion of available coal remaining after subtracting mining and processing losses, was determined for a stripping ratio of 10:1 or less. After mining and processing losses were subtracted, a total of 77 billion short tons of coal were calculated (48 percent of the original coal resource). Coal reserves are the portion of the recoverable coal that can be mined, processed, and marketed at a profit at the time of the economic

  10. 关于地质矿产勘查开发的几点认识%Some Views on Geology and Mineral Resources Exploration and Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾志强

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the geology and mineral resource exploration and development. It points out that the prospecting directions should be around the 16 important metallogenic zones. Exploring oil-gas mineral and sedimentary minerals such as salt and coal should be concentrated on several big basins. And the deep part and periphery of large and medium-sized mines are the key areas for the exploration. This paper goes on to analyze the risk of reconnaissance, that is:the deposits in the surface and shallow areas of the earth has been discovered and developed because of several thousand year mineral development in China. So we must prospect deep concealed deposits. In this case, Traditional method will probably not meet requirements, and the geophysical prospecting and information technology must be innovated to support. As for reducing expenditure of mineral resources, this paper argues that the low-grade tailing heap and waste dump, and its associated resources that a lot of developed and utilized mines precipitated historically have large beneifts for multipurpose utilization of mineral resources, and the additional resources reserves are substantial. Finally, this paper puts forward that real estate infrastructure construction peak has passed in China, plus metals recycling and new alternative material, the demand for mineral resources will become less and less in the future. Therefore, we will continue to seek support.%对地质矿产勘查开发的认识:一是找矿方向,主要围绕16个重要成矿区带开展,油气矿产和煤、盐等沉积矿产围绕几大盆地开展,重点是大中型矿山深部和外围,其它地区难突破。二是找矿风险,因我国几千年的矿产开发史,地表矿、浅层矿已基本发现和开发,寻找深部矿、隐伏矿成为必然,没有物探、信息技术等创新支撑,还靠传统方法难度大。三是矿产资源节流,我国大量已开发利用矿山历史沉淀的尾矿、排土

  11. Resource Assessment of the In-Place and Potentially Recoverable Deep Natural Gas Resource of the Onshore Interior Salt Basins, North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini; Paul Aharon; Donald A. Goddard; Roger Barnaby

    2005-10-28

    The principal research effort for Year 2 of the project has been petroleum system characterization and modeling. Understanding the burial, thermal maturation, and hydrocarbon expulsion histories of the strata in the onshore interior salt basins of the North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas is important in hydrocarbon resource assessment. The underburden and overburden rocks in these basins and subbasins are a product of their rift-related geohistory. Petroleum source rock analysis and initial thermal maturation and hydrocarbon expulsion modeling indicated that an effective regional petroleum source rock in the onshore interior salt basins and subbasins, the North Louisiana Salt Basin, Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin, was Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone. The initial modeling also indicated that hydrocarbon generation and expulsion were initiated in the Early Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary in the North Louisiana Salt Basin and the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin and that hydrocarbon generation and expulsion were initiated in the Late Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary in the Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin. Refined thermal maturation and hydrocarbon expulsion modeling and additional petroleum source rock analysis have confirmed that the major source rock in the onshore interior salt basins and subbasins is Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone. Hydrocarbon generation and expulsion were initiated in the Early to Late Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary.

  12. Water resources and effects of potential surface coal mining on dissolved solids in Hanging Woman Creek basin, southeastern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    Groundwater resources of the Hanging Woman Creek basin, Montana include Holocene and Pleistocene alluvial aquifers and sandstone , coal, and clinker aquifers in the Paleocene Fort Union Formation. Surface water resources are composed of Hanging Woman Creek, its tributaries, and small stock ponds. Dissolved-solids concentrations in groundwater ranged from 200 to 11,00 mg/L. Generally, concentrations were largest in alluvial aquifers and smallest in clinker aquifers. Near its mouth, Hanging Woman Creek had a median concentration of about 1,800 mg/L. Mining of the 20-foot to 35-foot-thick Anderson coal bed and 3-foot to 16-foot thick Dietz coal bed could increase dissolved-solids concentrations in shallow aquifers and in Hanging Woman Creek because of leaching of soluble minerals from mine spoils. Analysis of saturated-paste extracts from 158 overburden samples indicated that water moving through mine spoils would have a median increase in dissolved-solids concentration of about 3,700 mg/L, resulting in an additional dissolved-solids load to Hanging Woman Creek of about 3.0 tons/day. Hanging Woman Creek near Birney could have an annual post-mining dissolved-solids load of 3,415 tons at median discharge, a 47% increase from pre-mining conditions load. Post-mining concentrations of dissolved solids, at median discharge, could range from 2,380 mg/L in March to 3,940 mg/L in August, compared to mean pre-mining concentrations that ranged from 1,700 mg/L in July, November, and December to 2,060 mg/L in May. Post-mining concentrations and loads in Hanging Woman Creek would be smaller if a smaller area were mined. (USGS)

  13. Mineral resources and land-use planning, the Watkins, Colorado case: a workshop synopsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFevers, J. R.; Agnew, A. B.; Hill, G.; Guernsey, J. L.

    1978-09-01

    The Reclamation and Land Use Planning Program is sponsored jointly through the U.S. Geological Survey's RALI Program and the U.S. Department of Energy's Land Reclamation Program to provide guidance materials and technical services to mining industry and public sector planners concerned with planning for effective land use in surface mine areas. The Program integrates reclamation planning with land use planning to assure maximum benefits to the public from both the reuse of mined areas and the efficient utilization of surface resources. Argonne's Land Reclamation program is a joint effort of the Laboratory's Energy and Environmental Systems Division and Environmental Impact Studies Division. The Program is conducting coordinated applied and basic research on the physical and ecological problems of land reclamation related to surface mining and is developing cost-effective techniques for reclaiming/rehabilitating mined land to productive end uses. The Program conducts integrated research and development projects focused on near- or long-term reclamation problems in major minerals resource areas throughout the U.S. and is responsible for coordinating, evaluating, and disseminating the results of coal mine reclamation studies conducted at other research institutions. This workshop addressed issues of critical importance relating to the potential development of lignite deposits in the vicinity of Denver, Colorado. This synopsis recaps the issues, discussions, and planning efforts of the workshop participants and the expert ''faculty'' who helped make the workshop a success.

  14. Integrated Water Resource Management and Energy Requirements for Water Supply in the Copiapó River Basin, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Suárez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Population and industry growth in dry climates are fully tied to significant increase in water and energy demands. Because water affects many economic, social and environmental aspects, an interdisciplinary approach is needed to solve current and future water scarcity problems, and to minimize energy requirements in water production. Such a task requires integrated water modeling tools able to couple surface water and groundwater, which allow for managing complex basins where multiple stakeholders and water users face an intense competition for limited freshwater resources. This work develops an integrated water resource management model to investigate the water-energy nexus in reducing water stress in the Copiapó River basin, an arid, highly vulnerable basin in northern Chile. The model was utilized to characterize groundwater and surface water resources, and water demand and uses. Different management scenarios were evaluated to estimate future resource availability, and compared in terms of energy requirements and costs for desalinating seawater to eliminate the corresponding water deficit. Results show a basin facing a very complex future unless measures are adopted. When a 30% uniform reduction of water consumption is achieved, 70 GWh over the next 30 years are required to provide the energy needed to increase the available water through seawater desalination. In arid basins, this energy could be supplied by solar energy, thus addressing water shortage problems through integrated water resource management combined with new technologies of water production driven by renewable energy sources.

  15. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the West Siberian Basin Province, Russia, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Bird, Kenneth J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Gautier, Donald L.; Houseknecht, David W.; Klett, Timothy R.; Moore, Thomas E.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the West Siberian Basin Province in Russia as part of the USGS Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal program. This province is the largest petroleum basin in the world and has an areal extent of about 2.2 million square kilometers. It is a large rift-sag feature bounded to the west by the Ural fold belt, to the north by the Novaya Zemlya fold belt and North Siberian Sill, to the south by the Turgay Depression and Altay-Sayan fold belt, and to the east by the Yenisey Ridge, Turukhan-Igarka uplift, Yenisey-Khatanga Basin, and Taimyr High. The West Siberian Basin Province has a total discovered oil and gas volume of more than 360 billion barrels of oil equivalent (Ulmishek, 2000). Exploration has led to the discovery of tens of giant oil and gas fields, including the Urengoy gas field with more than 3500 trillion cubic feet of gas reserves and Samotlar oil field with reserves of nearly 28 billion barrels of oil (Ulmishek, 2003). This report summarizes the results of a reassessment of the undiscovered oil and gas potential of that part of the province north of the Arctic Circle; a previous assessment that included the entire province was completed in 2000 (Ulmishek, 2000). The total petroleum system (TPS) and assessment units (AU) defined by the USGS for the assessments in 2000 were adopted for this assessment. However, only those parts of the Aus lying wholly or partially north of the Arctic Circle were assessed for this study.

  16. Computation of groundwater resources and recharge in Chithar River Basin, South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramani, T; Babu, Savithri; Elango, L

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater recharge and available groundwater resources in Chithar River basin, Tamil Nadu, India spread over an area of 1,722 km(2) have been estimated by considering various hydrological, geological, and hydrogeological parameters, such as rainfall infiltration, drainage, geomorphic units, land use, rock types, depth of weathered and fractured zones, nature of soil, water level fluctuation, saturated thickness of aquifer, and groundwater abstraction. The digital ground elevation models indicate that the regional slope of the basin is towards east. The Proterozoic (Post-Archaean) basement of the study area consists of quartzite, calc-granulite, crystalline limestone, charnockite, and biotite gneiss with or without garnet. Three major soil types were identified namely, black cotton, deep red, and red sandy soils. The rainfall intensity gradually decreases from west to east. Groundwater occurs under water table conditions in the weathered zone and fluctuates between 0 and 25 m. The water table gains maximum during January after northeast monsoon and attains low during October. Groundwater abstraction for domestic/stock and irrigational needs in Chithar River basin has been estimated as 148.84 MCM (million m(3)). Groundwater recharge due to monsoon rainfall infiltration has been estimated as 170.05 MCM based on the water level rise during monsoon period. It is also estimated as 173.9 MCM using rainfall infiltration factor. An amount of 53.8 MCM of water is contributed to groundwater from surface water bodies. Recharge of groundwater due to return flow from irrigation has been computed as 147.6 MCM. The static groundwater reserve in Chithar River basin is estimated as 466.66 MCM and the dynamic reserve is about 187.7 MCM. In the present scenario, the aquifer is under safe condition for extraction of groundwater for domestic and irrigation purposes. If the existing water bodies are maintained properly, the extraction rate can be increased in future about 10% to 15%.

  17. Sahra integrated modeling approach to address water resources management in semi-arid river basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, E. P.; Gupta, Hoshin V. (Hoshin Vijai),; Brookshire, David S.; Liu, Y. (Yuqiong)

    2004-01-01

    Water resources decisions in the 21Sf Century that will affect allocation of water for economic and environmental will rely on simulations from integrated models of river basins. These models will not only couple natural systems such as surface and ground waters, but will include economic components that can assist in model assessments of river basins and bring the social dimension to the decision process. The National Science Foundation Science and Technology Center for Sustainability of semi-Arid Hydrology and Riparian Areas (SAHRA) has been developing integrated models to assess impacts of climate variability and land use change on water resources in semi-arid river basins. The objectives of this paper are to describe the SAHRA integrated modeling approach and to describe the linkage between social and natural sciences in these models. Water resources issues that arise from climate variability or land use change may require different resolution models to answer different questions. For example, a question related to streamflow may not need a high-resolution model whereas a question concerning the source and nature of a pollutant will. SAHRA has taken a multiresolution approach to integrated model development because one cannot anticipate the questions in advance, and the computational and data resources may not always be available or needed for the issue to be addressed. The coarsest resolution model is based on dynamic simulation of subwatersheds or river reaches. This model resolution has the advantage of simplicity and social factors are readily incorporated. Users can readily take this model (and they have) and examine the effects of various management strategies such as increased cost of water. The medium resolution model is grid based and uses variable grid cells of 1-12 km. The surface hydrology is more physically based using basic equations for energy and water balance terms, and modules are being incorporated that will simulate engineering components

  18. Montana's Clark Fork River Basin Task Force: a vehicle for integrated water resources management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, David D; Mueller, Gerald

    2010-11-01

    This article examines what is generally considered to be an unattainable goal in the western United States: integrated water resources management (IWRM). Specifically, we examine an organization that is quite unique in the West, Montana's Clark Fork River Basin Task Force (Task Force), and we analyze its activities since its formation in 2001 to answer the question: are the activities and contributions of the Task Force working to promote a more strongly integrated approach to water resources management in Montana? After reviewing the concepts underlying IWRM, some of the issues that have been identified for achieving IWRM in the West, and the Montana system of water right allocation and issues it faces, we adapt Mitchell's IWRM framework and apply it to the analysis of the Task Force's activities in the context of IWRM. In evaluating the physical, interaction, and protocol/planning/policy components of IWRM, we find that the Task Force has been contributing to the evolution of Montana's water resources management towards this framework, though several factors will likely continue to prevent its complete realization. The Task Force has been successful in this regard because of its unique nature and charge, and because of the authority and power given it by successive Montana legislatures. Also critical to the success of the organization is its ability to help translate into policy the outcomes of legal and quasi-judicial decisions that have impacted the state's water resources management agency.

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS OF USE, DEVELOPMENT AND DISPOSAL OF MINERAL WOOL IN THE CONTEXT OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES POLLUTION BY WASTE RETARDATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Nowak

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study presents the environmental aspects of the use, management and disposal of mineral wool. Fiber structure makes that wool products have many unique properties enabling them to be versatile. With all the advantages of mineral wool is one very significant drawback - does not decompose. From the point of view of slowing (retardation transformation of environmental resources, the introduction of mineral wool to crops under glass, in a very much reduced use of peatlands, which for reasons of natural resources are extremely important. On the other hand, problems of rational use of mineral wool already postconsumer caused among others formation of "wild dumps" and thus transforming the landscape, and, due to their characteristics (respirable fibers, the risk to health. Manufacture of asbestiform can cause ecological consequences within almost all elements of the environment. Therefore, the overall assessment of the impact in this case, mineral wool on the environment would need to be so. "Life cycle assessment" - called the method of LCA (Life Cycle Assessmentwhich is commonly called the "cradle to grave" - that is, from extraction of raw materials, through processing, exploitation, to the storage of waste. Therefore, the responsibility for the redevelopment of the post-production of mineral wool should lie with the producer of wool. These issues are the subject of discussion in this study.

  20. Integrative assessment of hydrological, ecological, and economic systems for water resources management at river basin scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianglian LI; Xiusheng YANG; Qiong GAO; Yu LI; Suocheng DONG

    2009-01-01

    This study presents a basin-scale integrative hydrological, ecological, and economic (HEE) modeling system, aimed at evaluating the impact of resources management, especially agricultural water resources management, on the sustainability of regional water resources. The hydrological model in the modeling system was adapted from SWAT, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool, to simulate the water balance in terms of soil moisture, evapotranspiration, and streamflow. An ecologi-cal model was integrated into the hydrological model to compute the ecosystem production of biomass production and yield for different land use types. The economic model estimated the monetary values of crop production and water productivity over irrigated areas. The modeling system was primarily integrated and run on a Windows platform and was able to produce simulation results at daily time steps with a spatial resolution of hydrological response unit (HRU). The modeling system was then calibrated over the period from 1983 to 1991 for the upper and middle parts of the Yellow River basin, China.Calibration results showed that the efficiencies of the modeling system in simulating monthly streamflow over 5hydrological stations were from 0.54 to 0.68 with an average of 0.64, indicating an acceptable calibration.Preliminary simulation results from 1986 to 1995 revealed that water use in the study region has largely reduced the streamflow in many parts of the area except for that in the riverhead. Spatial distribution of biomass production, and crop yield showed a strong impact of irrigation on agricultural production. Water productivity over irrigated cropland ranged from 1 to 1640 USD/(ha.mm 1), indicat-ing a wide variation of the production conditions within the study region and a great potential in promoting water use efficiency in low water productivity areas. Generally,simulation results from this study indicated that the modeling system was capable of tracking the temporal and spatial

  1. Manage water resources allocation and water use in the Susquehanna River Basin with a GIS-based model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z.; Balay, J.

    2012-12-01

    Water supply is one of the priority management areas of the Susquehanna River Basin Commission. The desired results of the water supply is to meet immediate and future water needs of the people of the basin, in order to maintain sustainable economic viability, protect instream uses, and ensure ecological diversity. In this study, a GIS-based model is designed and developed to assist water resource planning and management in the Susquehanna River Basin. A comprehensive basin-wide water use geographic database is compiled by integrating reported/approved water use and estimated water use if no monitoring data is available, such as agriculture water use. Then water availability at each WBD10 watersheds within the Susquehanna River Basin are then determined based on the ecosystem flow needs and acceptable hydrologic alternation. A GIS-based basin-wide model integrates the water use and water availability and couples with a module that allows iterative evaluation of water resources management alternatives. The model is capable of quantification and graphic presentation of water use and availability at various spatial scale and performance of spatial analysis and scenario analysis to aid in determining optimized water resources management.

  2. 75 FR 22153 - Grant Program To Assess, Evaluate and Promote Development of Tribal Energy and Mineral Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... energy and mineral development study. (Public release is meant to include publications, a poster session... of the location on the reservation where the work will be done. Include relevant page size maps and... geologic setting containing the resource may extend onto the reservation, regardless of the size of...

  3. 78 FR 77155 - Grant Program To Assess, Evaluate, and Promote Development of Tribal Energy and Mineral Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ... dependent upon international market conditions. Natural gas and coal bed methane production depends upon... coal bed gas) or renewable energy resources (e.g., wind, solar, biomass, hydro and geothermal). Mineral... (Oil, Natural Gas, Coal): Bob Just, telephone 720-407-0611, email robert.just@bia.gov Renewable...

  4. Two new species of nematodes (Nematoda) from highly mineralized rivers of Lake El'ton basin, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusakov, Vladimir A; Gagarin, Vladimir G

    2016-09-05

    Two new nematode species, Mesodorylaimus rivalis sp. n. and Allodiplogaster media sp. n., from the highly mineralized rivers of the El'ton Lake basin (Russia) are described and illustrated from numerous mature females and males. Mesodorylaimus rivalis sp. n. is similar to M. vulvapapillatus Bagaturia & Eliava, 1966, but differs from it in the longer body, shorter spicules and longer female prerectum. Allodiplogaster media sp. n. resembles A. lupata (Shoshin, 1989) Kanzaki, Ragsdale & Giblin-Davis, 2014 and A. mordax (Shoshin, 1989) Kanzaki, Ragsdale & Giblin-Davis, 2014, but differs from the first species in having a shorter pharynx, shorter outer labial setae, longer spicules and different ratio between anterior and posterior pharynx sections, and from A. mordax in the thinner body, shorter pharynx and longer spicules.

  5. Minerals of the ammonioalunite-ammoniojarosite series formed on a burning coal dump at Czerwionka, Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parafiniuk, J.; Kruszewski, L. [University of Warsaw, Warsaw (Poland)

    2010-08-15

    Ammonioalunite, ammoniojarosite and their solid-solution series found on a burning coal dump at Czerwionka, Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Poland, were examined using powder X-ray diffraction, electron probe microanalysis, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy and thermal analysis methods. The minerals occur as yellow, fine-grained crusts and botryoidal masses in the outer part of a sulphate crust found similar to 1 m below the surface. The crust is composed mainly of godovikovite and tschermigite that formed by interaction of sour fire gases or solutions and waste materials beneath the surface of the burning coal dump at temperatures of at least 80-100{sup o}C. The crystals often reveal oscillatory zoning due to different Al and Fe contents in thin bands, from near end-members to extensive solid solutions. Our analyses suggest the existence in nature of a complete solid solution between ammonioalunite and ammoniojarosite. They also carry essential amounts of chlorine.

  6. Spatial distribution and longitudinal variation of clay minerals in the Central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.

    Grain size and clay mineral distribution up to 45 cm depth in the silty clay sediments from 26 box cores from 10 degrees to 16 degrees S along four longitudes (73.5 degrees-76.5 degrees E) were studied for understanding spatial variability...

  7. Nitrogen mineralization in riparian soils along a river continuum within a multi-landuse basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrogen dynamics in riparian systems are often addressed within one landuse type and are rarely studied on watershed scales involving multiple land uses. This study tested for both temporal trends and watershed-wide spatial patterns in N mineralization and identified site fact...

  8. Coupling the hydrological and ecological process to implement the sustainable water resources manage-ment in Hanjiang River Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiang; XIA Jun

    2009-01-01

    Research on the combination of hydrological variation and ecological demands plays an important role In water availability assessment and sustainable management on basin scale.An integrative frame, consisting of hydrological regime modelling, ecological water demands estimation and renewable re-sources management, is given in this paper in order to support the implementation of the sustainable water resources management.The suggested integrative frame has been used to study the integrated water resources management in southern Hanjiang River Basin which is the water source of South-to-North Water Transportation Project in China.SWAT (soil and water assessment tool) model was used to simulate the monthly averaging streamflow and the amounts of ecological water demands in stream were also estimated in order to evaluate the available water resources for the local users and the transportation project.Then we formed the developing scenarioes by coupling the available water re-sources, the recovering rate of water resources in natural water cycle, the local water use rate and the amounts of the water transported to North, and used the Scheafer model to analyze their evolving tra-jectories.Eventually, the sustainable water resources management measures were assembled by the comprehensive evaluation of the scenarioea.The research indicates that the integrative frame provided a new way for the integrated water resources management in river basin.

  9. Coupling the hydrological and ecological process to implement the sustainable water resources management in Hanjiang River Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Research on the combination of hydrological variation and ecological demands plays an important role in water availability assessment and sustainable management on basin scale. An integrative frame, consisting of hydrological regime modelling, ecological water demands estimation and renewable resources management, is given in this paper in order to support the implementation of the sustainable water resources management. The suggested integrative frame has been used to study the integrated water resources management in southern Hanjiang River Basin which is the water source of South-toNorth Water Transportation Project in China. SWAT (soil and water assessment tool) model was used to simulate the monthly averaging streamflow and the amounts of ecological water demands in stream were also estimated in order to evaluate the available water resources for the local users and the transportation project. Then we formed the developing scenarioes by coupling the available water resources, the recovering rate of water resources in natural water cycle, the local water use rate and the amounts of the water transported to North, and used the Scheafer model to analyze their evolving trajectories. Eventually, the sustainable water resources management measures were assembled by the comprehensive evaluation of the scenarioes. The research indicates that the integrative frame provided a new way for the integrated water resources management in river basin.

  10. RESOURCE ASSESSMENT OF THE IN-PLACE AND POTENTIALLY RECOVERABLE DEEP NATURAL GAS RESOURCE OF THE ONSHORE INTERIOR SALT BASINS, NORTH CENTRAL AND NORTHEASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2004-04-16

    The University of Alabama and Louisiana State University have undertaken a cooperative 3-year, advanced subsurface methodology resource assessment project, involving petroleum system identification, characterization and modeling, to facilitate exploration for a potential major source of natural gas that is deeply buried (below 15,000 feet) in the onshore interior salt basins of the North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas. The project is designed to assist in the formulation of advanced exploration strategies for funding and maximizing the recovery from deep natural gas domestic resources at reduced costs and risks and with minimum impact. The results of the project should serve to enhance exploration efforts by domestic companies in their search for new petroleum resources, especially those deeply buried (below 15,000 feet) natural gas resources, and should support the domestic industry's endeavor to provide an increase in reliable and affordable supplies of fossil fuels. The principal research effort for Year 1 of the project is data compilation and petroleum system identification. The research focus for the first nine (9) months of Year 1 is on data compilation and for the remainder of the year the emphasis is on petroleum system identification. The objectives of the study are: to perform resource assessment of the in-place deep (>15,000 ft) natural gas resource of the onshore interior salt basins of the North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas through petroleum system identification, characterization and modeling and to use the petroleum system based resource assessment to estimate the volume of the in-place deep gas resource that is potentially recoverable and to identify those areas in the interior salt basins with high potential to recover commercial quantities of the deep gas resource. The project objectives will be achieved through a 3-year effort. First, emphasis is on petroleum system identification and characterization in the

  11. Study of rock-water-nuclear waste interactions in the Pasco Basin, Washington. Part I. Distribution and composition of secondary and primary mineral phases in basalts of the Pasco Basin, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, L.V.; Teague, L.S.

    1979-09-01

    In Part I of this report the results of Task III are presented and discussed. The subject of Task III is the study and identification of secondary and primary mineral assemblages in basalts of the Pasco Basin of southeastern Washington. In particular, we have determined the relative amounts, crystallization sequence, and compositions of secondary minerals found lining vesicle and fracture surfaces. This information, together with data on the chemical composition of primary minerals and the extent to which they have undergone dissolution, has been used in theoretical simulations of mass transfer which is the subject of Part II (Task IV) of this report.

  12. Influences of climate change on water resources availability in Jinjiang Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenchao; Wang, Jie; Li, Zhanjie; Yao, Xiaolei; Yu, Jingshan

    2014-01-01

    The influences of climate change on water resources availability in Jinjiang Basin, China, were assessed using the Block-wise use of the TOPmodel with the Muskingum-Cunge routing method (BTOPMC) distributed hydrological model. The ensemble average of downscaled output from sixteen GCMs (General Circulation Models) for A1B emission scenario (medium CO2 emission) in the 2050s was adopted to build regional climate change scenario. The projected precipitation and temperature data were used to drive BTOPMC for predicting hydrological changes in the 2050s. Results show that evapotranspiration will increase in most time of a year. Runoff in summer to early autumn exhibits an increasing trend, while in the rest period of a year it shows a decreasing trend, especially in spring season. From the viewpoint of water resource availability, it is indicated that it has the possibility that water resources may not be sufficient to fulfill irrigation water demand in the spring season and one possible solution is to store more water in the reservoir in previous summer.

  13. A deposit model for Mississippi Valley-Type lead-zinc ores: Chapter A in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, David L.; Taylor, Ryan D.; Fey, David L.; Diehl, Sharon F.; Saltus, Richard W.

    2010-01-01

    This report is a descriptive model of Mississippi Valley-Type (MVT) lead-zinc deposits that presents their geological, mineralogical and geochemical attributes and is part of an effort by the U.S. Geological Survey Mineral Resources Program to update existing models and develop new models that will be used for an upcoming national mineral resource assessment. This deposit modeling effort by the USGS is intended to supplement previously published models for use in mineral-resource and mineral-environmental assessments. Included in this report are geological, geophysical and geochemical assessment guides to assist in mineral resource estimation. The deposit attributes, including grade and tonnage of the deposits described in this report are based on a new mineral deposits data set of all known MVT deposits in the world.

  14. Fishing resources in the rio Cuiabá basin, Pantanal do Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia. A. F. Mateus

    Full Text Available The rio Cuiabá is one of the most important tributaries of the upper rio Paraguay basin that form the Pantanal wetlands. The fishing resources of the rio Cuiabá basin were studied based on landing data obtained from the Fish Market of the city of Cuiabá, State of Mato grosso, Brazil. A description is given of the composition and origin of the 2000 and 2001 catch. The rio Cuiabá is the main source of fish for Cuiabá, although some fish sold locally comes from the rio Paraguay. The 2000-2001 catch consisted mainly of migratory species. The main landed species were the pimelodids pintado -Pseudoplatystoma corruscans, cachara -Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum, and jaú -Paulicea luetkeni, and the characiforms pacu -Piaractus mesopotamicus, piraputanga -Brycon microlepis, piavuçu -Leporinus macrocephalus, and dourado -Salminus brasiliensis. Large catfishes (Pimelodidae represented 70% of the landed fish, among which pintado was the most abundant. The data indicate that current catches are smaller than those recorded in the early 1980s and fish are caught far off the urban zone. Moreover, although the number and composition of species caught were similar to those of the 80s, the distribution of species abundance has changed. Currently, fisheries catch more carnivorous species than fish from lower trophic levels. These findings cannot be credited solely to overfishing, but appear to result from a complex interaction of factors, i.e., environmental degradation, changes in market preferences, and restrictive legal fishing regulations.

  15. Mineral and geothermal resource potential of the Mount Hood Wilderness, Clackamas and Hood River Counties, Oregon. Summary report and map

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keith, T.E.C.; Causey, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    The potential for near-surface mineral resources in the Mount Hood Wilderness is low. Geochemical data suggest two areas of weak epithermal mineralization in the Zigzag Mountain part of the wilderness: (1) the Lost Creek-Burnt Lake-Cast Creek-Short Creek area on the north side of Zigzag Mountain where vein-type lead-zinc-silver mineralization occurs; and (2) the Lady Creek-Laurel Hill area on the south side of Zigzag Mountain where the upper part of a quartz diorite pluton has associated propylitic alteration resulting in some porphyry-type copper, gold, silver, lead, and zinc mineralization. Geothermal-resource potential for low- to intermediate-temperature (less than 248/sup 0/F, 120/sup 0/C) hot-water systems in the wilderness is moderate to high. Part of the wilderness is classified as a Known Geothermal Resources Area (KGRA) and two parts have been included in geothermal lease areas. Rock and gravel sources are present within the wilderness; however, quantities of similar and more accessible deposits are available outside the wilderness. Deposits outside the wilderness are large enough to supply local demand in the foreseeable future.

  16. Water Resources Data. Ohio - Water Year 1992. Volume 1. Ohio River Basin excluding project data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.L. Shindel; J.H. Klingler; J.P. Mangus; L.E. Trimble

    1993-03-01

    Water-resources data for the 1992 water year for Ohio consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. This report, in two volumes, contains records for water discharge at 121 gaging stations, 336 wells, and 72 partial-record sites; and water levels at 312 observation wells. Also included are data from miscellaneous sites. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the US Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Ohio. Volume 1 covers the central and southern parts of Ohio, emphasizing the Ohio River Basin. (See Order Number DE95010451 for Volume 2 covering the northern part of Ohio.)

  17. Sustainable or Adaptive Water Resources Management in the Indus River Basin, Pakistan under Uncertainties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dars, G. H.; Moradkhani, H.

    2012-12-01

    Pakistan has one of the largest contiguous irrigation systems in the world called as Indus River Irrigation System (IRIS). In 1951, soon after its independence, Pakistan was water abundant country but due to poor management practices the country has now become water scarce. This study will provide a detailed analysis of the water management issues and emerging challenges of the Indus River Basin in Pakistan. The research shows the importance of hydrometeorologic forecast under aleatory and epistemic uncertainties and that the Pakistan needs to focus on adaptive management to climate and land use changes and developing reservoirs to enhance water storage capacity keeping in view environmental degradation, and also adopting modern techniques of monitoring the flow of water to have equitable and justifiable shares from individual watercourse to all provinces so as interprovincial and transboundary water conflicts may not happen in the future. Subsequently, a paradigm shift is needed in water resources development and management for sustainable economic growth.

  18. The role of scenario analysis in water resources management in Yanqi Basin, Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, N.; Kinzelbach, W. K.; Li, W.; Dong, X.

    2011-12-01

    With the rapid increase of world population and food demand, the demand for water resources is also increasing. At the same time shifts in rain patterns due to global climate change make the water resources situation more uncertain. A global water crisis can therefore not be excluded. The socio-economic and environmental problems induced by such a water crisis are especially prominent in arid and semiarid regions. The Yanqi Basin in Xinjiang province is a typical case study in China's arid and semi-arid areas, where rainfall is scarce and evaporation is extremely high. Thus its water resources have been under great pressure to satisfy the increasing water demand of agriculture and urban and industrial expansion in the last decades. The development has been accompanied by a number of environmental problems. Yanqi Basin is an important cultivated area which is irrigated by water diverted from rivers. Because of the long-term flood irrigation and an inefficient drainage system, the groundwater level under the cultivated area rose, accelerating the phreatic evaporation and leading to increased soil salinization. Simultaneously, the water quantity and quality of Boston Lake have been impaired in past years because of the decreased river discharge and the increased salt flux contained in the drainage discharge. Thus the ecosystems depending on the inflow to and outflow from the lake suffered. The riverine forests in the downstream area were degraded due to declining groundwater levels, and aquatic life as well as downstream water users had to cope with deteriorating water quality. The big challenge for decision makers in the basin is how to balance the justified requirements of agriculture, industrial development and the ecosystem. In order to provide a scientific basis to the decision making process, a scenario analysis was adopted. Here several scenarios are proposed: the basic scenario, scenario 1, describes the status of the year 2008. A second scenario maximizes the

  19. Marine mineral resources of the Central Indian Basin: Ferromanganese nodules and crusts

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, P.S.; Nair, R.R.

    stream_size 12 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name 5_Circum-Pac_Energy_Min_Resour_Conf_1996_123.pdf.txt stream_source_info 5_Circum-Pac_Energy_Min_Resour_Conf_1996_123.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text...

  20. Alteration and Reformation of Hydrocarbon Reservoirs and Prediction of Remaining Potential Resources in Superimposed Basins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG Hong; PANG Xiongqi; YANG Haijun; LIN Changsong; MENG Qingyang; WANG Huaijie

    2010-01-01

    Complex hydrocarbon reservoirs developed widely in the superimposed basins of China formed from multiple structural alterations,reformation and destruction of hydrocarbon reservoirs formed at early stages.They are characterized currently by trap adjustment,component variation,phase conversion,and scale reformation.This is significant for guiding current hydrocarbon exploration by revealing evolution mechanisms after hydrocarbon reservoir formation and for predicting remaining potential resources.Based on the analysis of a number of complex hydrocarbon reservoirs,there are four geologic features controlling the degree of destruction of hydrocarbon reservoirs formed at early stages:tectonic event intensity,frequency,time and caprock sealing for oil and gas during tectonic evolution.Research shows that the larger the tectonic event intensity,the more frequent the tectonic event,the later the last tectonic event,the weaker the caprock sealing for oil and gas,and the greater the volume of destroyed hydrocarbons in the early stages.Based on research on the main controlling factors of hydrocarbon reservoir destruction mechanisms,a geological model of tectonic superimposition and a mathematical model evaluating potential remaining complex hydrocarbon reservoirs have been established.The predication method and technical procedures were applied in the Tazhong area of Tarim Basin,where four stages of hydrocarbon accumulation and three stages of hydrocarbon alteration occurred.Geohistorical hydrocarbon accumulation reached 3.184billion tons,of which 1.271 billion tons were destroyed.The total volume of remaining resources available for exploration is~1.9 billion tons.

  1. Groundwater renewable resources in karst areas, the case of the Kleśnica River basin (Sudety Mountains, Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olichwer, Tomasz; Otrębski, Adrian

    2016-12-01

    The karst-fractured medium constitutes a considerable groundwater capacity, as shown on the example of the Kleśnica River basin. The paleozoic crystalline limestones in the research area are good collectors of the groundwater. The Kleśnica River basin, one of the largest crystalline limestone lens, is situated in the Sudety Mountains. Groundwater renewable resources were distinguished with the use of hydrological methods, on the basis of hydrometric measurements of the flow discharge of the Kleśnica River during the low-flow period (2009-2010). The mean module of the groundwater runoff equals 20.79 dm3/s*km2, and includes the study of the river catchments areas with extremely high groundwater runoff. The groundwater renewable resources in the Kleśnica River basin are almost twice higher than in the neighbouring river basins (the Kamienica and Morawka River basins), in which there are no significant outcrops of carbonate rocks. These considerable renewable resources also provide a high runoff in the spring, 7.98 dm3/s*km2. The high values of the runoffs indicate, that the groundwater is coming from the regional circulation system and, on a smaller scale, from the local system. The groundwater from both systems flows into the fractured system through the karst of carbonate massif rocks and their weathering fringes.

  2. Aggregate and Mineral Resources, Mines - This data set is derived from the Bureau of Mines Minerals Availability System (MAS) data set. Most of the information is from the Minerals Industry System Location (MILS) table., Published in 1993, Arizona State Land Department.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Aggregate and Mineral Resources dataset as of 1993. It is described as 'Mines - This data set is derived from the Bureau of Mines Minerals Availability System...

  3. Effective use of integrated hydrological models in basin-scale water resources management: surrogate modeling approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y.; Wu, B.; Wu, X.

    2015-12-01

    Integrated hydrological models (IHMs) consider surface water and subsurface water as a unified system, and have been widely adopted in basin-scale water resources studies. However, due to IHMs' mathematical complexity and high computational cost, it is difficult to implement them in an iterative model evaluation process (e.g., Monte Carlo Simulation, simulation-optimization analysis, etc.), which diminishes their applicability for supporting decision-making in real-world situations. Our studies investigated how to effectively use complex IHMs to address real-world water issues via surrogate modeling. Three surrogate modeling approaches were considered, including 1) DYCORS (DYnamic COordinate search using Response Surface models), a well-established response surface-based optimization algorithm; 2) SOIM (Surrogate-based Optimization for Integrated surface water-groundwater Modeling), a response surface-based optimization algorithm that we developed specifically for IHMs; and 3) Probabilistic Collocation Method (PCM), a stochastic response surface approach. Our investigation was based on a modeling case study in the Heihe River Basin (HRB), China's second largest endorheic river basin. The GSFLOW (Coupled Ground-Water and Surface-Water Flow Model) model was employed. Two decision problems were discussed. One is to optimize, both in time and in space, the conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater for agricultural irrigation in the middle HRB region; and the other is to cost-effectively collect hydrological data based on a data-worth evaluation. Overall, our study results highlight the value of incorporating an IHM in making decisions of water resources management and hydrological data collection. An IHM like GSFLOW can provide great flexibility to formulating proper objective functions and constraints for various optimization problems. On the other hand, it has been demonstrated that surrogate modeling approaches can pave the path for such incorporation in real

  4. Geology and coal bed methane resource potential of the Gondwana Barapukuria Coal Basin, Dinajpur, Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, Md. Rafiqul; Hayashi, Daigoro [Department of Physics and Earth Sciences Faculty of Science, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, 903-0213 (Japan)

    2008-08-05

    With an area of 5.16 km{sup 2}, the Barapukuria coal deposit is one of the five largest Gondwana coal basins in Bangladesh, and is located in the north west of the country close to the towns of Dinajpur and Saidpur. The existence of the basin was initially indicated by a negative gravity anomaly in oil and gas exploration. Exploration for the deposit was commenced by the Geological Survey of Bangladesh (GSB), with seven surface boreholes that confirmed the existence of a significant coal deposit. The deposit occurs as an asymmetrical synclinal structure with an axis striking approximately N-S. The deposit is limited to the east by a large normal fault which has displaced Archaean metamorphics against the Gondwana sediments. The coal-bearing sediments are comprised of Gondwana Permian-age sandstones, siltstones, subordinate carbonaceous shales, and six correlated coal seams. The Gondwana sediments are unconformably overlain by Tertiary and Quaternary deposits, against which the coal seams are successively subcropped to the west. Within the structural limits of the basin, approximately 377 Mt coal in-situ has been quantified in the six coal seams that range in depth from 118 to 518 m below surface. Due to the synclinal nature of the deposit, the upper coal seams, designated I to V, occur over diminishing areal extent with decreasing depth. The principal seam of interest is the lowermost Seam VI, with a variable thickness across the deposit from 22 m in the northern part of the deposit to more than 42 m in the southern and eastern areas. Development of the Barapukuria Mine, the country's first coal mine, commenced in 1996 with the construction of two vertical shafts. Coal production from Seam VI began in 2005 and continues at the present time. Seam VI coal is high volatile B bituminous rank. About 34 Mt of coal has been estimated as recoverable resources, utilising descensional multi-slice longwall mining. The mine design and development have been severely

  5. An assessment the effects of human-caused air pollution on resources within the interior Columbia River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoettle, A.W.; Tonnessen, K.; Turk, J.; Vimont, J.; Amundson, Ronald; Acheson, A.; Peterson, J.

    1999-01-01

    An assessment of existing and potential impacts to vegetation, aquatics, and visibility within the Columbia River basin due to air pollution was conducted as part of the Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project. This assessment examined the current situation and potential trends due to pollutants such as ammonium, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, particulates, carbon, and ozone. Ecosystems and resources at risk are identified, including certain forests, lichens, cryptogamic crusts, high-elevation lakes and streams, arid lands, and class I areas. Current monitoring data are summarized and air pollution sources identified. The assessment also includes a summary of data gaps and suggestions for future research and monitoring related to air pollution and its effects on resources in the interior Columbia River basin.

  6. Assessment of the effects of human-caused air pollution on resources within the interior Columbia River basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoettle, A.W.; Tonnessen, K.; Turk, J.; Vimont, J.; Amundson, R.

    1999-07-01

    An assessment of existing and potential impacts to vegetation, acquatics and visibility within the Columbia River basin due to air pollution was conducted as part of the Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project. This assessment examined the current situation and potential trends due to pollutants such as ammonium, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, particulates, carbon, and ozone. Ecosystems and resources at risk are identified, including certain forest, lichens, cryptogamic crusts, high-elevation lakes and streams, arid land, and class 1 areas. Current monitoring data are summarized and air pollution sources identified. The assessment also includes a summary of data gaps and suggestions for future research and monitoring related to air pollution and its effects on resources in the interior Columbia River basin.

  7. The Effect of China’s Scramble for Resources and African Resource Nationalism on the Supply of Strategic Southern African Minerals: What Can the United States Do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    seek to dominate the South African mining industry and minerals and metals markets. For Southern Africa, resource nationalism and demand from China...that major changes would be taking place in Namibia’s previously tranquil mining industry . In May 2011 the Namibian government acted, contrary to the...the mining industry , a disincentive for investors, and a source of continued decline for South Africa’s mining industry . The 2010/2011 Fraser

  8. The station of modeling the mine resources in economical geology investigations and determination of mineral deposits genes & reserves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharif, J.A.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent days, computer is becoming one of the most essential instruments in advanced countries for the researchers and the domain of its application is going to be increased every day. Using the 3D modeling of the earth, its mine resources and the brilliant details which are given by the models, the researching and exploring groups will find out the inconspicuous and attractive aspects of the genetic structure and the geological history of these resources. In this paper which is a result of the researches done as the case study on a group of aragonite deposits in West Azarbaijan province, modeling of under study mineral deposits and the genetic approaches obtained from the models lead into explore and discover some other resources of the same minerals which is widely accepted recently in the market of decorative rocks in Iran. In modeling procedure of these resources which is a product of the geysers, the profile of these lime generating springs and their directional order on some specific hidden fracture is determined and approximate location of the new resources for the next explorations is assigned. At the moment, these assigned locations as new resources are being explored and even exploited.

  9. Effects of grain size on landscape patterns in mineral resource zones:a case study of Wu’an, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianjun Zhang; Yongheng Rao; Yang Xu; Meichen Fu

    2014-01-01

    A mineral resource zone, rich in resources and energy, is intensively developed and disturbed by human activities, which causes an obvious change of landscapes. Taking Wu’an of Hebei Province, China, as a case study, this paper extracts landscape information of mineral resource zones through overlapping mineral resources distribution map and landscape pattern map. And then, various landscape indices are selected for analyzing the effects of grain size (30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210, 240, 270 and 300 m) on landscape patterns. Due to different kinds of landscape information transmitted by indices, the changing trends vary with the increase of grain sizes. Accordingly the landscape indices are classified into three types of effects:disturbance, continuity and sustainability, and each type of effect has its own optimal range for grain sizes. Then the optimal range of grain size on landscape patterns in mineral resource zones is gained through a comparison of the effects in various grain sizes of landscape indices. The best first domain of scale covers 30–90 m, with a suitable grain size of 30–60 m before intensive mining and a suitable grain size of 60–90 m after intensive mining. Besides, the suitable grain sizes for reflecting disturbance, continuity and sustainability before intensive mining are 30–60, 30–60 and 30–90 m, respectively, however, the sizes are changed to 60–90, 60–90 and 30–90 m, respectively, after intensive mining. The results are helpful for rational land use and optimal landscape allocation.

  10. Assessment of undiscovered continuous oil and gas resources in the Monterey Formation, Los Angeles Basin Province, California, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Le, Phuong A.; Lillis, Paul G.; Marra, Kristen R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2016-07-08

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed technically recoverable mean resources of 13 million barrels of oil, 22 billion cubic feet of gas, and 1 million barrels of natural gas liquids in the Monterey Formation of the Los Angeles Basin Province, California.

  11. Assessment of coalbed gas resources of the Kalahari Basin Province of Botswana, Zimbabwe, and Zambia, Africa, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Finn, Thomas M.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2017-02-24

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resources of 4.5 trillion cubic feet of coalbed gas in the Kalahari Basin Province of Botswana, Zambia, and Zimbabwe, Africa.

  12. Assessment of continuous oil and gas resources of the Maracaibo Basin Province of Venezuela and Colombia, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Le, Phoung A.; Pitman, Janet K.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Finn, Thomas M.; Klett, Timothy R.

    2017-03-27

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean continuous resources of 656 million barrels of oil and 5.7 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Maracaibo Basin Province, Venezuela and Colombia.

  13. 3-D Numerical Modeling as a Tool for Managing Mineral Water Extraction from a Complex Groundwater Basin in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanini, A.; Tanda, M.

    2007-12-01

    The groundwater in Italy plays an important role as drinking water; in fact it covers about the 30% of the national demand (70% in Northern Italy). The mineral water distribution in Italy is an important business with an increasing demand from abroad countries. The mineral water Companies have a great interest in order to increase the water extraction, but for the delicate and complex geology of the subsoil, where such very high quality waters are contained, a particular attention must be paid in order to avoid an excessive lowering of the groundwater reservoirs or great changes in the groundwater flow directions. A big water Company asked our University to set up a numerical model of the groundwater basin, in order to obtain a useful tool which allows to evaluate the strength of the aquifer and to design new extraction wells. The study area is located along Appennini Mountains and it covers a surface of about 18 km2; the topography ranges from 200 to 600 m a.s.l.. In ancient times only a spring with naturally sparkling water was known in the area, but at present the mineral water is extracted from deep pumping wells. The area is characterized by a very complex geology: the subsoil structure is described by a sequence of layers of silt-clay, marl-clay, travertine and alluvial deposit. Different groundwater layers are present and the one with best quality flows in the travertine layer; the natural flow rate seems to be not subjected to seasonal variations. The water age analysis revealed a very old water which means that the mineral aquifers are not directly connected with the meteoric recharge. The Geologists of the Company suggest that the water supply of the mineral aquifers comes from a carbonated unit located in the deep layers of the mountains bordering the spring area. The valley is crossed by a river that does not present connections to the mineral aquifers. Inside the area there are about 30 pumping wells that extract water at different depths. We built a 3

  14. Iron speciation and mineral characterization of upper Jurassic reservoir rocks in the Minhe Basin, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiangxian; Zheng, Guodong; Xu, Wang; Liang, Minliang; Fan, Qiaohui; Wu, Yingzhong; Ye, Conglin; Shozugawa, Katsumi; Matsuo, Motoyuki

    2016-12-01

    Six samples from a natural outcrop of reservoir rocks with oil seepage and two control samples from surrounding area in the Minhe Basin, northwestern China were selectively collected and analyzed for mineralogical composition as well as iron speciation using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Mössbauer spectroscopy, respectively. Iron species revealed that: (1) the oil-bearing reservoir rocks were changed by water-rock-oil interactions; (2) even in the same site, there was a different performance between sandstone and mudstone during the oil and gas infusion to the reservoirs; and (3) this was evidence indicating the selective channels of hydrocarbon migration. In addition, these studies showed that the iron speciation by Mössbauer spectroscopy could be useful for the study of oil and gas reservoirs, especially the processes of the water-rock interactions within petroleum reservoirs.

  15. Water resources data Texas water year 2001, volume 5. Guadalupe River basin, Nueces River basin, Rio Grande basin, and intervening coastal basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandara, Susan C.

    2002-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2001 water year for Texas are presented in six volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water-quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 5 contains records for water discharge at 77 gaging stations; stage only at 4 gaging stations; stage and contents at 5 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 27 gaging stations; and data for 23 partial-record stations comprised of 3 flood-hydrograph, 8 low-flow, 4 crest-stage, and 3 miscellaneous stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  16. Water resources data Texas water year 2003, volume 5. Guadalupe River basin, Nueces River basin, Rio Grande basin, and intervening coastal basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandara, Susan C.

    2004-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2003 water year for Texas are presented in six volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water-quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 5 contains records for water discharge at 84 gaging stations; stage only at 6 gaging stations; stage and contents at 6 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 28 gaging stations; and data for 18 partial-record stations comprised of 1 flood-hydrograph, 10 low-flow, 4 crest-stage, and 3 miscellaneous stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  17. Water resources data Texas water year 1999, volume 5. Guadalupe River basin, Nueces River basin, Rio Grande basin, and intervening coastal basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandara, S.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Barbie, D.L.; Jones, R.E.

    2000-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1999 water year for Texas are presented in six volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water-quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 5 contains records for water discharge at 76 gaging stations; stage only at 1 gaging stations; stage and contents at 4 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 38 gaging stations; and data for 30 partial-record stations comprised of 3 flood-hydrograph, 14 low-flow, and 8 crest-stage, and 5 miscellaneous stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  18. Water resources data Texas water year 2002, volume 5. Guadalupe River basin, Nueces River basin, Rio Grande basin, and intervening coastal basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandara, Susan C.

    2003-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2002 water year for Texas are presented in six volumes and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 5 contains records for water discharge at 82 gaging stations; stage only at 6 gaging stations; stage and contents at 8 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 25 gaging stations; and data for 30 partial-record stations comprised of 2 flood-hydrograph, 6 low-flow, 4 crest-stage, and 18 miscellaneous stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  19. Water resources data Texas water year 2000, volume 5. Guadalupe River basin, Nueces River basin, Rio Grande basin, and intervening coastal basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandara, S.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Barbie, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2000 water year for Texas are presented in six volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water-quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 5 contains records for water discharge at 71 gaging stations; stage only at 4 gaging stations; stage and contents at 4 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 29 gaging stations; and data for 23 partial-record stations comprised of 3 flood-hydrograph, 10 low-flow, 6 crest-stage, and 4 miscellaneous stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  20. Water resources data Texas, water year 2004, volume 5. Guadalupe River basin, Nueces River basin, Rio Grande basin, and intervening coastal basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Susan C. Aragon; Reece, Brian D.; Eames, Deanna R.

    2005-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2004 water year for Texas are presented in six volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water-quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 5 contains records for water discharge at 86 gaging stations; stage only at 5 gaging stations; elevation at 3 lakes and reservoirs; content at 4 lakes and reservoirs;and water quality at 24 gaging stations. Also included are data for 16 partial-record stations comprised of 1 flood-hydrograph, 11 low-flow, and 4 crest-stage stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  1. Mineral resource potential map of the Cohutta Wilderness and the Hemp Top Roadless Area, northern Georgia and southeastern Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gair, Jacob E.; Gazdik, Gertrude C.; Dunn, Maynard L.

    1982-01-01

    The Cohutta Wilderness and the Hemp Top Roadless Area have minor occurrences of metallic minerals, but no known resource potential for such minerals in the forseeable future, judging by available data, and only a very minor potential for stone for aggregate, road construction, and similar nondimension use. The rocks of the Ducktown massive sulfide district to the northeast do not appear to extend into the study area, and geochemical data derived from samples of rock, soil, and alluvium do not reveal any anomalously high concentrations of trace elements that could be representative of hidden mineral deposits. Sedimentary rocks underlying the metamorphic rocks exposed at the surface have an unknown potential for hydrocarbons in the form of natural gas. No reasonable estimate of the potential can be made until some test drilling is done in the area.

  2. Generalized drought assessment in Dongliao river basin based on water resources system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, B. S.; Yan, D. H.; Wang, H.; Qin, T. L.; Yin, J.

    2014-11-01

    Drought is firstly a resource issue, and with its development it transforms into a disaster issue. The occurrences of drought events usually feature determinacy and randomness. Drought issue has become one of the major factors to affect sustainable economic and social development. In this paper, we propose the generalized drought assessment index (GDAI) based on water resources system for assessing drought events. The GDAI considers water supply and water demand using a distributed hydrological model. We demonstrate the use of the proposed index in the Dongliao river basin (DRB) in the northeast China. The results simulated by the GDAI are then compared to observed drought disaster records in DRB. As second, the temporal distribution of drought events and the spatial distribution of drought frequency from the GDAI are compared with the traditional approach (i.e. the SPI, the PDSI, and the RWD). Then, generalized drought times (GDT), generalized drought duration (GDD), and generalized drought severity (GDS) were calculated by theory of runs. Application of the GDT, the GDD, and the GDS of various drought levels (i.e. mild drought, moderate drought, severe drought, and extreme drought) to the period 1960-2010 shows that the centers of gravity of them are all distributed in the middle reached of DRB, and change with time. The proposed methodology helps water managers in water-stressed regions to quantify the impact of drought, consequently, to make decisions regarding coping with drought issue.

  3. Generalized drought assessment in Dongliao river basin based on water resources system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Weng

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Drought is firstly a resource issue, and with its development it transforms into a disaster issue. The occurrences of drought events usually feature determinacy and randomness. Drought issue has become one of the major factors to affect sustainable economic and social development. In this paper, we propose the generalized drought assessment index (GDAI based on water resources system for assessing drought events. The GDAI considers water supply and water demand using a distributed hydrological model. We demonstrate the use of the proposed index in the Dongliao river basin (DRB in the northeast China. The results simulated by the GDAI are then compared to observed drought disaster records in DRB. As second, the temporal distribution of drought events and the spatial distribution of drought frequency from the GDAI are compared with the traditional approach (i.e. the SPI, the PDSI, and the RWD. Then, generalized drought times (GDT, generalized drought duration (GDD, and generalized drought severity (GDS were calculated by theory of runs. Application of the GDT, the GDD, and the GDS of various drought levels (i.e. mild drought, moderate drought, severe drought, and extreme drought to the period 1960–2010 shows that the centers of gravity of them are all distributed in the middle reached of DRB, and change with time. The proposed methodology helps water managers in water-stressed regions to quantify the impact of drought, consequently, to make decisions regarding coping with drought issue.

  4. Mineral resource assessment of the Iron River 1 degree x 2 degrees Quadrangle, Michigan and Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, William F.

    1983-01-01

    The Iron River 1? x 2? quadrangle contains identified resources of copper and iron. Copper-rich shale beds in the north part of the quadrangle contain 12.2 billion pounds (5.5 billion kilograms) of copper in well-studied deposits including 9.2 billion pounds (4.2 billion kilograms) that are economically minable by 1980 standards. At least several billion pounds of copper probably exist in other parts of the same shale beds, but not enough data are available to measure the amount. A small amount, about 250 million pounds (113 million kilograms), of native copper is known to remain in one abandoned mine, and additional but unknown amounts remain in other abandoned mines. About 13.25 billion tons (12.02 billion metric tons) of banded iron-formation averaging roughly 30 percent iron are known within 500 feet (152.4 meters) of the surface in the Gogebic, Marquette, and Iron River-Crystal Falls districts. A small percentage of that might someday be minable as taconite, but none is now believed to be economic. Some higher grade iron concentrations exist in the same iron-formations. Such material was the basis of former mining of iron in the region, but a poor market for such ore and depletion of many deposits have led to the decline of iron mining in the quadrangle. Iron mines of the quadrangle were not being worked in 1980. Many parts of the quadrangle contain belts of favorable host rocks for mineral deposits. Although deposits are not known in these belts, undiscovered deposits of copper, zinc, lead, silver, uranium, phosphate, nickel, chromium, platinum, gold, and diamonds could exist.

  5. The Ministry of Land and Resources Published the “ThreeRate” Indicator for Seven Minerals Including Iron Ore and Copper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>In order to strengthen the supervision and administration of rational exploitation of mineral resources including iron,copper,lead,zinc,rare earth,sylvine and fluorite,the Ministry of Land and Resources has published the Minimum Three-rate Requirements for the Rational Exploitation of Mineral Resources including Iron,Copper,Lead,Zinc,Rare Earth,Sylvine and Fluorite(for trial implementation).

  6. Major Crustal Fault Zone Trends and Their Relation to Mineral Belts in the North-Central Great Basin, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Brian D.; Sampson, Jay A.; Williams, Jackie M.

    2007-01-01

    The Great Basin physiographic province covers a large part of the western United States and contains one of the world's leading gold-producing areas, the Carlin Trend. In the Great Basin, many sedimentary-rock-hosted disseminated gold deposits occur along such linear mineral-occurrence trends. The distribution and genesis of these deposits is not fully understood, but most models indicate that regional tectonic structures play an important role in their spatial distribution. Over 100 magnetotelluric (MT) soundings were acquired between 1994 and 2001 by the U.S. Geological Survey to investigate crustal structures that may underlie the linear trends in north-central Nevada. MT sounding data were used to map changes in electrical resistivity as a function of depth that are related to subsurface lithologic and structural variations. Two-dimensional (2-D) resistivity modeling of the MT data reveals primarily northerly and northeasterly trending narrow 2-D conductors (1 to 30 ohm-m) extending to mid-crustal depths (5-20 km) that are interpreted to be major crustal fault zones. There are also a few westerly and northwesterly trending 2-D conductors. However, the great majority of the inferred crustal fault zones mapped using MT are perpendicular or oblique to the generally accepted trends. The correlation of strike of three crustal fault zones with the strike of the Carlin and Getchell trends and the Alligator Ridge district suggests they may have been the root fluid flow pathways that fed faults and fracture networks at shallower levels where gold precipitated in favorable host rocks. The abundant northeasterly crustal structures that do not correlate with the major trends may be structures that are open to fluid flow at the present time.

  7. The Nourishing Sea: Partnered Guardianship of Fishery and Seabed Mineral Resources for the Economic Viability of Small Pacific Island Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D'Arcy

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available While island biogeography and modern economics portray Pacific island nations as isolated, ecologically fragile, resource poor and barely viable economies forever dependent on foreign aid, Pacific island history and culture conceives of their islands as intimately inter-linked to the surrounding ocean and of that ocean as an avenue to expanded resource bases, both terrestrial and aquatic. Pacific Islanders live in the most aquatic human zone on Earth, with the highest territorial ratios of sea to land. Recent studies are revealing the continuity and success of traditional near-shore guardianship of maritime resources in a number of Pacific islands. Sustainable development of seabed minerals and pelagic fisheries may offer enhanced income potential for small island nations with limited terrestrial resources. As offshore ecosystems are poorly policed, sustainable development is best realized through comprehensive planning centred on partnerships between local communities, their governments, marine scientists and commercial enterprises. The success or failure of Pacific Islanders in reasserting their maritime guardianship is now a matter of global significance given the decimation of most fisheries beyond the Pacific and the vast, but uncertain, medicinal, mineral and food resource potential of this huge area of the planet.

  8. Petroleum systems modelling of the Muensterland Basin and Ruhr Basin with special emphasis on unconventional gas resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uffmann, A.K.; Littke, R. [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Geology and Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal

    2013-08-01

    A 3D petroleum system model was built for the area of the northern Rhenish Massif and Muensterland/Ruhr Basin in order to reconstruct burial and temperature histories as well as petroleum generation and storage. The basin contains numerous potential unconventional gas reservoirs, i.e. more than 100 Pennsylvanian (Westphalian and upper Namurian) coal seams and several black shales of Pennsylvanian and Mississippian age. The focus here is on the Upper Alum Sahle ('Hangende Alaunschiefer') representing the uppermost Mississippian.

  9. Climate Change Impacts on Water Resources in Mahanadi River basin (India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilhare, R.; Mishra, V.

    2014-12-01

    Streamflow estimation using hydrological modeling and assessing the impact of climate change on it can increasingly help in dealing with the challenges that water resource managers and planners. In the present study, continuous distributed hydrological model named Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is used for streamflow estimation at five gauging stations within Mahanadi river basin, Orissa, India. Further streamflow response to climate change has been examined. For this, the SWAT model has been first calibrated and validated for the period of 1951-2007. Then, with the aim of evaluating the impact of climate change on the basin hydrology for the period of 2010-2099, downscaled and bias corrected data from the CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project) models (i.e. bcc-csm1-1, inmcm4, mpi-esm-Ir, mri-cgcm3 and noresm1-m) under the RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios were used to derive the SWAT model. We find that streamflow variations are more sensitive to changing climate in the monsoon (JJAS) and pre-monsoon (FMAM) seasons than that of the post-monsoon season. Moreover, simulated runoff for the projected period (2010-2099) was found to be changing in a range of -17 to 59% in the monsoon, -18 to 65% in the post-monsoon, -76 to 451% in pre-monsoon under the RCP 4.5 scenario and for the RCP 8.5 streamflow changes have been assessed between -5 to 107% in monsoon, -0.45 to 105% in post-monsoon, -61 to 202% in pre-monsoon period. Keywords: SWAT; Climate Change; CMIP; RCP; Mahanadi

  10. Climate change impact on the management of water resources in the Seine River basin, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorchies, David; Thirel, Guillaume; Chauveau, Mathilde; Jay-Allemand, Maxime; Perrin, Charles; Dehay, Florine

    2013-04-01

    It is today commonly accepted that adaptation strategies will be needed to cope with the hydrological consequences of projected climate change. The main objective of the IWRM-Net Climaware project is to design adaptation strategies for various socio-economic sectors and evaluate their relevance at the European scale. Within the project, the Seine case study focuses on dam management. The Seine River basin at Paris (43800km²) shows major socio-economic stakes in France. Due to its important and growing demography, the number of industries depending on water resources or located on the river sides, and the developed agricultural sector, the consequences of droughts and floods may be dramatic. To mitigate the extreme hydrological events, a system of four large multi-purpose reservoirs was built in the upstream part of the basin between 1949 and 1990. The IPCC reports indicate modifications of the climate conditions in northern France in the future. An increase of mean temperature is very likely, and the rainfall patterns could be modified: the uncertainty on future trends is still high, but summer periods could experience lower quantities of rainfall. Anticipating these changes are crucial: will the present reservoirs system be adapted to these conditions? Here we propose to evaluate the capacity of the Seine River reservoirs to withstand future projected climate conditions using the current management rules. For this study a modeling chain was designed. We used two hydrological models: GR4J, a lumped model used as a benchmark, and TGR, a semi-distributed model. TGR was tuned to explicitly account for reservoir management rules. Seven climatic models forced by the moderate A1B IPCC scenario and downscaled using a weather-type method (DSCLIM, Pagé et al., 2009), were used. A quantile-quantile type method was applied to correct bias in climate simulations. A model to mimic the way reservoirs are managed was also developed. The evolution of low flows, high flows and

  11. Water resources inventory of Connecticut Part 10: Lower Connecticut River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Lawrence A.; Bingham, James W.; Thomas, Mendall P.

    1982-01-01

    median hardness of 18 mg/L were determined from water samples collected from 26 streams during the high-flow period. During the low-flow period, median dissolved-solids concentration of 61 mg/L and median hardness of 27 mg/L were determined from sample from the same streams. The quality of water in stratified-drift and crystalline-rock aquifers is generally better than that in the sedimentary-rock aquifers. Water from 32 wells tapping stratified drift had median dissolved-solids concentrations of 116 mg/L; and 33 wells tapping stratified drift and 42 tapping crystalline rock had median hardness of 73 mg/L and 68 mg/L, respectively. Water from 32 wells tapping sedimentary rock had median dissolved concentrations of 231 and 156 mg/L, respectively. Sedimentary rock generally yields the hardest water. Iron and manganese occur objectionable concentrations in places, particularly in water from streams draining swamps and in water from aquifers either rich in iron and manganese-nearing minerals or where the reducing environment for solution of these minerals is favorable. Concentrations of iron in excess of 0.3 mg/L were found in 35 percent of the high streamflow samples, and in 45 percent of the ground-water samples. Most of the high iron and manganese concentration in streams and aquifers are found east of the Connecticut River. Human activities and tidal influence along the coast have modified the quality of water in much f the study area. The greatest influence from human activities has been in the northwestern part, in the Mattabesset River basin. There, the quality of water has been affected by domestic and animal wastes, which cause high dissolved-solids concentrations, high nitrate and phosphate loads and high bacterial counts. In the entire area, high nitrate in groundwater occur only locally, and its presence in an individual water supply is chiefly a function of its proximity to sources of contamination, of well construction, and of thickness of overburden. Thirty

  12. Statistical prediction of seasonal discharge in the Naryn basin for water resources planning in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, Heiko; Gafurov, Abror; Gerlitz, Lars; Unger-Shayesteh, Katy; Vorogushyn, Sergiy; Merkushkin, Aleksandr; Merz, Bruno

    2016-04-01

    The semi-arid regions of Central Asia crucially depend on the water resources supplied by the mountainous areas of the Tien-Shan and Pamirs. During the summer months the snow and glacier melt water of the rivers originating in the mountains provides the only water resource available for agricultural production but also for water collection in reservoirs for energy production in winter months. Thus a reliable seasonal forecast of the water resources is crucial for a sustainable management and planning of water resources.. In fact, seasonal forecasts are mandatory tasks of national hydro-meteorological services in the region. Thus this study aims at a statistical forecast of the seasonal water availability, whereas the focus is put on the usage of freely available data in order to facilitate an operational use without data access limitations. The study takes the Naryn basin as a test case, at which outlet the Toktogul reservoir stores the discharge of the Naryn River. As most of the water originates form snow and glacier melt, a statistical forecast model should use data sets that can serve as proxy data for the snow masses and snow water equivalent in late spring, which essentially determines the bulk of the seasonal discharge. CRU climate data describing the precipitation and temperature in the basin during winter and spring was used as base information, which was complemented by MODIS snow cover data processed through ModSnow tool, discharge during the spring and also GRACE gravimetry anomalies. For the construction of linear forecast models monthly as well as multi-monthly means over the period January to April were used to predict the seasonal mean discharge of May-September at the station Uchterek. An automatic model selection was performed in multiple steps, whereas the best models were selected according to several performance measures and their robustness in a leave-one-out cross validation. It could be shown that the seasonal discharge can be predicted with

  13. Variability of basin scale water resources indicators derived from global hydrological and land surface models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Micha; Blyth, Eleanor; Schellekens, Jaap

    2016-04-01

    Global hydrological and land-surface models are becoming increasingly available, and as the resolution of these improves, as well how hydrological processes are represented, so does their potential. These offer consistent datasets at the global scale, which can be used to establish water balances and derive policy relevant indicators in medium to large basins, including those that are poorly gauged. However, differences in model structure, model parameterisation, and model forcing may result in quite different indicator values being derived, depending on the model used. In this paper we explore indicators developed using four land surface models (LSM) and five global hydrological models (GHM). Results from these models have been made available through the Earth2Observe project, a recent research initiative funded by the European Union 7th Research Framework. All models have a resolution of 0.5 arc degrees, and are forced using the same WATCH-ERA-Interim (WFDEI) meteorological re-analysis data at a daily time step for the 32 year period from 1979 to 2012. We explore three water resources indicators; an aridity index, a simplified water exploitation index; and an indicator that calculates the frequency of occurrence of root zone stress. We compare indicators derived over selected areas/basins in Europe, Colombia, Southern Africa, the Indian Subcontinent and Australia/New Zealand. The hydrological fluxes calculated show quite significant differences between the nine models, despite the common forcing dataset, with these differences reflected in the indicators subsequently derived. The results show that the variability between models is related to the different climates types, with that variability quite logically depending largely on the availability of water. Patterns are also found in the type of models that dominate different parts of the distribution of the indicator values, with LSM models providing lower values, and GHM models providing higher values in some

  14. Resource Assessment of the In-Place and Potentially Recoverable Deep Natural Gas Resource of the Onshore Interior Salt Basins, North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2006-09-30

    The objectives of the study were: (1) to perform resource assessment of the thermogenic gas resources in deeply buried (>15,000 ft) natural gas reservoirs of the onshore interior salt basins of the north central and northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas through petroleum system identification, characterization and modeling; and (2) to use the petroleum system based resource assessment to estimate the volume of the deep thermogenic gas resource that is available for potential recovery and to identify those areas in the interior salt basins with high potential for this thermogenic gas resource. Petroleum source rock analysis and petroleum system characterization and modeling, including thermal maturation and hydrocarbon expulsion modeling, have shown that the Upper Jurassic Smackover Formation served as the regional petroleum source rock in the North Louisiana Salt Basin, Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin. Thus, the estimates of the total hydrocarbons, oil, and gas generated and expelled are based on the assumption that the Smackover Formation is the main petroleum source rock in these basins and subbasins. The estimate of the total hydrocarbons generated for the North Louisiana Salt Basin in this study using a petroleum system approach compares favorably with the total volume of hydrocarbons generated published by Zimmermann (1999). In this study, the estimate is 2,870 billion barrels of total hydrocarbons generated using the method of Schmoker (1994), and the estimate is 2,640 billion barrels of total hydrocarbons generated using the Platte River software application. The estimate of Zimmermann (1999) is 2,000 to 2,500 billion barrels of total hydrocarbons generated. The estimate of gas generated for this basin is 6,400 TCF using the Platte River software application, and 12,800 TCF using the method of Schmoker (1994). Barnaby (2006) estimated that the total gas volume generated for this basin ranges from 4,000 to 8,000 TCF. Seventy

  15. Managing large energy and mineral resources (EMR) projects in challenging environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanmeka, Arpamart

    The viability of energy mineral resources (EMR) construction projects is contingent upon the state of the world economic climate. Oil sands projects in Alberta, Canada exemplify large EMR projects that are highly sensitive to fluctuations in the world market. Alberta EMR projects are constrained by high fixed production costs and are also widely recognized as one of the most challenging construction projects to successfully deliver due to impacts from extreme weather conditions, remote locations and issues with labor availability amongst others. As indicated in many studies, these hardships strain the industry's ability to execute work efficiently, resulting in declining productivity and mounting cost and schedule overruns. Therefore, to enhance the competitiveness of Alberta EMR projects, project teams are targeting effective management strategies to enhance project performance and productivity by countering the uniquely challenging environment in Alberta. The main purpose of this research is to develop industry wide benchmarking tailored to the specific constraints and challenges of Alberta. Results support quantitative assessments and identify the root causes of project performance and ineffective field productivity problems in the heavy industry sector capital projects. Customized metrics produced from the data collected through a web-based survey instrument were used to quantitatively assess project performance in the following dimensions: cost, schedule, change, rework, safety, engineering and construction productivity and construction practices. The system enables the industry to measure project performance more accurately, get meaningful comparisons, while establishing credible norms specific to Alberta projects. Data analysis to identify the root cause of performance problems was conducted. The analysis of Alberta projects substantiated lessons of previous studies to create an improved awareness of the abilities of Alberta-based companies to manage their

  16. Assessment of undiscovered conventionally recoverable petroleum resources of the Arabian-Iranian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Charles D.; Klemme, H. Douglas; Coury, Anny B.

    1982-01-01

    The estimates of undiscovered conventionally recoverable petroleum resources in the Arabian-Iranian basin at probability levels of 95 percent, 5 percent, and statistical mean are for oil (in billions of barrels): 72, 337, and 174; and for gas (in trillions of cubic feet): 299, 1792, and 849. The occurrence of petroleum can be accounted for in five definitive geological settings or plays. The assessment of undiscovered resource potential assumes that the new discoveries will expand the occurrence of petroleum in these basic plays; no additional plays with significant petroleum potential were recognized. The five plays listed by geologic age are: (I) Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary, (II) Lower and Middle Cretaceous sandstone, (III) Lower and Middle Cretaceous limestone, (IV) Jurassic, and (V) Permian. The Permian play, located in the south-central Arabian Gulf region and extending northeast-southwest from southern Iran to the Ar Rub' al Khali in Saudi Arabia, accounts for over four-fifths of the mean estimate of undiscovered gas. The remainder of the gas is divided about equally among the other four plays. The Jurassic play, located on the south side of the Arabian Gulf, accounts for slightly less than one-third of the estimated undiscovered oil, which is split equally between Saudi Arabia and Iraq. The Lower and Middle Cretaceous limestone play is located in the southern Gulf region and accounts for about one-fifth of the undiscovered oil, most of which is located in Saudi Arabia and the remainder in the United Arab Emirates. The Lower and Middle Cretaceous sandstone play is centralized in Kuwait at the head of the Arabian Gulf with significant potential extending to the northwest in Iraq; the play accounts for about one-third of the undiscovered oil, the great majority of which is estimated to be in Iraq with the remainder divided between Saudi Arabia and Kuwait. The upper Cretaceous-Tertiary play is located in the Zagros fold belt of Iran and Iraq and accounts for

  17. Coastal deposits of heavy mineral sands; Global significance and US resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Bleiwas, Donald I.; Bedinger, George M.; Ellefsen, Karl J.; Shah, Anjana K.

    2016-01-01

    Ancient and modern coastal deposits of heavy mineral sands (HMS) are the principal source of several heavy industrial minerals, with mining and processing operations on every continent except Antarctica. For example, HMS deposits are the main source of titanium feedstock for the titanium dioxide (TiO2) pigments industry, obtained from the minerals ilmenite (Fe2+TiO3), rutile (TiO2) and leucoxene (an alteration product of ilmenite). HMS deposits are also the principal source of zircon (ZrSiO4), from which zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) is obtained for uses mostly in refractory products. Sometimes monazite [(Ce,La,Nd,Th)PO4] is recovered as a byproduct mineral, sought for its rare earth elements and thorium (Ault and others, 2016; Sengupta and Van Gosen, 2016; Van Gosen and Tulsidas, 2016). 

  18. Hydrological modeling as a tool for sustainable water resources management: a case study of the Awash River Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tessema, Selome M.

    2011-07-01

    The growing pressure on the world's fresh water resources is enforced by population growth that leads to conflicts between demands for different purposes. A main concern on water use is the conflict between the environment and other purposes like hydropower, irrigation for agriculture and domestic and industry water supply, where total flows are diverted without releasing water for ecological conservation. As a consequence, some of the common problems related to water faced by many countries are shortage, quality deterioration and flood impacts. Hence, utilization of integrated water resources management in a single system, which is built up by river basin, is an optimum way to handle the question of water. However, in many areas, when planning for balancing water demands major gaps exist on baseline knowledge of water resources. In order to bridge these gaps, hydro-logical models are among the available tools used to acquire adequate understanding of the characteristics of the river basin. Apart from forecasting and predicting the quantity and quality of water for decision makers, some models could also help in predicting the impacts of natural and anthropogenic changes on water resources and also in quantifying the spatial and temporal availability of the resources. However, main challenges lie in choosing and utilizing these models for a specific basin and managerial plan. In this study, an analysis of the different types of models and application of a selected model to characterize the Awash River basin, located in Ethiopia, is presented. The results from the modeling procedure and the performance of the model are discussed. The different possible sources of uncertainties in the modeling process are also discussed. The results indicate dissimilar predictions in using different methods; hence proper care must be taken in selecting and employing available methods for a specific watershed prior to presenting the results to decision makers

  19. Policy Recommendations for the Argentinean Water Resources National Plan Related to Extreme Events in Forested Mountain Basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urciuolo, A. B.; Iturraspe, R. J.; Lofiego, R.

    2007-05-01

    In the framework of activities developed by COHIFE (Federal Water Resource Council), Argentina is preparing the Water Resources National Plan. To achieve an integrating project and considering that Argentina is a federal country, each province is working on the basis of its own Water Resources Provincial Plan. The first step of the plan consists in the identification of problems, with the purpose of further defining solutions based on structural and non structural actions. The general perception of the stakeholders involved in the plan development is the necessity of the analysis of strategies for the integrated water resource management Although a first document for water policy, named "Principios Rectores de Política Hídrica" is available, there are not specific strategies for integrated management of water and land use oriented to extreme events. In other way, there are a lack of policies oriented to Mountain basin with forest coverage, may be because of most of the population and the economical structure of the country is located on plain regions. This article proposes recommendations for policy to be integrated to the Water Resources National Plan, based on studies developed in a pilot basin representative of the Andean-Patagonia eco-region, in the framework of the EPIC FORCE proyect, financed by the European Union. Project methodology includes basin instrumentation, reconstruction and analysis of extreme events and land-water management practices revision. Climate, flow and sediment Data are available for simulation using the Shetran model on different land use scenarios, including changes in the basin forest coverage. On the basis of the first results of the project, policy guides oriented to fill mentioned policy lacks were defined.

  20. Elements for an integrated resource planning in the framework of river basins: a study for the Cuiaba River Basin; Elementos para um planejamento integrado de recursos no ambito de bacias hidrograficas: um estudo para a bacia do rio Cuiaba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorileo, Ivo Leandro; Bajay, Sergio Valdir [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (NIPE/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico. Dept. de Energia], e-mail: ildorileo@sigmanet.com.br, e-mail: bajay@fem.unicamp.br

    2008-07-01

    A new approach in energy planning in Brazil, IRP - Integrated Resources Planning for River Basins, gathers three main determinants of development: water, electricity and piped gas. This paper argues, briefly, the need of this planning, of indicative character, integrated with the River Basin Plans, and it presents a retrospective analysis concerning water, electricity and LPG demands of the economy sectors from Cuiaba River Basin region, priority elements to aid the prospective studies and to carry out process related to the IRP. (author)

  1. Geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the U.S. portion of the Michigan Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,; Swezey, Christopher S.; Hatch, Joseph R.; Hayba, Daniel O.; Repetski, John E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Anderson, Christopher P.; Schenk, Christopher J.; East, Joseph A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Le, Phuong A.

    2015-01-01

    In 2004, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed an assessment of the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the U.S. portion of the Michigan Basin. For this assessment, the Michigan Basin includes most of the State of Michigan, as well as parts of Illinois, Indiana, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin. The assessment was based on the geologic elements of each of the six total petroleum systems defined in the basin, including (1) hydrocarbon source rocks (source-rock maturation and hydrocarbon generation and migration), (2) reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and (3) hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). Using this geologic framework, the USGS estimated mean technically recoverable undiscovered continuous and conventional resources that total 990 million barrels of oil, 11.4 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 219 million barrels of natural gas liquids.

  2. Targeting Mineral Resources with Remote Sensing and Field Data in the Xiemisitai Area, West Junggar, Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamin R. Mansaray

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Xiemisitai area, West Junggar, Xinjiang, China, is situated at a potential copper mineralization zone in association with small granitic intrusions. In order to identify the alteration zones and mineralization characteristics of the intrusions, Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+ and Quickbird data of the study area were evaluated in mapping lithological units, small intrusions, and alteration zones. False color composites of the first principal component analyses (PCA1, PCA2, and PCA4 in red (R, green (G, and blue (B of the ETM+ image, and relevant hue-saturation-intensity (HSI color model transformations, were performed. This led to the identification of lithologic units and discrimination of granitic intrusions from wall-rocks. A new geological map was generated by integrating the remote sensing results with two internally published local geologic maps and field inspection data. For the selected region, false color composites from PCA and relevant HSI-transformed images of the Quickbird data delineated the details of small intrusions and identified other unknown similar intrusions nearby. Fifteen separate potash-feldspar granites and three separate hornblende biotite granites were identified using ETM+ and Quickbird data. The principal component analysis-based Crosta technique was employed to discriminate alteration minerals. Some of the mapped alteration zones using the Crosta technique agreed very well with the known copper deposits. Field verification led to the discovery of three copper mineralizations and two gold mineralizations for the first time. The results show that the PCA and HSI transformation techniques proved to be robust in processing remote sensing data with moderate to high spatial resolutions. It is concluded that the utilized methods are useful for mapping lithology and the targeting of small intrusion-type mineral resources within the sparsely vegetated regions of Northwest China.

  3. Evaluation of Bayesian Networks in Participatory Water Resources Management, Upper Guadiana Basin, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Bromley

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Stakeholder participation is becoming increasingly important in water resources management. In participatory processes, stakeholders contribute by putting forward their own perspective, and they benefit by enhancing their understanding of the factors involved in decision making. A diversity of modeling tools can be used to facilitate participatory processes. Bayesian networks are well suited to this task for a variety of reasons, including their ability to structure discussions and visual appeal. This research focuses on developing and testing a set of evaluation criteria for public participation. The advantages and limitations of these criteria are discussed in the light of a specific participatory modeling initiative. Modeling work was conducted in the Upper Guadiana Basin in central Spain, where uncontrolled groundwater extraction is responsible for wetland degradation and conflicts between farmers, water authorities, and environmentalists. Finding adequate solutions to the problem is urgent because the implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive requires all aquatic ecosystems to be in a “good ecological state” within a relatively short time frame. Stakeholder evaluation highlights the potential of Bayesian networks to support public participation processes.

  4. Impacts of Overgrazing and Reclamation on Soil Resources in Rangeland Ecosystems in Huailai Basin, Hebei, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hong; HE Wei-ming; JIANG Shi-zhong

    2005-01-01

    The soil constituents and relations between the variation of soil resources and plant communities in three adjacent sites representing the overgrazing, reclamation and comparatively undisturbed communities respectively were quantified and examined in study area in Huailai Basin, Hebei Province, China. There have been significantly greater constituent of C, N, P in the soils of shrubland site. Corg, Ntotal, Navail and Pavail were between 1.18 and 3.90 times more concentrated in the soils of shrubland site in comparison with the other two sites. Although the Ptotal concentration was lower in shrubland soils than in overgrazed rangeland soils, the Pavail concentration, however, was significantly greater in the soils of shrubland site, and increased by 59.1% and even 289.6% in the soils of shrubland site comparing to those in the soils of rangeland and millet field sites. Among the three sites, CV exceeding 40% were found for SO4, Cl, and F ion. The CV of organic carbon also exceeded 40% but only in the soils of millet field site. The highest CV were found for F, SO4 ion in the soils of shrubland and overgrazed rangeland sites, while for Cl and SO4ion in those of millet field site. The results also showed that the introductions of shrubs are of vital importance for the accumulation of soil nutrients and maintenance of soil fertilities, and also for the restoration and reconstruction of desertified ecosystems.

  5. Plausible impact of global climate change on water resources in the Tarim River Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Yaning; XU; Zongxue

    2005-01-01

    Combining the temperature and precipitation data from 77 climatological stations and the climatic and hydrological change data from three headstreams of the Tarim River: Hotan, Yarkant, and Aksu in the study area, the plausible association between climate change and the variability of water resources in the Tarim River Basin in recent years was investigated, the long-term trend of the hydrological time series including temperature, precipitation, and streamflow was detected, and the possible association between the El Ni(n)o/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and these three kinds of time series was tested. The results obtained in this study show that during the past years, the temperature experienced a significant monotonic increase at the speed of 5%, nearly 1℃ rise; the precipitation showed a significant decrease in the 1970s, and a significant increase in the1980s and 1990s, the average annual precipitation was increased with the magnitude of 6.8 mm per decade. A step change occurred in both temperature and precipitation time series around 1986, which may be influenced by the global climate change. Climate change resulted in the increase of the streamflow at the headwater of the Tarim River, but the anthropogenic activities such as over-depletion of the surface water resulted in the decrease of the streamflow at the lower reaches of the Tarim River. The study result also showed that there is no significant association between the ENSO and the temperature, precipitation and streamflow.

  6. 矿产资源评价中的核心问题%Critical issues in mineral resources appraisal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘国成

    2010-01-01

    矿产资源评价是过去几十年里全球地质学家关注的重要领域.在过去的研究中,矿产资源评价的方法学及其相应的统计学技术在理论上取得了明显的进展,统计学技术或主观评估已经成为多元数据综合和资源潜力预测的通用方法.然而,这些方法所得出的估计结果或结论时于国家宏观政策制定、矿产资源管理、商业矿产勘探的实际效果和指导意义非常有限.影响矿产资源评价效果的很多问题还有待于进一步研究,新的基础理论问题需得到进一步解决.为此,就其中几个有关矿产资源评价的最为关键的问题进行了深入的探讨,包括矿产资源的随机性、内在的统计关系、矿产的稀有性、本征地质单元、资源经济转化等.就几个信息综合中的技术问题也做了较为系统的讨论,包括信息增强、空间连续性、数据综合及靶区圈定.最后提出了"动态模型区"的概念,试图为矿产资源评价指出一个新的思考方向.%Mineral resources appraisal has been an important research subject for geoscientists around the world in the past three decades. Significant progress has been made in development of statistical techniques and estimation methodologies for mineral resources. Integration of multiple data sets, either by experts or statistical methods, has become a common practice in estimation of mineral po-tentials. However, real effect of these methodologies is at best very limited in term of uses for government macro policy making, re-source management, and mineral exploration in commercial sectors. Several major problems in data integration remain to be solved in order to achieve significant improvement in the effect of resource estimation. Some critical issues, comidered being critical and funda-mental in mineral resources appraisal, are addressed in this paper. Issues related to randomness of mineral endowment, intrinsic statistical relations, exceptionalness

  7. Technologies of oxygen supply for life support during the development of mineral resources in high altitude areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yingshu; Jia Yanxiang; Wu Tianyi; Deng Ling; Yang Xiong; Liu Wenhai; Zhang Hui

    2013-01-01

    In order to fulfill the needs of life-support oxygen supply during the development of plateau mineral resources,four oxygen supply patterns suitable for the plateau mine in specific environment were developed:tunnel face diffusive oxygen supply,tunnel oxygen-bar car,carried oxygen cylinder and portable oxygen generator.Through the study of safety oxygen supply experiments in low-pressure plateau areas,the mathematical relationship between maximum integration of secure oxygen volume and altitude has been achieved.Oxygen supply safety control should follow this relationship in plateau mines during the time of executing tunnel face or in room air diffusive oxygen supply.The application results of life-support oxygen supplement technologies in the development of mineral resources in high altitude areas show that the oxygen supply for tunneling miners in plateau mines can not only effectively enhance the oxygen saturation,reduce the pulse rate and the breath rate per minute,but also improve various symptoms caused by altitude hypoxia and high-intensity physical labor.

  8. Study on consumption efficiency of soil water resources in the Yellow River Basin based on regional ET structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hao; YANG GuiYu; JIA YangWen; QIN DaYong

    2008-01-01

    Based on the regional water resources character, the concept of soil water resources is first redefined,and then associated with their transfer relationship in the hydrological cycle, Evapotranspiration (ET)-based consumption structure and consumption efficiency of soil water resources are analyzed.According to ET's function in productivity, the consumption efficiency of soil water resources is divided into three classes: high efficient consumption from vegetation transpiration, low efficient consumption from soil evaporation among plants with high vegetation coverage and inefficient consumption from soil evaporation among plants with low vegetation coverage and bare soil evaporation. The high efficient and low efficient consumption were further classified as productive consumption. The ineffi-cient consumption is considered non-productive consumption because it is significant in the whole hydrological cycle process. Finally, according to these categories, and employing a WEP-L distributed hydrological model, this paper analyzes the consumption efficiency of soil water resources in the Yel-low River Basin. The results show that there are 2078.89×108 m3 soil water resources in the whole basin. From the viewpoint of consumption structure, the soil water resources are comprised of 381.89×108 m3 transpiration consumption from vegetation and 1697.09×108 m3 evaporation consumption from soil among plants and bare soil. From the viewpoint of consumption efficiency, soil water resources are composed of 920.11×108 m3 efficient consumption and 1158.86×108 m3 of inefficient consumption. High efficient consumption accounts for 41.5 percent of the total efficient consumption of the whole basin, low efficient for 58.5 percent. Furthermore, consumption efficiency varies by region.Compared with ET from different land use conditions, the whole basin appears to follow the trend of having the greatest proportion of consumption as inefficient consumption, followed by low efficient

  9. The Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral resource maps of the Ajo and Lukeville 1 degree x 2 degrees quadrangles, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Floyd; Tosdal, R.M.; Peterson, J.A.; Cox, D.P.; Miller, R.J.; Klein, D.P.; Theobald, P.K.; Haxel, G.B.; Grubensky, M.J.; Raines, G.L.; Barton, H.N.; Singer, D.A.; Eppinger, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    Encompassing about 21,000 km 2 in southwestern Arizona, the Ajo and Lukeville 1 ? by 2 ? quadrangles have been the subject of mineral resource investigations utilizing field and laboratory studies in the disciplines of geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and Landsat imagery. The results of these studies are published as a folio of maps, figures, and tables, with accompanying discussions. Past mineral production has been limited to copper from the Ajo Mining District. In addition to copper, the quadrangles contain potentially significant resources of gold and silver; a few other commodities, including molybdenum and evaporites, may also exist in the area as appreciable resources. This circular provides background information on the mineral deposits and on the investigations and integrates the information presented in the folio. The bibliography cites references to the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and mineral deposits of the two quadrangles.

  10. Map showing mineral-resource potential of the King Range and Chemise Mountain Instant Study Areas, Humboldt and Mendocino counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, R.J.; Sorg, D.H.; Ohlin, H.N.; Beutner, E.C.

    1981-01-01

    The potential for economic development of energy-related or metallic mineral resources in the King Range and Chemise Mountain Instant Study Areas is low to moderate as indicated by geologic, geophysical, and geochemical investigations.

  11. Aggregate and Mineral Resources, parcel data base attribute; property code, Published in 2006, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Washoe County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Aggregate and Mineral Resources dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2006....

  12. Aggregate and Mineral Resources, Villa Rica, Georgia Mine Locations Map, Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Chattahoochee-Flint Regional Development.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Aggregate and Mineral Resources dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2007. It is...

  13. Research cooperation project on environmentally friendly technology for highly efficient mineral resources extraction and treatment. Detail design for pilot plant (Electrical fabrication)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper prepared plans of the electrical equipment in the detailed design of a pilot plant in the joint research project on the environmental protection technology for highly efficient mineral resource extraction and treatment. (NEDO)

  14. Environment, poverty and health linkages in the Wami River basin: A search for sustainable water resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madulu, Ndalahwa F.

    The Wami Rivers basin is an important area due to its diversified use which benefits a multi-diversity of stakeholders. While large scale irrigated sugar production is the main issue of concern upstream, there are other equally important socio-economic activities which include biodiversity and environmental conservation, domestic water supply, livestock water needs, and fishing. A large water supply project has just been completed downstream of the Wami River to provide water for the Chalinze township and surrounding villages. Other important undertakings include irrigated rice farming in Dakawa area, livestock keeping activities, and the establishment of the Sadani National Park (SANAPA) and the Wami-Mbiki Wildlife Management Area (WMA). The Wami River basin forms significant parts of both the Wami-Mbiki WMA and the SANAPA wildlife conservation areas. Regardless of its importance, the basin is increasingly being degraded through deforestation for agricultural expansion, timber, and more important charcoal making. The basin is also being polluted through disposal of excess molasses from the sugar industry, and use of poisonous substances and herbs in fishing. The worsening environmental condition in the basin has become a health threat to both people in the surrounding villages and wildlife. To a large extent, such changes are intensifying poverty levels among the local population. These changes are raising concerns about the long-term environmental sustainability and health implications of the current water use competition and conflicts in the basin. The purpose of this paper is to examine the main water resource use conflicts and how they affect environmental sustainability in the long-run. It also intends to establish linkages between wildlife management, pastoralism, agricultural activities and how such linkages influence poverty alleviation efforts in the basin. An attempt has been made to examine the environmental and health implications of human activities

  15. Mitigating the Effects of Climate Change on the Water Resources of the Columbia River Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payne, J.T.; Wood, A.W.; Hamlet, A.F.; Palmer, R.N.; Lettenmaier, D.P. [Department of Civil Engineering, 164 Wilcox Hall, P.O. Box 352700, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-2700 (United States)

    2004-07-01

    The potential effects of climate change on the hydrology and water resources of the Columbia River Basin (CRB) were evaluated using simulations from the U.S. Department of Energy and National Center for Atmospheric Research Parallel Climate Model (DOE/NCAR PCM). This study focuses on three climate projections for the 21st century based on a 'business as usual' (BAU) global emissions scenario, evaluated with respect to a control climate scenario based on static 1995 emissions. Time-varying monthly PCM temperature and precipitation changes were statistically downscaled and temporally disaggregated to produce daily forcings that drove a macro-scale hydrologic simulation model of the Columbia River basin at 1/4-degree spatial resolution. For comparison with the direct statistical downscaling approach, a dynamical downscaling approach using a regional climate model (RCM) was also used to derive hydrologic model forcings for 20-year subsets from the PCM control climate (1995-2015) scenario and from the three BAU climate (2040-2060) projections. The statistically downscaled PCM scenario results were assessed for three analysis periods (denoted Periods 1-3: 2010-2039, 2040-2069, 2070-2098) in which changes in annual average temperature were +0.5, +1.3 and +2.1C, respectively, while critical winter season precipitation changes were -3, +5 and +1 percent. For RCM, the predicted temperature change for the 2040-2060 period was +1.2C and the average winter precipitation change was -3 percent, relative to the RCM control climate. Due to the modest changes in winter precipitation, temperature changes dominated the simulated hydrologic effects by reducing winter snow accumulation, thus shifting summer streamflow to the winter. The hydrologic changes caused increased competition for reservoir storage between firm hydropower and instream flow targets developed pursuant to the Endangered Species Act listing of Columbia River salmonids. We examined several alternative

  16. A system dynamics simulation model for sustainable water resources management and agricultural development in the Volta River Basin, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotir, Julius H; Smith, Carl; Brown, Greg; Marshall, Nadine; Johnstone, Ron

    2016-12-15

    In a rapidly changing water resources system, dynamic models based on the notion of systems thinking can serve as useful analytical tools for scientists and policy-makers to study changes in key system variables over time. In this paper, an integrated system dynamics simulation model was developed using a system dynamics modelling approach to examine the feedback processes and interaction between the population, the water resource, and the agricultural production sub-sectors of the Volta River Basin in West Africa. The objective of the model is to provide a learning tool for policy-makers to improve their understanding of the long-term dynamic behaviour of the basin, and as a decision support tool for exploring plausible policy scenarios necessary for sustainable water resource management and agricultural development. Structural and behavioural pattern tests, and statistical test were used to evaluate and validate the performance of the model. The results showed that the simulated outputs agreed well with the observed reality of the system. A sensitivity analysis also indicated that the model is reliable and robust to uncertainties in the major parameters. Results of the business as usual scenario showed that total population, agricultural, domestic, and industrial water demands will continue to increase over the simulated period. Besides business as usual, three additional policy scenarios were simulated to assess their impact on water demands, crop yield, and net-farm income. These were the development of the water infrastructure (scenario 1), cropland expansion (scenario 2) and dry conditions (scenario 3). The results showed that scenario 1 would provide the maximum benefit to people living in the basin. Overall, the model results could help inform planning and investment decisions within the basin to enhance food security, livelihoods development, socio-economic growth, and sustainable management of natural resources.

  17. Study on consumption efficiency of soil water resources in the Yellow River Basin based on regional ET structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Based on the regional water resources character, the concept of soil water resources is first redefined, and then associated with their transfer relationship in the hydrological cycle, Evapotranspiration (ET)-based consumption structure and consumption efficiency of soil water resources are analyzed. According to ET ’s function in productivity, the consumption efficiency of soil water resources is di- vided into three classes: high efficient consumption from vegetation transpiration, low efficient con- sumption from soil evaporation among plants with high vegetation coverage and inefficient consump- tion from soil evaporation among plants with low vegetation coverage and bare soil evaporation. The high efficient and low efficient consumption were further classified as productive consumption. The ineffi- cient consumption is considered non-productive consumption because it is significant in the whole hydrological cycle process. Finally, according to these categories, and employing a WEP-L dis- tributed hydrological model, this paper analyzes the consumption efficiency of soil water resources in the Yel- low River Basin. The results show that there are 2078.89×108 m3 soil water resources in the whole basin. From the viewpoint of consumption structure, the soil water resources are comprised of 381.89×108 m3 transpiration consumption from vegetation and 1697.09×108 m3 evaporation consumption from soil among plants and bare soil. From the viewpoint of consumption efficiency, soil water re- sources are composed of 920.11×108 m3 efficient consumption and 1158.86×108 m3 of inefficient con- sumption. High efficient consumption accounts for 41.5 percent of the total efficient consumption of the whole basin, low efficient for 58.5 percent. Furthermore, consumption efficiency varies by region. Compared with ET from different land use conditions, the whole basin appears to follow the trend of having the greatest proportion of consumption as inefficient consumption

  18. Oil shale resources in the Eocene Green River Formation, Greater Green River Basin, Wyoming, Colorado, and Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed a comprehensive assessment of in-place oil in oil shales in the Eocene Green River in the Greater Green River Basin, Wyoming, Colorado, and Utah. This CD-ROM includes reports, data, and an ArcGIS project describing the assessment. A database was compiled that includes about 47,000 Fischer assays from 186 core holes and 240 rotary drill holes. Most of the oil yield data were analyzed by the former U.S. Bureau of Mines oil shale laboratory in Laramie, Wyoming, and some analyses were made by private laboratories. Location data for 971 Wyoming oil-shale drill holes are listed in a spreadsheet and included in the CD-ROM. Total in-place resources for the three assessed units in the Green River Formation are: (1) Tipton Shale Member, 362,816 million barrels of oil (MMBO), (2) Wilkins Peak Member, 704,991 MMBO, and (3) LaClede Bed of the Laney Member, 377,184 MMBO, for a total of 1.44 trillion barrels of oil in place. This compares with estimated in-place resources for the Piceance Basin of Colorado of 1.53 trillion barrels and estimated in-place resources for the Uinta Basin of Utah and Colorado of 1.32 trillion barrels.

  19. Analysis of Water Resources Supply and Demand and Security of Water Resources Development in Irrigation Regions of the Middle Reaches of the Heihe River Basin, Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Xi-bin; KANG Er-si; CHEN Ren-sheng; ZHAO Wen-zhi; XIAO Sheng-chun; JIN Bo-wen

    2006-01-01

    Based on the data for meteorology, hydrology, soil, planting, vegetation, and socio-economic development of the irrigation region in the middle reaches of the Heihe River basin, Northwest China, the model of balance of water supply and demand in the region was established, and the security of water resource was assessed, from which the results that the effects of unified management of water resources in the Heihe River basin between Gansu Province and Inner Mongolia on regional hydrology are significant with a decrease in water supply diverted from Heihe River and an increase in groundwater extracted. In addition, it was found that the groundwater level has been steadily decreasing due to over pumping and decrease in recharges. In present year (2003), the volume of potential groundwater in the irrigation districts is far small because of the groundwater overdraft; even in the particular regions, there is no availability of groundwater resources for use. By 2003, water supply is not sufficient to meet the water demand in the different irrigation districts, the sustainable development and utilization of water resources are not secured, and the water supply crisis occurs in Pingchuan irrigation district. Achieving water security for the sustainable development of society, agriculture, economy, industry, and livelihoods while maintaining or improving the abilities of the management and planning of water resources, determining of the reasonable percentage between water supply and groundwater utilization and water saving in agricultural irrigation are taken into account. If this does not occur, it is feared that the present performance of water development and planning may further aggravate the problem of scarcities of water resources and further damage the fragile ecological system.

  20. Remote sensing for non-renewable resources - Satellite and airborne multiband scanners for mineral exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Alexander F. H.

    1986-01-01

    The application of remote sensing techniques to mineral exploration involves the use of both spatial (morphological) as well as spectral information. This paper is directed toward a discussion of the uses of spectral image information and emphasizes the newest airborne and spaceborne sensor developments involving imaging spectrometers.

  1. Economics of exhaustible resources. I. The peculiar problems of mineral wealth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hotelling, H.

    1931-04-01

    The discussion is confined in scope to absolutely irreplaceable assets. Topics include peculiar problems of mineral wealth, free competition, maximum social value and state regulation, monopoly, value of a mine monopoly, retardation of production under monopoly, price effects from cumulated production, and the author's mathematically derived optimum solutions. (PCS)

  2. Oil, Gas and Minerals: The Impact of Resource-Dependence and Governance on Sustainable Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Carbonnier (Gilles); N. Wagner (Natascha)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractIt has often been argued that oil, gas and minerals may have a negative impact on development as measured by income per capita. This does not say much about sustainability, which is critical for developing countries whose economic growth derives primarily from the exploitation of exhaust

  3. Identification of mineral resources in Afghanistan-Detecting and mapping resource anomalies in prioritized areas using geophysical and remote sensing (ASTER and HyMap) data

    Science.gov (United States)

    : King, Trude V. V.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Hubbard, Bernard E.; Drenth, Benjamin J.

    2011-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations (TFBSO) natural resources revitalization activities in Afghanistan (Peters and others, 2011), three new datasets have been collected, compiled, and analyzed. These data have been used to more fully evaluate the areas of interest (AOIs; fig. 1 ) where, on the basis of previous U.S.S.R. and Afghanistan studies, the opportunity for early economic development of a number of different mineral, commodity, and deposit types had been identified (Peters and others, 2007; Peters and others, 2011). The new data compilations include (1) regional magnetic and gravity data for use in the characterization of subsurface composition and structure (Sweeney and others, 2006a,b; Ashan and others, 2007; Sweeney and others, 2007; Ashan and others, 2008; Shenwary and others, 2011), (2) Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data to identify and evaluate surficial alteration patterns related to industrial minerals and other selected targets, and (3) HyMap imaging spectrometer data for characterization and mapping of surficial mineralogy (Cocks and others, 1998; Kokaly and others, 2008; Peters and others, 2011). These datasets have served as fundamental building blocks for the resource evaluation by Peters and others (2011).

  4. Searching for a global reserves standard - The United Nations Framework Classification for Fossil Energy and Mineral Reserves and Resources 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch-Bell, Michael

    2010-09-15

    The UNFC-2009 applies to fossil energy and mineral reserves and resources located on or below the Earth's surface and is intended to serve the needs for classification at a global level for governments, for industry and for financial reporting. UNFC-2009 is a generic system in which quantities are classified on the basis of the three fundamental criteria of economic and social viability (E), field project status and feasibility (F), and geological knowledge (G), using a numerical coding system. The aim of this paper is to explore whether the UNFC-2009 can meet the needs of all internal and external stakeholders.

  5. Protection of landowners' rights in terms of the Mineral and Petroleum Resources Development Act 28 of 2002 / Erasmus LJ.

    OpenAIRE

    Erasmus, Lourens Johannes.

    2011-01-01

    Since the enactment of the Mineral and Petroleum Resources Development Act 28 of 2002 (MPRDA) a fundamental conflict arose between the rights of a holder of either a prospecting or a mining right, and that of a landowner. On the one hand this can be explained by having regard to the impact the granting of a prospecting or a mining right may have on the rights of the landowner to whose land such a right relates. On the other hand, section 25 of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa,...

  6. Mineral provinces and matter provenance of the surficial sediments in the western Philippine Sea: implication for modern sedimentation in West Pacific marginal basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Xiangwen; YAN Quanshu; SHI Xuefa; WANG Kunshan; JIANG Xiaoli

    2007-01-01

    The characteristics and distribution patterns of detrital minerals (0.063~0.125 mm) in marine sediments provide a significant indicator for the identification of the origin of sediment.The detrital mineral composition of 219 surface sediment samples was analysed to identify the distribution of sediments within the western Philippine Sea. The area can be divided into three mineral provinces: (Ⅰ) province east of the Philippine Trench, the detrital minerals in this province are mainly composed of calcareous or siliceous organisms, with the addition of volcanogenic minerals from an adjacent island arc; (Ⅱ) middle mineral province, clastic minerals including feldspar, quartz and colorless volcanic glass, sourced from seamounts with intermediate-acid volcanic rock, or erupting intermediate-acid volcano; (Ⅲ) province west of the Palau-Kyūshū Ridge, the matter provenance within this province is complex; the small quantity of feldspar and quartz may be sourced from seamounts or erupting volcano with intermediate-acid composition, with a component of volcanic scoria sourced from a volcano erupting on the Palau-Kyūshū Ridge. it is suggested that, (1) Biogenic debris of the study area is closely related to water depth, with the amount of biogenic debris controlled by carbonate lysocline. (2) Volcaniclastic matter derived from the adjacent island arc can be entrained by oceanic currents and transported towards the abyssal basin over a short distance. The weathering products of volcanic rocks of the submarine plateau (e.g.,Benham Plateau) and adjacent ridges provide an important source of detrital sedimentation, and the influence scope of them is constrained by the intensity of submarine weathering. (3) Terrigenous sediments from the continent of Asia and the adjacent Philippine island arc have little influence on the sedimentation of this study area, and the felsic mineral component is probably sourced from volcanic seamounts of intermediate-acid composition.

  7. GIS-based identification of areas with mineral resource potential for six selected deposit groups, Bureau of Land Management Central Yukon Planning Area, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, James V.; Karl, Susan M.; Labay, Keith A.; Shew, Nora B.; Granitto, Matthew; Hayes, Timothy S.; Mauk, Jeffrey L.; Schmidt, Jeanine M.; Todd, Erin; Wang, Bronwen; Werdon, Melanie B.; Yager, Douglas B.

    2015-01-01

    This study, covering the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Central Yukon Planning Area (CYPA), Alaska, was prepared to aid BLM mineral resource management planning. Estimated mineral resource potential and certainty are mapped for six selected mineral deposit groups: (1) rare earth element (REE) deposits associated with peralkaline to carbonatitic intrusive igneous rocks, (2) placer and paleoplacer gold, (3) platinum group element (PGE) deposits associated with mafic and ultramafic intrusive igneous rocks, (4) carbonate-hosted copper deposits, (5) sandstone uranium deposits, and (6) tin-tungsten-molybdenum-fluorspar deposits associated with specialized granites. These six deposit groups include most of the strategic and critical elements of greatest interest in current exploration.

  8. Water resources of the Waccasassa River Basin and adjacent areas, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G.F.; Snell, L.J.

    1978-01-01

    This map report was prepared in cooperation with the Southwest Florida Water Management District which, with the Waccasassa River Basin Board, had jurisdiction over waters within the Waccasassa River basin, the coastal areas adjacent to the basin, and other adjacent areas outside the basin. New water management district boundaries, effective January 1977, place most of the Waccasassa River basin in the Suwannee River Water Management District. The purpose of the report is to provide water information for consideration in land-use and water development which is accelerating, especially in the northeastern part of the study area. It is based largely on existing data in the relatively undeveloped area. Of the total area included in the topographic drainage basin for the Waccasassa River about 72 percent is in Levy County, 18 percent in Alachua County, 9 percent in Gilchrist County, and 1 percent in Marion County. The elongated north-south drainage basin is approximately 50 mi in length, averages 13 mi in width, and lies between the Suwannee River, the St. Johns River, and the Withlacoochee River basins. (Woodard-USGS)

  9. Regional mapping methods using ASTER data to map minerals in the U.S. Basin and Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, J. C.

    2011-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is currently mapping minerals associated with hydrothermal alteration in a study area that covers most of the U.S. Basin and Range. The study area was mapped using AST_L1B radiance data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER). ASTER measures reflected radiation in three bands in the 0.52-0.86 μm wavelength region (VNIR); six bands in the 1.6-2.43 μm wavelength region (SWIR); and five bands of emitted radiation in the 8.125-11.65 μm wavelength region (TIR) with 15 m, 30 m, and 90 m resolution, respectively. ASTER VNIR and SWIR radiance data were calibrated to reflectance data using ACORN atmospheric correction software. TIR radiance data were calibrated to emissivity data using atmospheric removal and emissivity normalization algorithms in ENVI. Rocks containing hydrothermal silica, calcite-dolomite, epidote-chlorite, alunite-kaolinite, and sericite were mapped using Interactive Data Language (IDL) logical operators. IDL logical operators string together band thresholds and band ratios to map spectral features of minerals. ASTER SWIR band ratios are used in IDL logical operators to map Al-O-H spectral absorption features of alunite, kaolinite and sericite. The ASTER SWIR 4/5 ratio maps the 2.165 μm spectral absorption feature in alunite and kaolinite, and the ASTER SWIR 4/6 and 7/6 ratios map the 2.2 μm spectral absorption feature exhibited in alunite, kaolinite and sericite. Hydrothermal silica was mapped using ASTER SWIR and ASTER TIR band ratios. The ASTER SWIR band ratio 4/7 is typically higher for hydrothermal silica-rich rocks which have lower overall SWIR reflectance in the 2.0 to 2.4 μm region than non-hydrothermal silica-rich rocks due to residual molecular water or an O-H absorption feature spanning 2.26 to 2.4 μm. The ASTER TIR band ratio 13/12 maps the 9.09 μm quartz restralen absorption feature. Thus, silica-rich rocks were mapped using the TIR emissivity data and hydrothermal

  10. Proceedings of the Colorado River Basin Science and Resource Management Symposium, November 18-20, 2008, Scottsdale, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Theodore S.; Hamill, John F.; Bennett, Glenn E.; Coggins,, Lewis G.; Grams, Paul E.; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Kubly, Dennis M.; Ralston, Barbara E.

    2010-01-01

    Since the 1980s, four major science and restoration programs have been developed for the Colorado River Basin to address primarily the conservation of native fish and other wildlife pursuant to the Endangered Species Act (ESA): (1) Recovery Implementation Program for Endangered Fish Species in the Upper Colorado River Basin (commonly called the Upper Colorado River Endangered Fish Recovery Program) (1988); (2) San Juan River Basin Recovery Implementation Program (1992); (3) Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program (1997); and (4) Lower Colorado River Multi-Species Conservation Program (2005). Today, these four programs, the efforts of which span the length of the Colorado River, have an increasingly important influence on water management and resource conservation in the basin. The four efforts involve scores of State, Federal, and local agencies; Native American Tribes; and diverse stakeholder representatives. The programs have many commonalities, including similar and overlapping goals and objectives; comparable resources and threats to those resources; and common monitoring, research, and restoration strategies. In spite of their commonalities, until recently there had been no formal opportunity for information exchange among the programs. To address this situation, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) worked in coordination with the four programs and numerous Federal and State agencies to organize the first Colorado River Basin Science and Resource Management Symposium, which took place in Scottsdale, AZ, in November 2008. The symposium's primary purpose was to promote an exchange of information on research and management activities related to the restoration and conservation of the Colorado River and its major tributaries. A total of 283 managers, scientists, and stakeholders attended the 3-day symposium, which included 87 presentations and 27 posters. The symposium featured plenary talks by experts on a variety of topics, including overviews of the four

  11. GIS-based Geospatial Infrastructure of Water Resource Assessment for Supporting Oil Shale Development in Piceance Basin of Northwestern Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Wei [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States) Dept. of Geology and Geological Engineering; Minnick, Matthew D [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States) Dept. of Geology and Geological Engineering; Mattson, Earl D [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Geza, Mengistu [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States) Dept. of Cilvil and Environmental Engineering; Murray, Kyle E. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States) Oklahoma Geological Survey

    2015-04-01

    Oil shale deposits of the Green River Formation (GRF) in Northwestern Colorado, Southwestern Wyoming, and Northeastern Utah may become one of the first oil shale deposits to be developed in the U.S. because of their richness, accessibility, and extensive prior characterization. Oil shale is an organic-rich fine-grained sedimentary rock that contains significant amounts of kerogen from which liquid hydrocarbons can be produced. Water is needed to retort or extract oil shale at an approximate rate of three volumes of water for every volume of oil produced. Concerns have been raised over the demand and availability of water to produce oil shale, particularly in semiarid regions where water consumption must be limited and optimized to meet demands from other sectors. The economic benefit of oil shale development in this region may have tradeoffs within the local and regional environment. Due to these potential environmental impacts of oil shale development, water usage issues need to be further studied. A basin-wide baseline for oil shale and water resource data is the foundation of the study. This paper focuses on the design and construction of a centralized geospatial infrastructure for managing a large amount of oil shale and water resource related baseline data, and for setting up the frameworks for analytical and numerical models including but not limited to three-dimensional (3D) geologic, energy resource development systems, and surface water models. Such a centralized geospatial infrastructure made it possible to directly generate model inputs from the same database and to indirectly couple the different models through inputs/outputs. Thus ensures consistency of analyses conducted by researchers from different institutions, and help decision makers to balance water budget based on the spatial distribution of the oil shale and water resources, and the spatial variations of geologic, topographic, and hydrogeological Characterization of the basin. This endeavor

  12. A CO2-Silica Geothermometer for Low Temperature Geothermal Resource Assessment, with Application to Resources in the Safford Basin, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witcher, James C.; Stone, Claudia

    1983-11-01

    Geothermics is the study of the earth's heat energy, it's affect on subsurface temperature distribution, it's physical and chemical sources, and it's role in dynamic geologic processes. The term, geothermometry, is applied to the determination of equilibrium temperatures of natural chemical systems, including rock, mineral, and liquid phases. An assemblage of minerals or a chemical system whose phase composition is a function of temperature and pressure can be used as a geothermometer. Thus a geothermometer is useful to determine the formation temperature of rock or the last equilibrium temperature of a flowing aqueous solution such as ground water and hydrothermal fluids.

  13. Heat flow in Railroad Valley, Nevada and implications for geothermal resources in the south-central Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C.F.; Sass, J.H.

    2006-01-01

    The Great Basin is a province of high average heat flow (approximately 90 mW m-2), with higher values characteristic of some areas and relatively low heat flow (Low. There is hydrologie and thermal evidence that the Eureka Low results from a relatively shallow, hydrologically controlled heat sink associated with interbasin water flow in the Paleozoic carbonate aquifers. Evaluating this hypothesis and investigating the thermal state of the Eureka Low at depth is a high priority for the US Geological Survey as it prepares a new national geothermal resource assessment. Part of this investigation is focused on Railroad Valley, the site of the largest petroleum reservoirs in Nevada and one of the few locations within the Eureka Low with a known geothermal system. Temperature and thermal conductivity data have been acquired from wells in Railroad Valley in order to determine heat flow in the basin. The results reveal a complex interaction of cooling due to shallow ground-water flow, relatively low (49 to 76 mW m-2) conductive heat flow at depth in most of the basin, and high (up to 234 mW m-2) heat flow associated with the 125??C geothermal system that encompasses the Bacon Flat and Grant Canyon oil fields. The presence of the Railroad Valley geothermal resource within the Eureka Low may be reflect the absence of deep ground-water flow sweeping heat out of the basin. If true, this suggests that other areas in the carbonate aquifer province may contain deep geothermal resources that are masked by ground-water flow.

  14. Mineral-resource assessments in Alaska; background information to accompany maps and reports about the geology and undiscovered-mineral-resource potential of the Mount Katmai Quadrangle and adjacent parts of the Naknek and Afognak quadrangles, Alaska Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehle, J.R.; Church, S.E.; Detterman, R.L.; Miller, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    Geologic and geochemical field studies were carded out from 1983 to 1987 in the Mount Katmai l?x2 ? quadrangle and adjoining region, at the northeast end of the Alaska Peninsula. The region is nearly entirely within Katmai National Park and Preserve and has had almost no mineral production, so prior to this study there were few data by which to assess the mineral potential of the region. This report describes the folio of publications that have resulted from the study: geologic maps, geochemical results, fossil identifications, radiometric rock ages, and an assessment of the undiscovered-mineral-resource potential of the region. The Katmai region is inferred to potentially have three types of undiscovered mineral deposits: porphyry copper (molybdenum), precious-metal vein, and hot-springs gold. These deposit types occur elsewhere on the Alaska Peninsula in similar geologic units. Evidence suggesting their occurrence in the Katmai region is the presence of trace amounts of metals typically associated with these kinds of deposits in bedrock of certain tracts and in sediments of streams draining those tracts. Magma to provide heat, fractures to provide pathways for mineralizing fluids, and altered rock are required by genetic models of these deposit types. Such features do occur in the Katmai tracts. Confirmation of any mineral deposit in the Katmai region requires detailed follow-up sampling and acquisition of subsurface information, which is beyond the scope of this study. However, producing porphyry deposits are unknown elsewhere on the Alaska Peninsula in similar rocks, so if any such deposits occur in the Katmai region, they are likely to be few in number. Conversely, vein deposits are typically small in size so there may be several of such deposits. The properties and thermal history of the sedimentary rocks that could serve as reservoirs for oil or gas are unfavorable in adjacent regions. Thus the potential of the Katmai region for producible quantities of

  15. 黔西南二叠纪陆缘拉分盆地构造岩相学与锑金多矿种成矿%Tectonics - lithofacies and mineralization of Sb - Au mineral deposits in the Southwest Guizhou apart- pull basin on the margin of Yangtze massif

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方维萱

    2011-01-01

    The author believes that epicontinental sea in Yunnan, Guizhou and Guangxi province belongs to a multiple tectonic regime convert area, and formed a series of coupled and conversion pattern of conversion basins and orogenic belts - sedimentation basin - island arc belt. Permian continental margin of southwest Guizhou pull - apart basin, developed in the passive continental margin on the Yangtze block. Second level sedimentary basins are controlled by NE and NW trend synsedimentary fault belts, which is a typical pull - apart basin. Among them, the third level hydrothermal depositional basins are controlled by pull - apart fault and composite ancient hidden hill; the manganese ore belt is controlled by the third level ditch hydrothermal depositional basins,which is formed in the results of pulled apart of syngenetic faults . In Qinglong area, volcanic rocks developed all kinds of body development phase, the water flow blocked by the increasement of volcanic material together with the ancient uplifts formed a gulf basin ( barrier lake) , which provide basic conditions that the volcanic volcanic hydrothermal filtered ore - forming materials from basalt and provided ore - bearing hydrothermal. Second level sedimentary basins, third level ditch hydrothermal depositional basins and the Gulf basins may control ore minerals of the ore field. Gold, antimony, mercury, thallium, manganese, copper, realgar, fluorite, pyrite - rich ore and coal resources ocuur in the third level sedimentary basins.%文章认为滇黔桂陆表海域属于多重构造体制转换区,形成了系列的转换盆地、造山带—沉积盆地—岛弧带耦合与转换格局.黔西南二叠纪陆缘拉分盆地,发育在扬子地块被动大陆边缘上.二级沉积盆地受北东向和北西向同生断裂带控制,属于典型拉分盆地.其中,三级热水沉积盆地受同生断裂带交汇部位拉分断陷和复合式古潜山控制;同生断裂拉分断陷形成了三级台

  16. Study of mineral water resources from the Eastern Carpathians using stable isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdas, Dana A; Cuna, Stela M; Berdea, Petre; Balas, Gabriela; Cuna, Cornel; Dordai, Edina; Falub, Mihaela C

    2009-08-30

    The Eastern Carpathians contain many mineral water springs that feed famous Romanian health resorts such as Borsec, Biborteni and Vatra Dornei. These waters have been used for their different therapeutic effects. In this work, mineral and spring waters from these Romanian regions were investigated by means of chemical and isotopic (deltaD and delta(18)O) analyses in order to understand the recharge mechanisms and also to determine their origins. Most of the investigated springs are of meteoric origin, having the average deuterium content of the local meteoric water. The higher (18)O content with respect to the Meteoric Water Line (MWL) indicated an exchange reaction with crystalline igneous rocks at depth and with other rocks that the water encounters on its journey back to the surface.

  17. THE SCARCITY-ABUNDANCE RELATIONSHIP OF MINERAL RESOURCES INTRODUCING SOME SUSTAINTABLE ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ ANTONIO ESPI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El Planeta posee un gran número de concentraciones de minerales. Sin embargo, el bajo precio asignado a estos recursos y los principios de la minería sostenible, a corto plazo, pueden producir limitaciones en la exploración y en la extracción de estos recursos, que en un futuro inmediato, sin duda, afectarán al suministro de los minerales. La verdadera contabilidad de los recursos naturales no renovables ha de hacerse introduciendo los valores sin mercado provocados por su explotación que hasta ahora no habían sido contabilizados. Las herramientas de gestión ambiental (fundamentalmente el Análisis Exergético y el Análisis de Ciclo de Vida, aplicados a la producción mineral son instrumentos para alcanzar este fin, tal como se expresa a continuación.

  18. Geologic and mineral and water resources investigations in western Colorado using ERTS-1 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knepper, D. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Most of the geologic information in ERTS-1 imagery can be extracted from bulk processed black and white transparencies by a skilled interpreter using standard photogeologic techniques. In central and western Colorado, the detectability of lithologic contacts on ERTS-1 imagery is closely related to the time of year the imagery was acquired. Geologic structures are the most readily extractable type of geologic information contained in ERTS images. Major tectonic features and associated minor structures can be rapidly mapped, allowing the geologic setting of a large region to be quickly accessed. Trends of geologic structures in younger sedimentary appear to strongly parallel linear trends in older metamorphic and igneous basement terrain. Linears and color anomalies mapped from ERTS imagery are closely related to loci of known mineralization in the Colorado mineral belt.

  19. Assessment of Impacts of Climate Change on the Water Resources of the Transboundary Jhelum River Basin of Pakistan and India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Mahmood

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan’s economy is significantly reliant on agriculture. However, Pakistan is included in the most water-stressed countries in the world, and its water resources are considerably vulnerable to climate variability and climate change. Therefore, in the present study, the water resources of the Jhelum River basin, which provides water to 6 million hectares of land of Pakistan and hydropower production, were assessed under the scenarios A2 and B2 of HadCM3. A hydrological model, Hydrologic Modeling System (HEC-HMS, was set up, calibrated, and validated for the Jhelum basin, and then streamflow was simulated for three future periods: 2011–2040, 2041–2070, and 2071–2099. The simulated streamflow of each period was compared with the simulated streamflow of the baseline period (1971–2000 to find the changes in the following indicators: mean flow, low flow, median flow, high flow, and center-of-volume dates (CVDs. The results of the study showed an increase of 10%–15% in the mean annual flow as compared to the baseline flow at the end of this century. Winter, spring, and autumn showed an increase in streamflow at most of the sites in all three periods. However, summer (the monsoon season in the basin showed decreased streamflow at most of the sites. Maximum increase at Azad Pattan was projected in winter in the 2080s, with about 37%–39% increase in flow under both scenarios. Low and median flows were projected to increase, but a decline in high flow was detected in the future under both scenarios. It was also concluded that half of the annual flow in the basin will pass by the Azad Pattan site one week earlier than it does now. On the whole, the Jhelum basin would face more temporal and magnitudinal variations in high, low, and mean flows relative to present conditions. This shows that without a consideration of climate change impacts, proper utilization and management of water resources in the basin will be more difficult.

  20. Mineral resource potential map of the John Muir Wilderness, Fresno, Inyo, Madera, and Mono counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Bray, E.A.; Dellinger, D.A.; Diggles, M.F.; Oliver, H.W.; Johnson, F.L.; Thurber, H.K.; Morris, R.W.; Perers, T.J.; Lindsey, D.S.

    1982-01-01

    Under the provisions of the Wilderness Act (Public Law 88-577, September 3, 1964) and the Joint Conference Report on Senate Bill 4, 88th Congress, the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Bureau of Mines have been conducting mineral surveys of wilderness and primitive areas. Areas officially designated as "wilderness," "wild," or "canoe" when the act was passed were incorporated into the National Wilderness Preservation System, and some of them are presently being studied. The act provided that areas under consideration for wilderness designation should be studied for suitability for incorporation into the Wilderness System. The mineral surveys constitute one aspect of the suitability studies. The act directs that the results of such surveys are to be made available to the public and be submitted to the President and the Congress. This report discusses the results of a mineral survey of the John Muir Wilderness, Inyo and Sierra National Forests, Fresno, lnyo, Madera, and Mono Counties, California. The area was established as a wilderness by Public Law 88-577, September 3, 1964.

  1. Development of a regional model for integrated management of water resources at the basin scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaiser, T.; Printz, A.; von Raumer, H. G. Schwarz; Götzinger, J.; Dukhovny, V. A.; Barthel, R.; Sorokin, A.; Tuchin, A.; Kiourtsidis, C.; Ganoulis, I.; Stahr, K.

    Integrated modeling is a novel approach to couple knowledge and models from different disciplines and research fields and to use their potential in the strategic planning of water management at the river basin scale. The MOSDEW integrated regional model has been developed in the Neckar basin, a 14,000 km 2 river catchment in South-West Germany as a model cascade of nine submodels covering large scale hydrology, groundwater flow, water demand, agricultural production, point and non-point pollution and chemical as well as biological water quality. The models are being tested and validated in the Neckar basin as well as in additional river basins in West Africa (Ouémé basin) and Central Asia (Chirchik-Ahangaran-Keles basin, CHAB) with contrasting ecological, hydrological and socio-economic boundary conditions. The transfer to the CHAB basin required changes in the submodel selection and integration structure due to the strong anthropogenic modifications of the flow regime in the downstream area. There, water is conveyed from the Chirchik river to other catchments and distributed in a complex channel system to satisfy the demand of competing water users (irrigation, urban water supply, energy production). In the Ouémé basin, the ecohydraulic model was not integrated due to lack of input data for ecological requirements of fish species whereas the groundwater flow model was not applicable to the predominant presence of aquifers in fractured rock. The model results obtained so far are promising with respect to their accuracy to be used in scenario simulations for the strategic basin wide planning of water management.

  2. Protecting the geyser basins of Yellowstone National Park: toward a new national policy for a vulnerable environmental resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrick, Kenneth A

    2010-01-01

    Geyser basins provide high value recreation, scientific, economic and national heritage benefits. Geysers are globally rare, in part, because development activities have quenched about 260 of the natural endowment. Today, more than half of the world's remaining geysers are located in Yellowstone National Park, northwest Wyoming, USA. However, the hydrothermal reservoirs that supply Yellowstone's geysers extend well beyond the Park borders, and onto two "Known Geothermal Resource Areas"-Island Park to the west and Corwin Springs on the north. Geysers are sensitive geologic features that are easily quenched by nearby geothermal wells. Therefore, the potential for geothermal energy development adjacent to Yellowstone poses a threat to the sustainability of about 500 geysers and 10,000 hydrothermal features. The purpose here is to propose that Yellowstone be protected by a "Geyser Protection Area" (GPA) extending in a 120-km radius from Old Faithful Geyser. The GPA concept would prohibit geothermal and large-scale groundwater wells, and thereby protect the water and heat supply of the hydrothermal reservoirs that support Yellowstone's geyser basins and important hot springs. Proactive federal leadership, including buyouts of private groundwater development rights, can assist in navigating the GPA through the greater Yellowstone area's "wicked" public policy environment. Moreover, the potential impacts on geyser basins from intrusive research sampling techniques are considered in order to facilitate the updating of national park research regulations to a precautionary standard. The GPA model can provide the basis for protecting the world's few remaining geyser basins.

  3. Drought assessment in the Dongliao River basin: traditional approaches vs. generalized drought assessment index based on water resources systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, B. S.; Yan, D. H.; Wang, H.; Liu, J. H.; Yang, Z. Y.; Qin, T. L.; Yin, J.

    2015-08-01

    Drought is firstly a resource issue, and with its development it evolves into a disaster issue. Drought events usually occur in a determinate but a random manner. Drought has become one of the major factors to affect sustainable socioeconomic development. In this paper, we propose the generalized drought assessment index (GDAI) based on water resources systems for assessing drought events. The GDAI considers water supply and water demand using a distributed hydrological model. We demonstrate the use of the proposed index in the Dongliao River basin in northeastern China. The results simulated by the GDAI are compared to observed drought disaster records in the Dongliao River basin. In addition, the temporal distribution of drought events and the spatial distribution of drought frequency from the GDAI are compared with the traditional approaches in general (i.e., standard precipitation index, Palmer drought severity index and rate of water deficit index). Then, generalized drought times, generalized drought duration, and generalized drought severity were calculated by theory of runs. Application of said runs at various drought levels (i.e., mild drought, moderate drought, severe drought, and extreme drought) during the period 1960-2010 shows that the centers of gravity of them all distribute in the middle reaches of Dongliao River basin, and change with time. The proposed methodology may help water managers in water-stressed regions to quantify the impact of drought, and consequently, to make decisions for coping with drought.

  4. ASSESSMENT OF THE POTENTIAL IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE UPON SURFACE WATER RESOURCES IN THE PRAHOVA RIVER BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. RETEGAN

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present research is the determination of the impact of possible climatic changes in the 21st century upon surface water resources in the Prahova river basin using the WatBal model (a mathematical-hydrological water-balance model. The analyzed river basin covers an area of 3682 km² and is located outside the curvature of the Carpathian Mountains, in an area where the altitude varies between 60 m and 2500 m. In accordance with the altitude, the annual precipitation varies from approximately 550 mm/year in the plain area to over 1000 mm/year in the mountain area and the evaporation-transpiration between 850 mm/year in the plain area to 500 mm/year in the high areas. On the other hand, due to a very high variability of weather conditions, droughts, as well as excessive humidity periods, may occur during the year. WatBal is an integrated water balance model developed for assessing the impact of climate changes on a river basin runoff. This model has essentially two main modelling components. The first is the water balance component that uses continuous functions to describe water movement into and out of a conceptualized basin. The second component is the computation of the potential evaporation-transpiration processes. Monthly data series recorded at 5 weather stations and 1 runoff gauging-station during the 1961-2007 period have been used for the calibration of the WatBal model to the local conditions of the area. Finally, the paper focuses on the values of the mean monthly discharges at Adâncata river station on the Prahova River, estimated in the above-mentioned hypotheses. The paper analyses the influence of potential climatic changes, expressed by a wide range of climatic scenarios, upon the average water resources in the Prahova river basin. It has also been taken into consideration the below average water resources, expressed by the minimum-monthly average flow and characteristic to low-water periods as well as the above

  5. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Devonian Marcellus Shale of the Appalachian Basin Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, James L.; Milici, Robert C.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Kirshbaum, Mark; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) estimated a mean undiscovered natural gas resource of 84,198 billion cubic feet and a mean undiscovered natural gas liquids resource of 3,379 million barrels in the Devonian Marcellus Shale within the Appalachian Basin Province. All this resource occurs in continuous accumulations. In 2011, the USGS completed an assessment of the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the Devonian Marcellus Shale within the Appalachian Basin Province of the eastern United States. The Appalachian Basin Province includes parts of Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Maryland, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia. The assessment of the Marcellus Shale is based on the geologic elements of this formation's total petroleum system (TPS) as recognized in the characteristics of the TPS as a petroleum source rock (source rock richness, thermal maturation, petroleum generation, and migration) as well as a reservoir rock (stratigraphic position and content and petrophysical properties). Together, these components confirm the Marcellus Shale as a continuous petroleum accumulation. Using the geologic framework, the USGS defined one TPS and three assessment units (AUs) within this TPS and quantitatively estimated the undiscovered oil and gas resources within the three AUs. For the purposes of this assessment, the Marcellus Shale is considered to be that Middle Devonian interval that consists primarily of shale and lesser amounts of bentonite, limestone, and siltstone occurring between the underlying Middle Devonian Onondaga Limestone (or its stratigraphic equivalents, the Needmore Shale and Huntersville Chert) and the overlying Middle Devonian Mahantango Formation (or its stratigraphic equivalents, the upper Millboro Shale and middle Hamilton Group).

  6. 矿产资源短缺风险定义初探%Preliminary study on definition of shortage risk of mineral resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨军民

    2012-01-01

    The shortage of mineral resources is inevitable and it is an issue of risk. There is no definition of the shortage risk of mineral resources in academic by now. Defining the shortage risk of mineral resources is very important for realizing risk. Further more, it will play an important role in risk analysis and management. In this paper,the shortage risk of mineral resources is defined as adverse event scenarios caused by the difference between actual supply and expected demand for mineral resources in the future. The shortage risk of mineral resources has the following characteristics: ( 1) The social attribute of the shortage risk of mineral resources; ( 2 ) The bidirectional attribute of risks conducting; ( 3) Prices as the sources of risk; (4) Two - stage characteristics of risk effect.%矿产资源短缺现象不可避免,矿产资源短缺是一个风险问题.目前理论界尚无矿产资源短缺风险的定义.合理准确地描述矿产资源短缺风险的概念对于认识风险,尤其是开展风险分析和管理具有十分重要的意义.作者将矿产资源短缺风险定义为矿产资源供需与预期差异产生不利事件的未来情景.矿产资源短缺风险具有以下特征:(1)风险的社会属性;(2)风险传导的双向性;(3)最终风险源是价格;(4)风险影响的二阶段特性.

  7. 流域水资源集成管理%Integrated water resources management on river basin.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾维华; 杨志峰; 程声通

    2001-01-01

    从对目前国内外流域水资源管理发展历程与存在的问题的分析入手,立足于水资源管理的实际问题,以流域水资源复杂大系统分析与冲突分析理论为基础,系统地提出了适合我国国情的流域水资源集成管理模式、组织结构与技术路线.%Starting from analyzing the course and problems of domestic and oversea water resources management progressing, the model, organization structure and technical line of integrated water resources management on river basin suitable for national conditions were put forward on the basis of systemic analysis and conflict analysis theories on complicated watershed system and actual problems of water resources management.

  8. Cenozoic forearc basin sediments in Southern Peru (15-18°S): Stratigraphic and heavy mineral constraints for Eocene to Miocene evolution of the Central Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decou, A.; von Eynatten, H.; Mamani, M.; Sempere, T.; Wörner, G.

    2011-05-01

    A large sedimentary forearc basin developed in Cenozoic times between the present-day Coastal Cordillera and the Western Cordillera of the Central Andes, called Moquegua basin in southern Peru. The basin is filled by Moquegua Group deposits (~ 50 to 4 Ma) comprising mostly siliciclastic mudstones, sandstones and conglomerates as well as volcanic intercalations. Several facies changes both, along orogenic strike and through time, are described and have led to subdivision into four sedimentary units (Moquegua A, B, C and D). In this paper we present a refined stratigraphic scheme of the Moquegua Group combined with the first provenance analysis of the Moquegua basin based on (i) semi-quantitative analysis of heavy mineral abundance, (ii) electron microprobe (EMP) and laser ablation (LA) ICP-MS analyses of single detrital amphibole and Fe-Ti oxide grains, and (iii) comparative analysis of the different potential source rocks to clearly identify the most likely sources. Results allow us to reconstruct sediment provenance and to relate changes of the erosion-sedimentation system in the Moquegua basin to the evolution of the Andean orogen. At ~ 50 to ~ 40 Ma the Moquegua basin was close to sea level and fed by low energy rivers transporting mainly metamorphic basement and Jurassic-Cretaceous sedimentary detritus from local and distal sources. The latter might be as far as the present Eastern Cordillera. From ~ 35 Ma on the distal sediment sources were cut off by the uplift of the Altiplano and Eastern Cordillera leading to higher energy fluvial systems and increasing importance of local sources, especially the relevant volcanic arcs. From 25 Ma on volcanic arc rocks became the predominant sources for Moquegua Group sediments. The 10 Ma time lag observed between the onset of uplift-induced facies and provenance changes (at ~ 35 Ma) and the onset of intense magmatic activity (at ~ 25 Ma) suggests that magmatic addition was not the main driver for crustal thickening and

  9. Potential ground water resources of Hat Yai Basin in Peninsular Thailand by gravity study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warawutti Lohawijarn

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Residual gravity anomaly with a minimum of about -140 mm s-2 with approximately NS trend and a limited axial length was observed over Hat Yai Basin in Peninsular Thailand. The modeled Hat Yai basin is about 1 km deep at its deepest, 60 km long and 20 km wide. The porosity of basin sediment and the amount of potential ground water reserves within the basin are estimated to be 39% and 121.7±0.8 km3 respectively, assuming full saturation. Within the topmost 80 m of ground where the present extraction is concentrated, the estimated ground water reserve is 12.5±0.5 km3.

  10. Challenge and Perspective of Yangtze River Basin Water Resources Protection%长江水资源保护面临的挑战与前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁弘任

    2002-01-01

    The major faced problems at present in Yangtze river basin are: ① uneffective control in river water pollution threatens seriously the safety of drinking water; ② shrinkage of lake area and serious eutrophication; ③ soil-water losses degraded the ecological environment of the basin; ④ the impact of TGP and S-N water transfer project on water environment of the basin. In the light of above-mentioned problems, water resources utilization strategy must be adjusted and the sustainable social and economic development should be supported by sustainable water resources utilization, and it is necessary to take the following countermeasures: ① establishing overall flood control and disaster relief system; ② developing high water use efficiency agriculture; ③ taking "giving priority to water saving on the basis of pollution control" as urban water resources utilization strategy; ④ implementing comprehensive pollution control strategy with sources control as main point; ⑤ guaranteing water demand of the ecological environment; ⑥implementing the strategy of maintaining water resources supply and demand balance on the basis of water demand management; ⑦ studying countermeasures for the ecological and environmental impacts of trans-basin water transfer and western China devolopment. The key of realization of sustainable water resources utilization is to reform management and investment mechanism of water resources and water price policy. It is the only way to solve the water resources problems in Yangtze river basin as well as the whole China.

  11. A combined linear optimisation methodology for water resources allocation in Alfeios River Basin (Greece) under uncertain and vague system conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekri, Eleni; Yannopoulos, Panayotis; Disse, Markus

    2013-04-01

    In the present study, a combined linear programming methodology, based on Li et al. (2010) and Bekri et al. (2012), is employed for optimizing water allocation under uncertain system conditions in the Alfeios River Basin, in Greece. The Alfeios River is a water resources system of great natural, ecological, social and economic importance for Western Greece, since it has the longest and highest flow rate watercourse in the Peloponnisos region. Moreover, the river basin was exposed in the last decades to a plethora of environmental stresses (e.g. hydrogeological alterations, intensively irrigated agriculture, surface and groundwater overexploitation and infrastructure developments), resulting in the degradation of its quantitative and qualitative characteristics. As in most Mediterranean countries, water resource management in Alfeios River Basin has been focused up to now on an essentially supply-driven approach. It is still characterized by a lack of effective operational strategies. Authority responsibility relationships are fragmented, and law enforcement and policy implementation are weak. The present regulated water allocation puzzle entails a mixture of hydropower generation, irrigation, drinking water supply and recreational activities. Under these conditions its water resources management is characterised by high uncertainty and by vague and imprecise data. The considered methodology has been developed in order to deal with uncertainties expressed as either probability distributions, or/and fuzzy boundary intervals, derived by associated α-cut levels. In this framework a set of deterministic submodels is studied through linear programming. The ad hoc water resources management and alternative management patterns in an Alfeios subbasin are analyzed and evaluated under various scenarios, using the above mentioned methodology, aiming to promote a sustainable and equitable water management. Li, Y.P., Huang, G.H. and S.L., Nie, (2010), Planning water resources

  12. Mineral resource assessment of rare-earth elements, thorium, titanium, and uranium in the Greenville 1 degree by 2 degrees Quadrangle, South Carolina, Georgia, and North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesure, Frank G.; Curtin, Gary C.; Daniels, David L.; Jackson, John C.

    1993-01-01

    Mineral resources of the Greenville 1° x 2° quadrangle, South Carolina, Georgia, and North Carolina, were assessed between 1984 and 1990 under the Conterminuous United States Mineral Assessment Program (CUSMAP) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The mineral resource assessments were made on the basis of geologic, geochemical, and geophysical investigations and the presence of mines, prospects, and mineral occurrences from the literature. This report is an assessment of the rare-earth elements (REE), thorium, titanium, and uranium resources in the Greenville quadrangle and is based on heavy mineral concentrates collected in 1951-54 by the USGS (Overstreet and others, 1968; Caldwell and White, 1973; Cuppels and White, 1973); on the results of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) sampling program (Ferguson, 1978, 1979); on analyses of stream-sediment and heavy-mineral-concentrate samples (Jackson and Moore, 1992, G.C Cullin, USGS, unpub. data, 1992) on maps showing aerial gamma radiation in the Greenville quadrangle (D.L. Daniels, USGS, unpub. data, 1992); and on the geology as mapped by Nelson and others (1987, 1989).

  13. A Resource Assessment Of Geothermal Energy Resources For Converting Deep Gas Wells In Carbonate Strata Into Geothermal Extraction Wells: A Permian Basin Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdlac, Richard J., Jr.

    2006-10-12

    Previously conducted preliminary investigations within the deep Delaware and Val Verde sub-basins of the Permian Basin complex documented bottom hole temperatures from oil and gas wells that reach the 120-180C temperature range, and occasionally beyond. With large abundances of subsurface brine water, and known porosity and permeability, the deep carbonate strata of the region possess a good potential for future geothermal power development. This work was designed as a 3-year project to investigate a new, undeveloped geographic region for establishing geothermal energy production focused on electric power generation. Identifying optimum geologic and geographic sites for converting depleted deep gas wells and fields within a carbonate environment into geothermal energy extraction wells was part of the project goals. The importance of this work was to affect the three factors limiting the expansion of geothermal development: distribution, field size and accompanying resource availability, and cost. Historically, power production from geothermal energy has been relegated to shallow heat plumes near active volcanic or geyser activity, or in areas where volcanic rocks still retain heat from their formation. Thus geothermal development is spatially variable and site specific. Additionally, existing geothermal fields are only a few 10’s of square km in size, controlled by the extent of the heat plume and the availability of water for heat movement. This plume radiates heat both vertically as well as laterally into the enclosing country rock. Heat withdrawal at too rapid a rate eventually results in a decrease in electrical power generation as the thermal energy is “mined”. The depletion rate of subsurface heat directly controls the lifetime of geothermal energy production. Finally, the cost of developing deep (greater than 4 km) reservoirs of geothermal energy is perceived as being too costly to justify corporate investment. Thus further development opportunities

  14. A Resource Assessment Of Geothermal Energy Resources For Converting Deep Gas Wells In Carbonate Strata Into Geothermal Extraction Wells: A Permian Basin Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdlac, Richard J., Jr.

    2006-10-12

    Previously conducted preliminary investigations within the deep Delaware and Val Verde sub-basins of the Permian Basin complex documented bottom hole temperatures from oil and gas wells that reach the 120-180C temperature range, and occasionally beyond. With large abundances of subsurface brine water, and known porosity and permeability, the deep carbonate strata of the region possess a good potential for future geothermal power development. This work was designed as a 3-year project to investigate a new, undeveloped geographic region for establishing geothermal energy production focused on electric power generation. Identifying optimum geologic and geographic sites for converting depleted deep gas wells and fields within a carbonate environment into geothermal energy extraction wells was part of the project goals. The importance of this work was to affect the three factors limiting the expansion of geothermal development: distribution, field size and accompanying resource availability, and cost. Historically, power production from geothermal energy has been relegated to shallow heat plumes near active volcanic or geyser activity, or in areas where volcanic rocks still retain heat from their formation. Thus geothermal development is spatially variable and site specific. Additionally, existing geothermal fields are only a few 10’s of square km in size, controlled by the extent of the heat plume and the availability of water for heat movement. This plume radiates heat both vertically as well as laterally into the enclosing country rock. Heat withdrawal at too rapid a rate eventually results in a decrease in electrical power generation as the thermal energy is “mined”. The depletion rate of subsurface heat directly controls the lifetime of geothermal energy production. Finally, the cost of developing deep (greater than 4 km) reservoirs of geothermal energy is perceived as being too costly to justify corporate investment. Thus further development opportunities

  15. Lessons for Integrated Water Resources Management from the San Pedro HELP Basin on the U.S.-Mexico Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, A.; Goodrich, D.; Varady, R.; Richter, H.

    2007-12-01

    The San Pedro Basin sits within an intermountain ecotone with the Sonoran and Chihuahuan Deserts to the west and east and the Rocky Mountain and Sierra Madre Mountain habitats to the north and south. The headwaters of the basin originate in northern Sonora and flow north into southeast Arizona. As the region's only remaining perennial stream, the San Pedro River serves as an international flyway for over 400 bird species. It is one of the western hemisphere's most ecologically diverse areas with some 20 different biotic communities, and "possesses one of the richest assemblages of land mammal species in the world." Large mining, military, and municipal entities are major users of the same groundwater resources that maintain perennial flow in the San Pedro. This presentation describes empirical evidence of the positive impacts on watershed management of scientists and policy researchers working closely with water managers and elected officials in a functioning HELP basin. We posit that when hydrologists help watershed groups understand the processes controlling water quality and quantity, and when managers and stakeholders connect these processes to social, economic and legal issues then transboundary cooperation in policymaking and water management is most effective. The distinctive physical and socioeconomic characteristics of the basin as well as differences in institutional regulations, water law issues, and their local implementations in Arizona and Sonora are discussed. We illustrate how stakeholders and scientific researchers in both countries strive to balance ecosystem needs with human demands to create new, integrated basin management. Finally, we describe how the accomplishments of the San Pedro collaborative process, including the use of environmental-conflict-resolution tools, have contributed to the UNESCO HELP (Hydrology for the Environment, Life, and Policy) agenda.

  16. Stable Isotopic Constraints on Abiogenic Hydrocarbon gas Contributions to Thermogenic Natural gas Resources in the Northern Appalachian Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burruss, R. C.; Laughrey, C. D.

    2006-05-01

    The generation of abiogenic methane by serpentinization or by graphite-water reactions in high-grade metamorphic rocks is well documented by isotopic, fluid inclusion, and petrographic studies. However, geochemical evidence is equivocal for abiogenic generation of higher hydrocarbon gases (ethane through pentane) in economic resources. Thermogenic hydrocarbon gases, generated by thermal cracking of sedimentary organic matter of biological origin, are progressively enriched in 13C as a function of increasing number of carbon atoms in the molecule. The isotopic composition is controlled by the kinetic isotope effect (KIE) during carbon-carbon bond breaking with the largest KIE for methane. Published work on gases in Precambrian rocks in Canada and South Africa suggest that some were generated by abiogenic Fischer-Tropsch type reactions that produced gases with carbon isotopic compositions that are reversed from the thermogenic trend. We have documented reversed isotopic compositions in natural gas accumulations in lower Paleozoic reservoirs of the Appalachian basin regionally from West Virginia and eastern Ohio through Pennsylvania to central New York. The regional accumulation in lower Silurian age strata shows progressive enhancement of the isotopic reversal with increasing depth in the basin. Multivariate analysis of the molecular and isotopic data define an end-member in the deep basin with an approximate composition of 98 mol % CH4, 1-2 mol % C2H6, -150‰, C1/C2+ up to 220). New isotopic studies of gas accumulations, gases in fluid inclusions, and of sedimentary organic matter in the Appalachian basin are in progress to constrain the possible contribution of abiogenic hydrocarbon generation to gas accumulations in this basin.

  17. Geochemical and isotopic composition of organic matter in the Kupferschiefer of the Polish Zechstein basin: relation to maturity and base metal mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtel, A.; Gratzer, R.; Püttmann, W.; Oszczepalski, S.

    Drill core samples from the Kupferschiefer of Poland were collected throughout the Zechstein basin. The samples included oxidized Kupferschiefer from Rote Fäule zones, adjacent Cu-mineralized Kupferschiefer of southwestern Poland, and drill cores from the central and northern parts of the Zechstein basin. The Kupferschiefer samples reflect differences in base metal mineralization and in burial depth (630-5067m). The organic matter of the Kupferschiefer is characterized by Rock-Eval and GC-MS analyses. Classification of kerogen by hydrogen and oxygen indices (HI, OI), correlations of Tmax vs the present depth of the Kupferschiefer, soluble organic matter (SOM) yields, and relative proportions of saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons of the SOM provide evidence for an oxidative alteration of organic matter in highly mineralized Kupferschiefer samples near the Rote Fäule zones. This is confirmed by differences in the composition of the saturated and aromatic hydrocarbon fractions of the soluble organic matter: Saturated hydrocarbons from Rote Fäule samples are dominated by short-chain n-alkanes and higher abundances of pristane and phytane relative to heptadecane (n-C17) and octadecane (n-C18), respectively, compared with samples more distant to the Rote Fäule zone. Compositional changes of the aromatic hydrocarbon fractions with decreasing distance to that zone are characterized by the occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and elevated ratios of phenanthrene to methylphenanthrenes that are attributed to demethylation reactions and resulted in a decrease of the methylphenanthrene index (MPI1). Kupferschiefer samples from the barren zone of the Polish Basin do not show these alteration patterns. The observed variations in organic matter composition with burial depth are consistent with changes due to increasing thermal maturation. Maturity assessment is achieved from MPI1 and the methyldibenzothiophene ratio (MDR). From the relationship between the maturity

  18. Implications of modelled radioactivity measurements along coastal Odisha, Eastern India for heavy mineral resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosal, S.; Agrahari, S.; Guin, R.; Sengupta, D.

    2017-01-01

    A radioelemental assemblage assessment of two beaches of Odisha is performed for the first time. The radiation is measured in two ways, both on field with the help of a hand held environmental survey meter and in the laboratory, where the concentrations of radionuclide's 238U, 232Th and 4K have been determined with the help of High Purity Germanium detector (HPGe). Mineralogical analysis of selected samples has been performed with the help of X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (XRF). A marked difference between the concentration of Uranium (274 Bq kg-1) and Thorium (2489 Bq kg-1) is observed and discussed based on the geology of the area. The placer deposits showing an enrichment of thorium can be an important source of nuclear fuel for the thorium based nuclear reactors. The ratio of thorium and uranium concentrations gives us an idea about the coastal processes associated with the beach. Statistical analysis of the data shows a positive correlation between 238U and 232Th and a strong negative correlation is indicated between 4 K and 238U, 232Th. A cross plot between the equivalent thorium and the equivalent uranium and the equivalent thorium and potassium, represents the nature of deposition and its association with the heavy mineral along with the radioactive elements. Heavy minerals exhibit an increasing trend towards Northeast-Southwest along the south eastern coast of India.

  19. Delineation of Potential Mineral Resources Region Based on Geo-anomaly Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The geological anomaly unit method (GAUM) is a new way to delineate and evaluate ore-finding targets in line with the “geological anomaly ore-finding theory”. Comprehensive ore-finding information from geological, geochemical and geophysical data is used for quantitative measurement of the “ore-forming geological anomaly unit” in this paper. The main procedures are shown as follows: (1) The geo-anomalous events associated with gold mineralization are analyzed in Tongshi gold field; (2) The zonation in the concentrated heavy minerals and the stream-sediment elements of ore-forming geo-anomaly are studied in detail; (3) The deep geological structural framework is deduced by means of the synthetic geological interpretation of gravity and magnetic information;(4) The ore-controlling geo-anomalies and ore anomalies are chosen as the variables of the favorable ore-forming indexes that can be used for the quantitative delineation and evaluation of the potential ore-forming regions.

  20. Probabilistic scenario-based water resource planning and management:A case study in the Yellow River Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, C.; Schoups, G.; van de Giesen, N.

    2012-04-01

    Water resource planning and management is subject to large uncertainties with respect to the impact of climate change and socio-economic development on water systems. In order to deal with these uncertainties, probabilistic climate and socio-economic scenarios were developed based on the Principle of Maximum Entropy, as defined within information theory, and as inputs to hydrological models to construct probabilistic water scenarios using Monte Carlo simulation. Probabilistic scenarios provide more explicit information than equally-likely scenarios for decision-making in water resource management. A case was developed for the Yellow River Basin, China, where future water availability and water demand are affected by both climate change and socio-economic development. Climate scenarios of future precipitation and temperature were developed based on the results of multiple Global climate models; and socio-economic scenarios were downscaled from existing large-scale scenarios. Probability distributions were assigned to these scenarios to explicitly represent a full set of future possibilities. Probabilistic climate scenarios were used as input to a rainfall-runoff model to simulate future river discharge and socio-economic scenarios for calculating water demand. A full set of possible future water supply-demand scenarios and their associated probability distributions were generated. This set can feed the further analysis of the future water balance, which can be used as a basis to plan and manage water resources in the Yellow River Basin. Key words: Probabilistic scenarios, climate change, socio-economic development, water management

  1. Evaluation of the sustainability of deep groundwater as an arsenic-safe resource in the Bengal Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, H.A.; Voss, C.I.

    2008-01-01

    Tens of millions of people in the Bengal Basin region of Bangladesh and India drink groundwater containing unsafe concentrations of arsenic. This high-arsenic groundwater is produced from shallow (150 m where groundwater arsenic concentrations are nearly uniformly low, and many more wells are needed, however, the sustainability of deep, arsenic-safe ground-water has not been previously assessed. Deeper pumping could induce downward migration of dissolved arsenic, permanently destroying the deep resource. Here, it is shown, through quantitative, large-scale hydrogeologic analysis and simulation of the entire basin, that the deeper part of the aquifer system may provide a sustainable source of arsenic-safe water if its utilization is limited to domestic supply. Simulations provide two explanations for this result: deep domestic pumping only slightly perturbs the deep groundwater flow system, and substantial shallow pumping for irrigation forms a hydraulic barrier that protects deeper resources from shallow arsenic sources. Additional analysis indicates that this simple management approach could provide arsenic-safe drinking water to >90% of the arsenic-impacted region over a 1,000-year timescale. This insight may assist water-resources managers in alleviating one of the world's largest groundwater contamination problems. ?? 2008 by The National Academy of Sciences of the USA.

  2. 我国矿产资源可持续发展探讨%Study on sustainable development of mineral resources of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑金鑫

    2012-01-01

    China is abundant in mineral resources and their deposits are huge,these advantages are not real. Especially the requirement of mineral resources in the rapid development of China has been increasing. Thus it causes many problems in the exploitation and utilization of mineral resources. To the characteristics and status of mineral resources exploitation and utilization,this paper points out some current problems and approaches of mineral resources sustainable development. Finally, it puts forward some methods of circular economy of realizing sustainable development.%我国矿产资源品种丰富,储量很大,但是矿产资源优势不优,尤其经济的迅速发展对矿产资源的需求不断加大,致使矿产资源的开发利用存在很多的问题.本文针对我国矿产资源的特点及开发利用现状,指出其存在的诸多问题,并提出我国矿产资源可持续发展的思路,最后对循环经济——矿产资源可持续发展的必然选择提出了实施构想.

  3. Integrated Synthesis of the Permian Basin: Data and Models for Recovering Existing and Undiscovered Oil Resources from the Largest Oil-Bearing Basin in the U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Jackson; Katherine Jackson

    2008-09-30

    Large volumes of oil and gas remain in the mature basins of North America. This is nowhere more true than in the Permian Basin of Texas and New Mexico. A critical barrier to recovery of this vast remaining resource, however, is information. Access to accurate geological data and analyses of the controls of hydrocarbon distribution is the key to the knowledge base as well as the incentives needed by oil and gas companies. The goals of this project were to collect, analyze, synthesize, and deliver to industry and the public fundamental information and data on the geology of oil and gas systems in the Permian Basin. This was accomplished in two ways. First we gathered all available data, organized it, and placed it on the web for ready access. Data include core analysis data, lists of pertinent published reports, lists of available cores, type logs, and selected PowerPoint presentations. We also created interpretive data such as type logs, geological cross sections, and geological maps and placed them in a geospatially-registered framework in ARC/GIS. Second, we created new written syntheses of selected reservoir plays in the Permian basin. Although only 8 plays were targeted for detailed analysis in the project proposal to DOE, 14 were completed. These include Ellenburger, Simpson, Montoya, Fusselman, Wristen, Thirtyone, Mississippian, Morrow, Atoka, Strawn, Canyon/Cisco, Wolfcamp, Artesia Group, and Delaware Mountain Group. These fully illustrated reports include critical summaries of published literature integrated with new unpublished research conducted during the project. As such these reports provide the most up-to-date analysis of the geological controls on reservoir development available. All reports are available for download on the project website and are also included in this final report. As stated in our proposal, technology transfer is perhaps the most important component of the project. In addition to providing direct access to data and reports through

  4. Natural Gas Resources of the Greater Green River and Wind River Basins of Wyoming (Assessing the Technology Needs of Sub-economic Resources, Phase I: Greater Green River and Wind river Basins, Fall 2002)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boswell, Ray; Douds, Ashley; Pratt, Skip; Rose, Kelly; Pancake, Jim; Bruner, Kathy (EG& G Services); Kuuskraa, Vello; Billingsley, Randy (Advanced Resources International)

    2003-02-28

    In 2000, NETL conducted a review of the adequacy of the resource characterization databases used in its Gas Systems Analysis Model (GSAM). This review indicated that the most striking deficiency in GSAM’s databases was the poor representation of the vast resource believed to exist in low-permeability sandstone accumulations in western U.S. basins. The model’s databases, which are built primarily around the United States Geological Survey (USGS) 1995 National Assessment (for undiscovered resources), reflected an estimate of the original-gas-inplace (OGIP) only in accumulations designated “technically-recoverable” by the USGS –roughly 3% to 4% of the total estimated OGIP of the region. As these vast remaining resources are a prime target of NETL programs, NETL immediately launched an effort to upgrade its resource characterizations. Upon review of existing data, NETL concluded that no existing data were appropriate sources for its modeling needs, and a decision was made to conduct new, detailed log-based, gas-in-place assessments.

  5. Analytical results and sample locations of reanalyzed NURE stream-sediment and soil samples for the Humboldt River basin mineral-environmental assessment, northern Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folger, H. W.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), began a study in 1996 to describe to the geochemistry of the Humboldt River Basin. The principal sample media evaluated are stream-sediment and soil samples retrieved from the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) archives located in Denver, Colorado. Samples were retrieved from the Wells, McDermitt, Vya, Lovelock, Winnemucca, Elko, Ely, Millett, Reno, and Tonopah 1? x 2? quadrangles in northern Nevada. The data are appropriate for large-scale reconnaissance resource evaluations and landscape geochemical-geoenvironmental evaluations. The analytical results are presented in this report.

  6. Modeling Impact of Climate Change on Water Resources and Agriculture Demand in the Volta Basin and other Basin Systems in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnabas A. Amisigo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available An assessment of the impacts of projected climate change on water availability and crop production in the Volta Basin and the southwestern and coastal basin systems of Ghana has been undertaken as a component of the impacts and adaptation study for Ghana by UNU-WIDER and the University of Ghana. Four climate change scenarios were considered in addition to a reference (no change scenario—two dry and two wet scenarios. To conduct the analysis, a portion of a special framework using three water models was used; the framework is called the Strategic Analysis of Climate resilient Development (SACReD. First, the CliRun water balance model was used to simulate catchment runoffs using projected rainfall and temperature under the scenarios. Second, climate impacts on yields of the economically important Ghana crops were modeled using the AquaCrop software. Third, the Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP software was used for the water allocation modeling. The results show that all water demands (municipal, hydropower, and agriculture cannot be simultaneously met currently, or under any of the scenarios used, including the wet scenarios. This calls for an evaluation of groundwater as an additional source of water supply and an integrated water resources management plan in the catchments to balance demand with supply and ensure sustainable socio-economic development. In addition, the AquaCrop model forecasts negative impacts for the crop yields studied, with some crops and regions seeing larger impacts than others.

  7. Implications of Spatial Variability in Heat Flow for Geothermal Resource Evaluation in Large Foreland Basins: The Case of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Weides

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Heat flow and geothermal gradient of the sedimentary succession of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB are mapped based on a large thermal database. Heat flow in the deep part of the basin varies from 30 mW/m2 in the south to high 100 mW/m2 in the north. As permeable strata are required for a successful geothermal application, the most important aquifers are discussed and evaluated. Regional temperature distribution within different aquifers is mapped for the first time, enabling a delineation of the most promising areas based on thermal field and aquifer properties. Results of previous regional studies on the geothermal potential of the WCSB are newly evaluated and discussed. In parts of the WCSB temperatures as high as 100–210 °C exist at depths of 3–5 km. Fluids from deep aquifers in these “hot” regions of the WCSB could be used in geothermal power plants to produce electricity. The geothermal resources of the shallower parts of the WCSB (>2 km could be used for warm water provision (>50 °C or district heating (>70 °C in urban areas.

  8. GIS application in mineral resource analysis—A case study of offshore marine placer gold at Nome, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Chen, Gang; Li, Hui; Luo, Huayang; Huang, Scott L.

    2007-06-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) technology has been applied to analyze the offshore marine placer gold deposits at Nome, Alaska. Two geodatabases, namely Integrated Geodatabase (IG) and Regularized 2.5D Geodatabase (R2.5DG), were created to store and integrate digital data sets in heterogeneous formats. The IG served as a data warehouse and used to manage various geological data, such as borehole, bedrock geology, surficial geology, and geochemical data. The R2.5DG was generated based on the IG and could be used for gold resource estimate at any given spatial domain. Information on placer gold deposits can be updated, queried, visualized, and analyzed by making use of these geodatabases. Ore body boundaries, gold distribution, and the resource estimation at various cutoff grades can be calculated in a timely manner. Based on the enhanced GIS architecture, a web-based GIS ( http://uaf-db.uaf.edu/website/) was developed to facilitate remote users to access the offshore marine placer gold data. Users can integrate local data sources with remote data sources for query, visualization and analysis via a web browser. The GIS architecture developed in this project can be readily adapted to mineral resource management in other areas of the state.

  9. MinUrals: Mineral resources of the Urals -- origin, development, and environmental impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leistel, J. M.; Minurals Team

    2003-04-01

    The MinUrals project (supported by the European Commission under the 5th F.P.- INCO2 - contract ICA2-CT-2000-10011) is focusing on the South Urals mining sector, in order to improve local socio-economic conditions, through: 1) The reinterpretation of the geodynamics of South Urals and of the different types of ore deposits and the development of tools for mineral exploration (new geophysical and geochemical technology). The convergence setting and the formation of arc, fore-arc and back-arc systems explain the volcano-sedimentary and structural features. This geodynamic setting largely controls the distribution and characteristics of the different types of mineralisation; 2) The evaluation of local mining-related risks to the environment, with a development of methodologies for assessing and reducing the environmental impact and localizing areas of high metal potential/low environmental constraints. Three pilote sites were investigated: Sibay and Uchaly (with mining installations), and Karabash (with mining installations and smelter); 3) The implementation of a Geographical Information System taking into account the mineral potential and the environmental constraints that, through data ranking and combining the key parameters of the areas with high metal potential and environmental constraints, will enable the production of a Mineral Potential and Environmental Constraints Map of the South Urals; 4) The elaboration of recommendations for a suitable environmentally-aware mining-industry legislation, based on a comparison with the European legislation, to be adressed to the Commission on the demarcation of powers and subjects between the federal government, governments of the subjects of the Russian Federation and local authorities. More information can be found on the project web sites [http://minurals.brgm.fr] or [http://www.nhm.ac.uk/mineralogy/minurals/minurals.htm] or [http://www.anrb.ru/geol/MinUrals] or [http://minurals.ilmeny.ac.ru] MinUrals Team (*): Aug

  10. Study on Poverty Alleviation of Mineral Resources Development%矿产资源开发扶贫研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱清; 王联军

    2016-01-01

    Poverty alleviation in mineral development is an important issue in solving of "fertile poverty". In this process, the source of wealth is the conversion of resources to assets and capital, and its implementation method is a positive externality spillover mining capital, which is the basic means of mineral development income distribution, and its increased functionality will need system innovation. Mineral development has made an indelible contribution in the history of poverty alleviation, and it has become a common practice internationally. China has also accumulated a lot of experience of which can be conclude into three aspects. However, in the new normal, mineral development and poverty alleviation is also faced with a lot of pressures, such as insufif cient institutional supply, lack of motivation in industry development, improvement of ecological civilization requires cost pressures. This paper presents an improvement system in three aspects, by improving the design and optimization of mining rights management in three areas, converting three opportunities of poverty alleviation based on "Porter hypothesis" under the construction of ecological civilization, in order to constantly improve the ability of poverty alleviation in mineral development.%矿产开发扶贫是破解“富饶的贫困”难题的重要方式。其财富源泉是资源向资产和资本的转化,其实现方式是正外部性的矿业资本外溢,其基本手段是矿产开发收益分配,其功能提升则需要制度创新。矿产开发在历史上为扶贫做出了不可磨灭的贡献,也成为国际社会的通行做法。我国也积累了三大经验。但是在新常态下,矿产开发扶贫也面临着制度供给不足、行业动力不足、生态文明要求提高开发成本等压力。文章提出通过完善三大制度设计,优化矿业权投放三方面管理,转换生态文明建设下的基于“波特假设”的三大扶贫契机,不断提高矿产开发扶贫能力。

  11. Therm odynamics of Diagenetic Fluid and Fluid/Mineral Reactions in the Eogene Xingouzui Formation,Oil Field T,Jianghan Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪师军; 罗扬棣; 等

    1994-01-01

    This study focuses on the thermodynamics of diagenetic fluid from the Eogene Xingouzui Forma-tion which represents the most important reservoir in Field Oil T in the Jianghan Basin.The meas-ured homegenizagion temperatures(110-139℃)of fluid inclusions in diagenetic minerals fall within the range of 67-155℃ at the middle diagenetic stage .The pressure of diagenetic fluid is estimated at 10.2-56 Mpa .The activity of ions in the fluid shows a tendency of Ca2+>Mg2+>Na+>K+>Fe3+>Fe2+ for cations, and HCO3->SO22->F->Cl->CO22- for anions. For the gaseous facies, there is a tendency of CO2>CO>H2S>CH4>H2. According to the thermodynamic calculations,the pH and Eh of the fluid are 5.86-6.47 and -0.73-0.64V, respectively. As a result of the interaction between such a diagenetic fluid and minerals in the sedi-ments,feldspars were dissolved or alterated by other minerals. The clay mineral kaolinite was instable and hence was replaced by illite and chloritoid.

  12. Introduction to selected references on fossil fuels of the central and southern Appalachian basin: Chapter H.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Leslie F.; Lentz, Erika E.; Tewalt, Susan J.; Román Colón, Yomayra A.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    The Appalachian basin contains abundant coal and petroleum resources that have been studied and extracted for at least 150 years. In this volume, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists describe the geologic framework and geochemical character of the fossil-fuel resources of the central and southern Appalachian basin. Separate subchapters (some previously published) contain geologic cross sections; seismic profiles; burial history models; assessments of Carboniferous coalbed methane and Devonian shale gas; distribution information for oil, gas, and coal fields; data on the geochemistry of natural gas and oil; and the fossil-fuel production history of the basin. Although each chapter and subchapter includes references cited, many historical or other important references on Appalachian basin and global fossil-fuel science were omitted because they were not directly applicable to the chapters.

  13. The Resource Curse in Mongolia: Mineral Wealth, Institutional Quality, and Economic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Development Planning in Mongolia: Failure and Potential,” http://www.apcss.org/development- planning -in-mongolia-failure-and-potential/. 4...46. 33 Naazneen H. Barma, “Petroleum, Governance and Fragility: The Micro-Politics of Petroleum in Postconflict States,” in Beyond the Resource...is responsible for the state and local budget planning and expenditure, as well as customs, taxation, and insurance policies.47 Mongolia has made

  14. 我国矿产资源税费问题探讨%Discussion on Mineral Resources Taxation and Fee in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱真; 肖惠海

    2011-01-01

    Scientific mineral resources taxation and fee institution was not only a important mean for nation to manage mineral resources exploration and utilization, but also a safeguard of using mineral resources in reason, protecting the environment and promoting sustainable development of national economy and society. The construction of mineral resources taxation and fee institution had made great progress in China, and played a role in promoting the development of the national economy.But there was certain spatial difference and problems when comparing with the developed country in the west. It needed to be perfect, especially on resource tax and resource compensation fee.%科学的矿产资源税费制度不仅是国家对开发利用矿产资源进行管理的重要手段,而且是合理节约使用资源、保护环境、促进国民经济与社会可持续发展的保障.我国矿产资源税费制度建设已取得很大的进步,对促进国民经济发展起到了一定的作用.但与西方发达国家相比,还存在一定的差距和问题,有待于更进一步的完善,主要体现在资源税与资源补偿费上.

  15. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the East Coast Mesozoic basins of the Piedmont, Blue Ridge Thrust Belt, Atlantic Coastal Plain, and New England Provinces, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milici, Robert C.; Coleman, James L.; Rowan, Elisabeth L.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    During the early opening of the Atlantic Ocean in the Mesozoic Era, numerous extensional basins formed along the eastern margin of the North American continent from Florida northward to New England and parts of adjacent Canada. The basins extend generally from the offshore Atlantic continental margin westward beneath the Atlantic Coastal Plain to the Appalachian Mountains. Using a geology-based assessment method, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean undiscovered natural gas resource of 3,860 billion cubic feet and a mean undiscovered natural gas liquids resource of 135 million barrels in continuous accumulations within five of the East Coast Mesozoic basins: the Deep River, Dan River-Danville, and Richmond basins, which are within the Piedmont Province of North Carolina and Virginia; the Taylorsville basin, which is almost entirely within the Atlantic Coastal Plain Province of Virginia and Maryland; and the southern part of the Newark basin (herein referred to as the South Newark basin), which is within the Blue Ridge Thrust Belt Province of New Jersey. The provinces, which contain these extensional basins, extend across parts of Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, Connecticut, and Massachusetts.

  16. Overview with methods and procedures of the U.S. Geological Survey mineral-resource assessment of the Sagebrush Focal Areas of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming: Chapter A in Mineral resources of the Sagebrush Focal Areas of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Warren C.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Zientek, Michael L.; Frost, Thomas P.

    2016-08-19

    This report, chapter A of Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5089, provides an overview of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Sagebrush Mineral-Resource Assessment (SaMiRA). The report also describes the methods, procedures, and voluminous fundamental reference information used throughout the assessment. Data from several major publicly available databases and other published sources were used to develop an understanding of the locatable, leaseable, and salable mineral resources of this vast area. This report describes the geologic, mineral-occurrence, geochemical, geophysical, remote-sensing, and Bureau of Land Management mineral-case-status data used for the assessment, along with the methods for evaluating locatable mineral-resource potential. The report also discusses energy-resource data (oil and gas, coal, and geothermal) used in the assessment. Appendixes include summary descriptive mineral-deposit models that provide the criteria necessary to assess for the pertinent locatable minerals and market-demand commodity profiles for locatable mineral commodities relevant to the project. Datasets used in the assessment are available as USGS data releases.

  17. Data collection for cooperative water resources modeling in the Lower Rio Grande Basin, Fort Quitman to the Gulf of Mexico.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passell, Howard David; Pallachula, Kiran (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Villalobos, Joshua (Texas A& M University); Piccinni, Giovanni (Texas A& M University); Brainard, James Robert; Gerik, Thomas (Texas A& M University); Morrison, Wendy (Texas A& M University); Serrat-Capdevila, Aleix (University of Arizona); Valdes, Juan (University of Arizona); Sheng, Zhuping (Texas A& M University); Lovato, Rene (Instituto Mexicano de Tecnologia del Agua); Guitron, Alberto (Instituto Mexicano de Tecnologia del Agua); Ennis, Martha Lee; Aparicio, Javier (Instituto Mexicano de Tecnologia del Agua); Newman, Gretchen Carr (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Michelsen, Ari M. (Texas A& M University)

    2004-10-01

    Water resource scarcity around the world is driving the need for the development of simulation models that can assist in water resources management. Transboundary water resources are receiving special attention because of the potential for conflict over scarce shared water resources. The Rio Grande/Rio Bravo along the U.S./Mexican border is an example of a scarce, transboundary water resource over which conflict has already begun. The data collection and modeling effort described in this report aims at developing methods for international collaboration, data collection, data integration and modeling for simulating geographically large and diverse international watersheds, with a special focus on the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo. This report describes the basin, and the data collected. This data collection effort was spatially aggregated across five reaches consisting of Fort Quitman to Presidio, the Rio Conchos, Presidio to Amistad Dam, Amistad Dam to Falcon Dam, and Falcon Dam to the Gulf of Mexico. This report represents a nine-month effort made in FY04, during which time the model was not completed.

  18. Assessment of Undiscovered Natural Gas Resources of the Arkoma Basin Province and Geologically Related Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houseknecht, David W.; Coleman, James L.; Milici, Robert C.; Garrity, Christopher P.; Rouse, William A.; Fulk, Bryant R.; Paxton, Stanley T.; Abbott, Marvin M.; Mars, John L.; Cook, Troy A.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Ellis, Geoffrey S.

    2010-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 38 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of undiscovered natural gas, 159 million barrels of natural gas liquid (MMBNGL), and no oil in accumulations of 0.5 million barrels (MMBO) or larger in the Arkoma Basin Province and related areas. More than 97 percent of the undiscovered gas occurs in continuous accumulations-70 percent in shale gas formations, 18 percent in a basin-centered accumulation with tight sandstone reservoirs, and 9 percent in coal beds. Less than 3 percent of the natural gas occurs in conventional accumulations.

  19. An Integrated Water Resources Management of Develi Closed Basin in Kayseri - Türkiye

    OpenAIRE

    YILDIZ, Fatma Ebru; GÜRER, İbrahim

    2010-01-01

    This study describes an integrated water budget model of Develi Closed Basin. Sultansazlığı Wetland, being as one of the seven important wetlands and the second important bird habitat of Turkiye, is placed in Develi Closed Basin. In the recent years, Sultansazlığı faced with water scarcity and salinity problems, there is an intensive irrigated agricultural practice around the wetland with abundant use of water due to wild flooding. In the content of this study; an integrated water budget of D...

  20. The Socio-Economic Impacts on Water Resources in the Răut River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petru Bacal

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research consists in the elucidation of spatial and economic aspects of the water use in the Răut river basin. The main topics presented in this paper are: 1 the dynamics of volume of wastewater discharged into the river Raut basin and its sections; 2 wastewater discharge by the degree of treatment; 3 spatial and branch profile of wastewater discharged: 4 existing problems in evaluation and monitoring of waste water. To achieve these objectives were used traditional methods of geographical and economic research.