WorldWideScience

Sample records for basin mineral resources

  1. Sandstone copper assessment of the Teniz Basin, Kazakhstan: Chapter R in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossette, Pamela M.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Hayes, Timothy S.; Robinson, Gilpin R., Jr.; Wallis, John C.; Zientek, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts national and global resource assessments (mineral, energy, water, and biological) to provide data and scientific analyses to support decision making. Three-part mineral resource assessments result in informed, unbiased, quantitative, and probabilistic estimates of undiscovered mineral resources and deposits. In particular, mineral assessment results inform decisions concerning land-use and mineral-resource development. A probabilistic mineral resource assessment of the sandstone subtype of sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits in the Teniz Basin, Kazakhstan, was undertaken by the USGS.

  2. Hydrocarbons and Mineral Resources of the Uinta Basin, Utah and Colorado

    OpenAIRE

    United States Department of the Interior, Indian Affairs Bureau

    1995-01-01

    The Uinta Basin holds special fascination for economic geologists because of its rich and diverse assemblage of mineral and hydrocarbon resources. Due to their presence in rocks of the basin, much effort has been put into assessing and exploiting uranium, phosphate, gold, copper, coal, and evaporite minerals. However, the basin is probably best noted for its extensive and very rich accumulations of hydrocarbons such as, oil, gas, bituminous sandstones, oil shale (shale oil), and gilsonite a...

  3. Mineral resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henckens, M.L.C.M.; Ierland, van E.C.; Driessen, P.P.J.; Worrell, E.

    2016-01-01

    The extractable ores of the world's geologically scarcest mineral resources (e.g. antimony, molybdenum and zinc) may be exhausted within several decades to a century, if their extraction continues to increase. This paper explores the likelihood that these scarce mineral resources can be conserved

  4. Mineral Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Ababsa, Myriam

    2014-01-01

    Jordan’s natural resources are very limited: water is scarce, there is little arable land and the country has few sources of energy (fig. I.11). Jordan’s mineral industry has a long history: flint was used in prehistoric times and early copper mining started in Wadi Faynan during the Chalcolithic Period. The following is a brief presentation of Jordan’s resources. Mining and investments will be studied in Part 3. Figure I.11 — Jordan Mineral Resources. NRA 2012 Phosphates The Jordanian Natur...

  5. Mineral resource areas of the Yellowstone River Basin, Montana and Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Mineral resource areas are defined as those areas with a high likelihood of containing occurrences of valuable mineral deposits. A variety of sources of minerals...

  6. Sandstone copper assessment of the Chu-Sarysu Basin, Central Kazakhstan: Chapter E in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Box, Stephen E.; Syusyura, Boris; Hayes, Timothy S.; Taylor, Cliff D.; Zientek, Michael L.; Hitzman, Murray W.; Seltmann, Reimar; Chechetkin, Vladimir; Dolgopolova, Alla; Cossette, Pamela M.; Wallis, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Mineral resource assessments represent a synthesis of available information to estimate the location, quality, and quantity of undiscovered mineral resources in the upper part of the Earth’s crust. This report presents a probabilistic mineral resource assessment of undiscovered sandstone copper deposits within the late Paleozoic Chu-Sarysu Basin in central Kazakhstan by the U.S. Geological Survey as a contribution to a global assessment of mineral resources. The purposes of this study are to: (1) provide a database of known sandstone copper deposits and significant prospects in this area, (2) delineate permissive areas (tracts) for undiscovered sandstone copper deposits within 2 km of the surface at a scale of 1:1,000,000, (3) estimate numbers of undiscovered deposits within these permissive tracts at several levels of confidence, and (4) provide probabilistic estimates of amounts of copper (Cu), silver (Ag), and mineralized rock that could be contained in undiscovered deposits within each tract. The assessment uses the three-part form of mineral resource assessment based on mineral deposit models (Singer, 1993; Singer and Menzie, 2010).

  7. Porphyry copper assessment of Central America and the Caribbean Basin: Chapter I in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Floyd; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Ludington, Stephen; Zürcher, Lukas; Nelson, Carl E.; Robinson, Gilpin R., Jr.; Miller, Robert J.; Moring, Barry C.

    2014-01-01

    Mineral resource assessments provide a synthesis of available information about distributions of mineral deposits in the Earth’s crust. The U.S. Geological Survey prepared a probabilistic mineral resource assessment of undiscovered resources in porphyry copper deposits in Central America and the Caribbean Basin in collaboration with geoscientists from academia and the minerals industry. The purpose of the study was to (1) delineate permissive areas (tracts) for undiscovered porphyry copper deposits within 1 kilometer of the surface at a scale of 1:1,000,000; (2) provide a database of known porphyry copper deposits and significant prospects; (3) estimate numbers of undiscovered deposits within the permissive tracts; and (4) provide probabilistic estimates of amounts of copper, molybdenum, gold, and silver that could be contained in undiscovered deposits. The assessment was done using a three-part mineral resource assessment based on established mineral deposit models. Permissive tracts were delineated based primarily on distributions of mapped igneous rocks related to magmatic arcs that formed in tectonic settings associated with convergent plate margins. Five permissive tracts were delineated: the Early Cretaceous through Eocene Santiago tract, the Late Cretaceous through Oligocene Chortis tract, the Paleocene through Oligocene Darién tract, the Miocene and Pliocene Cocos tract, and the Eocene to Holocene Lesser Antilles tract. These tracts range in size from about 3,000 to about 204,000 square kilometers.

  8. Mineral resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.

    (placers), biogenous (ooze, limestone) or chemogenous (phosphorites and polymetallic nodules) type. In recent years, hydrothermal deposits, cobalt crust and methane gas hydrates are considered as frontier resources. Their distribution depends upon proximity...

  9. Trade in mineral resources

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Graham A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a review of current thinking on the economics of international trade in mineral resources. I first define what is meant by trade in mineral resources. I then discuss patterns of trade in mineral resources. The paper then moves on to the five topics requested by the World Trade Organization: theoretical and empirical literature on international trade in minerals; trade impacts of mineral abundance and the resource curse; the political economy of mineral trade in resource-ab...

  10. Geology and undiscovered resource assessment of the potash-bearing Central Asia Salt Basin, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Afghanistan: Chapter AA in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Jeff; Orris, Greta J.; Dunlap, Pamela; Cocker, Mark D.; Bliss, James D.

    2016-01-01

    Undiscovered potash resources in the Central Asia Salt Basin (CASB) of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Afghanistan were assessed as part of a global mineral resource assessment led by the U.S. Geological Survey. The term “potash” refers to potassium-bearing, water-soluble salts derived from evaporite basins, where seawater dried up and precipitated various salt compounds; the word for the element “potassium” is derived from potash. Potash is produced worldwide at amounts exceeding 30 million metric tons per year, mostly for use in fertilizers. The term “potash” is used by industry to refer to potassium chloride, as well as potassium in sulfate, nitrate, and oxide forms. For the purposes of this assessment, the term “potash” refers to potassium ores and minerals and potash ore grades. Resource and production values are usually expressed by industry in terms of K2O (potassium oxide) or muriate of potash (KCl, potassium chloride).

  11. Mineral Resources Data System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Mineral resource occurrence data covering the world, most thoroughly within the U.S. This database contains the records previously provided in the Mineral Resource...

  12. Marine mineral resources of the Central Indian Basin: Ferromanganese nodules and crusts

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, P.S.; Nair, R.R.

    The morphology, mineralogy and composition of ferromanganese nodules and crusts from the Central Indian Basin and southwestern flank of the Charlsberg Ridge have been characterized from the analyses of data and samples collected at more than 2000...

  13. Discussion on Nontraditional Mineral Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, the authors introduce the concept of nontraditional mineral resources, and pro pose the major system of nontraditional mineral resources, including nontraditional resources, research methods, mining and mineral economics. Then the authors conclude that the research on nontraditional mineral resources is not only significant to satisfication the human needs in the 21st century, but also important to the development of the present geological theory.

  14. The Role of Heat in the Development of Energy and Mineral Resources in the Northern Basin and Range Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Richard L.

    It is now just over a decade since OPEC escalated the price of oil and triggered a flurry of alternate energy research and changing energy consumption practices. One scientific impact of that historical economic turning point was the launching of geothermal exploration programs of unprecedented intensity that focused on Cenozoic volcanic rocks and active, as well as fossil, geothermal systems. The good science that was already being done on such rocks and systems was both accelerated and diluted by government-funded research and energy industry exploration efforts. After the initial flood of detailed reports, gray literature, and documents interred in company files, we are observing the appearance of syntheses of just what happened and what progress was achieved during the geothermal boom (which has now wilted to the quiet development of a few most promising sites). Recent examples of geothermal synthesis literature include the book Geothermal Systems by L. Rybach and L.J. Muffler (John Wiley, New York, 1981), publications like Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries Paper 15 by G.R. Priest et al. (1983) entitled “Geology and geothermal resources of central Oregon Cascade range,” and informative maps like the U.S. Geological Survey series summarizing late Cenozoic volcanic rock distribution and age (R.G. Luedke and R.L. Smith, maps 1-1091 A to D, 1979 to 1982), and state and regional geothermal resources maps (NOAA National Geophysical Data Center, 1977-1982). The book under review here is part of this second literature wave, a useful primary reference, collection of syntheses, and literature guide but certainly not unique.

  15. Clay minerals and sedimentary basin history

    OpenAIRE

    Merriman, Richard J.

    2005-01-01

    Clay minerals in the mud and soil that coat the Earth's surface are part of a clay cycle that breaks down and creates rock in the crust. Clays generated by surface weathering and shallow diagenetic processes are transformed into mature clay mineral assemblages in the mudrocks found in sedimentary basins. During metamorphism, the release of alkali elements and boron from clay minerals generates magmas that are subsequently weathered and recycled, representing the magma-to-mud pathway of the cl...

  16. Research of the discharge's uranium mineralization hydrogeochemistry of Baiyinhubuer basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By means of the research of the discharge's hydrogeology conditions and chemical characteristics of groundwater in Dongwuqi Baiyinhubuer basin, analyzes space attribute and the character of supply, leach and discharge in this basin, the discharge in this region is the local discharge, testifies the zone of chemical character of groundwater. By the correlativity of isotope, the precipitation is the only resource of groundwater because altitude of sampling is less to supply altitude. According to the attribute of discharge in Baiyinhubuer basin, and the relationship to uranium mineralization, marks off the perspective of uranium mineralizations, the discharge controlling the uranium mineralization in space is testified. Advanced research method is discussed in the region where has several discharges

  17. Assessment of undiscovered copper resources associated with the Permian Kupferschiefer, Southern Permian Basin, Europe: Chapter U in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zientek, Michael L.; Oszczepalski, Sławomir; Parks, Heather L.; Bliss, James D.; Borg, Gregor; Box, Stephen E.; Denning, Paul D.; Hayes, Timothy S.; Spieth, Volker; Taylor, Cliff D.

    2015-01-01

    This study synthesizes available information and estimates the location and quantity of undiscovered copper associated with a late Permian bituminous shale, the Kupferschiefer, of the Southern Permian Basin in Europe. The purpose of this study is to (1) delineate permissive areas (tracts) where undiscovered reduced-facies sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits could occur within 2.5 kilometers of the surface, (2) provide a database of known reduced-facies-type sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits and significant prospects, and (3) provide probabilistic estimates of amounts of undiscovered copper that could be present within each tract. This assessment is a contribution to a global assessment conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

  18. Mineral resources of the Tertiary deposits of Spain

    OpenAIRE

    García del Cura, M. Ángeles; Cristino J. Dabrio; Ordóñez Delgado, Salvador

    1996-01-01

    Spain is the most self-sufficient country for minerals in the EsU. A major proportion of these Spanish mineral resources has been oblained from Tertiary material-. The main material exploited in Tertiary basins have been: brown coal and lignites, potassium salts, sodium salts (sulphates and chlorides), diátomite, sepiolite and other absorbent days, bentonites, celestine. pumíce and also dimension (building) stones and ceramícs, portland cement and plaster raw materials. Pb-...

  19. Superficial mineral resources of the Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiquie, H. N.; Gujar, A. R.; Hashimi, N. H.; Valsangkar, A. B.

    The sea floor of the Indian Ocean and the continental margins bordering the ocean are covered by a wide variety of terrigenous, biogenous and anthigenic mineral deposits The humid tropical climate of some of the land areas bordering the Indian Ocean accelerates weathering of the source rocks. This coupled with the large river runoff and wave and current conditions favour the formation of a variety of placer deposits. The beach and offshore placer deposits of the Indian Ocean may be some of the largest in the world. The biogenous deposits in the Indian Ocean comprise the corals on shallow banks and on the continental shelves and the oozes in the deep sea. A study of these deposits is needed to acquire a better understanding of their formation, turnover, regeneration rates and sustainable yields. The anthigenic deposits in the Indian Ocean comprise the phosphorites and the polymetallic nodules. Occurrences of phosphorite deposits have been found both along continental margins (South Africa and Western India) and around seamounts (Eastern and Western Indian Ocean). The continental margins of South Africa, East Africa, Southern Arabia, Western India and the Andamans are marked by strong upwelling and provide non-depositional environments which are conducive to the formation of phosphorite. The polymetallic nodules in the Indian Ocean cover an area of 10-15. 10 6 km 2 and the resources are estimated to be about 1.5 .10 11 tonnes. A study of over 900 chemical analyses from 350 stations shows that the deposits in most of the basins are submarginal; in the Central Indian Ocean they are paramarginal (Ni + Cu + Co > 2.4% and concentrations > 5 kg.m -2). Most of the exploration for minerals even on the continental margins of the Indian Ocean has been carried out by the developed countries from outside the region and little work has been carried out by the countries bordering the Indian Ocean. The development of capabilities within the region for exploration of the mineral

  20. Aggregation of estimated numbers of undiscovered deposits: an R-script with an example from the Chu Sarysu Basin, Kazakhtan: Chapter B in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuenemeyer, John H.; Zientek, Michael L.; Box, Stephen E.

    2011-01-01

    Mineral resource assessments completed by the U.S. Geological Survey during the past three decades express geologically based estimates of numbers of undiscovered mineral deposits as probability distributions. Numbers of undiscovered deposits of a given type are estimated in geologically defined regions. Using Monte Carlo simulations, these undiscovered deposit estimates are combined with tonnage and grade models to derive a probability distribution describing amounts of commodities and rock that could be present in undiscovered deposits within a study area. In some situations, it is desirable to aggregate the assessment results from several study areas. This report provides a script developed in open-source statistical software, R, that aggregates undiscovered deposit estimates of a given type, assuming independence, total dependence, or some degree of correlation among aggregated areas, given a user-specified correlation matrix.

  1. Oceans: Geochemistry and mineral resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joao, H.M.; Paropkari, A.L.

    resources on the continental margins as in deep sea is currently uneconomical. With further depletion of onshore resources and advancement in technology, the mining of these resources may also become a reality in the near future....

  2. Sediment-hosted stratabound copper assessment of the Neoproterozoic Roan Group, central African copperbelt, Katanga Basin, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Zambia: Chapter T in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zientek, Michael L.; Bliss, James D.; Broughton, David W.; Christie, Michael; Denning, Paul D.; Hayes, Timothy S.; Hitzman, Murray W.; Horton, John D.; Frost-Killian, Susan; Jack, Douglas J.; Master, Sharad; Parks, Heather L.; Taylor, Cliff D.; Wilson, Anna B.; Wintzer, Niki E.; Woodhead, Jon

    2014-01-01

    This study estimates the location, quality, and quantity of undiscovered copper in stratabound deposits within the Neoproterozoic Roan Group of the Katanga Basin in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Zambia. The study area encompasses the Central African Copperbelt, the greatest sediment-hosted copper-cobalt province in the world, containing 152 million metric tons of copper in greater than 80 deposits. This study (1) delineates permissive areas (tracts) where undiscovered sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits may occur within 2 kilometers of the surface, (2) provides a database of known sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits and prospects, (3) estimates numbers of undiscovered deposits within these permissive tracts at several levels of confidence, and (4) provides probabilistic estimates of amounts of copper and mineralized rock that could be contained in undiscovered deposits within each tract. The assessment, conducted in January 2010 using a three-part form of mineral resource assessment, indicates that a substantial amount of undiscovered copper resources might occur in sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits within the Roan Group in the Katanga Basin. Monte Carlo simulation results that combine grade and tonnage models with estimates of undiscovered deposits indicate that the mean estimate of undiscovered copper in the study area is 168 million metric tons, which is slightly greater than the known resources at 152 million metric tons. Furthermore, significant value can be expected from associated metals, particularly cobalt. Tracts in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) have potential to contain near-surface, undiscovered deposits. Monte Carlo simulation results indicate a mean value of 37 million metric tons of undiscovered copper may be present in significant prospects.

  3. Mineral Resource Data System: Conterminous US

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — MRDS describes metallic and nonmetallic mineral resources throughout the world. Included are deposit name, location, commodity, deposit description, geologic...

  4. Mineral resources in Afghanistan. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite Afghanistan's wide variety of mineral resources and long history of small-scale mining of gems, gold, copper, and coal, it was not until the 1950's that the country's mineral resources were subject to systematic exploration. The report documents the past and present status of these resources and examines alternative strategies for their exploitation. Chapter 2 provides a brief history of minerals exploration, exploitation, and planning in Afghanistan, including the roles of Great Britain, France, Germany, the Soviet bloc, and the United States in Afghanistan's mineral sector; mineral policy in the five national plans during the years 1962-83; and sector assessments conducted by the World Bank (1978) and the US Department of Energy (1989). Chapter 3 discusses three strategies for developing the country's mineral and hydrocarbon resources. (1) a national orientation focusing on domestic needs; (2) a regional strategy that would consider markets in countries close to Afghanistan; and (3) an international strategy that would place Afghan resources on the international market

  5. In Brief: Assessing Afghanistan's mineral resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2007-12-01

    Afghanistan has significant amounts of undiscovered nonfuel mineral resources, with copper and iron ore having the most potential for extraction, according to a new U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment. The assessment, done cooperatively with the Afghanistan Geological Survey of the Afghanistan Ministry of Mines, also found indications of significant deposits of colored stones and gemstones (including emeralds, rubies, and sapphires), gold, mercury, sulfur, chromite, and other resources. ``Mineral resource assessments provide government decision-makers and potential private investors with objective, unbiased information on where undiscovered mineral resources may be located, what kinds of resources are likely to occur, and how much of each mineral commodity may exist in them,'' said USGS director Mark Myers. The USGS, in cooperation with the Afghan government, released an oil and gas resources assessment in March 2006 and an earthquake hazards assessment in May 2007. For more information, visit the Web sites: http://afghanistan.cr.usgs.gov and http://www.bgs.ac.uk/afghanminerals/.

  6. Surface mining of mineral resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braeunig, H.D.

    1982-05-01

    This article outlines general advantages of surface mining technology and aspects of selecting the most suitable mining technology in surface mine projection. Heavy surface mining equipment of the TAKRAF engineering plants is recommended for efficient excavation and overburden removal up to 230,000 m/sup 3/d capacity with the largest excavator type and 440,000 m/sup 3/d capacity with the largest overburden conveyor bridge. Two major variants of surface mine technology are outlined: design of surface mines with continuous working equipment (bucket wheel or bucket chain excavators requiring up to 200 N/cm digging force for minerals and overburden and haulage by belt conveyors) or discontinuously working equipment (dragline excavators, truck transportation, etc.). The second major variant concerns overburden removal to the spoil bank, either by haulage in a semicircle around the pit or by a shortcut across the pit from the excavation to the spoil bank side (direct spoil removal method). TAKRAF equipment for surface mining operations is described with various specifications and details on its performance. (In German)

  7. A Review of Mineral Resources and GIS Applications in Mineral Resource Assessment in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Yunxuan; Wang Lei; Liu Wansong; Xu Huiping; Sun Fengyue

    2000-01-01

    Northeast China is one of the regions in China that possesses a great abundance of mineral resources.Coal, petroleum, natural gas, gold, iron, magnesite, graphite, talc, molding sand, glass sand and some others account for large portion in reserves and yields of that in the whole country. The region faced also shortages of copper, molybdenum, oil shale, zirconium, tantalum, rare earth, and beryllium, although they have large reserves,but limited by economical and technical factors. Geological mapping and mineral exploration activities have been intensive. Only the north part of Daxinanling Mountains in the region leaves unexplored. GIS applications in mineral resource assessment in the region start not long. Databases for GIS applications are on the way of construction.Well - trained technical staff and expertise do not meet the demand.This article reviews the situation of mineral resources and GIS applications for mineral resource assessment in the region. Suggestions on multi - lateral cooperation and GIS training are also made.

  8. Xinjiang Integrates Mineral Resources of 11 Major Mining Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>According to reports,from this year,Xinjiang, a large mineral resource province,will implement mineral resource integration of 11 major mining areas involving minerals including coal, iron,copper and bentonite,so as to further adjust the structure of mineral exploitation and optimize the distribution of resources.

  9. Mineral resource of the month: aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, E. Lee

    2012-01-01

    The article offers information on aluminum, a mineral resource which is described as the third-most abundant element in Earth's crust. According to the article, aluminum is the second-most used metal. Hans Christian Oersted, a Danish chemist, was the first to isolate aluminum in the laboratory. Aluminum is described as lightweight, corrosion-resistant and an excellent conductor of electricity and heat.

  10. Global mineral resource assessment: porphyry copper assessment of Mexico: Chapter A in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Robinson, Gilpin R., Jr.; Ludington, Steve; Gray, Floyd; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Cendejas-Cruz, Francisco; Espinosa, Enrique; Pérez-Segura, Efrén; Valencia-Moreno, Martín; Rodríguez-Castañeda, José Luis; Vásquez-Mendoza, Rigobert; Zürcher, Lukas

    2010-01-01

    Mineral resource assessments provide a synthesis of available information about distributions of mineral deposits in the Earth’s crust. A probabilistic mineral resource assessment of undiscovered resources in porphyry copper deposits in Mexico was done as part of a global mineral resource assessment. The purpose of the study was to (1) delineate permissive areas (tracts) for undiscovered porphyry copper deposits within 1 km of the surface at a scale of 1:1,000,000; (2) provide a database of known porphyry copper deposits and significant prospects; (3) estimate numbers of undiscovered deposits within those permissive tracts; and (4) provide probabilistic estimates of amounts of copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), gold (Au), and silver (Ag) that could be contained in undiscovered deposits for each permissive tract. The assessment was conducted using a three-part form of mineral resource assessment based on mineral deposit models (Singer, 1993). Delineation of permissive tracts primarily was based on distributions of mapped igneous rocks related to magmatic arcs that formed in tectonic settings associated with subduction boundary zones. Using a GIS, map units were selected from digital geologic maps based on lithology and age to delineate twelve permissive tracts associated with Jurassic, Laramide (~90 to 34 Ma), and younger Tertiary magmatic arcs. Stream-sediment geochemistry, mapped alteration, regional aeromagnetic data, and exploration history were considered in conjunction with descriptive deposit models and grade and tonnage models to guide estimates.

  11. Mineral resources estimation based on block modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargawa, Waterman Sulistyana; Amri, Nur Ali

    2016-02-01

    The estimation in this paper uses three kinds of block models of nearest neighbor polygon, inverse distance squared and ordinary kriging. The techniques are weighting scheme which is based on the principle that block content is a linear combination of the grade data or the sample around the block being estimated. The case study in Pongkor area, here is gold-silver resource modeling that allegedly shaped of quartz vein as a hydrothermal process of epithermal type. Resources modeling includes of data entry, statistical and variography analysis of topography and geological model, the block model construction, estimation parameter, presentation model and tabulation of mineral resources. Skewed distribution, here isolated by robust semivariogram. The mineral resources classification generated in this model based on an analysis of the kriging standard deviation and number of samples which are used in the estimation of each block. Research results are used to evaluate the performance of OK and IDS estimator. Based on the visual and statistical analysis, concluded that the model of OK gives the estimation closer to the data used for modeling.

  12. Basin Fluid Mineralization during Multistage Evolution of the Lanping Sedimentary Basin, Southwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Lanping sedimentary basin has experienced a five-stage evolution since the late Paleozoic: ocean-continent transformation (late Paleozoic to early mid-Triassic); intracontinental rift basin (late mid-Triassic to early Jurassic); down-warped basin (middle to late Jurassic); foreland basin (Cretaceous); and strike-slip basin (Cenozoic). Three major genetic types of Ag-Cu polymetailic ore deposits, including the reworked hydrothermal sedimentary, sedimentary-hydrothermally reworked and hydrothermal vein types, are considered to be the products of basin fluid activity at specific sedimentary-tectonic evolutionary stages. Tectonic differences of the different evolutionary stages resulted in considerable discrepancy in the mechanisms of formation-transportation, migration direction and emplacement processes of the basin fluids, thus causing differences in mineralization styles as well as in genetic types of ore deposit.

  13. Multivariate statistical analysis of stream sediments for mineral resources from the Craig NTMS Quadrangle, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyth, M.; McInteer, C.; Broxton, D.E.; Bolivar, S.L.; Luke, M.E.

    1980-06-01

    Multivariate statistical analyses were carried out on Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance data from the Craig quadrangle, Colorado, to support the National Uranium Resource Evaluation and to evaluate strategic or other important commercial mineral resources. A few areas for favorable uranium mineralization are suggested for parts of the Wyoming Basin, Park Range, and Gore Range. Six potential source rocks for uranium are postulated based on factor score mapping. Vanadium in stream sediments is suggested as a pathfinder for carnotite-type mineralization. A probable northwest trend of lead-zinc-copper mineralization associated with Tertiary intrusions is suggested. A few locations are mapped where copper is associated with cobalt. Concentrations of placer sands containing rare earth elements, probably of commercial value, are indicated for parts of the Sand Wash Basin.

  14. Multivariate statistical analysis of stream sediments for mineral resources from the Craig NTMS Quadrangle, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multivariate statistical analyses were carried out on Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance data from the Craig quadrangle, Colorado, to support the National Uranium Resource Evaluation and to evaluate strategic or other important commercial mineral resources. A few areas for favorable uranium mineralization are suggested for parts of the Wyoming Basin, Park Range, and Gore Range. Six potential source rocks for uranium are postulated based on factor score mapping. Vanadium in stream sediments is suggested as a pathfinder for carnotite-type mineralization. A probable northwest trend of lead-zinc-copper mineralization associated with Tertiary intrusions is suggested. A few locations are mapped where copper is associated with cobalt. Concentrations of placer sands containing rare earth elements, probably of commercial value, are indicated for parts of the Sand Wash Basin

  15. Aggregate and Mineral Resources - Industrial Mineral Mining Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — An Industrial Mineral Mining Operation is a DEP primary facility type related to the Industrial Mineral Mining Program. The sub-facility types are listed below:Deep...

  16. Classification of Mineral Resources Associated and Accompanied with Coal Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The paper discusses the concept of mineral resources associated with coal measures. A rational and scientific classification of such mineral resources becomes more necessary with the development of science and technology. A classification scheme is proposed based on compositions and physical properties and the utilization of these associated minerals.

  17. NATURAL GAS RESOURCES IN DEEP SEDIMENTARY BASINS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thaddeus S. Dyman; Troy Cook; Robert A. Crovelli; Allison A. Henry; Timothy C. Hester; Ronald C. Johnson; Michael D. Lewan; Vito F. Nuccio; James W. Schmoker; Dennis B. Riggin; Christopher J. Schenk

    2002-02-05

    From a geological perspective, deep natural gas resources are generally defined as resources occurring in reservoirs at or below 15,000 feet, whereas ultra-deep gas occurs below 25,000 feet. From an operational point of view, ''deep'' is often thought of in a relative sense based on the geologic and engineering knowledge of gas (and oil) resources in a particular area. Deep gas can be found in either conventionally-trapped or unconventional basin-center accumulations that are essentially large single fields having spatial dimensions often exceeding those of conventional fields. Exploration for deep conventional and unconventional basin-center natural gas resources deserves special attention because these resources are widespread and occur in diverse geologic environments. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated that 939 TCF of technically recoverable natural gas remained to be discovered or was part of reserve appreciation from known fields in the onshore areas and State waters of the United. Of this USGS resource, nearly 114 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of technically-recoverable gas remains to be discovered from deep sedimentary basins. Worldwide estimates of deep gas are also high. The U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment 2000 Project recently estimated a world mean undiscovered conventional gas resource outside the U.S. of 844 Tcf below 4.5 km (about 15,000 feet). Less is known about the origins of deep gas than about the origins of gas at shallower depths because fewer wells have been drilled into the deeper portions of many basins. Some of the many factors contributing to the origin of deep gas include the thermal stability of methane, the role of water and non-hydrocarbon gases in natural gas generation, porosity loss with increasing thermal maturity, the kinetics of deep gas generation, thermal cracking of oil to gas, and source rock potential based on thermal maturity and kerogen type. Recent experimental simulations

  18. Current Picture for China’s Mineral Resource Availability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志

    2008-01-01

    Economic growth and structural change has caused China to consume an increasingly immense amount of mineral resources. This article is intended to present a fundamental picture of mineral resource shortages facing China through an in-depth analysis of mineral reserves, demand and supply as well as structure. We believe that China will continue to face a shortage of certain representative minerals resources in the foreseeable future. As a result, China has to rely on imports of such minerals to meet surging domestic demand.

  19. Geology, geochemistry, geophysics, mineral occurrences, and mineral resource assessment for the commonwealth of Puerto Rico

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Geologic map with faults, along with additional scientific information needed for mineral resource assessment (geochemical analyses, mineral occurrences, geologic...

  20. Preliminary discussion on relationship between deep-basin gas and uranium mineralization in Ordos basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deep-basin gas is a kind of non-traditional natural gas deposit. The deep-basin gas in Ordos basin is closely associated with uranium mineralization. Upper Paleozoic in the basement of the basin represents both gas-sourced and uranium-sourced beds and uranium in Paleozoic strata is easily leachable. The squeezed water (i.e. deep-bed water) formed during the diagenetic process of uranium-sourced bed was rapidly heated and pressed making the uranium solubility in it greatly increased. It was just the peak-period of gas generation in the basin, and gas pressure greatly exceeded water pressure. So, the gas made deep-bed water moved and diffused upwards along faults. Because of the complicated gas-water geochemical barrier formed by the involvement of surface water, the precipitation of uranium occurred in overlying aquifers to form uranium deposit. This paper has summarized prospecting criteria of such uranium deposit as well

  1. Temporo-spatial Coordinates of Evolution of the Ordos Basin and Its Mineralization Responses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Chiyang; ZHAO Hongge; ZHAO Junfeng; WANG Jianqiang; ZHANG Dongdong; YANG Minghui

    2008-01-01

    The Ordos basin was developed from Mid-Late Triassic to Early Cretaceous, and then entered into its later reformation period since the Late Cretaceous. Its main body bears the features of an intra-cratonic basin. The basin also belongs to a multi-superposed basin which has overlapped on the large-scale basins of the Early and Late Paleozoic. Currently, Ordos basin has become a residual basin experienced reformation of various styles since the Late Cretaceous. It's suggested that there were at least four obvious stages of tectonic deformations existing during the basin's evolution, dividing the evolution and sedimentation into four stages. The prior two stages were of the most prosperous, during which the lake basin was broad, the deposition range was more than twice larger than the current residual basin, resulting in major oil- and coal-bearing strata. The two stages were separated by regional uplift fluctuations in the area. At the end of the Yan'an Stage, the depositional interruption and erosion were lasting for a short period of time. The third one is the Mid- Jurassic Zhiluo-Anding stage, in which the sedimentation extent was still broad but the lake area was obviously reduced. In the Late Jurassic tectonic deformation was intensive. A thrust-nappe belt was formed on the basin's western margin while conglomerate of different thickness were accumulated within the foredeep of the eastern side. The central and eastern parts of the basin were subject to erosion and reformation. A regional framework with "uplift in the east and depression in the west" took shape in the area west of the Yellow River. In the Early Cretaceous sediments were widely distributed, unconformably overlapping the former western margin thrust belt and the ridges on the northern and southern borders. There are abundant energy resources such as oil, natural gas, coal and uranium deposits formed in Ordos Basin. The main stages of generation, mineralization and positioning of the multiple energy

  2. Mineral Resource Information System for Field Lab in the Osage Mineral Reservation Estate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, H.B.; Johnson, William I.

    1999-04-27

    The Osage Mineral Reservation Estate is located in Osage County, Oklahoma. Minerals on the Estate are owned by members of the Osage Tribe who are shareholders in the Estate. The Estate is administered by the Osage Agency, Branch of Minerals, operated by the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). Oil, natural gas, casinghead gas, and other minerals (sand, gravel, limestone, and dolomite) are exploited by lessors. Operators may obtain from the Branch of Minerals and the Osage Mineral Estate Tribal Council leases to explore and exploit oil, gas, oil and gas, and other minerals on the Estate. Operators pay a royalty on all minerals exploited and sold from the Estate. A mineral Resource Information system was developed for this project to evaluate the remaining hydrocarbon resources located on the Estate. Databases on Microsoft Excel spreadsheets of operators, leases, and production were designed for use in conjunction with an evaluation spreadsheet for estimating the remaining hydrocarbons on the Estate.

  3. Mineral resources: Geological scarcity, market price trends, and future generations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henckens, M.L.C.M.; van Ierland, E.C.; Driessen, P.P.J.; Worrell, E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The extractable ores of the world's geologically scarcest mineral resources (e.g. antimony, molybdenum and zinc) may be exhausted within several decades to a century, if their extraction continues to increase. This paper explores the likelihood that these scarce mineral resources can be con

  4. Mineral resources and constraints on China’s economic growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李钢; 陈志; 崔云

    2009-01-01

    This article conducts an empirical study of how access to mineral resources can constrain China’s economic growth.The authors reckon that due to the relatively low price elasticity of supply and demand in relation to mineral resources over the short run,access to mineral resources places pronounced constraints on economic growth in the short run,but only marginal constraints on economic growth in the long run.This split is the result of alternate resource substitution and technological progress.In this article,the authors have calculated the actual effects of access to mineral resources on China’s economic growth using 2001-2006 mineral resource import and export data.The results of these calculations show that,in the short run,access to mineral resources is increasingly placing constraints on China’s economic growth.The value of these constraints rose from 4.96% of GDP in 2006 to 5.74% of GDP in 2007 (estimated).Contrastingly,in the long run,the constraints that access to mineral resources place on China’s economic growth are quite limited at approximately 0.23% of GDP.

  5. Principles of Probabilistic Regional Mineral Resource Estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Frits Agterberg

    2011-01-01

    Five principal sources of uncertainty in quantitative mineral resource estimation are listed and illustrated by means of a simple example (mosaic model) and a case history study for large copper deposits in the Abitibi area of the Canadian Shield.Abitibi copper potential originally was estimated on the basis of 1968 estimates of production and reserves totalling 3. 12 Mt Cu.This prognostication now could be evaluated on the basis of 2008 copper production and reserves totalling 9. 50 Mt Cu. An earlier hindsight study performed on the basis of 1977 data (totalling 5. 23 Mt Cu) showed seven new discoveries occurring either in the immediate vicinities of known deposits or on broad regional copper anomalies predicted from the 1968 inputs. By 1977,the global geographic distribution pattern of large copper deposits in the Abitibi area had stabilized. During the next 30 years,new copper was essentially found close to existing deposits, much of it deeper down in the Earth's crust. In this paper, uncertainties associated with copper ore tonnage are analyzed by comparison of 2008 data with 1968 data using (a) log-log plots of size versus rank, and (b) lognormal QQ-plots. Straight lines fitted by least squares on these plots show that 1968 slopes provide good estimates of 2008 slopes but 1968 intercepts are much less than 2008 intercepts. In each linear log-weight versus logrank plot, the slope is related to fractal dimension of a Pareto frequency distribution, and in a lognormal QQ-plot it is determined by logarithmic variance The difference between 2008 and 1968 intercepts represents the increase in copper ore production and reserves from 1968 to 2008. The Pareto model fits actual copper and massive sulphides increase over the past 40 years better than the lognormal frequency distribution model for 10 km× 10 km cells on favorable environments in the Abitibi area.

  6. Simulation of mine drainage for preliminary development of oil shale and associated minerals, Piceance basin, northwestern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, O. James

    1986-01-01

    The Piceance basin of northwestern Colorado contains large resources of oil shale, nahcolite, and dawsonite. Development of these minerals will require drainage of water from mines. A six-layer hydrologic model of the basin was prepared to simulate mine drainage for mineral development. Streams and major tributaries were simulated as head-dependent nodes. Stream nodes were gaining or losing, but the rate of loss was constrained by the leakance of the streambed and the stream stage. Springs also were simulated as head-dependent nodes that stop flowing if the aquifer head declines below the spring orifice. (USGS)

  7. Mineral resources and geo-engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Fathi Habashi

    2015-01-01

    Metals used in everyday life are produced from ores occurring in the Earth’s crust. Geological processes are known to concentrate minerals to form ores of economic value. Mineral processing engineers concentrate these ores by mechanical and physico-chemical methods while the extractive metallurgist extracts the metals by chemical means.

  8. Earth mineral resource of the month: asbestos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virta, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    The article discusses the characteristics and feature of asbestos. According to the author, asbestos is a generic name for six needle-shaped minerals that possess high tensile strengths, flexibility, and resistance to chemical and thermal degradation. These minerals are actinolite, amosite, anthophyllite, chrysolite, crocilodite and tremolite. Asbestos is used for strengthening concrete pipe, plastic components, and gypsum plasters.

  9. Water resource management model for a river basin

    OpenAIRE

    Jelisejevienė, Emilija

    2005-01-01

    The objective is to develop river basin management model that ensures integrated analysis of existing water resource problems and promotes implementation of sustainable development principles in water resources management.

  10. Mineral Features of Surface Sediments and Analysis of Solid-State Mineral Resources in Southeastern China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    With the development of modern industry and the increase of human demand, it is increasingly important to prospect and exploit marine mineral resources. Based on the oceanic geological investigation references obtained from the regional geological surveying and mapping of China Sea (“Shantoufu, F-50” 1: 1 000 000) and on the data (“Marine Engineering Geological Investigation Project in the Pearl River Mouth basin in the South China Sea” 1: 200 000), the authors elaborate the grain size composition, mineral composition, mineral features and distribution pattern of the surface sediments in the sea at 114°- 120°E and 20°-24°N. Moreover, the analysis of the regional solid-state mineral resources in the coast of iFujian, Guangdong and the west of Taiwan, shows that the main resources include littoral/neritic placers, littoral/neritic sandy gravel and ferromanganese nodule (crust). In addition, the future focus should be on the placers and sandy gravels in this littoral area.

  11. Numerical models of carbonate hosted gold mineralization, Great Basin Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, M.; Hofstra, A.; Gao, Y.; Sweetkind, D.; Banerjee, A.

    2006-12-01

    The Great Basin, Nevada contains many modern hydrothermal system and world class gold deposits hosted within Paleozoic carbonate rocks. Temperature profiles, fluid inclusion studies, and isotopic evidence suggest that modern geothermal and fossil hydrothermal systems associated with gold mineralization share many common features including the absence of a clear magmatic source, flow restricted to fault zones, and remarkably high temperatures at shallow depth. While the plumbing of these systems is not well understood, geochemical and isotopic data suggest that fluid circulation along fault zones is relatively deep (greater than 5 km) and comprised of relatively unexchanged Pleistocene meteoric water with small (less than 2.5 per mill) shifts from the MWL. Many fossil ore-forming systems were also dominated by meteoric water, but are usually exhibit shifts of 5 to 15 per mill from the MWL. Here we present two-dimensional numerical models to reconstruct the plumbing of modern geothermal and Tertiary hydrothermal systems in the Great Basin. Multiple tracers are used in our models, including O- and C-isotopic compositions of fluids/rocks, silica transport/ precipitation, and temperature anomalies, to constrain the plumbing of these systems. Our results suggest that both fossil hydrothermal and modern geothermal systems were probably driven by natural convection cells associated with localized high basal heating. We conclude that the fault controlled flow systems responsible for the genesis of Carlin gold mineralization and modern geothermal systems had to be transient in nature. Permeability changes within the carbonate reservoir was probably associated with extensional tectonic events.

  12. Classification system of the mineral reserves and resources of Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the system used to classify the resources and reserves of all minerals and fuels in Ukraine. The classification system is part of an official procedure determined by the Ukrainian State Commission on Reserves. Following preparation of resource estimates the results are registered with the State, which maintains an official inventory of all mineral resources. This paper compares the Ukrainian system to, and finds it compatible with the United Nations International Framework of resource classification. The UN system is based on economics of production and mineability. (author)

  13. Mineral resources: Geological scarcity, market price trends, and future generations

    OpenAIRE

    Henckens, M.L.C.M.; van Ierland, E. C.; Driessen, P.P.J.; Worrell, E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The extractable ores of the world's geologically scarcest mineral resources (e.g. antimony, molybdenum and zinc) may be exhausted within several decades to a century, if their extraction continues to increase. This paper explores the likelihood that these scarce mineral resources can be conserved in time for future generations without intervening but instead simply relying on the price mechanism of the free market system. First we discuss the role of geological scarcity in the long-t...

  14. Mineral resource of the month: magnesium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Deborah A.

    2012-01-01

    Magnesium is the eighthmost abundant element in Earth’s crust, and the second-most abundant metal ion in seawater. Although magnesium is found in more than 60 minerals, only brucite, dolomite, magnesite and carnallite are commercially important for their magnesium content. Magnesium and its compounds also are recovered from seawater, brines found in lakes and wells, and bitterns (salts).

  15. Mineral resource of the month: niobium (columbium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, John F.

    2007-01-01

    It’s not just diamonds associated with conflict in Africa. Coltan, short for columbite-tantalite (a blend of niobium — also called columbium — and tantalum minerals), is linked with the recent conflicts in the Congo that involved several African countries. The metallic ore, which is processed to separate out niobium and the very valuable tantalum (see Geotimes, August 2004), is believed to be smuggled out and sold to help finance the armed conflicts.

  16. Mineral Resources and Their Comprehensive Utilization in China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@It was said that mineral resources in oceans might be a reliable source for the material production. Ocean water is regarded as a huge “liquid deposit” for its ability to dissolve many kinds of elements. The total amount of elements in ocean water is greater than that in land. At the seafloor or below, occur a large number of mineral resources besides those in the water.China Sea, situated in the junction between North China block, Yangtze block and the Pacific plate and the Philippines plate, is excellent in ore-forming geological conditions, resulting in the presence of many kinds of deposits and abundant reserves. Mineral resources found in China Sea mainly include oil-gas resources, sea-beach placer and submarine coalfield.In addition, the manganese nodule and cobalt-rich crust are also discovered in South China Sea. Furthermore, the hydrothermal metalliferous deposit and gas hydrate may also be present in South China Sea.

  17. The application of GIS in identifying mineral resources in Libya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekhibi, Soliman; Wadi, Monira; Said, Ali

    2012-04-01

    In any country, natural mineral resources are considered the back-bone for the development of the industry and the country's economical growth. Exploration and mining for mineral ores and manufacturing and marketing these ores will add value to the country's national income. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technology has an advantage over other information systems because it combines the conventional query operations with the ability to display and analyze spatial data from maps, satellite imagery, and aerial photography. Knowing the importance of mineral ores as a pilar of the economy this paper concentrates on mineral resources in Libya. Geographic information systems (GIS) was used for identifying mineral resources in Libya. Geodatabases were designed and all available information were stored in these geodatabases. The information was collected from scientific researchers, and geological and mining studies. The database also, included the Libyan international boundaries, the administrative boundaries and the oil and gas fields and pipelines, and such maps as geophysical and geological maps. Thus a comprehensive database was created containing all the information available concerning mineral resources in Libya.

  18. Conditions and potential evaluation of the uranium mineralization in volcanic basins at the west section of the Yanliao mineral belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The West section of the Yanliao Mineral Belt is an important prospective uranium mineralization area in volcanic basins at North China. It has undergone three evolutionary periods and developed into six large volcanic collapse faulted basins with tri-layer structure. This leads to three times of pre-enrichment and multiple mineralization of uranium. Finally, the accumulation of uranium and superimposed reworked actions of uranium mineralization resulted in the formation of uranium deposits. After analyzing conditions of uranium mineralization, a model for uranium mineralization of mixed hydrothermal solution of multiple sources in penetrating volcanic collapse faulted basins and seven exploring criteria are suggested. On this basis the evaluation of prospect in this area is positive, and the main exploring strategy has been decided. Furthermore, five prospective areas of mineralization and three most favorable mineralization zones are selected. For exploring large size or super-large size uranium deposits in the area, the key is to strengthen the study and boring of deep layers. Thus, the mineralization in the deep layers or basement may be found. The prediction of deep blind deposits in known ore districts has been proved effectively

  19. Discussion on the basement topography and its relation with the uranium mineralization in Xiangshan basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The depth of the basement and the relation between the basement relief shape and uranium mineralization are discussed by forward and inverse computation for large-scale gravity data in Xiangshan basin. The difference of basement topography result in the inhomogeneous distribution of uranium mineralization. The margin of the basement upheaval section and the variation place of basement topography are the favorable place for uranium mineralization. It's helpful to prospect deep and blind uranium deposit in Xiangshan basin

  20. Aggregate and Mineral Resources, This data set consists of mineral deposit areas (KMDAs) for locatable minerals., Published in 1993, Arizona State Land Department.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Aggregate and Mineral Resources dataset as of 1993. It is described as 'This data set consists of mineral deposit areas (KMDAs) for locatable minerals.'. Data...

  1. Structural geology of Ordos basin mineralization and mineralization of uranium deposits in the Huianbao region, west of Ordos basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thesis discussed the geotectonic setting of west Ordos Basin, classification of tectonic units, geology of west fault-fold belt and structural feature in Majiatan region. The stable tectonic region was overall guidance thoughts and ideas for the uranium deposits in the structure relative activities region. Based on exploration and research of uranium geology for many years, the over-thrust nappe belt was favorable region for uranium mineralization. Two oxidation layers which the ancient oxidation was red and oxidation alteration was yellow existed in this region, the uranium ore was controlled on by two oxidation layers. Early red oxidized sandstone was experienced post-reformation such as thrust pushover, lifting, erosion, superimposed depth and separation of block fault. Late yellow oxidation which tended to inherit the early red oxidation and carry on the superposition modification distributed both wings of anticline. The thesis was to summarized the uranium features and metallogenic regularity, which has some guidance for uranium deposits in the basin. (authors)

  2. Santa Lucia River basin. Development of water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this study was to orient the development of water resources of the Santa Lucia River basin to maximum benefit in accordance with the priorities established by Government in relation to the National Development Plans

  3. The United Nations' endeavour to standardize mineral resource classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United Nations' Economic and Social Council passed a resolution in July 1975 calling for the development of a mineral resources classification system to be used in reporting data to the United Nations. Following preparation of background papers and an agenda by the UN Centre for Natural Resources, Energy and Transport, a panel of experts recommended a classification system to the Council's Committee on Natural Resources. The Committee met in Turkey in June 1979 and has reported favourably to the Council on the proposed system. The classification system is designed to provide maximum capability for requesting and receiving data from the resources data systems already used internally by major mineral producing nations. In addition, the system provides for flexibility in adjusting to the particular needs of individual mineral commodities. The proposed system involves three basic categories of in-situ resources: R-1, reliable estimates of known deposits; R-2, preliminary estimates of the extensions of known deposits; and, R-3, tentative estimates of quantities to be found in undiscovered deposits. As an option for given countries and commodities, the R-1 category can be further sub-divided into: R-1-E, economic; R-1-M, marginal; and R-1-S, sub-economic. Finally, the classification scheme provides for all categories to have a parallel set of estimates of recoverable mineral quantities. (author)

  4. Version 3.0 of EMINERS - Economic Mineral Resource Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Joseph S.

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative mineral resource assessment, as developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), consists of three parts: (1) development of grade and tonnage mineral deposit models; (2) delineation of tracts permissive for each deposit type; and (3) probabilistic estimation of the numbers of undiscovered deposits for each deposit type. The estimate of the number of undiscovered deposits at different levels of probability is the input to the EMINERS (Economic Mineral Resource Simulator) program. EMINERS uses a Monte Carlo statistical process to combine probabilistic estimates of undiscovered mineral deposits with models of mineral deposit grade and tonnage to estimate mineral resources. Version 3.0 of the EMINERS program is available as this USGS Open-File Report 2004-1344. Changes from version 2.0 include updating 87 grade and tonnage models, designing new templates to produce graphs showing cumulative distribution and summary tables, and disabling economic filters. The economic filters were disabled because embedded data for costs of labor and materials, mining techniques, and beneficiation methods are out of date. However, the cost algorithms used in the disabled economic filters are still in the program and available for reference for mining methods and milling techniques. The release notes included with this report give more details on changes in EMINERS over the years. EMINERS is written in C++ and depends upon the Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0 programming environment. The code depends heavily on the use of Microsoft Foundation Classes (MFC) for implementation of the Windows interface. The program works only on Microsoft Windows XP or newer personal computers. It does not work on Macintosh computers. For help in using the program in this report, see the "Quick-Start Guide for Version 3.0 of EMINERS-Economic Mineral Resource Simulator" (W.J. Bawiec and G.T. Spanski, 2012, USGS Open-File Report 2009-1057, linked at right). It demonstrates how to execute EMINERS software

  5. The Ministry of Land and Resources Supports the Western Region to Intensify Efforts in Prospecting and Developing Advantageous Mineral Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>The Ministry of Land and Resources supports the western region to intensify efforts in prospecting, developing and utilizing advantageous mineral resources including petrol, natural gas, and coal resources, build advantageous mineral economy, speed up the development of nonferrous metals, key building materials, and non metal mineral resources with obvious

  6. Some discussions on uranium mineralization in and out of the red bed (basin)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economic uranium mineralization exists in and out of the red bed (basin). Uranium mineralization out of the red bed includes various types, such as the unconformity-related type, grainite type, carbonate-silicoeous-pelitic type, palaeokarst type, infiltration type and sandstone type, the formatoinal process and distribution of which are closely related to the red bed (basin). It is by no means the protective layer of the unconformity-related uranium mineralization. The metallogenetic model and prospecting orientation for uranium mineralization out of the red bed are also summarized

  7. Uranium mineralization characteristics and ore-control factors in Shazaoquan area of Badanjilin basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the integration of previous research achievement, this paper discussed the Lower Cretaceous Xinminpu Group and uranium mineralization in Shazaoquan area of Badanjilin basin with results of field geological investigation as well as borehole verification. After analyzing the ore-control factors, the uranium mineralization was believed to be controlled by sequence stratigraphic boundary, lithofacies, epigenetic oxidation. The favorite mineralization area should have relative stable structure and proper structural lift condition in the centre depression of the basin. The boundary of sequence Ⅳ/Ⅲ of Xinminpu Group with the change in structural and depositional system and geochemical condition is the most important ore-control factor. The foreside of alluvial fan and midland also afford favourite lithology combination and space for uranium mineralization. Uranous granite afford the very beneficial uranium mineralizing condition for the sandstone-type uranium deposits. In general, Badanjilin basin have a good prospective. (authors)

  8. Groundwater Resources of the Virgin River Basin in Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Clyde, Calvin G.

    1987-01-01

    The Division of Water Resources is conducting a study of further water development in the Virgin River Basin. This report examines the effects of groundwater development as a part of the overall study. The study area includes about 1000 square miles in the Central Virgin River Basin east of the Hurricane Fault. The deeply incised Virgin River has cut a youthful drainage network with deep canyons and steep escarpm...

  9. Groundwater Systems and Resources in the Ordos Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Guangcai; LIANG Yongping; SU Xiaosi; ZHAO Zhenghong; TAO Zhengping; YIN Lihe; YANG Yuncheng; WANG Xiaoyong

    2008-01-01

    The Ordos Basin is.a large-scalesedimentary basin in northwestern China. The hydrostratigraphic units from bottom to top are pre-Cambrian metamorphic rocks, Lower Paleozoic carbonate rocks, Upper Paleozoic to Mesozoic clastic rocks and Cenozoic deposits. The total thickness is up to 6000 m. Three groundwater systems are present in the Ordos Basin, based on the geological settings, I.e. The karst groundwater system, the Cretaceous dastic groundwater system and the Quaternary groundwater system. This paper describes systematically the groundwater flow patterns of each system and overall assessment of groundwater resources.

  10. Clay Mineral Distribution Patterns of Tertiary Continental Oil-bearing Basins in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Xingyuan

    1996-01-01

    @@ Induction This paper studies the clay mineral distribution patterns of Tertiary continental oil-bearing basins in China. More than 9 000 shale samples from Paleogene (E) to Neogene (N) Series distributed in Bohai Gulf, Subei, Jianghan,Nanxiang, Zhoukou, Sanshui, Beibu Bay, East China Sea,Hetao, Juiquan, Qaidam and Tarim basins, and so on.

  11. Structure and fluid evolution of Yili basin and their relation to sandstone type uranium mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the summary of strata and structure distribution of Yili basin, the relation of structure and fluid evolution to sandstone type ur alum mineraliation are analyzed. It is found that uranium mineralization in Yili basin experienced ore hosting space forming, pre-alteration of hosting space, hosting space alteration and uranium formation stages. (authors)

  12. The Gas Resources Assessment Expert System of the Songliao Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The gas resources assessment expert system is one of the advanced methods for appraising oil and gas resources. The establishment of a knowledge base is the focal task in developing the expert system. This paper presents a summary of the mechanism and the major controlling factors in the formation of gas pools in the southeast uplift of the Songliao basin. Then an appropriate assessment model is established for trapping the gas resources and a knowledge base built in the expert system to realize the model. By using the expert system to appraise the gas-bearing probability of 25 major traps of the Quantou and Denglouku Formations in the Shiwu-Dehui area, the authors have proved that the expert system is suitable for appraising traps in the Songliao basin and similar basins.

  13. Genesis of uranium mineralization and its prospecting significance in hailiutu basin, Wulatzhongqi, Inner Mongolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Applying multi-disciplinal (geological, geophysical, hydrogeological etc.) approaches, this paper analyses depositional environments, hydrogeologic circumstances and features of uranium mineralization in Hailiutu basin. The author suggests that uranium mineralization and anomalies are controlled by shallow-buried groundwater with slow water exchange regime, and are formed by the evaporation-concentration process

  14. Iowa State Mining and Mineral Resources Research Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-08-01

    This final report describes the activities of the Iowa State Mining and Mineral Resources Research Institute (ISMMRRI) at Iowa State University for the period July 1, 1989, to June 30, 1990. Activities include research in mining- and mineral-related areas, education and training of scientists and engineers in these fields, administration of the Institute, and cooperative interactions with industry, government agencies, and other research centers. During this period, ISMMRRI has supported research efforts to: (1) Investigate methods of leaching zinc from sphalerite-containing ores. (2) Study the geochemistry and geology of an Archean gold deposit and of a gold-telluride deposit. (3) Enchance how-quality aggregates for use in construction. (4) Pre-clean coal by triboelectric charging in a fluidized-bed. (5) Characterize the crystal/grain alignment during processing of yttrium-barium-copper-perovskite (1-2-3) superconductors. (5) Study the fluid inclusion properties of a fluorite district. (6) Study the impacts of surface mining on community planning. (7) Assess the hydrophobicity of coal and pyrite for beneficiation. (8) Investigate the use of photoacoustic absorption spectroscopy for monitoring unburnt carbon in the exhaust gas from coal-fired boilers. The education and training program continued within the interdepartmental graduate minor in mineral resources includes courses in such areas as mining methods, mineral processing, industrial minerals, extractive metallurgy, coal science and technology, and reclamation of mined land. In addition, ISMMRRI hosted the 3rd International Conference on Processing and Utilization of High-Sulfur Coals in Ames, Iowa. The Institute continues to interact with industry in order to foster increased cooperation between academia and the mining and mineral community.

  15. Uranium mineralization in the Mesoproterozoic Banganapalle formation near Nagayapalle, Cuddapah Basin, Andhra Pradesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuddapah Basin is the hub of uranium exploration for years together in India. Initial efforts were for quartz-pebble-conglomerate type mineralization. However, the emphasis later shifted towards dolostone-hosted mineralization and finally to unconformity-associated uranium mineralization. The recent finding of uranium mineralization associated with the Banganapalle Formation near Nagayapalle is the outcome of continuous exploration input in the Cuddapah Basin over years. Uranium mineralization (up to 0.278% U3O8) associated with the Mesoproterozoic Banganapalle Formation near Nagayapalle is represented by pitchblende and autunite. Pitchblende occurs as tiny grains in the intergranular spaces and along grain boundaries; and also at places replaces pyrite and covellite grains. The geological set-up indicates that the geodomain is favourable for uranium mineralization. (author)

  16. Mineral resources: Research objectives for continental scientific drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    The importance of a scientific drilling program to study mineralized hydrothermal systems has been emphasized in numerous workshops and symposia. To some degree the present report, prepared by the Panel on Mineral Resources of the Continental Scientific Drilling Committee, both reinforces and expands upon earlier recommendations. The report of the Los Alamos workshop, Continental Scientific Drilling Program, placed a major emphasis on maximizing the industry and government, supplementing these efforts with holes drilled solely for scientific purposes. Although the present report notes the importance of opportunities for scientific investigations added on to current, mission-oriented drilling activities, the Panel on Mineral Resources recognized that such opportunities are limited and thus focused on holes dedicated to broad scientific objectives. In the present report, the panel has developed a program that will provide answers to many scientific questions that have existed for almost 100 years concerning mineralized hydrothermal systems. The committee notes that research drilling may lead to results in addition to those anticipated, results that will provide new directions and ideas of equal or greater value that those basic ones originally posed. 58 refs.

  17. [Inventories of the Earth. Mineral resource appraisals and the rise of resource economics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermann, Andrea

    2014-03-01

    How do the earth sciences mediate between the natural and social world? This paper explores the question by focusing on the history of nonfuel mineral resource appraisal from the late nineteenth to the mid twentieth century. It argues that earth sciences early on embraced social scientific knowledge, i.e. economic knowledge, in particular, when it came to determining or deposits and estimating the magnitude of mineral reserves. After 1900, assessing national and global mineral reserves and their "life span" or years of supply became ever more important, scaling up and complementing traditional appraisal practices on the level of individual mines or mining and trading companies. As a consequence, economic methods gained new weight for mineral resource estimation. Natural resource economics as an own field of research grew out of these efforts. By way of example, the mineral resource appraisal assigned to the U.S. Materials Policy Commission by President Harry S. Truman in 1951 is analyzed in more detail. Natural resource economics and environmental economics might be interpreted as a strategy to bring down the vast and holistically conceived object of geological and ecological research, the earth, to human scale, and assimilate it into social matters. PMID:24988755

  18. Dynamic evaluation of groundwater resources in Zhangye Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiNa Mi; HongLang Xiao; ZhengLiang Yin; ShengChun Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater resource is vital to the sustainable development of socio-economics in arid and semi-arid regions of Northwest China. An estimation of the groundwater resources variation in Zhangye Basin was made during 1985–2013 based on long-term groundwater observation data and geostatistical method. The results show that from 1985 to 2013, groundwater storage exhibited tremendous dissimilarity on temporal and spatial scale for the whole Zhangye Basin, especially before and after implementation of the water diversion policy. Trend of groundwater storage varied from quick to slow decline or increase. The accumulative groundwater storage decreased nearly 47.52×108 m3, and annual average depletion rate reached 1.64×108 m3/a. Among which, the accumulative groundwater storage of the river and well water mixed irrigation district decreased by 37.48×108 m3, accounting for about 78.87% of the total groundwater depletion of the Zhangye Basin. Accumulative depletion of groundwater storage varied in respective irrigation districts. Though groundwater resources depletion rate slowed down from 2005, the overall storage in the whole basin and re-spective districts during 1985–2013 was still in a severe deficit such that, the groundwater resource was in a rather negative balance, which could threaten the local aquifer. This is the joint effect of climate change and human activities, however human activities, such as water diversion policy and groundwater exploitation, became increasingly intense. Our research results could provide a reasonable estimation for the groundwater balance in Zhangye Basin, providing a scientific basis for water resources unified planning and, this method can provide a relatively reliable way of estimation for large scale groundwater resources.

  19. Oil and gas resources in the West Siberian Basin, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The primary objective of this study is to assess the oil and gas potential of the West Siberian Basin of Russia. The study does not analyze the costs or technology necessary to achieve the estimates of the ultimate recoverable oil and gas. This study uses reservoir data to estimate recoverable oil and gas quantities which were aggregated to the field level. Field totals were summed to a basin total for discovered fields. An estimate of undiscovered oil and gas, from work of the US Geological Survey (USGS), was added to give a total basin resource volume. Recent production decline points out Russia`s need to continue development of its discovered recoverable oil and gas. Continued exploration is required to discover additional oil and gas that remains undiscovered in the basin.

  20. Mineral Resources: Reserves, Peak Production and the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence D. Meinert

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The adequacy of mineral resources in light of population growth and rising standards of living has been a concern since the time of Malthus (1798, but many studies erroneously forecast impending peak production or exhaustion because they confuse reserves with “all there is”. Reserves are formally defined as a subset of resources, and even current and potential resources are only a small subset of “all there is”. Peak production or exhaustion cannot be modeled accurately from reserves. Using copper as an example, identified resources are twice as large as the amount projected to be needed through 2050. Estimates of yet-to-be discovered copper resources are up to 40-times more than currently-identified resources, amounts that could last for many centuries. Thus, forecasts of imminent peak production due to resource exhaustion in the next 20–30 years are not valid. Short-term supply problems may arise, however, and supply-chain disruptions are possible at any time due to natural disasters (earthquakes, tsunamis, hurricanes or political complications. Needed to resolve these problems are education and exploration technology development, access to prospective terrain, better recycling and better accounting of externalities associated with production (pollution, loss of ecosystem services and water and energy use.

  1. A Water Resources Planning Tool for the Jordan River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Bonzi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Jordan River basin is subject to extreme and increasing water scarcity. Management of transboundary water resources in the basin is closely intertwined with political conflicts in the region. We have jointly developed with stakeholders and experts from the riparian countries, a new dynamic consensus database and—supported by hydro-climatological model simulations and participatory scenario exercises in the GLOWA (Global Change and the Hydrological Cycle Jordan River project—a basin-wide Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP tool, which will allow testing of various unilateral and multilateral adaptation options under climate and socio-economic change. We present its validation and initial (climate and socio-economic scenario analyses with this budget and allocation tool, and invite further adaptation and application of the tool for specific Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM problems.

  2. Quantifying exhaustible resource theory: an application to mineral taxation policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the results of a dynamic nonlinear programming model of a mineral resource market with several features of heterogeneous quality in the mineral, links with related product markets, incorporation of institutional constraints, resource allocations for each year in the planning period, and analysis of outcomes under various severance tax rates. The model computes privately efficient competitive use paths to perform cost-benefit analysis of public mineral policies. Policy variables are evaluated for their impact on both private behaviour and public benefits. The application is to New Mexico's linked coal and electric power markets. Findings reveal that scarcity rents are currently 4% of coal's price, and peak at 27% in 43 years. Increasing the present 1 dollar/ton New Mexico severance tax to 11 dollars reduces current annual coal output by 25%, prolongs the life of the state's coal industry by three years, and increases discounted severance tax revenues by 850% or 4.2 billion dollars. 38 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  3. Tibet Wuyu basin analysis of sandstone-type uranium mineralization conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basin is located in central and southern Tibet, in the eastern mountains of Gangdese basin, tectonic position in the Gondwana northern margin of the Tethyan tectonic domain. The data of research collection through the region and comprehensive study, carried out geological surveys, geophysical, remote sensing and hydrogeological work, generally identified in the basin and the form of base, cover stratigraphy, structure and development characteristics; identify the basin cover eruption-sedimentary cycle, stratigraphic sequence, lithologic, sand size, occurrence and characteristics of epigenetic oxidation, and further exploration to determine the target layer. Through a variety of geological, hydrological and geophysical technology radioactive for basin-forming conditions of the system, from the analysis of tectonic conditions, uranium source, seal condition, subsequent transformation of uranium anomalies and mineralization conditions and characteristics of each area, which the basin has a good condition and sandstone-type uranium mineralization uranium mineralization vision, through a systematic survey, expected in the area 1 to 2 new discovery of uranium mineral. (authors)

  4. Study on geochronology of sandstone-type uranium mineralization in western Hailaer basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study on U-Pb isotopic dating of sandstone-type uranium mineralization in western Hailaer basin, namely, Xihulitu and Kelulun depressions, has been carried out. The ages of 81 ± 2 Ma, 44 ± 2 Ma, 9 ± 2 Ma, 2 ± 0 Ma for sandstone-type uranium mineralization in Xihulitu depression and 51 ± 8 Ma, 67 ± 5 Ma for sandstone-type uranium mineralization in Kelulun depression have been obtained for the first time by U-Pb isochron dating. These mineralization ages are in good accordance with the tectonic and climatic evolution histories of the study area

  5. Impact of enterprises of Ural mineral resource complex on water resources

    OpenAIRE

    Zaliya Maratovna Bobrova; Oksana Yur'evna Il'ina; Gennadiy Andreevich Studenok; Evgeniy Mikhaylovich Tseytlin

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses the negative impact of mining and metallurgical enterprises of the Middle and South Urals on water resources. Authors define characteristic pollutants for mineral resources complex, including ferrous, nonferrous metallurgy and mining enterprises of building materials. Authors also show the information about water pollution contaminants, including metals, nitrogen compounds, sulfates, manganese and other substances. The article describes main causes of pollution and measu...

  6. Can multfractals be used for mineral resource appraisal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agterberg, Frits

    2016-04-01

    Various models have been proposed for modeling the worldwide resources of minerals and hydrocarbons. Most of these models assume either a lognormal or a Pareto distribution for the high-value tails of the size-frequency distributions of known deposits and assume that undiscovered deposits would satisfy these statistical models as well. The lognormal size distribution often provides a good fit to all sizes except for the largest deposits. Pareto-type models allow for tails that are thicker than those of the lognormal. With respect to the spatial distribution of the deposits, various statistical discrete frequency distribution models including the Poisson and negative binomial are commonly used. However, these models are based on the assumption that mean point concentration is independent of size of area used for measuring deposit density. Fractal-multifractal point distribution models can provide better results. A good approach to worldwide deposit modeling would consist of (1) quantification of 2-D boundaries of permissive terrains for different types of deposits; (2) assuming that the mineral deposits are spatially distributed as fractals or multifractals; and (3) adopting Pareto-type frequency distributions for the largest mineral deposits. In this paper, examples will be presented of cases in which (a) the fractal/multifractal approach provides better results for spatial distribution of deposits than classical statistical models, and (b) the Pareto is performing better than the lognormal as size distribution model for the largest mineral deposits. In recent years, large worldwide mineral deposit data bases have become available. Statistical analysis of these data confirms the idea that amounts of metals in ore deposits generally satisfy the lognormal model except in their high-value Pareto-type frequency distribution tails.

  7. Metallic Mineral Resources Assessment and Analysis System Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the aim and the design structure of the metallic mineral resources assessment and analysis system. This system adopts an integrated technique of data warehouse composed of affairs-processing layer and analysis-application layer. The affairs-processing layer includes multiform databases (such as geological database, geophysical database, geochemical database),while the analysis application layer includes data warehouse, online analysis processing and data mining. This paper also presents in detail the data warehouse of the present system and the appropriate spatial analysis methods and models. Finally, this paper presents the prospect of the system.

  8. Evaluation on uranium mineralizing geological conditions and prospect in Erlian basin and its adjacent area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three kinds of mineralizing plate-tectonic settings, among them marginal trough located in the rise of thrust structural-magmatic rock belt in front of continent and multi-cycle structural-magmatic rock belt in back of arc is optimal in the research area, are ascertained according to the study of pre-Mesozoic basement plate-tectonic and its evolution, crust maturity, and uranium pre-enrichment. On the basis of research on cover geological-structural features, basin evolution and sedimentary formation, the authors demonstrate the inter-relations and interactions of mineralization-controlled conditions including uranium sources, basin structures, host strata, ancient climate, sedimentary formation, rock facies and ancient geography, and their control to mineralization of sedimentary formation and reformation mineralization, reveal the time and spacial distribution law and emplacement condition of uranium deposit, summarize systematically mineralization conditions and exploration criteria, and set up the mineralization model. The mineralization prospect of 6 troughs in the research area is evaluated, and 12 potential mineralization districts are calculated in terms of above-mentioned mineralization plate-tectonic settings conditions and exploration criteria. (8 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.)

  9. Clay mineral composition of river sediments in the Amazon Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Guyot, Jean-Loup; Jouanneau, J.M.; Soares, L; Boaventura, G.R.; Maillet, N; Lagane, Christelle

    2007-01-01

    Clay minerals are important in evaluating the maturity of suspended sediments, weathering intensity and source area. However, there are processes that can change the mineral assemblage such as river transportation, deposition, remobilization and tributary inputs. In terms of water discharge and sediment yield, the Amazon is one of the largest rivers in the world. Most of the suspended sediments come from the Andes, crossing the lowlands before reaching the ocean. This study measures the spati...

  10. 76 FR 18780 - Integrated Water Resource Management Plan, Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project, Benton...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Integrated Water Resource Management Plan, Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement... Integrated Water Resource Management Plan, Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project. The Washington State... water resource problems in the basin. The YRBWEP was charged with developing a plan to achieve...

  11. Near real time water resources data for river basin management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, R. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Twenty Data Collection Platforms (DCP) are being field installed on USGS water resources stations in the Delaware River Basin. DCP's have been successfully installed and are operating well on five stream gaging stations, three observation wells, and one water quality monitor in the basin. DCP's have been installed at nine additional water quality monitors, and work is progressing on interfacing the platforms to the monitors. ERTS-related water resources data from the platforms are being provided in near real time, by the Goddard Space Flight Center to the Pennsylvania district, Water Resources Division, U.S. Geological Survey. On a daily basis, the data are computer processed by the Survey and provided to the Delaware River Basin Commission. Each daily summary contains data that were relayed during 4 or 5 of the 15 orbits made by ERTS-1 during the previous day. Water resources parameters relays by the platforms include dissolved oxygen concentrations, temperature, pH, specific conductance, well level, and stream gage height, which is used to compute stream flow for the daily summary.

  12. Qualitative assessment of selected areas of the world for undiscovered sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits: Chapter Y in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zientek, Michael L.; Wintzer, Niki E.; Hayes, Timothy S.; Parks, Heather L.; Briggs, Deborah A.; Causey, J. Douglas; Hatch, Shyla A.; Jenkins, M. Christopher; Williams, David J.

    2015-01-01

    A qualitative mineral resource assessment of sediment-hosted stratabound copper mineralized areas for undiscovered copper deposits was performed for 10 selected areas of the world. The areas, in alphabetical order, are (1) Belt-Purcell Basin, United States and Canada; (2) Benguela and Cuanza Basins, Angola; (3) Chuxiong Basin, China; (4) Dongchuan Group rocks, China; (5) Egypt–Israel–Jordan Rift, Egypt, Israel, and Jordan; (6) Maritimes Basin, Canada; (7) Neuquén Basin, Argentina; (8) Northwest Botswana Rift, Botswana and Namibia; (9) Redstone Copperbelt, Canada; and (10) Salta Rift System, Argentina. This assessment (1) outlines the main characteristics of the areas, (2) classifies known deposits by deposit model subtypes, and (3) ranks the areas according to their potential to contain undiscovered copper deposits.

  13. Radiometric dating of uranium mineralization in the proterozoic basins of Eastern Dharwar Craton, South India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of radiometric dating by Pb and Sm-Nd isotopic systematics on uranium bearing rocks within the Proterozoic basins of the Eastern Dharwar craton in parts of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka, South India are discussed. The results indicate three main periods of uranium mineralization and remobilization events at c. 1.70-1.80 Ga, c. 1.25-1.35 Ga and 0.45-0.55 Ga in these basins. (author)

  14. Sedimentary and tectonic environments for uranium mineralization on the Parana Basin, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Parana Basin is an isolated intracratonic basin in Southeastern South America and is characterized by Paleozoic and Mesozoic clastic sediments and by the location of one of the world's largest lava flows. Uranium mineralization occurs mainly in lower Devonian epineritic feldsphatic sandstones and in fluvio-deltaic channels developed in middle Permian mudstones and sandstones. Stratigraphic and sedimentologic conditions plus tectonic barriers in association with underground water controlled the mineralization. Two uranium deposits with 4250 and 6800 tonnes U of RAR plus EAR were found containing primary (pitchblende and coffinite) and secondary (autunite, sabugalite, uranocircite) minerals. A paleochannel model for the Permo-carboniferous mineralization is quite well established whereas many questions are still open for the confirmation of a model for the Devonian occurrences. Host rock sedimentary environment, ore-forming conditions and source rocks are discussed. (author)

  15. Nuclear techniques in exploration, extraction and processing of mineral resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear techniques and instrumentation are contributing to the exploration of minerals and their efficient extraction and processing. The Agency felt it would be timely to review new concepts and developments as applied to oil, gas, coal, metallic and non-metallic minerals. In the 1977 symposium, the session on oil and gas was devoted to the quantitative determination of hydrocarbon saturation (and associated depth of investigation) by the use of pulsed-neutron-capture, gamma-ray logs and logs based on measurements of gamma rays from inelastic neutron scattering; the combined use of a borehole gravity meter and formation density log to detect hydrocarbons up to tens of metres distant from the borehole; the use of natural gamma-ray spectral logs; new developments in nuclear logging instrumentation and applications; the use of stable isotope measurements in oil exploration and the present status of radioactive tracer surveys. Applications of nuclear techniques in the coal industry were reviewed. Following early applications, such as density and level gauges, nuclear techniques are now being used in a more sophisticated manner, especially in coal exploration and in coal preparation. Borehole probes incorporating radioisotope sources and radiation detectors now occupy a dominant position in borehole logging and their success has greatly reduced the need for core analysis. In coal preparation plants, on-line ash monitors are now an established application and other on-line measurements are currently being developed. In the session on mineral exploration and mining, many points of view were put forward on the various techniques to be used for geochemical analysis of soils and stream sediments, borehole logging, sea-bed surveying, sample analysis for mine control, and evaluation of geothermal resources. The development of the earth's geothermal resources is expected to contribute to the utilization of alternative energy sources in the next two decades. Potential

  16. Selected social phenomena following the extraction of mineral resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocoń Paweł

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The author, due to the didactic needs and seeing a small gap in the way of presenting scientific data on the area of social science, have decided to present this work hoping that it will influence on widening both the social science and geography knowledge of the recipients, having connected the development and creation of certain social phenomena with particular economic activity, that is, the extraction of mineral resources. The aim of the hereby text is to present such social phenomena like organizational culture, discourse and social capital. The notions mentioned above ought to concern not only students, but also the specialists and scientists dealing with any of those two fields, as it seems prudent to follow the path of closely connecting two major issues emerging from two distinctively separate areas of science if that may help to better understand how such mixture influence people’s behaviour and allows to draw conclusion on the effect such actions may have on community or society. Moreover, such fact was prior for the author to decide to work on the problem of protests for mining in the future. On the other hand, the article may help in organizing the process of exploitation of mineral resources in the different organizations involved in this type of activity.

  17. Probe into Problem-Related Nontraditional Mineral Resources Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@The discovery of and research into the nontraditional mineral resources, both in theory and in practice for the next century,are commented in this paper.The nontraditional mineral resources prognostication is very important for the research into and the discovery of the history of typical deposits all over the world.The emphasis of the present research is laid on new kinds of deposits. The processes and approaches of the discovery of new kinds of deposits should be studied carefully. The research into gold ores that we have done so far concludes the following 5 points. (1) Through finding the alluvial gold, we could obtain primary gold deposits such as Tuanjiegou porphyroid gold deposit in Heilongjiang Province. (2) Through geochemical prospecting, we might discover new types of deposits such as Carlin gold deposit in USA. (3) Some deposits might be discovered around a large-scale deposit. For example, a few large-scale altered gold deposits have been discovered around Linglong in Shandong Province.

  18. Remote Sensing Detecting for Hydrocarbon Microseepage and Relationship with the Uranium Mineralization in Dongsheng Area, Ordos Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, M.; Liu, D.; Gao, Y.

    2005-12-01

    The Ordos Basin is located at the central area of northern China with an area of about 250,000 km2. It is well known "a basin of energy resources" of China for its large reserves of coal, oil and gas. A large-scale sandstone-type uranium metallogenic belt has been found recently in Zhiluo Formation of middle Jurassic in Dongsheng area in the northeastern part of the basin. The ore-forming mechanism remains unsolved so far. There is a hypothesis that the uranium precipitation was related to a hydrocarbon migration from the central basin. In order to explore the evidences of ever existed hydrocarbon microseepage and migration in this area, several indices such as the Iron Oxide Index, Ferrous Index, Clay Mineral Index, Mineral Composite Index, and Ferrous Transfer Percentage Index have been derived. Thorium Normalization of aeroradiometric data and fusion of aeroradiometric and TM data have been carried out as well. Therefore, the subaerial oxide and reduced area, uranium outmigrated and immigrated area, and ancient recharge and discharge of groundwater are thus delineated. As a result, two hydrocarbon microseepage belts in Dongsheng area have been extracted by combining the methods mentioned above. One is in the northern of Dongsheng along a nearly east-westward fault zone and the other one is in the southern of Dongsheng uranium mineralization belt along a nearly northwestward fault zone. The study suggests that the subaerial reduced area was related to hydrocarbon microseepage and the hydrocarbon migration along the fault and fracture zone or penetrable strata played an important role for uranium deposition in Zhiluo Formation near the northwestward fault zone.

  19. 36 CFR 293.15 - Gathering information about resources other than minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... resources other than minerals. 293.15 Section 293.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE... than minerals. (a) The Chief, Forest Service, shall allow any activity, for the purposes of gathering information about resources, other than minerals, in National Forest Wilderness, except that any such...

  20. Mature Basin Development Portfolio Management in a Resource Constrained Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigerian Petroleum industry is constantly faced with management of resource constraints stemming from capital and operating budget, availability of skilled manpower, capacity of an existing surface facility, size of well assets, amount of soft and hard information, etceteras. Constrained capital forces the industry to rank subsurface resource and potential before proceeding with preparation of development scenarios. Availability of skilled manpower limits scope of integrated reservoir studies. Level of information forces technical and management to find low-risk development alternative in a limited time. Volume of either oil or natural gas or water or combination of them may be constrained due to design limits of the existing facility, or an external OPEC quota, requires high portfolio management skills.The first part of the paper statistically analyses development portfolio of a mature basin for (a) subsurface resources volume, (b) developed and undeveloped and undeveloped volumes, (c) sweating of wells, and (d) facility assets. The analysis presented conclusively demonstrates that the 80/20 is active in the statistical sample. The 80/20 refers to 80% of the effect coming from the 20% of the cause. The second part of the paper deals with how 80/20 could be applied to manage portfolio for a given set of constraints. Three application examples are discussed. Feedback on implementation of them resulting in focussed resource management with handsome rewards is documented.The statistical analysis and application examples from a mature basin form a way forward for a development portfolio management in an resource constrained environment

  1. Theory and Method of Mineral Resource Prediction Based on Synthetic Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Shicheng; Ye Shuisheng; Zhou Dongdai

    2003-01-01

    Metallogenic prognosis of synthetic information uses the geological body and the mineral resource body as a statistical unit to interpret synthetically the information of geology, geophysics, geochemistry and remote sensing from the evolution of geology and puts all the information into one entire system by drawing up digitalized interpretation maps of the synthetic information. On such basis, different grades and types of mineral resource prospecting models and predictive models of synthetic information can be established. Hence, a new integrated prediction system will be formed of metallogenic prognosis (qualitative prediction), mineral resources statistic prediction (determining targets) and mineral resources prediction (determining resources amount).

  2. On resource survey of natural mineral drugs in eastern Jilin and their sustaining application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    There are rich natural resources of natural mineral drugs in eastern Jilin Province. Systematic resource investigation can elevate fractional conversion of this area' s mineral drugs resources superiority. Research on natural mineral drugs of this area can upgrade the translation rate of resource superiority and accelerate the development of local medical industry, especially, it can provide scientific data for founding the strategic design of Chinese traditional medicine's trademark of Jilin Changbai Mountain. Since the resource of mineral drugs can not be regenerated, it must be exploited scientifically, utilized reasonably and protected effectively its sustaining application.

  3. Framework for Assessing Water Resource Sustainability in River Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, J.; Goodwin, P.; Swanson, D.

    2013-12-01

    As the anthropogenic footprint increases on Earth, the wise use, maintenance, and protection of freshwater resources will be a key element in the sustainability of development. Borne from efforts to promote sustainable development of water resources is Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM), which promotes efficiency of water resources, equity in water allocation across different social and economic groups, and environmental sustainability. Methodologies supporting IWRM implementation have largely focused on the overall process, but have had limited attention on the evaluation methods for ecologic, economic, and social conditions (the sustainability criterion). Thus, assessment frameworks are needed to support the analysis of water resources and evaluation of sustainable solutions in the IWRM process. To address this need, the River Basin Analysis Framework (RBAF) provides a structure for understanding water related issues and testing the sustainability of proposed solutions in river basins. The RBAF merges three approaches: the UN GEO 4 DPSIR approach, the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment approach, and the principles of sustainable development. Merging these approaches enables users to understand the spatiotemporal interactions between the hydrologic and ecologic systems, evaluate the impacts of disturbances (drivers, pressures) on the ecosystem goods and services (EGS) and constituents of human well-being (HWB), and identify and employ analytical methods and indicators in the assessments. The RBAF is comprised of a conceptual component (RBAF-C) and an analytical component (RBAF-A). For each disturbance type, the RBAF-C shows the potential directional change in the hydrologic cycle (peak flows, seasonality, etc.), EGS (drinking water supply, water purification, recreational opportunities, etc.), and HWB (safety, health, access to a basic materials), thus allowing users insight into potential impacts as well as providing technical guidance on the methods and

  4. Rare earth minerals and resources in the world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanazawa, Yasuo [Human Resource Department, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba 305-8568 (Japan)]. E-mail: y.kanazawa@aist.go.jp; Kamitani, Masaharu [Institute for Geo-Resources and Environment, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba 305-8567 (Japan)

    2006-02-09

    About 200 rare earth (RE) minerals are distributed in a wide variety of mineral classes, such as halides, carbonates, oxides, phosphates, silicates, etc. Due to the large ionic radii and trivalent oxidation state, RE ions in the minerals have large coordination numbers (c.n.) 6-10 by anions (O, F, OH). Light rare earth elements (LREEs) tend to occupy the larger sites of 8-10 c.n. and concentrate in carbonates and phosphates. On the other hand, heavy rare earth elements (HREEs) and Y occupy 6-8 c.n. sites and are abundant in oxides and a part of phosphates. Only a few mineral species, such as bastnaesite (Ce,La)(CO{sub 3})F, monazite (Ce,La)PO{sub 4}, xenotime YPO{sub 4}, and RE-bearing clay have been recovered for commercial production. Bayan Obo, China is the biggest RE deposit in the world. One of probable hypotheses for ore geneses is that the deposit might be formed by hydrothermal replacement of carbonate rocks of sedimentary origin. The hydrothermal fluid may be derived from an alkaline-carbonatite intrusive series. Following Bayan Obo, more than 550 carbonatite/alkaline complex rocks constitute the majority of the world RE resources. The distribution is restricted to interior and marginal regions of continents, especially Precambrian cratons and shields, or related to large-scale rift structures. Main concentrated areas of the complexes are East African rift zones, northern Scandinavia-Kola peninsula, eastern Canada and southern Brazil. Representative sedimentary deposits of REE are placer- and conglomerate-types. The major potential countries are Australia, India, Brazil, and Malaysia. Weathered residual deposits have been formed under tropical and sub-tropical climates. Bauxite and laterite nickel deposit are the representative. Ion adsorption clay without radioactive elements is known in southern China. Weathering processes concentrate REE in a particular clay mineral-layer in the weathered crusts whose source were originally REE-rich rocks like granite

  5. Geology and coal-bed methane resources of the northern San Juan Basin, Colorado and New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This guidebook is the first of its kind: A focused look at coal-bed methane in a large Rocky Mountain Laramide basin. The papers in this volume cover every aspect of coal-bed methane in the San Juan Basin, including: The geology, environments of deposition, and geometry of the coal beds that contain the resource; the origin and migration history of the gas; basin-wide resource estimates; the engineering aspects of getting the gas out of the ground; the marketing and economics of producing coal-bed methane in the San Juan Basin; the legal ownership of the gas; state regulations governing well spacing and field rules; disposal of produced water; and land and mineral ownership patterns in the northern part of the basin. Also included are detailed papers on all of the major coal-bed methane fields in the basin, and in a paper on the history of Fruitland gas production, a discussion of most of the not-so-major fields. A small section of the book deals with geophysical methods, as yet still experimental, for surface detection of underground hydrocarbon resources. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  6. Characteristics and genesis of clay minerals in the northern margin of the Qaidam Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Linlin; Jiang Bo; Peng Dehua; Yin Chengming; Zeng Chunlin

    2011-01-01

    In order to develop appropriate reservoir protection measures in the northern margin of the Qaidam Basin and improve its oil and gas recovery efficiency, characteristics of clay minerals from eleven clay rock samples from the northern margin of the Qaidam Basin were investigated using X-ray diffraction analysis, the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and energy spectrum analysis. Clay mineral composition and distribution characteristics of the main hydrocarbon reservoirs, I.e., from the Jurassic and Paleogene-Neogene, were explored. We analyzed the main factors which affected these attributes. The results show that the major clay minerals in the northern margin are chlorite, kaolinite, illite, smectite and illite/smectite inter-stratified minerals, Illite is the most widely spread clay mineral in this area.Chlorite is mainly found in the entire Neogene and in shallow horizons of the Paleogene. Smectite is enriched in the shallow Paleogene-Neogene. There are large amounts of kaolinite and illite/smectite inter-stratified minerals in the Jurassic. The major factors affecting the different development of clay minerals in the region are properties of parent rocks, paleoclimate and paleowater media conditions,diagenesis transformation, tectonic and terrain conditions.

  7. Shungites: origin and classification of a new carbon mineral resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivankin, P.F.; Galdobina, L.P.; Kalinin, Yu.K.

    1987-10-01

    The discovery of a new mineral resource in Karelia-shungite- and the confirmation of the finding in the geological literature have a long history. In 1876, local peasants found black stones near the village of Shun'ga, which were taken to be coal and called Olenets anthracite. A discussion began on the nature of this strange anthracite, which did not burn in furnaces. The found of the Karelian geological school, A.A. Inostrantsev, was the first to doubt that Olenets anthracite was really coal, and he named it shungite. Shungites, very unusual, barely combustible high-carbon rocks, have a variety of potential uses. Although details remain obscure, the authors propose a metasomatic origin involving migration and reduction of carbonaceous compounds driven by igneous intrusions. 10 references.

  8. Active Learning Techniques Applied to an Interdisciplinary Mineral Resources Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aird, H. M.

    2015-12-01

    An interdisciplinary active learning course was introduced at the University of Puget Sound entitled 'Mineral Resources and the Environment'. Various formative assessment and active learning techniques that have been effective in other courses were adapted and implemented to improve student learning, increase retention and broaden knowledge and understanding of course material. This was an elective course targeted towards upper-level undergraduate geology and environmental majors. The course provided an introduction to the mineral resources industry, discussing geological, environmental, societal and economic aspects, legislation and the processes involved in exploration, extraction, processing, reclamation/remediation and recycling of products. Lectures and associated weekly labs were linked in subject matter; relevant readings from the recent scientific literature were assigned and discussed in the second lecture of the week. Peer-based learning was facilitated through weekly reading assignments with peer-led discussions and through group research projects, in addition to in-class exercises such as debates. Writing and research skills were developed through student groups designing, carrying out and reporting on their own semester-long research projects around the lasting effects of the historical Ruston Smelter on the biology and water systems of Tacoma. The writing of their mini grant proposals and final project reports was carried out in stages to allow for feedback before the deadline. Speakers from industry were invited to share their specialist knowledge as guest lecturers, and students were encouraged to interact with them, with a view to employment opportunities. Formative assessment techniques included jigsaw exercises, gallery walks, placemat surveys, think pair share and take-home point summaries. Summative assessment included discussion leadership, exams, homeworks, group projects, in-class exercises, field trips, and pre-discussion reading exercises

  9. Mineral resources in lands owned by Australian aborigines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNamara, P.

    1986-01-01

    An overview of British legal treatment of aboriginal natives in Australia focuses on land rights and the ownership of mineral resources. After nearly 200 years of denying the rights of aborigines, legislation began in the 1970s to grant traditional tribal lands in the Northern Territory, South Australia, and New South Wales, with similar action imminent in Victoria. The grants confer a right of exclusive occupation, but do not make the land immune from access for mining purposes by authorized persons. Aborigines have more control over access by outsiders for mining purposes than do ordinary land owners, and have the authority to exact payments as a condition of access from mining operators and royalties from the state. Neither the restraints nor the rights are uniform. Hostility on the part of the mining industry is expected to lessen as negotiations proceed.

  10. Application of GIS in Mineral Resource Prediction of Synthetic Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye Shuisheng; Wang Shicheng; Li Deqiong

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces the formation mechanism and synthetic information prediction of large and superlarge deposits in Shandong Province by analyzing and studying on the GIS platform. The authors established a prospecting model of synthetic information from large and superlarge gold deposit concentration region, and the multi-source spatial database from concentration region of deposits and anomalies. On the basis of the spatial database, a target map layer, a model map layer and a predictive map layer were set up. Based on these map layers, geological variables of the model unit and predictive unit were extracted, then launched location and quantitative prediction of the gold deposit concentration region. The achievement of predicting large and superlarge deposits by the GIS platform has enabled the authors to design automation (or semi-automatic) interpretation subsystems, namely geophysics, geochemistry, geologic prospecting and comprehensive prognosis, and a set of the applicable GIS softwarefor mineral resources prognosis of synthetic information.

  11. Quantifying the Recoverable Resources of Companion Metals: A Preliminary Study of Australian Mineral Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Mudd, Gavin M.; Mohan Yellishetty; Barbara K. Reck; Graedel, T. E.

    2014-01-01

    The long-term availability of mineral resources is crucial in underpinning human society, technology, and economic activity, and in managing anthropogenic environmental impacts. This is increasingly true for metals that do not generally form the primary product of mines (“host” metals), such as copper or iron, but are recovered as by-products (or sometimes co-products during the processing of primary ores). For these “companion” metals, it is therefore useful to develop methodologies to estim...

  12. Water resources evolution and social development in Hai River basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Dingzhi; You, Jinjun

    2010-05-01

    The Hai River basin is one of the three important bread baskets in China. As the rapid economy development in the basin, surface water reduction, groundwater overexploitation and water pollution had caused serious deterioration of the ecological environment. The rainfall, evaporation, surface water, groundwater, water quality, pollution sources, supply and demand of water resources were analyzed and the characteristic of water resources evolution was summarized in Hai River basin. Furthermore, the social and economic development and the relationship between water resources evolution and social development were discussed in the basin. It was found that the human activity is the first impact factor of water cycle in Hai River basin, and the climate change is the second. Finally, the attenuation of water resources in the basin was induced by the two factors together. For sustainable utilization of water resources in the Hai River basin, the unified management and optimal allocation of water resources should be strengthened and promoted.

  13. Evaluation of water resource economics within the Pasco Basin, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Columbia River basalt beneath the Hanford Site in south-central Washington is being considered for possible use as a terminal repository medium for high-level nuclear waste. Such underground storage would require that the facility be contiguous to at least a portion of the ambient groundwater system of the Pasco Basin. This report attempts to evaluate the economic factors and conditions related to the water resources of the Pasco Basin and the probable economic effects associated with selected hypothetical changes in local water demand and supply as a basis for eventual selection of credible water supply alternatives and more detailed analyses of the consequences of such alternative selection. It is most likely that total demand for water for consumptive uses in the Pasco Basin will increase from nearly 2.0 million acre-feet per year in 1980 to almost 2.8 million acre-feet in 2010, with total demand slightly more than 3.6 million acre-feet per year in 2080. The Columbia River and other surface streams constitute the source of more than 99 percent of the water available each year for all uses, both consumptive and non-consumptive, in the Pasco Basin. It is estimated that pumped groundwater accounted for 3 percent of the value of all water supplied to consumers of water in the Pasco Basin in 1980. Groundwater's share of the total cost is proportionately higher than groundwater's share of total use because it is generally more costly to acquire than is surface water and the value of water is considered equivalent to its cost of acquisition. Because groundwater represents such a small part of the total water supply and demand within the Pasco Basin, it is concluded that if the development of a nuclear waste repository on the Hanford Site were to result in changes in the groundwater supply during the next 100 years, the economic impact on the overall water supply picture for the entire basin would be insignificant

  14. Metallogenetic features and perspective evaluation of sandstone-type uranium mineralization in Hailaer Basin, NE, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hailaer basin is located at the Mongolia-Erguna microplate between Siberian and North-China plates. The basement of the basin is composed of Precambrian igneous and metamorphic rocks, which experienced multiple granitization, and Late Paleozoic, Mesozoic granites and acidic-intermediate volcanics constituting a uranium-enriched provenance area. The sedimentary cover of the basin consists of continental sedimentary series of Late Jurassic to Tertiary. Of them, Lower Cretaceous (Damouguaihe Formation) clastics of alluvial, fan-delta and fluvial facies rich in organic matter are the main uranium ore-hosting series. Numerous uranium occurrences have been found at the western part of the basin, and uranium mineralization mainly occurs in coarse-grained clastics of the second and third members of Damouguaihe Formation. Uranium ore bodies usually are tabular, a few roll-shaped. The thickness of individual orebody ranges from 0.3m to 5m. Ore grade commonly is 0.0n% with the encountered highest grade of 0.38%. Uranium in ores is in adsorption form, heterogeneously disseminated in the cement of sandstone. No independent uranium mineral has been found. Associated elements in ores include Mo, V, Se, Sc, and Re. Discovered uranium mineralization in the basin approximately occurs at the same elevation intervals (660-680m), suggesting the paleo-phreatic origin. Uranium mineralization is mostly localized in permeable sandstone units of fluvial and fan-delta facies with high content of organic matter. Ore-formation age is supposed to be the period from K2 to N when the ore-hosting sedimentary series outcropped at the surface and was eroded. High content of uranium in provenance area, existence of permeable ore-hosting sandstone units and the oxidation (phreatic and interlayer) alteration of ore-hosting sandstone after its deposition under arid climate environments are key factors determining the perspective potential of uranium ore-formation. (author)

  15. Quantifying the Recoverable Resources of Companion Metals: A Preliminary Study of Australian Mineral Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin M. Mudd

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The long-term availability of mineral resources is crucial in underpinning human society, technology, and economic activity, and in managing anthropogenic environmental impacts. This is increasingly true for metals that do not generally form the primary product of mines (“host” metals, such as copper or iron, but are recovered as by-products (or sometimes co-products during the processing of primary ores. For these “companion” metals, it is therefore useful to develop methodologies to estimate the recoverable resource, i.e., the amount that could, if desired, be extracted and put into use over the next several decades. We describe here a methodological approach to estimating the recoverable resources of companion metals in metal ores, using preliminary data for some particular host/companion pairs in Australia as examples.

  16. Integrated Water Resources Management Improving Langat Basin Ecosystem Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazlin B. Mokhtar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The ecosystem provides us with all the goods and services that form the base of our economic, social cultural and spiritual life. Good scientific information will be required for managing the environment by using the Ecosystem approach. The groundwater is considered as a possible supplementary of alternative water source, and some factories already started shifting their water source from surface water to groundwater. Uncontrolled use of groundwater, however, may induce serious environmental problems, e.g., land subsidence, saltwater intrusion to the aquifer. The establishment of a balanced multi-sector and integrated groundwater resources and environmental management plan is deemed urgent to attain a sustainable groundwater resources use and to maintain a favorable groundwater quality in the Langat Basin. To achieve sustainable lifestyle in large scale ecosystem requires integrated and holistic approaches from all stakeholders. Through Aquifer Storage Recovery (ASR it was determined a revolutionized water resources management, providing a sustainable supply while minimizing the environmental impact of surface storage. By using underground geologic formations to store water, by integrated water resources management advisory system (IWRMAS aquifer recharge can now easily applied to obviate water resource and environmental problems, including seasonal shortages, emergency storage, ground subsidence and saline intrusion.

  17. Study on tertiary in-situ leachable uranium mineralization conditions in South Songliao basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tertiary in-situ leachable mineralization in Songliao Basin was analyzed in theory in the past. Since 1998, regional investigation at 1:200000 scale has been done with about 120 holes drilled. Based on drill holes recording, section compiling and sample analysis, the authors investigate into the Tertiary in-situ leachable conditions including rock character, sedimentary facies, rock chemistry, organic substances, uranium content, sandstone porosity, sandstone bodies, interlayer oxidation, and hydro-dynamic value. The study would play important role in prospecting for in-situ leachable uranium in South Songliao basin

  18. Managing Water Resource Challenges in the Congo River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloysius, N. R.

    2015-12-01

    Water resources in the tropical regions are under pressure from human appropriation and climate change. Current understanding of interactions between hydrology and climate in the tropical regions is inadequate. This is particularly true for the Congo River Basin (CRB), which also lacks hydroclimate data. Global climate models (GCM) show limited skills in simulating CRB's climate, and their future projections vary widely. Yet, GCMs provide the most credible scenarios of future climate, based upon which changes in water resources can be predicted with coupled hydrological models. The objectives of my work are to i) elucidate the spatial and temporal variability of water resources by developing a spatially explicit hydrological model suitable for describing key processes and fluxes, ii) evaluate the performance of GCMs in simulating precipitation and temperature and iii) develop a set of climate change scenarios for the basin. In addition, I also quantify the risks and reliabilities in smallholder rain-fed agriculture and demonstrates how available water resources can be utilized to increase crop yields. Key processes and fluxes of CRB's hydrological cycle are amply characterized by the hydrology model. Climate change projections are evaluated using a multi-model ensemble approach under different greenhouse gas emission scenarios. The near-term projections of climate and hydrological fluxes are not affected by emission scenarios. However, towards the mid-21st century, projections are emission scenario dependent. Available freshwater resources are projected to increase in the CRB, except in the semiarid southeast. These increases present new opportunities and challenges for augmenting human appropriation of water resources. By evaluating agricultural water requirements, and timing and availability of precipitation, I challenge the conventional wisdom that low agriculture productivities in the CRB are primarily attributable to nutrient limitation. Results show that

  19. Uranium mineralization rules controlled by sedimentation in Bayanwula region in Erlian basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium mineralization is closely related to sedimentation in Bayanwula region in Erlian Basin. Clarifying the relation of sedimentation and Uranium Mineralization Through detailed analysis of vertical sequences, stratigraphic correlation and the heterogeneity of sand body. Study show that the of development characteristics of sequences of Bayanwula region control the vertical positioning of favorable sand, the skeleton sand bodies of LST in upper Saihan formation is the most favorable reservoir space for uranium. Uranium mineralization is closely related with the heterogeneity of the sand bodies of upper Saihan formation. the heterogeneity of Sand body is mainly reflected in plane and vertical. In plane, with the research of the sand distributed system of upper Saihan formation, the change position of sandstone thickness and sand rate, the position of the variation of shape and trend of sand body, and the change position of sand body character and genesis are most favorable for uranium mineralization. In vertical, the number of layers and thickness of isolated barrier bed not only control the thickness of oxide sandstone. but also they are associated with the distribution of uranium mineralization; The evolution of sedimentary basins created Bayanwula uranium deposits. There is a second order sequence boundary between the upper Saihan formation and the Erlian formation of Late Cretaceous, which is a long-term exposure and erosion unconformity, resulting in the partly erosion of the upper Saihan formation, providing the best conditions of the penetration of the uranium-bearing oxygen water and the development of phreatic oxidation and interlayer oxidation zone. (author)

  20. Review of Biohydrometallurgical Metals Extraction from Polymetallic Mineral Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen R. Watling

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This review has as its underlying premise the need to become proficient in delivering a suite of element or metal products from polymetallic ores to avoid the predicted exhaustion of key metals in demand in technological societies. Many technologies, proven or still to be developed, will assist in meeting the demands of the next generation for trace and rare metals, potentially including the broader application of biohydrometallurgy for the extraction of multiple metals from low-grade and complex ores. Developed biotechnologies that could be applied are briefly reviewed and some of the difficulties to be overcome highlighted. Examples of the bioleaching of polymetallic mineral resources using different combinations of those technologies are described for polymetallic sulfide concentrates, low-grade sulfide and oxidised ores. Three areas for further research are: (i the development of sophisticated continuous vat bioreactors with additional controls; (ii in situ and in stope bioleaching and the need to solve problems associated with microbial activity in that scenario; and (iii the exploitation of sulfur-oxidising microorganisms that, under specific anaerobic leaching conditions, reduce and solubilise refractory iron(III or manganese(IV compounds containing multiple elements. Finally, with the successful applications of stirred tank bioleaching to a polymetallic tailings dump and heap bioleaching to a polymetallic black schist ore, there is no reason why those proven technologies should not be more widely applied.

  1. Vein mineralizations - record of paleo-fluid systems in the Thuringian basin (Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepetit, Petra; Viereck, Lothar; Abratis, Michael; Fritsch, Stefanie

    2014-05-01

    Vein-related mineralizations within the Mesozoic sediments of the Thuringian basin (Germany) are investigated in analytical detail (petrography, XRD, XRF, EPMA, LA-ICP-MS, and isotope studies: O, C, S, Sr) in order to characterize paleo-fluid systems that intruded the basin and circulated within it millions of years ago. Samples from 55 outcrops, 34 quarries and 21 drill cores comprise mainly carbonates (calcite, dolomite, siderite, ankerite), additional sulfates (gypsum, celestine, barite,), and rarely sulfides. The mineralizations are almost exclusively restricted to WNW-ESE trending fault systems. First δ13C and δ18O isotope analyses of calcite mineralizations reveal differences between veins within Triassic sediments (Lower Muschelkalk: δ13C: 1.8 to 2.9 o, mean 2.3 o, δ18O: -7.3 to -10.4 o, mean -8.2 o) and Jurassic sediments (δ13C: -0.7 to -2.1 o, mean -1.4 o, δ18O: -9.3 to -10.6 o, mean -9.9 o), indicating intra-formational and extra-formational paleo-fluid transport. Also first δ34S and δ18O isotope analyses of gypsum mineralizations display differences between veins within Triassic and Permian sediments, respectively. These initial data are comparable with isotope analyses of vein-related host rocks and hydrochemical signatures of recent well waters in the Thuringian basin indicating intra-formational in addition to extra-formational paleo-fluid transport. Further isotope studies are in progress including high resolution in situ-Sr- isotope analysis. The present study is part of INFLUINS, a BMBF-funded project bundle, which is dedicated to the comprehensive description and understanding of the fluid systems within the Thuringian basin in time and space.

  2. Aggregate and Mineral Resources - INDUSTRIAL_MINERALS_POINTS_IN: Industrial Mineral Data in Indiana (Indiana Geological Survey, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — INDUSTRIAL_MINERALS_POINTS_IN is a shapefile that shows the distribution of stratigraphic data for various industrial minerals in Indiana. These data were derived...

  3. Prospect analysis for sandstone-type uranium mineralization in the northern margin of Qaidam basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Affected by the regional geological structural evolution, a set of sedimentary structure, i.e. the construction of coal-bearing classic rocks which is in favor of the sandstone-type uranium mineralization has deposited in the northern margin of Qaidam Basin since Meso-Cenozoic. A NWW thrust nappe tectonic belt, i.e. the ancient tectonic belt which is the basis for the development of ancient interlayer oxidation zone formed by the tectonic reverse in late Jurassic and Cretaceous. The Mid and late Jurassic layer was buried by the weak extension in Paleogene and the depression in early Neogene. The extrusion reversal from late Neogene to Quaternary made the basin into the development era of the modern interlayer oxidation zone. It can be concluded that the layer of the northern margin of Qaidam Basin has the premise for the formation of sandstone-type uranium ore. Based on the analysis of the characteristics of the thrust belt, the structure of the purpose layer, the sand body, the hydrogeology, the interlayer oxidation zone and uranium mineralization, the results indicated that the ancient interlayer oxidation zone is the prospecting type of sandstone-type uranium ore. Beidatan and the east of Yuqia are the favorable prospective area of sandstone-type uranium mineralization. (authors)

  4. Study on the rights and interests value of mineral resources and its evaluation method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hai-bin(刘海滨); RUI Jian-wei(芮建伟)

    2004-01-01

    The rights and interests value of mineral resources includes the prospecting rights value and the mining rights value. The mining rights value is made up of the mineral resources value and the compensation value based on the inputs of capitals and labors in different exploration stage, the prospecting rights value should be equal to exploration differential rent of resources. According to the stage characteristic of mineral resources exploration and development, the initial evaluating methods and models are used to evaluate the prospecting rights and mining rights value.

  5. Effects of hydrocarbon generation on fluid flow in the Ordos basin and relationship with uranium mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ordos Basin is not only an important uranium mineralization province but also a major producer of oil. gas and coal in China. The genetic relationship between uranium mineralization and hydrocarbons has been recognized by a number of previous studies, but it has not been well understood in terms of hydrodynamics of basin fluid flow. In a previous study we have demonstrated that the preferential localization of uranium mineralization in the upper part of the Jurassic strata may have been related to the interface of an upward flowing, reducing fluid and a downward flowing, oxidizing fluid, and that this interface may have been controlled by the interplay between fluid overpressure, which was related to disequilibrium sediment compaction and drove the upward flow, and topographic relief which drove the down- ward flow. In the present study, we carried out numerical modeling for the contribution of oil and gas generation to the development of fluid overpressure, in addition to sediment compaction and heating. Our results indicate that when hydrocarbon generation was taken into account, fluid overpressure during the Cretaceous was more than doubled in comparison with the simulation when hydrocarbon generation was not considered. Furthermore, fluid overpressure dissipation after ceasing of sedimentation slowed down relative to the no-hydrocarbon generation case. These results suggest that hydrocarbon generation may have played an important role in uranium mineralization, not only in providing reducing agents required for the mineralization, but also in contributing to the driving force to maintain the upward flow against the pushing of topography driven. downward flow, thus helping stabilize the interface between the two fluid system and localization of uranium mineralization. (authors)

  6. Mineral resources of the Massacre Rim Wilderness Study Area, Washoe County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Massacre Rim Wilderness Study Area encompasses 23,260 acres in Northwest Nevada. There is moderate mineral resource potential for gold, silve, and mercury in hydrothermal deposits in the eastern part of the study area. There is moderate mineral resource potential for uranium throughout the study area. There is no potential for oil and gas in the study area. The potential for geothermal resources is unknown

  7. Porphyry copper assessment of eastern Australia: Chapter L in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Len, Richard A.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Robinson, Gilpin R., Jr.; Zientek, Michael L.; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Jaireth, Subhash; Cossette, Pamela M.; Wallis, John C.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts national and global assessments of resources (mineral, energy, water, and biologic) to provide science in support of decision making. Mineral resource assessments provide syntheses of available information about where mineral deposits are known and suspected to occur in the Earth’s crust and which commodities may be present, together with estimates of amounts of resources that may be present in undiscovered deposits. The USGS collaborated with geologists of the Geological Survey of New South Wales and Geoscience Australia (formerly the Australian Geological Survey Organisation) on an assessment of Phanerozoic-age porphyry copper resources in Australia. Porphyry copper deposits contain about 11 percent of the identified copper resources in Australia. This study addresses resources of known porphyry copper deposits and expected resources of undiscovered porphyry copper deposits in eastern Australia.

  8. Assessment of Climate Change Effects on Water Resources in the Yellow River Basin, China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhiyong Wu; Heng Xiao; Guihua Lu; Jinming Chen

    2015-01-01

    The water resources in the Yellow River basin (YRB) are vital to social and economic development in North and Northwest China. The basin has a marked continental monsoon climate and its water resources are especially vulnerable to climate change. Projected runoff in the basin for the period from 2001 to 2030 was simulated using the variable infiltration capacity (VIC) macroscale hydrology model. VIC was first calibrated using observations and then was driven by the precipitation and temperat...

  9. Overview of the Practical and Theoretical Approaches to the Estimation of Mineral Resources. A Financial Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leontina Pavaloaia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Mineral resources represent an important natural resource whose exploitation, unless it is rational, can lead to their exhaustion and the collapse of sustainable development. Given the importance of mineral resources and the uncertainty concerning the estimation of extant reserves, they have been analyzed by several national and international institutions. In this article we shall present a few aspects concerning the ways to approach the reserves of mineral resources at national and international level, by considering both economic aspects and those aspects concerned with the definition, classification and aggregation of the reserves of mineral resources by various specialized institutions. At present there are attempts to homogenize practices concerning these aspects for the purpose of presenting correct and comparable information.

  10. Progress in the Regulation of Radiation Environmental Safety in the Utilization of Mineral Resources in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the paper, the background to the progress made in the regulation of radiation environmental safety in the utilization of mineral resources other than uranium (thorium) ores in China is first introduced. The regulatory experience of radiation environmental safety in the utilization of mineral resources in international organizations and industrial countries (e.g. International Commission on Radiological Protection, IAEA, European Union and United States of America) is surveyed and analysed. Finally, the scope and requirements of regulation on the radiation environmental safety in the utilization of mineral resources in China are stated. (author)

  11. Maps showing metallic mineral resources of the Bendeleben and Solomon quadrangles, western Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Bruce M.; Till, Alison B.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the potential for metallic mineral resources in the Bendeleben and Solomon quadrangles, central Seward Peninsul, Alaska (fig. 1), and was prepared as part of the AMRAP (Alaska Mineral Resources Appraisal Program) studies for these quadrangles, which were begun in 1981.  Geologic mapping during this study (TILL and others, 1986) included the southern part of the Kotzebue quadrangle.  However, stream-sediment and panned-concentrate samples were not collected in that area, and the mineral resources of the southern part of the Kotzebue quadrangle are not assessed in this report.

  12. Governance of mineral resources: Towards the end of national states’ supremacy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Verrax

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the issue of mineral resources’ governance and trading rules. In doing so, it takes a closer look at the 2012 World Trade Organization (WTO case pertaining to Chinese exportation quotas of rare earth elements and other minerals. It argues that the current governance system based on national responsibility over resources control and global trading rules is not well adapted to a sustainable and fair management of mineral resources, and concludes by suggesting two paths towards a better governance of such resources.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v8i1.1802

  13. Mineral composite assessment of Kelkit River Basin in Turkey by means of remote sensing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hakan Mete Dogan

    2009-12-01

    Utilizing remote sensing (RS) and geographic information systems (GIS) tools, mineral composite characteristics (ferrous minerals (FM), iron oxide (IO), and clay minerals (CM)) of the Kelkit River Basin (15913.07 km2) in Turkey were investigated and mapped. Mineral composite (MC) index maps were produced from three LANDSAT-ETM+ satellite images taken in 2000. Resulting MC index maps were summarized in nine classes by using ‘natural breaks’ classification method in GIS. Employing bi-variety correlation analysis, relationships among index maps were investigated. According to the results, FM and IO index maps showed positive correlation, while CM index map is negatively correlated with FM and IO index maps. Negative correlations between iron and clay variables suggested that the dominant clay minerals of the study area might be smectite, illite, kaolinite, and chlorite, which have little or no iron content. Using field data for which their geographic coordinates had been determined by global positioning system (GPS), developed MC maps were verified, and found dependable for environmental and ecological modeling studies.

  14. Literature and information related to the natural resources of the North Aleutian Basin of Alaska.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stull, E.A.; Hlohowskyj, I.; LaGory, K. E.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-01-31

    The North Aleutian Basin Planning Area of the Minerals Management Service (MMS) is a large geographic area with significant natural resources. The Basin includes most of the southeastern part of the Bering Sea Outer Continental Shelf, including all of Bristol Bay. The area supports important habitat for a wide variety of species and globally significant habitat for birds and marine mammals, including several federally listed species. Villages and communities of the Alaska Peninsula and other areas bordering or near the Basin rely on its natural resources (especially commercial and subsistence fishing) for much of their sustenance and livelihood. The offshore area of the North Aleutian Basin is considered to have important hydrocarbon reserves, especially natural gas. In 2006, the MMS released a draft proposed program, 'Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Leasing Program, 2007-2012' and an accompanying draft programmatic environmental impact statement (EIS). The draft proposed program identified two lease sales proposed in the North Aleutian Basin in 2010 and 2012, subject to restrictions. The area proposed for leasing in the Basin was restricted to the Sale 92 Area in the southwestern portion. Additional EISs will be needed to evaluate the potential effects of specific lease actions, exploration activities, and development and production plans in the Basin. A full range of updated multidisciplinary scientific information will be needed to address oceanography, fate and effects of oil spills, marine ecosystems, fish, fisheries, birds, marine mammals, socioeconomics, and subsistence in the Basin. Scientific staff at Argonne National Laboratory were contracted to assist MMS with identifying and prioritizing information needs related to potential future oil and gas leasing and development activities in the North Aleutian Basin. Argonne focused on three related tasks: (1) identify and gather relevant literature published since 1996, (2) synthesize and

  15. Study on the discontinuance evalution theory of the minerals resource construction item

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Guo-chen; REN Feng-yu; ZHONG Wei-qing

    2008-01-01

    The period of the minerals resource construction items is very long,which affected largely by the changeable market.The discontinuance evalution theory and content of construction item about the resource used up and economic evalution theodes of the invest were brought forward from the two aspects of the resource using value and the income rate.

  16. Study on the discontinuance evalution theory of the minerals resource construction item

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Guo-chen; REN Feng-yu; ZHONG Wei-qing

    2008-01-01

    The period of the minerals resource construction items is very long, which af-fected largely by the changeable market. The discontinuance evalution theory and content of construction item about the resource used up and economic evalution theories of the invest were brought forward from the two aspects of the resource using value and the in-come rate.

  17. Analysis of geological characteristics of uranium mineralization of Na Linggou in Husiliang located in the northern of Ordos basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, rock facies, the development of interlayer oxidation zone and the control factors and characteristics of uranium mineralization in northern Ordos basin in terms of beam areas call Adams Ridge sulcus satisfied lots Zhiluo uranium mineralization characteristics do lower concluded that the location uranium mineralization controlled by the interlayer oxidation zone of uranium deposits located in the developed parts of the faults. (author)

  18. Proceedings for a Workshop on Deposit Modeling, Mineral Resource Assessment, and Their Role in Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briskey, Joseph A., (Edited By); Schulz, Klaus J.

    2007-01-01

    Preface The world's use of nonfuel mineral resources continues to increase to support a growing population and increasing standards of living. The ability to meet this increasing demand is affected especially by concerns about possible environmental degradation associated with minerals production and by competing land uses. What information does the world need to support global minerals development in a sustainable way? Informed planning and decisions concerning sustainability and future mineral resource supply require a long-term perspective and an integrated approach to resource, land use, economic, and environmental management worldwide. Such perspective and approach require unbiased information on the global distribution of identified and especially undiscovered resources, the economic and political factors influencing their development, and the potential environmental consequences of their exploitation. The U.S. Geological Survey and the former Deposit Modeling Program of the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) sponsored a workshop on 'Deposit Modeling, Mineral Resource Assessment, and Their Role in Sustainable Development' at the 31st International Geological Congress (IGC) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, on August 18-19, 2000. The purpose of the workshop was to review the state-of-the-art in mineral deposit modeling and resource assessment and to examine the role of global assessments of nonfuel mineral resources in sustainable development. The workshop addressed questions such as the following: Which of the available mineral deposit models and assessment methods are best suited for predicting the locations, deposit types, and amounts of undiscovered nonfuel mineral resources remaining in the world? What is the availability of global geologic, mineral deposit, and mineral exploration information? How can mineral resource assessments be used to address economic and

  19. Ministry of Land and Resources Plans to Find Out Support Capabilities of Mineral Resources including Copper, Lead, Zinc and Nickel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>On September 10,the Ministry of Land and Resources(MLR)revealed on its website that it decided to carry out a research on the support capability of main mineral resources in China for national economy and social development by 2020,2025 and 2030.According to MLR,China’s research and argumentation on support capacity of important

  20. The Ministry of Land and Natural Resources is Preparing to Delete the Approval Right for Mineral Resources Geological Prospecting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>Yu Haifeng, Deputy Director of Geological Prospecting Department and Executive Deputy Director of the Mineral Prospecting Office under the Ministry of Land and Natural Resources, disclosed at the recently concluded National Prospecting Meeting for 2013 that, the Ministry of Land and Natural Resources is con

  1. The set-up of an international agreement on the conservation and sustainable use of geologically scarce mineral resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henckens, M.L.C.M.; Driessen, Peter; Ryngaert, C.M.J.; Worrell, Ernst

    2016-01-01

    For more than a century, the use of mineral resources has increased exponentially with annual growth percentages of between 4% and 6%. While for most mineral resources, depletion is not an issue, for some mineral resources the current level of extraction is likely to pose a problem for future genera

  2. Transboundary Water Resources Allocation Under Various Parametric Conditions: The Case Of The Euphrates & Tigris River Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Kucukmehmetoglu, Mehmet; Geymen, Abdurrahman

    2012-01-01

    The literature on transboundary water resources allocation modeling is still short in encompassing and analyzing complex geographic multiparty nature of basins. This study elaborates Inter Temporal Euphrates and Tigris River Basin Model (ITETRBM)*, which is a linear programming based transboundary water resources allocation model maximizing net economic benefit from allocation of scarce water resources to energy generation, urban, and agricultural uses. The elaborations can be categorized in ...

  3. Exploration, extraction and potential areas of mineral resources in the Republic of Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Strgar

    2004-01-01

    In 2003, the Commission for Mineral and Ground Water Resources of the Republic of Slovenia (Commission) collected data and produced a balance of exploration, extraction and potential areas of mineral resources in the Republic of Slovenia – situation on 31 December 2002 for the first time. The balance was based on data gained from forms »Registration of the size of exploration and extraction area – situation on 31 December 2002”. The Commission has not produced any such balance before, althoug...

  4. ADVANCES IN HYDROGEOCHEMICAL INDICATORS FOR THE DISCOVERY OF NEW GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES IN THE GREAT BASIN, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, Stuart F [Colorado School of Mines; Spycher, Nicolas [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Sonnenthal, Eric [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Dobson, Patrick [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    2013-05-20

    This report summarizes the results of Phase I work for a go/no go decision on Phase II funding. In the first objective, we assessed the extent to which fluid-mineral equilibria controlled deep water compositions in geothermal systems across the Great Basin. Six systems were evaluated: Beowawe; Desert Peak; Dixie Valley; Mammoth; Raft River; Roosevelt. These represent a geographic spread of geothermal resources, in different geological settings and with a wide range of fluid compositions. The results were used for calibration/reformulation of chemical geothermometers that reflect the reservoir temperatures in producing reservoirs. In the second objective, we developed a reactive -transport model of the Desert Peak hydrothermal system to evaluate the processes that affect reservoir fluid geochemistry and its effect on solute geothermometry. This included testing geothermometry on “reacted” thermal water originating from different lithologies and from near-surface locations where the temperature is known from the simulation. The integrated multi-component geothermometer (GeoT, relying on computed mineral saturation indices) was tested against the model results and also on the systems studied in the first objective.

  5. Quantifying and communicating the uncertainty of mineral resource evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mee, Katy; Marchant, Ben; Mankelow, Joseph; Deady, Eimear

    2015-04-01

    Three-dimensional subsurface models are increasingly being used to assess the value of sand and gravel mineral deposits. Planners might use this information to decide when deposits should be protected from new developments. The models are generally based on interpretations of relatively sparse boreholes and are therefore uncertain. This uncertainty propagates into the predictions of the value of the deposit and must be quantified and communicated to planners in a manner which permits informed decision-making. We discuss these issues in relation to a 60 km by 40 km study area in the south of England. We use the interpretations of 630 boreholes to build statistical models of the subsurface. Mineral deposit categories are defined in terms of the ratio of mineral depth to overburden depth and the proportion of fine particles within the mineral. We use a linear model of coregionalization to model the spatial distribution of these parameters. Furthermore, we use stochastic simulation methods to produce maps of the probability of each category of mineral deposit occurring at each location in the study area. These maps indicate where deposits of suitable sand and gravel might be expected to occur. However, they are only telling us the probability that if a borehole was to be drilled at a location that its contents would satisfy the criteria of each mineral category. Planners require information for areas much larger than a single borehole. Therefore, we demonstrate how the model can be up-scaled to a 1 km2 site. We again use a stochastic simulation method to produce box-whisker plots which illustrate the proportions of gravels, sands, fine sands and fine material that are predicted to occur in the region and the uncertainty associated with the predictions.

  6. Clay minerals in basin of Mexico lacustrine sediments and their influence on ion mobility in groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, C. J.; Rudolph, D. L.

    1997-09-01

    Semiconfined aquifers used as the principal water supply within the Basin of Mexico are overlain by lacustrine deposits that provide a degree of protection from contamination associated with metropolitan Mexico City. Solute transport behavior and the nature of chemical interactions with mineral components in these sediments is poorly understood. The objectives of this paper were to identify the clay mineral phases of the lacustrine sediments and to determine the significance of the exchange properties of the day minerals on contaminant transport processes. Samples obtained from two cores were separated into sand, silt, and clay-size fractions. The clay-size fraction was analyzed by X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and for specific surface area and pH-dependent cation and anion exchange capacity. The clay-sized fraction averaged 56% of the sediment. Analyses indicated that the clay was predominantly composed of a Si-rich allophane with approximately 30% montmorillonite. Halloysite was also present to a depth of about 1.5 m, but was absent deeper in the sediment. Kaolinite and illite, reported in previous studies, and imogolite were not found in the samples. Solute transport in the sediment was modeled to demonstrate the impact of exchange properties imparted by the allophane compared to other possible clay mineral assemblages. The predominance of allophane in the Basin of Mexico sediments is responsible for many of the fundamental characteristics of the material including: high porosity (0.8-0.9), high water content (200-400%), and an extremely high and pH-dependent cation exchange capacity. The pH of the pore water within the lacustrine sediments of the Basin of Mexico is typically between 6.5 and 12. Measured cation exchange values ranged from ≈ 450 meq kg -1 at pH 6.5 to ≈ 650 meq kg -1 at pH 12 which could produce variable cation mobility in the semiconfining aquitard. The simulations illustrated that allophane is very effective

  7. Discussion on origin of clay minerals in outcropped sandstone from Lower Cretaceous Chengzihe Formation and Muling Formation in Jixi Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jianying; LIU Li; QU Xiyu

    2009-01-01

    Clay minerals in the outcropped sandstone from Lower Cretaceous Chengzihe Formation and Muling Formation in Jixi Basin were analyzed by X-ray diffraction. The results show that the clay minerals mainly consist of illite, kaollinite and illite/smectite, which can be divided into two types: kaolinite- and illite/smectite types. The outcropped sandstone occurred in middle diagenetic stage-A on the basis of the clay mineral composition. The development factor of the formation of kaolinite type clay mineral is caused mainly by the organic acid from the coal-bearing formation and mudstone during the diagenesis process in Lower Cretaceous Chengzihe Formation and Muling Formation in the Jixi Basin. The weak hydrodynamic force of sedimentary facies made the sandstone leaching condition poor, which is the reason forming the aggregation of clay minerals of the illite/smectite-and illite types.

  8. Biofuel Expansion and Water Resources in the Ivinhema Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libra, J. M.; King, C.; Xavier, A.; Scanlon, B. R.

    2014-12-01

    Brazil produces approximately a quarter the world's yearly ethanol demand, making it a global leader in biofuel production. The repercussions for local water resources in areas of intensive biofuel expansion, however, remain uncertain. To assess the effects of various land-use change scenarios on water sustainability in Brazil, this study models a small catchment currently experiencing soybean and sugarcane expansion using the Stockholm Environment Institute's Water Evaluation and Planning software (WEAP). The catchment, the Ivinhema basin in Southern Mato Grosso do Sul, has experienced extensive sugarcane expansion since the mid-1990s - a trend that is expected to continue. The model uses climatic data, soil characteristics, and agricultural production trends in the region from 1990 - 2012 to simulate known streamflows, using the WEAP-MABIA method. The model predicts flow impacts under a number of different future climatic and land-use scenarios. The results will be used to inform the ICONE's Brazil Land Use Model (BLUM), which models the economics of land use.

  9. Water resources and ecological conditions in the Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋郁东; 王让会; 彭永生

    2002-01-01

    Temporal sequential analyses of the hydrological observational data in the Tarim Ba-sin over the last forty years revealed an annual increase of 2 × 107m3 in the water quantities at thethree headstreams of the upper courses and an annual decrease of 3 × 107m3 in the water flowfrom Alaer, which is on the upper main stream. A prediction of the trends indicates that there canbe severe situations under which intermittent water interceptions occur. By means of approximateestimations on vegetative water consumption through phreatic evaporation combined with a quotaassessment, the ecological water demands required to maintain the ecological environment in themainstream area over the three different targeted years of 2005, 2010 and 2030 are defined asstanding at 31.86× 108m3, 36.27× 108m3 and 41.04× 108m3 respectively. Ecological fragility in-dexes are established on the basis of the selection of environmental sensitivity factors. Rationalevaluations give proof that the lower reaches of the mainstream have already turned into zoneswhere their ecological environments are gravely damaged. Multi-objective optimization should beconducted and protective schemes be framed within the threshold limits of the bearing capacitiesof water resources and the environment.

  10. Research and application of mineral resources assessment by weights of evidence model based on SIG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuanyuan Chuai; Keyan Xiao; Yihua Xuan; Shaobin Zhan

    2006-01-01

    Geological data are usually of the characteristics of multi-source, large amount and multi-scale. The construction of Spatial Information Grid overcomes the shortages of personal computers when dealing with geological data. The authors introduce the definition, architecture and flow of mineral resources assessment by weights of evidence model based on Spatial Information Grid (SIG). Meanwhile, a case study on the prediction of copper mineral occurrence in the Middle-Lower Yangtze metallogenic belt is given. The results show that mineral resources assessement based on SIG is an effective new method which provides a way of sharing and integrating distributed geospatial information and improves the efficiency greatly.

  11. Conversion, ecological and social aspects of the research on mineral resources at the Semipalatinsk test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the history of the Semipalatinsk test site in nuclear weapons testing, this territory is of interest for geologic exploration and utilization of mineral resources. The prospect for minerals on this territory was already known before the beginning of tests. Nowadays several companies work on the territory. Positive experience of using Kara Zhira coal deposit, refinement of local gabbros and stone-cutting plant, and preparation of gold mining at Naimanzhal deposit, allow us to hope that these mineral and raw material resources of the Semipalatinsk test site can become an important economic factor for development of the Eastern Kazakhstan region. (author)

  12. Assessment of mineral resource tracts in the Chugach National Forest, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Steven W.; Miller, Marti L.

    2000-01-01

    Locatable minerals have been produced from the Chugach National Forest (CNF) for nearly 100 years. Past gold production has come from the Kenai Peninsula and the Girdwood, Port Wells, and Valdez areas. Copper and by-product gold and silver have been produced from mines at Ellamar, on Latouche Island, and near Valdez. Many of the past-producing properties were not mined out and contain significant inferred reserves of gold, copper, lead, zinc, and silver. This report outlines mineral resource areas (tracts) that contain both identified and undiscovered mineral resources. These tracts were drawn on the basis of one or more of the following criteria: (1) geochemical anomalies, (2) favorable geologic units, (3) presence of mines, prospects or mineral occurrences, and (4) geophysical anomalies. Bliss (1989) used six mineral deposit models to describe the types of deposits known from the CNF. Of these deposit types, only four are sufficiently known and defined in the CNF to be suitable for consideration in outlining and ranking of mineral resource tracts; these deposit types are: (1) Cyprus-type massive sulfide, (2) Chugach-type low-sulfide goldquartz veins, (3) placer gold, and (4) polymetallic vein. The U.S. Bureau of Mines indicated that most of the inferred mineral reserves in the CNF would not be economic to produce under current prices. Small-scale placer gold operations are a possible exception. Other known resources that have recorded past production (oil, coal, rock, sand, and gravel) are not addressed in this report.

  13. Analysis of stream sediment reconnaissance data for mineral resources from the Montrose NTMS Quadrangle, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multivariate statistical analysis to support the National Uranium Resource Evaluation and to evaluate strategic and other commercially important mineral resources was carried out on Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance data from the Montrose quadrangle, Colorado. The analysis suggests that: (1) the southern Colorado Mineral Belt is an area favorable for uranium mineral occurrences; (2) carnotite-type occurrences are likely in the nose of the Gunnison Uplift; (3) uranium mineral occurrences may be present along the western and northern margins of the West Elk crater; (4) a base-metal mineralized area is associated with the Uncompahgre Uplift; and (5) uranium and base metals are associated in some areas, and both are often controlled by faults trending west-northwest and north

  14. Analysis of stream sediment reconnaissance data for mineral resources from the Montrose NTMS Quadrangle, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyth, M.; Broxton, D.; McInteer, C.; Averett, W.R.; Stablein, N.K.

    1980-06-01

    Multivariate statistical analysis to support the National Uranium Resource Evaluation and to evaluate strategic and other commercially important mineral resources was carried out on Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance data from the Montrose quadrangle, Colorado. The analysis suggests that: (1) the southern Colorado Mineral Belt is an area favorable for uranium mineral occurrences; (2) carnotite-type occurrences are likely in the nose of the Gunnison Uplift; (3) uranium mineral occurrences may be present along the western and northern margins of the West Elk crater; (4) a base-metal mineralized area is associated with the Uncompahgre Uplift; and (5) uranium and base metals are associated in some areas, and both are often controlled by faults trending west-northwest and north.

  15. Gondwana basins and their coal resources in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fault bounded five Gondwana basins have been discovered in the north western Bangladesh. Among these basins show considerable amount of coal deposits. The Gondwana rocks are highly formed during the Permo-carboniferous diastrophism and later on acquired dynamic characters. In almost all basins, the Permian rocks overlie the Precambrian basement and underlie either the Tertiary or the Cretaceous sediments, structural, stratigraphic, and depositional history of these basins is more or less similar. The sedimentary sequences are composed of light to dark gray, fine to very coarse grained, sub angular to sub rounded felspathic sandstone, dark grey carbonaceous shale and sandstone, variegated conglomerate and thick coal seams (single seam max. 42.38m). The rocks are often alternated and bear the characteristics of cyclic sedimentation. The depositional environments varied from restricted drainage to open fluvial dominated low to moderate sinuous drainage system. The coal bearing basins were flanked by vegetated and swampy over bank. Age of these coals is suggested to be the late permian. Proved and probable reserves of coal in Jamalganj-Paharpur basin are 670 and 1,460 million metric tons, in Barapukuria basin 303 and 3899 million metric tons; in Barapukuria basin 303 and 389 million metric tons; and in Khalaspir basin 143 and 685 million metric tons respectively. The coal is high volatile, low sulphur, bituminous type. It can be used for different forms of thermal conversion. (author)

  16. On the possibilities of occurrence of structure controlled unconformity-proximal uranium mineralization in Madhawanpalli - Rayalgandi Sector, Srisailam Sub-Basin, Cuddapah Basin, Andhra Pradesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The northern margin of Srisailam Sub-basin is well known for its potential to host unconformity proximal uranium mineralization and so far three deposits have been established at Lambapur, Peddagattu and Chitrial. Recent exploration in Madhawanpalli-Rayalgandi sector and follow up sub-surface exploration has indicated uranium mineralization in the granites beneath the cover of Srisailam sediments. The host rock is characterized by intense fracturing, brecciation, cataclasism and alterations like chloritization, illitization and silicification signifying the role of basement structures in uranium mineralization near the unconformity surface. (author)

  17. The scarcity-abundance relationship of mineral resources introducing some sustainable aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Planet has a large number of concentrations of minerals. However, the low price assigned to these resources and the principles of sustainable mining in the short term may cause limitations in the exploration and extraction of these resources in the immediate future and they affect the supply of minerals. The true accounts of non-renewable natural resources must be completed entering with the non market values associated to its exploitation. The environmental management tools (Exergetic Analysis and Life Cycle Assessment) are instruments to achieve this goal as outlined below.

  18. Relationship between the hydrogeochemical environment and sandstone-type uranium mineralization in the Ili basin, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → We explore the relationship of U in groundwater to the hydrogeochemical environment. → We integrate hydrogeochemical parameters to characterize the hydrogeochemical zones. → U speciation and behavior in groundwater are different in different zones. → U in groundwater is dissolved and transported as U(VI) in the oxidized zone. → U in groundwater is precipitated and mineralized as U(IV) in the redox transition zone. - Abstract: This paper describes the occurrence and distribution of U within groundwater of the Ili basin in Xinjiang, China. Dissolved major ions, dissolved gases, pH, Eh and salinity in groundwater were employed to distinguish different hydrogeochemical environments and associated processes affecting U transport within the aquifer. The results show that dissolution and deposition of U by groundwater are closely related to reactions with organic C and minerals such as sulfides, carbonates and silicates along groundwater flow paths. Different chemical reactions predominate and account for changes in the occurrence of U in the rock and water of the oxidized zone, the redox transition zone, and the reduced zone. Knowledge of these associations between U and hydrogeochemical environments could enhance the understanding of relationships of groundwater circulation and U mineralization and could have implications for prospecting for sandstone-type U deposits.

  19. Water Resources Inventory and Assessment for Kern National Wildlife Refuge and Tulare Basin Wildlife Management Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment report for Kern National Wildlife Refuge and Tulare Basin Wildlife Management Area describes hydrologic information,...

  20. Assessment of continuous oil and gas resources of the Cooper Basin, Australia, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Le, Phuong A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2016-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean continuous resources of 482 million barrels of oil and 29.8 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Cooper Basin of Australia.

  1. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of the Cooper and Eromanga Basins, Australia, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Le, Phuong A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Pitman, Janet K.

    2016-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean conventional resources of 68 million barrels of oil and 964 billion cubic feet of gas in the Cooper and Eromanga Basins of Australia.

  2. Raster Dataset Model of Nahcolite Resources in the Piceance Basin, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — ESRI GRID raster datasets were created to display and quantify nahcolite resources for eight oil shale zones in the Piceance Basin, Colorado as part of a 2009...

  3. Assessment of Paleozoic shale gas resources in the Sichuan Basin of China, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher J.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Klett, Timothy R.; Leathers, Heidi M.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Pitman, Janet K.

    2015-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean of 23.9 trillion cubic feet of technically recoverable shale gas resources in Paleozoic formations in the Sichuan Basin of China.

  4. Progress Report on the fish and wildlife resources of Virginia Lake Basin, Territory of Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is a progress report on the fish and wildlife resources of Virginia Lake Basin. This report specifically looks at the potential for hydroelectric power...

  5. A Unified Approach to Mechanical Compaction, Pressure Solution, Mineral Reactions and the Temperature Distribution in Hydrocarbon Basins

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Xin-She

    2010-01-01

    In modelling sediment compaction and mineral reactions, the rheological behaviour of sediments is typically considered as poroelastic or purely viscous. In fact, compaction due to pressure solution and mechanical processes in porous media is far more complicated. A generalised model of viscoelastic compaction and the smectite to illite mineral reaction in hydrocarbon basins is presented. A one-step dehydration model of the mineral reaction is assumed. The obtained nonlinear governing equations are solved numerically and different combinations of physical parameters are used to simulate realistic situations in typical sedimentary basins. Comparison of numerical simulations with real data has shown very good agreement with respect to both the porosity profile and the mineral reaction.

  6. Geology and world politics: mineral resource appraisals as tools of geopolitical calculation, 1919-1939

    OpenAIRE

    Westermann, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    How is nature transformed into natural resources? Histories analyzing the state sciences of agriculture and forestry in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries showed that these sciences redefined nature as natural resources by making them amenable to cameralistic calculation, bookkeeping and accountability. Against this background, my first line of inquiry is exploring how, over the twentieth century, nonfuel mineral resource appraisals, i.e. attempts to quantify the metal content of t...

  7. The Indus basin in the framework of current and future water resources management

    OpenAIRE

    A. N. Laghari; D. Vanham; Rauch, W.

    2011-01-01

    The Indus basin is one of the regions in the world that is faced with major challenges for its water sector, due to population growth, rapid urbanisation and industrialisation, environmental degradation, unregulated utilization of the resources, inefficient water use and poverty, all aggravated by climate change. This paper gives a comprehensive listing and description of available options for current and future sustainable water resources management (WRM) within the basin. Sustainable WRM pr...

  8. Assessment of Undiscovered Natural Gas Resources of the Sacramento Basin Province of California, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheirer, Allegra Hosford; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Magoon, Leslie B.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed a new assessment of undiscovered natural gas resources of the Sacramento Basin Province of California. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS mean estimates of undiscovered, technically recoverable resources are 534 billion cubic feet of natural gas and 323 thousand barrels of natural gas liquids in the Sacramento Basin Province. Additional undiscovered oil accumulations larger than 0.5 million barrels are considered unlikely.

  9. Exploration and management of mineral and energy resources for sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minerals and energy are essential to modern well-being and are therefore important components in the development of a sustainable society. Mineral and energy resources consist of concentrations of naturally occurring solid, liquid or gaseous material in or on the earth's crust in such form and amount such that profitable extraction or production is currently and potentially feasible. These resources are depletable but in the case of some metals or materials derived from minerals, these are reusable and may be recycled. These resources are distributed unevenly such that an international trade in minerals and energy is inevitable and a stable supply of minerals and energy is crucial in maintaining or attaining industrialization. Exploration consists of the activities designed to locate deposits of minerals or reservoirs of petroleum or geothermal energy. It includes geological, geophysical and geochemical surveys, drilling and excavation of underground openings. These activities also include the search for additional deposits during production, or extraction. Substantial investments are required during the long span of time between the commencement of exploration and production. Proper planning of extraction of the reserves delineated would include measures towards protecting the environment and site restoration. While sound management of exploration and extraction may enhance success in discovering resources and recovery of reserves as well as protect the environment, conservation measures are also necessary to optimize utilization of these nonrenewable resources. Multidisciplinary research in the various phases of exploration, development, production, site restoration and in conservation and efficient utilization of energy and mineral resources in the Philippines would be needed in the coming years in order to achieve sustainable development. (auth.)

  10. Clay mineral facies and lateritization in basalts of the southeastern Parana Basin, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seventeen samples from two lateritic profiles, each with five facies, were studied. These profiles occur on the old planation surface of the plateau basalts of the southern part of ParanáBasin, Brazil. Optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, electron microprobe, Mössbauer spectroscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectra were used to obtain information about the nature and chemical composition of each weathering facies. In addition, scanning electron microscopy and analyses of clay minerals were performed to detect microcrystalline environmental changes. Both profiles have two major parts: a loose red-clay latosol separated from an underlying mottled clay and an alterite facies; a stone line may or may not be present between the latosol and the underlying units. In both profiles the latosol consists principally of kaolinite, hematite and goethite. Two alterite facies, shaped by differential weathering, are also present in the lower profile: a halloysite–nontronite clayey matrix with a well developed fissure system occurs in the argillaceous alterite and a network of Al–goethite aggregates is typical of the highly porous cortex of the boulder alterite that is found in the stone line and below it. Gibbsite has crystallized in the large pores of porphyritic boulder alterite but is absent in the small pores of the subaphyric boulder alterite. Clay minerals observed in fissures include halloysite associated with goethite and manganese oxides. The basalt has hydrothermal green-clays (mixed layers and trioctahedral smectites) that formed between primary plagioclase, pyroxene and Ti–magnetite crystals while fresh corestones of the boulder alterite have cryptocrystalline iron-rich material. The study of these profiles shows one principal evolutionary trend for clay minerals. This trend is from smectite and mixed layers that form green clays in altered bedrock at the base of the profile to an intermediate association of nontronite and halloysite in the argillaceous

  11. Evaluation of the ground water resources within the Lewiston basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Lewiston Basin located in North Idaho covers approximately 550 square miles and includes the cities of Lewiston, Idaho and Clarkston, Washington. The deep aquifer in the Lewiston Basin has been declared a sole source aquifer. This system provides the primary water supply for the City of Clarkston Washington and a partial water supply for the City of Lewiston and the Lewiston Orchards Irrigation District. Questions have been raised relative to the maximum yield of the aquifer system with the continued growth of the area. This study addresses the hydrogeology of the basin, along with the locations and mechanisms for recharge and discharge. The geology of the Lewiston Basin consist of Miocene-Pliocene basalt flows overlain by quaternary sediments. The basalt flows were structurally deformed during and after emplacement, thus creating a structural basin with numerous faults. The lower most basalt unit of the Lewiston Basin is the Imnaha Basalt, which is overlain by the Grande Ronde and Wanapum Basalts. The boundaries of the ground water flow system are the same as the structural basin. 7 refs., 4 figs

  12. Heavy Oil and Natural Bitumen Resources in Geological Basins of the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Richard F.; Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.

    2007-01-01

    Heavy oil and natural bitumen are oils set apart by their high viscosity (resistance to flow) and high density (low API gravity). These attributes reflect the invariable presence of up to 50 weight percent asphaltenes, very high molecular weight hydrocarbon molecules incorporating many heteroatoms in their lattices. Almost all heavy oil and natural bitumen are alteration products of conventional oil. Total resources of heavy oil in known accumulations are 3,396 billion barrels of original oil in place, of which 30 billion barrels are included as prospective additional oil. The total natural bitumen resource in known accumulations amounts to 5,505 billion barrels of oil originally in place, which includes 993 billion barrels as prospective additional oil. This resource is distributed in 192 basins containing heavy oil and 89 basins with natural bitumen. Of the nine basic Klemme basin types, some with subdivisions, the most prolific by far for known heavy oil and natural bitumen volumes are continental multicyclic basins, either basins on the craton margin or closed basins along convergent plate margins. The former includes 47 percent of the natural bitumen, the latter 47 percent of the heavy oil and 46 percent of the natural bitumen. Little if any heavy oil occurs in fore-arc basins, and natural bitumen does not occur in either fore-arc or delta basins.

  13. Impact of Climate Change on Groundwater Resources in the Klela Basin, Southern Mali

    OpenAIRE

    Adama Toure; Bernd Diekkrüger; Adama Mariko

    2016-01-01

    Investigations of groundwater resources in order to understand aquifer system behavior are vital to the inhabitants of the Klela Basin, Mali, because groundwater is the only permanent water resource and is used for drinking water and irrigation. Due to climate change, this vital resource is being threatened. Therefore, MODFLOW was applied in this study to simulate groundwater dynamics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of climate change on groundwater resources in the Klela bas...

  14. Geology of carbonate aggregate resources of Illinois, Illinois mineral notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, J. H.

    Carbonate rocks ranging in age from Pennsylvanian through Ordovician provide the principal resources for crushed stone production in Illinois. In the northern third of Illinois, dolomite and calcareous dolomite of the Silurian and Ordovician Systems from the bedrock surface are the basis of a large quarrying industry. One of the largest quarries in the United States wins stone from Silurian reefal dolomite at Thornton, near Chicago. Aggregate for skid-resistant asphalt pavement is produced from Devonian chert in extreme southern Illinois.

  15. An Opportunity on Exploiting of Geology and Mineral Resource Data for Regional Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indonesia archipelago have the very complex geo diversity. The complexity of geo diversity gives a lot of opportunity on exploiting of earth resources for society prosperity. In other side, the complexity of geology also gives a lot of resistance and various limitation at one particular region to expand. Hence, various data of geology as well as data of result of mapping of minerals resources (mapping at macro scale and also have detail scale) require to be managed and exploited maximally. Effort the exploiting also require various infrastructure which is concerning regulatory, technological, human resources being, market-drive of an economic geo material, social environment and culture which grow around geology data, and also availability and readiness of geology and mineral resources data. This study is expected can give a few description of how the geology and minerals resources data can be as reference in regional development planning. This paper was writed by assessment of description qualitative and comparative inter-region case study in various regency area, where writer have been involved to conduct the activity of geological mapping and mineral resources data and also involved by a discussion with a few officers of local government in so many opportunity. Some of the case study region for example : in Kampar Regency (Riau), Tanjung Jabung Timur Regency (Jambi), Biak Numfor Regency (Papua), Gunung Kidul Regency (Yogyakarta), Pacitan Regency (East Java), and also Klaten Regency (Central Java). (author)

  16. A strategic analysis of International GUI Resources Corp.- a junior mineral exploration company

    OpenAIRE

    Mazvihwa, Judith Tendayi

    2007-01-01

    This project is a strategic analysis of a mineral exploration company, International GUI Resources Corp. (GUI). The project describes and evaluates GUI's external environment and identifies the company's strategic threats and opportunities. GUI's strategic threat is related to the extreme bargaining power suppliers of exploration services have in the mineral exploration industry. The project suggests and investigates three potential strategic alternatives to mitigate this threat. It then eval...

  17. Interdisciplinary applications and interpretations of ERTS data within the Susquehanna River Basin (resource inventory, land use, and pollution)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcmurtry, G. J.; Petersen, G. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. An interdisciplinary group at Penn State University is analyzing ERTS-1 data. The geographical area of interest is that of the Susquehanna River Basin in Pennsylvania. The objectives of the work have been to ascertain the usefulness of ERTS-1 data in the areas of natural resources and land use inventory, geology and hydrology, and environmental quality. Specific results include a study of land use in the Harrisburg area, discrimination between types of forest resources and vegetation, detection of previously unknown geologic faults and correlation of these with known mineral deposits and ground water, mapping of mine spoils in the anthracite region of eastern Pennsylvania, and mapping of strip mines and acid mine drainage in central Pennsylvania. Both photointerpretive techniques and automatic computer processing methods have been developed and used, separately and in a combined approach.

  18. Water Resources Data, Texas Water Year 1998, Volume 1. Arkansas River Basin, Red River Basin, Sabine River Basin, Neches River Basin, Trinity River Basin, and Intervening Coastal Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandara, S.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Andrews, F.L.; Barbie, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1998 water year for Texas are presented in four volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water-quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 1 contains records for water discharge at 112 gaging stations; stage only at 5 gaging stations; stage and contents at 33 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 65 gaging stations; and data for 12 partial-record stations comprised of 7 flood-hydrograph, 2 low-flow, and 3 creststage stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  19. Water Resources Data, Texas Water Year 1998, Volume 3. Colorado River Basin, Lavaca River Basin, Guadalupe River Basin, Nueces River Basin, Rio Grande Basin, and Intervening Coastal Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandara, S.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Andrews, F.L.; Barbie, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1998 water year for Texas are presented in four volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water-quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 3 contains records for water discharge at 126 gaging stations; stage only at 3 gaging stations; stage and contents at 15 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 62 gaging stations; and data for 35 partial-record stations comprised of 8 flood-hydrograph, 14 low-flow, and 18 creststage, and 5 miscellaneous stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  20. Bull Mountain Basin Boundary from 1999 National Coal Resource Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This ArcView shapefile contains a polygon representing the extent of the Bull Mountain coal basin boundary. This theme was created specifically for the National...

  1. Treasure hunt of mineral resources: a serious game in a virtual world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boniello, Annalisa

    2015-04-01

    This posterdescribes a geoscience activities on mineral resources for students of 14-18 years old. The activities are created as a treasure hunt of mineral resources, students must pass test and solve questions, search mineral in different environments: near a volcanos, in the river, in a lake, in a cave, under the sea and on a mountain. The activity is created using a virtual environment a virtual world built with a software, Opensim, a opensource software. In this virtual world every student as avatar, a virtual rapresentation of himself, search information, objects, mineral as in a serious game, a digital serious game. In the serious game buit as a treasure hunt, students interact with environment in a learning by doing, and they interact with other students in a cooperative learning and a collaborative environment. In the hunt there is a challenge that student must overcome: understanding what is a mineral resource collecting data on mineral analyzing environments where they are created so the students can improve motivation and learn, and improve scientific skills.

  2. Development, evolution, and destruction of the saline mineral area of Eocene Lake Uinta, Piceance Basin, western Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ronald C.; Brownfield, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Halite and the sodium bicarbonate mineral nahcolite were deposited in Eocene-age saline Lake Uinta in the Piceance Basin, northwestern Colorado. Variations in the areal extent of saline mineral deposition through time were studied using descriptions of core and outcrop. Saline minerals have been extensively leached by groundwater, and the original extent of saline deposition was determined from the distribution of empty vugs and collapse breccias. Because vugs and breccias strongly influence groundwater movement, determining where leaching has occurred is an important consideration for in-situ oil shale extraction methods currently being developed.

  3. Characteristics of Oil-gas Resources in Sichuan Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ran Longhui

    2006-01-01

    @@ Sichuan Basin, a large and old oil-bearing superimposed basin in western China, has an acreage of190 thousand square kilometers. Its superimposed strata are composed of 7000-12000 meters of sedimentary rock from the Sinian to the Quaternary, in which the strata are mainly marine carbonate below the Middle Triassic and terrestrial clastic rock above the Upper Triassic. For more than 50 years, CNPC has been working in the basin for oil-gas exploration and development and has discovered so far 106 gas fields and 14 oil fields with proven gas reserves achieving 840 billion cubic meters (bcm)and annual gas and crude production reaching 12 bcm and 145 thousand tons respectively. Oil/gas fields in Sichuan Province is currently China's largest gas-producing region. Recent exploration and development practices show that gas reserves and production of the basin are still in the upsoaring stage and an understanding of oilgas distribution in the basin is of vital importance for a sustainable development of natural gas in the basin.

  4. Australasian code for reporting of mineral resources and ore reserves (the JORC code)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    The latest revision of the Code first published in 1989 becomes effective in September 1999. It was prepared by the Joint Ores Reserves Committee of the Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Australian Institute of Geoscientists and Minerals Council of Australia (JORC). It sets out minimum standards, recommendations and guidelines for public reporting of exploration results, mineral resources and ore reserves in Australasia. In this edition, the guidelines, which were previously separated from the Code, have been placed after the respective Code clauses. The Code is applicable to all solid minerals, including diamonds, other gemstones and coal for which public reporting is required by the Australian and New Zealand Stock Exchanges.

  5. Availability of water resources in the rio Bermudez micro-basin. Central Region of Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Rio Bermudez micro-basin makes up part of the principal hydrological resource area in the Central Region of Costa Rica. For this reason a study was done to determine the availability of hydrological resources in said micro-basin to identify areas with potential water availability problems. A monthly water balance was calculated using land use, geomorphology and climate parameters. From these water balance studies, the amount of available water was calculated and classified into four categories, however, in this micro-basin, only three categories were identified: high, medium and moderate water availability. No areas were identified with low water availability, indicating availability is sufficient; however, there is increasing demand on water resources because over half of the micro-basin area is classified as having moderate water availability. (Author)

  6. World mineral energy resources and their distribution in time and space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If the estimated total geological potential of the world mineral energy resources is reduced to a common denominator, then the total resources are estimated at 20 600 terawatt years (TWyr). Assuming that all these resources are recoverable, and applying today's technology, they would suffice for 1 700 years under no-growth conditions and approximately 130 years assuming an annual growth rate of 3%. It should, however, be borne in mind that only about 15% (or 3 100 TWry) of the world's resources can be regarded as proved or partly proved and recoverable at current price levels and with current technology. Assuming a no-growth scenario, these resources will meet future energy requirements for a period of approximately 260 years. At a 3% annual growth rate resources will last for about 70 years. From these figures it is clear that the known mineral energy resources will be depleted in the near future. The challenge to the geologist to locate additional energy potential is enormous and in order to do so, the distribution of known resources in time and space was reappraised. The present investigation confirms the time-bound character of the mineralising processes. These took place in a series of clearly defined rhythms ranging from the early Proterozoic to the Recent. Uranium and thorium constitute the only energy resources of the Proterozoic. In contrast, the Phanerozoiceon contains the totality of fossil fuels and at least 60% of the nuclear resources; strata younger than 600 Ma therefore represent the most favourable target areas for prospecting

  7. Mineral resources of the Fiddler Butte (East) Wilderness study area, Garfield County, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the Fiddler Butte (East) Wilderness Study Area which comprises 5,700 acres east of the Henry Mountains, Garfield County, Utah, between the Dirty Devil River and the Colorado River. Field and laboratory studies investigated the identified (known) resources and the mineral resource potential (undiscovered resources). This study area has identified resources of tar sands (heavy oil-impregnated sandstones) in the northeastern part of the study area; an inferred subeconomic resource of high-magnesium dolomite within the Navajo Sandstone; inferred subeconomic resources of the common variety materials, sand, gravel, and stone; and petrified wood suitable for collecting and polishing. The southwestern part of the study area has a moderate mineral resource potential for undiscovered tar sands as localized deposits within the White Rim Sandstone. This entire study area has a moderate resource potential for undiscovered uranium and vanadium, for oil and gas, and for small isolated occurrences of precious (gold and silver) metals, and a low resource potential for geothermal resources and other undiscovered metals

  8. A framework for quantitative assessment of impacts related to energy and mineral resource development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Seth S.; Diffendorfer, James; Balistrieri, Laurie S.; Berger, Byron R.; Cook, Troy A.; Gautier, Donald L.; Gallegos, Tanya J.; Gerritsen, Margot; Graffy, Elisabeth; Hawkins, Sarah; Johnson, Kathleen; Macknick, Jordan; McMahon, Peter; Modde, Tim; Pierce, Brenda; Schuenemeyer, John H.; Semmens, Darius; Simon, Benjamin; Taylor, Jason; Walton-Day, Katie

    2013-01-01

    Natural resource planning at all scales demands methods for assessing the impacts of resource development and use, and in particular it requires standardized methods that yield robust and unbiased results. Building from existing probabilistic methods for assessing the volumes of energy and mineral resources, we provide an algorithm for consistent, reproducible, quantitative assessment of resource development impacts. The approach combines probabilistic input data with Monte Carlo statistical methods to determine probabilistic outputs that convey the uncertainties inherent in the data. For example, one can utilize our algorithm to combine data from a natural gas resource assessment with maps of sage grouse leks and piñon-juniper woodlands in the same area to estimate possible future habitat impacts due to possible future gas development. As another example: one could combine geochemical data and maps of lynx habitat with data from a mineral deposit assessment in the same area to determine possible future mining impacts on water resources and lynx habitat. The approach can be applied to a broad range of positive and negative resource development impacts, such as water quantity or quality, economic benefits, or air quality, limited only by the availability of necessary input data and quantified relationships among geologic resources, development alternatives, and impacts. The framework enables quantitative evaluation of the trade-offs inherent in resource management decision-making, including cumulative impacts, to address societal concerns and policy aspects of resource development.

  9. Porphyry copper assessment of northeast Asia: Far East Russia and northeasternmost China: Chapter W in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalasky, Mark J.; Ludington, Stephen; Alexeiev, Dmitriy V.; Frost, Thomas P.; Light, Thomas D.; Briggs, Deborah A.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Wallis, John C.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Panteleyev, Andre

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey assesses resources (mineral, energy, water, environmental, and biologic) at regional, national, and global scales to provide science in support of land management and decision making. Mineral resource assessments provide a synthesis of available information about where mineral deposits are known and suspected to be in the Earth’s crust, which commodities may be present, and estimates of amounts of resources in undiscovered deposits.

  10. Porphyry copper assessment of British Columbia and Yukon Territory, Canada: Chapter C in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalasky, Mark J.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Frost, Thomas P.; Ludington, Steve

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey does regional, national, and global assessments of resources (mineral, energy, water, biologic) to provide science in support of land management and decision making. Mineral resource assessments provide a synthesis of available information about where mineral deposits are known and suspected to be in the Earth’s crust, which commodities may be present, and estimates of amounts of resources that may be present in undiscovered deposits.

  11. The characteristics of uranium mineralization and genesis of Nuheting uranium deposit in Erlian basin Inner Mongolian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuheting uranium deposit is located at the northern margin of Erlian basin in Inner Mongolian. Uranium mineralizations are localized in the Erlian formation of upper Cretaceous system. Main types of ore are argillite, argillaceous siltstone and argillaceous graywacke. There are 3 main mineral associations in places with uranium: uranium-gypsum-celestione; uranium-pyriteorganic matter; uranium-pyrite, marcasite and other metalliferous sulfides. Uranium is mainly adsorbed and pitchblende in minor amount can also be found. The formation of economic uranium orebody is related with migration of oil and gas, because there are organic matter of aromatic hydrocarbon and moving hydrocarbon in uranium ore. The U-Pb isotopic ages of ore and pitchblende are 85, 40 and 10 Ma, which indicate that Nuheting uranium deposit was formed in long-term geological process and principally underwent three main stages: Sedimentary diagenesis; migration of oil and gas; and stage of supergene reworking. Therefore, the deposit should be classified as polygenetic type. (9 tabs.; 3 figs)

  12. Characteristic and mineralization of sandstone-type uranium deposits in mesozoic continental energy sources basin in east China tectonic domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sandstone type uranium deposits in the Mesozoic continental basin of the tectonic zone in east China have distinct features. The u-mineralization shows obvious overlap of multi-mineralization including the infiltration-type and effusion-type. Upper of the target stratum is the new type of bi-layer fluvial facies. It locates in the unique structure-construction sequence; this formation sequence appears as a full two-grade sequence, and it comprises of several three-grade sequences and forms evolution pattern of the basin including 'triplex structure, two interfaces, three set of formation'. These constructions are controlled by dynamic evolution of the Pacific tectonic zone migrating from west to east step by step, and form coexistence of uranium with coal, oil and gas in the basin. (authors)

  13. 矿产资源核算研究%Study on mineral resources accounting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范振林

    2014-01-01

    矿产资源是经济社会发展的重要基础。其价值核算是当今经济社会发展和生态文明建设进程中一个重要命题,成为目前世界各国政府及理论界普遍关注的焦点问题。本文分析了资源核算的研究现状、内容、方法及存在的问题,界定了矿产资源核算的内涵及对象,论述了矿产资源核算的理论基础、意义及方法,构建了矿产资源核算的基本框架。%Mineral resources are an important foundation for economic and social development .The value accounting is an important proposition in today ’ s economic and social development and ecological civilization construction in the process ,become the focus of attention at present ,governments around the world and theory circle .This paper analyzed the present situation of research on resource accounting , content ,methods and the existing problems ,defines the connotation and objects of mineral resources accounting ,it discusses the basic theory of mineral resources accounting ,the significance and the method , constructs the basic framework of mineral resource accounting .

  14. A magnetic survey of mineral resources in northeastern Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista Rodriguez, Jose Alberto [Instituto Superior Minero Metalurgico de Moa (Cuba)

    2006-01-15

    Interpretation of the aeromagnetic survey of northeastern Cuba at scale 1 50 000 is presented. Mainly ophiolitic rocks are characterized by a high magnetic response. The aeromagnetic data was reduced to the pole and the horizontal and vertical gradients, as well as the upward continuation were calculated. To define areas of serpentinized ultrabasic rocks at surface and depth, the magnetic field transformations were interpreted. We discuss lateral extension of outcrops, thickness variation of the ophiolitic rocks, basement extension and fault zones. Hydrothermal alterations indicate associated precious metal secondary mineralization. Operations are planned to limit damage to mining by siliceous material in Fe+Ni laterites. [Spanish] Cuba, en la cual afloran fundamentalmente rocas ofioliticas caracterizadas por un alto grado de magnetizacion. Los datos aeromagneticos fueron reducidos al polo y luego se realizaron los calculos de gradientes horizontales y verticales y la continuacion analitica ascendente. A partir de los resultados de estas transformaciones se delimitaron zonas donde predominan las rocas ultrabasicas serpentinizadas tanto en superficie como en profundidad, definiendose la extension lateral de estas rocas por debajo de las rocas que afloran en superficie. Tambien se estimaron las variaciones de los espesores de las rocas ofioliticas, el basamento de las rocas que afloran, la presencia de estructuras disyuntivas, y se proponen nuevas estructuras de este tipo. Por ultimo se delimitan las zonas de alteracion hidrotermal, lo cual posee gran importancia, ya que con las mismas se pueden vincular mineralizaciones de metales preciosos. Ademas, su delimitacion en depositos lateriticos permite orientar los trabajos de explotacion minera, teniendo en cuenta el dano que causa al proceso metalurgico la presencia de material silicio en las lateritas Fe+Ni.

  15. Do Magnetic Minerals Record Paleoprecipitation? Insights from Paleocene-Eocene Paleosols in the Bighorn Basin, WY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxbauer, D.; Feinberg, J. M.; Fox, D. L.; Clyde, W.

    2015-12-01

    The magnetic mineralogy of soils and paleosols is a rich archive of paleoclimatic information. However, efforts to quantify parameters such as mean annual precipitation (MAP) or temperature using environmental magnetism are still in their infancy. Inherent in any magnetic paleoclimate proxy is a fundamental understanding of how the concentration, grain size distribution, and composition of iron oxides and oxyhydroxides formed during pedogenesis reflect the climatic conditions that prevailed during soil formation. The influence of diagenetic processes on magnetic minerals, particularly for paleosols in pre-Quaternary systems, may compromise our ability to recover a climatic signal due to mineral alterations or incomplete preservation. Here, we evaluate the rock magnetic properties of non-loessic paleosols across the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, ~55.5 Ma) in the Bighorn Basin, WY. Our study compares data from nine paleosol layers sampled from outcrop, exposed to surficial weathering, as well as the equivalent paleosol layers sampled from drill core, all of which are preserved below a pervasive oxidative weathering front and presumably unweathered. Despite variation in magnetic properties within paleosol layers, there is no clear change in magnetic mineralogy that we can attribute to surficial weathering. Further, common measures of magnetic enhancement in susceptibility and remanence show similar trends across the PETM, in both core and outcrop, when compared to estimates of MAP from geochemical weathering indices. Taken together, our record suggests that the magnetic minerals preserved in ancient paleosols retain at least qualitative information about paleoprecipitation and could be an important source of information for paleoclimatic studies. Further work to improve our understanding of the relative preservation of various pedogenic components in paleosols will ultimately determine their viability as quantitative indicators of paleoclimate.

  16. Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation Model for Water Resources Carrying Capacity in Tarim River Basin, Xinjiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Lihong; CHEN Yaning; LI Weihong; ZHAO Ruifeng

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the method of comprehensive evaluation of water resources carrying capacity and sets up an evaluation model applying the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method. Based on the data of nature, society, economics and water resources of the Tarim River Basin in 2002, we evaluated the water resources carrying capacity of the basin by means of the model. The results show that the comprehensive grades are 0.438 and 0.454 for Aksu and Kashi prefectures respectively, where the current water resources exploitation and utilization has reached a relative high degree and there is only a very limited water carrying capacity, 0.620 for Kizilsu Kirgiz Autonomous Prefecture, where water resources carrying capacity is much higher, and in between for Hotan Prefecture and Bayingolin Mongolian Autonomous Prefecture. As a whole, the comprehensive grade of the Tarim River Basin is 0.508 and the current water resources exploitation and utilization has reached a relative high degree. Thus, we suggest that the integrated management of the water resources in the basin should be strengthened in order to utilize water resources scientifically and sustainably.

  17. Economic filters for evaluating porphyry copper deposit resource assessments using grade-tonnage deposit models, with examples from the U.S. Geological Survey global mineral resource assessment: Chapter H in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Gilpin R., Jr.; Menzie, W. David

    2012-01-01

    An analysis of the amount and location of undiscovered mineral resources that are likely to be economically recoverable is important for assessing the long-term adequacy and availability of mineral supplies. This requires an economic evaluation of estimates of undiscovered resources generated by traditional resource assessments (Singer and Menzie, 2010). In this study, simplified engineering cost models were used to estimate the economic fraction of resources contained in undiscovered porphyry copper deposits, predicted in a global assessment of copper resources. The cost models of Camm (1991) were updated with a cost index to reflect increases in mining and milling costs since 1989. The updated cost models were used to perform an economic analysis of undiscovered resources estimated in porphyry copper deposits in six tracts located in North America. The assessment estimated undiscovered porphyry copper deposits within 1 kilometer of the land surface in three depth intervals.

  18. Oil discoveries and basin resource prediction in Latin America: Past, present, and future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronman, G.E.; Aleman, A.M.; Rushworth, S.W. (Amoco Production Company, Houston, TX (United States))

    1993-02-01

    Over 350 oil discoveries were made in Latin America during the 1980s. About 12% are estimated to contain reserves greater than 100 MMBO. Several of the larger finds (>500 MMBO), such as Cusiana (Colombia), Furrial/Musipan (Venezuela), Cano Lima (Colombia) and Marlim (Brazil) represent an important part of the giant field found worldwide since 1980. Most of the larger discoveries were made by national oil companies in Venezuela, Mexico and Brazil. Undiscovered oil resources of 40-80 BBO are estimated to remain in the highest potential Latin American basins, including those in Mexico, based on historical field size data and current geological knowledge. Over 150 BBO of produced oil and proven reserves has been found in the same group of basins. The probability of finding large undiscovered oil and gas fields (>100 MMBOE) in selected established and mature Latin American basins is high. The Campos (Brazil), Llanos (Colombia), Magadalena (Colombia), Maracaibo (Venezuela), Marahon-Oriente-Putomayo (Peru-Ecuador-Colombia), Maturin (Venezuela), Reforma-Campeche (Mexico) and Ucayali (Peru) basins have the best possibility for such accumulations. Another tier of frontier and emerging basins may also contain significant resources, but limited data makes it difficult to estimate their undiscovered resources. Some of the higher potential basins in this group include the Sierra de Chiapas (Mexico/Guatemala), Huallaga (Peru), Yucatan (Mexico), Sabinas, and Burgos (Mexico) basins.

  19. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Statistical Treatments for Estimation of Mineral and Energy Resources

    CERN Document Server

    Fabbri, A; Sinding-Larsen, R

    1988-01-01

    This volume contains the edited papers prepared by lecturers and participants of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on "Statistical Treatments for Estimation of Mineral and Energy Resources" held at II Ciocco (Lucca), Italy, June 22 - July 4, 1986. During the past twenty years, tremendous efforts have been made to acquire quantitative geoscience information from ore deposits, geochemical, geophys ical and remotely-sensed measurements. In October 1981, a two-day symposium on "Quantitative Resource Evaluation" and a three-day workshop on "Interactive Systems for Multivariate Analysis and Image Processing for Resource Evaluation" were held in Ottawa, jointly sponsored by the Geological Survey of Canada, the International Association for Mathematical Geology, and the International Geological Correlation Programme. Thirty scientists from different countries in Europe and North America were invited to form a forum for the discussion of quantitative methods for mineral and energy resource assessment. Since then, not ...

  20. An Analysis of the Published Mineral Resource Estimates of the Haji-Gak Iron Deposit, Afghanistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Haji-Gak iron deposit of eastern Bamyan Province, eastern Afghanistan, was studied extensively and resource calculations were made in the 1960s by Afghan and Russian geologists. Recalculation of the resource estimates verifies the original estimates for categories A (in-place resources known in detail), B (in-place resources known in moderate detail), and C1 (in-place resources estimated on sparse data), totaling 110.8 Mt, or about 6% of the resources as being supportable for the methods used in the 1960s. C2 (based on a loose exploration grid with little data) resources are based on one ore grade from one drill hole, and P2 (prognosis) resources are based on field observations, field measurements, and an ore grade derived from averaging grades from three better sampled ore bodies. C2 and P2 resources are 1,659.1 Mt or about 94% of the total resources in the deposit. The vast P2 resources have not been drilled or sampled to confirm their extent or quality. The purpose of this article is to independently evaluate the resources of the Haji-Gak iron deposit by using the available geologic and mineral resource information including geologic maps and cross sections, sampling data, and the analog-estimating techniques of the 1960s to determine the size and tenor of the deposit.

  1. Spatiotemporal Assessment of Groundwater Resources in the South Platte Basin, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruybal, C. J.; McCray, J. E.; Hogue, T. S.

    2015-12-01

    The South Platte Basin is one of the most economically diverse and fastest growing basins in Colorado. Strong competition for water resources in an over-appropriated system brings challenges to meeting future water demands. Balancing the conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater from the South Platte alluvial aquifer and the Denver Basin aquifer system is critical for meeting future demands. Over the past decade, energy development in the basin has added to the competition for water resources, highlighting the need to advance our understanding of the availability and sustainability of groundwater resources. Current work includes evaluating groundwater storage changes and recharge regimes throughout the South Platte Basin under competing uses, e.g. agriculture, oil and gas, urban, recreational, and environmental. The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment satellites in conjunction with existing groundwater data is used to evaluate spatiotemporal variability in groundwater storage and identify areas of high water stress. Spatiotemporal data will also be utilized to develop a high resolution groundwater model of the region. Results will ultimately help stakeholders in the South Platte Basin better understand groundwater resource challenges and contribute to Colorado's strategic future water planning.

  2. Porphyry copper assessment of the Tibetan Plateau, China: Chapter F in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludington, Steve; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Robinson, Gilpin R., Jr.; Mars, John L.; Miller, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collaborated with the China Geological Survey to conduct a mineral-resource assessment of resources in porphyry copper deposits on the Tibetan Plateau in western China. This area hosts several very large porphyry deposits, exemplified by the Yulong and Qulong deposits, each containing at least 7,000,000 metric tons (t) of copper. However, large parts of the area are underexplored and are likely to contain undiscovered porphyry copper deposits.

  3. Availability of mineral resources for society; Disponibilidad y retos actuales de los recursos minerales para la sociedad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, J. G.; Espi, J. A.

    2014-06-01

    Trends in global mineral production and expanding uses of mineral resources foretell a bright future, although with significant challenges, for exploration and development. Demand for mineral resources is likely to remain high and grow to meet increases in world population and standards of living. Significant challenges include meeting future demand with new discoveries and developing the resources in environmentally, socially, and economically sustainable ways. A historical perspective from the last 50 years on finding new mineral districts, discovering new types of ore deposits, and using new technologies in exploration suggests that the world will not run out of mineral resources. It is likely that substitution and recycling will play increasingly major roles in meeting global mineral demand. New technologies for ocean mining will help add to the resource base. Historical perspectives also suggest that mining scams will continue, and environmental, health, and safety concerns will be major factors in deciding where future mines will be located and how they will be operated. (Author)

  4. Agenda, extended abstracts, and bibliographies for a workshop on Deposit modeling, mineral resources assessment, and their role in sustainable development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briskey, Joseph A., (Edited By); Schulz, Klaus J.

    2002-01-01

    Global demand for mineral resources continues to increase because of increasing global population and the desire and efforts to improve living standards worldwide. The ability to meet this growing demand for minerals is affected by the concerns about possible environmental degradation associated with minerals production and by competing land uses. Informed planning and decisions concerning sustainability and resource development require a long-term perspective and an integrated approach to land-use, resource, and environmental management worldwide. This, in turn, requires unbiased information on the global distribution of identified and especially undiscovered resources, the economic and political factors influencing their development, and the potential environmental consequences of their exploitation. The purpose of the IGC workshop is to review the state-of-the-art in mineral-deposit modeling and quantitative resource assessment and to examine their role in the sustainability of mineral use. The workshop will address such questions as: Which of the available mineral-deposit models and assessment methods are best suited for predicting the locations, deposit types, and amounts of undiscovered nonfuel mineral resources remaining in the world? What is the availability of global geologic, mineral deposit, and mineral-exploration information? How can mineral-resource assessments be used to address economic and environmental issues? Presentations will include overviews of assessment methods used in previous national and other small-scale assessments of large regions as well as resulting assessment products and their uses.

  5. The effect of sedimentation background of depression target stratum containing mineral in Erlian basin, Ulanqab to uranium mineralization type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ore bearing stratum in depression of Ulanqab contains target stratum of lower cretaceous Saihan formation, upper cretaceous Erlian formation, paleogene system etc. The uranium mineralization type which have found by now contains sandstone type, mudstone type and coal petrography. The genetic type of mineral deposit contains paleovalley-type, reformed type after superposition with sedimentation and diagenesis by sedimentation. Uranium mineralization of both the natural type and genetic type have close relationship with its ore bearing stratum. Different geological background forms different sedimentary system combination, and different sedimentary system combination forms different uranium mineralization type. (authors)

  6. Lunar mineral feedstocks from rocks and soils: X-ray digital imaging in resource evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, John G.; Patchen, Allan; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Higgins, Stefan J.; Mckay, David S.

    1994-01-01

    The rocks and soils of the Moon provide raw materials essential to the successful establishment of a lunar base. Efficient exploitation of these resources requires accurate characterization of mineral abundances, sizes/shapes, and association of 'ore' and 'gangue' phases, as well as the technology to generate high-yield/high-grade feedstocks. Only recently have x-ray mapping and digital imaging techniques been applied to lunar resource evaluation. The topics covered include inherent differences between lunar basalts and soils and quantitative comparison of rock-derived and soil-derived ilmenite concentrates. It is concluded that x-ray digital-imaging characterization of lunar raw materials provides a quantitative comparison that is unattainable by traditional petrographic techniques. These data are necessary for accurately determining mineral distributions of soil and crushed rock material. Application of these techniques will provide an important link to choosing the best raw material for mineral beneficiation.

  7. CRIB; the mineral resources data bank of the U.S. Geological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkins, James Alfred; Kays, Olaf; Keefer, Eleanor K.

    1973-01-01

    The recently established Computerized Resources Information Bank (CRIB) of the U.S. Geological Survey is expected to play an increasingly important role in the study of United States' mineral resources. CRIB provides a rapid means for organizing and summarizing information on mineral resources and for displaying the results. CRIB consists of a set of variable-length records containing the basic information needed to characterize one or more mineral commodities, a mineral deposit, or several related deposits. The information consists of text, numeric data, and codes. Some topics covered are: name, location, commodity information, geology, production, reserves, potential resources, and references. The data are processed by the GIPSY program, which performs all the processing tasks needed to build, operate, and maintain the CRIB file. The sophisticated retrieval program allows the user to make highly selective searches of the files for words, parts of words, phrases, numeric data, word ranges, numeric ranges, and others, and to interrelate variables by logic statements to any degree of refinement desired. Three print options are available, or the retrieved data can be passed to another program for further processing.

  8. Exploration, extraction and potential areas of mineral resources in the Republic of Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Strgar

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2003, the Commission for Mineral and Ground Water Resources of the Republic of Slovenia (Commission collected data and produced a balance of exploration, extraction and potential areas of mineral resources in the Republic of Slovenia – situation on 31 December 2002 for the first time. The balance was based on data gained from forms »Registration of the size of exploration and extraction area – situation on 31 December 2002”. The Commission has not produced any such balance before, although a need for such information has appeared in the past already. From the documents stored in the archives of the Geological Survey of Slovenia and the Commission it can be clearly seen that data on exploration and extraction areas for single types of mineral resources were collected, but were not complete in a sense of physical size and actual states in single time periods of collecting and processing those data.From the balance of existing exploration, extraction and potential areas of all types of mineral resources in the Republic of Slovenia, situation on 31 December 2002, it can be summarized that they include 2.877 km2, which is about 14,2 % of the entire Slovenian territory.

  9. Management of Mineral Resources: Economic valuation of the limestone deposits in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work proposes a management of natural mineral resources model based on the economic valuation of Limestone deposits in Colombia. I propose a methodology for their economic valuation derived from the simulation of three scenarios (i.e. optimistic, normal and pessimistic), for the extraction of country deposits, given some environmental, technical and financial settings

  10. Preliminary publications Book 1 from Project on Mineral Resources, Metallogenesis and Tectonics of Northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariunbileg, Sodov; Badarch, Gombosuren; Berzin, Nikolai A.; Bulgatov, Alexander N.; Chimed, Noosoi; Deikunenko, Aleksey V.; Dejidmaa, Gunchin; Diggles, Michael F.; Distanov, Elimir G.; Dorjgotov, Dangindorjiin; Gerel, Ochir; Gordienko, Ivan V.; Gotovsuren, Ayurzana; Hwang, Duk-Hwan; Khanchuk, Alexander I.; Koch, Richard D.; Miller, Robert J.; Nokleberg, Warren J.; Obolenskiy, Alexander A.; Ogasawara, Masatsugu; Orolmaa, Demberel; Oxman, Vladimir S.; Parfenov, Leonid M.; Popeko, Ludmila I.; Prokopiev, Andrey V.; Smelov, Alexander P.; Sotnikov, Vitaliy I.; Sudo, Sadahisa; Timofeev, Vladimir F.; Tret'yakov, Felix F.; Vernikovsky, Valery A.; Ye, Mao; Zadgenizov, Alexander P.

    1999-01-01

    This report consists of preliminary data tables, maps, and interpretative articles compiled in late 1997 and early 1998 for a new project on the Mineral Resources, Metallogenesis, and Tectonics of Northeast Asia (Eastern and Southern Siberia, Mongolia, North-eastern China, South Korea, and Japan).

  11. GIS-A Tool to Change Traditional Way of Mineral Resources Appraisal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Because of the wide application of digital spatial information technology to geology, a large spatial database in geology, geophysics, geochemistry and remote sensing is constructed, resulting in a change in conditions, methods and targets of mineral resources appraisal (MRA). In this paper, the difference between the GIS-base MRA and the traditional MRA is studied.

  12. Mineral resource assessment of pegmatite minerals in the Greenville 1 degree by 2 degrees Quadrangle, South Carolina, Georgia, and North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesure, Frank G.; D'Agostino, John P.

    1993-01-01

    Mineral resources of the Greenville 1° x 2° quadrangle, South Carolina, Georgia, and North Carolina, were assessed between 1984 and 1990 under the Conterminuous United States Mineral Assessment Program (CUSMAP) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The mineral resource assessments were made on the basis of geologic, geochemical, and geophysical investigations and on the distribution of mines, prospects, and mineral occurrences reported in the literature. This report is an assessment of the minerals associated with mica pegmatites in the Greenville quadrangle. It is based on the geology as mapped by Nelson and others (1989), on field studies conducted from 1952 to 1962 by the USGS for the Defense Minerals Exploration Administration (DMEA) and the concurrent examination of many of the known mica mines and prospects in Georgia, and on the published geologic literature and an unpublished report by K.H. Teague on file with the South Carolina Development Board, Division of Geology, in Columbia, S.C.

  13. The dynamic relationship between property rights, water resource management and poverty in the Lake Victoria Basin.

    OpenAIRE

    Orindi, V.; Huggins, C.

    2005-01-01

    This review aims to synthesize information on the dynamic relationships between property rights to land and natural resources, water resource management and poverty in the Lake Victoria Basin of East Africa. It focuses on the way in which water management systems, under the conceptual umbrella of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM), address customary claims to land and water. The water sector in all the three countries is being reformed, decentralized and liberalized to improve effic...

  14. Coexistence and inherence of diverse energy resources in the Ordos Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG Xiangchun; WANG Mingzhen; HAN Zuozhen

    2006-01-01

    The Ordos Basin is abundant in oil, natural gas, coal, coalbed gas and sandstone-type uranium deposits. Oil pools are hosted mainly in the Triassic and Jurassic systems in the southern part of the basin. Gas reservoirs which occur dominantly in the northern part of the basin are situated vertically beneath the oil pools. Coal measures are widely distributed in the Carboniferous, Permian, Jurassic and Triassic systems. Developed at the margin of the basin are the sandstone-type uranium deposits and coalbed gas. The investigations of sources and timing of various energy resources indicated that there are certain genetic connections among them. Especially the contributions of coal measures to natural gas, the supplement of coalbed gas to deep basin gas and the reduction of uranium deposits by natural gas are relatively remarkable.

  15. MORPHOMETRIC ANALYSIS AND PRIORITIZATION OF WATERSHED FOR SOIL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN YERALA RIVER BASIN

    OpenAIRE

    R. S. Shikalgar

    2013-01-01

    The development of morphometric techniques was a major advance in the quantitative description of thegeometry of the drainage basins and its network. Watershed prioritization on the basis of morphometric parametersis necessary in order to develop a sustainable watershed management plan. The present study aims to assess thelinear and shape morphometric parameters and prioritization of twenty three sub-watersheds of Yerala river basinfor soil resource management. Yerala river basin has an area ...

  16. The Indus basin in the framework of current and future water resources management

    OpenAIRE

    Laghari, A. N.; Vanham, D.; W. Rauch

    2012-01-01

    The Indus basin is one of the regions in the world that is faced with major challenges for its water sector, due to population growth, rapid urbanisation and industrialisation, environmental degradation, unregulated utilization of the resources, inefficient water use and poverty, all aggravated by climate change. The Indus Basin is shared by 4 countries – Pakistan, India, Afghanistan and China. With a current population of 237 million people which is projected to increase to...

  17. The Indus basin in the framework of current and future water resources management

    OpenAIRE

    Laghari, A. N.; Vanham, D.; W. Rauch

    2012-01-01

    The Indus basin is one of the regions in the world that is faced with major challenges for its water sector, due to population growth, rapid urbanisation and industrialisation, environmental degradation, unregulated utilization of the resources, inefficient water use and poverty, all aggravated by climate change. The Indus Basin is shared by 4 countries – Pakistan, India, Afghanistan and China. With a current population of 237 million people which is projected to increase to 319 million in 20...

  18. Water resources of the English River, Old Mans Creek, and Clear Creek basins in Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwob, H.H.

    1964-01-01

    The surface and ground water resources of a 991 square mile area comprising the drainage basins of English River, Old Mans Creek and Clear Creek are presented. These basins lie to the west and southwest of Iowa City, Iowa, and all three streams are tributary to the Iowa River. The area is comprised of rolling uplands with relatively broad valleys and is devoted mainly to agriculture and livestock farming.

  19. Analysis methods of basin tectonic and its application in uranium resource evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By summing up the former research findings of the tectonics, this paper concludes that the structure identification, structure stress field, balanced cross section, paleomagnetism, isotope chronology, geographic information system(GIS)are the major research methods for the structure analysis in U-bearing basin analysis, puts forward the structure research idea that from small to large, from local to region; from simple to complex, from individual to systematic and from single scientific research to mult-study crossed research, and introduces the application of the structure analysis to uranium resources asasessment by studying on the south edge of Yili basin and the northeast of Erdos basin. (authors)

  20. Clay minerals in surface sediments of the Pearl River drainage basin and their contribution to the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU ZhiFei; Christophe COLIN; HUANG Wei; CHEN Zhong; Alain TRENTESAUX; CHEN JianFang

    2007-01-01

    Clay minerals have played a significant role in the study of the East Asian monsoon evolution in the South China Sea by being able to track oceanic current variations and to reveal contemporaneous paleoclimatic changes prevailing in continental source areas. As one of the most important rivers inputting terrigenous matters to the northern South China Sea, the Pearl River was not previously paid attention to from the viewpoint of clay mineralogy. This paper presents a detailed study on clay minerals in surface sediments collected from the Pearl River drainage basin (including all three main channels,various branches, and the Lingdingyang in the estuary) by using the X-ray diffraction (XRD) method.The results indicate that the clay mineral assemblage consists dominantly of kaolinite (35%-65%),lesser abundance of chlorite (20%-35%) and illite (12%-42%), and very scare smectite occurrences (generally <5%). Their respective distribution does not present any obvious difference throughout the Pearl River drainage basin. However, downstream the Pearl River to the northern South China Sea, the clay mineral assemblage varies significantly: kaolinite decreases gradually, smectite and illite increase gradually. Additionally, illite chemistry index steps down and illite crystallinity steps up. These variations indicate the contribution of major kaolinite, lesser illite and chlorite, and very scarce smectite to the northern South China Sea from the Pearl River drainage basin. The maximum contribution of clay minerals from the Pearl River is 72% to the northern margin and only 15% to the northern slope of the South China Sea. In both glacials and interglacials, kaolinite indicates that the ability of mechanical erosion occurred in the Pearl River drainage basin.

  1. Water resources planning for a river basin with recurrent wildfires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, R M B; Sanches Fernandes, L F; Pereira, M G; Cortes, R M V; Pacheco, F A L

    2015-09-01

    Situated in the north of Portugal, the Beça River basin is subject to recurrent wildfires, which produce serious consequences on soil erosion and nutrient exports, namely by deteriorating the water quality in the basin. In the present study, the ECO Lab tool embedded in the Mike Hydro Basin software was used for the evaluation of river water quality, in particular the dissolved concentration of phosphorus in the period 1990-2013. The phosphorus concentrations are influenced by the burned area and the river flow discharge, but the hydrologic conditions prevail: in a wet year (2000, 16.3 km(2) of burned area) with an average flow of 16.4 m(3)·s(-1) the maximum phosphorus concentration was as low as 0.02 mg·L(-1), while in a dry year (2005, 24.4 km(2) of burned area) with an average flow of 2 m(3)·s(-1) the maximum concentration was as high as 0.57 mg·L(-1). Phosphorus concentrations in the water bodies exceeded the bounds of good ecological status in 2005 and between 2009 and 2012, water for human consumption in 2009 and water for multiple uses in 2010. The River Covas, a right margin tributary of Beça River, is the most appropriate stream as regards the use of water for human consumption, because it presents the biggest water potential with the best water quality. Since wildfires in the basin result essentially from natural causes and climate change forecasts indicate an increase in their frequency and intensity in the near future, forestry measures are proposed to include as a priority the conversion of stands of maritime pine in mixed stands of conifer and hardwood species. PMID:25918888

  2. Water resources optimization and eco-environmental protection in Qaidam Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In order to realize sustainable development of the arid area of Northwest China, rational water resources exploitation and optimization are primary prerequisites. Based on the essential principle of sustainable development, this paper puts forward a general idea on water resources optimization and eco-environmental protection in Qaidam Basin, and identifies the competitive multiple targets of water resources optimization. By some qualitative methods such as Input-output Model & AHP Model and some quantitative methods such as System Dynamics Model & Produce Function Model, some standard plans of water resources optimization come into being. According to the Multiple Targets Decision by the Closest Value Model, the best plan of water resources optimization, eco-environmental protection and sustainable development in Qaidam Basin is finally decided.

  3. Models for Canadian unconformity deposits: An important component in metallogenic studies, exploration and mineral resource appraisals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canadian unconformity uranium deposits contain the world's largest high grade concentrations of uranium ores. Two models, a regional metallogenic model and a conceptual deposit model, have been developed from studies of the Athabasca Basin metallogenic province. The regional model, which has been derived from the well documented Cigar Lake - Key Lake and Rabbit Lake - Eagle Point trends and the Carswell Structure, includes specific lithological and structural controls within the large Athabasca intracratonic basin. The deposits are spatially related to Archean granitoid domes, such as the Swanson, Collins Bay and Dominique-Peter, which are flanked by a Lower Proterozoic metasedimentary sequence that contains layers of eucinic rocks. These basement rocks are capped by a regolith. They are uncomfortably overlain by a sequence of undisturbed sediments of the Athabasca Group. The Athabasca Group rocks have been subjected to high-temperature prograde diagenesis, which was followed by retrograde alteration. The deposit model, which has been derived from observations on the Cigar Lake, P2 North, Key Lake, Collins Bay and Cluff Lake deposits, postulates deposition of the metals and associated gangue minerals from highly saline brines at redox fronts. Uranium was transported in hexavalent form and deposited due to reduction to tetravalent form. The mineralization processes took place predominantly at the sub-Athabasca unconformity and, to a lesser degree, a short distance from it in the basement or in the cover rocks. At present these models are used in metallogenic studies, for delineation of new exploration targets, and in mineral potential appraisals of the Athabasca Basin frontier areas. (author). 11 refs, 18 figs

  4. Lung cancer in uranium miners: A tissue resource and pilot study. Final performance report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project incorporates two related research projects directed toward understanding respiratory carcinogenesis in radon-exposed former uranium miners. The first project involved a continuation of the tissue resource of lung cancer cases from former underground uranium miners and comparison cases from non-miners. The second project was a pilot study for a proposed longitudinal study of respiratory carcinogenesis in former uranium miners. The objectives including facilitating the investigation of molecular changes in radon exposed lung cancer cases, developing methods for prospectively studying clinical, cytologic, cytogenetic, and molecular changes in the multi-event process of respiratory carcinogenesis, and assessing the feasibility of recruiting former uranium miners into a longitudinal study that collected multiple biological specimens. A pilot study was conducted to determine whether blood collection, induced sputum, bronchial brushing, washings, and mucosal biopsies from participants at two of the hospitals could be included efficiently. A questionnaire was developed for the extended study and all protocols for specimen collection and tissue handling were completed. Resource utilization is in progress at ITRI and the methods have been developed to study molecular and cellular changes in exfoliated cells contained in sputum as well as susceptibility factors

  5. Lung cancer in uranium miners: A tissue resource and pilot study. Final performance report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samet, J.; Gilliland, F.D.

    1998-08-13

    This project incorporates two related research projects directed toward understanding respiratory carcinogenesis in radon-exposed former uranium miners. The first project involved a continuation of the tissue resource of lung cancer cases from former underground uranium miners and comparison cases from non-miners. The second project was a pilot study for a proposed longitudinal study of respiratory carcinogenesis in former uranium miners. The objectives including facilitating the investigation of molecular changes in radon exposed lung cancer cases, developing methods for prospectively studying clinical, cytologic, cytogenetic, and molecular changes in the multi-event process of respiratory carcinogenesis, and assessing the feasibility of recruiting former uranium miners into a longitudinal study that collected multiple biological specimens. A pilot study was conducted to determine whether blood collection, induced sputum, bronchial brushing, washings, and mucosal biopsies from participants at two of the hospitals could be included efficiently. A questionnaire was developed for the extended study and all protocols for specimen collection and tissue handling were completed. Resource utilization is in progress at ITRI and the methods have been developed to study molecular and cellular changes in exfoliated cells contained in sputum as well as susceptibility factors.

  6. Nuclear techniques in the exploration and exploitation of energy and mineral resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last two decades, many nuclear techniques have been developed and applied on an industrial scale for the exploration and exploitation of energy and mineral resources in developed countries. These applications have resulted in enormous technical and economic benefits, which have accrued through the improved efficiency of raw material exploration, ore extraction and processing, and through savings in the energy and materials used in these processes. The major nuclear techniques which are currently employed on a large scale include nucleonics control and on-stream analysis, nuclear well logging and tracer investigations. The well known advantages of nuclear techniques include rapidity, relative simplicity of use and, in some cases, the possibility of application in hostile environments where no other instruments or methods can be used. Furthermore, nuclear measurements and nucleonics control can be made by non-contact processes through the walls of vessels. The International Symposium on Nuclear Techniques in the Exploration and Exploitation of Energy and Mineral Resources was organized by the IAEA to review the latest concepts and developments in nuclear techniques as applied to mineral resource exploration and exploitation, and to foster an exchange of information leading to technology transfer to developing Member States. The symposium was held in Vienna from 5 to 8 June 1990 and was attended by 68 participants representing 28 Member States of the IAEA. Fifty papers were presented, dealing with nucleonics control systems and on-stream analysers in the coal industry, on-line nuclear and nuclear related techniques in the mineral industry, nuclear borehole logging applications, instrumentation, data processing and interpretation, tracer techniques, radiometric methods and nuclear activation analysis in the mineral industry. In addition, there was a panel discussion, summarized in these Proceedings, on the trends and future perspectives for nuclear and nuclear

  7. The Indus basin in the framework of current and future water resources management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Laghari

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Indus basin is one of the regions in the world that is faced with major challenges for its water sector, due to population growth, rapid urbanisation and industrialisation, environmental degradation, unregulated utilization of the resources, inefficient water use and poverty, all aggravated by climate change. This paper gives a comprehensive listing and description of available options for current and future sustainable water resources management (WRM within the basin. Sustainable WRM practices include both water supply management and water demand management options.

  8. The constitutionality of the Mineral and Petroleum Resources Development Act 28 of 2002 / Elmarie van der Schyff

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Schyff, Elmarie

    2006-01-01

    The Mineral and Petroleum Resources Development Act 28 of 2002 (MPRDA} is premised on the principle that minerals are part of the natural heritage of all South Africans. Section 3 of the MPRDA articulates the core of the new mineral law dispensation. Through the provisions of the said section, new concepts are introduced to the field of mineral law previously governed by the South African common law system of private ownership, based on Roman-Dutch principles. The study f...

  9. Study of uranium mineralization in rock samples from marwat range bannu basin by fission track analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Geophysics Division, Atomic Energy Minerals Centre (AEMC), Lahore has planned a uranium exploration program in Marwat Range, Bannu Basin. In this connection 30 thin sections of rock samples, collected from four areas; namely, Darra Tang, Simukili, Karkanwal and Sheikhillah from Marwat Range, and one from Salt Range were provided to Nuclear Geology Group of Physics Research Division, PINSTECH for the study of nature and mechanism of uranium mineralization These studies are aimed to help in designing uranium exploration strategy by providing the loci of uranium sources in the Marwat and Salt Ranges. The samples have been studied using fission track analysis technique. (author)

  10. Prospects for industrial developing of technogeneous mineral resources of the Republic of Armenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metal mining industry of the Republic develops mainly by the extensive way: productivity of an enterprise is increased to the detriment of full-scale ore processing and extraction, and expansion of the range of products. Huge amounts of technogeneous mineral wastes continue to accumulate in the territory of the country, creating a very tense ecological situation in some of its regions. The scope of use of these secondary resources does not match their economic potential and is now practically zero. The article proposes an option of using the technogeneous mineral wastes, which, in addition to a positive economic effect, will allow reduction of the heavy environmental load to a certain extent

  11. Sensitivity of water resources in the Delaware River basin to climate variability and change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Mark A.; Wolock, David M.; McCabe, Gregory J.; Hay, Lauren E.; Tasker, Gary D.

    1993-01-01

    Because of the "greenhouse effect," projected increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide levels might cause global warming, which in turn could result in changes in precipitation patterns and evapotranspiration and in increases in sea level. This report describes the greenhouse effect; discusses the problems and uncertainties associated with the detection, prediction, and effects of climatic change, and presents the results of sensitivity-analysis studies of the potential effects of climate change on water resources in the Delaware River basin. On the basis of sensitivity analyses, potentially serious shortfalls of certain water resources in the basin could result if some climatic-change scenarios become true. The results of basin streamflow-model simulations in this study demonstrate the difficulty in distinguishing effects of climatic change on streamflow and water supply from effects of natural variability in current climate. The future direction of basin changes in most water resources, furthermore, cannot be determined precisely because of uncertainty in current projections of regional temperature and precipitation. This large uncertainty indicates that, for resource planning, information defining the sensitivities of water resources to a range of climate change is most relevant. The sensitivity analyses could be useful in developing contingency plans on how to evaluate and respond to changes, should they occur.

  12. Tectonic thermal history and its significance on the formation of oil and gas accumulation and mineral deposit in Ordos Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The analyzing data on stratigraphic temperature measurement , thermal conductivity of the strata and radioactive heat production rate show that the present average geothermal gradient in the Ordos Basin is 2.93℃/100 m, and the average heat flow value is 61.78 mW/m2, which belongs to the mesothermal basin, and the value of the present geothermal gradient and heat flow in the east is higher than that in the west. The sandstone radioactive heat production rate of Zhiluo Group in Dongsheng Uranium deposits of Yimeng uplift is obviously higher in the mudstone, indicating that there exists a uranium anomaly. Based on studies of the present thermal field of the basin, the late-Mesozoic paleotemperature and paleogeothermal gradient are determined by using different kinds of paleotemperature methods. According to the anomaly of the late-Mesozoic paleotemperature gradient and magmatic event age, there was a tectonic thermal event in the early Cretaceous epoch of late-Mesozoic. This article rebuilds tectonic thermal history of different tectonic units by thermal history simulation using basin simulating software. The evolution of oil-gas and coal, and accumulation (mineralization) of mineral uranium are all controlled by the tectonic thermal history in the Ordos basin, especially by the tectonic thermal event that happened in the late Mesozoic. For both the gas source rocks of upper Paleozoic group and lower paleozoic group, the gas was largely generated in the early Cretaceous epoch of the late Mesozoic. The main petroleum generation period for Yanchang Group in Triassic system is the early Cretaceous epoch too, and the highest thermal maturity of the coal of Permo-Carboniferous, Triassic, and Jurassic reaches is the early Cretaceous epoch also. Early Cretaceous epoch is still one of the most important mineralizing periods of uranium.

  13. Assessment of Climate Change Effects on Water Resources in the Yellow River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The water resources in the Yellow River basin (YRB are vital to social and economic development in North and Northwest China. The basin has a marked continental monsoon climate and its water resources are especially vulnerable to climate change. Projected runoff in the basin for the period from 2001 to 2030 was simulated using the variable infiltration capacity (VIC macroscale hydrology model. VIC was first calibrated using observations and then was driven by the precipitation and temperature projected by the RegCM3 high-resolution regional climate model under the IPCC scenario A2. Results show that, under the scenario A2, the mean annual temperature of the basin could increase by 1.6°C, while mean annual precipitation could decrease by 2.6%. There could be an 11.6% reduction in annual runoff in the basin according to the VIC projection. However, there are marked regional variations in these climate change impacts. Reductions of 13.6%, 25.7%, and 24.6% could be expected in the regions of Hekouzhen to Longmen, Longmen to Sanmenxia, and Sanmenxia to Huayuankou, respectively. Our study suggests that the condition of water resources in the YRB could become more severe in the period from 2001 to 2030 under the scenario A2.

  14. Mineral-magnetic signal of long-term climatic variation in Pleistocene fluvio-lacustrine sediments, Nihewan Basin (North China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Hong

    2010-11-01

    The Nihewan Basin (around 40°N, North China) is a major focus of investigations into hominid occupation in the eastern Asia during the early Pleistocene, thus the paleoenvironmental evolution in this area is crucial for understanding of early human habitation at high northern latitudes of East Asia. To retrieve reliable long-term paleoenvironmental signals from the Nihewan fluvio-lacustrine sequences, I conduct an environmental magnetic investigation on the Pleistocene Xiantai fluvio-lacustrine sequence at the eastern margin of the Nihewan Basin. Results suggest that there exist an up-section decreasing trend in magnetic mineral concentration and grain size, which is attributed to a long-term decrease in abundance of magnetic minerals in the catchments and in transportation of detrital magnetic minerals into the Nihewan paleolake. I further reveal that these long-timescale variations are related to a long-term decrease in East Asian monsoon precipitation and humidity in the Nihewan Basin during the Pleistocene. This paleoclimate inference is consistent with the increasing aridification in Asian mainland during the Pleistocene, an important climate response to increasing global ice volume.

  15. Provenance of eastern Magallanes foreland basin sediments: Heavy mineral analysis reveals Paleogene tectonic unroofing of the Fuegian Andes hinterland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahid, Khandaker M.; Barbeau, David L., Jr.

    2010-07-01

    Documenting variations in the composition of foreland basin detrital sediments is a useful tool for reconstructing the kinematic history of associated orogenic systems. Herein we report the results of our SEM-EDS heavy mineral analysis of the Late Cretaceous to early Miocene eastern Magallanes basin of southernmost Argentina. Our data indicate that Campanian to middle Eocene sediments had a mafic/ophiolitic provenance, which we interpret as being derived from the Patagonian-Fuegian magmatic arc and the mafic floor of the preceding Rocas Verdes marginal basin. Upper middle Eocene to lower Miocene heavy minerals, on the other hand, indicate a metamorphic/metasedimentary provenance, which we interpret as being derived from the Cordillera Darwin metamorphic complex. Together, these data indicate an abrupt shift in sediment provenance in middle to late Eocene time, thereby corroborating recent interpretations of the basin's detrital-zircon geochrononology, and providing further support for temporal and possibly genetic relationships between development of the Patagonian orocline, the opening of Drake Passage and the Oi-1 glaciation of Antarctica.

  16. Integration of hydrologic and water allocation models in basin-scale water resources management considering crop pattern and climate change: Karkheh River Basin in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paradigm of integrated water resources management requires coupled analysis of hydrology and water resources in a river basin. Population growth and uncertainties due to climate change make historic data not a reliable source of information for future planning of water resources, hence necessit...

  17. Knowledge Organization of Integrated Water Resources Management: A Case of Chi River Basin, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Nattapong Kaewboonma; Kulthida Tuamsuk; Wanida Kanarkard

    2013-01-01

    This study is a part of the research project on the Development of an Ontology-Based Semantic Search for Integrated Water Resources Management of the Chi River Basin (CRB), Thailand. The study aimed at developing the knowledge domain of water resources management for CRB. The research methods included document analysis and qualitative research by adopting Liou (1990)’s knowledge acquisition approach. Fifteen experts including ten experts in the areas of environmental engineerin...

  18. Genetic Modeling of GIS-Based Cell Clusters and Its Application in Mineral Resources Prediction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a synthetic analysis method for multi-sourced geological data from geographic information system (GIS). In the previous practices of mineral resources prediction, a usually adopted methodology has been statistical analysis of cells delimitated based on thoughts of random sampiing. That might lead to insufficient utilization of local spatial information, for a cell is treated as a point without internal structure. We now take "cell clusters", i. e. , spatial associations of cells, as basic units of statistics, thus the spatial configuration information of geological variables is easier to be detected and utilized, and the accuracy and reliability of prediction are improved. We build a linear multi-discriminating model for the clusters via genetic algorithm. Both the right-judgment rates and the in-class vs. between-class distance ratios are considered to form the evolutional adaptive values of the population. An application of the method in gold mineral resources prediction in east Xinjiang, China is presented.

  19. The U.S. Geological Survey`s National Coal Resource Assessment: The Northern and Central Appalachian Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruppert, L.; Bragg, L.; Tewalt, S. [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The US Geological Survey (USGS) Energy Resource Surveys Program is currently conducting a five-year National Coal Resource Assessment project. Primary focus is on the quality and quantity of top-producing coal beds and coal zones in five of the nine major coal producing regions in the US. These regions include the (1) Northern and Central Appalachian Basin, (2) Gulf Coastal Plain, (3) Illinois Basin, (4) Colorado Plateau, and (5) Powder River Basin and Northern Great Plains.

  20. Analysis on the hydrogeological condition and uranium mineralization prospect in Santanghu basin, Xinjiang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santanghu basin is an infiltration depression basin with forward direction hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical zonation. The basin has a well developed aquifer and favorable mud-sand-mud pattern and abundant uranium source. The distribution pattern of uranium in the ground water is favorable for the precipitation and enrichment of uranium in transitional part of redox zone. (authors)

  1. Porphyry copper assessment of Southeast Asia and Melanesia: Chapter D in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Dicken, Connie L.; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Ludington, Steve; Robinson, Gilpin R., Jr.; Setiabudi, Bambang Tjahjono; Sukserm, Wudhikarn; Sunuhadi, Dwi Nugroho; Wah, Alexander Yan Sze; Zientek, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collaborated with member countries of the Coordinating Committee for Geoscience Programmes in East and Southeast Asia (CCOP) on an assessment of the porphyry copper resources of Southeast Asia and Melanesia as part of a global mineral resource assessment. The region hosts world-class porphyry copper deposits and underexplored areas that are likely to contain undiscovered deposits. Examples of known porphyry copper deposits include Batu Hijau and Grasberg in Indonesia; Panguna, Frieda River, and Ok Tedi in Papua New Guinea; and Namosi in Fiji.

  2. Porphyry copper assessment of western Central Asia: Chapter N in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Byron R.; Mars, John L.; Denning, Paul D.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Zientek, Michael L.; Dicken, Connie L.; Drew, Lawrence J.; with contributions from Alexeiev, Dmitriy; Seltmann, Reimar; Herrington, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted an assessment of resources associated with porphyry copper deposits in the western Central Asia countries of Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and Tajikistan and the southern Urals of Kazakhstan and Russia as part of a global mineral resource assessment. The purpose of the study was to (1) delineate permissive areas (tracts) for undiscovered porphyry copper deposits; (2) compile a database of known porphyry copper deposits and significant prospects; (3) where data permit, estimate numbers of undiscovered deposits within those permissive tracts; and (4) provide probabilistic estimates the amounts of copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), gold (Au), and silver (Ag) that could be contained in those undiscovered deposits.

  3. Use of MAGSAT anomaly data for crustal structure and mineral resources in the US midcontinent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, R. S.

    1983-01-01

    Magnetic field data acquired by NASA's MAGSAT satellite is used to construct a long-wavelength magnetic anomaly map for the U.S. midcontinent. This aids in interpretation of gross crustal geology (structure, lithologic composition, resource potential) of the region. Magnetic properties of minerals and rocks are investigated and assessed, to help in evaluation and modelling of crustal magnetization sources and depth to the Curie-temperature isotherm.

  4. The Design and Implementation of "The GIS Based Mineral Resource Management Information System"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang,Chunming; Sun,Huoran; Jiang,Shaofei; Zhao, Zhigang

    2005-01-01

    It is described in detail in this paper the entire development process of "The GIS Based Mineral Resource Management Information System" exercising software engineering principles together with GIS technology, database analysis and design techniques etc. It is designed to implement the standardization of geological data storage and management, to provide an efficient retrieval system and a visualization tool for data analysis,thus lays a solid foundation for profound exploration and utilization of geological data.

  5. Assessment of undiscovered gas resources of the Thrace Basin, Turkey, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Marra, Kristen R.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Brownfield, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resources of 787 billion cubic feet of conventional gas and 1,630 billion cubic feet of unconventional gas in the Thrace Basin, Turkey.

  6. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Illinois Basin, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swezey, Christopher S.

    2007-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated the following quantities of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas resources in the Illinois Basin, USA: (1) a mean of 214 million barrels of oil; (2) a mean of 4.65 trillion cubic feet of natural gas; and (3) a mean of 24 million barrels of natural gas liquids.

  7. Adaptation tot changing water resources in the Ganges basin, northern India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moors, E.J.; Groot, A.M.E.; Biemans, H.; Terwisscha van Scheltinga, C.T.H.M.; Siderius, C.; Stoffel, M.

    2011-01-01

    An ensemble of regional climate model (RCM) runs from the EU HighNoon project are used to project future air temperatures and precipitation on a 25 km grid for the Ganges basin in northern India, with a view to assessing impact of climate change on water resources and determining what multi-sector a

  8. Uranium mineralization along the northeastern margin of proterozoic Chhattisgarh Basin around Chitakhol, Central India: a petromineralogical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium mineralization occurs along the unconformity contact between the basement granites and the overlying Chandrapur sediments of the Chhattisgarh Supergroup along the northeastern margin of the Chhattisgarh Basin around Chitakhol area, Korba and Janjgir - Champa districts, Chhattisgarh. A number of uranium occurrences, spread over an area of 20 km2, have been delineated with surface samples analyzing up to 0.39% U3O8 in sediments, 2.72% U3O8 in basement granites and up to 0.21% U3O8 in basic dykes. The uranium mineralization is confined to the basement granites and the overlying sediments proximal to the unconformity contact. The basic dykes traversing the basement granites are also mineralized. Uranium mineralization at the depth is associated with carbonaceous black shale and is represented by coffinite and pitchblende. Uraninite, brannerite with 'U-Fe-Ti' complex, meta-autunite and uranophane also contribute to the mineralization. However, in surface and near surface samples uranium occurs in adsorbed state on to goethite and also as filling the criss-cross fractures. Fracture filled, epigenetic, hydrothermal type of uranium mineralization related to the Proterozoic unconformity is manifested

  9. Examining Riparian Drinking Water Resources in the Danube Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of the need for high quality drinking water and for its long term secure supply is growing, even in economically medium developed countries. The drinking water requirements of several million people are covered by bank filtered (riparian) groundwater resources along the Danube River and its tributaries. These are very vulnerable water resources, of which exploited water is a mixture of waters coming from a minimum of two, but often from three or four sources as river water, locally infiltrated precipitation, distantly infiltrated precipitation, or infiltrated still water (from lakes or wetlands). The European Union (EU) Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires the setup of protected areas and management plans for groundwater bodies based on conceptual hydrological models. One of the most reliable methods for proving, calibrating or verifying these models is the application of environmental isotope data

  10. The United Nations framework classification for fossil energy and mineral reserves and resources 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, D.; Lynch-Bell, M.; Ross, J.; Heiberg, S.; Griffiths, C.; Klett, T.

    2011-01-01

    Effective resource management in a globalizing economy requires accurate assessments of fossil energy and minerals resources. The recoverable quantities must be described and categorized in a manner that is consistent with scientific and social/economic information describing the economy as well as with the information describing the projects to recover them. A number of different standards have evolved over time in response to various professional needs Under a mandate given by the United Nations Economic and Social Council, the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) has cooperated with Governments, regulatory agencies, industry, international organizations, and professional organizations (including Committee for Mineral Reserves International Reporting Standards (CRIRSCO), the Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE), the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG), and the Society of Petroleum Evaluation Engineers (SPEE)), as well as with outstanding experts, to define a global classification for extractive activities (including oil, gas, heavy oil and bitumen extraction) that reflects the principal concerns of existing petroleum and mineral classifications. The United Nations Framework Classification for Fossil Energy and Mineral Reserves and Resources-2009 (UNFC-2009) aims to serve the following four principal needs: 1. The needs in international energy and mineral studies to formulate robust and long-sighted policies. 2. The needs of governments in managing their resources accordingly, allowing market prices to be transferred to the wellhead with as little loss as possible. 3. The industries' needs for information while deploying technology, management and finance to secure energy supplies and capture value efficiently within the established frameworks to serve its host countries, shareholders and stakeholders. 4. The financial community's need for information to allocate capital appropriately, providing reduced costs and improved long

  11. U.S. Geological Survey Assessment of Undiscovered Petroleum Resources of the Hamra Basin, Libya, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2007-01-01

    The Hamra Basin Province encompasses approximately 244,100 square kilometers (94,250 square miles) and is entirely within Libya. One composite total petroleum system (TPS) was defined for this assessment; it extends from Libya westward into adjacent parts of Algeria and southern Tunisia. The Hamra Basin part of the TPS was subdivided into four assessment units for the purpose of resource assessment. The assessment units cover only 172,390 square kilometers of the Hamra Basin Province; the remaining area has little potential for undiscovered petroleum resources because of the absence of petroleum source rocks. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 784 million barrels of crude oil, 4,748 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 381 million barrels of natural gas liquids in the Hamra Basin of northwestern Libya. Most of the undiscovered crude oil and natural gas are interpreted to be in deeper parts of the Hamra Basin.

  12. Simulation of blue and green water resources in the Wei River basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Z.; Zuo, D.

    2014-09-01

    The Wei River is the largest tributary of the Yellow River in China and it is suffering from water scarcity and water pollution. In order to quantify the amount of water resources in the study area, a hydrological modelling approach was applied by using SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool), calibrated and validated with SUFI-2 (Sequential Uncertainty Fitting program) based on river discharge in the Wei River basin (WRB). Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses were also performed to improve the model performance. Water resources components of blue water flow, green water flow and green water storage were estimated at the HRU (Hydrological Response Unit) scales. Water resources in HRUs were also aggregated to sub-basins, river catchments, and then city/region scales for further analysis. The results showed that most parts of the WRB experienced a decrease in blue water resources between the 1960s and 2000s, with a minimum value in the 1990s. The decrease is particularly significant in the most southern part of the WRB (Guanzhong Plain), one of the most important grain production basements in China. Variations of green water flow and green water storage were relatively small on the spatial and temporal dimensions. This study provides strategic information for optimal utilization of water resources and planning of cultivating seasons in the Wei River basin.

  13. Coalbed-methane production in the Appalachian basin: Chapter G.2 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milici, Robert C.; Polyak, Désirée E.

    2014-01-01

    Coalbed methane (CBM) occurs in coal beds of Mississippian and Pennsylvanian (Carboniferous) age in the northern, central, and southern Appalachian basin coal regions, which extend almost continuously from Pennsylvania southward to Alabama. Most commercial CBM production in the Appalachian basin is from three structural subbasins: (1) the Dunkard basin in Pennsylvania, Ohio, and northern West Virginia; (2) the Pocahontas basin in southern West Virginia, eastern Kentucky, and southwestern Virginia; and (3) part of the Black Warrior basin in Alabama. The cumulative CBM production in the Dunkard basin through 2005 was 17 billion cubic feet (BCF), the production in the Pocahontas basin through 2006 was 754 BCF, and the production in the part of the Black Warrior basin in Alabama through 2007 was 2.008 TCF. CBM development may be regarded as mature in Alabama, where annual production from 1998 through 2007 was relatively constant and ranged from 112 to 121 BCF. An opportunity still exists for additional growth in the Pocahontas basin. In 2005, annual CBM production in the Pocahontas basin in Virginia and West Virginia was 85 BCF. In addition, opportunities are emerging for producing the large, diffuse CBM resources in the Dunkard basin as additional wells are drilled and technology improves.

  14. Mineral resources of the South Mccullough Mountains Wilderness Study Area, Clark County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors present a study of 19,558 acres of the South McCullough Mountains Wilderness Study Area. The study area contains no identified mineral resources and has no areas of high mineral resource potential. However, five areas that make up 20 percent of the study area have a moderate potential either for undiscovered silver, gold, lead, copper, and zinc resources in small vein deposits; for lanthanum and other rare-earth elements, uranium, thorium, and niobium in medium-size carbonatite bodies and dikes; for tungsten and copper in small- to medium-size vein deposits; or for silver and gold in small vein or breccia-pipe deposits. Six areas that makeup 24 percent of the study area have an unknown resource potential either for gold, silver, lead, and copper in small vein deposits; for gold, silver, lead, zinc, copper, and arsenic in small vein or breccia-pipe deposits; for lanthanum and other rare-earth elements, uranium, thorium, and niobium in medium-size carbonatite bodies and dikes; or for tungsten and copper in small vein deposits

  15. The tasks of the German Mineral Resources Agency (DERA); Die Aufgaben der Deutschen Rohstoffagentur (DERA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbach, Volker [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover (Germany). Abt. Energierohstoffe, Mineralische Rohstoffe; Buchholz, Peter [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover (Germany). Fachbereich Deutsche Rohstoffagentur; Wilken, Hildegard [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover (Germany). Fachbereich Geologie der Mineralischen Rohstoffe

    2012-07-01

    For Germany as a technology centre and as an exporting nation, the securing of the raw material supply is an indispensable condition. In light of the significantly changed worldwide raw material situation with scarcities of raw materials caused by the markets, further increasing raw material prices and the enhanced demand of raw materials of the German economy, the German Mineral Resources Agency (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) was established at 4th October, 2010, within the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (Hanover, Federal Republic of Germany). This establishment is one of the structural measures of the strategy on raw materials of the Federal Government under the guidance of the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany). The range of services of the German Mineral Resources Agency was newly developed based on the long-term professional competence of the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources within the raw material sector as well as on the demand of the German economy.

  16. Mineral resources of the South Mccullough Mountains Wilderness Study Area, Clark County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeWitt, E.; Anderson, J.L.; Barton, H.N.; Jachens, R.C.; Podwysocki, M.H.; Brickey, D.W. (U.S. Geological Survey (US)); Close, T.J. (U.S. Bureau of Mines (US))

    1989-01-01

    The authors present a study of 19,558 acres of the South McCullough Mountains Wilderness Study Area. The study area contains no identified mineral resources and has no areas of high mineral resource potential. However, five areas that make up 20 percent of the study area have a moderate potential either for undiscovered silver, gold, lead, copper, and zinc resources in small vein deposits; for lanthanum and other rare-earth elements, uranium, thorium, and niobium in medium-size carbonatite bodies and dikes; for tungsten and copper in small- to medium-size vein deposits; or for silver and gold in small vein or breccia-pipe deposits. Six areas that makeup 24 percent of the study area have an unknown resource potential either for gold, silver, lead, and copper in small vein deposits; for gold, silver, lead, zinc, copper, and arsenic in small vein or breccia-pipe deposits; for lanthanum and other rare-earth elements, uranium, thorium, and niobium in medium-size carbonatite bodies and dikes; or for tungsten and copper in small vein deposits.

  17. Sustainable development and the exploitation of mineral and energy resources: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellmer, F.-W.; Becker-Platen, J. D.

    2002-04-01

    Natural resources, e.g., metals, industrial minerals, water, and soil, are the essential basis for our economy and well-being. We have to know where these raw materials come from and how they are mined. Sustainable development requires the maintenance, rational use and enhancement of natural resources, as well as a balanced consideration of ecology, economy and social justice. Four general rules concerning the implementation of sustainable development for renewable and non-renewable resources are discussed. Examples of the consumption of selected materials from historical times to the present day are presented, as well as of regional distribution, usage (in contrast to consumption), lifetimes of resources, the supply-and-demand cycle, recycling and substitution in modern times. To fulfill the requirement of sustainable development, the efficiency with which resources are utilized has to be improved. The learning process, often driven by financial rewards, leads from one technology to a better one, thus increasing the efficiency of the use of a resource or commodity. Examples of learning curves are discussed. Industrial countries have to transfer their advanced technologies to developing countries in order to avoid undesirable development in the mining industry and use of natural resources in those regions. The use of the best available technology by the mining industry, taking into account economic considerations, and the necessity to establish environmental guidelines are essential if environmental impact of the production of non-renewable resources is to be minimized. Far more critical than the production of non-renewable resources under the aspect of sustainable development and the capacity of the pollutant sinks of the Earth is the element of natural attenuation with regard to the resources soil and water.

  18. Decentralized water resources management in Mozambique: Challenges of implementation at the river basin level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inguane, Ronaldo; Gallego-Ayala, Jordi; Juízo, Dinis

    In the context of integrated water resources management implementation, the decentralization of water resources management (DWRM) at the river basin level is a crucial aspect for its success. However, decentralization requires the creation of new institutions on the ground, to stimulate an environment enabling stakeholder participation and integration into the water management decision-making process. In 1991, Mozambique began restructuring its water sector toward operational decentralized water resources management. Within this context of decentralization, new legal and institutional frameworks have been created, e.g., Regional Water Administrations (RWAs) and River Basin Committees. This paper identifies and analyzes the key institutional challenges and opportunities of DWRM implementation in Mozambique. The paper uses a critical social science research methodology for in-depth analysis of the roots of the constraining factors for the implementation of DWRM. The results obtained suggest that RWAs should be designed considering the specific geographic and infrastructural conditions of their jurisdictional areas and that priorities should be selected in their institutional capacity building strategies that match local realities. Furthermore, the results also indicate that RWAs have enjoyed limited support from basin stakeholders, mainly in basins with less hydraulic infrastructure, in securing water availability for their users and minimizing the effect of climate variability.

  19. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Dnieper-Donets Basin Province and Pripyat Basin Province, Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, T.R.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, using a geology-based assessment methodology, estimated mean volumes of technically recoverable, conventional, undiscovered petroleum resources at 84 million barrels of crude oil, 4.7 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 130 million barrels of natural gas liquids for the Dnieper-Donets Basin Province and 39 million barrels of crude oil, 48 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 1 million barrels of natural gas liquids for the Pripyat Basin Province. The assessments are part of a program to estimate these resources for priority basins throughout the world.

  20. Tectonic?palaeoenvironmental forcing of clay-mineral assemblages in nonmarine settings: the Oligocene?Miocene As Pontes Basin (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez, A.; Inglès, M.; Cabrera, L.; de las Heras, A.

    2003-07-01

    Two small, alluvial-lacustrine subbasins developed during the early restraining overstep stages of the Oligocene-Miocene As Pontes strike-slip Basin (NW Spain). Later, the basin evolved into a restraining bend stage and an alluvial-swamp-dominated depositional framework developed. The palaeobiological record demonstrates that the Oligocene-Miocene palaeoclimate in NW Spain was subtropical, warm and humid to subhumid. The metamorphic and igneous basin catchment yielded clay assemblages made up by kaolinite, illite and Al-smectite. Illite occurred as an original mineral in the source rock area, whereas kaolinite and Al-smectite resulted mainly from weathering of feldspar and clinochlore, respectively. This detrital primary clay assemblage remained preserved in the colluvial, alluvial fan and shallow lacustrine facies, whose early diagenesis was influenced by diluted, poorly evolved pore waters with neutral to slightly alkaline pH. The original clay assemblage was mildly to strongly transformed under early diagenetic conditions in the lacustrine and swampy environments where significant hydrochemical and Eh-pH changes took place. A fibrous magnesium-rich clay mineral-dominated assemblage (palygorskite and sepiolite) formed in shallow, saline lakes and palustrine zones under the influence of magnesium-rich, alkaline waters. Moreover, kaolinite-enriched assemblages formed in deep lacustrine, swamp and swamp-related alluvial zones under the influence of slightly to highly acidic pore waters. Pore water acidic conditions, characterising environments with organic matter accumulation, led to early diagenetic transformation of Al-smectite into kaolinite. This process was relatively limited in some environments such as organic matter-rich bottoms in meromictic lacustrine zones, whereas it was pervasive in peat-forming swamp zones. The stratigraphic relationships between the diverse clay mineral assemblages in the As Pontes Basin fill demonstrate the coeval development of

  1. Urbanization, sustainability and the utilization of energy and mineral resources in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyzes a model depicting the trend of Chinese urbanization and explores relationships between urbanization and the supply and demand of major energy and mineral resources and between the gross domestic product (GDP) and the urbanization of China. Then it predicts China's supply and demand trends from 2005 to 2050. It is predicted that until 2010 China's GDP and urbanization will grow at high speed, slowing slightly yet still growing strongly on to 2050. It also argues that the supply of cement, steel, aluminum and coal and the demand of timber, cement and steel have significant effects on urbanization. The paper concludes that China will inevitably face a long shortage of resources if future urbanization is faster than predicted, i.e., China cannot meet the targets of the current urbanization strategy while continuing current energy and resource consumption for its industrialization and modernization. (author)

  2. Quick-start guide for version 3.0 of EMINERS - Economic Mineral Resource Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawiec, Walter J.; Spanski, Gregory T.

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative mineral resource assessment, as developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), consists of three parts: (1) development of grade and tonnage mineral deposit models; (2) delineation of tracts permissive for each deposit type; and (3) probabilistic estimation of the numbers of undiscovered deposits for each deposit type (Singer and Menzie, 2010). The estimate of the number of undiscovered deposits at different levels of probability is the input to the EMINERS (Economic Mineral Resource Simulator) program. EMINERS uses a Monte Carlo statistical process to combine probabilistic estimates of undiscovered mineral deposits with models of mineral deposit grade and tonnage to estimate mineral resources. It is based upon a simulation program developed by Root and others (1992), who discussed many of the methods and algorithms of the program. Various versions of the original program (called "MARK3" and developed by David H. Root, William A. Scott, and Lawrence J. Drew of the USGS) have been published (Root, Scott, and Selner, 1996; Duval, 2000, 2012). The current version (3.0) of the EMINERS program is available as USGS Open-File Report 2004-1344 (Duval, 2012). Changes from version 2.0 include updating 87 grade and tonnage models, designing new templates to produce graphs showing cumulative distribution and summary tables, and disabling economic filters. The economic filters were disabled because embedded data for costs of labor and materials, mining techniques, and beneficiation methods are out of date. However, the cost algorithms used in the disabled economic filters are still in the program and available for reference for mining methods and milling techniques included in Camm (1991). EMINERS is written in C++ and depends upon the Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0 programming environment. The code depends heavily on the use of Microsoft Foundation Classes (MFC) for implementation of the Windows interface. The program works only on Microsoft Windows XP or newer

  3. Modeling the Impact of Climate Change on Water Resources in the Senegal River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbaye, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    In this study we assess the impact of climate change on water resources by using uncorrected and bias corrected data from the regional climate model REMO simulations over the Senegal River Basin. Both simulations were used as input of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology - Hydrological Model over the Upper Senegal Basin.Applying the bias correction simulations of present day climate (1971-2000) substantially improved for both temporal and spatial variations of the analyzed climate parameters (precipitation, temperature) when compared to observations and independent station data. Additionally, the bias corrected input give better representation of the mean river flow, the low flows (10th percentile) and the high flows (90thpercentile) at the outlet of the USB.For the future, the regional climate model projections for precipitation show a general decrease by the end of 21stcentury (2071-2100) for both scenarios RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 and datasets in the majority of the basin, except the Guinean highlands where a slight increase is found. In case of the potential changes of the maximum consecutive number of dry days and wet days, the northern basin is likely to face the most pronounced increase of dry days and decrease of wet days, although slight increase of heavy rainfall is found with similar spatial patterns in both data. Furthermore, a general temperature increase is projected over the entire basin for both scenarios, but more pronounced under the RCP8.5 scenario. Warm night's percent is found to be higher than warm day's percent. As for the potential changes of the basin's hydrology, a general decrease of river discharge, runoff, actual evapotranspiration, soil moisture is found under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 in all simulations. The decrease is higher under RCP8.5 with uncorrected data in the northern basin. However, there are some localized increases of runoff in some parts of the basin. Furthermore, the available water resources are projected to substantially decrease

  4. Mineral evaluation of part of the Gold Butte district, Clark County, Nevada. National Uranium Resource Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mineral potential of part of the Gold Butte district, Clark County, Nevada, was investigated to supplement the evaluation of granitic rocks in the area as a probable geologic environment for uranium mineralization. This project is a part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program conducted by Bendix Field Engineering Corporation for the US Department of Energy. A total of 41 stream-sediment samples and 149 rock samples were collected; the stream-sediment samples were analyzed chemically, and most f the rock samples were analyzed chemically and petrographically. The project area was restricted to Precambrian rocks, which comprise a metamorphic complex of early Proterozoic age, charnockitic rocks of early or middle Proterozoic age and ultramafic rocks and the Gold Butte Granite of middle Proterozoic age. Although the project area is not favorable for uranium deposits according to NURE criteria, an area of low resource potential for uranium, thorium, rare-earth elements and yttrium, and niobium-tantalum was assigned to the contact zone of the Gold Butte Granite. Pegmatites and aplites in the zone contain high concentrations of these elements. Two areas of moderate potential for gold and silver in quartz veins are within the project area; small-scale operations may recover these elements profitably. Titanium has a low-to-moderate resource potential, although the deposits are currently subeconomic. The titanium concentrations occur as titaniferous magnetite- and ilmenite-bearing placer sands. One small area has been assigned a low-to-moderate resource potential for vermiculite in altered ultramafic rocks. Tungsten has been assigned a low resource potential in two places within the project area; scheelite-bearing ultramafic bodies are small and scattered. Platinum-group metals and copper have no resource potential in the project area

  5. Porphyry copper assessment of the Tethys region of western and southern Asia: Chapter V in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zürcher, Lukas; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Mars, John C.; Ludington, Stephen; Zientek, Michael L.; Dunlap, Pamela; Wallis, John C.; Drew, Lawrence J.; Sutphin, David M.; Berger, Byron R.; Herrington, Richard J.; Billa, Mario; Kuşcu, Ilkay; Moon, Charles J.; Richards, Jeremy P.

    2015-01-01

    A probabilistic mineral resource assessment of undiscovered resources in porphyry copper deposits in the Tethys region of western and southern Asia was carried out as part of a global mineral resource assessment led by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The purpose of the study was to delineate geographic areas as permissive tracts for the occurrence of porphyry copper deposits at a scale of 1:1,000,000 and to provide probabilistic estimates of amounts of copper likely to be contained in undiscovered porphyry copper deposits in those tracts. The team did the assessment using the USGS three-part form of mineral resource assessment, which is based on (1) mineral deposit and grade-tonnage models constructed from known deposits as analogs for undiscovered deposits, (2) delineation of permissive tracts based on geoscientific information, and (3) estimation of numbers of undiscovered deposits.

  6. Geologic and mineral and water resources investigations in western Colorado, using Skylab EREP data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K. (Principal Investigator); Prost, G. L.; Knepper, D. H.; Sawatzky, D. L.; Huntley, D.; Weimer, R. J.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Skylab photographs are superior to ERTS images for photogeologic interpretation, primarily because of improved resolution. Lithologic contacts can be detected consistently better on Skylab S190A photos than on ERTS images. Color photos are best; red and green band photos are somewhat better than color-infrared photos; infrared band photos are worst. All major geologic structures can be recognized on Skylab imagery. Large folds, even those with very gentle flexures, can be mapped accurately and with confidence. Bedding attitudes of only a few degrees are recognized; vertical exaggeration factor is about 2.5X. Mineral deposits in central Colorado may be indicated on Skylab photos by lineaments and color anomalies, but positive identification of these features is not possible. S190A stereo color photography is adequate for defining drainage divides that in turn define the boundaries and distribution of ground water recharge and discharge areas within a basin.

  7. Water Resources Data - Texas Water Year 1999, Volume 1. Arkansas River Basin, Red River Basin, Sabine River Basin, Neches River Basin, and Intervening Coastal Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandara, S.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Barbie, D.L.; Jones, R.E.

    2000-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1999 water year for Texas are presented in six volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water-quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 1 contains records for water discharge at 71 gaging stations; stage only at 3 gaging stations; stage and contents at 23 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 47 gaging stations; and data for 9 partial-record stations comprised of 6 flood-hydrograph and 3 low-flow stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  8. Water Resources Data - Texas Water Year 2000, Volume 1. Arkansas River Basin, Red River Basin, Sabine River Basin, Neches River Basin, and Intervening Coastal Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandara, S.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Barbie, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2000 water year for Texas are presented in six volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water-quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 1 contains records for water discharge at 68 gaging stations; stage only at 3 gaging stations; stage and contents at 37 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 39 gaging stations; and data for 9 partial-record stations comprised of 6 flood-hydrograph and 3 low-flow stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  9. The utilization of water resources and its variation tendency in Tarim River Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Mao; XU Hailiang; SONG Yudong

    2006-01-01

    Water resources efficient utilization is the key to ecological improvement and economic development in Tarim River Basin. It is necessary to analyze the water resources utilization and its variation tendency in the whole river basin. Based on the monitored data and formation at eight meteorological stations and fifteen hydrological stations, the method of time series, regression analysis are applied to analyzing the water resources utilization and variation trend in the headstreams and mainstream areas especially in recent 10 years. The quantitative results indicate that inflows of the headstream areas have an increasing trend to different extent in the past 40years. The runoff increasing trend is more significant from1994 to 2002, which show the water resources condition in the headstreams is at an advantage.However, under the condition of water increase with the volume of 25×108 m3 in headstreams in recent 10years, the mainstream water flowing from the headstreams has increased less than 0.9985×108 m3. In addition, the runoff at the different hydrologic stations along the Tarim River has a significant linear decreasing trend. It is shown that the degraded trend of ecological environment in the mainstream areas hardly changes even if the Tarim River Basin is in the special water period for ten consecutive years.

  10. SAFETY ANALYSIS OF WATER RESOURCES AND ECG-ENVIRONMENT IN SHIYANG RIVER BASIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ji-shi; ZHANG Yong-qiu; PU Rui-feng; CHEN Ren-sheng; CHENG Zhong-shan; WANG Ming-quan

    2005-01-01

    The research on the present situation of soil and water development and utilization in Shiyang River Basin shows that water resources and eco-environment situation in this area are near the edge of collapse. Since the water crises occurred in the 1970s, problems caused by continuous decrease of water resources have been becoming serious year by year and eco-environment crisis occurred as a consequence. Up to now, 10 380ha of irrigated lands have been abandoned due to sand coverage and water shortage in the basin. Ground water was over exploded in Wuwei and Minqin because of water shortage. Ground water table in many places dropped under 5m (which is the ecology water table level), thus about 3000ha ofElaeagnus angustifolia forest come to dead and another 5800ha become feeble, and wind-driff sand near the oasis become alive. According to the current situation, if water utilization scope was not enlarged, a water transfer volume of 600×106m3/a from other areas will be suitable to keep water resources and eco-environment safety in the basin, and also 70× 106m3/a will be left as spare water. Under this condition the water resources and eco-environment of the basin can reach the critical safety line of 2.032× 109m3/a; or if 180× 106m3 of water can be transferred from other areas, the water resources can reach the safety warning line of 1.732× 109m3/a.

  11. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Timan-Pechora Basin Province, Russia, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, C.J.; Bird, K.J.; Charpentier, R.R.; Gautier, D.L.; Houseknecht, D.W.; Klett, T.R.; Moore, T.; Pawlewicz, M.J.; Pittman, J.; Tennyson, M.E.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the Timan-Pechora Basin Province in Russia as part of the USGS Circum-Arctic Oil and Gas Resource Appraisal program. Geologically, the Timan-Pechora Basin Province is a triangular-shaped cratonic block bounded by the northeast-southwest trending Ural Mountains and the northwest-southeast trending Timan Ridge. The northern boundary is shared with the South Barents Sea Province (fig.1). The Timan-Pechora Basin Province has a long history of oil and gas exploration and production. The first field was discovered in 1930 and, after 75 years of exploration, more than 230 fields have been discovered and more than 5,400 wells have been drilled. This has resulted in the discovery of more than 16 billion barrels of oil and 40 trillion cubic feet of gas.

  12. Variability of mineral dust deposition in the western Mediterranean basin and South-East of France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vincent

    2015-12-01

    deposition events are recorded at only one station, suggesting that the dust provenance, transport, and deposition processes (i.e. wet vs. dry of dust are different and specific for the different deposition sites in the Mediterranean studied area. The results also show that wet deposition is the main way of deposition for mineral dust in the western Mediterranean basin, but the contribution of dry deposition is far to be negligible, and contributes by 15 to 46 % to the major dust deposition events, depending on the sampling site.

  13. Minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaquero, M. P.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available The possible changes in the mineral composition of food during frying could be the consequence of losses by leaching, or changes in concentrations caused by exchanges between the food and culinary fat of other compounds. The net result depends on the type of food, the frying fat used and the frying process. Moreover, the modifications that frying produces in other nutrients could indirectly affect the availability of dietary minerals. The most outstanding ones are those that can take place in the fat or in the protein. With respect to the interactions between frying oils and minerals, we have recent knowledge concerning the effects of consuming vegetable oils used in repeated fryings of potatoes without turnover, on the nutritive utilization of dietary minerals. The experiments have been carried out in pregnant and growing rats, which consumed diets containing, as a sole source of fat, the testing frying oils or unused oils. It seems that the consumption of various frying oils, with a polar compound content lower or close to the maximum limit of 25% accepted for human consumption, does not alter the absorption and metabolism of calcium, phosphorous, iron or copper. Magnesium absorption from diets containing frying oils tends to increase but the urinary excretion of this element increases, resulting imperceptible the variations in the magnesium balance. The urinary excretion of Zn also increased although its balance remained unchanged. Different studies referring to the effects of consuming fried fatty fish on mineral bioavailability will also be presented. On one hand, frying can cause structural changes in fish protein, which are associated with an increase in iron absorption and a decrease in body zinc retention. The nutritive utilization of other elements such as magnesium, calcium and copper seems to be unaffected. On the other hand; it has been described that an excess of fish fatty acids in the diet produces iron depletion, but when fatty

  14. Assessment of climate change impact on water resources in the Upper Senegal basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamine Mbaye, Mamadou; Hagemann, Stefan; Haensler, Andreas; Stacke, Tobias; Thierno Gaye, Amadou

    2015-04-01

    This study assesses the potential impacts of climate change on water resources and the effect of statistical bias correction on the projected climate change signal in hydrological variables over the Upper Senegal Basin (West Africa). Original and bias corrected climate data from the regional climate model REMO were used as input for the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology-Hydrology Model (MPI-HM) to simulate river discharge, runoff, soil moisture and evapotranspiration. The results during the historical period (1971-2000) show that using the bias corrected input yields a better representation of the mean river flow regimes and the 10th and 90th percentiles of river flow at the outlet of the Upper Senegal Basin (USB). The Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient is 0.92 using the bias corrected input, which demonstrates the ability of the model in simulating river flow. The percent bias of 3.88% indicates a slight overestimation of the river flow by the model using the corrected input. The evaluation demonstrates the ability of the bias correction and its necessity for the simulation of historical river regimes. As for the potential changes of hydrological variables by the end of 21st century (2071-2100), a general decrease of river discharge, runoff, actual evapotranspiration, soil moisture is found under two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) in all simulations. The decrease is higher under RCP8.5 with uncorrected data in the northern basin. However, there are some localized increases in some parts of the basin (e.g Guinean Highlands). The projected climate change signal of these above variables has the same spatial pattern and tendency for the uncorrected and bias corrected data although the magnitude of the corrected signal is somewhat lower than that uncorrected. Furthermore, the available water resources are projected to substantially decrease by more than -50% in the majority of the basin (especially in driest and hottest northern basin

  15. A quantified study method and its application to sustainable management of water resources in arid basins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZUO QiTing; ZHOU KeFa; XIA Jun; CHEN Xi; WANG YongQin

    2007-01-01

    According to the features of the basins in arid areas, in this paper a quantified study framework of sustainable management of water resources is developed, and the contents include mainly the quantification rules, index system, basic models and quantification method. A quantified study method (M-D method) about sustainable management of water resources is put forward based on the simulation and integrative development degree. In the method, the fuzzy subordinatness description and the multi-rule integration are used to calculate the integrative development degree so as to quantitatively describe the sustainable development degree of economic society; the mathematical simulation is used to quantitatively describe the interactions between water resources, economic society and ecosystems so as to lay a foundation for quantitatively giving expression to the development situation of economic society related to the management of water resources; based on the organic combination of these two,quantification rules and other constraint conditions, a quantified model of water resources management is developed. The M-D method is applied to developing a scientific scheme of water resources management in the Bosten Lake Basin, Xinjiang, China.

  16. Constraints on the development of Proterozoic basins in central India from 40Ar/39Ar analysis of authigenic glauconitic minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, J.E.; Hein, J.R.; Chaudhuri, A.K.; Patranabis-Deb, S.; Mukhopadhyay, J.; Deb, G.K.; Beukes, N.J.

    2011-01-01

    Ages of some key stratigraphic sequences in central Indian Proterozoic basins are based predominantly on lithostratigraphic relationships that have been constrained by only a few radioisotopic dates. To help improve age constraints, single grains of glauconitic minerals taken from sandstone and limestone in two Proterozoic sequences in the Pranhita-Godavari Valley and the Chattisgarh basin were analyzed by the 40Ar/39Ar incremental heating method. Analysis of the age spectra distinguishes between ages that are interpreted to reflect the time of glauconite formation, and anomalous ages that result from inherited argon or postcrystallization heating. The analyses indicate an age of 1686 ± 6 Ma for the Pandikunta Limestone and 1566 ± 6 Ma for the Ramgundam Sandstone, two units in the western belt of Proterozoic sequences in Pranhita-Godavari Valley. Glauconite from the Chanda Limestone, in the upper part of this sequence, contains inherited 40Ar but is interpreted to reflect an age of ca. 1200 Ma. Glauconite from the Somanpalli Group in the eastern belt of the Pranhita-Godavari Valley gives an age of 1620 ± 6 Ma. In the Chattisgarh basin, glauconite from two units gives disturbed ages that suggest a period of regional heating in the Chattisgarh basin at ca. 960–1000 Ma. These new ages indicate that these sequences are 200–400 m.y. older than previously recognized, which has important implications for geochemical studies of Mesoproterozoic ocean redox conditions in addition to providing important constraints on regional tectonics and lithostratigraphy.

  17. The actual status of uranium ore resources at Eko Remaja Sector: the need of verification of resources computation and geometrical form of mineralization zone by mining test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium ore resources calculation was done after ending all of geological work step. Estimation process of ore resources was started from evaluation drilling, continued with borehole logging. From logging, the result has presented in anomaly graphs, then was processed to determine thickness and grade value of ore. Those mineralization points were correlated one another to form mineralization zones which have direction of N 270 degree to N 285 degree with 70 degree dip to North. From Grouping the mineralization distribution, 19 mineralization planes was constructed which contain 553 ton of U3O8 measured. It is suggested that before expanding measured ore deposit area, mining test should be done first at certain mineralization planes to prove the method applied to calculate the reserve. Results form mining test could be very useful to reevaluate all the work-step done. (author); 4 refs; 2 tabs; 8 figs

  18. Expert knowledge based modeling for integrated water resources planning and management in the Zayandehrud River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safavi, Hamid R.; Golmohammadi, Mohammad H.; Sandoval-Solis, Samuel

    2015-09-01

    This study highlights the need for water resource planning and management using expert knowledge to model known extreme hydrologic variability in complex hydrologic systems with lack of data. The Zayandehrud River Basin in Iran is used as an example of complex water system; this study provides a comprehensive description of the basin, including its water demands (municipal, agricultural, industrial and environmental) and water supply resources (rivers, inter-basin water transfer and aquifers). The objective of this study is to evaluate near future conditions of the basin (from Oct./2015 to Sep./2019) considering the current water management policies and climate change conditions, referred as Baseline scenario. A planning model for the Zayandehrud basin was built to evaluate the Baseline scenario, the period of hydrologic analysis is 21 years, (from Oct./1991 to Sep./2011); it was calibrated for 17 years and validated for 4 years using a Historic scenario that considered historic water supply, infrastructure and hydrologic conditions. Because the Zayandehrud model is a planning model and not a hydrologic model (rainfall-runoff model), an Adaptive Network-based Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) is used to generate synthetic natural flows considering temperature and precipitation as inputs. This model is an expert knowledge and data based model which has the benefits of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and Fuzzy Inference Systems (FIS). Outputs of the ANFIS model were compared to the Historic scenario results and are used in the Baseline scenario. Three metrics are used to evaluate the goodness of fit of the ANFIS model. Water supply results of the Baseline scenario are analyzed using five performance criteria: time-based and volumetric reliability, resilience, vulnerability and maximum deficit. One index, the Water Resources Sustainability Index is used to summarize the performance criteria results and to facilitate comparison among trade-offs. Results for the Baseline

  19. Development of an integrated water resources management plan for the Lake Manyara sub-basin, Northern Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngana, J. O.; Mwalyosi, R. B. B.; Madulu, N. F.; Yanda, P. Z.

    Water resources management in Lake Manyara sub-basin is an issue of very high significance as the sub-basin hosts a number of national and global assets of great socio-cultural, ecological and economic values. The sub-basin comprise of a Biosphere Reserve with boosting tourism from Lake Manyara National Park with a variety of wildlife population, large livestock population and highly fertile land for agricultural production. The prevailing system of uncoordinated water resources management in the sub-basin cannot sustain the ever increasing water needs of the various expanding sectors, therefore a strategy must be sought to integrate the various sectoral needs against the available water resources in order to attain both economic and ecological sustainability. Through participatory approach with the stakeholders, the study has established key issues, demonstrated considerable experience in water resources management in the sub-basin including existence of water boards, water committees in some districts as well as land resources management practices However, a number of constraints were noted which inhibit sustainable water resources management including ignorance of water policies, conflicting sectoral policies, lack of coordination between sectors, high in migration rates into the basin, heavy in migration of livestock, conflicts between sectors, poor land use resulting in soil erosion and sedimentation, lack of comprehensive data base on water resources and water needs for : domestic, tourism, livestock, irrigation, wild life and environmental flows. As a way forward it was recommended that a basin wide legally mandated body (involving all levels) be established to oversee water use in the sub-basin. Other strategies include capacity building of stakeholders on water natural resources management policies, water rights and enforcement of laws. This progress report paper highlights the wealth of knowledge that stakeholders possess on water resources management and

  20. The Volta Basin Water Allocation System: assessing the impact of small-scale reservoir development on the water resources of the Volta basin, West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kasei

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In the Volta Basin, infrastructure watershed development with respect to the impact of climate conditions is hotly debated due to the lack of adequate tools to model the consequences of such development. There is an ongoing debate on the impact of further development of small and medium scale reservoirs on the water level of Lake Volta, which is essential for hydropower generation at the Akosombo power plant. The GLOWA Volta Project (GVP has developed a Volta Basin Water Allocation System (VB-WAS, a decision support tool that allows assessing the impact of infrastructure development in the basin on the availability of current and future water resources, given the current or future climate conditions. The simulated historic and future discharge time series of the joint climate-hydrological modeling approach (MM5/WaSiM-ETH serve as input data for a river basin management model (MIKE BASIN. MIKE BASIN uses a network approach, and allows fast simulations of water allocation and of the consequences of different development scenarios on the available water resources. The impact of the expansion of small and medium scale reservoirs on the stored volume of Lake Volta has been quantified and assessed in comparison with the impact of climate variability on the water resources of the basin.

  1. Recultivation of Podmreka quarry by means of closed cycle of mineral resources extraction - chances for future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorazd Žibret

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The main idea is how we could use the scrapped construction materials for the recultivation of abandoned extraction sites in the means of closed cycle from extraction of the non metallic mineral resourced, consumption and deposition at the end. In the article the Slovenian law concerning this area and the case study of Podsmreka quarry is described. The process takes the opposite direction from extraction, which means that the company does not need a lot of additional equipment. This is a good option for the environment, society and for the companies after finishing the exploitation.

  2. Mineral resource abundance and violent political conflict: a critical assessment of the rentier state model

    OpenAIRE

    DiJohn, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, Jonathan Di John critically examines the so-called 'rentier state' argument, the idea that abundance of natural resources causes poor growth, and raises the incidence, intensity and duration of conflict. The basic premise of the rentier state model is that rentier state leaders, by relying on 'unearned' income (in the form of mineral rents and/or aid), do not develop a set of reciprocal obligations with citizens via the nexus of domestic taxation. The model also posits that the...

  3. The use of different analytical techniques as a backup to mineral resources assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Empresas Nucleares Brasileiras S.A. (NUCLEBRAS) has implemented and improved, since their foundation in 1974, several laboratories at the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), in Belo Horizonte (MG, Brazil), in order to develop capabilities in the analytical chemistry field. Skillful personnel, using a large spectrum of equipment and procedures, is already able to determine, fast and accurately, almost any chemical element in any matrix. About 340.000 analytical determinations have been performed during the last seven years, concerning mostly chemical elements of great importance in the mineral technology programs. This considerable amount of results has been used, specially, as a backup to assess Brazilian uranium resources. (Author)

  4. Invloed van die Mineral and Petroleum Resources Development Act 28 of 2002 op boedelbeplanning en boedelbereddering / deur Johanna Catherina Petronella Taljaard

    OpenAIRE

    Taljaard, Johanna Catherina Petronella

    2004-01-01

    The Mineral and Petroleum Resources Development Act introduced a new mining law dispensation. This Act has implications for mineral right holders. Up to 1 May 2004, the right to prospect or mine vested in the holder of the mineral right concerned under the system of private ownership as set out in the Minerals Act 50 of 1991. The 2002 Act which is premised on the principle that minerals as a natural resource are part of the natural heritage of all South Africans, eliminates ...

  5. Estimating resource costs of compliance with EU WFD ecological status requirements at the river basin scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riegels, Niels; Jensen, Roar; Benasson, Lisa;

    2011-01-01

    Resource costs of meeting EU WFD ecological status requirements at the river basin scale are estimated by comparing net benefits of water use given ecological status constraints to baseline water use values. Resource costs are interpreted as opportunity costs of water use arising from water...... scarcity. An optimization approach is used to identify economically efficient ways to meet WFD requirements. The approach is implemented using a river basin simulation model coupled to an economic post-processor; the simulation model and post-processor are run from a central controller that iterates until...... an allocation is found that maximizes net benefits given WFD requirements. Water use values are estimated for urban/domestic, agricultural, industrial, livestock, and tourism water users. Ecological status is estimated using metrics that relate average monthly river flow volumes to the natural...

  6. Geological characteristics and resource potentials of oil shale in Ordos Basin, Center China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yunlai, Bai; Yingcheng, Zhao; Long, Ma; Wu-jun, Wu; Yu-hu, Ma

    2010-09-15

    It has been shown that not only there are abundant oil, gas, coal, coal-bed gas, groundwater and giant uranium deposits but also there are abundant oil shale resources in Ordos basin. It has been shown also that the thickness of oil shale is, usually, 4-36m, oil-bearing 1.5%-13.7%, caloric value 1.66-20.98MJ/kg. The resource amount of oil shale with burial depth less than 2000 m is over 2000x108t (334). Within it, confirmed reserve is about 1x108t (121). Not only huge economic benefit but also precious experience in developing oil shale may be obtained in Ordos basin.

  7. Web GIS design and realization for groundwater resources in the Yellow River basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Jianguo; GONG Huili; ZHAO Wenji; ZHANG Xiaosong; YAN Ning

    2004-01-01

    This article brings forward a design and realization scheme of Web GIS in the Yellow River basin for the management of groundwater resources. The main goals are to manage and share data of massive-scale, to support the research of groundwater resources in the Yellow River basin. In this paper we point out the necessity and feasibility of building the distributed Web GIS for geographical research objects on a large scale.We put forward some solutions for the construction of this kind of system including a holistic deployment strategy in the Internet, a scheme of distributed data storage and management, a design of application structure based on three tires architecture by each province and how they collaborate with each other. It also illuminates how the application server works, and sets forth the relations among databases which work together in this system.

  8. Assessment of water resources in some drainage basins, northwestern coast, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousif, Mohamed; Abd, El Sayed El; Baraka, Ahmed

    2013-06-01

    The main objective of this research paper is to monitor the current situation of water resources in some of the drainage basins in the northwestern coast of Egypt and reach to a plan for the development of these resources. The selected basins were chosen for the present study according to their special conditions, where they have a shortage of water for human and agriculture proposes. However, the area of study has a population growth and agricultural activities, which require necessary development of groundwater. The study area has two aquifers: Pleistocene, and Middle Miocene aquifers. The recharge to these aquifers comes either from the direct infiltration of the rainfall, and/or from the surface runoff. The groundwater in the area of study is evaluated for drinking, domestic, livestock and agricultural purposes. The present study reaches out for some recommendations to develop the surface and groundwater in the study area.

  9. Coal resources of selected coal beds and zones in the northern and central Appalachian Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leslie Ruppert; Susan Tewalt; Linda Bragg

    2002-02-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is completing a National Coal Resource Assessment of five coal-producing regions of the United States, including the Appalachian Basin. The USGS, in cooperation with the State geological surveys of Kentucky, Maryland, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia, has completed a digital coal resource assessment of five of the top-producing coal beds and coal zones in the northern and central Appalachian Basin coal regions -- the Pittsburgh coal bed, the Upper Freeport coal bed, the Fire Clay and Pond Creek coal zones, and the Pocahontas No. 3 coal bed. Of the 93 billion short tons of original coal in these units, about 66 billion short tons remain. 2 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Distribution of grain size and clay minerals in sediments from the INDEX area, central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.; Ambre, N.V.

    ) and showed that smectite miner- als result from different sources and processes. For the northern Indian Ocean,the clay min-erals proved to come from a detrital origin.The CIB sediments have ben influenced by terrigenous material. Earlier,Nath et al. (1989...:175–185. Aoki,S.,and T. Sudo. 1973. Mineralogical study of the core samples from the Indian Ocean,with special reference to the vertical distribution of clay minerals. Journal of Oceano-graphical Society of Japan29:87–93. Grain Size and Clay Minerals in INDEX...

  11. Mineral Resources of the Marble Canyon Wilderness Study Area, White Pine County, Nevada, and Millard County, Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Diggles, Michael F.; Nowlan, Gary A.; Blank, Jr., H. Richard; Marcus, Susan M.; Kness, Richard F.; U.S. Geological Survey; U.S. Bureau of Mines

    1990-01-01

    The 19,150-acre Marble Canyon Wilderness Study Area (NV-040-086) was evaluated for mineral resources (known) and mineral resource potential (undiscovered), and field work was conducted in 1987. The acreage includes 6,435 acres that is now designated as part of the Mount Moriah Wilderness under the Nevada Wilderness Protection Act of 1989 (S. 974), most but not all of which is included in 8,300 acres fro which the U.S. Bureau of Land Management requested a mineral survey. In this report, the...

  12. Framework for the assessment of interaction between CO2 geological storage and other sedimentary basin resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, K; Whittaker, S; Varma, S; Bekele, E; Langhi, L; Hodgkinson, J; Harris, B

    2016-02-01

    Sedimentary basins around the world considered suitable for carbon storage usually contain other natural resources such as petroleum, coal, geothermal energy and groundwater. Storing carbon dioxide in geological formations in the basins adds to the competition for access to the subsurface and the use of pore space where other resource-based industries also operate. Managing potential impacts that industrial-scale injection of carbon dioxide may have on other resource development must be focused to prevent potential conflicts and enhance synergies where possible. Such a sustainable coexistence of various resource developments can be accomplished by implementing a Framework for Basin Resource Management strategy (FBRM). The FBRM strategy utilizes the concept of an Area of Review (AOR) for guiding development and regulation of CO2 geological storage projects and for assessing their potential impact on other resources. The AOR is determined by the expected physical distribution of the CO2 plume in the subsurface and the modelled extent of reservoir pressure increase resulting from the injection of the CO2. This information is used to define the region to be characterised and monitored for a CO2 injection project. The geological characterisation and risk- and performance-based monitoring will be most comprehensive within the region of the reservoir containing the carbon dioxide plume and should consider geological features and wells continuously above the plume through to its surface projection; this region defines where increases in reservoir pressure will be greatest and where potential for unplanned migration of carbon dioxide is highest. Beyond the expanse of the carbon dioxide plume, geological characterisation and monitoring should focus only on identified features that could be a potential migration conduit for either formation water or carbon dioxide. PMID:26767550

  13. Fishing for Influence: Fisheries Science and Evidence in Water Resources Development in the Mekong Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Richard M. Friend

    2009-01-01

    During the last decade there has been a concerted effort in the Mekong basin to research the capture fisheries in an attempt to influence national and regional water resource policy and practice, particularly hydropower development. As a result of this research effort, the Mekong capture fisheries are better documented than ever before. There is broad consensus on the key conclusions of this research – on the scale and value of production, its importance to local livelihoods, and the ecologic...

  14. Understanding hydroclimate processes in the Murray-Darling Basin for natural resources management

    OpenAIRE

    A. J. E. Gallant; A. S. Kiem; D. C. Verdon-Kidd; Stone, R. C.; D. J. Karoly

    2012-01-01

    Isolating the causes of extreme variations or changes in the hydroclimate is difficult due to the complexities of the driving mechanisms, but it is crucial for effective natural resource management. In Australia's Murray-Darling Basin (MDB), ocean-atmosphere processes causing hydroclimatic variations occur on time scales from days to centuries, all are important, and none are likely to act in isolation. Instead, interactions between all hydroclimatic drivers, on multiple time scales, are like...

  15. Strategic development of water resources for the Jordan River Basin (Briefing 1.2)

    OpenAIRE

    Onigkeit, Janina

    2013-01-01

    Already today, water management in the Jordan River basin requires enormous efforts to balance water availability and multiple needs of consumers and the environment. To limit the impacts of a growing gap between demand and increasingly unreliable natural water resources will be among the greatest challenges of the coming decades. Brief outlines of four different strategies to cope with problems of water scarcity in the region are presented, covering aspects of future demand as well as supply...

  16. Simulation of blue and green water resources in the Wei River basin, China

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Z.; Zuo, D

    2014-01-01

    The Wei River is the largest tributary of the Yellow River in China and it is suffering from water scarcity and water pollution. In order to quantify the amount of water resources in the study area, a hydrological modelling approach was applied by using SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool), calibrated and validated with SUFI-2 (Sequential Uncertainty Fitting program) based on river discharge in the Wei River basin (WRB). Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses were also performed to improve the...

  17. The use of coupled atmospheric and hydrological models for water-resources management in headwater basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavesley, G.; Hay, L.

    1998-01-01

    Coupled atmospheric and hydrological models provide an opportunity for the improved management of water resources in headwater basins. Issues currently limiting full implementation of coupled-model methodologies include (a) the degree of uncertainty in the accuracy of precipitation and other meteorological variables simulated by atmospheric models, and (b) the problem of discordant scales between atmospheric and bydrological models. Alternative methodologies being developed to address these issues are reviewed.

  18. Quantitative multi-scale analysis of mineral distributions and fractal pore structures for a heterogeneous Junger Basin shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y. D.; Liu, K. Y.; Yang, Y. S.; Ren, Y. Q.; Hu, T.; Deng, B.; Xiao, T. Q.

    2016-04-01

    Three dimensional (3D) characterization of shales has recently attracted wide attentions in relation to the growing importance of shale oil and gas. Obtaining a complete 3D compositional distribution of shale has proven to be challenging due to its multi-scale characteristics. A combined multi-energy X-ray micro-CT technique and data-constrained modelling (DCM) approach has been used to quantitatively investigate the multi-scale mineral and porosity distributions of a heterogeneous shale from the Junger Basin, northwestern China by sub-sampling. The 3D sub-resolution structures of minerals and pores in the samples are quantitatively obtained as the partial volume fraction distributions, with colours representing compositions. The shale sub-samples from two areas have different physical structures for minerals and pores, with the dominant minerals being feldspar and dolomite, respectively. Significant heterogeneities have been observed in the analysis. The sub-voxel sized pores form large interconnected clusters with fractal structures. The fractal dimensions of the largest clusters for both sub-samples were quantitatively calculated and found to be 2.34 and 2.86, respectively. The results are relevant in quantitative modelling of gas transport in shale reservoirs.

  19. Examination of brine contamination risk to aquatic resources from petroleum development in the Williston Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Robert A.; Thamke, Joanna N.; Smith, Bruce D.; Tangen, Brian A.; Chesley-Preston, Tara; Preston, Todd M.

    2011-01-01

    U.S. Geological Survey scientists and cooperating partners are examining the potential risk to aquatic resources (for example, wetlands, streams) by contamination from saline waters (brine) produced by petroleum development in the Williston Basin of Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota. The primary goals of this study are to provide a science-based approach to assess potential risk of brine contamination to aquatic systems and to help focus limited monitoring and mitigation resources on the areas of greatest need. These goals will be accomplished through field investigations that quantify brine movement and risk assessments using remotely-sensed and other spatial datasets.

  20. Benefits Evaluation of Water Resources Used for Ecosystem in Shiyang River Basin of Gansu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Xiaoling; KANG Shaozhong; LI Fusheng; ZHANG Lu; TONG Ling

    2009-01-01

    Among the numerous inland river basins in the arid northwest China, Shiyang River basin is known for its most serious water shortage that constrains its social and economic developments and for some of the worst eco-logical and environmental deterioration in China. The research on the value of water resources used for ecosystem is the basis for reasonable allocation of water resources between users of ecosystem and economic system. In this paper the concept of dynamic value for the ecosystem services is proposed. A modified coefficient for the ecosys-tem service value per unit area is proposed according to the cover degrees of biomes combined with expert consul-tation. Based on the developmental stage coefficient and scarcity of ecological resources, a dynamic evaluation method is proposed. The theoretical formula and simple calculation formula of the sharing benefits coefficient and benefits per unit ecological water utilization are proposed. The result shows that the benefit of unit ecological water utilization in the lower reach was greater than that in the upper reach in the Shiyang River basin.

  1. High Resolution Integrated Hydrologic Modeling for Water Resource Management: Tahoe Basin Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, S.; Niswonger, R. G.; Huntington, J. L.; Gardner, M.; Morton, C.; Maples, S.; Reeves, D. M.; Pohll, G.

    2014-12-01

    Water resources in the high altitude, snow-dominated Tahoe basin are susceptible to long-term climate change and extreme climatic events due to large inter-annual climate variations. Lake Tahoe and its contributing watersheds exhibit high climatic (precipitation, temperature) and hydrologic (streamflow, evaporation) variation that exert significant control over regional water supply on annual and sub-annual timescales. To adequately quantify these controls, a high resolution (300m) physically based integrated surface and groundwater model, GSFLOW, of the Tahoe basin has been developed to identify key hydrologic mechanisms that explain recent changes in water resources of the region. The model is parameterized using geographical datasets and maintains a balance between (a) accurate representation of spatial (e.g., geology, streams, and topography) and hydrologic (groundwater, stream, lake, and wetland flows and storages) features, and (b) computational efficiency, which is a necessity for exploring critical vulnerabilities of water-supplies in the region. The calibrated model reproduces multiple observations of streamflow, snow water equivalent, satellite derived snow covered area, lake stage, and groundwater head. Climate input uncertainty was significantly decreased in the model through incorporating additional precipitation station data and helped improve model simulations of observed fluxes more than adjusting model parameters alone. The model simulates fluxes at the outlet of the watershed, but is also consistent at simulating streamflow at internal nodes. This integrated modeling framework helped assess both surface and groundwater resources in a coupled manner in the Tahoe basin.

  2. Resource characterization for uranium mineralization in the Montrose 10 x 20 quadrangle, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A data-classification scheme was developed to detect potential uranium mineralization in the Montrose 10 x 20 quadrangle, Colorado. The methodology developed is a rapid and efficient method of resource evaluation on a reconnaissance scale. The necessary techniques were developed and refined to digitize, integrate, and register various large geological, geochemical, and geophysical data sets for the Montrose quadrangle, Colorado, using a grid resolution of 1 km. All data sets for the Montrose quadrangle were registered to the Universal Transverse Mercator projection. The data sets include hydrogeochemical and stream sediment analyses for 23 elements, uranium-to-thorium ratios, airborne geophysical survey data, the locations of 90 uranium occurrences, and a geologic map (scale 1:250 000). Geochemical samples were collected from 3965 locations in the 19 200 km2 quadrangle; aerial data were collected on flight lines flown with 3 to 5 km spacings. These data sets were smoothed by universal kriging and interpolated to a 179 x 119 rectangular grid (each grid block is 1 km2). A mylar transparency of the geologic map was prepared and digitized. All possible combinations of three, for all data sets, were examined for general geologic correlations by utilizing a color microfilm output. Subsets of data were further examined for selected test areas. A classification scheme for uranium mineralization, based on selected test areas in the Cochetopa uranium district, is presented. Areas favorable for uranium mineralization, based on this scheme, were identified and are discussed

  3. Data points (drill locations) used to assess coal resources in the San Juan Basin, CO and NM (sjbptsg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a shapefile and coverage of data points used in the assessment of coal resources of the Fruitland Formation in the San Juan Basin, Colorado and New Mexico....

  4. Integrated water resources assessment and management in the Kharaa River Basin, Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibisch, Ralf; Karthe, Daniel; Hofmann, Jürgen; Borchardt, Dietrich

    2016-04-01

    A comprehensive study on hydrology, hydro-morphology, climatology, water physico-chemistry and ecology was conducted in the Kharaa River Basin (Mongolia) between 2006 and 2013. The assessment provided a detailed characterization of water resources for the first time and serves as a scientific basis to develop an integrated water resources management (IWRM) in the region. Following European water management approaches we identified "water bodies" as the smallest management sub-unit within the river basin, based on characteristic abiotic and biocenotic features. Four clearly identifiable water bodies in the Kharaa River main channel and seven water bodies in the tributaries were delineated. In order to achieve a good ecological status of the surface water bodies, type-specific undisturbed reference states of various aquatic ecosystems were identified and current deviations thereof were assessed. Based on the assessment a set of water management measures was developed. With regards to water quality and quantity, the upper reaches of the Kharaa River basin were classified as having a "good" ecological and chemical status. Compared to these natural reference conditions in the upper reaches, the initial risk assessment identified several "hot spot" regions with impacted water bodies in the middle and lower basin. Therefore, the affected water bodies are at risk of not achieving the good ecological and/or chemical status for surface waters. The use of natural references conditions offers a sound scientific base to assess the impact of anthropogenic activities across the Kharaa River basin. Based on the scientific results and practical experiences from a seven-year project in the region, the potentials and limitations of IWRM implementation will be discussed in the presentation.

  5. Preliminary evaluation of water-resource development and potential within the Pasco Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report was prepared in conjunction with the Basalt Waste Isolation Project in partial fulfillment of requirements to assess the effects of a deep geologic repository for radioactive wastes upon adjacent water resources within the Pasco Basin. Because of the many unanswered questions with respect to repository siting, environmental characterization, engineering design, and other factors related to the proposed facility, it is somewhat premature to present an intensive evaluation of such effects. However, it is considered appropriate at this time to speculate, in a generic fashion, upon the nature of these effects as a basis for future scenario evaluations. Accordingly, this report provides the following: (1) general information and data on the nature of water resources present within the Pasco Basin; (2) a description of present and, to the extent possible, a prediction of future use and trends; (3) speculation with respect to possible interfaces between the repository and adjacent water resources. Background information describes the setting of the Pasco Basin with respect to the physical and socioeconomic resources present. Uses of the water resource, with particular regard to industrial, agricultural, municipal, recreational, and river barging and transportation are described, and a matrix serves to show the existing administrative structure. For the groundwater system, three scenarios were evaluated briefly: importation and application of surface water for irrigation, excessive discharge from wells, and subsidence related to dewatering. In conclusion, it was determined that intrusion into the deeper groundwater systems within the Wanapum Basalt for well development is a foremost consideration with respect to scenarios involving contaminant release to the biosphere

  6. Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources: Arkoma Basin, Kansas Basins, and Midcontinent Rift Basin study areas: Chapter F in Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buursink, Marc L.; Craddock, William H.; Blondes, Madalyn S.; Freeman, Phillip A.; Cahan, Steven M.; DeVera, Christina A.; Lohr, Celeste D.

    2013-01-01

    2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (Public Law 110–140) directs the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to conduct a national assessment of potential geologic storage resources for carbon dioxide (CO2). The methodology used by the USGS for the national CO2 assessment follows that of previous USGS work. This methodology is non-economic and intended to be used at regional to subbasinal scales. This report identifies and contains geologic descriptions of three storage assessment units (SAUs) in Upper Cambrian to Mississippian sedimentary rocks within the Arkoma Basin study area, and two SAUs in Upper Cambrian to Mississippian sedimentary rocks within the Kansas Basins study area. The Arkoma Basin and Kansas Basins are adjacent with very similar geologic units; although the Kansas Basins area is larger, the Arkoma Basin is more structurally complex. The report focuses on the characteristics, specified in the methodology, that influence the potential CO2 storage resource in the SAUs. Specific descriptions of the SAU boundaries as well as their sealing and reservoir units are included. Properties for each SAU, such as depth to top, gross thickness, porosity, permeability, groundwater quality, and structural reservoir traps, are usually provided to illustrate geologic factors critical to the assessment. Although assessment results are not contained in this report, the geologic information herein was employed, as specified in the USGS methodology, to calculate a probabilistic distribution of potential storage resources in each SAU. The Midcontinent Rift Basin study area was not assessed, because no suitable storage formations meeting our size, depth, reservoir quality, and regional seal guidelines were found. Figures in this report show study area boundaries along with the SAU boundaries and cell maps of well penetrations through sealing units into the top of the storage formations. The cell maps show the number of penetrating wells within one-square mile and are

  7. Atomic mineral speciation in Cuddapah Basin and its environs (India): genetic implications for uranium mineralisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies reveal that in syngenetically-mineralised (widespread) Neoarchaean to Palaeoproterozoic basement granitoids, the primary uranium minerals (PUMs) are uranium oxide (uraninite), uranium-silicate (coffinite), and uranium titanium oxide (brannerite), whereas, the (remobilised) secondary uranium minerals (SUMs) have only three species: (i) hydrous oxide hydrate (ianthinite and masuyite), (ii) silicate (uranophane, beta-uranophane, and kasolite), and (iii) phosphate (hydrogen-autunite, metaautunite, and meta-uranocircite), besides a solitary occurrence of arsenate hydrate (metazeunerite) in a fracture zone. Interestingly, thorium and rare-earth element (REE) mineral occurrences are also widespread though with limited speciations. Syngenetic thorium and REE mineral species are phosphate (monazite and xenotime) and silicate (thorite and chevkinite). Furthermore, niobium-tantalum mineral phases, with occasional occurrences in pegmatitic phases within the basement granitoids, are exemplified by columbite-tantalite, samarskite, microlite, and euxenite. In the Nellore schist belt, restricted species of uranium minerals have been noted: oxide (uraninite) and silicate (uranophane and beta-uranophane), whereas, the REE phase is chevkinite. Considerable speciations of rare-metal, rare-earth, and thorium minerals are noted in the younger granite

  8. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Azov-Kuban Basin Province, Ukraine and Russia, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, T.R.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, using a geology-based assessment methodology, estimated mean volumes of technically recoverable, conventional, undiscovered petroleum resources at 218 million barrels of crude oil, 4.1 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 94 million barrels of natural gas liquids for the Azov-Kuban Basin Province as part of a program to estimate petroleum resources for priority basins throughout the world.

  9. Mineral resources accounting: A technique formonitoring the Philippine mining industry for sustainable development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Teodoro M.; Zaratan, May L.

    Mining which extracts exhaustible mineral resources has been condemned by certain sectors as promoting social inequity and underdevelopment. This is so because once a tonne of copper, say, is mined it is forever lost to the future generation. Such perception translates into policies that are usually disadvantageous or even hostile to the industry. Despite this adverse criticism, recent developments in natural resources accounting indicate that mining can truly contribute to the sustainable economic development of a society. True worth of mining in economic development can be assessed and monitored on a continuing basis through an appropriate system of natural accounts (SNA). If the industry is found deficient, such SNA can also point out how the industry can be made to constribute to sustainable growth. The prevailing SNA is criticized as having failed to capture the adverse effects on the welfare of society of producing a nonrenewable resource such as minerals. For instance, the production of copper for a particular year registers an increase in gross national product equivalent to its monetary value. However, the concomitant depletion of the country's natural wealth due to such production is nowhere recorded in the SNA. This faulty accounting gives rise to policies that result in nonsustainable economic growth. In order to address the preceding problem, this paper presents an accounting formula applicable to any nonrenewable resource whereby revenue is decomposed into income and capital components. To achieve sustainable economic growth, it states that the capital component must be invested to generate future incomes. However, investments need not be confined to the same sector. Application of the accounting scheme to the Philippine copper and gold sectors during the 1980-1990 period leads to the following conclusions: (a) by and large, gold and copper mining operations have indeed contributed positively to national income, contrary to allegations of certain

  10. Impact of Climate Change on Groundwater Resources in the Klela Basin, Southern Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adama Toure

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Investigations of groundwater resources in order to understand aquifer system behavior are vital to the inhabitants of the Klela Basin, Mali, because groundwater is the only permanent water resource and is used for drinking water and irrigation. Due to climate change, this vital resource is being threatened. Therefore, MODFLOW was applied in this study to simulate groundwater dynamics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of climate change on groundwater resources in the Klela basin using the RCP4.5 (Representative Concentration Scenario 4.5 W/m2 climate scenario. Climatological, geological, hydrogeological, hydraulic and demographic data were collected and used as model input data. Groundwater recharge was estimated to be approximately 165.3 mm/year using the EARTH (Extended model for Aquifer Recharge and soil moisture Transport through the unsaturated Hardrock model. Recharge was then used as groundwater model input. The sandstone aquifer in the study area was simulated in steady and transient conditions. The results showed that hydraulic conductivity values varied from 1.1 to 13.9 m/day. The model was used for scenario quantification after model calibration and verification using three different piezometer data sets. The results of the simulated MODFLOW model showed a decrease in groundwater levels over time.

  11. Geographical Information System, to support the management of water resource in rural basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The implementation of a GIS support system for the management of water resources at a catchment scale is presented. This system is based upon the hidroSIG java software, which was developed within the Atlas Hidrologico de Colombia project. In the GIS database was included all the information required by the environmental authorities in charge of the water resources management, offering the possibility of displaying, consulting and evaluating different scenarios that could help to make decisions upon the assignation and use of the resource. As a first application of the GIS, a 35 km2 river basin located in Rionegro Plateau was used. The applied methodology was developed in the following stages: gathering of the available information, processing of the digital topography, study of the dynamics of the climate in the zone, evaluation of the water availability, and evaluation of the demand and water balance. The results obtained show the importance of having continuous and articulated spatial information in a GIS, so permanent update of the information is allowed. It is concluded that the implemented GIS constitutes a valuable tool for planning and management of the hydric resource within a hydrographic basin

  12. Water Resources Data - Texas Water Year 2000, Volume 4. Colorado River Basin, Lavaca River Basin, and Intervening Coastal Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandara, S.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Barbie, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2000 water year for Texas are presented in six volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water-quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 4 contains records for water discharge at 58 gaging stations; stage only at 2 gaging stations; stage and contents at 14 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 30 gaging stations; and data for 13 partial-record stations comprised of 5 flood-hydrograph, 5 low-flow, 1 crest-stage, and 2 miscellaneous stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  13. Water Resources Data - Texas Water Year 1999, Volume 4. Colorado River Basin, Lavaca River Basin, and Intervening Coastal Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandara, S.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Barbie, D.L.; Jones, R.E.

    2000-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1999 water year for Texas are presented in six volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water-quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 4 contains records for water discharge at 61 gaging stations; stage only at 1 gaging station; stage and contents at 11 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 30 gaging stations; and data for 13 partial-record stations comprised of 6 flood-hydrograph, 5 low-flow, and 2 miscellaneous stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic datacollection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  14. Adaptation to changing water resources in the Ganges basin, northern India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ensemble of regional climate model (RCM) runs from the EU HighNoon project are used to project future air temperatures and precipitation on a 25 km grid for the Ganges basin in northern India, with a view to assessing impact of climate change on water resources and determining what multi-sector adaptation measures and policies might be adopted at different spatial scales. The RCM results suggest an increase in mean annual temperature, averaged over the Ganges basin, in the range 1-4 oC over the period from 2000 to 2050, using the SRES A1B forcing scenario. Projections of precipitation indicate that natural variability dominates the climate change signal and there is considerable uncertainty concerning change in regional annual mean precipitation by 2050. The RCMs do suggest an increase in annual mean precipitation in this region to 2050, but lack significant trend. Glaciers in headwater tributary basins of the Ganges appear to be continuing to decline but it is not clear whether meltwater runoff continues to increase. The predicted changes in precipitation and temperature will probably not lead to significant increase in water availability to 2050, but the timing of runoff from snowmelt will likely occur earlier in spring and summer. Water availability is subject to decadal variability, with much uncertainty in the contribution from climate change. Although global social-economic scenarios show trends to urbanization, locally these trends are less evident and in some districts rural population is increasing. Falling groundwater levels in the Ganges plain may prevent expansion of irrigated areas for food supply. Changes in socio-economic development in combination with projected changes in timing of runoff outside the monsoon period will make difficult choices for water managers. Because of the uncertainty in future water availability trends, decreasing vulnerability by augmenting resilience is the preferred way to adapt to climate change. Adaptive policies are

  15. Heavy-mineral criteria for subsurface uranium exploration, San Juan Basin, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Phillips Petroleum Company's Nose Rock deposit, uranium occurs in a series of roll-front deposits in now largely reduced rock. Mineralogical data support geological evidence that the oxidizing ground-water regime that prevailed during active migration of the roll fronts was replaced by a reducing ground-water regime. This reducing event halted roll-front migration and generally obliterated macroscopic evidence of oxidation. Diagenetic heavy-mineral assemblages have survived the reducing event and reflect the geochemical environment in which they formed. Consequently, diagnostic heavy-mineral assemblages can be used to identify geochemical zones associated with roll-front mineralization in reduced ground. A field trial based on the heavy-mineral composition of drill cuttings demonstrated that mineralogical criteria can provide a reliable means of recognizing stratigraphic horizons that were traversed by roll-front systems

  16. Kinematic indicators and mineralization on the Elgoibar faul (Basque-Cantabrian Basin)

    OpenAIRE

    Agirrezabala, Luis Miguel; García Mondéjar, Joaquín

    2001-01-01

    The Elgoibar fault is interpreted the western prolongation of the Leitza fault, wich has been usually considered the boundary between Iberia and Europe plates. Based on new structural data from a mineralized fault zone near Elgoibar, sinistral strike-slip faulting and synkinematic hydrothermal mineralization are inferred. Although no dating is presently available, several regional suggest a probable Late Albian-Late Cretaceous age, i.e. syn-drift of Iberia, for the tectonic and mineralizi...

  17. Comparative Aspects of Sulfur Mineralization in Sediments of a Eutrophic Lake Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Gary M King; Klug, M. J.

    1982-01-01

    The net mineralization of organic sulfur compounds in surface sediments of Wintergreen Lake was estimated from a mass-balance budget of sulfur inputs and sediment sulfur concentrations. The net mineralization of organic sulfur inputs is 80% of total sulfur) in sediment. Although sediment sulfur is predominantly organic, sulfate reduction is the most significant process in terms of the quantities of sulfur transformed in surface sediments. Rates of sulfate reduction in these sediments average ...

  18. Age of uranium mineralization at the Highland mine, Powder River Basin, Wyoming, as indicated by U-Pb isotope analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most of the uranium deposits in the Powder River basin occur at various stratigraphic levels in the Wasatch Formation of Eocene age, but pollen and spores found in the Highland mine host rocks indicate that the deposits here may be in the upper part of the Fort Union Formation of Paleocene age. Analyses of U-Pb isotopes in several samples of ore from the Highland mine were made in order to compare the apparent age of mineralization of this deposit with that of host rocks of equivalent age at Gas Hills, Crooks Gap, and Shirley basin, Wyoming. The samples used for age determinations were collected in the southernmost of a series of open pit mines and in the uppermost of the three host units. All samples contain only reduced uranium minerals which are mainly coprecipitated mixtures of pitchblende and coffinite. Sample EP17-7 consists of ore at the boundary with oxidized yellow sandstone and sample EP17-8 of ore 6 m (20 ft) from the interface with oxidized sandstone. Sample J represents calcite-cemented ore from a thin zone at the base of the upper host sandstone unit (lower limb ore). The others are randomly selected grab samples of mineralized material in the ore deposit at the same level as EP-17-7. With the exception of sample J, all samples were collected from exposures of ore on the pit floor 60 m (200 ft) below the original land surface and at an elevation of 5,060 feet. Sample J came from the pit floor at an elevation of about 5,040 ft

  19. The Indus basin in the framework of current and future water resources management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laghari, A. N.; Vanham, D.; Rauch, W.

    2012-04-01

    The Indus basin is one of the regions in the world that is faced with major challenges for its water sector, due to population growth, rapid urbanisation and industrialisation, environmental degradation, unregulated utilization of the resources, inefficient water use and poverty, all aggravated by climate change. The Indus Basin is shared by 4 countries - Pakistan, India, Afghanistan and China. With a current population of 237 million people which is projected to increase to 319 million in 2025 and 383 million in 2050, already today water resources are abstracted almost entirely (more than 95% for irrigation). Climate change will result in increased water availability in the short term. However in the long term water availability will decrease. Some current aspects in the basin need to be re-evaluated. During the past decades water abstractions - and especially groundwater extractions - have augmented continuously to support a rice-wheat system where rice is grown during the kharif (wet, summer) season (as well as sugar cane, cotton, maize and other crops) and wheat during the rabi (dry, winter) season. However, the sustainability of this system in its current form is questionable. Additional water for domestic and industrial purposes is required for the future and should be made available by a reduction in irrigation requirements. This paper gives a comprehensive listing and description of available options for current and future sustainable water resources management (WRM) within the basin. Sustainable WRM practices include both water supply management and water demand management options. Water supply management options include: (1) reservoir management as the basin is characterised by a strong seasonal behaviour in water availability (monsoon and meltwater) and water demands; (2) water quality conservation and investment in wastewater infrastructure; (3) the use of alternative water resources like the recycling of wastewater and desalination; (4) land use

  20. The Indus basin in the framework of current and future water resources management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Laghari

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Indus basin is one of the regions in the world that is faced with major challenges for its water sector, due to population growth, rapid urbanisation and industrialisation, environmental degradation, unregulated utilization of the resources, inefficient water use and poverty, all aggravated by climate change. The Indus Basin is shared by 4 countries – Pakistan, India, Afghanistan and China. With a current population of 237 million people which is projected to increase to 319 million in 2025 and 383 million in 2050, already today water resources are abstracted almost entirely (more than 95% for irrigation. Climate change will result in increased water availability in the short term. However in the long term water availability will decrease. Some current aspects in the basin need to be re-evaluated. During the past decades water abstractions – and especially groundwater extractions – have augmented continuously to support a rice-wheat system where rice is grown during the kharif (wet, summer season (as well as sugar cane, cotton, maize and other crops and wheat during the rabi (dry, winter season. However, the sustainability of this system in its current form is questionable. Additional water for domestic and industrial purposes is required for the future and should be made available by a reduction in irrigation requirements. This paper gives a comprehensive listing and description of available options for current and future sustainable water resources management (WRM within the basin. Sustainable WRM practices include both water supply management and water demand management options. Water supply management options include: (1 reservoir management as the basin is characterised by a strong seasonal behaviour in water availability (monsoon and meltwater and water demands; (2 water quality conservation and investment in wastewater infrastructure; (3 the use of alternative water resources like the recycling of wastewater and desalination; (4

  1. Water accounting for stressed river basins based on water resources management models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro-Monzonís, María; Solera, Abel; Ferrer, Javier; Andreu, Joaquín; Estrela, Teodoro

    2016-09-15

    Water planning and the Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) represent the best way to help decision makers to identify and choose the most adequate alternatives among other possible ones. The System of Environmental-Economic Accounting for Water (SEEA-W) is displayed as a tool for the building of water balances in a river basin, providing a standard approach to achieve comparability of the results between different territories. The target of this paper is to present the building up of a tool that enables the combined use of hydrological models and water resources models to fill in the SEEA-W tables. At every step of the modelling chain, we are capable to build the asset accounts and the physical water supply and use tables according to SEEA-W approach along with an estimation of the water services costs. The case study is the Jucar River Basin District (RBD), located in the eastern part of the Iberian Peninsula in Spain which as in other many Mediterranean basins is currently water-stressed. To guide this work we have used PATRICAL model in combination with AQUATOOL Decision Support System (DSS). The results indicate that for the average year the total use of water in the district amounts to 15,143hm(3)/year, being the Total Water Renewable Water Resources 3909hm(3)/year. On the other hand, the water service costs in Jucar RBD amounts to 1634 million € per year at constant 2012 prices. It is noteworthy that 9% of these costs correspond to non-conventional resources, such as desalinated water, reused water and water transferred from other regions. PMID:27161139

  2. 3&4D Geomodeling Applied to Mineral Resources Exploration - A New Tool for Targeting Deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Jean-Jacques; Mejia, Pablo; Caumon, Guillaume; Collon-Drouaillet, Pauline

    2013-04-01

    3 & 4D geomodeling, a computer method for reconstituting the past deformation history of geological formations, has been used in oil and gas exploration for more than a decade for reconstituting fluid migration. It begins nowadays to be applied for exploring with new eyes old mature mining fields and new prospects. We describe shortly the 3&4D geomodeling basic notions, concepts, and methodology when applied to mineral resources assessment and modeling ore deposits, pointing out the advantages, recommendations and limitations, together with new challenges they rise. Several 3D GeoModels of mining explorations selected across Europe will be presented as illustrative case studies which have been achieved during the EU FP7 ProMine research project. It includes: (i) the Cu-Au porphyry deposits in the Hellenic Belt (Greece); (ii) the VMS in the Iberian Pyrite Belt including the Neves Corvo deposit (Portugal) and (iii) the sediment-hosted polymetallic Cu-Ag (Au, PGE) Kupferschiefer ore deposit in the Foresudetic Belt (Poland). In each case full 3D models using surfaces and regular grid (Sgrid) were built from all dataset available from exploration and exploitation including geological primary maps, 2D seismic cross-sections, and boreholes. The level of knowledge may differ from one site to another however those 3D resulting models were used to pilot additional field and exploration works. In the case of the Kupferschiefer, a sequential restoration-decompaction (4D geomodeling) from the Upper Permian to Cenozoic was conducted in the Lubin- Sieroszowice district of Poland. The results help in better understanding the various superimposed mineralization events which occurred through time in this copper deposit. A hydro-fracturing index was then calculated from the estimated overpressures during a Late Cretaceous-Early Paleocene up-lifting, and seems to correlate with the copper content distribution in the ore-series. These results are in agreement with an Early Paleocene

  3. Triassic fluid mobilization and epigenetic lead-zinc sulphide mineralization in the Transdanubian Shear Zone (Pannonian Basin, Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benkó Zsolt

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A combined fluid inclusion, fluid inclusion plane, lead isotope and K/Ar radiometric age dating work has been carried out on two lead-zinc mineralizations situated along the Periadriatic-Balaton Lineament in the central part of the Pannonian Basin, in order to reveal their age and genetics as well as temporal-spatial relationships to other lead-zincfluorite mineralization in the Alp-Carpathian region. According to fluid inclusion studies, the formation of the quartzfluorite- galena-sphalerite veins in the Velence Mts is the result of mixing of low (0-12 NaCl equiv. wt. % and high salinity (10-26 CaCl2 equiv. wt. % brines. Well-crystallized (R3-type illite associated with the mineralized hydrothermal veins indicates that the maximum temperature of the hydrothermal fluids could have been around 250 °C. K/Ar radiometric ages of illite, separated from the hydrothermal veins provided ages of 209-232 Ma, supporting the Mid- to Late-Triassic age of the hydrothermal fluid flow. Fluid inclusion plane studies have revealed that hydrothermal circulation was regional in the granite, but more intensive around the mineralized zones. Lead isotope signatures of hydrothermal veins in the Velence Mts (206Pb/204Pb = 18.278-18.363, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.622-15.690 and 208Pb/204Pb = 38.439-38.587 and in Szabadbattyán (206Pb/204Pb = 18.286-18.348, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.667-15.736 and 208Pb/204Pb = 38.552-38.781 form a tight cluster indicating similar, upper crustal source of the lead in the two mineralizations. The nature of mineralizing fluids, age of the fluid flow, as well as lead isotopic signatures of ore minerals point towards a genetic link between epigenetic carbonate-hosted stratiform-stratabound Alpine-type lead-zinc-fluorite deposits in the Southern and Eastern Alps and the studied deposits in the Velence Mts and at Szabadbattyán. In spite of the differences in host rocks and the depth of the ore precipitation, it is suggested that the studied deposits along the

  4. Geology and industrial mineral resources of the Macon-Gordon Kaolin District, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buie, Bennett Frank; Hetrick, J.H.; Patterson, S.H.; Neeley, C.L.

    1979-01-01

    The Macon-Gordon kaolin district is about 80 miles (130 km) southeast of Atlanta, Georgia. It extends across the boundary between, and includes parts of, the Piedmont and Atlantic Coastal Plain physiographic provinces. The rocks in the Piedmont are mainly intensely folded sericite schist and granite gneiss containing irregular masses of amphibolite and feldspathic biotite gneiss and scattered igneous intrusive rocks. Most of the crystalline rocks are thought to be of Paleozoic age, but some of the intrusive rocks may be younger. The crystalline rocks are cut by a major unconformity and are overlain by sedimentary formations ranging in age from Cretaceous to Miocene. The valuable kaolin deposits occur in the Cretaceous beds, undivided, and in the Huber Formation which is of Paleocene to middle Eocene age. The resources of kaolin in the district are estimated in millions of metric tons as follows: reserves, 100; subeconomic resources, 700 to 900; undiscovered resources, probably 700 to 1,000. In addition to kaolin, the leading mineral commodity mined in the district, crushed stone and sand are now being produced, and fuller's earth and a minor amount of limestone were formerly produced. The crushed stone is quarried from igneous rocks in the Piedmont province. The sand is washed from the Cretaceous beds, undivided. The fuller's earth was mined from the Twiggs Clay Member of the Barnwell Formation, and limestone was dug from the Tivola Limestone.

  5. Clays of volcanic – detrititus strata of North the Bohemian coal basin as a raw material for the preparation of natural mineral pigments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Rucký

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Raw materials which are suitable for the preparation of mineral pigments are found in the area of the North Bohemian brown coal basin. Set Experiments on a hydrocyclone were realized as a part of the technological research of the suitability of “bolus” and ochres from the North Bohemian brown coal basin to be applicated as ecological pigments. It was found that this method of processing is suitable for the preparation of the product which can serve as a mineral pigment. Produced pigments were examined concerning their application in the area of paint pigments with a positive result.

  6. Opaque minerals as keys for distinguishing oxidising and reducing diagenetic conditions in the Lower Triassic Bunter Sandstone, North German Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weibel, R.; Friis, H.

    2004-07-01

    The diagenetic evolution in red and white/drab parts of the Bunter Sandstone from outcrops and wells in the North German Basin was unraveled by a detailed petrographical, mineralogical, and chemical study. The diagenetic sequences for the red and white/drab parts differ in the degree of alteration of iron-bearing detrital minerals and in the authigenic opaque minerals. In the white/drab parts, one typically sees reduction of red mica, dissolution of hematite and magnetite, and alteration of ilmenite and titanomagnetite to leucoxene. In contrast, the red parts commonly display oxidation of glauconite; red zonation in ooids; hematisation of magnetite, biotite, and magnetite host in titanomagnetite; and leucoxene replacement of the ilmenite lamellae in titanomagnetite. The red colour of the red bed host is due to red coatings of goethite needles and/or hematite needles. Goethite needles precipitated in the prevailing oxidising conditions, present shortly after deposition, whereas pseudomorphous replacement by hematite occurred during the burial process. The white/drab colour of the reduced areas is the original colour of the sediment. The black core in reduction spots is due to mineralization. Uranium and vanadium minerals (coffinite, montroseite, and V-illite) in reduction spots are located close to carbonate fragments, which probably contained organic matter. Isolated reduction spots may have formed immediately after deposition; inside these were clasts eroded from algal mats formed in the sabkha environment. The copper minerals typically occur in areas with high porosity, reflecting the importance of access to chloride-rich brines, which transported dissolved copper. When these brines reached reducing environments, chalcocite and chalcopyrite were precipitated, possibly by replacement of pyrite. In the red areas, these saline brines may also have promoted the second-stage alteration of ilmenite, in which leucoxene, the first-stage alteration product, was

  7. Natural cultural, and environmental resource values influencing Colorado River Basin management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Colorado River Basin supplies water to the seven western states of Wyoming, Colorado, Utah, Arizona, New Mexico, Nevada, and California, and to Mexico. Originally the Colorado River was developed to help settle the semiarid lands in the west by means of irrigation. Other uses soon evolved for power generation, flood control, domestic and industrial supply, recreation, and fish and wildlife protection. Several large dams and reservoirs can store four times the natural flow of 18.5 GM3 per year. The Federal Government owns over half the lands within the Basin. Management agencies include the National Park, and Fish and Wildlife Services, and the Bureaus of Indian Affairs, Land Management, and Reclamation. Since 1991, agencies are cooperating to understand and manage multiple purposes that include protection of natural, cultural, recreational, and environmental resources, and endangered species for the enjoyment and use by future generations

  8. Geothermal Resource Analysis and Structure of Basin and Range Systems, Especially Dixie Valley Geothermal Field, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Blackwell; Kenneth Wisian; Maria Richards; Mark Leidig; Richard Smith; Jason McKenna

    2003-08-14

    Publish new thermal and drill data from the Dizie Valley Geothermal Field that affect evaluation of Basin and Range Geothermal Resources in a very major and positive way. Completed new geophysical surveys of Dizie Valley including gravity and aeromagnetics and integrated the geophysical, seismic, geological and drilling data at Dizie Valley into local and regional geologic models. Developed natural state mass and energy transport fluid flow models of generic Basin and Range systems based on Dizie Valley data that help to understand the nature of large scale constraints on the location and characteristics of the geothermal systems. Documented a relation between natural heat loss for geothermal and electrical power production potential and determined heat flow for 27 different geothermal systems. Prepared data set for generation of a new geothermal map of North American including industry data totaling over 25,000 points in the US alone.

  9. Designing the deep basin development entity : drawing and expanding the boundaries of DE number 2 for enhanced exploitation of Alberta's deep basin tight gas resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, B. [Petrel Robertson Consulting Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Conrad, L.; Daniel, S. [EnCana Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada); Dahlin, A. [Shell Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation examined the feasibility of expanding the boundaries of Deep Basin Development Entity (DE no.2) for enhanced exploitation of Alberta's deep basin tight gas resource. Specifically it presented a review of the development history of the basin and summarized the technical understanding of DE no.2. The presentation also emphasized the success of a collaborative process for regulatory change between the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers and the Energy Resources Conservation Board. The DE no. 2 is located in the western flank of the western Canada Sedimentary Basin. It facilitates commingling of multiple stacked sands and reduces the regulatory requirements for drilling and completion programs. It was expanded in 2009 to include 464 townships. Gas resource mapping was discussed for several areas and an example was illustrated for the Cadomin Formation, with particular reference to the net porous sand isopach; average porosity; gas saturation; temperature; reservoir pressure; and resource density. The future of DE no. 2 has been identified as one of the priority areas for Alberta regulatory review as that it holds 400 TCF of resource potential. tabs., figs.

  10. Assessment of Appalachian Basin Oil and Gas Resources: Utica-Lower Paleozoic Total Petroleum System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Robert T.

    2008-01-01

    The Utica-Lower Paleozoic Total Petroleum System (TPS) is an important TPS identified in the 2002 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas resources in the Appalachian basin province (Milici and others, 2003). The TPS is named for the Upper Ordovician Utica Shale, which is the primary source rock, and for multiple lower Paleozoic sandstone and carbonate units that are the important reservoirs. Upper Cambrian through Upper Silurian petroleum-bearing strata that constitute the Utica-Lower Paleozoic TPS thicken eastward from about 2,700 ft at the western margin of the Appalachian basin to about 12,000 ft at the thrust-faulted eastern margin of the Appalachian basin. The Utica-Lower Paleozoic TPS covers approximately 170,000 mi2 of the Appalachian basin from northeastern Tennessee to southeastern New York and from central Ohio to eastern West Virginia. The boundary of the TPS is defined by the following geologic features: (1) the northern boundary (from central Ontario to northeastern New York) extends along the outcrop limit of the Utica Shale-Trenton Limestone; (2) the northeastern boundary (from southeastern New York, through southeastern Pennsylvania-western Maryland-easternmost West Virginia, to northern Virginia) extends along the eastern limit of the Utica Shale-Trenton Limestone in the thrust-faulted eastern margin of the Appalachian basin; (3) the southeastern boundary (from west-central and southwestern Virginia to eastern Tennessee) extends along the eastern limit of the Trenton Limestone in the thrust-faulted eastern margin of the Appalachian basin; (4) the southwestern boundary (from eastern Tennessee, through eastern Kentucky, to southwestern Ohio) extends along the approximate facies change from the Trenton Limestone with thin black shale interbeds (on the east) to the equivalent Lexington Limestone without black shale interbeds (on the west); (5) the northern part of the boundary in southwestern Ohio

  11. The parasitoids of the asparagus miner (Diptera: Agromyzidae): field parasitism and the influence of food resources on life history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, William R; Gibson, Gary A P; Szendrei, Zsofia

    2014-12-01

    The goals of this study were to identify pupal parasitoids of the asparagus miner, Ophiomyia simplex Loew (Diptera: Agromyzidae), and examine the effect of different diets and floral resources on the lifespan of adult asparagus miners and their parasitoids. We also measured the effect of parasitism on stem damage caused by the asparagus miner. The identity and abundance of the parasitoids of the asparagus miner were determined in asparagus fields in Michigan from weekly asparagus miner pupal collections during the 2010-2013 seasons. Twelve species of hymenopterous parasitoids were reared from asparagus miner pupae, including Chorebus rondanii (Giard) (Ichneumonoidea: Braconidae), 10 species in three families of Chalcidoidea, and one species of Bethylidae (Chrysidoidea), that represent new host records for the asparagus miner. C. rondanii and Thinodytes cephalon (Walker) (Pteromalidae) were the most common parasitoids. The effects of different diets and flowers on the lifespan of the pest and parasitoid adults were also evaluated. Buckwheat resulted in the shortest life span for the asparagus miner, whereas Riddell's goldenrod significantly increased its lifespan relative to the control. Parasitoid lifespan was doubled when individuals were fed sugar-rich diets. In the field, parasitoids preferred stems that contained more pupae and damage. The two most commonly reared parasitoids should be considered as targets for future conservation biological control efforts of the asparagus miner. PMID:25313948

  12. Water resources of the Black Sea Basin at high spatial and temporal resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouholahnejad, Elham; Abbaspour, Karim C.; Srinivasan, Raghvan; Bacu, Victor; Lehmann, Anthony

    2014-07-01

    The pressure on water resources, deteriorating water quality, and uncertainties associated with the climate change create an environment of conflict in large and complex river system. The Black Sea Basin (BSB), in particular, suffers from ecological unsustainability and inadequate resource management leading to severe environmental, social, and economical problems. To better tackle the future challenges, we used the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to model the hydrology of the BSB coupling water quantity, water quality, and crop yield components. The hydrological model of the BSB was calibrated and validated considering sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. River discharges, nitrate loads, and crop yields were used to calibrate the model. Employing grid technology improved calibration computation time by more than an order of magnitude. We calculated components of water resources such as river discharge, infiltration, aquifer recharge, soil moisture, and actual and potential evapotranspiration. Furthermore, available water resources were calculated at subbasin spatial and monthly temporal levels. Within this framework, a comprehensive database of the BSB was created to fill the existing gaps in water resources data in the region. In this paper, we discuss the challenges of building a large-scale model in fine spatial and temporal detail. This study provides the basis for further research on the impacts of climate and land use change on water resources in the BSB.

  13. Lung cancer in uranium miners: A tissue resource and pilot study. Progress report, September 25, 1992 - May 31, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project involves two related activities directed toward understanding respiratory carcinogenesis in radon-exposed former uranium miners. The first activity involves a continuation of the tissue resource of lung cancer cases from former underground uranium miners and comparison cases from non-miners. The second activity is a pilot study for a proposed longitudinal study of respiratory carcinogenesis in former uranium miners. The objectives are to facilitate the investigation of molecular changes in radon exposed lung cancer cases and to develop methods for prospectively studying clinical, cytologic, cytogenetic, and molecular changes in the multi-event process of respiratory carcinogenesis, and to assess the feasibility of recruiting former uranium miners into a longitudinal study that collects multiple biologic specimens

  14. Integrated Assessment of Mineral Resources and Environment in Mid-South of Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    On the bases of the field survey and a large number of testing data, we process the qualitative and quantitative assessment of the mine environment in the mid-south of Shandong Province using the following grade- I factors:the surface subsidence in mining area, the three wastes of mine industries, the pollution sources, the surface water pollution, the underground water pollution and the air pollution. By means of emitting factor judgment and water quality indexes, we locate pollution sources, main pollutants, pollution type and pollution grade in the study area. Using the MAPGIS, we draw a zonality map of the mine environment. This paper attempts to offer a concrete example, including valuable assessment method, data and conclusion, for the assessment of mine environment from the integrated assessment of mineral resources and mine environment.This research is oriented towards the sustainable development and the ecological environment optimization.

  15. Who owns the Moon? extraterrestrial aspects of land and mineral resources ownership

    CERN Document Server

    Pop, Virgiliu

    2008-01-01

    This work investigates the permissibility and viability of property rights on the celestial bodies, particularly the extraterrestrial aspects of land and mineral resources ownership. In lay terms, it aims to find an answer to the question "Who owns the Moon?" After critically analyzing and dismantling with legal arguments the trivial issue of sale of extraterrestrial real estate, the book addresses the apparent silence of the law in the field of landed property in outer space, scrutinizing whether the factual situation on the extraterrestrial realms calls for legal regulations. The legal status of asteroids and the relationship between appropriation under international law and civil law appropriation are duly examined, as well as different property patterns – such as the commons regime, the Common Heritage of the Mankind, and the Frontier paradigm. Virgiliu Pop is one of world's specialists in the area of space property rights. A member of the International Institute of Space Law, Virgiliu has authored seve...

  16. Application of GIS to Geo-anomaly-Based Delineation of Mineral Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, the Dongchuan-type copper deposits are taken as an example to illustrate the application of GIS to the geo-anomaly-based delineation of mineral resources. The following eight steps are listed in this paper to delineate the permissive and preferable ore-finding areas: (1) the analysis of favorable prospecting index using linear and planar geo-anomalies; (2) the analysis of favorable prospecting index using combined anomalies; (3) the construction of a GIS-based spatial model for mineral prognosis; (4) the delineation of the permissive ore-finding area; (5) the determination of the synthetic anomalies and numerical range for the prediction of the favorable prospecting areas, and the determination of the weights of these two variables; (6) the superimposition of all the selected anomalies and the construction of the superimposition map; (7) the determination of unifying criterion of favorable prospective areas at various levels, and (8) the delineation of favorable prospective areas. Finally, this paper offers a detailed discussion of the results in the forecasting of Dongchuan-type copper deposits.

  17. Mineral resources of the Precambrian shiled of central West Greenland (66 deg. to 70 deg. 15'N). Part 2. Mineral occurrences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stendal, H.; Moeller Nielsen, B.; Secher, K.; Steenfelt, A.

    2004-07-01

    This report forms part of an assessment of the mineral resource potential of central West Greenland conducted by the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland 2000-2003. It presents the principles applied in classifying and describing 160 compiled mineral occurrences from the region as well as an evaluation of the mineral resource potential. The assessed region is underlain by an Archaean basement of tonalitic orthogneisses with intercalated supracrustal belts representing both continental and volcanic arc environments. The basement has been variably reworked during the Palaeoproterozoic Nagssugtoqidian collisional orogen and has been intruded by minor volumes of arc-related magmas in the core zone of the orogen. There are no mines in the region, and previous production has been limited to graphite. Many mineral showings have been recorded by commercial companies and the Survey during exploration since the 1960s, but none have so far become economically feasible. Most of the known occurrences are located in supracrustal belts and comprise banded ironformation, semi-massive to massive sulphides, together with syn- and epigenetic gold and copper. Pyrochlore and diamonds are found within a 0.6 Ga old carbonatite-kimberlite province and some pegmatites are rich in monazite. Based on the abundance, spatial distribution, size, grade, age and genesis of the mineral occurrences it is concluded that the following types of mineral occurrences have a potential for becoming economically feasible: 1) Syn- and epigenetic gold in Archaean supracrustal rocks. 2) Graphite in Palaeoproterozoic supracrustal rocks. 3) Speciality metals in carbonatite. 4) Diamonds in kimberlitic dykes. (au)

  18. Assessment of undiscovered sandstone copper deposits of the Kodar-Udokan area, Russia: Chapter M in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zientek, Michael L.; Chechetkin, Vladimir S.; Parks, Heather L.; Box, Stephen E.; Briggs, Deborah A.; Cossette, Pamela M.; Dolgopolova, Alla; Hayes, Timothy S.; Seltmann, Reimar; Syusyura, Boris; Taylor, Cliff D.; Wintzer, Niki E.

    2014-01-01

    Mineral resource assessments integrate and synthesize available information as a basis for estimating the location, quality, and quantity of undiscovered mineral resources. This probabilistic mineral resource assessment of undiscovered sandstone copper deposits within Paleoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks of the Kodar-Udokan area in Russia is a contribution to a global assessment led by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The purposes of this study are to (1) delineate permissive areas (tracts) to indicate where undiscovered sandstone-hosted copper deposits may occur within 2 km of the surface, (2) provide a database of known sandstone copper deposits and significant prospects, (3) estimate numbers of undiscovered deposits within these permissive tracts at several levels of confidence, and (4) provide probabilistic estimates of amounts of copper (Cu) and mineralized rock that could be contained in undiscovered deposits within each tract. The workshop for the assessment, held in October 2009, used a three-part form of mineral resource assessment as described by Singer (1993) and Singer and Menzie (2010).

  19. Necessity and feasibility for an ET-based modern water resources management strategy: A case study of soil water resources in the Yellow River Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The necessity and feasibility of an ET-based modern water resources management was analyzed to improve assessment of critical water resources scarcity in the region/basin. This analysis was based on the whole water cycle process and its analysis object is evapotranspiration (ET), a main consumption component in the water resources dynamic transformation process. A case study was undertaken by selecting soil water resources in the Yellow River Basin and employing the WEP-L distributed hydrological model with physics mechanisms. This paper discusses the amount and consumption efficiency of soil-water resources according to completely simulated results of water cycle elements throughout the basin. Results indicate that it is important for the ET-based modern water resources management strategy to alleviate water resources scarcity because it may not only avoid unused water wasting but also improve water use efficiency. Therefore, an ET-based modern water resources management scheme is a good complement to the traditional water resources demand management system.

  20. Scenario analysis for integrated water resources planning and management under uncertainty in the Zayandehrud river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safavi, Hamid R.; Golmohammadi, Mohammad H.; Sandoval-Solis, Samuel

    2016-08-01

    The goal of this study is to develop and analyze three scenarios in the Zayandehrud river basin in Iran using a model already built and calibrated by Safavi et al. (2015) that has results for the baseline scenario. Results from the baseline scenario show that water demands will be supplied at the cost of depletion of surface and ground water resources, making this scenario undesirable and unsustainable. Supply Management, Demand Management, and Meta (supply and demand management) scenarios are the selected scenarios in this study. They are to be developed and declared into the Zayandehrud model to assess and evaluate the imminent status of the basin. Certain strategies will be employed for this purpose to improve and rectify the current management policies. The five performance criteria of time-based and volumetric reliability, resilience, vulnerability, and maximum deficit will be employed in the process of scenario analysis and evaluation. The results obtained from the performance criteria will be summed up into a so-called 'Water Resources Sustainability Index' to facilitate comparison among the likely trade-offs. Uncertainties arising from historical data, management policies, rainfall-runoff model, demand priorities, and performance criteria are considered in the proposed conceptual framework and modeled by appropriate approaches. Results show that the Supply Management scenario can be used to improve upon the demand supply but that it has no tangible effects on the improvement of the resources in the study region. In this regard, the Demand Management scenario is found to be more effective than the water supply one although it still remains unacceptable. Results of the Meta scenario indicate that both the supply and demand management scenarios must be applied if the water resources are to be safeguarded against degradation and depletion. In other words, the supply management scenario is necessary but not adequate; rather, it must be coupled to the demand

  1. Geology and mineral resources of the Florence, Beaufort, Rocky Mount, and Norfolk 10 x 20 NTMS quadrangles. National Uranium Resource Evaluation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides geologic and mineral resources data for previously-issued Savannah River Laboratory hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reports of the Beaufort, Florence, Norfolk, and Rocky Mount 10 x 20 National Topographic Map Series quadrangles in the southeastern United States. This report is issued in draft form, without detailed technical and copy editing. This was done to make the report available to the public before the end of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program

  2. The Basin Water Resources Management System and Its Innovation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xun; Pomponio

    2008-01-01

    Water provides the origin of human survival and prosperity,and the basic resource for the maintenance of terrestrial eco-systems,their biodiversity,productivity and ecological services.With China’s recent,rapid growth both in population and economic development,the water shortage has become one of the most constraints on its ecological restoration and socio-economic development,especially in the arid inland regions of northwest China.At first glance,this water shortage in China appears to be a resource crisis.But second,an in-depth analysis reveals that the water shortage crisis arises mainly resulting from the poor water management system and operating mechanism that cannot facilitate fair allocation and efficient utilization of water resources both regionally and nationally and thus is viewed as a crisis of water manage-ment.The solution of China’s water shortage and low-efficient utilization problem will,in particular,require a fundamen-tal and substantial reform or innovation of the existing water management system and operating mechanism.In this paper,we address explicitly the problems existed in the current water management system,explore the basic theory of water re-sources management and provide some insights into the way how to establish a river basin based integrated water re-sources management system in China.

  3. Tectonic evolution of the Anadyr Basin, northeastern Eurasia, and its petroleum resource potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antipov, M. P.; Bondarenko, G. E.; Bordovskaya, T. O.; Shipilov, E. V.

    2009-09-01

    The published data on the sedimentation conditions, structure, and tectonic evolution of the Anadyr Basin in the Mesozoic and Cenozoic are reviewed. These data are re-examined in the context of modern tectonic concepts concerning the evolution of the northwestern Circum-Pacific Belt. The re-examination allows us not only to specify the regional geology and tectonic history, but also to forecast of the petroleum resource potential of the sedimentary cover based on a new concept. The sedimentary cover formation in the Anadyr Basin is inseparably linked with the regional tectonic evolution. The considered portion of the Chukchi Peninsula developed in the Late Mesozoic at the junction of the ocean-type South Anyui Basin, the Asian continental margin, and convergent zones of various ages extending along the Asia-Pacific interface. Strike-slip faulting and pulses of extension dominated in the Cenozoic largely in connection with oroclinal bending of structural elements pertaining to northeastern Eurasia and northwestern North America against the background of accretion of terranes along the zone of convergence with the Pacific oceanic plates. Three main stages are recognized in the formation of the sedimentary cover in the Anadyr Basin. (1) The lower portion of the cover was formed in the Late Cretaceous-Early Eocene under conditions of alternating settings of passive and active continental margins. The Cenomanian-lower Eocene transitional sedimentary complex is located largely in the southern Anadyr Basin (Main River and Lagoonal troughs). (2) In the middle Eocene and Oligocene, sedimentation proceeded against the background of extension and rifting in the northern part of the paleobasin and compression in its southern part. The compression was caused by northward migration of the foredeep in front of the accretionary Koryak Orogen. The maximum thickness of the Eocene-Oligocene sedimentary complex is noted mainly in the southern part of the basin and in the Central and

  4. Resource Assessment of the In-Place and Potentially Recoverable Deep Natural Gas Resource of the Onshore Interior Salt Basins, North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini; Donald A. Goddard

    2004-10-28

    The objectives of the study are: to perform resource assessment of the in-place deep (>15,000 ft) natural gas resource of the onshore interior salt basins of the North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas through petroleum system identification, characterization and modeling and to use the petroleum system based resource assessment to estimate the volume of the in-place deep gas resource that is potentially recoverable and to identify those areas in the interior salt basins with high potential to recover commercial quantities of the deep gas resource. The principal research effort for Year 1 of the project is data compilation and petroleum system identification. The research focus for the first nine (9) months of Year 1 is on data compilation and for the remainder of the year the emphasis is on petroleum system identification.

  5. Using Stochastic Dynamic Programming to Support Water Resources Management in the Ziya River Basin, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Claus; Cardenal, Silvio Javier Pereira; Liu, Suxia;

    2015-01-01

    Water scarcity and rapid economic growth have increased the pressure on water resources and environment in Northern China, causing decreased groundwater tables, ecosystem degradation, and direct economic losses due to insufficient water supply. The authors applied the water value method, a variant...... input for the optimization model. This model was used to assess the economic impacts of ecosystem minimum flow constraints, limited groundwater pumping, and the middle route of the South–North Water Transfer Project (SNWTP). A regional climate shift has exacerbated water scarcity and increased water...... values, resulting in stricter water management. The results show that the SNWTP reduces the impacts of water scarcity and impacts optimal water management in the basin. The presented modeling framework provides an objective basis for the development of tools to avoid overpumping groundwater resources at...

  6. Resource Assessment of the In-Place and Potentially Recoverable Deep Natural Gas Resource of the Onshore Interior Salt Basins, North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini; Paul Aharon; Donald A. Goddard; Roger Barnaby

    2005-10-28

    The principal research effort for Year 2 of the project has been petroleum system characterization and modeling. Understanding the burial, thermal maturation, and hydrocarbon expulsion histories of the strata in the onshore interior salt basins of the North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas is important in hydrocarbon resource assessment. The underburden and overburden rocks in these basins and subbasins are a product of their rift-related geohistory. Petroleum source rock analysis and initial thermal maturation and hydrocarbon expulsion modeling indicated that an effective regional petroleum source rock in the onshore interior salt basins and subbasins, the North Louisiana Salt Basin, Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin, was Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone. The initial modeling also indicated that hydrocarbon generation and expulsion were initiated in the Early Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary in the North Louisiana Salt Basin and the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin and that hydrocarbon generation and expulsion were initiated in the Late Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary in the Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin. Refined thermal maturation and hydrocarbon expulsion modeling and additional petroleum source rock analysis have confirmed that the major source rock in the onshore interior salt basins and subbasins is Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone. Hydrocarbon generation and expulsion were initiated in the Early to Late Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary.

  7. Integrated Water Resource Management and Energy Requirements for Water Supply in the Copiapó River Basin, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Suárez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Population and industry growth in dry climates are fully tied to significant increase in water and energy demands. Because water affects many economic, social and environmental aspects, an interdisciplinary approach is needed to solve current and future water scarcity problems, and to minimize energy requirements in water production. Such a task requires integrated water modeling tools able to couple surface water and groundwater, which allow for managing complex basins where multiple stakeholders and water users face an intense competition for limited freshwater resources. This work develops an integrated water resource management model to investigate the water-energy nexus in reducing water stress in the Copiapó River basin, an arid, highly vulnerable basin in northern Chile. The model was utilized to characterize groundwater and surface water resources, and water demand and uses. Different management scenarios were evaluated to estimate future resource availability, and compared in terms of energy requirements and costs for desalinating seawater to eliminate the corresponding water deficit. Results show a basin facing a very complex future unless measures are adopted. When a 30% uniform reduction of water consumption is achieved, 70 GWh over the next 30 years are required to provide the energy needed to increase the available water through seawater desalination. In arid basins, this energy could be supplied by solar energy, thus addressing water shortage problems through integrated water resource management combined with new technologies of water production driven by renewable energy sources.

  8. The role of Water Resources Users Associations in hydrological research: experiences from Lake Naivasha Basin, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agol, D.

    2012-04-01

    This paper is based on recent studies in Lake Naivasha Basin that explored the ways in which locally based institutions namely the Water Resources Users Associations (WRUAs) are contributing to hydrological knowledge for decision-making processes. Lake Naivasha is a shallow freshwater body which is situated on the floor of Kenya's Rift Valley. It covers approximately 140 Km2 and supports a rich diversity of plants and animals. The Lake Naivasha Basin faces several challenges associated with over- population, urbanization and intensive agricultural activities. For example, the large-scale floricultural and horticultural export industries around the Lake have attracted thousands of migrants from different parts of Kenya who have settled around the Lake and exert a lot of pressure on its resources. The Lake Naivasha is one of the best examples in Kenya where the WRUAs development process has shown some progress. There are 12 WRUAS across the Lake Basin representing its various sub-catchments. In recent years, the role of WRUAs in the Lake has changed rapidly as they are no longer restricted to just resolving conflicts and fostering cooperation between water users. They now have an additional responsibility of collecting hydrological data within their respective sub-catchments. The majority of WRUA officials have been trained on how to collect data such as reading rain gauges, measuring stream flows, turbidity and sediment loads. The data collected are sent to the relevant government authorities for validation and interpretation and the information derived from this process is used to formulate important strategies such as water allocation plans. Using secondary data analysis, interviews and focus group discussions the study investigated how this new role of the WRUAs is changing the water resource management landscape in the Lake Naivasha Basin. In particular it presents key challenges and opportunities associated with attempts to build capacities of lower level

  9. Geochemical and isotopic characterization of groundwater resources in Maidere Basin (southern part of Morocco)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Integration of geochemical and isotopes techniques in water resources investigations has contributed considerably to a better understanding of the aquifer hydrodynamic functioning in complex structural areas. Maidere Basin, located in south Morocco, is extending over 13,000 km2 and limited by some orographical chains of Anti Atlas. Lithological formations outcropping in the basin are divided into compartments by major faults of NE-SW direction. This fault network helped to generate aquifers compartments with lateral hydraulic discontinuity. Five aquifers constitute the multilayer system: Precambrian, lower Cambrian, Middle Cambrian, Ordovician and Quaternary units. Ordovician outcrops are a large spread and constitute the more important aquifer in the basin. Furthermore, a smell gas like carbon dioxide is observed in some bores sampled from different aquifers. Geochemical and isotopic study has been undertaken in Maidere Basin in order to better understanding the hydrodynamic functioning of the aquifers units and to determinate the CO2 gas origin. Correlations between saturation index towards calcite and the partial pressure of CO2, have allowed distinguishing undersaturated water with a lower pCO2 sampled from all of wells and oversaturated water with high values of pCO2 sampled in boreholes. Modern carbon percentage analyses showed the presence of old water in the boreholes with high values of pCO2. Carbon dioxide seems to come from deep levels and circulate through the deep faults network. The relationship between δ13C and pmC (percent modern carbon) oppose the modern groundwater and impoverished in δ13C (that keep the pedological marking of the carbon at the time of their infiltration) to paleowaters (<16 pmC) and having exchanged the carbon with an impoverished matrix and/or having dissolved a carbon dioxide of deep origin. (author)

  10. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the West Siberian Basin Province, Russia, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Bird, Kenneth J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Gautier, Donald L.; Houseknecht, David W.; Klett, Timothy R.; Moore, Thomas E.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the West Siberian Basin Province in Russia as part of the USGS Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal program. This province is the largest petroleum basin in the world and has an areal extent of about 2.2 million square kilometers. It is a large rift-sag feature bounded to the west by the Ural fold belt, to the north by the Novaya Zemlya fold belt and North Siberian Sill, to the south by the Turgay Depression and Altay-Sayan fold belt, and to the east by the Yenisey Ridge, Turukhan-Igarka uplift, Yenisey-Khatanga Basin, and Taimyr High. The West Siberian Basin Province has a total discovered oil and gas volume of more than 360 billion barrels of oil equivalent (Ulmishek, 2000). Exploration has led to the discovery of tens of giant oil and gas fields, including the Urengoy gas field with more than 3500 trillion cubic feet of gas reserves and Samotlar oil field with reserves of nearly 28 billion barrels of oil (Ulmishek, 2003). This report summarizes the results of a reassessment of the undiscovered oil and gas potential of that part of the province north of the Arctic Circle; a previous assessment that included the entire province was completed in 2000 (Ulmishek, 2000). The total petroleum system (TPS) and assessment units (AU) defined by the USGS for the assessments in 2000 were adopted for this assessment. However, only those parts of the Aus lying wholly or partially north of the Arctic Circle were assessed for this study.

  11. Geochemical and Isotopic characterization of groundwater resources in Maidere basin (southern part of Morocco)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Integration of geochemical and isotopes techniques in water resources investigations has contributed considerably to a better understanding of the aquifer hydrodynamic functioning in complex structural areas. Maidere Basin, located in south Morocco, is extending over 13,000 km2 and limited by some orographical chains of the Anti-Atlas. Lithological formations outcropping in the basin are divided into compartments by major faults of NE-SW direction. This fault network helped to generate aquifers compartments with lateral hydraulic discontinuity. Five aquifers constitute the multilayer system: Precambrian, Lower Cambrian, Middle Cambrian, Ordovician and Quaternary units. Ordovician outcrops are a large spread and constitute the more important aquifer in the basin. Furthermore, a smell gas like carbon dioxide is observed in some bores sampled from different aquifers. Geochemical and isotopic study has been undertaken in Maidere Basin in order to better understanding the hydrodynamic functioning of the aquifers units and to determinate the CO2 gas origin. Correlations between saturation index of calcite and the partial pressure of CO2, have allowed distinguishing undersaturated water with a lower pCO3 sampled from all of wells and oversaturated water with high values of pCO2 sampled in boreholes. Radiocarbon analyses showed the presence of old water in the boreholes with high values of pCO2. Carbon dioxide seems to come from deep levels and circulate through the deep faults network. The relationship between δ13C and pMC (percent modern carbon) oppose the modern groundwater and impoverished in δ13C (that keep the pedological marking of the carbon at the time of their infiltration) to paleowaters (<16 pMC) and having exchanged the carbon with an impoverished matrix and/or having dissolved a carbon dioxide of deep origin. (author)

  12. Integration of surface and groundwater resources for the development of Hamad Basin project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rofail, Nabil; Asaad, S. I.

    1989-11-01

    Hamad Basin (166,000 km2) is an extensive basin, inhabited by 219,000 souls. It is located in the arid region within the border of four Arab States: Syria, Jordan, Iraq, and Saudi Arabia. Average annual precipitation depth is 78 mm, falling mostly during winter. Integrated studies of the natural resources, (water, soil, range, and animal) were carried out with other complementary studies to formulate a socioeconomic development plan for the promissing areas within the basin. Modern technologies were applied such as remote sensing, isotope analysis, processing, and documenting of basic hydrogeological data within the data bank system using computer facilities. Results revealed that the output of the natural dry plant production amounts to 2.0 × 106 tons. Animal wealth comprise 2 × 106 head mainly of sheep. Average annual surface runoff is 146 × 106 m3, which could be appropriately exploited in water spreading schemes to improve range. Water lost presently through evaporation from vast flat depression (Khabra) could be conserved through deepening the Khabras, and recharging shallow perched aquifer by surface runoff, which could be mined later. Results of regional geology, partial geophysical studies, and hydrogeological, hydrochemical interpretations have concuded the existance of two main aquifer systems, the first lies within the tertiary and quaternary formations, while the second extends to the mesozoic, and paleozoic. Their yield varies quantitively and qualitively, up to 100 × 106 m3 could be safely drawn annually. One compound pilot project was selected within the sector of each of the four Arab States to test the feasibility of the proposed development program for the promissing areas of the basin.

  13. The Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic, geophysical, geochemical, mineral-occurrence, mineral-resource potential, and mineral-production maps of the Charlotte 1 degree x 2 degrees Quadrangle, North Carolina and South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gair, Jacob Eugene; Goldsmith, Richard; Daniels, D.L.; Griffitts, W.R.; DeYoung, J.H.; Lee, M.P.

    1986-01-01

    This Circular and the folio of separately published maps described herein are part of a series of reports compiled under the Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program ICUSMAP). The folio on the Charlotte 1 degree ? 2 degree quadrangle, North Carolina and South Carolina, includes (1) a geologic map; (2) four geophysical maps; (3) geochemical maps for metamorphic heavy minerals, copper, lead and artifacts, zinc, gold, tin, beryllium, niobium, tungsten, molybdenum, titanium, cobalt, lithium, barium, antimony-arsenic-bismuth-cadmium, thorium-cerium-monazite, and limonite; (4) mineral-occurrence maps for kyanite-sillimanite-lithium-mica-feldspar-copper-lead-zinc, gold-quartz-barite-fluorite, iron-thorium-tin-niobium, and construction materials-gemstones; (5) mineral-resource potential maps for copper-lead-zinc-combined base metals, gold, tin-tungsten, beryllium-molybdenum-niobium, lithium-kyanite- sillimanitebarite, thorium (monazite)-uranium, and construction materials; and (6) mineral-production maps. The Charlotte quadrangle is mainly within the Piedmont physiographic province and extends from near the Coastal Plain on the southeast into the Blue Ridge province on the northwest for a short distance. Parts of six lithotectonic belts are present--the Blue Ridge, the Inner Piedmont, the Kings Mountain belt, the Charlotte belt, the Carolina slate belt, and the Wadesboro basin. Igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks are present and range in age from Proterozoic to Mesozoic; alluvial sediments of Quaternary age occur along rivers and larger streams. Rocks of the Blue Ridge include Middle Proterozoic granitoid gneiss intruded by Late Proterozoic granite; Late Proterozoic paragneiss, schist, and other metasedimentary and metavolcaniclastic rocks (Ashe and Grandfather Mountain Formations); Late Proterozoic and Early Cambrian metasedimentary rocks (Chilhowee Group); and Early Cambrian sedimentary rocks (Shady Dolomite). Paleozoic granites intrude the

  14. Climate change impact on water resources - Example of an anthropized basin (Llobregat, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versini, P.-A.; Pouget, L.; Mc Ennis, S.; Guiu Carrio, R.; Sempere-Torres, D.; Escaler, I.

    2012-04-01

    The impact of climate change is one of the central topics of study by water agencies and companies. Indeed, the forecasted increase of atmospheric temperature may change the amount, frequency and intensity of precipitation and affect the hydrological cycle: runoff, infiltration, aquifer recharge, etc… Moreover, global change combining climate change but also land use and water demand changes, may cause very important impacts on water availability and quality. Global change scenarios in Spain describe a general trend towards increased temperature and water demand, and reduced precipitation as a result of its geographical situation and socio-economic characteristics. The European project WATER CHANGE (included in the LIFE + Environment Policy and Governance program) aims to develop a modeling system to assess the Global Change impacts, and their associated uncertainties, on water availability for water supply and water use. Its objective is to help river basin agencies and water companies in their long term planning and in the definition of adaptation measures. This work presents the results obtained by applying the modelling system to the Llobregat river basin (Spain). This is an anthropized catchment of about 5000 km2, where water resources are used for different purposes, such as drinking water production, agriculture irrigation, industry and hydroelectric energy production. Based on future global change scenarios, the water resources system has been assessed in terms of water deficit and supply. A cost-benefit analysis has also been conducted in order to evaluate every realistic measure that could optimize and improve the system.

  15. Origin of clay-mineral variation in Wisconsinan age sediments from the Lake Michigan basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monaghan, G.W. (Geocomp Research, Eaton, NY (United States)); Larson, G.J. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1994-04-01

    Drift samples collected in Wisconsin and Michigan from exposures representative of the Wisconsinan stratigraphy of the Lake Michigan Lobe indicate that clay mineral and shale lithology systematically vary between successive till sheets as a result of differential erosion of two unique source beds: shale bedrock, rich in 10[angstrom] clay (illite) and pre-existing drift (particularly lacustrine clay), depleted in 10[angstrom] clay. A general increase in relative amounts of 10[angstrom] clay and shale clasts begins with early or middle Wisconsinan (Altonian) Glenn Shores till and continues through late Wisconsinan (Woodfordian) Ganges-New Berlin till and Saugatuck-Oak Creek till. Both 10[angstrom] clay and shale decrease in post Mackinaw (late Woodfordian) Interstade Ozaukee-Haven and Two Rivers tills. Clay minerals in till rich in 10[angstrom] clay (Saugatuck-Oak Creek) were derived mainly from extensive erosion and comminution of shale whereas those in tills depleted in 10[angstrom] clay (Ganges-New Berlin, Ozaukee-Haven, and Two Rivers) were eroded mainly from lacustrine clay. Because it is compositionally dissimilar to either the shale or lake clay source and relatively rich in kaolinite, clay minerals in early-middle Wisconsinan Glenn Shores till may have been derived from Sangamon saprolite eroded during an early post-Sangamon ice advance. Variations in source bed erosion and subsequent changes in till lithology result either from depletion of the source bed (Glenn Shores till) or from progressively eroding drift mantling shale outcrops (unroofing) during successive late Wisconsinan ice advances.

  16. Lithofacies characteristics of ore-hosting horizon and its relationship to uranium mineralization in Qianjiadian uranium deposit, Songliao basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The host rocks of Qianjiadian uranium deposit in Songliao basin is composed of thick bed sand- bodies, which are formed by braided stream sediment in Yaojia formation. The thick bed sandbody has favorable upper and lower waterproof layer, and has lenticular mudstone interlayer in some parts. On plane, the flood plain face locates around the braided stream face, which is mainly composed of sediments of argillaceous rock. In the middle of braided stream, distributes interchannel sediments, which has thicker mudstone interlayer and thinner sand bodies, and the sand body of these place is more heterogeous than others. Based on the analysis on oxidation zone and uranium mineralization, it is found that the distribution and configuration of oxidation zone and ore bodies are obviously controlled by the lithofaties characteristics and sandbody heterogeneity of Yaojia formation. The reason is that the movement of uranium-bearing oxidizing ground water can be obstructed by interchannel sediments and pelitic interbeds of host sandstones. As a result, the redox interface will be developed and uranium can be concentrated in neighbouring sandstones. The sandbodies with greater homogeneity are favorable for the formation of oxidation zone, and sandbodies with greater heterogeneity are favorable for the uranium mineralization. (authors)

  17. Significant mineral variations in the Lower Karoo deposits of the Mid-Zambezi Basin, Zimbabwe, and their palaeoenvironmental implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mineralogical composition of Lower Karoo deposits from the Mid-Zimbabwe Basin, Zimbabwe, have been established by means of X-ray diffractometry to evaluate mineralogical variables as possible palaeoenvironment indicators. Mineral variations are stratigraphically controlled. Dwyka tillites are composed of quartz, K-feldspar and plagioclase. Varvites contain additional calcite. The clay fraction is dominated by kaolinite in the northwestern part of the study area while in the southwest only subordinate proportions of kaolinite occur associated with approximately equal amounts of mica, chlorite, smectite, and interstratifications. The overlying Ecca sediments are characterized by a high kaolinite content, traces of K-feldspar, mica and occasional pyrite. In mudstones of the uppermost Ecca, the kaolonite proportion decreases in favour of mica and chlorite. The mineral composition of Beaufort mudstones differs significantly with considerable amounts of plagioclase and a more than sporadic presence of analcime which is restricted to this stratigraphic unit. The clay fraction is dominated by either kaolinite, mica, or smectite. Within the geotectonical setting discussed by this paper the kaolinite dominance in Ecca sediments corresponds well with freshwater depositional conditions deduced from sedimentological and palaeontological evidence. However, the abundance of 2:1 phyllosilicates and especially analcime prevalence in the Beaufort section indicates an alkaline palaeoenvironment. 10 figs., 29 refs

  18. Water footprint concept for a sustainable water resources management in Urmia Lake basin, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbari, Anahita; Jarihani, Ben; Rezaie, Hossein; Aligholiniya, Tohid; Rasouli, Negar

    2015-04-01

    The fast shrinkage of Urmia Lake in West Azerbaijan, Iran is one of the most important environmental change hotspots. The dramatic water level reduction (up to 6 meters) has influential environmental, socio-economic and health impacts on Urmia plain and its habitants. The decline is generally blamed on a combination of drought, increased water diversion for irrigated agriculture within the lake's watershed and land use mismanagement. The Urmia Lake sub basins are the agricultural cores of the region and the agricultural activities are the major water consuming sections of the basin. Land use changes and mismanagement in the land use decisions and policies is one of the most important factors in lake shrinkage in recent decades. Fresh water is the main source of water for agricultural usages in the basin. So defining a more low water consuming land use pattern will put less pressure on limited water resources. The above mentioned fact in this study has been assessed through water footprint concept. The water footprint concept (as a quantitative measure showing the appropriation of natural resources) is a comprehensive indicator that can have a crucial role in efficient land use management. In order to evaluate the water use patterns, the water footprint of wheat (as a traditional crop) and apple (recently most popular) have been compared and the results have been discussed in the aspect of the impacts on Lake Urmia demands and its dramatic drying process. Results showed that, higher blue water consumption in such a regions that have severe blue water scarcity, is a major issue and the water consuming pattern must be modified to meet the lake demands. Lower blue water consumption through regionalizing crops for each area is an efficient solution to meet lake demands and consume lower amounts of blue water. So the proper land use practices can be an appropriate method to rescue the lake in a long time period.

  19. Montana's Clark Fork River Basin Task Force: A Vehicle for Integrated Water Resources Management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, David D.; Mueller, Gerald

    2010-11-01

    This article examines what is generally considered to be an unattainable goal in the western United States: integrated water resources management (IWRM). Specifically, we examine an organization that is quite unique in the West, Montana’s Clark Fork River Basin Task Force (Task Force), and we analyze its activities since its formation in 2001 to answer the question: are the activities and contributions of the Task Force working to promote a more strongly integrated approach to water resources management in Montana? After reviewing the concepts underlying IWRM, some of the issues that have been identified for achieving IWRM in the West, and the Montana system of water right allocation and issues it faces, we adapt Mitchell’s IWRM framework and apply it to the analysis of the Task Force’s activities in the context of IWRM. In evaluating the physical, interaction, and protocol/planning/policy components of IWRM, we find that the Task Force has been contributing to the evolution of Montana’s water resources management towards this framework, though several factors will likely continue to prevent its complete realization. The Task Force has been successful in this regard because of its unique nature and charge, and because of the authority and power given it by successive Montana legislatures. Also critical to the success of the organization is its ability to help translate into policy the outcomes of legal and quasi-judicial decisions that have impacted the state’s water resources management agency.

  20. Integrative assessment of hydrological, ecological, and economic systems for water resources management at river basin scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianglian LI; Xiusheng YANG; Qiong GAO; Yu LI; Suocheng DONG

    2009-01-01

    This study presents a basin-scale integrative hydrological, ecological, and economic (HEE) modeling system, aimed at evaluating the impact of resources management, especially agricultural water resources management, on the sustainability of regional water resources. The hydrological model in the modeling system was adapted from SWAT, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool, to simulate the water balance in terms of soil moisture, evapotranspiration, and streamflow. An ecologi-cal model was integrated into the hydrological model to compute the ecosystem production of biomass production and yield for different land use types. The economic model estimated the monetary values of crop production and water productivity over irrigated areas. The modeling system was primarily integrated and run on a Windows platform and was able to produce simulation results at daily time steps with a spatial resolution of hydrological response unit (HRU). The modeling system was then calibrated over the period from 1983 to 1991 for the upper and middle parts of the Yellow River basin, China.Calibration results showed that the efficiencies of the modeling system in simulating monthly streamflow over 5hydrological stations were from 0.54 to 0.68 with an average of 0.64, indicating an acceptable calibration.Preliminary simulation results from 1986 to 1995 revealed that water use in the study region has largely reduced the streamflow in many parts of the area except for that in the riverhead. Spatial distribution of biomass production, and crop yield showed a strong impact of irrigation on agricultural production. Water productivity over irrigated cropland ranged from 1 to 1640 USD/(ha.mm 1), indicat-ing a wide variation of the production conditions within the study region and a great potential in promoting water use efficiency in low water productivity areas. Generally,simulation results from this study indicated that the modeling system was capable of tracking the temporal and spatial

  1. Coupling the hydrological and ecological process to implement the sustainable water resources management in Hanjiang River Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Research on the combination of hydrological variation and ecological demands plays an important role in water availability assessment and sustainable management on basin scale. An integrative frame, consisting of hydrological regime modelling, ecological water demands estimation and renewable resources management, is given in this paper in order to support the implementation of the sustainable water resources management. The suggested integrative frame has been used to study the integrated water resources management in southern Hanjiang River Basin which is the water source of South-toNorth Water Transportation Project in China. SWAT (soil and water assessment tool) model was used to simulate the monthly averaging streamflow and the amounts of ecological water demands in stream were also estimated in order to evaluate the available water resources for the local users and the transportation project. Then we formed the developing scenarioes by coupling the available water resources, the recovering rate of water resources in natural water cycle, the local water use rate and the amounts of the water transported to North, and used the Scheafer model to analyze their evolving trajectories. Eventually, the sustainable water resources management measures were assembled by the comprehensive evaluation of the scenarioes. The research indicates that the integrative frame provided a new way for the integrated water resources management in river basin.

  2. Coupling the hydrological and ecological process to implement the sustainable water resources manage-ment in Hanjiang River Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiang; XIA Jun

    2009-01-01

    Research on the combination of hydrological variation and ecological demands plays an important role In water availability assessment and sustainable management on basin scale.An integrative frame, consisting of hydrological regime modelling, ecological water demands estimation and renewable re-sources management, is given in this paper in order to support the implementation of the sustainable water resources management.The suggested integrative frame has been used to study the integrated water resources management in southern Hanjiang River Basin which is the water source of South-to-North Water Transportation Project in China.SWAT (soil and water assessment tool) model was used to simulate the monthly averaging streamflow and the amounts of ecological water demands in stream were also estimated in order to evaluate the available water resources for the local users and the transportation project.Then we formed the developing scenarioes by coupling the available water re-sources, the recovering rate of water resources in natural water cycle, the local water use rate and the amounts of the water transported to North, and used the Scheafer model to analyze their evolving tra-jectories.Eventually, the sustainable water resources management measures were assembled by the comprehensive evaluation of the scenarioea.The research indicates that the integrative frame provided a new way for the integrated water resources management in river basin.

  3. Measuring the spatial impacts of urbanization on the surface water resource basins in Istanbul via remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucukmehmetoglu, Mehmet; Geymen, Abdurrahman

    2008-07-01

    Istanbul is one of the largest metropolitan cities in the World. The city has experienced rapid industrialization and urbanization in the second half of the twentieth century. Between 1950 and 2000, the city has grown by an average of 4.5% annually. Given the scale of the growth, neither local nor the central governments have shown capability of controlling the influx of migration, most of which settled illegally on public lands. Most of the settlements lack the basic sewerage facilities, and a significant portion of which are on the major water resource basins. As of today, Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality (IMM) not only has to cope with the infrastructure problems, but also has to find ways of solving the problem of illegal occupations of public lands and water resource basins. This paper presents the land use changes in the water resource basins providing water to the Istanbul Metropolitan Area. Using four consecutive Landsat images between 1990 and 2005, the changes in 12 different land use categories are obtained via overlay operations by GIS for water resource basins surrounding the City of Istanbul. It has been observed that the most critical land use changes are in the nearest basins to the city. The capability of Landsat and IKONOS images in determining the alterations in the macro form of the city are also discussed. Finally, possibility of utilization of new technologies in policy making regarding environmental management in Istanbul is discussed. PMID:17874198

  4. Optimal Water Resources Allocation under the Constraint of Land Use in the Heihe River Basin of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanqi Wang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, water scarcity and irrational utilization have become the pivotal issues for the sustainable development of river basins in China. This paper attempts to propose a new perspective for the optimization of water resources allocation in a typical river basin. In order to conduct an accurate and feasible program for water resources allocation in the water-deficient river basin, a multi-objective and multi-constraint programming model was developed by embedding land use effect as a constraint on water allocation, which was currently solely decided by water resources demand in different water use sectors. The program includes two layers, namely water allocation among different counties located in the middle reaches of the Heihe River Basin and among domestic, industrial, agricultural and ecological uses within one county. Empirical analysis shows that the structural change of land use has an important influence and restriction on the water resources allocation in the river basin. The least cultivated areas that ensure food security and the constraint of construction land quota have great impact on agricultural and industrial water allocation. Moreover, the quantitative change of ecological land greatly affects ecological water allocation. The results demonstrate that the optimal program calculated from land use embedded model can well predicate the actual situation of water allocation in the future. To ensure regional sustainable development, it is vital that reasonable water-saving measures in each water use sector and ecological protection policies be taken.

  5. RESOURCE ASSESSMENT OF THE IN-PLACE AND POTENTIALLY RECOVERABLE DEEP NATURAL GAS RESOURCE OF THE ONSHORE INTERIOR SALT BASINS, NORTH CENTRAL AND NORTHEASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2004-04-16

    The University of Alabama and Louisiana State University have undertaken a cooperative 3-year, advanced subsurface methodology resource assessment project, involving petroleum system identification, characterization and modeling, to facilitate exploration for a potential major source of natural gas that is deeply buried (below 15,000 feet) in the onshore interior salt basins of the North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas. The project is designed to assist in the formulation of advanced exploration strategies for funding and maximizing the recovery from deep natural gas domestic resources at reduced costs and risks and with minimum impact. The results of the project should serve to enhance exploration efforts by domestic companies in their search for new petroleum resources, especially those deeply buried (below 15,000 feet) natural gas resources, and should support the domestic industry's endeavor to provide an increase in reliable and affordable supplies of fossil fuels. The principal research effort for Year 1 of the project is data compilation and petroleum system identification. The research focus for the first nine (9) months of Year 1 is on data compilation and for the remainder of the year the emphasis is on petroleum system identification. The objectives of the study are: to perform resource assessment of the in-place deep (>15,000 ft) natural gas resource of the onshore interior salt basins of the North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas through petroleum system identification, characterization and modeling and to use the petroleum system based resource assessment to estimate the volume of the in-place deep gas resource that is potentially recoverable and to identify those areas in the interior salt basins with high potential to recover commercial quantities of the deep gas resource. The project objectives will be achieved through a 3-year effort. First, emphasis is on petroleum system identification and characterization in the

  6. The Iron Hill (Powderhorn) Carbonatite Complex, Gunnison County, Colorado - A Potential Source of Several Uncommon Mineral Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2009-01-01

    A similar version of this slide show was presented on three occasions during 2008: two times to local chapters of the Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration (SME), as part of SME's Henry Krumb lecture series, and the third time at the Northwest Mining Association's 114th Annual Meeting, held December 1-5, 2008, in Sparks (Reno), Nevada. In 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) initiated a study of the diverse and uncommon mineral resources associated with carbonatites and associated alkaline igneous rocks. Most of these deposit types have not been studied by the USGS during the last 25 years, and many of these mineral resources have important applications in modern technology. The author chose to begin this study at Iron Hill in southwestern Colorado because it is the site of a classic carbonatite complex, which is thought to host the largest known resources of titanium and niobium in the United States.

  7. 3-D Numerical Modeling as a Tool for Managing Mineral Water Extraction from a Complex Groundwater Basin in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanini, A.; Tanda, M.

    2007-12-01

    The groundwater in Italy plays an important role as drinking water; in fact it covers about the 30% of the national demand (70% in Northern Italy). The mineral water distribution in Italy is an important business with an increasing demand from abroad countries. The mineral water Companies have a great interest in order to increase the water extraction, but for the delicate and complex geology of the subsoil, where such very high quality waters are contained, a particular attention must be paid in order to avoid an excessive lowering of the groundwater reservoirs or great changes in the groundwater flow directions. A big water Company asked our University to set up a numerical model of the groundwater basin, in order to obtain a useful tool which allows to evaluate the strength of the aquifer and to design new extraction wells. The study area is located along Appennini Mountains and it covers a surface of about 18 km2; the topography ranges from 200 to 600 m a.s.l.. In ancient times only a spring with naturally sparkling water was known in the area, but at present the mineral water is extracted from deep pumping wells. The area is characterized by a very complex geology: the subsoil structure is described by a sequence of layers of silt-clay, marl-clay, travertine and alluvial deposit. Different groundwater layers are present and the one with best quality flows in the travertine layer; the natural flow rate seems to be not subjected to seasonal variations. The water age analysis revealed a very old water which means that the mineral aquifers are not directly connected with the meteoric recharge. The Geologists of the Company suggest that the water supply of the mineral aquifers comes from a carbonated unit located in the deep layers of the mountains bordering the spring area. The valley is crossed by a river that does not present connections to the mineral aquifers. Inside the area there are about 30 pumping wells that extract water at different depths. We built a 3

  8. China's Qaidam Basin Sensitive to Global Warming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Chinese meteorologists recently pointed out that the temperatures in northwest China's resource-rich Qaidam Basin are rising faster than the rest of the country as a result of climate change.The rapid rise in temperatures is likely to increase the long-term frequency of droughts and farming pests in the basin to the northeast of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.Qaidam Basin covers 250,000 km2 in Qinghai Province and is known as resource-rich with salt lakes,petroleum,natural gas and other abundant mineral resources.

  9. A deposit model for Mississippi Valley-Type lead-zinc ores: Chapter A in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, David L.; Taylor, Ryan D.; Fey, David L.; Diehl, Sharon F.; Saltus, Richard W.

    2010-01-01

    This report is a descriptive model of Mississippi Valley-Type (MVT) lead-zinc deposits that presents their geological, mineralogical and geochemical attributes and is part of an effort by the U.S. Geological Survey Mineral Resources Program to update existing models and develop new models that will be used for an upcoming national mineral resource assessment. This deposit modeling effort by the USGS is intended to supplement previously published models for use in mineral-resource and mineral-environmental assessments. Included in this report are geological, geophysical and geochemical assessment guides to assist in mineral resource estimation. The deposit attributes, including grade and tonnage of the deposits described in this report are based on a new mineral deposits data set of all known MVT deposits in the world.

  10. Sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposit model: Chapter M in Mineral deposit model for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Timothy S.; Cox, Dennis P.; Bliss, James D.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R., II

    2015-01-01

    This report contains a descriptive model of sediment-hosted stratabound copper (SSC) deposits that supersedes the model of Cox and others (2003). This model is for use in assessments of mineral resource potential. SSC deposits are the second most important sources of copper in the world behind porphyry copper deposits. Around 20 percent of the copper in the world is produced from this class of deposits. They are also the most important sources of cobalt in the world, and they are fourth among classes of ore deposits in production of silver. SSC deposits are the basis of the economies of three countries: Democratic Republic of Congo, Poland, and Zambia. This report provides a description of the key features of SSC deposits; it identifies their tectonic-sedimentary environments; it illustrates geochemical, geophysical, and geoenvironmental characteristics of SSC deposits; it reviews and evaluates hypotheses on how these deposits formed; it presents exploration and assessment guides; and it lists some gaps in our knowledge about the SSC deposits. A summary follows that provides overviews of many subjects concerning SSC deposits.

  11. Digital analytical data from mineral resource assessments of national forest lands in Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boleneus, D.E.; Chase, D.W.

    1999-01-01

    Extensive reconnaissance assessments of the mineral resource potential of the Colville and Okanogan National Forests in northeastern Washington were conducted during 1979-1982 by a private consultant A.R. Grant, under contract with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. These forests occupy large parts of Pend Oreille, Stevens, Ferry, and Okanogan counties, and smaller parts of Whatcom, Skagit, and Chelan counties adjoining Okanogan County in the Cascades. Sampled terrain also included the Kaniksu National Forest in Pend Oreille County and one stream bed of the Kaniksu in adjacent Bonner County, Idaho. Two unpublished reports resulting from the assessments (Grant, 1982a,b) list a total of 3,927 analyses of gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, molybdenum, tungsten, and uranium content of stream sediment and bedrock samples collected at widely dispersed sites in the three National Forests. This report makes this important body of work available in digital form on diskettes, to enhance manipulations with computer spreadsheets, geographic information systems (GIS), and digital spatial analyses. This will allow for utilization of data by modern day explorationists and by the general geodata user community.

  12. Resource Assessment for Xu jiahe formation of Chuanzhong District in Sichuan Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Junwen; Guo, Giulin

    2016-04-01

    Xu-2, the second member of Xu jiahe formation of Chuanzhong district in Sichuan Basin, is the tight sandstone gas reservoirs. The sum of conventional gas traps was used to evaluate it before, but the evaluation results are not reasonable enough. According to the characteristics of great-area continuous tight sandstone gas, this paper puts forward a kind of resource abundance analogy method to research the distribution of gas reservoirs and resources potential of Xu-2 of chuanzhong district. Firstly, we build 18 scale areas of tight sandstone gas accumulation at home and abroad and use relevance analysis and parameters preference skills to confirm the key parameters and set up the parameter evaluation system and determine the criterion of the parameters. Then, based on the analysis of conditions for tight gas accumulation of Xu-2, second member of Xu jiahe formation, Chuanzhong district(area 40000km2)is divided into 10 blocks, we contrast scale areas of tight sandstone gas accumulation with the blocks respectively, and calculate the related coefficient of analogy, finally compute resource of each block. The results demonstrate that: the total tight sandstone gas resources in Xu-2 reach to about 2,200 billion cubic meters, and the resource enrichment value is about 0.05 billion m3/km2, which shows the bright prospect of exploration of tight sandstone gas. There are high abundance gas reservoirs around the areas of A-B-C and D-E-F, and abundance values have reached to 0.12 billion m3/km2 and 0.11 billion m3/km2 respectively, which provides the directions for exploration of tight sandstone gas in Chuanzhong district.

  13. Aggregate and Mineral Resources, Mines - This data set is derived from the Bureau of Mines Minerals Availability System (MAS) data set. Most of the information is from the Minerals Industry System Location (MILS) table., Published in 1993, Arizona State Land Department.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Aggregate and Mineral Resources dataset as of 1993. It is described as 'Mines - This data set is derived from the Bureau of Mines Minerals Availability System...

  14. Digital resource modeling of the northern and central Appalachian Basin coal regions: Top producing coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruppert, L.; Tewalt, S.; Bragg, L.; Wallack, R.; Jenkins, J.; Tully, J. [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The US Geological Survey is currently conducting a coal resource assessment of the coal beds and zones that are expected to provide the bulk of the Nation`s coal resources for the next few decades. In partnership with the state geologic surveys of Kentucky, Tennessee, West Virginia, Virginia, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Maryland, six coal beds will be digitally assessed in the northern and central Appalachian Basin coal region. In ascending stratigraphic order, the beds which range from the Lower Pennsylvanian Pocahontas Formation to the Upper Pennsylvanian Monongahela Group are the Pocahontas No. 3, Pond Creek, Fire Clay, Lower Kittanning, Upper Freeport, and Pittsburgh coals. Comprehensive stratigraphic and geochemical databases have been developed for the coal beds. Maps that show the extent and mined areas of the beds, structure contour, isopach, and overburden thickness have been compiled for the Pittsburgh coal bed and are in preparation for the other coal beds. The resource model for the Pittsburgh coal bed indicates that of the original 33.6 billion short tons (30.5 billion tonnes) of Pittsburgh coal, approximately 15.9 billion short tons (14.4 billion tonnes) remain. The remaining coal is, however, higher in ash and sulfur, and generally thinner and under thicker overburden cover.

  15. Fractal Principle of Mineral Deposit Size Forecasting and Its Implication for Gold Resource Potential Evaluation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李长江; 麻土华; 朱兴盛; 王国武

    2002-01-01

    Mineralization distributions are very heterogeneous in nature. As large or superlarge mineral deposits are quite rare whether in time or in space, it is difficult to detect all the largest mineral deposits in a region in a limited period of time owing to the restriction of technology and exploration degrees-this is called "not all discovered". However, all discovered large, especially superlarge, mineral deposits generally have a complete census in the geological literatures. On the other hand, not all discovered small mineral deposits are recorded in the geological literatures because for economic reasons people have not much interest in them-this is called "not all recorded". This practice often results in the observation truncations, that is, the data points near the two ends in an observable population, which is obtained by fitting a power law size-frequency distribution to discovered mineral deposits in a given region, show concave-down departure from the correlation line fitted. The authors suggest that the size and number of undiscovered deposits may be forecast by fitting a fractal size distribution to discovered mineral deposit sizes between the upper and lower truncation observations and then extrapolating the scale-independent area to deposit sizes larger than the upper truncation limit. Based on the statistical results obtained by the fractal size-frequency distributions of 394 discovered gold deposits with sizes greater than 2 t Au in China and 83 known gold deposits with sizes over 0.3 t Au in the Jiaodong area of China, the authors forecast according to the present commercial standards for gold ores that the total resources of undiscovered gold deposits ranging in tonnage from 50 to 2000 t Au are more than 4500 t in China, and that in the Jiaodong area of China the total resources of potential gold deposits with sizes in the range of 30 to 650 t Au are about 700 t.

  16. Effects of climate change on water resources in Tarim River Basin, Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ya-ning; LI Wei-hong; XU Chang-chun; HAO Xin-ming

    2007-01-01

    Based on hydrology, temperature, and precipitation data from the past 50 years, the effects of climate change on water resources in Tarim River Basin in northwest China were investigated. The long-term trends of the hydrological time series were detected using both parametric and nonparametric techniques. The results showed that the increasing tendency of the temperature has a 5% level of significance, and the temperature increased by nearly 1℃ over the past fifty years. The precipitation showed a significant increase in the 1980s and 1990s, and the average annual precipitation exhibited an increasing trend with a magnitude of 6.8 mm per decade. A step change occurred in both the temperature and precipitation time series around 1986. The streamflow from the headwater of the Tarim River exhibited a significant increase during the last 20 years. The increase in temperature, precipitation, and streamflow may be attributed to global change.

  17. Water Resources Data. Ohio - Water Year 1992. Volume 1. Ohio River Basin excluding project data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.L. Shindel; J.H. Klingler; J.P. Mangus; L.E. Trimble

    1993-03-01

    Water-resources data for the 1992 water year for Ohio consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. This report, in two volumes, contains records for water discharge at 121 gaging stations, 336 wells, and 72 partial-record sites; and water levels at 312 observation wells. Also included are data from miscellaneous sites. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the US Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Ohio. Volume 1 covers the central and southern parts of Ohio, emphasizing the Ohio River Basin. (See Order Number DE95010451 for Volume 2 covering the northern part of Ohio.)

  18. In Situ Identification of Mineral Resources with an X-Ray-Optical "Hands-Lens" Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, J.; Koppel, L.; Bratton, C.; Metzger, E.; Hecht, M.

    1999-01-01

    The recognition of material resources on a planetary surface requires exploration strategies not dissimilar to those employed by early field geologists who searched for ore deposits primarily from surface clues. In order to determine the location of mineral ores or other materials, it will be necessary to characterize host terranes at regional or subregional scales. This requires geographically broad surveys in which statistically significant numbers of samples are rapidly scanned from a roving platform. To enable broad-scale, yet power-conservative planetary-surface exploration, we are developing an instrument that combines x-ray diffractometry (XRD), x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), and optical capabilities; the instrument can be deployed at the end of a rover's robotic arm, without the need for sample capture or preparation. The instrument provides XRD data for identification of mineral species and lithological types; diffractometry of minerals is conducted by ascertaining the characteristic lattice parameters or "d-spacings" of mineral compounds. D-spacings of 1.4 to 25 angstroms can be determined to include the large molecular structures of hydrated minerals such as clays. The XRF data will identify elements ranging from carbon (Atomic Number = 6) to elements as heavy as barium (Atomic Number = 56). While a sample is being x-rayed, the instrument simultaneously acquires an optical image of the sample surface at magnifications from lx to at least 50x (200x being feasible, depending on the sample surface). We believe that imaging the sample is extremely important as corroborative sample-identification data (the need for this capability having been illustrated by the experience of the Pathfinder rover). Very few geologists would rely on instrument data for sample identification without having seen the sample. Visual inspection provides critical recognition data such as texture, crystallinity, granularity, porosity, vesicularity, color, lustre, opacity, and

  19. Alteration and Reformation of Hydrocarbon Reservoirs and Prediction of Remaining Potential Resources in Superimposed Basins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG Hong; PANG Xiongqi; YANG Haijun; LIN Changsong; MENG Qingyang; WANG Huaijie

    2010-01-01

    Complex hydrocarbon reservoirs developed widely in the superimposed basins of China formed from multiple structural alterations,reformation and destruction of hydrocarbon reservoirs formed at early stages.They are characterized currently by trap adjustment,component variation,phase conversion,and scale reformation.This is significant for guiding current hydrocarbon exploration by revealing evolution mechanisms after hydrocarbon reservoir formation and for predicting remaining potential resources.Based on the analysis of a number of complex hydrocarbon reservoirs,there are four geologic features controlling the degree of destruction of hydrocarbon reservoirs formed at early stages:tectonic event intensity,frequency,time and caprock sealing for oil and gas during tectonic evolution.Research shows that the larger the tectonic event intensity,the more frequent the tectonic event,the later the last tectonic event,the weaker the caprock sealing for oil and gas,and the greater the volume of destroyed hydrocarbons in the early stages.Based on research on the main controlling factors of hydrocarbon reservoir destruction mechanisms,a geological model of tectonic superimposition and a mathematical model evaluating potential remaining complex hydrocarbon reservoirs have been established.The predication method and technical procedures were applied in the Tazhong area of Tarim Basin,where four stages of hydrocarbon accumulation and three stages of hydrocarbon alteration occurred.Geohistorical hydrocarbon accumulation reached 3.184billion tons,of which 1.271 billion tons were destroyed.The total volume of remaining resources available for exploration is~1.9 billion tons.

  20. Craggy Mountain Wilderness Study Area and Extension, North Carolina: Chapter in Wilderness mineral potential: assessment of mineral-resource potential in U.S. Forest Service lands studied in 1964-1984: Volume II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesure, Frank G.; Williams, Bradford B.

    1984-01-01

    Craggy Mountain Wilderness Study Area and the adjoining Craggy Mountain Extension consist of more than 4 sq mi of steep wooded slopes on the west side of Great Craggy Mountain in the Blue Ridge of western North Carolina. A mineral-resource survey of the area done between 1976 and 1979 found no evidence fore metallic mineral resources. Kyanite, garnet, and building stone are the only mineral resources in the study area, but large quantities of similar material are available outside the study area. Natural gas may possibly be present at great depth, but until some deep drilling is done in or near no estimate of the gas potential can be made.

  1. Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... palate - resources Colon cancer - resources Cystic fibrosis - resources Depression - resources Diabetes - resources Digestive disease - resources Drug abuse - resources Eating disorders - resources Elder care - resources Epilepsy - resources Family troubles - ...

  2. Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Depression - resources Diabetes - resources Digestive disease - resources Drug abuse - resources Eating disorders - resources Elder care - resources Epilepsy - resources Family troubles - resources Gastrointestinal disorders - resources Hearing impairment - resources ...

  3. The station of modeling the mine resources in economical geology investigations and determination of mineral deposits genes & reserves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharif, J.A.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent days, computer is becoming one of the most essential instruments in advanced countries for the researchers and the domain of its application is going to be increased every day. Using the 3D modeling of the earth, its mine resources and the brilliant details which are given by the models, the researching and exploring groups will find out the inconspicuous and attractive aspects of the genetic structure and the geological history of these resources. In this paper which is a result of the researches done as the case study on a group of aragonite deposits in West Azarbaijan province, modeling of under study mineral deposits and the genetic approaches obtained from the models lead into explore and discover some other resources of the same minerals which is widely accepted recently in the market of decorative rocks in Iran. In modeling procedure of these resources which is a product of the geysers, the profile of these lime generating springs and their directional order on some specific hidden fracture is determined and approximate location of the new resources for the next explorations is assigned. At the moment, these assigned locations as new resources are being explored and even exploited.

  4. Prediction and discovery of new geothermal resources in the Great Basin: Multiple evidence of a large undiscovered resource base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coolbaugh, M.F.; Raines, G.L.; Zehner, R.E.; Shevenell, L.; Williams, C.F.

    2006-01-01

    Geothermal potential maps by themselves cannot directly be used to estimate undiscovered resources. To address the undiscovered resource base in the Great Basin, a new and relatively quantitative methodology is presented. The methodology involves three steps, the first being the construction of a data-driven probabilistic model of the location of known geothermal systems using weights of evidence. The second step is the construction of a degree-of-exploration model. This degree-of-exploration model uses expert judgment in a fuzzy logic context to estimate how well each spot in the state has been explored, using as constraints digital maps of the depth to the water table, presence of the carbonate aquifer, and the location, depth, and type of drill-holes. Finally, the exploration model and the data-driven occurrence model are combined together quantitatively using area-weighted modifications to the weights-of-evidence equations. Using this methodology in the state of Nevada, the number of undiscovered geothermal systems with reservoir temperatures ???100??C is estimated at 157, which is 3.2 times greater than the 69 known systems. Currently, nine of the 69 known systems are producing electricity. If it is conservatively assumed that an additional nine for a total of 18 of the known systems will eventually produce electricity, then the model predicts 59 known and undiscovered geothermal systems are capable of producing electricity under current economic conditions in the state, a figure that is more than six times higher than the current number. Many additional geothermal systems could potentially become economic under improved economic conditions or with improved methods of reservoir stimulation (Enhanced Geothermal Systems).This large predicted geothermal resource base appears corroborated by recent grass-roots geothermal discoveries in the state of Nevada. At least two and possibly three newly recognized geothermal systems with estimated reservoir temperatures

  5. Forecasting coal resources and reserves in heterogeneous coal zones using 3D facies models (As Pontes Basin, NW Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Falivene, O.; Cabrera, Lluís; Sáez, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Forecasting coal resources and reserves is critical for coal mine development. Thickness maps are commonly used for assessing coal resources and reserves; however they are limited for capturing coal splitting effects in thick and heterogeneous coal zones. As an alternative, three-dimensional geostatistical methods are used to populate facies distributionwithin a densely drilled heterogeneous coal zone in the As Pontes Basin (NWSpain). Coal distribution in this zone is mainly characterized by ...

  6. Importance of isotope hydrology techniques in water resources management: A case study of the Makutupora basin in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makutupora groundwater basin has been the main source of water supply for Dodoma town since 1950s. the water is mainly used for domestic water supply to over one million inhabitants, for industrial purposes and livestock watering. Conventional hydrogeological investigations have been carried out in the basin to gather information on the groundwater potential of the basin to meet the ever-increasing demand for water. However, firm conclusions could not be reached with conventional methods. This paper highlights on the isotope techniques applied in an integrated manner with conventional hydrogeological methods to study the groundwater regime of the Makutupora basin. Results of isotope techniques have provided adequate information on recharge locations, recharge rates and age of groundwater in the basin, that is very important and open up prospects for further investigations using isotope techniques. The ongoing investigation in the basin regarding pollution and depletion of the groundwater resource, has not succeeded in defining specific pumping limits or groundwater protection zones. Isotope data are sought to provide a clear basis for regulatory and future groundwater management in the Makutupora basin. (author)

  7. Water Resources Data - Texas Water Year 2000, Volume 3. San Jacinto River Basin, Brazos River Basin, San Bernard River Basin, and Intervening Coastal Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandara, S.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Barbie, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2000 water year for Texas are presented in six volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 3 contains records for water discharge at 84 gaging stations; stage only at 9 gaging stations; stage and contents at 32 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 25 gaging stations; and data for 43 partial-record stations comprised of 18 flood-hydrograph, 8 low-flow, 14 crest-stage, and 3 miscellaneous stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  8. Water Resources Data - Texas Water Year 1999, Volume 3. San Jacinto River Basin, Brazos River Basin, San Bernard River Basin, and Intervening Coastal Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandara, S.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Barbie, D.L.; Jones, R.E.

    2000-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1999 water year for Texas are presented in six volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 3 contains records for water discharge at 78 gaging stations; stage only at 7 gaging stations; stage and contents at 28 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 27 gaging stations; and data for 48 partial-record stations comprised of 19 flood-hydrograph, 8 low-flow, and 17 crest-stage, and 4 miscellaneous stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  9. Water Resources Data - Texas Water Year 1999, Volume 5. Guadalupe River Basin, Nueces River Basin, Rio Grande Basin, and Intervening Coastal Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandara, S.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Barbie, D.L.; Jones, R.E.

    2000-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1999 water year for Texas are presented in six volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water-quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 5 contains records for water discharge at 76 gaging stations; stage only at 1 gaging stations; stage and contents at 4 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 38 gaging stations; and data for 30 partial-record stations comprised of 3 flood-hydrograph, 14 low-flow, and 8 crest-stage, and 5 miscellaneous stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  10. Water Resources Data - Texas Water Year 2000, Volume 5. Guadalupe River Basin, Nueces River Basin, Rio Grande Basin, and Intervening Coastal Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandara, S.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Barbie, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2000 water year for Texas are presented in six volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water-quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 5 contains records for water discharge at 71 gaging stations; stage only at 4 gaging stations; stage and contents at 4 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 29 gaging stations; and data for 23 partial-record stations comprised of 3 flood-hydrograph, 10 low-flow, 6 crest-stage, and 4 miscellaneous stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  11. Water Resources Data, Texas Water Year 1998, Volume 2. San Jacinto River Basin, Brazos River Basin, San Bernard River Basin, and Intervening Coastal Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandara, S.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Andrews, F.L.; Barbie, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1998 water year for Texas are presented in four volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 2 contains records for water discharge at 74 gaging stations; stage only at 9 gaging stations; stage and contents at 21 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 32 gaging stations; and data for 73 partial-record stations comprised of 43 flood-hydrograph, 9 low-flow, and 16 crest-stage, and 5 miscellaneous stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  12. Geology and coal bed methane resource potential of the Gondwana Barapukuria Coal Basin, Dinajpur, Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, Md. Rafiqul; Hayashi, Daigoro [Department of Physics and Earth Sciences Faculty of Science, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, 903-0213 (Japan)

    2008-08-05

    With an area of 5.16 km{sup 2}, the Barapukuria coal deposit is one of the five largest Gondwana coal basins in Bangladesh, and is located in the north west of the country close to the towns of Dinajpur and Saidpur. The existence of the basin was initially indicated by a negative gravity anomaly in oil and gas exploration. Exploration for the deposit was commenced by the Geological Survey of Bangladesh (GSB), with seven surface boreholes that confirmed the existence of a significant coal deposit. The deposit occurs as an asymmetrical synclinal structure with an axis striking approximately N-S. The deposit is limited to the east by a large normal fault which has displaced Archaean metamorphics against the Gondwana sediments. The coal-bearing sediments are comprised of Gondwana Permian-age sandstones, siltstones, subordinate carbonaceous shales, and six correlated coal seams. The Gondwana sediments are unconformably overlain by Tertiary and Quaternary deposits, against which the coal seams are successively subcropped to the west. Within the structural limits of the basin, approximately 377 Mt coal in-situ has been quantified in the six coal seams that range in depth from 118 to 518 m below surface. Due to the synclinal nature of the deposit, the upper coal seams, designated I to V, occur over diminishing areal extent with decreasing depth. The principal seam of interest is the lowermost Seam VI, with a variable thickness across the deposit from 22 m in the northern part of the deposit to more than 42 m in the southern and eastern areas. Development of the Barapukuria Mine, the country's first coal mine, commenced in 1996 with the construction of two vertical shafts. Coal production from Seam VI began in 2005 and continues at the present time. Seam VI coal is high volatile B bituminous rank. About 34 Mt of coal has been estimated as recoverable resources, utilising descensional multi-slice longwall mining. The mine design and development have been severely

  13. An assessment the effects of human-caused air pollution on resources within the interior Columbia River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoettle, A.W.; Tonnessen, K.; Turk, J.; Vimont, J.; Amundson, Ronald; Acheson, A.; Peterson, J.

    1999-01-01

    An assessment of existing and potential impacts to vegetation, aquatics, and visibility within the Columbia River basin due to air pollution was conducted as part of the Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project. This assessment examined the current situation and potential trends due to pollutants such as ammonium, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, particulates, carbon, and ozone. Ecosystems and resources at risk are identified, including certain forests, lichens, cryptogamic crusts, high-elevation lakes and streams, arid lands, and class I areas. Current monitoring data are summarized and air pollution sources identified. The assessment also includes a summary of data gaps and suggestions for future research and monitoring related to air pollution and its effects on resources in the interior Columbia River basin.

  14. Isotope hydrology application in Cuba for assessment of water resource management in the most important basin of Havana City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper shows the results obtained during the investigations carried out in two research and development Projects, a national Project (2002-2005) and an international collaboration Project between Cuba and Argentina (2005-2006). The isotope hydrology is applied to assessment the 'Almendares-Vento' karstic basin, which is the main supplier to the Cuban capital. The basin is affected by the overexploitation of its water resources and discharges of industrial and urban wastewaters. Additionally, an extensive period of drought, justify the necessity of carrying out an integral Basin characterization for a better water resources management. Using a monitoring network of the groundwater and surface waters, a preliminary isotopic study (3H, 18O and 2H) including the rainfalls analysis in the Basin was accomplished. Also a detailed geochemistry characterization, including the integral geologic study, the determination of the major anions and cations (HCO3-, Cl-, SO42-, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+), and physico-chemical parameters (electrical conductivity, pH, TDS) was achieved. The isotope composition indicates their meteoric origin. Groundwater and surface water fit on an evaporation line, but not all samples follow an evaporation pattern. The isotope variations respond to processes as selective infiltration or direct infiltration through preferential channels through the karst. The used models show good water mixing and the aquifer receives fresh recharge annually, but not in the whole extension. The aquifer is overexploited in the main water extraction point of the Basin. The vulnerable zones associated to the contamination by saline water intrusion and the human activities in the urban areas are observed in the basin west side. Also were clarified some geologic and hydrogeology uncertainties of the Basin. The utility of the isotope hydrology to assessment the water resources management was established. (author)

  15. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of Bonaparte Basin, Browse Basin, Northwest Shelf, and Gippsland Basin Provinces, Australia, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollastro, Richard M.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Pitman, Janet K.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 4.7 billion barrels of undiscovered oil and 227 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas in three major offshore petroleum basins of northwest Australia and in the Gippsland Basin of southeast Australia.

  16. Assessment of undiscovered continuous oil and gas resources in the Monterey Formation, Los Angeles Basin Province, California, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Le, Phuong A.; Lillis, Paul G.; Marra, Kristen R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed technically recoverable mean resources of 13 million barrels of oil, 22 billion cubic feet of gas, and 1 million barrels of natural gas liquids in the Monterey Formation of the Los Angeles Basin Province, California.

  17. Seasonal Water Resources Management and Probabilistic Operations Forecast in the San Juan Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, L.; Zagona, E. A.; Rajagopalan, B.; Grantz, K.; Miller, W. P.; Werner, K.

    2013-12-01

    Projections of reservoir conditions and operations of major water resources systems in the Colorado River Basin are generated each month for a 2-year period by the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) using the 24-Month Study (24MS) model. This is a monthly timestep deterministic model that incorporates a single streamflow forecast trace produced by the National Weather Service (NWS) Colorado Basin River Forecast Center (CBRFC), resulting in the most probable reservoir operations projection. Using an Extended Streamflow Prediction (ESP) method and a physically based hydrologic model, the CBRFC produces an ensemble of streamflow forecasts by sampling historical weather sequences conditioned on 3-7 month seasonal climate forecasts starting from the model's current initial conditions. Using the 24MS model with the most probable forecast from the ESP ensemble, Reclamation manually inputs projected operations, adjusting the operations to meet system objectives. The result is a single most probable operations forecast that does not quantify the uncertainty associated with the ensemble flow projections. In addition, the variability in the ESP method is limited by the flows that result from the historical meteorological record. This research addresses these shortcomings by using an alternative method of generating an ensemble of forecasts with greater variability and applies these to a rulebased operations model to produce a probabilistic projection of operations. To accomplish this, we combined an enhanced ESP with a probabilistic version of the 24MS model known as the Mid-Term Operations Model (MTOM). The MTOM has captured the operating policies in a set of rules that are designed to meet system objectives for a wide range of hydrologic conditions, thus can be used to simulate operations for many hydrologic scenarios. For each year, stochastic weather sequences are generated conditioned on probabilistic seasonal climate forecasts which are coupled with the SAC-SMA model

  18. The Ministry of Land and Resources Published the “ThreeRate” Indicator for Seven Minerals Including Iron Ore and Copper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>In order to strengthen the supervision and administration of rational exploitation of mineral resources including iron,copper,lead,zinc,rare earth,sylvine and fluorite,the Ministry of Land and Resources has published the Minimum Three-rate Requirements for the Rational Exploitation of Mineral Resources including Iron,Copper,Lead,Zinc,Rare Earth,Sylvine and Fluorite(for trial implementation).

  19. Investigating the effectiveness of different forms of mineral resources governance in meeting the objectives of the UK petroleum fiscal regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After 40 years of oil investments, the UK is now a mature oil province. During these 40 years or so, the UK Government has changed the type of governance it uses to manage its petroleum resources. This paper introduces the theoretical background to two models of mineral resource governance: proprietorial and non-proprietorial regimes. It investigates how adoption any of these two models by the UK Government has historically affected the achievement of the objectives of the UK petroleum fiscal regime. The analysis tracks the changes in the governance of the UK petroleum resources using changes in the average petroleum tax rate, and how this last influenced the achievement of the objectives of the UK petroleum Regime. The findings remain significant for their policy implications. The study concludes that the UK Government adopted a proprietorial type of mineral governance during the period 1975–1982, before changing to a non-proprietorial regime in the period 1983–2000. Since 2000 it has begun to move back towards a proprietorial style of governance. The excessive use of one type of these modes of governance leads to the objectives of the UK petroleum fiscal regime being not met. - Highlights: • UK petroleum fiscal regime has historically been unstable, It has shifted between two different types of minerals governance. • Proprietorial and non-proprietorial philosophies of minerals governance have been used exchangeable in the UK. • Excessive use of either type of governance restricts meeting objectives of the UK petroleum fiscal regime. • The UK needs to use a transparent type of minerals governance by using tools from the two governance philosophies

  20. Integrated water resources management. Constraints and opportunities with a focus on the Ganges and the Brahmaputra river basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahaman, M.M.

    2009-07-01

    The key aims of this thesis are to identify the constraints and opportunities of implementing the integrated water resources management (IWRM) concept at both the policy and field level. IWRM has been chosen as a focus of this study as all contemporary international conferences, summits, regional water policies and declarations promote the IWRM concept for the effective and efficient management of water resources. The thesis has two parts. The first part reviews the evolution of the IWRM concept and the principles that have been developed at international conferences over the last three decades. Through two case studies on the EU Water Framework Directive (2000) and the Fourth World Water Forum's Ministerial Declaration (2006), an attempt is made to analyse the current implementation status of IWRM principles in practice. The findings suggest that existing policies tend to take a rather narrow view of the concept and have largely failed to incorporate the principles. This part also identifies the seven future challenges in implementing IWRM in practice. Water resources management is multidimensional in nature. In transboundary river basins, implementing the IWRM concept is even more complex as it involves more than one sovereign nation sharing the same water. The second part of the thesis focuses on implementation of IWRM in the transboundary river basin context. This part provides indepth analyses focusing on the integrated management of the Ganges and Brahmaputra river basins that are shared by China, Nepal, Bhutan, India and Bangladesh. It identifies the various dimensions of water conflict among the riparian countries and their views on integrated management of the basins. It analyzes the existing bilateral treaties between the riparian countries and identifies the constraints and benefits of integrated water management along the basins. Practical recommendations for the integrated management of the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins are formulated. The

  1. Insights from heavy minerals and zircon U-Pb ages into the middle Miocene-Pliocene provenance evolution of the Yinggehai Basin, northwestern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tao; Cao, Licheng; Xie, Xinong; Wang, Zhenfeng; Li, Xushen; Zhang, Yingzhao; Zhang, Daojun; Sun, Hui

    2015-08-01

    The well-preserved Cenozoic sedimentary record in the Yinggehai Basin, South China Sea, is suitable to explore the tectonic and climatic evolution of SE Asia. Red River, a large-scale fluvial system in this region, was previously regarded as the major sediment source for the basin. Here we combine heavy mineral analysis and detrital zircon U-Pb dating to shed new light on the middle Miocene-Pliocene provenance evolution at a basin scale. The results clearly reveal potential source areas additional to the Red River. Sediments have been delivered to the proximal areas from Hainan Island, as indicated by the high zircon content and the Yanshanian U-Pb ages in the southern segment of the Yingdong Slope. A provenance from Central Vietnam is explicitly discerned in the upper Miocene of the Central Depression, where sediments are characterized by few metamorphic heavy minerals and the U-Pb age pattern peaking at around 250 Ma and 440 Ma. Coeval large-scale relative sea-level fall and rapid exhumation along the Vietnamese margin together may have facilitated this long-distance sediment transport. Provenance of sediments from the Red River seems to change over time. Song Lo River, on the north side of the main stream, probably flowed from the NE and carried Neoproterozoic-early Paleozoic zircons to the Yinggehai Basin during the middle Miocene. Since the late Miocene, rocks along the Red River Fault Zone have become the dominant source. Subsequently, widespread metamorphic minerals in the Central Depression of the Yinggehai Basin, combined with the strong river incision and high offshore sedimentation rates, indicate an increased sediment supply from the Red River in the Pliocene.

  2. Hydrological WEAP Modeling of the Upper Basin of the Apurimac River Basin, in Peru. An Assessment of Available Water Resources and Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, S.; Sandoval Solis, S.

    2015-12-01

    Designing sustainable water resources systems is challenging given the natural scarcity of this resources in certain region and the increasing anthropogenic water demand for economic purposes. The overall goal of this study is to develop an empirical hydrologic model (one bucket model) that can adequately represent the hydrology and water resources management in the Apurimac River Basin (ARB) in Peru. The specific objectives are to: (a) develop the empirical hydrologic model, calibrate and validate it (b) build a water allocation model (c) evaluate their water supply performance with different series of scenarios (i) current and future water demands, (ii) with and without the construction of the reservoir under different hydrologic conditions (normal, dry and wet). Water Evaluation And Planning (WEAP) was used to build the model and evaluate different water allocation strategies, new infrastructure, and assess current and future water needs based on the requirement of the Regional Government of Cuzco and Arequipa. The proposed hydrologic model is a one-bucket model, where the processes of direct runoff, interflow and baseflow are represented and the process of groundwater recharge is the vertical outflow from the bottom of the bucket. Also, this model includes groundwater component which is an imperative process to consider in the valley of this basin because it provides adequate results, as shown later for this basin. Water allocation model estimate the quantity of water available to different demand sites within a river basin at different times. This study explains their impact in the analysis of the water availability and water supply for current and future water demands in the ARB with and without reservoir.

  3. Petroleum systems modelling of the Muensterland Basin and Ruhr Basin with special emphasis on unconventional gas resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uffmann, A.K.; Littke, R. [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Geology and Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal

    2013-08-01

    A 3D petroleum system model was built for the area of the northern Rhenish Massif and Muensterland/Ruhr Basin in order to reconstruct burial and temperature histories as well as petroleum generation and storage. The basin contains numerous potential unconventional gas reservoirs, i.e. more than 100 Pennsylvanian (Westphalian and upper Namurian) coal seams and several black shales of Pennsylvanian and Mississippian age. The focus here is on the Upper Alum Sahle ('Hangende Alaunschiefer') representing the uppermost Mississippian.

  4. Infiltration of late Palaeozoic evaporative brines in the reelfoot rift: A possible salt source for Illinois Basin formation waters and MVT mineralizing fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, E.L.; De Marsily, G.

    2001-01-01

    Salinities and homogenization temperatures of fluid inclusions in Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) deposits provide important insights into the regional hydrology of the Illinois basin/Reelfoot rift system in late Palaeozoic time. Although the thermal regime of this basin system has been plausibly explained, the origin of high salinities in the basin fluids remains enigmatic. Topographically driven flow appears to have been essential in forming these MVT districts, as well as many other districts worldwide. However, this type of flow is recharged by fresh water making it difficult to account for the high salinities of the mineralizing fluids over extended time periods. Results of numerical experiments carried out in this study provide a possible solution to the salinity problem presented by the MVT zinc-lead and fluorite districts at the margins of the basin system. Evaporative concentration of surface water and subsequent infiltration into the subsurface are proposed to account for large volumes of brine that are ultimately responsible for mineralization of these districts. This study demonstrates that under a range of geologically reasonable conditions, brine infiltration into an aquifer in the deep subsurface can coexist with topographically driven flow. Infiltration combined with regional flow and local magmatic heat sources in the Reelfoot rift explain the brine concentrations as well as the temperatures observed in the Southern Illinois and Upper Mississippi Valley districts.

  5. 库车盆地古近纪岩盐层中钾盐资源量预测研究%Prognosis of potash resource quantity in Eogene rock salt strata of Kuqa Basin, Xingjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐敏; 刘成林; 焦鹏程

    2009-01-01

    The ancient salt lake in Kuqa basin with a thick layer of rock salt had the structural environmental conditions for the formation of potash salt deposits. Lots of potash minerals and their associations were found in Tertiary evaporites within Kuqa basin. Making use of the method of rock salt quantity, the authors tentatively predicted the potash resource quantity in Kuqa basin. The procedure of the rock salt quantity method is as follows: first, the quantity of rock salt in Kuqa basin is analyzed; second, the stratigraphic thickness ratio between the marine facies and the continental facies is determined; finally, the probability of the formation of potash minerals is predicted. The theoretical basis of the rock salt quantity method is that potassium ions and sodium ions in sea water and surface water must have a certain proportional relation, and the rock salt and the potassium salt also have a fixed ratio in quantity. On such a basis, the rock salt quantity can be converted into the potash quantity. Accordingly, the probability of the formation of potash minerals in Kuqa basin within the Tarim basin is 4.69% . The probable reserved potash salt resource quantity (KC1) in Kuqa basin is up to 3 978 million tons.%新疆库车盆地的古盐湖沉积了巨厚的岩盐层,在构造环境上具备形成钾矿的条件.近年来,在库车盆地古近纪岩盐中发现了众多的钾盐矿物及其组合.文章采用石盐质量法,即通过统计和分析盆地中的石盐质量、海陆相沉积的比值关系及成钾概率,预测出库车盆地古近纪可能沉积的钾盐资源量.其理论基础是,海水和地表水中钾离子与钠离子含量存在一定的比例关系,石盐与钾盐沉积量也应存在固定比值,利用这一比值将已经发现并计算得出的石盐质量转换为钾盐资源量.分析确定库车盆地中带人钾总量的成钾概率是4.69%,据此,预测出可能沉积蕴藏的钾盐资源量(KCl)可达39.78亿t.

  6. Multilevel modeling of NPP change and impacts of water resources in the Lower Heihe River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Haiming; Zhan, Jinyan; Jiang, Qun'ou; Yuan, Yongwei; Li, Zhihui

    Net primary productivity (NPP) lays the foundation for provision of various ecosystem services, and understanding the impacts of potential influencing factors on NPP is of great significance to formulating appropriate management measures to guarantee the sustainable provision of essential ecosystem services. This study analyzed the impacts of potential influencing factors on NPP in the lower Heihe River Basin, a typical arid and semi-arid region in China. First, NPP was estimated with the C-FIX model, and then the multilevel model was used to analyze the impacts of potential influencing factors on NPP during 2000-2008. Finally decomposition analysis was used to further analyze the contribution of influencing factors to NPP change during 2000-2008. The average NPP increased by approximately 9.07% during 2000-2008, and results of the multilevel model indicate that both the socioeconomic variables and demographic variables are useful in explaining NPP change. In particular, coefficients of rainfall and evapotranspiration which represent the water availability reached 0.0456 and 0.2956, respectively. Results of decomposition analysis suggested that the water availability played an important role in increasing NPP, with a contribution rate of 44.17%, and it is necessary to carry out some policies that can promote the water use efficiency to increase NPP under the background of climate change and intensified human activities. There are some uncertainties in the results of this study, but these results still can provide valuable reference information for the water resource management to increase the ecosystem service supply in the lower Heihe River Basin.

  7. A Basin-based Analysis of Global Lake Stress from Scarcity of Sustainable Water Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Sheng, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Lakes are a major storage of surface fresh water readily accessible to human. However, lake water resource is unequally distributed on Earth due to variations of lake abundance, human water demand, and availability of sustainable water supply (primarily, river discharge). This study aims at presenting a global view of contemporary lake stress through analyzing water availability and human demand at fine spatial resolutions. Two scientific questions are progressively explored: i) What is the geographic cross-tabulation of lake distribution vs. population and human water demand? and ii) What is the potential stress of lake water from the scarcity of river discharge? We begin with a straightforward analysis of the spatiotemporal pattern between lake and population distributions. Preliminary results indicate that excluding the extreme climatic zones such as the Pan-Arctic and Tibetan Plateau, lake densities exhibits an intrinsically positive correlation with population density and increase rate. Lake stresses on drainage basin levels are further quantified with integration of river discharge, lake volume, and water withdrawal data. Lake water per capita is computed for each basin. An index of lake water stress (LWS) is developed to characterize the pressure of unit lake/reservoir water exerted from the scarcity of river discharge due to water withdrawal. The revealed LWS pattern provides a spatial-explicit guideline with respect to how lake water is presently in stress and thus potentially redistributed under the baseline of sustainable water scarcity. Several major regions with high LWS values are highlighted to further compare the contributions of human demand and natural water availability to the local lake stress.

  8. Isotope hydrology application in Cuba for assessment of water resource management in the most important Basin of Havana City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper shows the results obtained during the investigations carried out in two research and development projects; a national project (2002-2005) and an international collaboration project jointly carried out between Cuba and Argentina (2005-2006). Isotope hydrology tools are applied to the assessment the 'Almendares-Vento' karstic basin, which is the main water supply system to the Cuban capital. The basin is affected by the overexploitation of its water resources and discharges of industrial and urban wastewaters. Additionally, an extensive period of drought, justify the necessity of carrying out an integral characterization of the basin for a better management. Using a monitoring network of groundwater and surface waters, a preliminary isotopic study (3H, 18O and 2H) including rainfall analysis in the basin was accomplished. Also, a detailed geochemistry characterization, including the integral geologic study the determination of the major aniotis and cations (HCO3-, Cl-, SO42-, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+), and physico-chemical parameters (electrical conductivity, pH, TDS) was achieved. The isotope composition indicates their meteoric origin. Groundwater and surface water fit on an evaporation line, but not all samples follow an evaporation pattern. The isotope variations respond to processes such as selective infiltration or direct infiltration through preferential channels through the karst. The used models show good water mixing and the aquifer receives fresh recharge annually, but not in the whole extension. The aquifer is overexploited in the main water extraction point of the basin. The vulnerable zones associated to the contamination by saline water intrusion and the human activities in the urban areas are observed in the basin west side. Also were clarified some geologic and hydrogeology uncertainties of the basin. The utility of the isotope hydrology to assess the water resources management was established. (author)

  9. Water supply, demand, and quality indicators for assessing the spatial distribution of water resource vulnerability in the Columbia River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Heejun; Jung, Il-Won; Strecker, Angela; Wise, Daniel; Lafrenz, Martin; Shandas, Vivek; Moradkhani; Yeakley, Alan; Pan, Yangdong; Johnson, Gunnar; Psaris, Mike

    2013-01-01

    We investigated water resource vulnerability in the US portion of the Columbia River basin (CRB) using multiple indicators representing water supply, water demand, and water quality. Based on the US county scale, spatial analysis was conducted using various biophysical and socio-economic indicators that control water vulnerability. Water supply vulnerability and water demand vulnerability exhibited a similar spatial clustering of hotspots in areas where agricultural lands and variability of precipitation were high but dam storage capacity was low. The hotspots of water quality vulnerability were clustered around the main stem of the Columbia River where major population and agricultural centres are located. This multiple equal weight indicator approach confirmed that different drivers were associated with different vulnerability maps in the sub-basins of the CRB. Water quality variables are more important than water supply and water demand variables in the Willamette River basin, whereas water supply and demand variables are more important than water quality variables in the Upper Snake and Upper Columbia River basins. This result suggests that current water resources management and practices drive much of the vulnerability within the study area. The analysis suggests the need for increased coordination of water management across multiple levels of water governance to reduce water resource vulnerability in the CRB and a potentially different weighting scheme that explicitly takes into account the input of various water stakeholders.

  10. Statistical prediction of seasonal discharge in the Naryn basin for water resources planning in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, Heiko; Gafurov, Abror; Gerlitz, Lars; Unger-Shayesteh, Katy; Vorogushyn, Sergiy; Merkushkin, Aleksandr; Merz, Bruno

    2016-04-01

    The semi-arid regions of Central Asia crucially depend on the water resources supplied by the mountainous areas of the Tien-Shan and Pamirs. During the summer months the snow and glacier melt water of the rivers originating in the mountains provides the only water resource available for agricultural production but also for water collection in reservoirs for energy production in winter months. Thus a reliable seasonal forecast of the water resources is crucial for a sustainable management and planning of water resources.. In fact, seasonal forecasts are mandatory tasks of national hydro-meteorological services in the region. Thus this study aims at a statistical forecast of the seasonal water availability, whereas the focus is put on the usage of freely available data in order to facilitate an operational use without data access limitations. The study takes the Naryn basin as a test case, at which outlet the Toktogul reservoir stores the discharge of the Naryn River. As most of the water originates form snow and glacier melt, a statistical forecast model should use data sets that can serve as proxy data for the snow masses and snow water equivalent in late spring, which essentially determines the bulk of the seasonal discharge. CRU climate data describing the precipitation and temperature in the basin during winter and spring was used as base information, which was complemented by MODIS snow cover data processed through ModSnow tool, discharge during the spring and also GRACE gravimetry anomalies. For the construction of linear forecast models monthly as well as multi-monthly means over the period January to April were used to predict the seasonal mean discharge of May-September at the station Uchterek. An automatic model selection was performed in multiple steps, whereas the best models were selected according to several performance measures and their robustness in a leave-one-out cross validation. It could be shown that the seasonal discharge can be predicted with

  11. ASSESSMENT OF THE POTENTIAL IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE UPON SURFACE WATER RESOURCES IN THE PRAHOVA RIVER BASIN

    OpenAIRE

    M. RETEGAN

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present research is the determination of the impact of possible climatic changes in the 21st century upon surface water resources in the Prahova river basin using the WatBal model (a mathematical-hydrological water-balance model). The analyzed river basin covers an area of 3682 km² and is located outside the curvature of the Carpathian Mountains, in an area where the altitude varies between 60 m and 2500 m. In accordance with the altitude, the annual precipitation varies from a...

  12. Isotopic investigation of salinity and water resources in the Souss-Massa Basin (Morocco)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Souss-Massa region has become over the years one of the major economic poles in Morocco. The Souss-Massa Basin, covers approximately 27,000 square kilometers. With a year-round growing season, irrigated agriculture in the river basin produces more than half of Morocco's exported citrus and vegetables. Total water use in the basin is about 965 million cubic meters per year; approximately 94 per cent of the water use is for irrigation. Although water used for irrigation is obtained from surface water and groundwater sources, these sources are not sufficient to sustain current agricultural practices, and groundwater resources are being depleted. The area is characterized by a semi-arid climate and by a marked seasonal contrast. The rainfall average amounts to 250 mm/yr in the plain area and 500 mm/yr in the mountain. Every river of the region, called 'oued', has a temporary flow regime, because the drought period is very long (6 to 8 months) every year. The principal water resource is provided by the Souss-Massa Plio-Quaternary plain aquifer and by the dams. The sand and gravel aquifer, which was previously mainly exploited for irrigation, is becoming a source of increasing importance for the domestic supply of the Souss-Massa region. The aquifer with a variable transmissivity ranging from 2x10-4 to 6x10-3 m2 s-1 flows from the east to the west, towards the sea. The aridity of the climate, the drought in these last years, the overexploitation and the deterioration of the water quality, induce serious problems for a sustainable water management in the area. On average, groundwater extraction in the basin exceeds recharge by an estimated 260 million cubic meters annually. This over-pumping of the alluvial aquifer has resulted in water level declines ranging from 0.5 to 2.5 meters per year during the past three decades. The water quality is very variable and in some areas, it presents a high salinity exceeding 4 g.l-1 (Hsissou et al. 1997 1999; 2002; Boutaleb et al

  13. Managing large energy and mineral resources (EMR) projects in challenging environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanmeka, Arpamart

    The viability of energy mineral resources (EMR) construction projects is contingent upon the state of the world economic climate. Oil sands projects in Alberta, Canada exemplify large EMR projects that are highly sensitive to fluctuations in the world market. Alberta EMR projects are constrained by high fixed production costs and are also widely recognized as one of the most challenging construction projects to successfully deliver due to impacts from extreme weather conditions, remote locations and issues with labor availability amongst others. As indicated in many studies, these hardships strain the industry's ability to execute work efficiently, resulting in declining productivity and mounting cost and schedule overruns. Therefore, to enhance the competitiveness of Alberta EMR projects, project teams are targeting effective management strategies to enhance project performance and productivity by countering the uniquely challenging environment in Alberta. The main purpose of this research is to develop industry wide benchmarking tailored to the specific constraints and challenges of Alberta. Results support quantitative assessments and identify the root causes of project performance and ineffective field productivity problems in the heavy industry sector capital projects. Customized metrics produced from the data collected through a web-based survey instrument were used to quantitatively assess project performance in the following dimensions: cost, schedule, change, rework, safety, engineering and construction productivity and construction practices. The system enables the industry to measure project performance more accurately, get meaningful comparisons, while establishing credible norms specific to Alberta projects. Data analysis to identify the root cause of performance problems was conducted. The analysis of Alberta projects substantiated lessons of previous studies to create an improved awareness of the abilities of Alberta-based companies to manage their

  14. Remote sensing exploration for metallic mineral resources in central Baja California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, R. N.

    1977-01-01

    Remote sensor data (primarily LANDSAT) was analyzed by photogeologic and computer-assisted enhancement techniques to evaluate the metallic mineral potential of Baja California. Overlays were prepared at 1:1,000,000 and 1:500,000 and included known geologic relationships and mineral occurrences, lineament, drainage and structural patterns, tonal anomalies, and enhancement results. Computer-assisted enhancement and classification of the test sites was performed using the IMAGE 100 system to identify subtle tonal anomalies thought related to mineralization using known sites as analysis guides. Mineral potential maps of Baja California were generated from these analyses and the ten highest priority targets visited. Preliminary assay results (atomic absorption analysis) for the samples recovered showed moderate to high geochemical anomalies for Copper (10 of 12 samples), Zinc (3 of 12 samples) and Lead (4 of 12 samples).

  15. Variability of basin scale water resources indicators derived from global hydrological and land surface models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Micha; Blyth, Eleanor; Schellekens, Jaap

    2016-04-01

    Global hydrological and land-surface models are becoming increasingly available, and as the resolution of these improves, as well how hydrological processes are represented, so does their potential. These offer consistent datasets at the global scale, which can be used to establish water balances and derive policy relevant indicators in medium to large basins, including those that are poorly gauged. However, differences in model structure, model parameterisation, and model forcing may result in quite different indicator values being derived, depending on the model used. In this paper we explore indicators developed using four land surface models (LSM) and five global hydrological models (GHM). Results from these models have been made available through the Earth2Observe project, a recent research initiative funded by the European Union 7th Research Framework. All models have a resolution of 0.5 arc degrees, and are forced using the same WATCH-ERA-Interim (WFDEI) meteorological re-analysis data at a daily time step for the 32 year period from 1979 to 2012. We explore three water resources indicators; an aridity index, a simplified water exploitation index; and an indicator that calculates the frequency of occurrence of root zone stress. We compare indicators derived over selected areas/basins in Europe, Colombia, Southern Africa, the Indian Subcontinent and Australia/New Zealand. The hydrological fluxes calculated show quite significant differences between the nine models, despite the common forcing dataset, with these differences reflected in the indicators subsequently derived. The results show that the variability between models is related to the different climates types, with that variability quite logically depending largely on the availability of water. Patterns are also found in the type of models that dominate different parts of the distribution of the indicator values, with LSM models providing lower values, and GHM models providing higher values in some

  16. An Approach for Including Uncertainty in Integrated Water Resources Assessments within Large River Basins of Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, D.

    2015-12-01

    There are many large basins in southern Africa that are mostly ungauged but may have some streamflow observations either on the main river or on tributaries. Many of the streamflow records are, however, of poor quality or impacted by largely unquantified and non-stationary development impacts. All water resources assessments are therefore uncertain and model setups are difficult to validate in traditional ways. The paper presents a method for practical uncertainty assessment using a semi-distributed (sub-basin) model. The method uses a 2-stage approach where the first stage involves obtaining 'behavioural' parameter sets to represent the incremental natural streamflow for each sub-basin. The criteria for 'behavioural' are based on a series of constraints on model output that can be developed from the available gauged data or from regional assessments of natural hydrological functioning. The second stage simulates the whole basin based on sampling the 'behavioural' incremental flow parameter sets, as well as samples of additional individual parameter values representing downstream routing parts of the model and development impacts. One of the perceived advantage of the method is that all the ensembles at the total basin outlet are made up of behavioural inputs for all sub-basins. The method is also flexible in terms of the uncertainty range of the constraints, which might be expected to be narrow (low uncertainty) in well gauged sub-basins, or areas where our understanding of flow regime characteristics is good, but much wider (higher uncertainty) in other parts of the basin. The paper briefly explains the approach and discusses some of the issues associated with its application using examples from southern Africa.

  17. GoMiner: a resource for biological interpretation of genomic and proteomic data

    OpenAIRE

    Barry R Zeeberg; Feng, Weimin; Wang, Geoffrey; Wang, May D.; Fojo, Anthony T; Sunshine, Margot; Narasimhan, Sudarshan; Kane, David W; Reinhold, William C.; Lababidi, Samir; Bussey, Kimberly J.; Riss, Joseph; Barrett, J Carl; John N Weinstein

    2003-01-01

    We have developed GoMiner, a program package that organizes lists of 'interesting' genes (for example, under- and overexpressed genes from a microarray experiment) for biological interpretation in the context of the Gene Ontology. GoMiner provides quantitative and statistical output files and two useful visualizations. The first is a tree-like structure analogous to that in the AmiGO browser and the second is a compact, dynamically interactive 'directed acyclic graph'. Genes displayed in GoMi...

  18. Resource Assessment of the In-Place and Potentially Recoverable Deep Natural Gas Resource of the Onshore Interior Salt Basins, North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2006-09-30

    The objectives of the study were: (1) to perform resource assessment of the thermogenic gas resources in deeply buried (>15,000 ft) natural gas reservoirs of the onshore interior salt basins of the north central and northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas through petroleum system identification, characterization and modeling; and (2) to use the petroleum system based resource assessment to estimate the volume of the deep thermogenic gas resource that is available for potential recovery and to identify those areas in the interior salt basins with high potential for this thermogenic gas resource. Petroleum source rock analysis and petroleum system characterization and modeling, including thermal maturation and hydrocarbon expulsion modeling, have shown that the Upper Jurassic Smackover Formation served as the regional petroleum source rock in the North Louisiana Salt Basin, Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin. Thus, the estimates of the total hydrocarbons, oil, and gas generated and expelled are based on the assumption that the Smackover Formation is the main petroleum source rock in these basins and subbasins. The estimate of the total hydrocarbons generated for the North Louisiana Salt Basin in this study using a petroleum system approach compares favorably with the total volume of hydrocarbons generated published by Zimmermann (1999). In this study, the estimate is 2,870 billion barrels of total hydrocarbons generated using the method of Schmoker (1994), and the estimate is 2,640 billion barrels of total hydrocarbons generated using the Platte River software application. The estimate of Zimmermann (1999) is 2,000 to 2,500 billion barrels of total hydrocarbons generated. The estimate of gas generated for this basin is 6,400 TCF using the Platte River software application, and 12,800 TCF using the method of Schmoker (1994). Barnaby (2006) estimated that the total gas volume generated for this basin ranges from 4,000 to 8,000 TCF. Seventy

  19. Targeting Mineral Resources with Remote Sensing and Field Data in the Xiemisitai Area, West Junggar, Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamin R. Mansaray

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Xiemisitai area, West Junggar, Xinjiang, China, is situated at a potential copper mineralization zone in association with small granitic intrusions. In order to identify the alteration zones and mineralization characteristics of the intrusions, Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+ and Quickbird data of the study area were evaluated in mapping lithological units, small intrusions, and alteration zones. False color composites of the first principal component analyses (PCA1, PCA2, and PCA4 in red (R, green (G, and blue (B of the ETM+ image, and relevant hue-saturation-intensity (HSI color model transformations, were performed. This led to the identification of lithologic units and discrimination of granitic intrusions from wall-rocks. A new geological map was generated by integrating the remote sensing results with two internally published local geologic maps and field inspection data. For the selected region, false color composites from PCA and relevant HSI-transformed images of the Quickbird data delineated the details of small intrusions and identified other unknown similar intrusions nearby. Fifteen separate potash-feldspar granites and three separate hornblende biotite granites were identified using ETM+ and Quickbird data. The principal component analysis-based Crosta technique was employed to discriminate alteration minerals. Some of the mapped alteration zones using the Crosta technique agreed very well with the known copper deposits. Field verification led to the discovery of three copper mineralizations and two gold mineralizations for the first time. The results show that the PCA and HSI transformation techniques proved to be robust in processing remote sensing data with moderate to high spatial resolutions. It is concluded that the utilized methods are useful for mapping lithology and the targeting of small intrusion-type mineral resources within the sparsely vegetated regions of Northwest China.

  20. Elements for an integrated resource planning in the framework of river basins: a study for the Cuiaba River Basin; Elementos para um planejamento integrado de recursos no ambito de bacias hidrograficas: um estudo para a bacia do rio Cuiaba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorileo, Ivo Leandro; Bajay, Sergio Valdir [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (NIPE/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico. Dept. de Energia], e-mail: ildorileo@sigmanet.com.br, e-mail: bajay@fem.unicamp.br

    2008-07-01

    A new approach in energy planning in Brazil, IRP - Integrated Resources Planning for River Basins, gathers three main determinants of development: water, electricity and piped gas. This paper argues, briefly, the need of this planning, of indicative character, integrated with the River Basin Plans, and it presents a retrospective analysis concerning water, electricity and LPG demands of the economy sectors from Cuiaba River Basin region, priority elements to aid the prospective studies and to carry out process related to the IRP. (author)

  1. The Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral resource maps of the Ajo and Lukeville 1 degree x 2 degrees quadrangles, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Floyd; Tosdal, R.M.; Peterson, J.A.; Cox, D.P.; Miller, R.J.; Klein, D.P.; Theobald, P.K.; Haxel, G.B.; Grubensky, M.J.; Raines, G.L.; Barton, H.N.; Singer, D.A.; Eppinger, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    Encompassing about 21,000 km 2 in southwestern Arizona, the Ajo and Lukeville 1 ? by 2 ? quadrangles have been the subject of mineral resource investigations utilizing field and laboratory studies in the disciplines of geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and Landsat imagery. The results of these studies are published as a folio of maps, figures, and tables, with accompanying discussions. Past mineral production has been limited to copper from the Ajo Mining District. In addition to copper, the quadrangles contain potentially significant resources of gold and silver; a few other commodities, including molybdenum and evaporites, may also exist in the area as appreciable resources. This circular provides background information on the mineral deposits and on the investigations and integrates the information presented in the folio. The bibliography cites references to the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and mineral deposits of the two quadrangles.

  2. Technologies of oxygen supply for life support during the development of mineral resources in high altitude areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yingshu; Jia Yanxiang; Wu Tianyi; Deng Ling; Yang Xiong; Liu Wenhai; Zhang Hui

    2013-01-01

    In order to fulfill the needs of life-support oxygen supply during the development of plateau mineral resources,four oxygen supply patterns suitable for the plateau mine in specific environment were developed:tunnel face diffusive oxygen supply,tunnel oxygen-bar car,carried oxygen cylinder and portable oxygen generator.Through the study of safety oxygen supply experiments in low-pressure plateau areas,the mathematical relationship between maximum integration of secure oxygen volume and altitude has been achieved.Oxygen supply safety control should follow this relationship in plateau mines during the time of executing tunnel face or in room air diffusive oxygen supply.The application results of life-support oxygen supplement technologies in the development of mineral resources in high altitude areas show that the oxygen supply for tunneling miners in plateau mines can not only effectively enhance the oxygen saturation,reduce the pulse rate and the breath rate per minute,but also improve various symptoms caused by altitude hypoxia and high-intensity physical labor.

  3. Indus Basin Waters A Main Resource of Water in Pakistan: An Analytical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Tayyab Sohail

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The agriculture annulus in Pakistan aid 21% towards GDP of the country with mainly agriculture based economy. This ambit represents 45% of the country's labor force. Rivers are the main essence of water in Pakistan. This accounts for agriculture, commercial and domestic use. The veer in the availability of water of Rivers not only affects the economy but also the climate of the country. Water of these Rivers, directly or indirectly affects the lives of people in Pakistan. Indus River is the radical river which flows through the whole country until the brink of Arabian Sea. Indus Basin commences via Tibet flow from Jammu and Kashmir (India to Pakistan. This paper is a descriptive study of water flow in the three giant rivers of Pakistan and conspicuously illustrate the past flow history, present condition and unborn recognition of water resources in the realm. The historical scansion and the unborn prediction of the attainment of water in the kingdom along with its consequences on the economy is also the ingredient of this inquest. The fright of critical water shortage is utterly tedious for Pakistan so there is a heinous exigency of ingenuous endeavors from the governance bodies to cope with these challenges. Notions to address this issue are also presented in this paper.

  4. Strategic groundwater resources in the Tagliamento River basin (northern Italy): hydrogeological investigation integrated with geophysical exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapti-Caputo, Dimitra; Bratus, Antonio; Santarato, Giovanni

    2009-09-01

    The western sector of the Tagliamento River basin (Friuli Venezia-Giulia Region; northern Italy) is characterized by important water resources, both superficial and underground. In particular, in the Quaternary deposits of the plain, up to a depth of 500 m, six artesian aquifer systems exist. A large amount of lithological, geomorphological, and hydrogeological data is presented, allowing for definition of (a) the principal aquifer system of the area to a depth of about 500 m; (b) geometrical characteristics of the aquifers (thickness, lateral extension, etc); (c) the hydraulic parameters (hydraulic conductivity, transmissivity); (d) chemico-physical characteristics of the water; and (e) vulnerability to pollution of the aquifer systems. In a test area, where many boreholes were drilled for fresh water supply, the conceptual hydrogeological model was integrated by a detailed and repeated three-dimensional (3D) resistivity survey using combined electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and time-domain electromagnetic (TDEM) soundings. ERT investigation was mainly used to get detailed information about geometry and porosity of the overburden and to calibrate the shallowest TDEM information.

  5. Plausible impact of global climate change on water resources in the Tarim River Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yaning; XU Zongxue

    2005-01-01

    Combining the temperature and precipitation data from 77 climatological stations and the climatic and hydrological change data from three headstreams of the Tarim River: Hotan, Yarkant, and Aksu in the study area, the plausible association between climate change and the variability of water resources in the Tarim River Basin in recent years was investigated, the long-term trend of the hydrological time series including temperature, precipitation, and streamflow was detected, and the possible association between the El Ni(n)o/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and these three kinds of time series was tested. The results obtained in this study show that during the past years, the temperature experienced a significant monotonic increase at the speed of 5%, nearly 1℃ rise; the precipitation showed a significant decrease in the 1970s, and a significant increase in the1980s and 1990s, the average annual precipitation was increased with the magnitude of 6.8 mm per decade. A step change occurred in both temperature and precipitation time series around 1986, which may be influenced by the global climate change. Climate change resulted in the increase of the streamflow at the headwater of the Tarim River, but the anthropogenic activities such as over-depletion of the surface water resulted in the decrease of the streamflow at the lower reaches of the Tarim River. The study result also showed that there is no significant association between the ENSO and the temperature, precipitation and streamflow.

  6. Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources: Williston Basin, Central Montana Basins, and Montana Thrust Belt study areas: Chapter J in Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buursink, Marc L.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Craddock, William H.; Roberts-Ashby, Tina L.; Brennan, Sean T.; Blondes, Madalyn S.; Freeman, P.A.; Cahan, Steven M.; DeVera, Christina A.; Lohr, Celeste D.

    2014-01-01

    The 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act directs the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to conduct a national assessment of potential geologic storage resources for carbon dioxide (CO2). The methodology used by the USGS for the national CO2 assessment follows that of previous USGS work. This methodology is non-economic and is intended to be used at regional to sub-basinal scales.

  7. Research cooperation project on environmentally friendly technology for highly efficient mineral resources extraction and treatment. Detail design for pilot plant (Electrical fabrication)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper prepared plans of the electrical equipment in the detailed design of a pilot plant in the joint research project on the environmental protection technology for highly efficient mineral resource extraction and treatment. (NEDO)

  8. Aggregate and Mineral Resources, Villa Rica, Georgia Mine Locations Map, Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Chattahoochee-Flint Regional Development.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Aggregate and Mineral Resources dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2007. It is...

  9. Iron-titanium oxide minerals and magnetic susceptibility anomalies in the Mariano Lake-Lake Valley cores - Constraints on conditions of uranium mineralization in the Morrison Formation, San Juan Basin, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrographic study of the Mariano Lake-Lake Valley cores reveals three distinct zones of postdepositional alteration of detrital Fe-Ti (iron-titanium) oxide minerals in the Westwater Canyon Member of the Upper Jurassic Morrisson Formation. In the uranium-bearing and adjacent portions of the Westwater Canyon, these detrital Fe-Ti oxide minerals have been thoroughly altered by leaching of iron. Stratigraphically lower parts of the Westwater Canyon and the underlying Recapture Member are characterized by preservation of Fe-Ti oxide grains, primarily magnetite and ilmenite, and of hematite, and by an absence or uranium concentrations. Partly destroyed Fe-Ti oxide minerals occupy an interval between the zones of destruction and preservation. Alteration patterns of the Fe-Ti oxide minerals are reflected in bore-hole magnetic susceptibility logs. Magnetic susceptibility response in the upper parts of the Westwater Canyon Member is flat and uniformly <500 μSI units, but at greater depths it fluctuates sharply, from <1,000 to nearly 8,000 μSI units. The boundary between uniformly low and high magnetic susceptibility response corresponds closely to the interval that divides the zone of completely altered from the zone of preserved detrital Fe-Ti oxide minerals. The alteration pattern suggests that solutions responsible for destruction of the Fe-ti oxide minerals originated in the overlying Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation. Previous studies indicate that these solutions were rich in soluble organic matter and perhaps in uranium. Uranium precipitation may have been controlled by a vertically fluctuation interface between organic-rich solutions and geochemically different fluids in which the detrital Fe-Ti oxide minerals were preserved

  10. Contributions of isotopic techniques to the understanding of mineral water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first isotopes used were those of water itself, being an intrinsic part of the molecule and forming ideal tracers. Oxygen 18 and deuterium finally quashed the notion of juvenile water by demonstrating that mineral water had a meteoric origin. They also make it possible to locate the zone supplying the mineral water system by determining its mean depth on the basis of isotopic height gradients. Tritium from thermonuclear devices which was particularly abundant in precipitation during the decade 1963-1973 was used at an early stage to identify the presence of recent, post-nuclear water in mineral water springs. Isotopes of dissolved elements, being exposed to chemical and biochemical fractionating, are a more delicate matter. They are used to determine the origin of the elements and to untangle the history of the water. Carbon 13 has been used to demonstrate the deep magmatic origin of the CO2 in most mineral waters that contain it. It is used to investigate the interactions between the CO2 gas, the bicarbonates and the limestone matrix, knowledge of which is essential for radiocarbon dating of ground water. The initial hopes that sulphur 34 would make it possible to distinguish sulphates dissolved in evaporites from those resulting from the action of micro-organisms. Nitrogen 15 is still little used in the field of mineral waters, in which nitrate concentrations are usually very low. (author). 36 refs., 5 figs

  11. State of the Art and Conception of research in the Fields of Mining and Mineral Resources in the Institute of Geonics ASCR

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šňupárek, Richard

    Ostrava : VŠBTU, 2001 - (Petroš, V.), s. 123-128 ISBN 80-7078-854-2. [Mineral Raw Materials and Mining Activity of the 21st Century. Ostrava (CZ), 30.01.2001-31.01.2001] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3086906 Keywords : mining * mineral resources * research conception Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  12. Study on consumption efficiency of soil water resources in the Yellow River Basin based on regional ET structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hao; YANG GuiYu; JIA YangWen; QIN DaYong

    2008-01-01

    Based on the regional water resources character, the concept of soil water resources is first redefined,and then associated with their transfer relationship in the hydrological cycle, Evapotranspiration (ET)-based consumption structure and consumption efficiency of soil water resources are analyzed.According to ET's function in productivity, the consumption efficiency of soil water resources is divided into three classes: high efficient consumption from vegetation transpiration, low efficient consumption from soil evaporation among plants with high vegetation coverage and inefficient consumption from soil evaporation among plants with low vegetation coverage and bare soil evaporation. The high efficient and low efficient consumption were further classified as productive consumption. The ineffi-cient consumption is considered non-productive consumption because it is significant in the whole hydrological cycle process. Finally, according to these categories, and employing a WEP-L distributed hydrological model, this paper analyzes the consumption efficiency of soil water resources in the Yel-low River Basin. The results show that there are 2078.89×108 m3 soil water resources in the whole basin. From the viewpoint of consumption structure, the soil water resources are comprised of 381.89×108 m3 transpiration consumption from vegetation and 1697.09×108 m3 evaporation consumption from soil among plants and bare soil. From the viewpoint of consumption efficiency, soil water resources are composed of 920.11×108 m3 efficient consumption and 1158.86×108 m3 of inefficient consumption. High efficient consumption accounts for 41.5 percent of the total efficient consumption of the whole basin, low efficient for 58.5 percent. Furthermore, consumption efficiency varies by region.Compared with ET from different land use conditions, the whole basin appears to follow the trend of having the greatest proportion of consumption as inefficient consumption, followed by low efficient

  13. Površine raziskovalnih, pridobivalnih in potencialnih prostorov mineralnih surovin v Republiki Sloveniji: Exploration, extraction and potential areas of mineral resources in the Republic of Slovenia:

    OpenAIRE

    Strgar, Ivan

    2004-01-01

    In 2003, the Commission for Mineral and Ground Water Resources of the Republicof Slovenia (Commission) collected data and produced a balance of exploration, extraction and potential areas of mineral resources in the Republic of Slovenia - situation on 31 December 2002 for the first time. The balance was based on data gained from forms "Registration of the size of exploration and extraction area - situation on 31 December 2002". The Commission has not produced any such balance before, although...

  14. Mineral resources and energy. Report by the 'Soil and underground' group of the Ancre Alliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After comments on the growth of the world consumption of raw materials, on the relocation of productions and on the loss of interest by industrialized countries in mineral resources and their dependency, and a discussion of the relationship between energy and mineral raw materials, this study proposes an assessment and a discussion of energy needs for mining and metal industries. In the next part, needs in raw materials for the energy sector are analysed and discussed with respect to their field of application, to their intensity, to energy scenarios, and to application to research. The value chain is then analysed as well as its risks which can be political, industrial, related to infrastructures, economic, environmental, geological, technical, or social. Recycling capacities and the potential of substitution are then addressed. Themes and axis of research are identified for the assessment of needs, social acceptability, geology and exploration, mining, ore processing and metal industry, recycling, and substitution

  15. Participatory and decentralized water resources management: challenges and perspectives for the North Paraíba River Basin committee - Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, M A F M; Vieira, Z M C L; Ribeiro, M M R

    2012-01-01

    The Brazilian Water Resources Policy (Law 9433/1997) establishes participatory and decentralized management, involving civil society, water users and governmental bodies, with the basin committees as the basis of this process. Fifteen years after its implementation, it is possible to perceive accomplishments, but, at the same time, there are some difficulties in regards to the operation of the basin committees in the country. Considering the North Paraíba River Basin - which is completely included in the State of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil, and presents great social and economic importance for the state - this article analyzes the process of formation, installation and functioning of its Basin Committee (CBH-PB), focusing on its composition, the reasons for the mobilization and demobilization of its members, the intra-relations between segments, and the inter-relations between the CBH-PB and other entities of the State Water Management System (the Water Executive Agency and the State Water Resources Council). The level of decentralization and the quality of participatory management (as it is being performed at the CBH-PB) are discussed and guidelines are suggested in order to allow greater effectiveness to the committee. PMID:22925876

  16. Analyzing legacy U.S. Geological Survey geochemical databases using GIS: applications for a national mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Douglas B.; Hofstra, Albert H.; Granitto, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    This report emphasizes geographic information system analysis and the display of data stored in the legacy U.S. Geological Survey National Geochemical Database for use in mineral resource investigations. Geochemical analyses of soils, stream sediments, and rocks that are archived in the National Geochemical Database provide an extensive data source for investigating geochemical anomalies. A study area in the Egan Range of east-central Nevada was used to develop a geographic information system analysis methodology for two different geochemical datasets involving detailed (Bureau of Land Management Wilderness) and reconnaissance-scale (National Uranium Resource Evaluation) investigations. ArcGIS was used to analyze and thematically map geochemical information at point locations. Watershed-boundary datasets served as a geographic reference to relate potentially anomalous sample sites with hydrologic unit codes at varying scales. The National Hydrography Dataset was analyzed with Hydrography Event Management and ArcGIS Utility Network Analyst tools to delineate potential sediment-sample provenance along a stream network. These tools can be used to track potential upstream-sediment-contributing areas to a sample site. This methodology identifies geochemically anomalous sample sites, watersheds, and streams that could help focus mineral resource investigations in the field.

  17. Clay minerals in uraniferous deposit of Imouraren (Tim Mersoi basin, Niger): implications on genesis of deposit and on ore treatment process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigerian uraniferous deposits are located in carboniferous and Jurassic formations of Tim Mersoi basin. AREVA is shareholder of 3 mine sites in this area: SOMAIR and COMINAK, both in exploitation since 1960's and IMOURAREN, 80 km further South, whose exploitation is planned for 2015. Mineralization of Imouraren deposit is included in the fluvial formation of Tchirezrine 2 (Jurassic), composed of channels and flood plains. Facies of channel in-fillings range from coarse sandstones to siltstones, while overflow facies are composed of analcimolites. Secondary mineralogy was acquired during 2 stages: 1- diagenesis, with formation of clay minerals, analcime, secondary quartz and albites, and 2- stage of fluids circulations, which induced alteration of detrital and diagenetic minerals, formation of new phases and uranium deposition. A mineralogical zoning, at the scale of deposit resulted from this alteration. The heterogeneity of Tchirezrine 2, at the level of both facies and mineralogy, is also evidenced during ore treatment, as ore reacts differently depending on its source, with sometimes problems of U recovery. Ore treatment tests showed that analcimes and chlorites were both penalizing minerals, because of 1- the sequestration of U-bearing minerals into analcimes, 2- their dissolution which trends to move away from U solubilization conditions (pH and Eh) and to form numerous sulfates, and 3- problems of percolation. A detection method of analcime-rich ores, based on infrared spectroscopy, was developed in order to optimize ore blending and so to reduce negative effects during ore treatment process. (author)

  18. Mineral resources of the Little High Rock Canyon Wilderness Study Area, Humboldt and Washoe counties, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Little High Rock Canyon Wilderness Study Area consists of approximately 52,143 acres of flat-lying Tertiary volcanic rocks and associated sediments. No resources were identified in the study area, but three areas contain moderate potential for epithermal gold and silver resources. The rest of the area has low potential for epithermal gold and silver resources. The study area also contains three small areas of low potential for perlite, pozzolan, and uranium

  19. Groundwater resources in the Indo-Gangetic Basin : resilience to climate and abstraction : project workshop meeting, Delhi, 4-7 November 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Bonsor, H. C.; MacDonald, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    This report is an output from the project Groundwater resilience to climate change and abstraction in the Indo-Gangetic basin Groundwater resilience to climate change and abstraction in the Indo-Gangetic basin is a two-year (2012-14) DFID-funded research project strengthening the evidence-base linking groundwater resources, climate variability and abstraction in the Indo-Gangetic basin. This project has been commissioned by the DFID South Asia research hub and is led by the Bri...

  20. Study on consumption efficiency of soil water resources in the Yellow River Basin based on regional ET structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Based on the regional water resources character, the concept of soil water resources is first redefined, and then associated with their transfer relationship in the hydrological cycle, Evapotranspiration (ET)-based consumption structure and consumption efficiency of soil water resources are analyzed. According to ET ’s function in productivity, the consumption efficiency of soil water resources is di- vided into three classes: high efficient consumption from vegetation transpiration, low efficient con- sumption from soil evaporation among plants with high vegetation coverage and inefficient consump- tion from soil evaporation among plants with low vegetation coverage and bare soil evaporation. The high efficient and low efficient consumption were further classified as productive consumption. The ineffi- cient consumption is considered non-productive consumption because it is significant in the whole hydrological cycle process. Finally, according to these categories, and employing a WEP-L dis- tributed hydrological model, this paper analyzes the consumption efficiency of soil water resources in the Yel- low River Basin. The results show that there are 2078.89×108 m3 soil water resources in the whole basin. From the viewpoint of consumption structure, the soil water resources are comprised of 381.89×108 m3 transpiration consumption from vegetation and 1697.09×108 m3 evaporation consumption from soil among plants and bare soil. From the viewpoint of consumption efficiency, soil water re- sources are composed of 920.11×108 m3 efficient consumption and 1158.86×108 m3 of inefficient con- sumption. High efficient consumption accounts for 41.5 percent of the total efficient consumption of the whole basin, low efficient for 58.5 percent. Furthermore, consumption efficiency varies by region. Compared with ET from different land use conditions, the whole basin appears to follow the trend of having the greatest proportion of consumption as inefficient consumption

  1. An ARC/INFO point coverage of Mineral Resource Data System (MRDS) locations in eleven western states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, David G.

    1999-01-01

    This ARC/Info coverage, derived from the USGS Mineral Resource Data System (MRDS), contains 60,490 records that fall within the states of Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, New Mexico, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, Washington, Wyoming. The dataset has 13 fields containing information on record identification, location, commodity, geology, and deposit type. The data for this report was retrieved from the master database as a tab text file and imported into a Microsoft Access database. The data was then imported into ESRI’s ArcView where shape files were created. These shape files were then converted into an ARC/INFO coverage.

  2. Searching for a global reserves standard - The United Nations Framework Classification for Fossil Energy and Mineral Reserves and Resources 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch-Bell, Michael

    2010-09-15

    The UNFC-2009 applies to fossil energy and mineral reserves and resources located on or below the Earth's surface and is intended to serve the needs for classification at a global level for governments, for industry and for financial reporting. UNFC-2009 is a generic system in which quantities are classified on the basis of the three fundamental criteria of economic and social viability (E), field project status and feasibility (F), and geological knowledge (G), using a numerical coding system. The aim of this paper is to explore whether the UNFC-2009 can meet the needs of all internal and external stakeholders.

  3. Geochemistry and arsenic behaviour in groundwater resources of the Pannonian Basin (Hungary and Romania)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Elevated As levels in the Pannonian Basin are mainly present in very old (Palaeo) groundwater of methanogenic Pliocene/Quaternary aquifers, which is in contrast to Asian regions where arsenic-enriched groundwater is generally much younger. Display Omitted Research highlights: → Arsenic originates from Late Pliocene/Quaternary aquifers and some very old waters. → Arsenic levels are controlled by both mobilisation and retention mechanisms. → Mobilisation is caused by biogeochemical reductive dissolution. → Sufficient sulfate supply triggers arsenic retention in sulfide precipitates. → Nearly 500,000 people are exposed to elevated arsenic in their drinking water. - Abstract: Groundwater resources in the Pannonian Basin (Hungary, Romania, Croatia and Serbia) are known to contain elevated naturally occurring As. Published estimates suggest nearly 500,000 people are exposed to levels greater than the EU maximum admissible concentration of 10 μg/L in their drinking water, making it the largest area so affected in Europe. In this study, a variety of groundwaters were collected from Romania and Hungary to elucidate the general geochemistry and identify processes controlling As behaviour. Concentrations ranged from 42-reduction containing low As levels (7Li (an indicator of geothermal inputs) and As(tot) in geothermal/saline influenced waters indicate that elevated As is not from an external input, but is released due to an in-aquifer process. Geochemical reasoning, therefore, implies As mobilisation is controlled by redox processes, most likely microbially mediated reductive dissolution of As bearing Fe-oxides, known to occur in sediments from the area. More important is an overlying retention mechanism determined by the presence or absence of SO42-. Ongoing SO42-reduction will release S2-, removing As from solution either by the formation of As-sulfides, or from sorption onto Fe-sulfide phases. In methanogenic waters, As released by reductive

  4. Digitized generalized areas where surface-water resources likely or potentially are susceptible to groundwater withdrawals in adjacent valleys, Great Basin National Park area, Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Polygons delineate generalized areas in and around Great Basin National Park where surface-water resources likely or potentially are susceptible to groundwater...

  5. Analysis of Water Resources Supply and Demand and Security of Water Resources Development in Irrigation Regions of the Middle Reaches of the Heihe River Basin, Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Xi-bin; KANG Er-si; CHEN Ren-sheng; ZHAO Wen-zhi; XIAO Sheng-chun; JIN Bo-wen

    2006-01-01

    Based on the data for meteorology, hydrology, soil, planting, vegetation, and socio-economic development of the irrigation region in the middle reaches of the Heihe River basin, Northwest China, the model of balance of water supply and demand in the region was established, and the security of water resource was assessed, from which the results that the effects of unified management of water resources in the Heihe River basin between Gansu Province and Inner Mongolia on regional hydrology are significant with a decrease in water supply diverted from Heihe River and an increase in groundwater extracted. In addition, it was found that the groundwater level has been steadily decreasing due to over pumping and decrease in recharges. In present year (2003), the volume of potential groundwater in the irrigation districts is far small because of the groundwater overdraft; even in the particular regions, there is no availability of groundwater resources for use. By 2003, water supply is not sufficient to meet the water demand in the different irrigation districts, the sustainable development and utilization of water resources are not secured, and the water supply crisis occurs in Pingchuan irrigation district. Achieving water security for the sustainable development of society, agriculture, economy, industry, and livelihoods while maintaining or improving the abilities of the management and planning of water resources, determining of the reasonable percentage between water supply and groundwater utilization and water saving in agricultural irrigation are taken into account. If this does not occur, it is feared that the present performance of water development and planning may further aggravate the problem of scarcities of water resources and further damage the fragile ecological system.

  6. Implications of Climate Change for Water Resources Development in the Ganges Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Jeuland, Marc; Harshadeep, Nagaraja; Escurra, Jorge; Blackmore, Don; Sadoff, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the first basin-wide assessment of the potential impact of climate change on the hydrology and production of the Ganges system, undertaken as part of the World Bank’s Ganges Strategic Basin Assessment. A series of modeling efforts, downscaling of climate projections, water balance calculations, hydrological simulation and economic optimization, inform the assessment. Th...

  7. GIS-based Geospatial Infrastructure of Water Resource Assessment for Supporting Oil Shale Development in Piceance Basin of Northwestern Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Wei [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States) Dept. of Geology and Geological Engineering; Minnick, Matthew D [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States) Dept. of Geology and Geological Engineering; Mattson, Earl D [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Geza, Mengistu [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States) Dept. of Cilvil and Environmental Engineering; Murray, Kyle E. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States) Oklahoma Geological Survey

    2015-04-01

    Oil shale deposits of the Green River Formation (GRF) in Northwestern Colorado, Southwestern Wyoming, and Northeastern Utah may become one of the first oil shale deposits to be developed in the U.S. because of their richness, accessibility, and extensive prior characterization. Oil shale is an organic-rich fine-grained sedimentary rock that contains significant amounts of kerogen from which liquid hydrocarbons can be produced. Water is needed to retort or extract oil shale at an approximate rate of three volumes of water for every volume of oil produced. Concerns have been raised over the demand and availability of water to produce oil shale, particularly in semiarid regions where water consumption must be limited and optimized to meet demands from other sectors. The economic benefit of oil shale development in this region may have tradeoffs within the local and regional environment. Due to these potential environmental impacts of oil shale development, water usage issues need to be further studied. A basin-wide baseline for oil shale and water resource data is the foundation of the study. This paper focuses on the design and construction of a centralized geospatial infrastructure for managing a large amount of oil shale and water resource related baseline data, and for setting up the frameworks for analytical and numerical models including but not limited to three-dimensional (3D) geologic, energy resource development systems, and surface water models. Such a centralized geospatial infrastructure made it possible to directly generate model inputs from the same database and to indirectly couple the different models through inputs/outputs. Thus ensures consistency of analyses conducted by researchers from different institutions, and help decision makers to balance water budget based on the spatial distribution of the oil shale and water resources, and the spatial variations of geologic, topographic, and hydrogeological Characterization of the basin. This endeavor

  8. THE SCARCITY-ABUNDANCE RELATIONSHIP OF MINERAL RESOURCES INTRODUCING SOME SUSTAINTABLE ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ ANTONIO ESPI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El Planeta posee un gran número de concentraciones de minerales. Sin embargo, el bajo precio asignado a estos recursos y los principios de la minería sostenible, a corto plazo, pueden producir limitaciones en la exploración y en la extracción de estos recursos, que en un futuro inmediato, sin duda, afectarán al suministro de los minerales. La verdadera contabilidad de los recursos naturales no renovables ha de hacerse introduciendo los valores sin mercado provocados por su explotación que hasta ahora no habían sido contabilizados. Las herramientas de gestión ambiental (fundamentalmente el Análisis Exergético y el Análisis de Ciclo de Vida, aplicados a la producción mineral son instrumentos para alcanzar este fin, tal como se expresa a continuación.

  9. Integrated Groundwater Resources Management Using the DPSIR Approach in a GIS Environment Context: A Case Study from the Gallikos River Basin, North Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Christos Mattas; Konstantinos S. Voudouris; Andreas Panagopoulos

    2014-01-01

    The Gallikos River basin is located in the northern part of Greece, and the coastal section is part of a deltaic system. The basin has been influenced by anthropogenic activities during the last decades, leading to continuous water resource degradation. The holistic approach of the Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) framework was applied in order to investigate the main causes and origins of pressures and to optimize the measures for sustainable management of water resources. The ...

  10. Water quality monitoring in Lake Abaya and Lake Chamo region : a research based on water resources of the Abaya-Chamo Basin - South Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Teklemariam Tiruneh, Ababu

    2006-01-01

    This study is based on water quality monitoring work of water resources within the Abaya-Chamo basin. The methods, method validation and analysis results have been presented and discussed. Seansonal variation and trends as well as associated water quality management issues are discussed. A water quality monitoring system based on an integrated partial physical orthogonal model has been designed based on data generated within the water resources of the Abaya-Chamo drainage basin. Abstract c...

  11. A CO2-Silica Geothermometer for Low Temperature Geothermal Resource Assessment, with Application to Resources in the Safford Basin, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witcher, James C.; Stone, Claudia

    1983-11-01

    Geothermics is the study of the earth's heat energy, it's affect on subsurface temperature distribution, it's physical and chemical sources, and it's role in dynamic geologic processes. The term, geothermometry, is applied to the determination of equilibrium temperatures of natural chemical systems, including rock, mineral, and liquid phases. An assemblage of minerals or a chemical system whose phase composition is a function of temperature and pressure can be used as a geothermometer. Thus a geothermometer is useful to determine the formation temperature of rock or the last equilibrium temperature of a flowing aqueous solution such as ground water and hydrothermal fluids.

  12. AbMiner: A bioinformatic resource on available monoclonal antibodies and corresponding gene identifiers for genomic, proteomic, and immunologic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankavaram Uma

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Monoclonal antibodies are used extensively throughout the biomedical sciences for detection of antigens, either in vitro or in vivo. We, for example, have used them for quantitation of proteins on "reverse-phase" protein lysate arrays. For those studies, we quality-controlled > 600 available monoclonal antibodies and also needed to develop precise information on the genes that encode their antigens. Translation among the various protein and gene identifier types proved non-trivial because of one-to-many and many-to-one relationships. To organize the antibody, protein, and gene information, we initially developed a relational database in Filemaker for our own use. When it became apparent that the information would be useful to many other researchers faced with the need to choose or characterize antibodies, we developed it further as AbMiner, a fully relational web-based database under MySQL, programmed in Java. Description AbMiner is a user-friendly, web-based relational database of information on > 600 commercially available antibodies that we validated by Western blot for protein microarray studies. It includes many types of information on the antibody, the immunogen, the vendor, the antigen, and the antigen's gene. Multiple gene and protein identifier types provide links to corresponding entries in a variety of other public databases, including resources for phosphorylation-specific antibodies. AbMiner also includes our quality-control data against a pool of 60 diverse cancer cell types (the NCI-60 and also protein expression levels for the NCI-60 cells measured using our high-density "reverse-phase" protein lysate microarrays for a selection of the listed antibodies. Some other available database resources give information on antibody specificity for one or a couple of cell types. In contrast, the data in AbMiner indicate specificity with respect to the antigens in a pool of 60 diverse cell types from nine different

  13. Diagenesis and fluid flow in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico - regional zonation in the mineralogy and stable isotope composition of clay minerals in sandstone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, G.; Northrop, H.R.

    1987-01-01

    The Westwater Canyon Member of the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation is a relatively homogeneous, hydrologically continuous 100-m-thick sequence of massive fluvial sandstone, bounded above and below by relatively heterogeneous, hydrologically discontinuous units and has served as a primary conduit for fluids within this stratigraphic interval. Patterns of mineral-fluid reactions suggest a basinwide hydrologic regime in which warm, evolved fluids migrated up-dip from the center of the basin under the influence of a regional hydraulic head. -from Authors

  14. Geochemical and isotopic composition of organic matter in the Kupferschiefer of the Polish Zechstein basin: relation to maturity and base metal mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtel, A.; Gratzer, R.; Püttmann, W.; Oszczepalski, S.

    Drill core samples from the Kupferschiefer of Poland were collected throughout the Zechstein basin. The samples included oxidized Kupferschiefer from Rote Fäule zones, adjacent Cu-mineralized Kupferschiefer of southwestern Poland, and drill cores from the central and northern parts of the Zechstein basin. The Kupferschiefer samples reflect differences in base metal mineralization and in burial depth (630-5067m). The organic matter of the Kupferschiefer is characterized by Rock-Eval and GC-MS analyses. Classification of kerogen by hydrogen and oxygen indices (HI, OI), correlations of Tmax vs the present depth of the Kupferschiefer, soluble organic matter (SOM) yields, and relative proportions of saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons of the SOM provide evidence for an oxidative alteration of organic matter in highly mineralized Kupferschiefer samples near the Rote Fäule zones. This is confirmed by differences in the composition of the saturated and aromatic hydrocarbon fractions of the soluble organic matter: Saturated hydrocarbons from Rote Fäule samples are dominated by short-chain n-alkanes and higher abundances of pristane and phytane relative to heptadecane (n-C17) and octadecane (n-C18), respectively, compared with samples more distant to the Rote Fäule zone. Compositional changes of the aromatic hydrocarbon fractions with decreasing distance to that zone are characterized by the occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and elevated ratios of phenanthrene to methylphenanthrenes that are attributed to demethylation reactions and resulted in a decrease of the methylphenanthrene index (MPI1). Kupferschiefer samples from the barren zone of the Polish Basin do not show these alteration patterns. The observed variations in organic matter composition with burial depth are consistent with changes due to increasing thermal maturation. Maturity assessment is achieved from MPI1 and the methyldibenzothiophene ratio (MDR). From the relationship between the maturity

  15. A basin-scale approach for assessing water resources in a semiarid environment: San Diego region, California and Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Flint

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Many basins throughout the world have sparse hydrologic and geologic data, but have increasing demands for water and a commensurate need for integrated understanding of surface and groundwater resources. This paper demonstrates a methodology for using a distributed parameter water-balance model, gaged surface-water flow, and a reconnaissance-level groundwater flow model to develop a first-order water balance. Flow amounts are rounded to the nearest 5 million cubic meters per year.

    The San Diego River basin is 1 of 5 major drainage basins that drain to the San Diego coastal plain, the source of public water supply for the San Diego area. The distributed parameter water-balance model (Basin Characterization Model was run at a monthly timestep for 1940–2009 to determine a median annual total water inflow of 120 million cubic meters per year for the San Diego region. The model was also run specifically for the San Diego River basin for 1982–2009 to provide constraints to model calibration and to evaluate the proportion of inflow that becomes groundwater discharge, resulting in a median annual total water inflow of 50 million cubic meters per year. On the basis of flow records for the San Diego River at Fashion Valley (US Geological Survey gaging station 11023000, when corrected for upper basin reservoir storage and imported water, the total is 30 million cubic meters per year. The difference between these two flow quantities defines the annual groundwater outflow from the San Diego River basin at 20 million cubic meters per year. These three flow components constitute a first-order water budget estimate for the San Diego River basin. The ratio of surface-water outflow and groundwater outflow to total water inflow are 0.6 and 0.4, respectively. Using total water inflow determined using the Basin Characterization Model for the entire San Diego region and the 0.4 partitioning factor, groundwater outflow from the San Diego region, through

  16. A basin-scale approach for assessing water resources in a semiarid environment: San Diego region, California and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, L.E.; Flint, A.L.; Stolp, B.J.; Danskin, W.R.

    2012-01-01

    Many basins throughout the world have sparse hydrologic and geologic data, but have increasing demands for water and a commensurate need for integrated understanding of surface and groundwater resources. This paper demonstrates a methodology for using a distributed parameter water-balance model, gaged surface-water flow, and a reconnaissance-level groundwater flow model to develop a first-order water balance. Flow amounts are rounded to the nearest 5 million cubic meters per year. The San Diego River basin is 1 of 5 major drainage basins that drain to the San Diego coastal plain, the source of public water supply for the San Diego area. The distributed parameter water-balance model (Basin Characterization Model) was run at a monthly timestep for 1940–2009 to determine a median annual total water inflow of 120 million cubic meters per year for the San Diego region. The model was also run specifically for the San Diego River basin for 1982–2009 to provide constraints to model calibration and to evaluate the proportion of inflow that becomes groundwater discharge, resulting in a median annual total water inflow of 50 million cubic meters per year. On the basis of flow records for the San Diego River at Fashion Valley (US Geological Survey gaging station 11023000), when corrected for upper basin reservoir storage and imported water, the total is 30 million cubic meters per year. The difference between these two flow quantities defines the annual groundwater outflow from the San Diego River basin at 20 million cubic meters per year. These three flow components constitute a first-order water budget estimate for the San Diego River basin. The ratio of surface-water outflow and groundwater outflow to total water inflow are 0.6 and 0.4, respectively. Using total water inflow determined using the Basin Characterization Model for the entire San Diego region and the 0.4 partitioning factor, groundwater outflow from the San Diego region, through the coastal plain aquifer to

  17. Therm odynamics of Diagenetic Fluid and Fluid/Mineral Reactions in the Eogene Xingouzui Formation,Oil Field T,Jianghan Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪师军; 罗扬棣; 等

    1994-01-01

    This study focuses on the thermodynamics of diagenetic fluid from the Eogene Xingouzui Forma-tion which represents the most important reservoir in Field Oil T in the Jianghan Basin.The meas-ured homegenizagion temperatures(110-139℃)of fluid inclusions in diagenetic minerals fall within the range of 67-155℃ at the middle diagenetic stage .The pressure of diagenetic fluid is estimated at 10.2-56 Mpa .The activity of ions in the fluid shows a tendency of Ca2+>Mg2+>Na+>K+>Fe3+>Fe2+ for cations, and HCO3->SO22->F->Cl->CO22- for anions. For the gaseous facies, there is a tendency of CO2>CO>H2S>CH4>H2. According to the thermodynamic calculations,the pH and Eh of the fluid are 5.86-6.47 and -0.73-0.64V, respectively. As a result of the interaction between such a diagenetic fluid and minerals in the sedi-ments,feldspars were dissolved or alterated by other minerals. The clay mineral kaolinite was instable and hence was replaced by illite and chloritoid.

  18. The use of modelling and reuse techniques in the development of water management systems in basins with limited water resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbrielli, E

    2004-01-01

    Drawing on experiences in New South Wales from 1950 to 1980 in modeling and re-use techniques in the development of desalination technology and its application in fresh water production for potable use, the paper describes how Australia realized its responsibilities in developing participative and sustainable approaches to land use and water resources management. An analysis of the lessons from the operation of the Bayswater zero-discharge power station significantly contributed to the debate on sustainable approaches, highlighting that no management policy of a water basin can be implemented without a model based on reliable data from all sectors (including the environment), and no management model can be implemented without the participation of all stakeholders. These ideals were reflected in the conception and establishment of the Murray-Darling Basin Commission. The Commission succeeded in bringing together all major stakeholders in this huge basin, though it took more than 15 years to do so. While widely recognized as one of the most advanced and successful experiences in integrated management of a drainage basin, it has still not achieved the reversal of many unsustainable agricultural practices, giving a clear indication of the difficulties and time required for producing sustainable solutions. PMID:15195414

  19. ASSESSMENT OF THE POTENTIAL IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE UPON SURFACE WATER RESOURCES IN THE PRAHOVA RIVER BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. RETEGAN

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present research is the determination of the impact of possible climatic changes in the 21st century upon surface water resources in the Prahova river basin using the WatBal model (a mathematical-hydrological water-balance model. The analyzed river basin covers an area of 3682 km² and is located outside the curvature of the Carpathian Mountains, in an area where the altitude varies between 60 m and 2500 m. In accordance with the altitude, the annual precipitation varies from approximately 550 mm/year in the plain area to over 1000 mm/year in the mountain area and the evaporation-transpiration between 850 mm/year in the plain area to 500 mm/year in the high areas. On the other hand, due to a very high variability of weather conditions, droughts, as well as excessive humidity periods, may occur during the year. WatBal is an integrated water balance model developed for assessing the impact of climate changes on a river basin runoff. This model has essentially two main modelling components. The first is the water balance component that uses continuous functions to describe water movement into and out of a conceptualized basin. The second component is the computation of the potential evaporation-transpiration processes. Monthly data series recorded at 5 weather stations and 1 runoff gauging-station during the 1961-2007 period have been used for the calibration of the WatBal model to the local conditions of the area. Finally, the paper focuses on the values of the mean monthly discharges at Adâncata river station on the Prahova River, estimated in the above-mentioned hypotheses. The paper analyses the influence of potential climatic changes, expressed by a wide range of climatic scenarios, upon the average water resources in the Prahova river basin. It has also been taken into consideration the below average water resources, expressed by the minimum-monthly average flow and characteristic to low-water periods as well as the above

  20. Development of new exploration tools for deep seabed mineral resources by using electrical and magnetic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Seabed resources like submarine hydrothermal deposits and methane hydrate have lately become a subject of special interest as potential alternative resources for the future. It is, however, difficult to estimate the accurate abundance of those resources. One of the reasons is considered that effective methods for such exploration have not been well-established. On the other hand, undersea technology and exploration techniques on land have recently achieved remarkable development. Thus appropriate exploration near the sea floor must advance great development of the deep-sea resources. From this point of view, we started a project to develop new deep-sea exploration tools for seabed resources by electrical and magnetic methods with financial support of MEXT (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology - Japan). In this project, we are working on research and development regarding measurement of the magnetic field with high resolution and high sampling rate, electrical exploration with accurately controlled source signals, electrical exploration tools for shallow and deep targets, versatile instruments of electrical and magnetic explorations with multi-platforms (deep-tow system, ROV (Remotely Operated Vehicle), and AUV (Automated Underwater Vehicle)), comprehensive analyses of electrical, magnetic, acoustic and thermal data, and so on. We will introduce the outline and the current state of the project (including sea trial of deep-sea magnetometer) in this presentation.

  1. Fishing resources in the rio Cuiabá basin, Pantanal do Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia. A. F. Mateus

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The rio Cuiabá is one of the most important tributaries of the upper rio Paraguay basin that form the Pantanal wetlands. The fishing resources of the rio Cuiabá basin were studied based on landing data obtained from the Fish Market of the city of Cuiabá, State of Mato grosso, Brazil. A description is given of the composition and origin of the 2000 and 2001 catch. The rio Cuiabá is the main source of fish for Cuiabá, although some fish sold locally comes from the rio Paraguay. The 2000-2001 catch consisted mainly of migratory species. The main landed species were the pimelodids pintado -Pseudoplatystoma corruscans, cachara -Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum, and jaú -Paulicea luetkeni, and the characiforms pacu -Piaractus mesopotamicus, piraputanga -Brycon microlepis, piavuçu -Leporinus macrocephalus, and dourado -Salminus brasiliensis. Large catfishes (Pimelodidae represented 70% of the landed fish, among which pintado was the most abundant. The data indicate that current catches are smaller than those recorded in the early 1980s and fish are caught far off the urban zone. Moreover, although the number and composition of species caught were similar to those of the 80s, the distribution of species abundance has changed. Currently, fisheries catch more carnivorous species than fish from lower trophic levels. These findings cannot be credited solely to overfishing, but appear to result from a complex interaction of factors, i.e., environmental degradation, changes in market preferences, and restrictive legal fishing regulations.O recurso pesqueiro da bacia do rio Cuiabá, um dos mais importantes tributários da bacia do Alto Paraguai, formadora do Pantanal, foi estudado a partir dos dados de desembarque de pescado obtidos no Mercado do Porto de Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brasil. São descritas a composição e procedência das capturas para os anos de 2000 e 2001. O rio Cuiabá é a fonte dominante de pescado para a cidade de Cuiabá, mas uma parte do

  2. THE SCARCITY-ABUNDANCE RELATIONSHIP OF MINERAL RESOURCES INTRODUCING SOME SUSTAINTABLE ASPECTS

    OpenAIRE

    JOSÉ ANTONIO ESPI; SERGIO ALAN MORENO

    2010-01-01

    El Planeta posee un gran número de concentraciones de minerales. Sin embargo, el bajo precio asignado a estos recursos y los principios de la minería sostenible, a corto plazo, pueden producir limitaciones en la exploración y en la extracción de estos recursos, que en un futuro inmediato, sin duda, afectarán al suministro de los minerales. La verdadera contabilidad de los recursos naturales no renovables ha de hacerse introduciendo los valores sin mercado provocados por su explotación que has...

  3. Assessing the distribution and abundance of seabed minerals from seafloor photographic data in the Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, R.; Khadge, N.H.; JaiSankar, S.

    estimation of a deposit from photographic data in conjunction with sounding and sampling data in the Central Indian Ocean Basin. Data from more than 20,000 photos were analysed and correlated with geological features such as bathymetry, sediment thickness...

  4. San Juan Basin, CO and NM coal resources calculation area (sjbbndg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This shapefile and polygon coverage outline the area underlain by the Fruitland Formation in the San Juan Basin, Colorado and New Mexico. Also, it delimits the area...

  5. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Red Sea Basin Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 5 billion barrels of undiscovered technically recoverable oil and 112 trillion cubic feet of recoverable gas in the Red Sea Basin Province using a geology-based assessment methodology.

  6. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Levant Basin Province, Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean of 1.7 billion barrels of recoverable oil and a mean of 122 trillion cubic feet of recoverable gas in the Levant Basin Province using a geology based assessment methodology.

  7. Potential ground water resources of Hat Yai Basin in Peninsular Thailand by gravity study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warawutti Lohawijarn

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Residual gravity anomaly with a minimum of about -140 mm s-2 with approximately NS trend and a limited axial length was observed over Hat Yai Basin in Peninsular Thailand. The modeled Hat Yai basin is about 1 km deep at its deepest, 60 km long and 20 km wide. The porosity of basin sediment and the amount of potential ground water reserves within the basin are estimated to be 39% and 121.7±0.8 km3 respectively, assuming full saturation. Within the topmost 80 m of ground where the present extraction is concentrated, the estimated ground water reserve is 12.5±0.5 km3.

  8. Mineral resources and development in Peru%秘鲁的矿产资源和矿业开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玉明; 陈秀法; 赵宏军

    2015-01-01

    The Republic of Peru locates in the west of South America .The Andes metallogenic belt runs through the country ,contributing to superior metallogenic geology ,high geological work level and rich mineral resources .Mining is the pillar industry of the nation’s economy .Dominant mineral resources include Cu ,Sn ,Pb ,Zn ,Au and Ag ,the reserve and yield of which both take an important share in the world .Mineral exploration and development are encouraged by the Peru government ,which has constituted and implemented incentive policies .Peru has maintained friendship relationship with China .Chinese‐invested enterprises are playing a more and more important role in the local mineral development .Starting from 2012 , as global mineral product prices continue to fall ,most of the mining operators in Peru have been challenged by fund shortage and operation problems .This offers an opportunity for the entry of Chinese‐invested enterprises .It is recommendable that Chinese‐invested enterprises employ their fund ,technology and market advantages ,gain access into the local market and exploit the dominant mineral resources in the local area by selecting the right way of intervention ,making the best use of the national funds and policies while carefully evading potential risks .%秘鲁共和国位于南美洲西部,安第斯成矿带纵贯南北,成矿地质条件优越,地质工作程度高,矿产资源丰富。矿业是秘鲁国民经济的支柱产业,优势矿产资源有铜、锡、铅、锌、金和银等,这些矿产的储量和产量在世界上都占有重要地位。秘鲁政府鼓励矿业勘探和开发,并制定了相应的优惠政策。秘鲁奉行对华友好政策,中资企业在秘鲁矿业开发中占有越来越重要的地位。从2012年开始,随着全球矿产品价格不断下跌,秘鲁的矿业企业也多面临资金紧张和经营困难,为中资企业介入提供了的机遇。建议中资企业发挥资金、技术

  9. Challenge and Perspective of Yangtze River Basin Water Resources Protection%长江水资源保护面临的挑战与前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁弘任

    2002-01-01

    The major faced problems at present in Yangtze river basin are: ① uneffective control in river water pollution threatens seriously the safety of drinking water; ② shrinkage of lake area and serious eutrophication; ③ soil-water losses degraded the ecological environment of the basin; ④ the impact of TGP and S-N water transfer project on water environment of the basin. In the light of above-mentioned problems, water resources utilization strategy must be adjusted and the sustainable social and economic development should be supported by sustainable water resources utilization, and it is necessary to take the following countermeasures: ① establishing overall flood control and disaster relief system; ② developing high water use efficiency agriculture; ③ taking "giving priority to water saving on the basis of pollution control" as urban water resources utilization strategy; ④ implementing comprehensive pollution control strategy with sources control as main point; ⑤ guaranteing water demand of the ecological environment; ⑥implementing the strategy of maintaining water resources supply and demand balance on the basis of water demand management; ⑦ studying countermeasures for the ecological and environmental impacts of trans-basin water transfer and western China devolopment. The key of realization of sustainable water resources utilization is to reform management and investment mechanism of water resources and water price policy. It is the only way to solve the water resources problems in Yangtze river basin as well as the whole China.

  10. Mineral resources of the Holy Cross Wilderness Area, Eagle, Pitkin, and Lake Counties, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, A.R.; Lee, G.K.; Campbell, D.L.; Lundby, W.; Brown, S.D.

    1989-01-01

    The Holy Cross Wilderness Area is in the northern Sawatch Range of central Colorado. This area is underlain principally by Proterozoic metamorphic and igneous rocks, which are unconformably overlain by Paleozoic sedimentary rocks along the flanks of the range. Numerous Late Cretaceous and Tertiary plutons were emplaced into the older rocks, and all rocks are cut by numerous faults. Identified resources in this wilderness area include high-purity limestone and gold-silver ore. Parts of this wilderness area have a high or a moderate resource potential for deposits of base and precious metals and molybdenum, for sand and gravel, and for high-purity limestone.

  11. Water Accounting Plus for Water Resources Reporting and River Basin Planning

    OpenAIRE

    P. Karimi

    2014-01-01

    This thesis introduces Water Accounting Plus (WA+), which is a new framework designed to provide explicit spatial information on water depletion and net withdrawal processes in complex river basins. WA+ is a simple, yet comprehensive and understandable water accounting framework that provides a standardized way of data collection and a presentation system that describes the overall land and water management situation in complex river basins. WA+ tracks water depletions rather than withdrawals...

  12. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Permian Basin Province of West Texas and Southeast New Mexico, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Cook, Troy A.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Harry E.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the Permian Basin Province of west Texas and southeast New Mexico. The assessment was geology based and used the total petroleum system concept. The geologic elements of a total petroleum system are petroleum source rocks (quality, source rock maturation, generation, and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy, petrophysical properties), and traps (trap formation and timing). This study assessed potential for technically recoverable resources in new field discoveries only; field growth (or reserve growth) of conventional oil and gas fields was not included. Using this methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean of 41 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas and a mean of 1.3 billion barrels of undiscovered oil in the Permian Basin Province.

  13. Delineation of Potential Mineral Resources Region Based on Geo-anomaly Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The geological anomaly unit method (GAUM) is a new way to delineate and evaluate ore-finding targets in line with the “geological anomaly ore-finding theory”. Comprehensive ore-finding information from geological, geochemical and geophysical data is used for quantitative measurement of the “ore-forming geological anomaly unit” in this paper. The main procedures are shown as follows: (1) The geo-anomalous events associated with gold mineralization are analyzed in Tongshi gold field; (2) The zonation in the concentrated heavy minerals and the stream-sediment elements of ore-forming geo-anomaly are studied in detail; (3) The deep geological structural framework is deduced by means of the synthetic geological interpretation of gravity and magnetic information;(4) The ore-controlling geo-anomalies and ore anomalies are chosen as the variables of the favorable ore-forming indexes that can be used for the quantitative delineation and evaluation of the potential ore-forming regions.

  14. A combined linear optimisation methodology for water resources allocation in Alfeios River Basin (Greece) under uncertain and vague system conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekri, Eleni; Yannopoulos, Panayotis; Disse, Markus

    2013-04-01

    In the present study, a combined linear programming methodology, based on Li et al. (2010) and Bekri et al. (2012), is employed for optimizing water allocation under uncertain system conditions in the Alfeios River Basin, in Greece. The Alfeios River is a water resources system of great natural, ecological, social and economic importance for Western Greece, since it has the longest and highest flow rate watercourse in the Peloponnisos region. Moreover, the river basin was exposed in the last decades to a plethora of environmental stresses (e.g. hydrogeological alterations, intensively irrigated agriculture, surface and groundwater overexploitation and infrastructure developments), resulting in the degradation of its quantitative and qualitative characteristics. As in most Mediterranean countries, water resource management in Alfeios River Basin has been focused up to now on an essentially supply-driven approach. It is still characterized by a lack of effective operational strategies. Authority responsibility relationships are fragmented, and law enforcement and policy implementation are weak. The present regulated water allocation puzzle entails a mixture of hydropower generation, irrigation, drinking water supply and recreational activities. Under these conditions its water resources management is characterised by high uncertainty and by vague and imprecise data. The considered methodology has been developed in order to deal with uncertainties expressed as either probability distributions, or/and fuzzy boundary intervals, derived by associated α-cut levels. In this framework a set of deterministic submodels is studied through linear programming. The ad hoc water resources management and alternative management patterns in an Alfeios subbasin are analyzed and evaluated under various scenarios, using the above mentioned methodology, aiming to promote a sustainable and equitable water management. Li, Y.P., Huang, G.H. and S.L., Nie, (2010), Planning water resources

  15. Mineral resources of Cactus Plain and East Cactus Plain Wilderness Study Areas, La Paz County, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tosdal, R.M.; Eppinger, R.G.; Erdman, J.A.; Hanna, W.F.; Pitkin, J.A.; Blank, H.R. Jr.; O' Leary, R.M.; Watterson, J.R. (US Geological Survey (US)); Kreidler, T.J. (US Bureau of Mines (US))

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on geologic, geochemical, and geophysical studies in the Cactus Plain and East Cactus Plain Wilderness Study Areas outlined in areas with moderate to high potential for gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, barite, fluorite, manganese, and sand suitable for foundry, fracturing, and abrasive uses and low resource potential for beryllium, uranium and bentonitic clays.

  16. Mineral resources of Cactus Plain and East Cactus Plain Wilderness Study Areas, La Paz County, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on geologic, geochemical, and geophysical studies in the Cactus Plain and East Cactus Plain Wilderness Study Areas outlined in areas with moderate to high potential for gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, barite, fluorite, manganese, and sand suitable for foundry, fracturing, and abrasive uses and low resource potential for beryllium, uranium and bentonitic clays

  17. Geochemistry of neo-formed minerals at Oklo (Gabon), geologic history of the Oklo basin: a contribution for the studies of geologic disposals of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oklo uranium ore deposit (Francevillian basin, Gabon) is the unique place in the world where 2000 Ma old fossil nuclear reactors were described. The geological and thermal history of this basin, since 2000 Ma was retraced. Tholeiitic intrusion was 755 ± 83 Ma with Sm-Nd isochron on whole rock and plagioclase and 746 ± 16 Ma old with U-Pb dating on zircons. This event was linked to a pre-Pan-African rifting stage. A green schist facies metamorphism was detected on the granitic rocks of the substratum and seemed to affect the tholeiitic intrusion. Apatite fission tracks dating performed on granitic basement revealed a thermal event between Permian and middle-Jurassic time, linked to the Atlantic ocean opening. Fission track ages distribution suggest a brittle tectonics (T < 60 deg. C) occurred after middle Jurassic times. Geochemical and isotopic studies on apatites and zircons which crystallized on natural nuclear reactors let compare the confinement of these two crystalline structures. These minerals were affected by self-irradiation due to actinide incorporation. U, Pu and fission products (REE, Rb, Sr) were trapped by apatites. Zircons contain fissiogenic REE and radiogenic Ba. Apatites crystallized during the nuclear reactions, zircons at the end of this phenomenon. Isotopic study of tholeiitic intrusion minerals point out fissiogenic Nd and Sm incorporation in clinopyroxenes. This result implies a fissiogenic products remobilization during the tholeiitic intrusion event. (author)

  18. Integrated Synthesis of the Permian Basin: Data and Models for Recovering Existing and Undiscovered Oil Resources from the Largest Oil-Bearing Basin in the U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Jackson; Katherine Jackson

    2008-09-30

    Large volumes of oil and gas remain in the mature basins of North America. This is nowhere more true than in the Permian Basin of Texas and New Mexico. A critical barrier to recovery of this vast remaining resource, however, is information. Access to accurate geological data and analyses of the controls of hydrocarbon distribution is the key to the knowledge base as well as the incentives needed by oil and gas companies. The goals of this project were to collect, analyze, synthesize, and deliver to industry and the public fundamental information and data on the geology of oil and gas systems in the Permian Basin. This was accomplished in two ways. First we gathered all available data, organized it, and placed it on the web for ready access. Data include core analysis data, lists of pertinent published reports, lists of available cores, type logs, and selected PowerPoint presentations. We also created interpretive data such as type logs, geological cross sections, and geological maps and placed them in a geospatially-registered framework in ARC/GIS. Second, we created new written syntheses of selected reservoir plays in the Permian basin. Although only 8 plays were targeted for detailed analysis in the project proposal to DOE, 14 were completed. These include Ellenburger, Simpson, Montoya, Fusselman, Wristen, Thirtyone, Mississippian, Morrow, Atoka, Strawn, Canyon/Cisco, Wolfcamp, Artesia Group, and Delaware Mountain Group. These fully illustrated reports include critical summaries of published literature integrated with new unpublished research conducted during the project. As such these reports provide the most up-to-date analysis of the geological controls on reservoir development available. All reports are available for download on the project website and are also included in this final report. As stated in our proposal, technology transfer is perhaps the most important component of the project. In addition to providing direct access to data and reports through

  19. Lessons for Integrated Water Resources Management from the San Pedro HELP Basin on the U.S.-Mexico Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, A.; Goodrich, D.; Varady, R.; Richter, H.

    2007-12-01

    The San Pedro Basin sits within an intermountain ecotone with the Sonoran and Chihuahuan Deserts to the west and east and the Rocky Mountain and Sierra Madre Mountain habitats to the north and south. The headwaters of the basin originate in northern Sonora and flow north into southeast Arizona. As the region's only remaining perennial stream, the San Pedro River serves as an international flyway for over 400 bird species. It is one of the western hemisphere's most ecologically diverse areas with some 20 different biotic communities, and "possesses one of the richest assemblages of land mammal species in the world." Large mining, military, and municipal entities are major users of the same groundwater resources that maintain perennial flow in the San Pedro. This presentation describes empirical evidence of the positive impacts on watershed management of scientists and policy researchers working closely with water managers and elected officials in a functioning HELP basin. We posit that when hydrologists help watershed groups understand the processes controlling water quality and quantity, and when managers and stakeholders connect these processes to social, economic and legal issues then transboundary cooperation in policymaking and water management is most effective. The distinctive physical and socioeconomic characteristics of the basin as well as differences in institutional regulations, water law issues, and their local implementations in Arizona and Sonora are discussed. We illustrate how stakeholders and scientific researchers in both countries strive to balance ecosystem needs with human demands to create new, integrated basin management. Finally, we describe how the accomplishments of the San Pedro collaborative process, including the use of environmental-conflict-resolution tools, have contributed to the UNESCO HELP (Hydrology for the Environment, Life, and Policy) agenda.

  20. Implications of Spatial Variability in Heat Flow for Geothermal Resource Evaluation in Large Foreland Basins: The Case of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Weides

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Heat flow and geothermal gradient of the sedimentary succession of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB are mapped based on a large thermal database. Heat flow in the deep part of the basin varies from 30 mW/m2 in the south to high 100 mW/m2 in the north. As permeable strata are required for a successful geothermal application, the most important aquifers are discussed and evaluated. Regional temperature distribution within different aquifers is mapped for the first time, enabling a delineation of the most promising areas based on thermal field and aquifer properties. Results of previous regional studies on the geothermal potential of the WCSB are newly evaluated and discussed. In parts of the WCSB temperatures as high as 100–210 °C exist at depths of 3–5 km. Fluids from deep aquifers in these “hot” regions of the WCSB could be used in geothermal power plants to produce electricity. The geothermal resources of the shallower parts of the WCSB (>2 km could be used for warm water provision (>50 °C or district heating (>70 °C in urban areas.

  1. Modeling Impact of Climate Change on Water Resources and Agriculture Demand in the Volta Basin and other Basin Systems in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnabas A. Amisigo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available An assessment of the impacts of projected climate change on water availability and crop production in the Volta Basin and the southwestern and coastal basin systems of Ghana has been undertaken as a component of the impacts and adaptation study for Ghana by UNU-WIDER and the University of Ghana. Four climate change scenarios were considered in addition to a reference (no change scenario—two dry and two wet scenarios. To conduct the analysis, a portion of a special framework using three water models was used; the framework is called the Strategic Analysis of Climate resilient Development (SACReD. First, the CliRun water balance model was used to simulate catchment runoffs using projected rainfall and temperature under the scenarios. Second, climate impacts on yields of the economically important Ghana crops were modeled using the AquaCrop software. Third, the Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP software was used for the water allocation modeling. The results show that all water demands (municipal, hydropower, and agriculture cannot be simultaneously met currently, or under any of the scenarios used, including the wet scenarios. This calls for an evaluation of groundwater as an additional source of water supply and an integrated water resources management plan in the catchments to balance demand with supply and ensure sustainable socio-economic development. In addition, the AquaCrop model forecasts negative impacts for the crop yields studied, with some crops and regions seeing larger impacts than others.

  2. Assessment of Undiscovered Technically Recoverable Oil and Gas Resources of the Bakken Formation, Williston Basin, Montana and North Dakota, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollastro, R.M.; Roberts, L.N.R.; Cook, T.A.; Lewan, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has completed an assessment of the undiscovered oil and associated gas resources of the Upper Devonian to Lower Mississippian Bakken Formation in the U.S. portion of the Williston Basin of Montana and North Dakota and within the Williston Basin Province. The assessment is based on geologic elements of a total petroleum system (TPS), which include (1) source-rock distribution, thickness, organic richness, maturation, petroleum generation, and migration; (2) reservoir-rock type (conventional or continuous), distribution, and quality; and (3) character of traps and time of formation with respect to petroleum generation and migration. Framework studies in stratigraphy and structural geology and modeling of petroleum geochemistry, combined with historical exploration and production analyses, were used to estimate the undiscovered, technically recoverable oil resource of the Bakken Formation. Using this framework, the USGS defined a Bakken-Lodgepole TPS and seven assessment units (AU) within the system. For the Bakken Formation, the undiscovered oil and associated gas resources were quantitatively estimated for six of these AUs.

  3. Evaluation of the sustainability of deep groundwater as an arsenic-safe resource in the Bengal Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, H.A.; Voss, C.I.

    2008-01-01

    Tens of millions of people in the Bengal Basin region of Bangladesh and India drink groundwater containing unsafe concentrations of arsenic. This high-arsenic groundwater is produced from shallow (150 m where groundwater arsenic concentrations are nearly uniformly low, and many more wells are needed, however, the sustainability of deep, arsenic-safe ground-water has not been previously assessed. Deeper pumping could induce downward migration of dissolved arsenic, permanently destroying the deep resource. Here, it is shown, through quantitative, large-scale hydrogeologic analysis and simulation of the entire basin, that the deeper part of the aquifer system may provide a sustainable source of arsenic-safe water if its utilization is limited to domestic supply. Simulations provide two explanations for this result: deep domestic pumping only slightly perturbs the deep groundwater flow system, and substantial shallow pumping for irrigation forms a hydraulic barrier that protects deeper resources from shallow arsenic sources. Additional analysis indicates that this simple management approach could provide arsenic-safe drinking water to >90% of the arsenic-impacted region over a 1,000-year timescale. This insight may assist water-resources managers in alleviating one of the world's largest groundwater contamination problems. ?? 2008 by The National Academy of Sciences of the USA.

  4. Mineral resources of the Desolation Canyon, Turtle Canyon, and Floy Canyon Wilderness Study Areas, Carbon Emery, and Grand counties, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the Desolation Canyon, Turtle Canyon, and Floy Canyon Wilderness Study Areas which include 242,000 acres, 33,690 acres, and 23,140 acres. Coal deposits underlie all three study areas. Coal zones in the Blackhawk and Nelsen formations have identified bituminous coal resources of 22 million short tons in the Desolation Canyon Study Area, 6.3 million short tons in the Turtle Canyon Study Area, and 45 million short tons in the Floy Canyon Study Area. In-place inferred oil shale resources are estimated to contain 60 million barrels in the northern part of the Desolation Canyon area. Minor occurrences of uranium have been found in the southeastern part of the Desolation Canyon area and in the western part of the Floy Canyon area. Mineral resource potential for the study areas is estimated to be for coal, high for all areas, for oil and gas, high for the northern tract of the Desolation Canyon area and moderate for all other tracts, for bituminous sandstone, high for the northern part of the Desolation Canyon area, and low for all other tracts, for oil shale, low in all areas, for uranium, moderate for the Floy Canyon area and the southeastern part of the Desolation Canyon area and low for the remainder of the areas, for metals other than uranium, bentonite, zeolites, and geothermal energy, low in all areas, and for coal-bed methane unknown in all three areas

  5. A Resource Assessment Of Geothermal Energy Resources For Converting Deep Gas Wells In Carbonate Strata Into Geothermal Extraction Wells: A Permian Basin Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdlac, Richard J., Jr.

    2006-10-12

    Previously conducted preliminary investigations within the deep Delaware and Val Verde sub-basins of the Permian Basin complex documented bottom hole temperatures from oil and gas wells that reach the 120-180C temperature range, and occasionally beyond. With large abundances of subsurface brine water, and known porosity and permeability, the deep carbonate strata of the region possess a good potential for future geothermal power development. This work was designed as a 3-year project to investigate a new, undeveloped geographic region for establishing geothermal energy production focused on electric power generation. Identifying optimum geologic and geographic sites for converting depleted deep gas wells and fields within a carbonate environment into geothermal energy extraction wells was part of the project goals. The importance of this work was to affect the three factors limiting the expansion of geothermal development: distribution, field size and accompanying resource availability, and cost. Historically, power production from geothermal energy has been relegated to shallow heat plumes near active volcanic or geyser activity, or in areas where volcanic rocks still retain heat from their formation. Thus geothermal development is spatially variable and site specific. Additionally, existing geothermal fields are only a few 10’s of square km in size, controlled by the extent of the heat plume and the availability of water for heat movement. This plume radiates heat both vertically as well as laterally into the enclosing country rock. Heat withdrawal at too rapid a rate eventually results in a decrease in electrical power generation as the thermal energy is “mined”. The depletion rate of subsurface heat directly controls the lifetime of geothermal energy production. Finally, the cost of developing deep (greater than 4 km) reservoirs of geothermal energy is perceived as being too costly to justify corporate investment. Thus further development opportunities

  6. Natural Gas Resources of the Greater Green River and Wind River Basins of Wyoming (Assessing the Technology Needs of Sub-economic Resources, Phase I: Greater Green River and Wind river Basins, Fall 2002)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boswell, Ray; Douds, Ashley; Pratt, Skip; Rose, Kelly; Pancake, Jim; Bruner, Kathy (EG& G Services); Kuuskraa, Vello; Billingsley, Randy (Advanced Resources International)

    2003-02-28

    In 2000, NETL conducted a review of the adequacy of the resource characterization databases used in its Gas Systems Analysis Model (GSAM). This review indicated that the most striking deficiency in GSAM’s databases was the poor representation of the vast resource believed to exist in low-permeability sandstone accumulations in western U.S. basins. The model’s databases, which are built primarily around the United States Geological Survey (USGS) 1995 National Assessment (for undiscovered resources), reflected an estimate of the original-gas-inplace (OGIP) only in accumulations designated “technically-recoverable” by the USGS –roughly 3% to 4% of the total estimated OGIP of the region. As these vast remaining resources are a prime target of NETL programs, NETL immediately launched an effort to upgrade its resource characterizations. Upon review of existing data, NETL concluded that no existing data were appropriate sources for its modeling needs, and a decision was made to conduct new, detailed log-based, gas-in-place assessments.

  7. Integrated interpretation of satellite imagery, aeromagnetic, aeroradiometric and ground exploration data-sets to delineate favorable target zones for unconformity related uranium mineralization, Khariar Basin, Central India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mesoproterozoic Khariar basin, to the SE of Chhattisgarh basin, comprises 1000 m thick arenaceous-argillaceous sediments. For the first time, a multidisciplinary approach has been made to the integrate interpreted satellite imagery, aero-magnetic and aero-radiometric data with available ground exploration data sets with an objective to understand structural fabric and to establish various parameters for unconformity related uranium mineralization in the environs of Khariar basin. Total Magnetic Intensity (TMI) anomaly image has been useful to mark major faults (ENE-WSW), magnetic bodies and overall basement characteristics. Combination of first vertical derivative (1VD) and tilt derivative magnetic images brought out presence of NW-SE magnetic linear (dominant) with minor ENE-WSW and NNE-SSW trends. Basic dykes and quartz veins are the surface manifestations of NW-SE trend in basement. Radially averaged power spectrum indicates the approximate basement configuration. Enhanced Thematic Mapper satellite imagery (Landsat ETM+) interpretation has shown lineaments along NW-SE, NNE-SSW, ENE-WSW and ENW-WSE directions. These observations are corroborated by interpreted results of magnetic data. Analysis of both results indicate NW-SE and ENE-WSW trends as post depositional. Aero-radiometric images (U, Th, K and ternary U-Th-K) show overall radio-elemental distribution for various litho-units. Besides, Th and K images along with interpreted ETM+ satellite imagery (RGB: 432/752/751) are useful to map small outliers and to modify basement-sediment contact. Geochemical data from basement rocks around Khariar basin suggests the younger Bundeli granitoids and its equivalents are good source of uranium in the western margin. Presence of labile uranium is inferred from higher concentration of uranium in water samples. The Airborne gamma-ray spectrometry (AGRS) and hydro-geochemical anomalies fall along fault zones and intersection of fault zones. The western and southern

  8. CO2 mineral sequestration mechanisms and capacity of saline aquifers of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (Central Europe) - Modeling and experimental verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant part of CO2 emissions from industrial sources in Central Europe originates from the territory of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB). This paper presents a study of the suitability of saline aquifers within the USCB, as potential greenhouse gas repositories. Evaluation of mineral-trapping mechanisms and assessment of storage capacity of the aquifers is based on hydrochemical modeling and experimental tests of rock-water-gas interactions. Two stages of modeling enabled prediction of the immediate changes in the aquifer and insulating rocks impacted by the beginning of CO2 injection, and the assessment of long-term effects of sequestration. In the analyzed sandstone aquifers the minerals able to trap CO2 are dawsonite and dolomite, while siderite or calcite are able to degrade. The phases capable of mineral CO2 trapping in the cap rocks are: dawsonite, dolomite, and siderite. Mineral-trapping capacity, for the sandstone aquifers is relatively low: 1.2 to 1.9 kgCO2/m3, with the exception of the Upper Silesian Sandstone Series - over 6.6 kgCO2/m3. The solubility trapping capacity does not exceed 4.07 kgCO2/m3. -- Highlights: → We model and experimentally test example aquifers as potential CO2 storage sites. → In aquifers dawsonite and dolomite trap CO2, while siderite and calcite degrade. → In the examined cap rocks dawsonite, dolomite, and siderite are able to trap CO2. → Calculated mineral-trapping capacity of sandstones is between 1,2 and 1,9 kgCO2/m3.

  9. Perspective and resource evaluation and metallogenic studies on sandstone-type uranium deposit in Qianjiadian depression of Songliao Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The geotectonic evolution history of the southeastern part of Songliao Basin has been clearly described and it is pointed out that both of the provenance rocks and evolution features of the studied area are favorable to the formation of U-rich sandstone bodies, development of interlayered oxidation and providing uranium source for mineralization. Yaojia Formation in Qianjiadian depression has been found out to be the favorable target ore bed for looking for sandstone-type uranium deposit. On the basis of analysis of metallogenetic conditions, the perspective target area has been circled and a sandstone-type uranium deposit with a certain amounts of uranium tonnages has been discovered. The achievements and data have been gotten in the following aspects: constitution and features of ore-forming beds and sandstone bodies, uranium existence forms and mineralogical and chemical compositions of the ores, associated elements and their economic values for comprehensive mining. The study of metallogenetic features and mechanism of the uranium deposit suggested that pre-enrichment of uranium during the depositional-diagenetic stage provide a good basis for uranium mineralization, and hereafter interlayered oxidation as well as oil-gas reduction processes played a decisive role to uranium mineralization. U-Pb isotopic studies indicate that the ores have two isochron ages of 53±3 Ma and 7.0±0 Ma, corresponding to the periods of arid and semiarid paleo-climates which are favorable to interlayered oxidation development and uranium mineralization. It is concluded that the Qianjiadian sandstone-type uranium deposit is genetically related to interlayered oxidation and secondary reduction of oil-gas. The metallogenic model of Qianjiadian uranium deposit was set up. (authors)

  10. Introduction to selected references on fossil fuels of the central and southern Appalachian basin: Chapter H.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Leslie F.; Lentz, Erika E.; Tewalt, Susan J.; Román Colón, Yomayra A.

    2014-01-01

    The Appalachian basin contains abundant coal and petroleum resources that have been studied and extracted for at least 150 years. In this volume, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists describe the geologic framework and geochemical character of the fossil-fuel resources of the central and southern Appalachian basin. Separate subchapters (some previously published) contain geologic cross sections; seismic profiles; burial history models; assessments of Carboniferous coalbed methane and Devonian shale gas; distribution information for oil, gas, and coal fields; data on the geochemistry of natural gas and oil; and the fossil-fuel production history of the basin. Although each chapter and subchapter includes references cited, many historical or other important references on Appalachian basin and global fossil-fuel science were omitted because they were not directly applicable to the chapters.

  11. Iron Hill (Powderhorn) carbonatite complex, Gunnison County, CO - A potential source of several uncommon mineral resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gosen, B. S.; Lowers, H.A.

    2007-01-01

    The Iron Hill (Powderhorn) carbonatite complex is a 31-kM2 (12-sq mile) alkalic intrusion located about 35 km (22 miles) south-southwest of Gunnison, CO. The intrusion has been well studied and described because of its classic petrology and architecture ofa carbonatite-alkalic complex. The complex is also noteworthy because it contains enrichments of titanium, rare earth elements, thorium, niobium (columbium), vanadium and deposits of vermiculite and nepheline syenite. In particular, the complex is thought to host the largest titanium and niobium resources in the United States, although neither has been developed. It may be economic to extract multiple resources from this complex with a well-coordinated mine and mill plan.

  12. Origin and transport of CO2 in the highly mineralized water system of the Pannonian Tertiary Basin (northeast Slovenia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal waters with high bicarbonate mineralization (up to 7500 ppm) were examined. The origin and transport of CO2 are the main questions which will be addressed in discussing the evolution of this fluid system. 3 refs

  13. Epigenetic-reduction of oil and gas to uranium mineralization in Yaojia formation in Baixingtu area of southern Songliao basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium mineralization in Baixingtu area has typical features of epigenetic-reduction by oil and gas because the ore is with high content of hydrocarbon and rich inclusion, but the wall rocks are of low contents of organic carbon and organic sulfur. The role of oil and gas played in sandstone type uranium mineralization is summarized as following model: oil-gas and hydrothermal solution go into sandstone bodies of Yaojia formation along deep faults, some CH4 in oil and gas reduces and precipitates uranium directly, some CH4 joins the TSR reaction in the solution and produces H2S. The H2S reduces and precipitates uranium, and forms uranium mineralization. Therefore faults and oil-gas reduction are two major mineralization controlling factors in this area. (authors)

  14. International conference Caspy-95. Caspian region: economy, ecology, mineral resources. Technical abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collection of technical abstracts submitted to the International conference Caspy-95 held in Moscow (the Russian Federation), June 20-23, 1995, contains 166 presentations in the following fields: 1) Sea levels's fluctuation and changes of water balance; 2) Geodynamics of the Caspian region; 3) Prospecting, exploration and exploitation of oil and gas fields; 4) Ecological and environmental problems; 5) Complex monitoring and engineering coastal protection; 6) Social-economical and legal aspects of natural resources usage

  15. Besshi-type mineral systems in the Palaeoproterozoic Bryah Rift-Basin, Capricorn Orogen, Western Australia:Implications for tectonic setting and geodynamic evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Franco Pirajno; Yanjing Chen; Nuo Li; Chao Li; Limin Zhou

    2016-01-01

    In this contribution we use VMS mineral systems in the Bryah rift-basin to constrain the tectonic setting of the widespread mafic and ultramafic magmatism that characterises the rift-basin in question. Two distinct, but temporally closely associated, lithostratigraphic sequences, Narracoota and Karalundi For-mations, are discussed. The Karalundi Formation is the main host of VMS mineral systems in the region. The Karalundi Formation consists of turbiditic and immature clastic sediments, which are locally intercalated with basaltic hyaloclastites, dolerites and banded jaspilites. We propose that the basaltic hyaloclastites, dolerites and clastics and jaspilites rocks, form a distinct unit of the Karalundi Formation, named Noonyereena Member. The VMS mineral systems occur near the north-east trending Jenkin Fault and comprise the giant and world-class DeGrussa and the Red Bore deposits. The nature of these deposits and their intimate association with terrigenous clastic rocks and dominantly marine mafic volcanic and subvolcanic rocks, as well as the common development of peperitic margins, are considered indicative of a Besshi-type environment, similar to that of present-day Gulf of California. Our Re-Os age data from a primary pyrite yielded a mean model age of 2012 ? 48 Ma, which coincides (within error) with recent published Re-Os data (Hawke et al., 2015) and confirms the timing of the proposed geodynamic evo-lution. We propose a geodynamic model that attempts to explain the presence of the Narracoota and Karalundi Formations as the result of mantle plume activity, which began with early uplift of continental crust with intraplate volcanism, followed by early stages of rifting with the deposition of the Karalundi Formation (and Noonyereena Member), which led to the formation of Besshi-type VMS deposits. With on-going mantle plume activity and early stages of continental separation, an oceanic plateau was formed and is now represented by mafic-ultramafic rocks of

  16. Effects of Water-Management Strategies on Water Resources in the Pawcatuck River Basin, Southwestern Rhode Island and Southeastern Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breault, Robert F.; Zarriello, Phillip J.; Bent, Gardner C.; Masterson, John P.; Granato, Gregory E.; Scherer, J. Eric; Crawley, Kathleen M.

    2009-01-01

    The Pawcatuck River Basin in southwestern Rhode Island and southeastern Connecticut is an important high-quality water resource for domestic and public supplies, irrigation, recreation, and the aquatic ecosystem. Concerns about the effects of water withdrawals on aquatic habitat in the basin have prompted local, State, and Federal agencies to explore water-management strategies that minimize the effects of withdrawals on the aquatic habitat. As part of this process, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service and the Rhode Island Water Resources Board completed a study to assess the effects of current (2000-04) and potential water withdrawals on streamflows and groundwater levels using hydrologic simulation models developed for the basin. The major findings of the model simulations are: *Moving highly variable seasonal irrigation withdrawals from streams to groundwater wells away from streams reduces short-term fluctuations in streamflow and increases streamflow in the summer when flows are lowest. This occurs because of the inherent time lag between when water is withdrawn from the aquifer and when it affects streamflow. *A pumped well in the vicinity of small streams indicates that if withdrawals exceed available streamflow, groundwater levels drop substantially as a consequence of water lost from aquifer storage, which may reduce the time wetlands and vernal pools are saturated, affecting the animal and plant life that depend on these habitats. *The effects of pumping on water resources such as ponds, streams, and wetlands can be minimized by relocating pumping wells, implementing seasonal pumping schemes that utilize different wells and pumping rates, or both. *The effects of projected land-use change, mostly from forest to low- and medium density housing, indicate only minor changes in streamflow at the subbasin scale examined; however, at a local scale, high flows could increase, and

  17. Economic incentives for water resource management in the Pak Phanang river basin of southern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Janekarnkij, P.

    1995-01-01

    The study examines the existing water allocation methods and other policies that provide constraints or incentives for the most efficient use of water resources. Given the production condition of the local people, and the technical and physical attributes of water resources, the principal hypothesis of this study is that the benefits obtained from fresh water resources in the study area can be improved through better resource management.

  18. Assessment of Undiscovered Natural Gas Resources of the Arkoma Basin Province and Geologically Related Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houseknecht, David W.; Coleman, James L., Jr.; Milici, Robert C.; Garrity, Christopher P.; Rouse, William A.; Fulk, Bryant R.; Paxton, Stanley T.; Abbott, Marvin M.; Mars, John L.; Cook, Troy A.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Ellis, Geoffrey S.

    2010-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 38 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of undiscovered natural gas, 159 million barrels of natural gas liquid (MMBNGL), and no oil in accumulations of 0.5 million barrels (MMBO) or larger in the Arkoma Basin Province and related areas. More than 97 percent of the undiscovered gas occurs in continuous accumulations-70 percent in shale gas formations, 18 percent in a basin-centered accumulation with tight sandstone reservoirs, and 9 percent in coal beds. Less than 3 percent of the natural gas occurs in conventional accumulations.

  19. Data collection for cooperative water resources modeling in the Lower Rio Grande Basin, Fort Quitman to the Gulf of Mexico.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passell, Howard David; Pallachula, Kiran (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Villalobos, Joshua (Texas A& M University); Piccinni, Giovanni (Texas A& M University); Brainard, James Robert; Gerik, Thomas (Texas A& M University); Morrison, Wendy (Texas A& M University); Serrat-Capdevila, Aleix (University of Arizona); Valdes, Juan (University of Arizona); Sheng, Zhuping (Texas A& M University); Lovato, Rene (Instituto Mexicano de Tecnologia del Agua); Guitron, Alberto (Instituto Mexicano de Tecnologia del Agua); Ennis, Martha Lee; Aparicio, Javier (Instituto Mexicano de Tecnologia del Agua); Newman, Gretchen Carr (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Michelsen, Ari M. (Texas A& M University)

    2004-10-01

    Water resource scarcity around the world is driving the need for the development of simulation models that can assist in water resources management. Transboundary water resources are receiving special attention because of the potential for conflict over scarce shared water resources. The Rio Grande/Rio Bravo along the U.S./Mexican border is an example of a scarce, transboundary water resource over which conflict has already begun. The data collection and modeling effort described in this report aims at developing methods for international collaboration, data collection, data integration and modeling for simulating geographically large and diverse international watersheds, with a special focus on the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo. This report describes the basin, and the data collected. This data collection effort was spatially aggregated across five reaches consisting of Fort Quitman to Presidio, the Rio Conchos, Presidio to Amistad Dam, Amistad Dam to Falcon Dam, and Falcon Dam to the Gulf of Mexico. This report represents a nine-month effort made in FY04, during which time the model was not completed.

  20. Developing the northern territory uranium deposits into Australia's largest mineral energy resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of the Alligator Rivers uranium resources has been dominated by socio-political problems. The author outlines the history of the discovery of uranium and gives reasons for delays in the development of the area for uranium mining. Conflicting land use interests are considered in terms of the Aboriginal Land Rights Act, the use of the area as a National Park or the development of the area by mining companies. Relevant Acts, government policies and enquiries into environmental aspects of uranium mining are discussed