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Sample records for basin czech republic

  1. Potential Unconventional Gas Plays in the Mature Basin of the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bujok Petr

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of unconventional resources has been proven in deeper parts of mature oil and gas provinces and coal basins of the world. In this context, it is worth to focus also on the prospects of unconventional gas production from within hydrocarbon provinces of the Moravian part of the Vienna basin. The estimation of hydrocarbon generation potential of Jurasic marls from the Mikulov Formation of the Czech part of the Vienna Basin was performed based on the Rock Eval pyrolysis.

  2. What cycles are recorded in continental Most Basin (Czech Republic, late Burdigalian)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matys Grygar, Tomas; Mach, Karel; Laurin, Jiri

    2013-04-01

    Understanding to climate dynamics requires identification of orbital forcing as a piece of a jigsaw puzzle. High-frequency climate changes could be the reason of discrepancies among Miocene climate reconstructions from sediment archives. Nearly all continental sediment sequences have some repetitive patterns, of which causes can be manifold; orbital forcing (climatic cycles) is only one option. There are two main reasons for this uncertainty: 1) recording mechanisms of climate changes in a real sediment basin are site-specific and ambiguous (and usually not known, or not reported) and 2) autocyclic behaviour (inherent chaos) and tectonics can also produce repetitive patterns and statistics itself is not capable to reveal that their nature is not climatic. On the other hand, most paleontological climatic reconstructions have temporal resolution in order of Myr (or at best in tenths of Myr), which cannot really reflect the expected climate dynamics. We have studied about 250 m thick clastic syn-rift sediment sequence in the Most Basin in the Ohře Graben (Czech Republic). In the mature-rift stage, a basin-wide lake existed there for Climate Optimum). The palaeogeography of the lake watershed changed due to rift evolution, which is an important but still only roughly described variable. Tectonic pulses probably affect the accomodation space, a network of feeding rivers and/or a basin outflow pathway during the lake existence. The clear and well-correlated variations in Sr and K concentrations in the sediments suggest orbital components (multitaper spectral estimation and misfit relative to theoretical Milankovitch frequencies). There is a question, whether the formal statistics (without understanding the actual recording mechanism and excluding other repetitive environmental changes) is sufficient to confirm climatic basis for these variations, although such approach can be found in numerous current studies. The proof that we really handle Milankovitch cycles in the

  3. Czech Republic : Accounting and Auditing

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    Financial reporting and auditing requirements in the Czech Republic are currently in transition from complying with national standards to complying with International Accounting Standards (IAS), International Standards on Auditing (ISA), and the European Union (EU) Directives. By law, the Czech Republic seeks to attain maximum compliance with the EU Fourth and Seventh Directives and the E...

  4. Attitudes of stakeholders towards the Podyji/Thaya River Basin National Park in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cihar, Martin; Stankova, Jindriska

    2006-11-01

    In August 2000, a survey of public opinion was carried out among visitors, local residents and representatives of local self-governments in the territory of the Podyji/Thaya River Basin National Park in the Czech Republic. The goal was to obtain stakeholders' opinions and attitudes towards nature conservation, the National Park and tourism within the territory which used to be closed to the public for 40 years due to the Iron Curtain. Without the knowledge of opinions of stakeholders it is not possible to manage nature conservation and development in the protected area properly. Using the method of direct interviews, 646 questionnaires where collected, of which 523 were from visitors and tourists, 115 from local residents and 8 from mayors of towns/villages. The questionnaires were analysed in order to detect differences in attitudes among the respondent groups in the following thematic areas: (a) the National Park, its environment and perception of it by respondents; (b) relationship of respondents to the territory; (c) tourism and attitudes towards recreational activities; (d) the Administration of the National Park and evaluation of its work; and (e) economic impact of tourism for local communities. One section of the study focused on comparing the attitudes between local inhabitants and mayors and the other section presents a collation of opinions from locals, mayors and tourists. Although a positive evaluation of the national park dominated the results, some negative attitudes and experiences were identified among locals. In addition, the situation also differed within communities. Results also indicated a relatively strong relationship to the territory by locals, but low job opportunities and income from tourism. The level of tourism intensity was perceived as an increasing and sometimes disturbing factor for local communities; motoring was observed as being the most negative activity for nature. The Administration of the Podyji/Thaya River Basin National

  5. Groundwater flowing the forefield of the CSA mine (North Bohemian Brown Coal Basin in the Czech Republic)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zizka, L.; Halir, J. [Brown Coal Research Inst., Most (Czech Republic)

    2010-07-01

    The North Bohemian Brown Coal Basin is home to one of the largest active open cast mines in the Czech Republic. Groundwater flow in the quaternary sediments is causing stability problems in the upper overburden at the mine. A 3-D geological model was used to simulate groundwater flow in the area. The lithological characteristics and hydrogeological conditions of the mine were also considered in order to identify areas that may pose risks during the extraction of mineral resources. The simulation focused on the characterization of the quaternary and crystalline aquifer collectors located in the region of the mine. The study showed that groundwater flow is influenced by the configuration of the quaternary floor, as well as by the deposition and character of the basin sediments and crystalline rocks. The donation area corresponds with the mountain slopes. Groundwater flow is influenced by disruptions in the crystalline roof with quaternary sediments. The quaternary aquifer will be dewatered in order to ensure the future safety of the mine. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  6. Preliminary Study of the Pozzolanic Activity of Dumped Mine Wastes Obtained from the North Bohemian Basin in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos SOTIRIADIS

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Three dumped raw materials, a tuff and two bentonites, obtained from two mining sites at the North Bohemian basin in the Czech Republic, have been studied in order to evaluate them as pozzolanic admixtures in lime mortars for employment in restoration of cultural heritage objects. After thermal activation (800 °C; 5 h, their pozzolanic properties were compared with those of commercial metakaolin. Quantitative phase analysis with the Rietveld method from X-ray powder diffraction patterns, morphological observations, as well as the Frattini and the modified Chapelle tests were performed. In addition, lime mortars, incorporating the fired materials, were prepared and subjected to simultaneous thermal analysis after a 28-day initial curing (20 ± 1 °C; 60 ± 5 % RH. The results showed that all three materials possess pozzolanic activity. However, when employed in lime mortars they did not result in formation of pozzolanic reaction products. Two methods were proposed to improve their reactivity; grinding to obtain finer particle size and removal of quartz content where necessary.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.23.1.14864

  7. Grey Literature in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Pejšová, Petra; Pfeiferová, Martina

    2008-01-01

    Contribution summarizes activities concerning grey literature in the Czech Republic. Contribution describes relationships between systems/projects collecting grey literature and position grey literature in the Czech Digital Library. Contribution is especially focused on a project “The Digital Library for Grey Literature –Functional Model and Pilot Implementation”, which solves the State Technical Library.

  8. The Skinhead Subculture in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Smolík, Josef

    2015-01-01

    This article briefly describes the skinhead subculture, its history, components, characteristics, values, attitudes and norms. It also presents the various currents of the subculture, with an emphasis on the current apolitical trend within this subculture. The article discusses not only the skinhead subculture in England (its roots, development, etc.), but also the situation in the Czech Republic. The skinhead scene in the Czech Republic is characterised by disunity, caused by political...

  9. Grey Literature in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Pejsova, Petra (NTK); Pfeiferova, Martina (NTK); GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service

    2008-01-01

    Our contribution summarizes and describes activities concerning grey literature in the Czech Republic. The managing organisation of the activity is the State Technical Library (henceforth the STL); in the past, it was the STL, who was collecting, publishing and submitting grey literature into the SIGLE system. Moreover, the STL was the representative of the Czech Republic in the EAGLE. Now, EAGLE being extinct, there is no coordinated collection of grey literature on the national level since ...

  10. Anthropogenic groundwater contamination by selenium at Suchomasty Village (Prague Basin, Czech Republic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadlecova, Renata; Bruthans, Jiri; Buzek, Frantisek; Dousova, Barbora; Konecna, Stanislava; Zeman, Ondrej

    2010-05-01

    The aim of the project is to clarify and characterize the probable sources of increased selenium contamination in groundwater at Suchomasty Village located 35 km SW of Prague. The village is supplied by drinking water from a 25 m deep bore-hole with catchment formed by Ordovician to Devonian mostly sedimentary rocks of the Prague Basin. The selenium concentrations have suddenly exceeded limit 10 μg/l up to 123 μg/l since 2007. Several possible selenium sources were predicted in the bore-hole catchment: (i) Paleozoic bedrock, (ii) ash from coal power stations used for arable soil improvement, (iii) selenium-accumulating plants used as manure and (iv) an old rubbish dump. Samples of bedrock, soil and anthropogenic deposits were collected for selenium concentration analyses from five excavated test-holes up to 2.5 m deep. Concentration of selenium was analyzed in month intervals in the water from the bore-hole and from a shallow well. Groundwater residence time was determined using tritium and SF6. Oxygen isotopic composition could help us to better understanding of groundwater dynamics. The AAS and ICP-OES analyses of bedrock and soils revealed no distinct increased selenium concentrations. Devonian limestone contains 5 mg/kg, field soil with ash up to 25 mg/kg and selenium-accumulating plants 6 mg/kg. The highest selenium concentration was found in material from the dump (up to 45 mg/kg) stored in abandoned quarry located 1 km away from the bore-hole. We assume the dump is a main potential source of selenium contamination. Although the average groundwater residence time is up to 20 years, the selenium contamination has reached the bore-hole in 18 month since dump reclamation. It is possible that the fast groundwater circulation has been using more karstified rock. Based on obtained data the selenium is hold in suspension transported by groundwater. Filtration of drinking water should help in a case of continuing long-term increase of selenium contamination

  11. Doing Business Economy Profile 2015 : Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This economy profile for Doing Business 2015 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for the Czech Republic. To allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2015 is the 12th edition in a series of annual reports measuring the regulations that enhance business activity and those that cons...

  12. Controlling in the Conditions of Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.Chrenková

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the issue of controlling the Agriculture of the Czech Republic, using methods of activitybased costing. The basic premise of knowledge is based on a given topic, especially the nature of the method ABC (Activity Based Costing. The paper described the application of the ABC design method in Microsoft Excel applicable in the agricultural sector of the Czech Republic. The proposed application of the ABC method, using Microsoft Excel, is an alternative to using expensive costing ABC special software. Created ABC method application also demonstrates that if somebody wants to improve approach in the overheads management, so it can be used by using quite common user knowledge of Microsoft Excel.

  13. Logistics Service Providers in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    HRNEČKOVÁ, Kateřina

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of the thesis is to analyze the developement of providing logistics services in the Czech Republic and analyze the current situation and expected trends in the near future. The thesis presents the implementation process of logistics outsourcing and follows up the influence of the outsourcing at the level of logistics costs. Manufacturing companies see in logistics the potential tool to improve the efficiency in their operations and they include the logistics in their strategi...

  14. OECD environmental performance reviews: Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-10-11

    This book presents the results of a peer review of the Czech Republic's environmental policies and programmes. It systematically covers air, water, and waste management; nature and biodiversity management; the environmental/economic interface; the environmental/social interface; and international co-operation. It includes extensive statistical information as well as specific recommendations in each of the topics covered. 7 refs., 34 figs., 34 tabs.

  15. Energy policy of the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerny, M. [Ministry of Industry and Trade, Prague (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    On February 16, 1992, the Government of the Czech Republic sanctioned, by its Decree No. 112/82, its first Energy Policy. Since that time, a number of conditions have changed: first of all, there was the partition of the former Federal Czechoslovak Republic, then the privatization of most of energy producing corporations, the deregulation of a significant proportion of power and energy commodities, the decision to bring to an end the construction of the Temelin nuclear power station, the creation of conditions for the construction of the Ingoldstadt oil pipeline, etc. These steps, on which the final decisions have been made, have brought about the necessity of updating the existing general Energy Policy. The updated Energy Policy is based on the Programme Statement by the Government of the Czech Republic of July 1992, as well as on other materials associated with energy and power generation, either approved or negotiated by the Government, in particular the State Environmental Policy the Rules of the State Raw Materials Policy, the European Association Agreement, the European Energy Charter, the results of the Uruguayan Round of GATT, the Convention on Climate Changes, the Ecological Action Programme for central and East-European countries, and other international documents that have either been, or are likely to be sanctioned by the Czech Government (especially the European Energy Charter Treaty, and the protocol on Trans-boundary Air Pollution and on Further Reduction of Sulphur Oxide Emissions).

  16. Observations on the metazoan parasites of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) after its reintroduction into the Elbe River basin in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, Frantisek

    2003-12-01

    In the years 1999-2002, first studies were carried out on the metazoan parasites of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) recently reintroduced into the Elbe River drainage system, after more than 50 years after the complete extinction of the Elbe salmon population. A total of six helminth species were recorded from salmon smolts from three streams of the Elbe River basin (Kamenice River, Jestedský and Libocanský Brooks) in North Bohemia, Czech Republic, where S. salar fingerlings have been released since 1998: Gyrodactylus truttae Gläser, 1974, Crepidostomum metoecus Braun, 1900, Diplostomum spathaceum (Rudolphi, 1819) metacercariae, Raphidascaris acus (Bloch, 1799) adults and encapsulated larvae, Cystidicoloides ephemeridarum (Linstow, 1872), and Neoechinorhynchus rutili (Müller, 1780). Except for D. spathaceum, all these freshwater parasites have been received from the helminth fauna of the co-habiting brown trout (Salmo trutta fario L.). Due to local ecological conditions, the parasite faunae of both salmon and brown trout exhibited distinct qualitative and quantitative differences in the three localities. The finding of G. truttae on S. salar represents a new host record. Three helminth parasites of marine origin, the cestodes Eubothrium crassum (Bloch, 1779) and Scolex pleuronectis Müller, 1788 plerocercoids, and the nematode Anisakis simplex (Rudolphi, 1809) larvae were found in the single examined adult S. salar from the Kamenice River. New data on the geographical distribution of some nematode parasites of Salmo trutta fario L., Barbatula barbatula (L.) and Anguilla anguilla (L.) are presented.

  17. Epigenetic dolomitization of the Přaídolí formation (Upper Silurian), the Barrandian basin, Czech Republic: implications for burial history of Lower Paleozoic strata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchý, V.; Rozkošný, I.; Žák, K.; Franců, J.

    1996-06-01

    Stratabound epigenetic dolomite occurs in carbonate facies of the Barrandian basin (Silurian and Devonian), Czech Republic. The most intense dolomitization is developed in bioclastic calcarenites within the transition between micritic limestone and shaledominated Přídolí and Lochkov formations deposited on a carbonate slope. Medium-crystalline (100-400 µm), inclusion-rich, xenotopic matrix dolomite ( δ 18O=-4.64 to -3.40‰ PDB; δ 13C=+1.05 to +1.85‰ PDB) which selectively replaced most of the bioclastic precursor is volumetrically the most important dolomite type. Coarse crystalline saddle dolomite ( δ 18O=-8.04 to -5.14‰ PDB; δ 18C=+0.49 to +1.49 PDB) which precipitated in fractures and vugs within the matrix dolomite represents a later diagenetic dolomitization event. In some vugs, saddle dolomite coprecipitated with petroleum inclusion-rich authigenic quartz crystals and minor sulfides which, in turn, were post-dated by semisolid asphaltic bitumen. The interpretation of the dolomitization remains equivocal. Massive xenotopic dolomite, although generally characteristic of a deeper burial setting, may have been formed by a recrystallization of an earlier, possibly shallow burial dolomite. Deeper burial recrystallization by reactive basinal pore fluids that presumably migrated through the more permeable upper portion of the Přídolí sequence appears as a viable explanation for this dolomitization overprint. Saddle dolomite cement of the matrix dolomite is interpreted as the last dolomitization event that occurred during deep burial at the depth of the oil window zone. The presence of saddle dolomite, the fluid inclusion composition of associated quartz crystals, and vitrinite paleogeothermometry of adjacent sediments imply diagenetic burial temperatures as high as 160°C. Although high geothermal gradients in the past or the involvement of hydrothermally influenced basinal fluids can account for these elevated temperatures, burial heating beneath

  18. Epigenetic dolomitization of the Přídolí formation (Upper Silurian), the Barrandian basin, Czech Republic: implications for burial history of Lower Paleozoic strata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchý, V.; Rozkošný, I.; Žák, K.; Franců, J.

    Stratabound epigenetic dolomite occurs in carbonate facies of the Barrandian basin (Silurian and Devonian), Czech Republic. The most intense dolomitization is developed in bioclastic calcarenites within the transition between micritic limestone and shale-dominated Přídolí and Lochkov formations deposited on a carbonate slope. Medium-crystalline (100-400μm), inclusion-rich, xenotopic matrix dolomite (δ18O=-4.64 to -3.40ö PDBδ13C=+1.05 to +1.85ö PDB) which selectively replaced most of the bioclastic precursor is volumetrically the most important dolomite type. Coarse crystalline saddle dolomite (δ18O=-8.04 to -5.14ö PDBδ18C=+0.49 to +1.49 PDB) which precipitated in fractures and vugs within the matrix dolomite represents a later diagenetic dolomitization event. In some vugs, saddle dolomite coprecipitated with petroleum inclusion-rich authigenic quartz crystals and minor sulfides which, in turn, were postdated by semisolid asphaltic bitumen. The interpretation of the dolomitization remains equivocal. Massive xenotopic dolomite, although generally characteristic of a deeper burial setting, may have been formed by a recrystallization of an earlier, possibly shallow burial dolomite. Deeper burial recrystallization by reactive basinal pore fluids that presumably migrated through the more permeable upper portion of the Přídolí sequence appears as a viable explanation for this dolomitization overprint. Saddle dolomite cement of the matrix dolomite is interpreted as the last dolomitization event that occurred during deep burial at the depth of the oil window zone. The presence of saddle dolomite, the fluid inclusion composition of associated quartz crystals, and vitrinite paleogeothermometry of adjacent sediments imply diagenetic burial temperatures as high as 160 °C. Although high geothermal gradients in the past or the involvement of hydrothermally influenced basinal fluids can account for these elevated temperatures, burial heating beneath approximately 3

  19. Mammographic dose survey in the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novak, Leos [National Radiation Protection Institute, Prague (Czech Republic); Rada, Jiri [National Radiation Protection Institute, Ostrava (Czech Republic)

    2006-07-01

    At present, it is generally accepted that the average dose to the glandular tissue is the most reasonable dose descriptor in mammography with regard to the risk of breast cancer induced by ionizing radiation. It is advantageous to use the quantity mean glandular dose M.G.D. for setting of diagnostic reference levels (D.R.L.) as well, although the quantity is not directly measurable as it is the case of D.R.L. quantities for other imaging modalities. The reason is that a directly measurable quantity suitable for mammography, incident air kerma Ki, depends a lot on a beam quality. The influence of the beam quality (expressed by tube voltage, half value layer and combination of anode/filter material) is already included in calculation of mean glandular dose. To assess a radiation burden of patients due to mammography at a national level a representative dose survey is needed to carry out. Such a study provides statistically significant dose data for setting of the national diagnostic reference levels. National Radiation Protection Institute is performing the study in the Czech Republic since the year 2005.On a basis of presented data, it could be concluded, that the situation in the Czech Republic with respect to patient doses in mammography is encouraging and that the requirements of European Commission are well fulfilled. However, it is obvious, that the obtained results can not be considered as statistically significant at the moment, because the data were not collected from a representative sample of centers, which should observe a distribution of X-ray unit types, type of a mammographic center (screening/non screening ones) and also a locality of a center. The dose survey still continues to cover the whole Czech Republic with the main task to determine new national diagnostic reference levels and to find out optimized standards for carrying out the examinations with respect to patient doses and image quality. (authors)

  20. Open Access Week 2011 in the Czech Republic (Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavla Rygelová

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The awareness of open access is slowly rising in the Czech academic environment. Both green open access and gold open access have broken through thanks to Open Access Week, which has for the second time been organized by twelve Czech university libraries, the National Technical Library, and the Library of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, under the auspices of the Association of Libraries of Czech Universities.

  1. [Gene therapy in the Czech Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonka, V

    2003-01-01

    Gene therapy represents one of the most promising applications of molecular biology and genetic engineering in medicine. At present its introduction meets series of problems which are of technical, methodological and ethical nature. Although the research in the field of gene therapy in the Czech Republic is on a good level, there is little hope that its achievements will be tested in clinical trials in the near future. In the Czech Republic a law enabling the use of preparations based on the newest biotechnologies in human medicine is missing. Similarly, a production unit capable of preparing the new gene-based drugs according to the Good Manufactory Praxis is not available and the State Institute for Control of Drugs has not any working group fully qualified for their control. The paper proposes actions aimed at solving the present unfavourable situation. The fact that the interest of clinicians in gene therapy is rapidly growing, and that there are signs of increasing interest of public in its achievements, gives good prospects for the introduction of gene therapy into medical praxis in this country in the not very distant future.

  2. Statistics of Remittances in the Czech Republic

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    Martina Šimková

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Remittances represent transfers of earned money of foreigners to home country and they belong to often discussed topics in the connection with migration issues. The reason is the recent increase of the number of migrants and the amount of sent remittances. Since the Czech Republic became the immigration country, remittances have gained the importance. Many foreigners come to the Czech Republic because of work or study. However, many of them send earned money back to their country of origin, to their families and relatives. The information about the foreigners is crucial for describing their behaviour (incomes, consumption expenditures and recording the transactions in national accounts and balance of payments. Permanent lack of data sources causes problems with such statistics. The aim of the paper is the description and interpretation of the issue of remittances. Procedures that are used for these estimates are briefly described with respect to the users’ needs. The description is mainly focused on the estimates of numbers and structures of foreigners, covering the length of stay, economic activity, their behaviour and estimation of sent remittances.

  3. Czech Republic as an Important Producer of Poppy Seed

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    L. Smutka

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Poppy seed (Papaver somniferum l. is an important oilseed, whose cultivation has a long tradition in the Czech Republic. Poppy seed grown in the Czech Republic has good quality and, therefore, is preferred to poppy seeds in other parts of the world. The objective of this paper is to characterize the current position of the Czech poppy seed production and foreign trade in the world. Czech Republic is the main world producer of poppy seed and price maker of the European and world prices. With regards to trade, the Czech Republic is also the main producer and seller both in Europe and in the world. The poppy seed crop grown in the Czech Republic is mainly produced for exports, because the domestic consumption consists of only between four and five thousand tons. Major export markets of Czech poppy seed are European countries with a population of Slavic origin or those influenced by Slavic cuisine. Another important markets are overseas countries, that were settled by Slavic immigrants. The paper stresses out the position of the Czech Republic as a major player in the world market with poppy seed. The paper provides analysis of the market position of the Czech production and Czech foreign trade participation. Development of production and trade, as well as some other factors affecting the poppy seed economy, are analyzed such as prices, hectarage, yields, volume of production and volume of trade. This paper is part of a research project carried out by the authors within the grant no. 6046070906, funded by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic.

  4. ORCONECTES LIMOSUS IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC

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    DURIS Z.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Several cases of epibiosis by macro-invertebrates on Orconectes limosus were recorded during our research on the biology of populations of this invasive crayfish species in the Czech Republic. (1 In 2001, we observed a high infestation of O. limosus by native species of branchiobdellidan worms (Annelida: Branchiobdellidae in the river Elbe at Obríství (Central Bohemia. Four European Branchiobdella species were collected and identified from three crayfish specimens: B. pentodonta (52%, B. balcanica (24%, B. parasita (18% and B. hexodonta (6%. In 2003, only a single crayfish was found bearing branchiobdellidans (5 specimens of B. parasita only in the same locality. No branchiobdellidans on O. limosus have been confirmed since. (2 A flooded sandpit Lhota near Brandýs nad Labem is the only Czech locality where the settlement of Dreissena polymorpha (Mollusca, Bivalvia on an O. limosus body was recorded. The crayfish lost the bivalves by moulting in summer; new mussels had settled by late summer and early autumn. (3 Females of the fish louse Argulus cf. foliaceus (Crustacea: Branchiura lay egg-strings on any hard substrate, including the crayfish exoskeleton. Such egg-masses were found on up to 65% of O. limosus specimens in the above-mentioned sandpit. (4 Bryozoan colonies of Plumatella repens were found twice on crayfish in the rivers Elbe (Labe and Cidlina.

  5. Plant-Arthropod Associations from the Lower Miocene of the Most Basin in Northern Bohemia(Czech Republic):A Preliminary Report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jakub PROKOP; Torsten WAPPLER; Stanislav KNOR; Zlatko KVA(C)EK

    2010-01-01

    Terrestrial plants and insects currently account for the majority of the Earth's biodiversity,and approximately half of insect species are herbivores.Thus,insects and plants share ancient associations that date back more than 400 Myr.However,investigations of their past interactions are at the preliminary stages in Western Europe.Herein,we present the first results of our study of various feeding damage based on a dataset of nearly 3500 examined plant specimens from the Lower Miocene of the Lagerstatte Bilina Mine in the Most Basin,Czech Republic.This site provides a unique view of the Neogcue freshwater ecosystems.It has long been studied by scientists working in different branches of sedimentology,paleobotany,and paleozoology.The fossils are preserved in three characteristic horizons overlaying the coal seam(Clayey Superseam Horizon,Delta Sandy Horizon,and Lake Clayey Horizon),reflecting paleoenvironmental changes in a short time period of development.The trace fossils are classified as functional feeding groups or"guilds",without searching for a direct cause or a recent analog host relation.Approximately 23% of specimens of dicotyledonous plant leaves were found to be damaged and associated with some leaf"morphotypes".Deciduous plant-host taxa,and those with a chartaceons texture typical of riparian habitats,were frequently damaged,such as Populus,recorded with two species Populus zaddachii and Populus populina(57.9% and 31% herbivory levels,respectively),followed by Acer,Alnus,and Carya,averaging almost 30% of damaged leaves/leaflets.There has been evidence of 60 damage types(DT)representing all functional feeding groups recorded at the Bilina Mine,including 12 types of leaf mines and 16 galltype DT.In total,Lower Miocene of the Lagerstatte Bilina Mine exhibits a high level of external foliage feeding types(23.7%),and a low level of more specialized DT,such as galls(4.3%)and leaf mines(<1%).A broader comparison based on DT of the main sedimentary environments

  6. Innovation in Small and Medium Enterprises in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Koudelková

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The success of small and medium enterprises (SMEs is crucial for the development of the Czech economy. Czech SMEs contribute to innovation and economic growth; they provide employment opportunities and stimulate economic growth. The aim of this research is to determine the key elements of growth and innovation in Czech SMEs. A questionnaire survey of innovation in SMEs in the Czech Republic was used; the research was held in the second quarter of 2013. The research results show that innovation has a positive impact on the growth of Czech SMEs and hence it should become a top priority for the Government strategies and policies that aim to promote economic growth and business development in the Czech Republic.

  7. GHG emission mitigation measures and technologies in the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tichy, M. [Energy Efficiency Center, Prague (Czech Republic)

    1996-12-31

    The paper presents a short overview of main results in two fields: projection of GHG emission from energy sector in the Czech Republic and assessment of technologies and options for GHG mitigation. The last part presents an overview of measures that were prepared for potential inclusion to the Czech Climate Change Action Plan.

  8. Language Planning for Romani in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Eva

    2015-01-01

    In the Czech Republic, Romani language planning has long been a controversial subject. The question informing the current research is whether the European Charter's goal of protecting, maintaining and invigorating Romani is attainable in a culture driven by standard language ideology, Czech society's aversion to multiculturalism and an overall…

  9. Changes in Wage Inequality in the Czech Republic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Pytlikova, Mariola; Warzynski, Frederic

    In this paper, we examine the evolution of the changes in the wage structure in the Czech Republic using a linked employer-employee dataset covering a large fraction of the Czech labor market over the period 1998-2006. We find evidence of slightly diminishing gender inequality and increasing...... changes in wage inequality....

  10. Compilation of Non-Financial Balances in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vítězslav Ondruš

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The System of National Accounts in the Czech Republic consists of three main parts — institutional sector accounts, input-output tables and balances of non-financial assets. All three parts are compiled interactively by common time schedule. The article deals with balances of non-financial assets and their relation to core institutional sector accounts and explains why the third parallel part of SNA in the Czech Republic was build, describes its weaknesses and future development.

  11. Influencing youth entrepreneuship in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Fantová

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship is one of the possible solutions to the pan-European problem of youth unemployment. The objective of the research was to identify differences between male and female entrepreneurs in their opinions of entrepreneurship of young people. We wanted to find out whether male and female entrepreneurs would recommend young people to do business and what factors in their opinion can influence the fact whether young people start business. To collect data, we used a questionnaire sent to entrepreneurs from the whole Czech Republic. The most important barrier identified by entrepreneurs was frequently amended legislation, complexity of administration, poor enforceability of law and a lack of funds. The most important incentives of young people according to entrepreneurs is particularly the vision of opportunities in business. Another important incentive is becoming more independent. Statistically significant differences in the responses of men and women were found in the barrier related to the personal knowledge of an unsuccessful entrepreneur and in the incentive of the necessity to start business due to the lack of a job. Sufficient funding and possessing business premises were factors in which statistically significant differences in the responses of men and women were found, too. This research emphasises factors which women and men can find important in making a decision on starting business or being employed.

  12. [Human prion diseases in the Czech Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohan, Z; Rusina, R; Marešová, M; Matěj, R

    2015-09-01

    Human prion diseases are a group of very rare diseases with a unique pathogenesis and, due to an inauspicious prognosis and unavailability of therapy, with fatal consequences. The etiopathogenetic background is the presence of pathologically misfolded prion protein, highly resistant to denaturation, the aggregation and presence of which in the brain tissue causes irreversible neuronal damage. The most frequent prion disease in humans is Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) which occurs in sporadic, hereditary/familial, or acquired/infectious/iatrogenic forms. A new form of CJD, variant CJD, is considered to be linked to dietary exposure to beef products from cattle infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and to infection via blood transfusion. The clinical picture of these diseases is characterized by a rapidly progressing dementia, cerebellar and extrapyramidal symptoms, and rather specific MRI, EEG, and CSF findings. Clinically, the diagnosis is described as possible or probable prion disease and needs to be confirmed by neuropathological or immunological investigation of the brain tissue. Epidemiological data from the Czech Republic spanning the last decade are presented.

  13. Religion, Culture, and Tax Evasion: Evidence from the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadim Strielkowski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Our paper analyzes the impact of culture and religion on tax evasions in the Czech Republic, which represents one of the most atheistic countries in Europe, and a very interesting example of attitudes to the church and religion, as well as the influence of religion on the social and economic aspects of everyday life. Our results suggest that, in the Czech Republic, religion plays the role of tax compliance, but only through a positive effect of visiting the church. National pride supports tax morality while trust in government institutions and attitudes towards government are not associated with tax compliance. These results suggest that the Czech Republic is no different from other countries regarding the relationship between religion and tax compliance. Moreover, the role of government as the authority for improving tax compliance is different from what is observed in other countries.

  14. Verification of the radiometric map of the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matolín, Milan

    2017-01-01

    The radiometric map of the Czech Republic is based on uniform regional airborne radiometric total count measurements (1957-1959) which covered 100% of the country. The airborne radiometric instrument was calibrated to a (226)Ra point source. The calibration facility for field gamma-ray spectrometers, established in the Czech Republic in 1975, significantly contributed to the subsequent radiometric data standardization. In the 1990's, the original analogue airborne radiometric data were digitized and using the method of back-calibration (IAEA, 2003) converted to dose rate. The map of terrestrial gamma radiation expressed in dose rate (nGy/h) was published on the scale 1:500,000 in 1995. Terrestrial radiation in the Czech Republic, formed by magmatic, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks of Proterozoic to Quaternary age, ranges mostly from 6 to 245 nGy/h, with a mean of 65.6 ± 19.0 nGy/h. The elevated terrestrial radiation in the Czech Republic, in comparison to the global dose rate average of 54 nGy/h, reflects an enhanced content of natural radioactive elements in the rocks. The 1995 published radiometric map of the Czech Republic was successively studied and verified by additional ground gamma-ray spectrometric measurements and by comparison to radiometric maps of Germany, Poland and Slovakia in border zones. A ground dose rate intercomparison measurement under participation of foreign and domestic professional institutions revealed mutual dose rate deviations about 20 nGy/h and more due to differing technical parameters of applied radiometric instruments. Studies and verification of the radiometric map of the Czech Republic illustrate the magnitude of current deviations in dose rate data. This gained experience can assist in harmonization of dose rate data on the European scale.

  15. Relationship of reverse logistics and marketing communication in Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Milichovský

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: The paper deals with question if the final customers are interested in reverse logistics in marketing campaigns, acceptable in the market of Czech Republic. Methodology/methods: Paper is based on primary research, on which participated final consumers in Czech Republic through the questionnaire survey. Results of the paper are based on testing of dependence between individual variables by Pearson chi-square test. Scientific aim: The aim of the article is to show relationship of marketing communication and reverse logistics, and their correlation. Findings: Main result of research provide relationship between marketing communication tools and reverse activity. The research was aimed at random chosen group of 585 people in the Czech Republic. The result of the research can be used for the companies that operate in the Czech or Central European market. Conclusions: The primary research provides possible approaches for companies in communication green services to final consumers. Limitation for this research because of the chosen sample. Own data for primary research was gained only in Czech Republic.

  16. [Salmonellosis outbreaks in the Czech Republic in 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myšková, Petra; Karpíšková, Renáta; Dědičová, Daniela

    2013-07-01

    In 2012, the Brno laboratory of the National Institute of Public Health investigated 143 human and 10 food-borne Salmonella strains. All strains were linked to salmonellosis outbreaks in various areas or represented rare serotypes that had emerged more often in some periods. These strains were matched to 22 outbreaks reported in the Czech Republic. Phenotyping and genotyping revealed that the cause of most outbreaks (82%) was the serotype Enteritidis, but other serotypes that are rare in the Czech Republic (S. Mikawasima, S. 9,12:l,v:-, S. Indiana, or S. Stanley) were also involved in some outbreaks.

  17. THE RESPONSE OF BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATE AND FISH ASSEMBLAGES TO HUMAN IMPACT ALONG THE LOWER STRETCH OF THE RIVERS MORAVA AND DYJE (DANUBE RIVER BASIN, CZECH REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk Adámek

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The lower Morava and Dyje rivers belong among the large lowland rivers on the southeast of the Czech Republic flowing into the Danube 69 km downstream of their confluence. Despite their high nature value and environment protection, both rivers suffered from heavy pollution from the sixties to the eighties of the last century. Significant improvement of their water quality during the last two decades resulted in the partial recovery of former assemblages of both benthic macroinvertebrates and fish. Recently, altogether 262 and 137 taxa of macrozoobenthos were recorded at the Dyje and Morava rivers, respectively. In the River Dyje, 3 and 21 non-native and threatened (according to IUCN categories invertebrate species, respectively, were ascertained, whilst in the River Morava their numbers were 2 and 10, respectively. The fish assemblage consisted of 23 and 24 species, respectively, plus one hybrid in each of the rivers, bleak being by far the most abundant fish. In the sections under study, several rare and/or protected species were also recorded. Two of them, ide (Leuciscus idus and burbot (Lota lota belong among vulnerable fish species and four others, white-eye bream (Abramis sapa, striped ruffe (Gymnocephalus schraetser, streber (Zingel streber and zingel (Zingel zingel, are considered as critically endangered species. Currently, both lower stretches of the rivers Morava and Dyje have been heavily invaded by round goby, Neogobius melanostomus.

  18. [Tuberculosis in the Czech Republic in 1999].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trnka, L; Danková, D; Krejbich, F; Svandová, E

    2000-11-01

    Report is given on the tuberculosis (TB) prevalence and the new diseases monitoring in Czech Republic (CR) in 1999 using the register of notifiable TB diseases. 1631 new TB cases and relapse were notified (15.9/100,000 citizens). Majority TB cases, 1369 (13.3/100,000 citizens) were of the respiratory system and 262 TB cases were in other locations. 63% of the respiratory system diseases were bacteriologically verified. In comparison with the year 1998, the number of newly notified TB patients was 9.6% lower, number of TB cases of the respiratory system which were bacteriologically verified was 12.3% lower, cases of microscopically positive TB were 17.4% less frequent. Among the notified TB patients there were 91 foreigners. TB relapse was identified in 61 patients. Among the notified TB cases, 987 (60.5%) were males and 644 (39.5%) were females. In both sexes patients over 65 predominated. Prevalence of TB cases higher than the average for the whole state was found in Prague, northern and western Bohemia. Groups with TB prevalence higher than 50/100,000 citizens were identified (the risk groups). They include homeless people, drug addicts, asylum applicants, and prisoners. Due to subjective troubles of patients TB was diagnosed in 70.2% cases, by active investigation in 13.9% patients. Late TB diagnosis at autopsy came in 6.8% cases. Decease due to TB was notified in 79 patients. In 77 of them TB had not been diagnosed premortally. 106 new cases and relapses of non-TB mycobacterial disease were notified in 1999. The case of tuberculosis in CR was in 1999 restrainable. In comparison with 1998 significant decrease of TB prevalence in individual subgroups of TB disease was described (10 to 17%). Also the decrease of the long-term trend (10 years) of newly notified TB patients and TB of the respiratory system was depicted. It is necessary to maintain the quality and extend of the TB control program in order to prevent the new outbreak of TB disease.

  19. Local energy policies in Poland and the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Both the Czech Republic and Poland as former Communist countries, are transforming their economies from central planning to a free market. This applies equally to energy planning and because they are starting from the same point, they have come up with very comparable solutions despite strong cultural differences, so that the parallels are striking. This study analyzes the energy management in local authorities in Poland and the Czech Republic with the objective of better: identifying the current situation, identifying the opportunities for action both now and in an extended European Union, identifying the constraints that may hinder full integration of East European municipalities in European Union programmes, improve the integration of municipalities in the countries concerned in pan-European networks of municipalities interested in energy issues. The study reviews the powers and responsibilities of local authorities in the energy field and the institutional framework within which local authorities work. There are now 16 directly elected regional authorities in Poland and the local authorities have been restructured into two levels, the Powiad and the Gmina. Similarly, in the Czech Republic 14 elected regional authorities have been established. This document brings together 2 reports: the final report and the study report about the energy policies in Poland and in the Czech republic: structure of local government, general and institutional aspects, national political organisation, national administrative organisation, municipal role in production and distribution, regulation and planning, energy issues, energy management policies, specific aspects at local level etc... The conclusions from two review seminars (Jablonec nad Nison (Czech republic), 25-26 January 2001, and Bielsko Biala (Poland), 22-23 February 2001) and some fact files on 4 large Czech towns and 4 large Polish towns complete the study. (J.S.)

  20. Comparison of selected CAP measures in the Czech Republic and Republic of Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Svobodová

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Czech Republic and Republic Slovenia are the members of European Union for four years already. Membership in EU required the adoption of European legal order, in agriculture the adoption of Common agricultural policy (CAP which brought many changes into agricultural sector. The article deals with selected measures of CAP and tries to describe their settings and differences in both countries. A case study is also included – the comparison of selected measures in one Czech and one Slovenian region.

  1. Warning against the dangers of wildfires in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozny, M.; Bares, D.; Virag, M.; Stalmacher, J.

    2009-04-01

    Many fire risk models have been developed for various temporal and spatial scales and application purposes. The integrated warning service in the Czech Republic is used for wildfire risk assessment model of FDI (Fire Danger Index). The FDI model is being developed in the Doksany observatory based on evaluation of weather conditions. FDI model describes danger of wildfire for vegetation covered countryside. There are five levels of danger: 1 - very low risk, 2 - low risk, 3 - moderate risk, 4 - high risk, 5 - very high risk. Simply say higher index value, reflects to higher risk of wildfire. As input data, the model uses measured values from the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute stations network as well as ALADIN's model predicted conditions. The modelling process computes upper soil profile moisture, surface moistening and the spreading speed of fire. Early warning system for wildfires prevention in the Czech Republic is used since 2006.

  2. A concise history of forensic medicine in Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirt, Miroslav; Strejc, Premysl; Krajsa, Jan; Hejna, Petr; Cisarova, Olga; Dvorak, Miroslav; Hladik, Jiri; Sokol, Milos; Klir, Premysl; Beran, Michal; Fialka, Jiri; Kubista, Pavel; Vorel, Frantisek; Dvoracek, Igor; Machacek, Rudolf; Toupalik, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the most important historical facts about all forensic medicine workplaces in the Czech Republic since the beginning till present day, including a perspective on how to establish a new one. Each of the University Forensic Medicine Institutes or district Departments is covered by at least one author. The oldest institute is in Prague and in Brno, the youngest is in Pardubice.

  3. Educational Expansion and Inequality in Taiwan and the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael; Tsai, Shu-Ling; Mateju, Petr; Huang, Min-Hsiung

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a comparative analysis of educational inequality by family background and gender in Taiwan and the Czech Republic, which have both experienced substantial educational expansion in the last half-century under different educational systems. We highlight the specific institutional histories of both countries and examine the role…

  4. 78 FR 65283 - Grain-Oriented Electrical Steel From the People's Republic of China, the Czech Republic, Germany...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... made no other adjustments to U.S. price.\\24\\ \\24\\ See PRC AD Initiation Checklist; Germany Initiation...] Grain-Oriented Electrical Steel From the People's Republic of China, the Czech Republic, Germany, Japan...-3874 (the Czech Republic, Germany, Poland, and the Russian Federation (Russia)); or Steve...

  5. The economic results of farms in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Svoboda

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Czech agrarian sector has undergone significant changes during last ten years. Since the Czech Republic has entered the European Union in 2004, agrarian sector has had to adapt to conditions of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP. This policy is taken as a crucial within the EU policies as it includes orientation of food production as well as a broader sense of sustainable development and employment. The paper assesses profit/loss and its efficiency of a sample of farms in the Czech Republic (about 830 farms in 2004 2010. This analysis employed methods of financial analysis both traditional ratios and systems of bankruptcy and value models. Time series is long enough to monitor results after establishing the UE and the CAP principles in the Czech Republic. The paper shows that although since 2004, revenue per employee has been increasing, the value added per worker has been static without any major changes. However, farms on average were profitable with the exception of 2009. It was verified by bankruptcy and value models that an average farm is in a relatively good financial situation (without any problems or debt and sufficiently liquid.

  6. Comparative Advertising in the Czech Republic: An Empirical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Kral

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Comparative advertising had been traditionally banned in most EU countries and was allowed by the European law just relatively recently. That is why in the EU this form of advertising is relatively new, as opposed to the situation in the US, where comparative advertising has been widely used and well accepted by consumers for decades. The literature has been silent on the topic of the effectiveness of comparative advertising in the Czech Republic, as well as in other Central and Eastern European countries. The goal of this paper is to investigate the effectiveness of comparative advertising campaigns in the Czech Republic. Using an online survey with 160 Czech respondents, we found that the attitude towards comparative advertising is rather positive in the Czech Republic. We also identified that the gender of the recipient influences the general perception of comparative advertising. On the other hand, the age of the recipient does not seem to be a moderator of the attitude towards comparative advertising, in general. The results also do not signal any impact of the gender and the age of the recipient on the change of the perception of any of the brands involved in the campaign. Managerial implications target mainly marketing and advertising managers responsible for Central European markets.

  7. Closed detention in the Czech Republic: on what grounds?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beáta Szakácsová

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available People who arrive by air in the Czech Republic claiming asylum are transferred to a ‘reception centre’ at Prague’s Vaclav Havel Airport. Although they are deprived of their liberty, have limited access to fresh air and to the internet, and are only allowed to use a payphone, asylum seekers at the centre are not treated as criminals and detainees report that conditions in the reception centre are moderately good. However, there are some significant problems in the Czech Republic’s current practice of detaining applicants for international protection.

  8. Islamic Extremism in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    the larger world religion , which works in concord with the principles, values and interests of democratic countries. This is typical for Islamic...follows: Czech (9.6 million); Slovak (193,000); Roma 6 (200,000); Silesian (11,000); Polish (52,000); German (39,000); Ukrainian (22,000); and...followers cannot be determined accurately because the numbers are constantly fluctuating and Islam is designated by the category “other religions ” in the

  9. Risks of Mortgage Loans in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Tichý

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Indebtedness through mortgage loans is dominant of household debt in the Czech Republic. The gradual increase in the household debt level may also entail increasing credit risk assumed by banks in connection with their credit exposure to this sector. The objective of the paper is to verify the risk and identify factors that affect the credit risk development in the Czech Republic. We look for correlation between the risk development and the interest rate development. Furthermore, we verify links between the risk and the development of real estate collateral value. The paper does confirm that there are real risks associated with the potential increase in interest rates. No significant risks have been confirmed with regard to the current development of the residential property value. The paper also strives to provide an identification and verification of risks stemming from individual banks’ internal processes. It features a detailed analysis of the internal factors (aspects comprising revenue, competition, as well as distribution.

  10. Should Czech Republic and Slovakia Have Rail Baltica Strategy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olli-Pekka Hilmola

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Export led economies of Slovakia and Czech Republic have shown impressive performance on activity regarding to Rail Baltica corridor countries (trade vol. incr. by 200-300 % in decade time. However, long-term plans in transportation logistics are tied upon corridors (road and rail ending to Polish sea port, Gdansk. Road transport is also favoured in large-scale in both countries in export activity. However, new environmental demands (sign. lower emissions and scarcity of oil are on the way of changing the current modus operandi. As trade of Rail Baltica countries accounts for one third of these two countries, and is constantly growing with surplus (except for Russia, Slovakia and Czech Republic are clearly in need of developing own strategy for Rail Baltica.

  11. Insect ectoparasites from wild passerine birds in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sychra O.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Wild passerine birds (Passeriformes from northeastern part of the Czech Republic were examined for ectoparasites. Three species of louse-flies of the genus Ornithomya (Diptera: Hippoboscidae, two species of fleas of the genera Ceratophyllus and Dasypsyllus (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae, and 15 species of chewing lice belonging to the genera Myrsidea, Menacanthus (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae, Brueelia, Penenirmus, Philopterus (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae were found on 82 birds of 23 species. New chewing louse-host records are Hippolais icterina for Menacanthus currucae; Motacilla cinerea for Menacanthus pusillus; Turdus philomelos and Motacilla cinerea for Brueelia merulensis; and Sylvia atricapilla for Menacanthus eurysternus. Brueelia neoatricapillae is cited for the first time for the Czech Republic. Parasitological parameters such as prevalence, intensity and abundance are also discussed.

  12. Comparison of particular logistic models' adoption in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrbová, Petra; Cempírek, Václav

    2016-12-01

    Managing inventory is considered as one of the most challenging tasks facing supply chain managers and specialists. Decisions related to inventory locations along with level of inventory kept throughout the supply chain have a fundamental impact on the response time, service level, delivery lead-time and the total cost of the supply chain. The main objective of this paper is to identify and analyse the share of a particular logistic model adopted in the Czech Republic (Consignment stock, Buffer stock, Safety stock) and also compare their usage and adoption according to different industries. This paper also aims to specify possible reasons of particular logistic model preferences in comparison to the others. The analysis is based on quantitative survey held in the Czech Republic.

  13. Viticulture in The Czech Republic: Some Spatio-Temporal Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svobodová Ilona

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available From a global perspective, the growing of grapevines in the Czech Republic is of peripheral importance. For a group of grape-growing villages in southern Moravia, however, the making of wine is bound up with local history, traditions and cultural life, and contributes significantly to the local economy. This paper describes the current status of viticulture in Bohemia and Moravia, addressing changes in the number and structure of wine producers and pointing out some qualitative changes that the business is undergoing. Changing consumer tastes have brought a demand for quality wines of local origin, which cannot be met without high quality care of vineyards throughout the lifetime of the vines. Special attention is given to two alternative ways of tending vineyards - the development of integrated production, and organic viticulture - that are developing rapidly in the Czech Republic even when compared to Austria and Germany

  14. Nuclear medicine training and practice in the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminek, Milan; Koranda, Pavel [University Hospital Olomouc, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Olomouc (Czech Republic)

    2014-08-15

    Nuclear medicine in the Czech Republic is a full specialty with an exclusive practice. Since the training program was organized and structured in recent years, residents have had access to the specialty of nuclear medicine, starting with a two-year general internship (in internal medicine or radiology). At present, nuclear medicine services are provided in 45 departments. In total, 119 nuclear medicine specialists are currently registered. In order to obtain the title of Nuclear Medicine Specialist, five years of training are necessary; the first two years consist of a general internship in internal medicine or radiology. The remaining three years consist of training in the nuclear medicine specialty itself, but includes three months of practice in radiology. Twenty-one physicians are currently in nuclear medicine training and a mean of three specialists pass the final exam per year. The syllabus is very similar to that of the European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS), namely concerning the minimum recommended numbers for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. In principle, the Czech law requires continuous medical education for all practicing doctors. The Czech Medical Chamber has provided a continuing medical education (CME) system. Other national CMEs are not accepted in Czech Republic. (orig.)

  15. Nuclear medicine training and practice in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamínek, Milan; Koranda, Pavel

    2014-08-01

    Nuclear medicine in the Czech Republic is a full specialty with an exclusive practice. Since the training program was organized and structured in recent years, residents have had access to the specialty of nuclear medicine, starting with a two-year general internship (in internal medicine or radiology). At present, nuclear medicine services are provided in 45 departments. In total, 119 nuclear medicine specialists are currently registered. In order to obtain the title of Nuclear Medicine Specialist, five years of training are necessary; the first two years consist of a general internship in internal medicine or radiology. The remaining three years consist of training in the nuclear medicine specialty itself, but includes three months of practice in radiology. Twenty-one physicians are currently in nuclear medicine training and a mean of three specialists pass the final exam per year. The syllabus is very similar to that of the European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS), namely concerning the minimum recommended numbers for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. In principle, the Czech law requires continuous medical education for all practicing doctors. The Czech Medical Chamber has provided a continuing medical education (CME) system. Other national CMEs are not accepted in Czech Republic.

  16. Family Business in the Czech Republic: Actual Situation

    OpenAIRE

    Anastasia PETLINA

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the article. The purpose of this paper is to define the actual situation of family business on the market, particularly focused on qualities of family business and its strengths or weaknesses. The object of research is the family business as an economical phenomenon. The study includes two subjects: firstly, to find out a specification of the family business, to analyze family ties within the business in accordance with the laws of the Czech Republic or to find out the current econ...

  17. Strategies of Domestic and Multinational Firms in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talpová Žáková Sylva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The strategic behavior of companies in the globalizing and changing markets may be characterized by the extent to which a company’s strategy is adapted to its environment. The goal of this paper is to compare the strategies used by multinational and domestic companies in the Czech Republic in reacting to the environment and to ascertain which of the strategies is the most advantageous. Consequently, this study provides essential information for strategic decisions for both domestic and multinational companies.

  18. REPORTING OF COMMERCIAL INSURANCE COMPANIES: EVIDENCE FROM THE CZECH REPUBLIC

    OpenAIRE

    Jiřina Bošková

    2007-01-01

    The subject of insurance companies is to provide insurance protection based on commercial principles. All changes in the society are directly reflected in the insurance activity. New risks apperar and therfore new insurance products appear as well. The insurance business intervenes into all areas of the economic and social life in the Czech Republic. Insurance companies cannot be treated only as companies offering insurance protection, but also as important investors who, as a result of their...

  19. The Effect of Parenthood on Wages in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Žofková, Martina

    2015-01-01

    Using cross-sectional and longitudinal data from EU-SILC for the Czech Republic this thesis shows that mothers suffer wage penalty, whereas fathers gain wage premium. These results are in accordance with literature abroad. This thesis also shows that parenthood has greater impact on individuals with higher education, that motherhood penalty is lower for single mothers, whereas fatherhood premium is higher for single fathers, and that there is stronger self-selection of mothers into specific j...

  20. Offer of outgoing volunteer tourism in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Bryndová, Karolína

    2015-01-01

    Bachelor thesis describes outgoing volunteer tourism in the Czech Republic through volunteer organizations that offer projects mainly for young people as a meaning leisure activity, but also organizations that are involved in rescue operations during various natural disasters and other emergencies. It then also describes types of projects as well as positive and negative impacts, benefits, and problems of international volunteering. Final survey identifies a profile of participants of these p...

  1. Institutionalization of Marketing in Hospitals in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Stankova Pavla

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the specifics of marketing management in hospitals and the role of marketing in hospitals in the Czech Republic. Its goal is to present marketing as a tool enabling hospitals to compete in an open market. Nowadays, hospitals increasingly realise that there is a need for marketing management in health care services. The importance of marketing management is then represented by the institutionalization of marketing by means of establishing marketing departments or appointi...

  2. SMEs growth in the Czech Republic: Some macroeconomic perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Osakwe, Christian Nedu; Verter, Nahanga; Bečvářová, Věra; Chovancová, Miloslava

    2015-01-01

    Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) are seen as a vehicle for employment generation, wealth creation, economic growth and development in countries that have a sound investment climate. SMEs, account for approximately one-third of GDP, over 50% of the value added, 99% of the share of total registered enterprises, and represent 60% of total employment in the Czech Republic. In the light of this background, the paper explores the influence of some macroeconomic variables on SMEs growth in the Cz...

  3. Determinants of Regional Entrepreneurial Activity in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Dvouletý

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The following study is focused on analysis of registered businesses in the 14 regions of the Czech Republic during the period of years 1995-2013. The aim of the study was to quantify factors that affect entrepreneurial activity expressed as rate of registered businesses per capita. Based on the previous empirical studies, the determinants were selected and hypothesis stated. Formed hypothesis investigated positive impact of GDP per capita, unemployment rate and R&D institutions on rate of registered business activity. To evaluate them, data were obtained from the Czech Statistical Office and formed into dataset. Firstly, panel regressions estimated with fixed effects method were employed and secondly, Granger causality tests to evaluate the relationship between entrepreneurial activity and GDP per capita were used. Regression estimates proved positive relationship between entrepreneurial activity in Czech regions and GDP per capita, unemployment rate and support activities of R&D institutions. Positive impact was also confirmed for population density, average age, share of tertiary educated population and real R&D expenditures. Testing Granger causality proved dual causality between entrepreneurial activity and GDP per capita confirming that GDP per capita as good predictor of economic development of Czech regions. Finally, economic growth motivates Czech individuals to enter entrepreneurial activity.

  4. Mr. Eduard Zeman, Minister of Education, Youth and Sport, Czech Republic

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2001-01-01

    Mr Eduard Zeman (third from left), Minister of Education, Youth and Sport, Czech Republic, visiting CERN's permanent exhibition, Microcosm, with (from left to right) Dr Rupert Leitner, ATLAS Tile Calorimetry Project Leader; Mr P. Cink, Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport; Dr Ivan Lehraus, Committee for Collaboration of the Czech Republic with CERN; and H.E. Mr Milan Hovorka, Ambassador, permanent representative of the Czech Republic to the United Nations in Geneva.

  5. The Impact of Czech Domestic Politics on Missile Defense Agreements Between the United States and the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    EU membership, although the outspoken leader of the OSD, Vaclav Klaus was loudly critical of many aspects of the EU.23 The Czech leadership after...the parliamentarians required three elections43 and three rounds of balloting before the compromise appointment of ODS founder Vaclav Klaus as...defense6 and in June 2000 suggested to Czech President Vaclav Havel that the Czech Republic offer to host a US missile defense radar.7 Most

  6. Structural seismic upgrading of NPPs in Czech and Slovak republics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, M. [DAVID Consulting, Engineering and Design Office, Prague (Czech Republic)

    1997-03-01

    Several Nuclear Power Plants of the VVER type has been constructed during the past years in former Czechoslovak Republic. Some of them has been already put in operation and some of them are under construction. Nuclear Power Plants V1(2 units of VVER 440/230), V2(2 units of VVER 440/213) in Slovak and NPP Dukovany (4 units of VVER 440/213) in Czech republic are in operation. NPP Mochovce (4 units of VVER 440/213) in Slovak and NPP Temelin (4 units reduced now to 2 units VVER 1000) have been already almost completed, but still under construction. All above cited NPPs have not been either explicitly designed against earthquake or the design against earthquake or its input data must be upgraded to be compatible with present requirements. The upgrading of seismic input as well the seismic upgrading of all structures and technological equipments for so many NPPs has involved a lot of comprehensive work in Czech as well as in Slovak republics. The upgrading cannot be completed in a short time and as a rule the seismic upgrading has been usually performed in several steps, beginning with the most important arrangements against seismic hazard. The basic principles and requirements for seismic upgrading has been defined in accordance with the international and particularly with the IAEA recommendations. About the requirements for seismic upgrading of NPPs in Czech and Slovak republics will be reported in other contribution. This contribution is dealing with the problems of seismic upgrading of NNPs civil engineering structures. The aim of this contribution is to point out some specific problems connected firstly with very complicated concept of Versa structures and secondly with the difficult task to increase the structural capacity to the required seismic level. (J.P.N.)

  7. Digital archiving of specific scientific information in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Slavik

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a description of activities in the Czech Republic related to digital archiving. First of all the general situation in the field is described in order to give insight in the state of art in the field in the Czech Republic. The key part of this paper deals with a description of the design and implementation of a pilot system that should serve for digital archiving of scientific information of certain kind – MSc and PhD theses at Czech Technical University in Prague. One of the reasons for archiving of this type of information was the fact that these theses contain information about scientific and technological developments in a given period of time. Such information might be widely appreciated in future by historians who will investigate the history of science and technology of a certain period of time. The research is oriented towards robust archiving systems that can be used in small-scale applications. These small systems do not offer universal solutions in the field of digital archiving – they solve problems that become urgent in various applications: to save current digital documents in the form that could be transferable to general archiving systems developed later. The described implementation is a pilot practical solution to this problem. The approach described in the paper will allow the user to archive also documents that contain non-textual information.

  8. Identification of factors affecting birth rate in Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zámková, Martina; Blašková, Veronika

    2013-10-01

    This article is concerned with identifying economic factors primarily that affect birth rates in Czech Republic. To find the relationship between the magnitudes, we used the multivariate regression analysis and for modeling, we used a time series of annual values (1994-2011) both economic indicators and indicators related to demographics. Due to potential problems with apparent dependence we first cleansed all series obtained from the Czech Statistical Office using first differences. It is clear from the final model that meets all assumptions that there is a positive correlation between birth rates and the financial situation of households. We described the financial situation of households by GDP per capita, gross wages and consumer price index. As expected a positive correlation was proved for GDP per capita and gross wages and negative dependence was proved for the consumer price index. In addition to these economic variables in the model there were used also demographic characteristics of the workforce and the number of employed people. It can be stated that if the Czech Republic wants to support an increase in the birth rate, it is necessary to consider the financial support for households with small children.

  9. Undeclared Work in the Czech Republic and its Implications for the Czech Labor Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strielkowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at describing the issue of undeclared work in the Czech Republic and to explain the burdens it represents for the national economy. It also describes what measures can be undertaken in order to tackle undeclared work and uses some real-life examples to illustrate their outcomes. Undeclared work and the so-called “švarc systém” (the employer-employee relations with a person exercising the employer's normal activities not being an employee in legal terms but acting as an independent entrepreneur are among the biggest issues on the Czech labor market nowadays. According to some estimations, the Czech state loses about five billion CZK annually in the form of uncollected taxes, unpaid revenues and health and social insurance payments. New changes to the Czech labor legislation that came into force in 2012 were envisaged to tackle undeclared work, reduce tax evasions, fight shadow practices on the labor market, and to prevent social deprivation and other threats for the society by shifting the competences to conduct random checks, and controls of firms and businesses were transferred to the State Labor Inspection Offices (SLIO. The changes in the legislation facilitated the identification of the undeclared work and penalizing of its bearers, which minimized the losses from the illegal employment.

  10. Geographical Perspectives on Agritourism in The Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konečný Ondřej

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Besides more traditional tourist enterprises, tourists in Western Europe and North America regularly seek out even more specific forms of tourist opportunities, such as products of rural tourism. Within rural tourism, agritourism has been developed in these countries as a particular subset, and its significant enhancement in post-socialist European countries was widely anticipated (especially after their integration into the European Union. While considerable and focused attention was devoted to the implementation of agritourism strategies and the characterization of agritourist space with respect to particular countries (e.g. Poland and Slovenia, in Czech geographical literature it has remained a noticeably absent topic. In this paper, central attention is paid to selected characteristics of agritourist space in the Czech Republic, analyzed on the basis of a compiled database of farms diversified into tourism at the municipality level.

  11. Increased Sorting and Wage Inequality in the Czech Republic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor; Pytlikova, Mariola; Warzynski, Frederic Michel Patrick

    2013-01-01

    This paper makes use of a linked employer–employee dataset to examine the evolution of wage inequality in the Czech Republic during 1998–2006. We find evidence of slightly increasing returns to human capital and diminishing gender inequality and document sharp increases in both within......-firm and between-firm inequality. We investigate several hypotheses to explain these patterns: increased domestic and international competition, decentralized wage bargaining, skill-biased technological change and a changing educational composition of the workforce. Domestic competition is found to lower within......-firm inequality whereas we find no evidence that increased international trade at the industry level is associated with higher betweenor within-firm wage inequality. The key factors driving the observed increase in wage inequality are increased educational sorting and the inflow of foreign firms to the Czech...

  12. Linaria pelisseriana (L. Mill. – a new alien species in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocián Petr

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports on a find of the Mediterranean species Linaria pelisseriana at the cargo terminal of Kopřivnice freight station (NE Moravia, Czech Republic, which is the first record of this species in the Czech Republic.

  13. Developing Inclusive Educational Practices for Refugee Children in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacakova, Marketa

    2011-01-01

    All children in the Czech Republic have the legal right to primary education, regardless of nationality and legal status. This article is based on a study of refugee children and their educational situation. The study reveals that refugee students in the Czech Republic are not benefiting fully from this fundamental right and that their educational…

  14. AIR CONDITIONING IN MINES IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC AND UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Zapletal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present-day micro-climatic conditions in black coal mines are of such nature that in no mine natural micro-climate conditioning is sufficient any more. The original temperature of rocks grows progressively in dependence on the increasing depth of the extracted seam, or more precisely, on the mining workplace, and this growth is much more significant than previously considered. The temperature of the surrounding rocks, but also high-performance continuous miners and conveyor belt drives heat up airflow, thus worsening microclimatic conditions. This article describes micro-climatic conditions the in Czech Republic and Ukraine and some methods of deep mines air conditioning.

  15. Marketing Strategy of YouTube in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Hurychová, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    The goals of the thesis are to present YouTube in the Czech Republic, to discuss its entire business model, analyze the main local competitors and mostly to suggest marketing strategy that will strengthen the position of YouTube as an online medium. The current trends in the internet society are introduced as well as the role of social media in order to understand how these factors are related to the position of YouTube in marketing. From general YouTube introduction the situation of this pla...

  16. REPORTING OF COMMERCIAL INSURANCE COMPANIES: EVIDENCE FROM THE CZECH REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiřina Bošková

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject of insurance companies is to provide insurance protection based on commercial principles. All changes in the society are directly reflected in the insurance activity. New risks apperar and therfore new insurance products appear as well. The insurance business intervenes into all areas of the economic and social life in the Czech Republic. Insurance companies cannot be treated only as companies offering insurance protection, but also as important investors who, as a result of their activity, dispose with temporary available resources of their customers. As situations and existance of time discordance between provision creation and their usage are occasional, insurance companies carry business with these provisions resources.

  17. Forecasting Future Salaries in the Czech Republic Using Stochastic Modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Ondřej Šimpach; Jitka Langhamrová

    2013-01-01

    Background: In spite of the course of the economic crisis of 2008, there have not been changes dramatic to the extent that they would strongly alter the behaviour of the trend in the Average Gross Monthly Wages and the Monthly Wage Medians in the Czech Republic. In order to support public and monetary planning, reliable forecasts of future salaries are indispensable. Objectives: The aim is to provide an outline of the behaviour of the average gross wages and the gross wage medians of the Czec...

  18. Czech Republic; Staff Report for the 2004 Article IV Consultation

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    This 2004 Article IV Consultation highlights that the Czech Republic’s GDP expanded by 3.1 percent in 2003 and the first quarter of 2004, mainly supported by household consumption. Investment was also strong in 2003—driven by spending on public infrastructure—and swelled in early 2004 owing to one-off influences associated with European Union accession. The fiscal deficit continued to drift upward in 2003. The general government deficit widened relative to GDP by about 1 percentage poin...

  19. 78 FR 70574 - Grain-Oriented Electrical Steel From China, Czech Republic, Germany, Japan, Korea, Poland, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-26

    ...-1237 (Preliminary)] Grain-Oriented Electrical Steel From China, Czech Republic, Germany, Japan, Korea... China, Czech Republic, Germany, Japan, Korea, Poland, and Russia of grain-oriented electrical steel... from Czech Republic, Germany, Japan, Korea, Poland, and Russia. Accordingly, effective September...

  20. Shortfall of Strategic Governance and Strategic Management in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochrana František

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the problems of strategic governance and strategic management of the Czechoslovak Government, as well as the Government of the Czech Republic in the years 1989-2016. It seeks the causes and factors that have caused the low levels of strategic governance and strategic management at the level of the ministries of the Czech Republic. It examines the problem from genetic and historical perspective, and from the organizational and human capacity to exercise strategic governance. The study is based on two pieces of empirical research within the ministries of the Czech Republic. It identifies the main cause of failure of strategic governance and strategic management at the level of the central government of the Czech Republic. These include, in particular, the persistent distrust of the ideas of strategic governance and strategic management held by the right-wing governments and the generally low capacity of governments of the Czech Republic to engage in strategic governance. The organizational structure of the central state administration lacks the strategic units that generate ideas for supporting strategic governance. The empirical research of the ministries of the Czech Republic also revealed that policy workers in Czech ministries dedicate a large proportion of their work time to operational and administrative activities at the expense of analytical and strategic activities. The changes require implementation of reforms within the public administration, which (among other things will eliminate the existing causes and inhibiting factors regarding the lack of strategic governance in the Czech Republic.

  1. CAS Introduction to Accelerator Physics in the Czech Republic

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Accelerator School

    2014-01-01

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) and the Czech Technical University in Prague jointly organised the Introduction to Accelerator Physics course in Prague, Czech Republic from 31 August to 12 September 2014.   The course was held in the Hotel Don Giovanni on the outskirts of the city, and was attended by 111 participants of 29 nationalities, from countries as far away as Armenia, Argentina, Canada, Iceland, Thailand and Russia. The intensive programme comprised 41 lectures, 3 seminars, 4 tutorials and 6 hours of guided and private study. A poster session and a 1-minute/1-slide session were also included in the programme, where the students were able to present their work. Feedback from the students was very positive, praising the expertise of the lecturers, as well as the high standard and quality of their lectures. During the second week, the afternoon lectures were held in the Czech Technical University in Prague. In addition to the academic programme, the students had the opportunity to vis...

  2. The Key Issues of Labor Migration in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie JELINKOVA

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to highlight some often occurring failures that need to be eliminated when attempting to develop an integral and efficient policy on labor migration. As an example, a brief overview of the development of immigration policies and its critical shortcomings in the Czech Republic is provided. Following this, the paper analyzes two aspects: the protection of migrant workers and the trafficking in human beings. In particular, the paper deals with three crucial issues of labor migration which are: (1 the inconsistent aims of immigration policies, (2 the client system, and (3 the dependence on middlemen. The paper also focuses on the role of state, police, and NGO’s in the trafficking in human beings and forced labor or labor exploitation in the Czech Republic. In addition, the legislation on forced labor and the possibilities of assistance to trafficked person are analyzed.By comparing various aspects of immigration policy, this paper covers some, but certainly not all, of the key issues concerning the process of immigrant integration. Several suggestions are made that could improve the situation of labor migrants in a significant way.

  3. Student's Work: Social Capital in the Czech Republic and Public Policy Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Vodrážka

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Social capital in Eastern Europe has received a fair amount of scholarly attention in recent years, including in the Czech Republic. This paper examines the stock of macro-level social capital in the Czech Republic in comparative European perspective. The notions of “missing” social capital and corruption as negative social capital are explored. The corruption situation in the Czech Republic and the progress in curbing it that was made in the last decade are evaluated. Regressions run with data from the World Value Survey and the Corruption Perception Index show that economic growth does not translate into correspondingly lower levels of corruption in the Czech case. State bureaucracy is identified as a possible reason for the failure to curb corruption successfully. Public policy recommendations and their usefulness for the Czech Republic are debated and a civil service reform is proposed as the most appropriate policy for addressing the situation.

  4. Archaeological Map of the Czech Republic. Current state and future visions of virtual research tools in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kuna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Archaeological Map of the Czech Republic (AMCR project will soon be finished and one chapter of building digital infrastructures in the Czech Republic will be closed. It is a natural occasion to evaluate national state-of-the-art in dealing with Digital Culture Heritage, particularly archaeological data. It is a also good time to summarise our knowledge about using digital tools and to outline prospects of development for the coming years. What are the key points? The AMCR represents both an administrative system of field archaeology management and a kind of 'sites and monuments records' for the territory of the CR. Its fundamental underlying principles are interoperability, standardisation, data re-use, crowdsourcing and networking. However, a reasonable question should also concern the theoretical background to the process of digitisation of the archaeological world. Infrastructures should every time stay on the level of service for the community of researchers and every digital tool has to fulfil real needs in the fields of both archaeological theory and practice. On the other hand, the application of this virtual research environment is inseparable from archaeological legislation and institutional management.

  5. Sequence stratigraphy and depositional environments of the Sarmatian sediments in the NW part of the Vienna Basin: Moravian Central Depression, Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohuslava Sopková

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The study is focused on the development of the Sarmatian sedimentary record in the NW Vienna Basin, Moravian Central Depression. To identify key surfaces, the principles of sequence stratigraphy and electrosequence analysis were used together with the well logs and well cores data as well as data obtained from final reports. The identified sequence boundaries (SB and surfaces (ts, mfs divide the Sarmatian sediments into sequences of the relative base level change of the third and fourth order. Except the third order cycle related to Haq's TB 2.6 cycle, which includes the whole Sarmatian stage, two individual cycles of higher order were revealed in the sedimentary record for the Moravian Central Depression. Their occurrence was also proved in Austrian as well as in Slovak part of the Vienna Basin, what points to their interregional character.

  6. Water pollution abatement programme. The Czech Republic. Project 4.2. Assessing critical loads of acidity to surface waters in The Czech Republic. Critical loads of acidity to surface waters, Northern Moravia and Silesia, The Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lien, L.; Raclavsky, K.; Henriksen, A.; Raclavska, H.; Matysek, D.

    1994-12-31

    The governments of Norway and Czech and Slovak Federal Republic have signed a bilateral environmental protection agreement. This report describes Project 4.2 of the agreement: Assessing critical loads of acidity to surface waters in The Czech Republic. Critical load of acidity to surface waters and exceedance of critical load were estimated by using standard methods modified for the sampling area. Water samples were mainly taken from small forest streams, which were the only available surface waters with negligible pollution from local sources. High critical loads were calculated, averaging 20 times higher than the corresponding value for southern Norway. The deposition of acidifying components in the region was high, but did not exceed the critical load and so there is a reserve for additional acid deposition. Scattered water analyses from several other parts of The Czech Republic indicate both low critical loads and exceedance of critical load in various regions (e.g. Bohemia). 21 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. e-Learning trends in Central Europe: The case of the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Ludvík Eger; Dana Egerová

    2013-01-01

    The paper deals with expert predictions on the development of e-learning in the Czech Republic, a country in Central Europe. The first part of the paper describes the development of e-learning with specific feature in the Czech Republic in relation to the implementation of Information and communication technologies (ICT) to schools and the business sector. The second part of the paper presents a survey with selected experts, conducted in the years 2012 and 2013 in the Czech Republic, aiming a...

  8. New Records of Lilypad Whiteface Leucorrhinia Caudalis (Odonata: Libellulidae in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolný Aleš

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Leucorrhinia caudalis is listed on the European Red List as near threatened. The species had been thought to be extinct in the Czech Republic for the last fifty years, until an accidental discovery of adult males in 2012. In 2014, larvae of Leucorrhinia caudalis were recorded from water reservoirs in the Česká Lípa region, northern Bohemia, for the first time. Thus, it is the first breeding site of L. caudalis in the Czech Republic. A male Leucorrhinia caudalis was also repeatedly recorded in Havířov-Dolní Suchá in the north-eastern Czech Republic.

  9. New results for Palaeozoic volcanic phases in the Prague Basin – magnetic and geochemical studies of Lištice, Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiiu Elbra

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Palaeo-, rock magnetic and geochemical studies were conducted on volcanic samples from the Lištice area to improve the knowledge of Palaeozoic volcanic evolution in the Prague Basin. The magnetic data display no significant differences between two studied localities, indicating one magnetizing event for both localities. Geochemical data suggest that Lištice basalt could have originated from deep melting of the garnet peridotite mantle source during the attenuation and rifting of the continental lithosphere connected with asthenospheric mantle upwelling. The dataset furthermore supports the evidence of syn- or post-intrusive fluid interactions and low-temperature stages of alteration. The Ti-magnetite within amygdales of the samples was found to be carrying the characteristic remanent magnetization and reflects probably the Permo-Carboniferous remagnetization of volcanic phases.

  10. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Czech Republic 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in the Czech Republic for responding to an oil supply crisis. In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this full publication, the IEA will provide updates to the country chapters as these become available following the specific country's review. The aim of series of publications is to provide an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. The 2007 publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies.

  11. Antiurease activity of plants growing in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hřibová, Petra; Khazneh, Elian; Žemlička, Milan; Švajdlenka, Emil; Ghoneim, Mohammed M; Elokely, Khaled M; Ross, Samir A

    2014-01-01

    The antiurease activity of the aqueous extracts of 42 plants growing in the Czech Republic was investigated. A phenol-hypochlorite reaction was used for the determination of ammonia produced by urease. The inhibitory activity of the extracts at a concentration of 0.2 mg/mL varied from 17.8% to 80.0%. Extracts from six Potentilla species expressed inhibitory activity against jack bean urease. They were further investigated for their phenolic constituents and the major compounds were subjected to molecular docking. The results revealed that both jack bean urease and Helicobacter pylori urease were inhibited by quercetin-3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside-6″-gallate (1), myricetin-3-O-β-D-glucuronide (2), tiliroside (3) and B-type procyanidin (4). The antiurease activity of the investigated Potentilla species is probably due to the presence of complex phenolic constituents such as flavonoid glycosides and catechin dimers.

  12. Port Regionalization and Landlocked Hinterland: The Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Paul Rodrigue

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of the European Union (EU and economic growth have propelled the development of intermodal transportation and logistics activities in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE. Yet, the inland location of most CEE economies requires improved connectivity to port terminals on both the Atlantic/Baltic and Mediterranean/Black Sea ranges. The paper provides a broader research perspective on inland logistics platforms focusing on the CEE region, particularly as it concerns the role of the public sector in port hinterland infrastructure development. The paper identifies the current bottlenecks in logistics activity in regard to the whole range of the national transport chains. A dual regionalization process is taking place between the ports of the Northern and Mediterranean ranges and that the Northern Range is more effective at servicing the CEE region, including the Czech Republic, in spite of the proximity advantage of Mediterranean ports.

  13. Higher Education Finance Reform in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S. McMullen

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Throughout Europe and especially the former communist countries of Central and Eastern Europe, universities and governments are evaluating ways to finance higher education other than the current dominant model of almost total government support. With government pressure to use limited funds in other areas (e.g., health care, environment, and the like higher education institutions are being encouraged to become more economically self-sufficient. Some of these reforms have included establishing closer ties with regional businesses and introducing tuition and user fees to offset some of the costs of university operations. The particular focus of this report is on the new methods of financing higher education in the Czech Republic.

  14. Model strategy for village development in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav ROLÍNEK

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The model strategies discussed in this article represent different ways of possible village development in the Czech Republic. We used typologies of strategies from business strategic management for their definition. Twenty municipalities, where structured interviews were carried out with their mayors, were chosen randomly from among 100 villages where a questionnaire survey was conducted in 2012 (Faltová Leitmanová, et al., 2012. Based on the qualitative analysis of the structured interview summaries, eight model strategies were ascertained. These include integration strategy, service differentiation, spending cuts, usage of municipal property, stabilization of village population, business support, fundraising, and identification of the inhabitants with the village (village pride. The most commonly applied model strategy is integration, followed by village population stabilization.

  15. [New psychoactive substances and their prevalence in the Czech Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mravčík, Viktor; Běláčková, Vendula; Grohmannová, Kateřina; Zábranský, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Recently, there is a global growing concern over the new (mainly synthetic) psychoactive substances, known as legal highs, research chemicals or bath salts. They are represented by various chemical groups imitating "old" illicit drugs with stimulant, euphoric, hallucinogenic or sedative effects. In the Czech Republic, the peak of their use and supply was observed at the beginning of 2011, when new psychoactive substances were available in smart shops known locally as Amsterdam shops - in that time mainly synthetic cathinones and also synthetic cannabinoids were present. After legislative change that placed tens of new substances under the control of criminal law in April 2011, new psychoactive substances are available at Internet and their use is (after short and media driven boom in early 2011) rather limited and decreasing. Though, the use of new synthetic stimulants was recently reported locally among problem (injecting) drug users; new very potent synthetic opioids represent potential threat of further expansion in this users subgroup.

  16. [Pharmacoeconomy of diabetes mellitus--trends in the Czech Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horák, P

    2009-04-01

    Since 2002, we found relatively stable number of diabetes mellitus cases among clients of General Health Insurance Company of the Czech Republic. This means, after calculating incidence rate with respect to decline in total numbers of insured during the same period, a 6% increase in real incidence rate. On the doctors side, outpatient, mostly private diabetologists have about the same capacity of their offices, 2.9 physicians (WTE)/100 000 citizens over the last years. Analysis of costs and volume of services provided, clearly demonstrate, that diabetology is medical specialization of a great importance not only from the point of view of number of patients and services provided but also of its influence on the overall health care costs. Data show not only higher average expenses for treatment of patients with diabetes mellitus compared to average expenses incurred for treatments of all other diagnoses, but show also a crucial relationship of costs with presence or absence of diabetes mellitus complications. Money spend by the medical insurance system and also and more importantly health profit to patients can thus be substantially influenced via improvements in organization of care, via higher involvement, compliance of patients to the treatment and to necessary change in their lifestyles and last but not least via increase in quality of care. Cost control can be achieved by strengthening the role of pharmacoeconomics in decisions making processes of health insurance companies, importance of which is demonstrated on the past developments on drug market in the Czech Republic. General Health Insurance Company will target these goals in coming years and in its business plans will also include expected increases of costs for organization of care and for higher renumeration of physicians as well.

  17. Medical decision support and medical informatics education: roots, methods and applications in czechoslovakia and the czech republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvárová, Jana

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes the history of medical informatics in Czechoslovakia and the Czech Republic. It focuses on the topics of medical informatics education and decision support methods and systems. Several conferences held in Czechoslovakia and in the Czech Republic organized in cooperation with IMIA or EFMI are described. Support of European Union and Czech agencies in several European and national projects focused on medical informatics topics highly contributed to medical informatics development in Czechoslovakia and the Czech Republic and to the establishment of the European Center for Medical Informatics, Statistics and Epidemiology as the joint workplace of Charles University in Prague and Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic in 1994.

  18. How old maps are used to investigate modern environmental issues in the Czech Republic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cernajsek, T.; Hauser, C.; Posmourny, K.

    2004-01-01

    The Austrian Geological Survey and Czech geological organizations have in their archives source materials that can be used for the landscape restoration. At many places in the Czech Republic, considerable changes of the environment took place due to building and other industrial activities, especial

  19. Imported resources - oil crude oil processing in the Czech Republic and its prospectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soucek, I.; Ottis, I. [Kaucuk, Kralupy nad Vitavou (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    This paper examines the availability of various crude oils, addressing specifically crude oil pipelines to the Czech Republic, both existing and under construction. Secondly, the economic status of two main Czech refineries is examined in comparison to international trends, technical configurations, and product supply and demand.

  20. Ten years of eLearning within the Engineering Education in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Simonova

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the process of eLearning implementation in engineering education. It is structured into four parts which (1 analyze this process in the Czech Republic, (2 evaluate the contribution of eLearning seminars, conferences and competitions held at the Faculty of Informatics and Management, University of Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic, (3 provide reflection of the situation in current research activities in this field and (4 present data collected at the University of Hradec Kralove.

  1. Transport volume in regions of the Czech Republic in relation to the production of waste

    OpenAIRE

    Pojkarová, Kateřina; Hruška, Roman

    2010-01-01

    The article deals with the transport volume in regions of the Czech Republic in relation to the production of waste. On the basis of waste statistics and transport statistics is researched the greatness of the relation between the transport volume and the production of waste in regions of the Czech Republic. The relation is illustrated graphically too. We have many kinds of waste which we can monitor. The most important kinds of waste are municipal waste, industrial waste, construction ...

  2. Private Rate of Return on Human Capital Investment in the Czech Republic: Differences by Study Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savina Finardi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on approaches to the measurement of the returns of private investments on human capital in the Czech Republic. In the last ten years, there is observed a significant increase in number ofstudents at Higher Education Institutions (HEIs and an increasing number of HEIs graduates is also expected in the Czech Republic in forthcoming years. Using data from the research project “REFLEX”, fromthe Czech Statistical Office and from EUROSTUDENT IV survey, the paper provides the methodology and the experimental computations of the rates of return on private investment in the tertiary education broken down by study fields.

  3. The Development of Mental Health Policies in the Czech Republic and Slovak Republic since 1989

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobiášová Karolína

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to describe the key events in the development of mental health care policies after 1990 in the two countries and identify the main reasons for stagnation or incremental changes to the institutional setting in the field of mental health care. The process of mental health care reform is explained using the framework of historical institutionalism. The explanation shows that the lack of political interest in combination with the tradition of institutional care resulted in poor availability of psychiatric care, outdated network of inpatient facilities and critical lack of community care facilities in both countries. Even though Slovak Republic adopted national programme at the governmental level, it still struggles with its implementation. The ongoing reform attempt in the Czech Republic may bring some change, thanks to a new approach towards strategic governance of the mental health care system and the mechanism of layering that the promoters of the reform use.

  4. Is diversification as a Strategic Advantage? The Example of Automotive Components in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Mohelský

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The automotive industry is the key sector of the Czech national economy. Its share on GDP represents more than 8 % and the Czech Republic is the 14th biggest producer of cars in the world. The goal of this article is to analyze the development of the customers´ portfolio of the automotive suppliers in the Czech Republic from the perspective of their international location. The diversification of portfolio can be measured in many ways. The approach in this article relies both on usual statistical tools (concentration ratio, Lorenz curve, Gini coefficient, Herfindahl-Hirschman index and on specific approaches such as number of partners, geographical diversification and average distance travelled by exported component. Even though the export volume has been dynamically growing, it has remained focused on a limited number of crucial countries, which are mostly located in the close neighborhood of the Czech Republic.

  5. On-line Shopping on B2C Markets in the Czech Republic

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    Pilík Michal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the e-commerce theory and is aimed primarily at its usage in business-toconsumer markets. On-line purchasing management is increasing not only in the Czech Republic but also in Europe and all over the world. The customers who think rationally use on-line shopping because of money saving, speed delivery and the possibility of product comparison. This paper presents the results of a project financed by the Czech Science Foundation P403/11/ P175: The factors influencing customers’ on-line behaviour in e-commerce environment on B2C and B2B markets in the Czech Republic. 89 % of respondents use e-shops for buying products in the Czech Republic. 32 % of them use the Internet for regular purchases and 57 % of them irregularly. 11 % of respondents have not used e-shops yet.

  6. Spectrum of teaching styles in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Šafaříková

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The AIESEP International Conference, June 9–12, 2016, sponsored by the University of Wyoming in Laramie, will celebrate the 50th anniversary of the “Spectrum of Teaching Styles”. Although this pedagogical theory was first published in 1966 by Muska Mosston, it has continuously influenced and internationally contributed to the field of Physical Education. The 50th anniversary celebration is an appropriate occasion to briefly acknowledge the history of the Spectrum’s international journey. The following historical account acknowledges the introduction and influence of the Spectrum in the former Czechoslovakia, beginning in 1971 and continuing into the Czech Republic era. The first section of this article acknowledges the contributions of the Spectrum and its international acceptance. The second section focuses on Prague and the active role of the many scholars who studied, implemented, and researched the Spectrum. The third section presents some teaching style research results conducted by Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, Charles University (UK FTVS.

  7. Sustainability of Rural Nonprofit Organizations: Czech Republic and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav Valentinov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability of nonprofit organizations is a key concern for today’s nonprofit scholars and practitioners. Building upon the nonprofit economics literature, the present paper introduces the distinction between the demand-side and supply-side determinants of nonprofit sustainability and makes the case for the discrepancy between them. This discrepancy presents not only a generic conceptual explanation of the nonprofit sustainability problems but is also applicable to the context of the European rural nonprofit sector. Three arguments are advanced. First, the notorious implementation problems of LEADER partnerships can be explained as a manifestation of the above discrepancy. Second, and related, the rural context implies the tendency of the supply-side determinants of nonprofit sustainability to undermine the demand-side ones. Third, recent empirical findings from the Czech Republic show that this tendency does not necessarily imply the possibility of a clear classification of the demand-side and supply-side sustainability determinants. Rather, those features of rural areas and communities that significantly affect the size of the local nonprofit sector exhibit a controversial entanglement of demand-side and supply-side identities.

  8. Economic characteristic of sport clubs in the Czech republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Pavlík

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The economic situation and other characteristic of sport clubs are quite unrevealed in the Czech Republic. The sport is traditionally one of activities supported by the public sector; however we know surprisingly little about sport clubs as recipients of this support. We emphasize the municipality level because public authorities are the most typical partners for sport clubs. AIMS: The aim of this research was to reveal the economic situation of sport clubs and gather data about their cooperation with municipalities. METHODOLOGY: We present results of a questionnaire which was completed during spring 2011. We address 1,567 sport clubs and received 430 question-form filled. RESULTS: We found that the economic situation of sport clubs is quite poor, but it cannot be proved as a result of insufficient support from public resources. As the key variable for the quality of relationship between sport clubs and municipalities as well as the grants strategy were proved by the number of inhabitants. We set a necessity of future research especially at the field of analysis of impact grants policy. CONCLUSION: We proved that most municipalities prefer an allocation of a lower sum of funds than it was asked. Short term impacts can be positive - more applicants are satisfied but there is a risk of "inflation" of a grant request in the long term view. Applicants will anticipate the cut, and they will ask for more money. It could cause the pressure on public budgets and the illusion of the lack of funds.

  9. Remote sensing of forest decline in the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardoe, J.

    1998-04-01

    This thesis describes the localization and quantification of deforestation and forest damage in Norway spruce forests in northern Czech Republic using Landsat data. Severe defoliation increases the spectral reflectance in all wavelength bands, especially in the mid infrared region. These spectral differences allow the separation of three damage categories with an accuracy of 75% using TM data and regression based relationships. Estimating the same categories using an artificial neural network, multi temporal TM data and topographic data yields slightly higher accuracy (78%). The methods are comparable when using identical input data, but the neural network more efficiently manage large input data sets without pre.processing, The estimated coniferous deforestation in northern Bohemia from 1972 to 1989 reveals especially affected areas between 600 and 1000 m.a.s.l. and on slopes facing south and southeast. The sector downwind a large source of sulphur dioxide was strongly deforested. Comparing regional forest damage statistics to three methods estimating harmful effects of sulphur dioxide on Norway spruce yielded significant relationships versus level of forest damage and accumulated salvage felling. Quantifying the effect of data uncertainties permit mapping the probabilities of areas to be significantly over or below thresholds for harmful effects on spruce forests. Satellite based estimation of coniferous forest health is a good complement to field surveys and aerial photography 137 refs, 7 figs, 2 tabs

  10. Projected changes of rainfall event characteristics for the Czech Republic

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    Svoboda Vojtěch

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Projected changes of warm season (May–September rainfall events in an ensemble of 30 regional climate model (RCM simulations are assessed for the Czech Republic. Individual rainfall events are identified using the concept of minimum inter-event time and only heavy events are considered. The changes of rainfall event characteristics are evaluated between the control (1981–2000 and two scenario (2020–2049 and 2070–2099 periods. Despite a consistent decrease in the number of heavy rainfall events, there is a large uncertainty in projected changes in seasonal precipitation total due to heavy events. Most considered characteristics (rainfall event depth, mean rainfall rate, maximum 60-min rainfall intensity and indicators of rainfall event erosivity are projected to increase and larger increases appear for more extreme values. Only rainfall event duration slightly decreases in the more distant scenario period according to the RCM simulations. As a consequence, the number of less extreme heavy rainfall events as well as the number of long events decreases in majority of the RCM simulations. Changes in most event characteristics (and especially in characteristics related to the rainfall intensity depend on changes in radiative forcing and temperature for the future periods. Only changes in the number of events and seasonal total due to heavy events depend significantly on altitude.

  11. Variability of droughts in the Czech Republic, 1881-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brázdil, R.; Trnka, M.; Dobrovolný, P.; Chromá, K.; Hlavinka, P.; Žalud, Z.

    2009-08-01

    We analyze droughts in the Czech Republic from 1881-2006 based on the Palmer drought severity index (PDSI) and the Z-index using averaged national temperature and precipitation series for the calculations. The standardized precipitation index (SPI), PDSI and Z-index series show an increasing tendency towards longer and more intensive dry episodes in which, for example, droughts that occurred in the mid-1930s, late 1940s-early 1950s, late 1980s-early 1990s and early 2000s were the most severe. Cycles at periods of 3.4-3.5, 4.2-4.3, 5.0-5.1 and 15.4 years exceeded 95% confidence levels in application of maximum entropy spectral analysis. These are expressed at different intensities throughout the period studied. The occurrence of extremely dry and severely dry months is associated with a higher frequency of anticyclonic situations according to the classification employed by the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute. Principal component analysis documents the importance of the ridge from the Siberian High over Central Europe when extreme and severe droughts in months of the winter half-year are considered in terms of sea-level pressure. In the summer half-year, the ridge of the Azores High over Central Europe is the most important. Drought episodes have a profound effect on national and regional agricultural production, with yields being consistently lower than in normal years, as is documented through the example of spring barley, winter wheat, forage crops on arable land, and hay from meadows. Seasons with pronounced drought during the April-June period (e.g., 1947 and 2000) show the most significant yield decreases. Forests appear to be very vulnerable to long-term drought episodes, as it was the case during the dry years of 1992-1994. This study clearly confirms the statistically significant tendency to more intensive dry episodes in the region, driven by temperature increase and precipitation decrease, which has already been suggested in other studies.

  12. Radiocaesium levels in game in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škrkal, Jan; Rulík, Petr; Fantínová, Karin; Mihalík, Ján; Timková, Jana

    2015-01-01

    The paper summarizes results of monitoring of (137)Cs activities in game species roaming in the woods over the territory of the Czech Republic for the time interval of 1986-2012. Geometric means and other statistical characteristics were estimated from the data sets on the assumption of log-normal distribution of the data from the time interval 2004-2012 where the character of data distribution had displayed no significant change. Geometric means (in Bq/kg) in meat were: wild boar 5.1, red deer 1.9, roe deer 0.77 and feathered game 0.14. The mean value in the less frequent game amounted to 0.36 Bq/kg. The geometrical standard deviation (GSD) widely varied from 1.6 to 21 for the studied species. Based on mass activity dependence on time, we assessed the effective and environmental half-lives of activity decline. For red deer and roe deer, the effective (137)Cs half-life was 2.9 and 3.2 years, and environmental half-life 3.2 and 3.6 years respectively. The effective half-life of (137)Cs in wild boar of 38 years was determined with large uncertainty and it shows constant influx of (137)Cs activity to the digestive tract of wild boars. A statistically significant season-based (137)Cs level was found in red deer and wild boar. Higher winter and spring activities of (137)Cs in wild boar are linked with decreasing access to naturally occurring food with lower (137)Cs content (chestnuts, acorns, and beech nuts), making boar grub around for ground-deposited food (often for mushrooms with higher activity). Higher winter activities of (137)Cs in red deer meat, most probably, are due to lower access to green diet in winter. The average annual committed effective dose for Czech population based on estimates of game species meat consumption between 2004 and 2012 was insignificant, only 0.03 μSv.

  13. CULTURAL ADAPTATION OF CZECH CITIZENS IN THE REPUBLIC OF TURKEY

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    Jiří Čeněk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article relates to the process of adaptation of Czech citizens to Turkish culture. The article explores the perception of Turkish culture by Czech citizens, problems they encounter in the Turkish society and the ways of their adjustment to the host culture. The empirical research on 10 Czech citizens was conducted using the method of semi-structured interviews. The article addresses the most important issues connected with the process of cultural adaptation.

  14. The Trends in anti-Semitism in the Czech Republic 2004-2014

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    Eva Taterová

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to introduce the current trends in anti-Semitism in the Czech Republic in 2004-2014. This period maps the changes that appeared since the end of Second Palestinian intifada to the year 2014 which is the last year with available set of data of anti-Semitism in Czech society. The article shall examine whether there is a direct link between the contemporary important events in the Middle East and the changing number of anti-Semitic incidents in the Czech Republic. The attention shall also be given to the issue which groups of Czech society are mostly associated with anti-Semitism and what is their main motivation to participate in the anti-Semitic campaign

  15. Environmetal aspects of cost management in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radan Hojná

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Industry is continuously developing and so environmental protection is becoming more and more important. An important role in environmental protection is played by the European Union, which is placing particularly emphasis on systematic approaches so as to prevent devastation of the environment. Within the framework of environmental protection, entrepreneurial entities (not only in the Czech Republic utilize statutory and voluntary environmental tools. Implementation of one of the voluntary environmental tools – environmental management accounting (EMA – has become an important part of internal cost management. EMA is a very important environmental policy tool. Its application leads to reducing the negative impacts of an enterprise’s activities on the environment, to increasing the efficiency in the utilization of production inputs and to improving the enterprise’s economic management. A great advantage of EMA lies in its versatility; it can be, therefore, used in large, medium-sized and small enterprises, in various industries as well as in the service sector. EMA makes it possible to accurately establish what part of the total costs is related to environmental issues. In management accounting, environmental costs are hidden as a part of overhead costs. Their correct identification is important for the purpose of costing with respect to individual products. Questionnaire responses were used to examine whether enterprises utilize internal accounting and whether they monitor environmental costs within the framework of their internal accounting. Acceptance environmental costs was analysed on the basis of a division of the enterprises from the following points of view: ownership of the enterprise, the number of employees and the field of business.

  16. Water pollution abatement programme. The Czech Republic. Project 4.2. Assessing critical loads of acidity to surface waters in the Czech Republic. Critical loads of acidity to surface waters, north-eastern Bohemia and northern Moravia, The Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lien, L.; Raclavsky, K.; Raclavska, H.; Matysek, D.; Hovind, H.

    1996-01-01

    This report discusses estimates of critical loads of acidity to surface waters and their exceedances, for north-eastern Bohemia and Moravia in The Czech Republic. The survey covers 13 400 km{sup 2}, or 17% of the area of the country. Varying critical loads were observed within the examined region. 19% of the examined area showed exceedance of critical load and another 11% was close to exceedance. The survey should continue in Bohemia. 24 refs., 20 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Variability of Short-term Precipitation and Runoff in Small Czech Drainage Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavka, Petr; Strouhal, Luděk; Landa, Martin; Neuman, Martin; Kožant, Petr; Muller, Miloslav

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this contribution is to introduce the recently started three year's project named "Variability of Short-term Precipitation and Runoff in Small Czech Drainage Basins and its Influence on Water Resources Management". Its main goal is to elaborate a methodology and online utility for deriving short-term design precipitation series, which could be utilized by a broad community of scientists, state administration as well as design planners. The outcomes of the project will especially be helpful in modelling hydrological or soil erosion problems when designing common measures for promoting water retention or landscape drainage systems in or out of the scope of Landscape consolidation projects. The precipitation scenarios will be derived from 10 years of observed data from point gauging stations and radar data. The analysis is focused on events' return period, rainfall total amount, internal intensity distribution and spatial distribution over the area of Czech Republic. The methodology will account for the choice of the simulation model. Several representatives of practically oriented models will be tested for the output sensitivity to selected precipitation scenario comparing to variability connected with other inputs uncertainty. The variability of the outputs will also be assessed in the context of economic impacts in design of landscape water structures or mitigation measures. The research was supported by the grant QJ1520265 of the Czech Ministry of Agriculture, using data provided by the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute.

  18. [External quality control system in medical microbiology and parasitology in the Czech Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slosárek, M; Petrás, P; Kríz, B

    2004-11-01

    The External Quality Control System (EQAS) of laboratory activities in medical microbiology and parasitology was implemented in the Czech Republic in 1993 with coded sera samples for diagnosis of viral hepatitis and bacterial strains for identification distributed to first participating laboratories. The number of sample types reached 31 in 2003 and the number of participating laboratories rised from 79 in 1993 to 421 in 2003. As many as 15.130 samples were distributed to the participating laboratories in 2003. Currently, almost all microbiology and parasitology laboratories in the Czech Republic involved in examination of clinical material participate in the EQAS. Based on the 11-year experience gained with the EQAS in the Czech Republic, the following benefits were observed: higher accuracy of results in different tests, standardisation of methods and the use of most suitable test kits.

  19. Extreme precipitation events in the Czech Republic in the context of climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Květoň

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available As an introduction, short survey of two analyses of long-term fluctuations of annual precipitation totals in the Czech Republic is presented. The main focus of this paper is to contribute to investigation of precipitation trends in the Czech Republic by another point of view. For every pixel of 1 km2 size, annual maxima of daily precipitation were obtained for time period of 112 years (1895–2006. Based on these time series, we were trying to answer question if there are some changes of area size/distribution of annual maximum of daily precipitation totals. Courses and trends are analyzed for some parameters of area distribution of annual maximum of daily precipitation totals in the area of the Czech Republic. No significant climate changes of tested precipitation characteristics were found.

  20. Road Tax in the Czech Republic during the Period 1993 – 2011

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    ANDRLÍK

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides descriptive analysis of the road tax performance in the CR in connection to relevant legal amendments to the Act No. 16/1993 Coll. Data on road tax from 1993 to 2011 were used in this analysis and are available from the Ministry of Finance of the Czech Republic. Road tax in the Czech Republic represents only a small part of the total tax revenue and its collection provides insufficient funds for maintenance and development of road infrastructure in the Czech Republic. Road tax collection is expected to grow in the future as a result of ongoing replacement and modernization of vehicle fleet, growing number of vehicles, strengthening of environmental aspects of taxes and internalisation of costs of transport.

  1. Current State of Agile Methodologies Worldwide and in the Czech Republic

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    Martin Tománek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research paper is to compare the current state of agile methodologies in the world and in the Czech Republic. The comparison is executed as the comparative analysis of two publicly available researches conducted in 2013 and published in 2014. The comparison is further enriched by the results of the unpublished survey in the global logistics company which was conducted also in 2013. The potential trend for agile methodologies in the Czech Republic is also discussed with regard to the worldwide trend.

  2. The role of coal in the economy of the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doruska, J. [Ministry of Industry and Trade of the Czech, Republic, Prague (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    The Czech Republic ranks among the countries with high total reserves of hard coal and lignite. Therefore coal always had and still has a significant role in covering the power demand of the Czech Republic. Transition of the national economy, based on the principles of the market economy and private ownership, affects among others also behavior of the mining companies. A strong emphasis is also aimed at the environmental aspects concerning both the process of coal mining and the process of its utilization. Within these intentions the power policy of the Czech Republic is formulated. The Czech Republic, which has 10 mil. inhabitants, ranks among the countries with a high share of industry in the process of creating the gross national product. This state has its historical roots as on the present territory of the Czech Republic there had been concentrated a majority of industrial and mining capacities of the Hapsburg Empire. The First World War resulted among others in the decline of the Hapsburg Empire. Within this process Czechoslovak Republic was established (apart from other things the center of democracy in the Central Europe). In that republic the industry had an important position. The industrial potential had been expanded even during the occupation of Czechoslovakia by Nazi Germany in the years 1939 - 1945. After the Second World War when Europe was divided into two political spheres Czechoslovakia became a significant industrial base of so called East Bloc. Such a development and the needs of the Eastern Bloc resulted in the intensive development of the heavy industry on the territory of Czechoslovakia.

  3. [First report of demodicosis in goats in the Czech Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, P; Lukesová, D; Skrivánek, M; Hofírek, B; Stursa, I

    1996-09-01

    The first case of demodectic (Acari: Demodecidae) mange in the Czech Republic was diagnosed in a domestic White Shorthaired goat hospitalized in our clinic. A total of 128 solid protruding nodules, similar in size to lens or pea, were found on lateral parts of the neck and trunk and on proximal part sof the limbs. A pasty, creamy mass containing immature and adult mites could be pressed out of the nodules. Parasitological examinations identified the mites as Demodex caprae Railliet, 1895 (Fig. 1). Antiparasitic treatment was started with the pyrethroid deltamethrine (Butox 7.5 Pour On, Roussel Uclaf) although demodectic mange is not given in the spectrum of its applications. Ten ml of the drug were poured onto the back of the animal twice within an interval of 7 days. The next drug tested was another pyrethroid, Neostomosan sol. ad us. vet. (Sanofi Santé Animale) containing tetramethrine and transmix as the effective ingredients and recommended by the manufacturer for the treatment of canine and feline demodicosis. The animal was bathed twice within an interval of 14 days in a 1 : 400 dilution as recommended by the manufacturer. The mites survived the treatments with both drugs and their motility was not affected. The size of nine of the nodules (4.5 to 6.8 mm), measured before and after the treatments, remained unchanged. The third drug tested was amitraz (Taktic, Hoechst) known to be effective against canine demodicosis (Ectodex, Hoechst). Seven baths with 10-day intervals in the drug diluted 1 : 400 resulted in the decrease of the number of nodules to 83 (by 35.2%). The diameters of 7 of the measured nodules diminished by approx. 1.6 mm. No movements of the mites were observed on Day 56 after the treatment, but the immature stages probably survived because new nodules and allergy developed after the patient had been released from the clinic. The unsatisfactory effect of amitraz can be explained by the limited penetration of the drug into the nodules surrounded

  4. New estimates of labour productivity in the manufacturing sectors of Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monnikhof, Erik; Ark, Bart van

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we provide benchmark comparisons of manufacturing unit value ratios and productivity levels for the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland relative to Germany in 1996. On average, manufacturing prices were about half of those in Germany for all three countries. Hungary was characterised by

  5. Home Education in the Post-Communist Countries: Case Study of the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostelecká, Yvona

    2010-01-01

    The paper analyzes the emergence of home education in European post-communist countries after 1989. The case of the Czech Republic representing the development and characteristic features of home education in the whole region is studied in detail. Additional information about homeschooling in other post-communist countries are provided wherever…

  6. Personality and Religion among Secondary School Pupils in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Leslie J.; Quesnell, Michael; Lewis, Christopher A.

    2010-01-01

    The short-form Revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire was completed by 1,780 boys and 1,634 girls attending secondary schools in the Czech Republic, together with the Francis Scale of Attitude towards Christianity. On the one hand, two of the findings are consistent with those from a series of studies employing the same measure of religiosity…

  7. Report of a Vegetables Network : Second Meeting, 26–28 June 2007, Olomouc, Czech Republic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Astley, D.; Bas, N.; Branca, F.; Daunay, M.C.; Keller, J.; Dooijeweert, van W.; Treuren, van R.; Maggioni, L.; Lipman, E.

    2009-01-01

    The Second Meeting of the Vegetables Network (VEGNET) of the European Cooperative Programme for Plant Genetic Resources (ECPGR) was held on 26-28 June 2007 in Olomouc, Czech Republic. The meeting was organized jointly with the Third Meeting of the ECPGR Working Group on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants

  8. Institutional Arrangement of Financial Markets Supervision: The Case of the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The paper deals with institutional arrangement of financial supervision in the Czech Republic. Financial markets are composed of partial financial segments specialized in individual types of financial instruments and individual customer groups. Financial institutions gradually transform into financial supermarkets. There are several models of institutional arrangement of financial supervision (integrated financial supervision model, sectional financial supervision model, financial supervision...

  9. 75 FR 2858 - Negotiation of a Reciprocal Defense Procurement Memorandum of Understanding With the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Negotiation of a Reciprocal Defense Procurement Memorandum of Understanding With the Czech Republic AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION: Request for public comments. SUMMARY: DoD is contemplating a...

  10. Project Risk Management in Educational Organizations: A Case from the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eger, Ludvík; Egerová, Dana

    2016-01-01

    The past 20 years have been a period of reforms for school systems in Visegrad countries. However, the successful implementation of educational reforms requires effective leaders and managers and, to produce effective leaders, changes in the system of leadership and management programmes need to be adopted. From 2004, the Czech Republic saw a…

  11. Retro Reappropriations. Responses to 'The Thirty Cases of Major Zeman' in the Czech Republic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pehe, Veronika

    2014-01-01

    abstractThe first post-1989 rerun of the 1970s television series Třicet případů majora Zemana (The Thirty Cases of Major Zeman) in the Czech Republic generated a heated controversy in the media. This article will examine why Major Zeman became such a contested topic and present an analysis of respon

  12. Potential geo-ecological impacts of the proposed Danube–Oder–Elbe Canal on alluvial landscapes in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machar Ivo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The project of a canal connecting the three major Central European Rivers: the Danube, Oder and Elbe, is incorporated into a planned trans-European transport network system. Geographically, the course of the planned canal stretches into the territory of four Central European countries, predominantly that of the Czech Republic. The environmental impacts of the potential construction and operation of the Danube–Oder–Elbe (DOE Canal is currently widely discussed by experts from various fields. This paper aims to assess some potential impacts of the canal on the alluvial landscapes in the Czech Republic. The method of geo-ecological assessment presented here applies GIS analyses at the larger landscape scale. The results of the geo-ecological assessment of potential impacts of the DOE Canal on the land-use of river floodplains, the fluvial dynamics of streams and the extent of their alluvial plains, and the quantified DOE Canal impact on protected areas and groundwater sources, are presented. The hydrological impact of the DOE Canal will affect a total of 1,975.4 km2 of river basins in the Czech Republic. The DOE Canal will affect 157 sites significant from the perspective of landscape and nature conservation, 7 nature parks and 113 existing water points which are used as groundwater sources. The results show that the most significant disruption of fluvial dynamics of the stream sediment regime would occur in the Protected Landscape Area of Litovelské Pomoraví. In general, the geo-ecological impact of the DOE Canal on the landscape will be very important.

  13. Business Angels Environment in the Czech Republic and the USA – Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Bortlova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose of the article Mapping and comparing the investors‘ environment in the USA and in the Czech Republic. To focus on characteristics of Business Angels in both markets, the Czech Republic and the USA. Methodology/methods The used research methods are adjusted to the aim of the article. To make an overview of the situation in the Czech Republic, all available sources regarding investors themselves, and investing into new companies were analyzed. A case study was used as a method of this paper, in order to describe the investors and find out their similarities and dissimilarities. The case study also enabled to find out the features in the frame of the investors‘ spectrum. The research was conducted with 50 investors. In order to provide the triangulation, the author chose three methods of data collection. More specifically, questionnaire, archival data (accelerator documents, data on the internet and interview. Scientific aim The aim of this paper is to map the investors characteristics in the Czech Republic and the USA. Moreover, to compare both markets in the regard of investors and investing environment. Findings and conclusions Based on outcomes of used methods, the following facts were found out. Business Angels (BA in the USA tends to be older, with more experience and higher education. Investing is considered as their full-time job and based on that fact their portfolio is wider. Their source of motivation is knowledge transfer to young entrepreneurs (for 90% of investors. In the Czech Republic, there is lack of collaboration among BA, which leads to less investments. The solution might be perceived in establishing the syndicates of BA. Moreover, it is necessary to present good quality projects to BA, consequently the young entrepreneurs need more initiatives and opportunities to gain the required knowledge and practice

  14. Exile, Return and Restitution in the Czech Republic

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    Katharine A Vadura

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The exile and return experiences in the Czech lands since 1918 have been various and have had significant implications for the people who live and once lived in that territory. The focus of this paper is on the Sudeten Germans a former minority of the Czech lands. The exile experience of this group has resulted in significant debate as to whether this form of exile as legislated banishment was expulsion or displacement, and whether they should have the right to return. In addition the question of guilt as a mechanism for invoking the forced transfer of a population has also raised the issue of recompense or restitution. Conceptual issues like nationalism, identity, belonging and the right to a homeland have played an important part in the attempts at the development of a stable state and also more recently reconciliation processes between the Czechs and Sudeten Germans.

  15. Changes in Wage Inequality in the Czech republic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Pytlikova, Mariola; Warzynski, Frederic

    In this paper, we look at the evolution of the change in the wage structure using a linked employer-employee dataset covering a large fraction of the Czech labor market over the period 1998-2006. We find evidence of slightly diminishing gender inequality and increasing returns to human capital...... decentralized wage bargaining and a changing educational composition of the workforce to explain these patterns. We find some support that these factors have contributed to the changes in the Czech wage structure, although the latter is the most strongly associated with the observed changes in wage inequality...

  16. Change in Wage Inequality in the Czech Republic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Pytlikova, Mariola; Warzynski, Frederic

      In this paper, we look at the evolution of the change in the wage structure using a linked employer-employee dataset covering a large fraction of the Czech labor market over the period 1998-2006. We find evidence of slightly diminishing gender inequality and increasing returns to human capital...... decentralized wage bargaining and a changing educational composition of the workforce to explain these patterns. We find some support that these factors have contributed to the changes in the Czech wage structure, although the latter is the most strongly associated with the observed changes in wage inequality....

  17. New Evidence For The Environmental Kuznets Curve For Sulphur Dioxide Emissions: A Case Study Of The Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Hercegová

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we test the model explaining the inter-dependence between the pollutants and the economic development in the Czech Republic. We calculate the relationship known as the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC by estimating the relationship between the environmental pollution expressed by CO2 and SO2 emissions per capita and the GDP per capita for the Czech Republic for the period from 1990 to 2009. Our findings reveal that the Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis for the Czech Republic holds in the case of estimating the inter-dependence between GDP per capita and sulphur dioxide.

  18. Effect of the Landscape Types on Hunting Selection in Roe Deer (Capreolus Capreolus, Linnaeus 1758 Trophies in Czech Republic

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    Engan Jens H.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Czech Republic has a long tradition of hunting, and trophy hunting is important to manage game populations. In this study data was analysed from the five last trophy exhibitions in Czech Republic. Namely, hunter selection, compensatory selection, management selection, hunting pressure selection and depletion selection was tested in different landscape types. In compensatory hunting there is a difference between the landscape types; apparent differences exist between the landscape type with respect to hunting pressure. There was no hunter selection, or depletion selection, and no differences in management between landscape types. This study suggests that the landscape composition has an effect on selective hunting in Czech Republic.

  19. “Pro-life” in the Czech Republic – What Kind of Europeanization Is Present?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew C. Rees

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to show what effects Europeanization has had on the pro-life movement in the Czech Republic. The first section of the text outlines a multifaceted concept of institutional theory based on historical institutionalist ideas. Next, it looks at one specific institutional process, Europeanization, informed by the work of Radaelli as well as della Porta’s and Caiani’s work on mobilization in the European Union. The following section defines the relevant actors in the Czech pro-life movement. Finally, the paper applies this concept of Europeanization of social movements to the Czech pro-life case. The paper concludes with observations that Europeanization of the Czech pro-life movement is uneven, manifesting itself among some actors, though not all, and in some areas of Europeanization. Charitable organizations as well as one highly visible activist group are highly associated with processes of Europeanization; on the other hand, in most cases, other activist groups in the pro-life movement in the Czech Republic are more highly influenced by more general trends in interest-group internationalization. These insights may pave the way for additional research on trends both of the European pro-life movement as a whole, as well as serving as a touchstone for improving such theoretical concepts as “Europeanization” vis-à-vis “globalization” or “European integration”.

  20. Do Digital Public Services Matter? A Comparative Study of the Czech Republic and the Republic of Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ulman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Provision of quality public services has been in great concern of many governments for longer period of time. An interesting fact could be observed that, as to the demand and supply of digital public services, some developed European countries could lag behind some upper-middle-income countries. The paper explores differences in digital public services provision (supply side and use (demand side between the Czech Republic and Kazakhstan. A document analysis was done and a comparative study based on secondary data was elaborated. We can confirm that even a country from outside of the EU (Kazakhstan can provide a better organized supply of digital services than an EU member state (Czech Republic at least on the national level. According to the Digital Economy and Society Index (DESI benchmarking, there are also significant discrepancies among national, regional and local services in the EU. The same phenomenon is also reported from transitional countries like Kazakhstan.

  1. Is the Czech Republic on its Way to Semi-Presidentialism?

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    Hloušek Vít

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the article is to contribute to the bourgeoning debate on semipresidentialism, its definition, and its characteristic features, with analysis of the empirical example of the Czech Republic, a country which, according to Elgie´s standard definition, shifted to semi-presidentialism in 2012. The author investigates whether and how Miloš Zeman, the first directly elected president of the Czech Republic, influences relations among the key political institutions in the direction of the model of a semi-presidential democracy. The paper sets out the working concept of semi-presidentialism first and, through the lenses of process tracing, analyses the goals and acts of Zeman after he entered office in January 2013. The case study of the Czech Republic sheds light not only on the recent development(s in the Czech political system, but it can be seen as an interesting example of how strong political personalities are attempting to expand their influence on politics in a parliamentary democracy and what the possible limits of this effort are.

  2. Impacts of the Global Crisis Period 2007- 2010 on the Automotive Industry in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedlacek Marek

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this article was to analyse the possible intensity of dependency of the Czech Republic, or more precisely, its total economic indicator Gross Domestic Product on realized Sales sector of the automotive industry before crisis, during the crisis period (2007-2010 as well as after the crisis. There was also used the development analysis of individual total economic indicators in the Czech automotive industry in time. On the other hand, in the article there were found and analysed impacts of the global recession on the functioning of several chosen companies associated in the Automotive Industry Association of the Czech Republic at their interaction with this way developed macroeconomic surroundings. The investigation was based on the development of company result indicator value (Sales of the selected companies and the chosen macro indicator (Gross Domestic Product when looking for their reciprocal dependency in the period mainly connected with the financial and economic crisis. In the contribution, an elementary analysis of the chosen indicator Sales was carried out. With the help of regress and correlation analysis there were further researched the relationships among this chosen indicator of company performance reciprocally with all the companies, the Automotive Industry Association of the Czech Republic as a whole, and the chosen macro-indicator representing the development of selected markets. For the following calculation of tested criteria, Cohen’s Coefficient was used to be able to assess the effect of the group on the value variability of studied random quantity.

  3. Could there be a luxury brand originating from the Czech Republic? The case of the Czech watchmaker Prim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Král

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Central Europe, due to its history, is not perceived as a region from which a luxury brand could originate while luxury is traditionally connected to Western European countries (such as France, Italy or Switzerland. Country of origin (COO plays an important role in perception of any brand but for luxury brands the COO is usually even more important than for mainstream brands because it is an important part of the brand´s heritage. But despite their unfavorable origin we could observe in the last years that brands which originate from CEE region position themselves on the luxury market. The goal of this article is to investigate the COO effect for luxury brand originating in the Czech Republic- namely the watchmaker Prim- and its impact on the marketing strategy of this brand. The main research method used in this article is the case study method which combines the findings of in- depth interviewing and observations together with findings of the secondary research. The managerial implications mainly target brand managers of luxury or premium market brands originating from the Czech Republic and other countries in Central Europe.

  4. The heat wave of August 2012 in the Czech Republic: Evaluation using the Weather Extremity Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtanová, Eva; Valeriánová, Anna; Crhová, Lenka

    2014-05-01

    We present an analysis of the summer heat wave of August 2012 in the Czech Republic. We use and compare results of two different approaches to heat wave evaluation. The Weather Extremity Index evaluates the extremity and spatial extent of the meteorological extreme event of interest. The second method is based on the duration of daily maximum air temperature above specific thresholds. In August 2012, the high air temperature in the Czech Republic lasted from 18/8 to 24/8. It was connected with the inflow of hot air from northern Africa between the low pressure trough over the eastern Atlantic and the region of high pressure in central Europe. The heat wave culminated on 20/8 when the maximum air temperature was higher than 30°C in the whole area of the Czech Republic and the highest daily maximum air temperature on record in the Czech Republic with value of 40.4°C was observed at Dobřichovice station. Our results demonstrate that the studied heat wave was quite extraordinary, occurring so late in the summer with a relatively large areal extent and extremity of detected maximum air temperature. Furthermore, the Weather Extremity Index was found useful for identification of really extreme high air temperature events and facilitated inter-comparison in terms of extremity and spatial extent. However, it cannot be used for detection of all heat waves that could have severe impacts on both human activities and natural ecosystems. The work has been supported by the grant P209/11/1990 funded by the Czech Science Foundation.

  5. The development of the Czech Republic electric industry - Reliable, safe and responsible source mix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrba, Miroslav; Jez, Jiri; Ptacek, Jiri

    2010-09-15

    The paper focuses on the development of the Czech Republic electric industry in close perspective and the prediction of its expected future in period up to 2030. The goal of the paper is to specify methods and procedures applied within periodic assessment of Czech electric power sector balance outlook for the State authorities. A necessity to respect economic recession and politicization of the issue of power sector development has invoked that these items are added to commonly used procedures. A key criterion is the reliable and safe electricity supply by adequate source mix for acceptable prices and environmental aspects.

  6. Nivní malakofauna povodí Úštěckého potoka a její vývoj během holocénu The floodplain mollusc fauna of the Úštěcký Brook catchment basin and its development during the Holocene (North Bohemia, Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Juřičková

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a research of floodplain mollusc assemblages of the Úštěcký Brook catchment basin (Elbe tributary, North Bohemia, Czech Republic. Altogether, 71 mollusc species (69 species of Gastropoda, 2 species of Bivalvia were recorded in the study sites between 2007 and 2011, representing 29% of the total Czech malacofauna. The common forest species dominated (41% of all recorded species and included some rare woodland species as Daudebardia rufa, Discus perspectivus, Macrogastra ventricosa, and Sphyradium doliolum. Rare wetland species protected by the NATURA system Vertigo angustior and endangered wetland species Vallonia enniensis were also found. The richest assemblages occurred on the upper part of the brook, while the lower part was very species poor due to agriculture land use in this fertile floodplain. A small calcareous moorland, situated in the northeastern vicinity of Úštěk Town (north Bohemia includes a Holocene mollusc succession that was subdivided into three local mollusc zones: I – basal zone with marked numbers of Discus ruderatus, Vertigo geyeri and numerous aquatic taxa, II – with forest species including Platyla polita and III – dominated by open-ground and catholic species. Despite the specific conditions of the moorland habitat the succession largely corresponds with the standard developmental pattern of the mollusc fauna in the zone of mid-European uplands. Of particular interest is the developmental break reflected by the poor fauna in the layer 3. The malacofauna of the Úštěcký Brook can be used as a model of alluvial mollusc assemblages of the brook floodplain that is situated in the warm area of Central Europe with long-term history of agriculture land use.

  7. 76 FR 76384 - U.S. Education Mission to Poland and Czech Republic Warsaw, Poland and Prague, Czech Republic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ... by their foreign language curriculum. English is the first choice for a second language in this... while technical areas rank as their third choice. English is the standard second language in the Czech... recent government decision that will make English language mandatory for primary school students...

  8. Ethical and moral aspects of business in Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Protivová, Eva

    2009-01-01

    The thesis deals with theme of morality and ethics, especially in business area. Theoretical part describes methods and instruments of integration of ethics into business. Practical part consists of three parts. First part is focused on evaluation of Czech business environment from ethical point of view. In second part author describes results of her survey, which examines primarily ethics code issues. Final part is concentrated on description of small company's business practices and on stak...

  9. Metallurgy in the Czech Republic: a spatio-temporal view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Suchacek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to introduce the stochastic input-output model of the impact of metallurgy sector on the Czech economy. Contrary to original input-output model, which is of deterministic nature, we reckon with interval estimates of the development of metallurgy sector. They help us to surpass deterministic impediments when analyzing and forecasting the possible developmental tendencies of metallurgy sector in various economies.

  10. Comparison of selected cap measures in the Czech Republic and Republic of Slovenia = Primerjava izbranih ukrepov skupne kmetijske politike med Češko republiko in Slovenijo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Svobodova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Czech Republic and Republic Slovenia are the members of European Union for four yearsalready. Membership in EU required the adoption of European legal order, in agriculture theadoption of Common agricultural policy (CAP which brought many changes into agriculturalsector. The article deals with selected measures of CAP and tries to describe their settingsand differences in both countries. A case study is also included – the comparison of selectedmeasures in one Czech and one Slovenian region.

  11. Perception of the beauty and body image in Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary with application on beauty industry

    OpenAIRE

    Chotváč, Richard

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT CHOTVÁČ, Richard: Perception of beauty and body image in Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary and its application in beauty industry. [Master thesis] -- University of Economics in Prague, VŠE. Faculty of Business Administration; Tutor: doc. Ing. Jan Koudelka, CSc. Prague: VŠE, 2013, 82pages. The Master thesis deals with the perception of the beauty in 3 countries, Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary. This thesis is showing differences between the perception of body image and beauty ...

  12. Consumers' beliefs and behavioural intentions towards organic food. Evidence from the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagata, Lukas

    2012-08-01

    Research has revealed that organic consumers share beliefs about positive health effects, environmentally friendly production and better taste of organic food. Yet, very little is known about the decisions of organic consumers in post-socialist countries with emerging organic food markets. In order to examine this area a representative data set (N=1054) from the Czech Republic was used. Target group of the study has become the Czech consumers that purchase organic food on regular basis. The consumers' behaviour was conceptualised with the use of the theory of planned behaviour (ToPB). Firstly, the ToPB model was tested, and secondly, belief-based factors that influence the decisions and behaviour of consumers were explored. The theory proved able to predict and explain the behaviour of Czech organic consumers. The best predictors of the intention to purchase organic food are attitudes towards the behaviour and subjective norms. Decisive positions in consumers' beliefs have product- and process-based qualities.

  13. Practice of Digital Forensic Investigation in the Czech Republic and ISO/IEC 27037:2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaromír Veber

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Digital forensics investigation undergone a great transformation in the past two decades. This is due to technological progress and already quite common use of ICT in society. This article deals with the standardization of the procedures for collecting potential digital evidence in connection with the ISO/IEC 27037:2012. This article presents some of the important principles presented in the standard. It also presents the views of two experts from the Czech Republic – criminal police investigator and forensic analyst. They introduce their practical experience regarding the collection and analysis of potential digital evidence and also discuss their views on the content of the standard. This makes it possible to point out the discrepancies between the recommendations laid down in the standard and practice. The general recommendations of the standard are commented in the article with references to some basic procedures used in the Czech Republic for potential digital evidence acquisition and collection.

  14. Generation Y Attitudes towards Shopping: A Comparison of the Czech Republic and Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klapilova Krbova Petra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a study focused on Generation Y (born between 1980 and 2000 behavior in two neighboring European countries, the Czech Republic and Slovakia. This article identifies and describes basic characteristics of this generation’s general behavior as well as defines specifics of their shopping behavior by examining their attitudes towards retailers, brands, sales and discount offers. The sample consisted of 380 respondents: 162 from Slovakia and 218 from the Czech Republic. Results of the analysis indicate that shopping is perceived as an entertaining and pleasurable leisure activity. A particular product is chosen before the shopping place. Approximately two-thirds of the respondents search for information online, but quite a large percentage prefer both offline searching and purchasing. Brands are considered to be the symbols and guarantors of quality, but also uselessly expensive. Finally, a positive attitude towards sales and discount offers was observed.

  15. Resistance behaviour of Septoria tritici to some fungicides in the territory of the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludvik Tvaružek

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Reduction of colony diameter using two DMI-fungicides and one strobilurine fungicide was evaluated in the Septoria tritici population. In an in vitro assay, 57 strains of S. tritici originating from different parts of the Czech Republic were grown on agar plates containing different concentrations of fungicides. The mean EC50 values of strains were analysed for flusilazole (Capitain, metconazole (Caramba and one strobilurine fungicide: azoxystrobin (Amistar. ED 50 values for metconazole were low. There were highly significant correlation in reaction of pathogen strains to metconazole and flusilazole. Some isolates showed significant higher level of resistance to azoxystrobin. The data will be used in a continuing survey of resistance development in the S. tritici population originating from the territory of the Czech Republic.

  16. [Macrolide resistance in Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum in the Czech Republic and in other countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillová, L; Mikalová, L; Zákoucká, H; Židlická, J; Šmajs, D

    2015-03-01

    Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum (TPA) is the causative agent of the sexually transmitted disease syphilis. In the Czech Republic, several hundred cases of syphilis are reported annually; e.g. in 2012, 696 syphilis cases were documented. In the last decades, an increasing prevalence of macrolide resistant TPA strains harboring A2058G or A2059G mutations in the 23S rRNA gene has been reported. Macrolides were used (and rarely are still being used) in the Czech Republic for the treatment of syphilis in patients allergic to penicillin. While 37% of TPA strains were resistant to macrolides between 2004 and 2010, this rate increased to 67% between 2011-2013. High prevalence of A2058G or A2059G mutations and increasing rates of macrolide resistant TPA strains have also been documented in other developed countries. Therefore, macrolides should not be used in the treatment of syphilis.

  17. Overview of large scale experiments performed within the LBB project in the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadecka, P.; Lauerova, D. [Nuclear Research Institute, Rez (Czechoslovakia)

    1997-04-01

    During several recent years NRI Rez has been performing the LBB analyses of safety significant primary circuit pipings of NPPs in Czech and Slovak Republics. The analyses covered the NPPs with reactors WWER 440 Type 230 and 213 and WWER 1000 Type 320. Within the relevant LBB projects undertaken with the aim to prove the fulfilling of the requirements of LBB, a series of large scale experiments were performed. The goal of these experiments was to verify the properties of the components selected, and to prove the quality and/or conservatism of assessments used in the LBB-analyses. In this poster, a brief overview of experiments performed in Czech Republic under guidance of NRI Rez is presented.

  18. Exchange rate and oil price interactions in transition economies: Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayat Tayfur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates causal dynamics between crude oil prices and exchange rates in Czech Republic, Poland and Hungary by employing monthly data from the beginning of flexible exchange regime in each country to December 2011. The study benefits from the recent advance in the time series econometric analysis and carries out linear causality, non-linear causality, volatility spillover and frequency domain causality tests. The frequency domain causality analysis results imply that oil price fluctuations affect real exchange rates in the long run in Poland and Czech Republic. On the other hand, frequency domain causality test results indicate that oil price fluctuations do not affect exchange rate in any period in Hungary despite its economy’s high imported energy dependency.

  19. Reproductive agency and projects: Germans searching for egg donation in Spain and the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Sven

    2011-11-01

    German patients in search of IVF with egg donation (which is prohibited by German law) are increasingly deciding to travel to clinics in other countries (mostly to the Czech Republic and Spain) that are able to provide them with the eggs of other women. Through three case studies of German couples who crossed international borders for IVF with egg donation, this article provides insight into these transnational practices aiming to circumvent restrictions in reproduction, whatever they may be. The material for this article is based on ethnographic fieldwork and interviews conducted in Germany, Spain and the Czech Republic, as well as research undertaken on IVF internet bulletin boards. The concepts of 'reproductive agency' and 'reproductive projects' are used to analyse the ways in which people search for information about treatments and clinics in other countries, how they embed the practice into their daily lives and how they deal with and position themselves regarding the need for reproductive travel.

  20. New finds of lacertids (Sauria, Lacertidae from the Neogene of Slovakia and Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Joniak

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, first finds of fossil lacertids from the Neogene of Slovakia and new finds from Czech Republic are described. The material comes from three localities: Merkur - North (Czech Republic, Early Miocene, Borský Svätý Jur (Slovakia, Late Miocene and Ivanovce (Slovakia, Early Pliocene, and consists of several isolated dentaries, maxillae and one vertebra. According to the morphology, the find of dentary from the Ivanovce locality can be attributed to Lacerta cf. agilis. Except one vertebra, the rest of the material can be assigned to Lacerta sp. The fragment of the anterior portion of the dentary from the Upper Miocene sediments of Borský Svätý Jur represents the oldest known occurrence of this taxon in Slovakia. Thus, the material enhances our rather poor knowledge of the paleoherpetofauna from the Slovakian territory.

  1. Type specimens of centipedes (Myriapoda, Chilopoda in the National Museum, Prague (Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Dolejš

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The centipede collection in the National Museum in Prague contains type material of 16 taxa (14 species and two subspecies, of which 15 were described by Luděk J. Dobroruka and one by Karl W. Verhoeff: Allothereua wilsonae Dobroruka, 1979; Chinobius alenae Dobroruka, 1980; Lithobius corrigendus Dobroruka, 1988; L. creticus Dobroruka, 1977; L. erythrocephalus mohelensis Dobroruka, 1959; L. evae Dobroruka, 1958; L. magurensis Dobroruka, 1971; L. purkynei Dobroruka, 1957; L. tatricus Dobroruka, 1958; L. tatricus monounguis Dobroruka, 1958; Monotarsobius homolaci Dobroruka, 1971; M. krali Dobroruka, 1979; Pachymerium dilottiae Dobroruka, 1976; P. hanzaki Dobroruka, 1976; Scolopendra aztecorum Verhoeff, 1934 and Strigamia olympica Dobroruka, 1977. Of these 16 taxa, five were described from the Czech Republic, three from Slovakia and eight from other countries (Greece, Iraq, Kyrgyzstan, Mexico, Nepal, Russia and Uzbekistan. The eight taxa described from the Czech and Slovak Republics are now considered as junior synonyms but the eight taxa described from the other countries are still valid.

  2. Testing of high temperature materials within HTR program in Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berka Jan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Research institutes and also industrial companies in Czech Republic are involved in High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR program and activities related to the study of advanced materials and HTGR technologies. These activities are supported by EC (within international projects, e.g. FP7-ARCHER, ALLIANCE, GoFastR can be mentioned and also by Technology Agency of Czech Republic. Within these activities, degradation of metallic and ceramic materials in the high temperature helium atmosphere is investigated, and also new experimental facilities for material testing are built. As examples of tested materials, Alloy 800 H, ferritic steel P91, austenitic steel 316, Inconel 713 and 738 and corundum ceramics could be named. The selected results of exposure experiments in the high temperature helium environment are presented in this paper.

  3. Short- and long-term variability of radon progeny concentration in dwellings in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slezáková, M; Navrátilová Rovenská, K; Tomásek, L; Holecek, J

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, repeated measurements of radon progeny concentration in dwellings in the Czech Republic are described. Two distinct data sets are available: one based on present measurements in 170 selected dwellings in the Central Bohemian Pluton with a primary measurement carried out in the 1990s and the other based on 1920 annual measurements in 960 single-family houses in the Czech Republic in 1992 and repeatedly in 1993. The analysis of variance model with random effects is applied to data to evaluate the variability of measurements. The calculated variability attributable to repeated measurements is compared with results from other countries. In epidemiological studies, ignoring the variability of measurements may lead to biased estimates of risk of lung cancer.

  4. Effectiveness of Marketing Activities in Engineering in Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Milichovský

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article is to present the selected data obtained from primary research, which concerns the marketing activities use in the Czech companies in view of their industry. Nowadays, high competitive environment influence permanent pressure on companies which are in turn force to monitor and adapt them in order to retain their expected market position. In article there were gained data by primary research, using a structure questionnaire survey and processing by statistical software IBM SPSS Statistics 22. The research sample consists 147 companies in 2013. All companies were operating in the Czech environment and they were chosen in random way from chosen CZ-NACE groups. The main scientific aim is to analyse the condition for realisation of marketing activities and determine whether there is a relationship between measurement of marketing effectiveness and industry field in the Czech business environment. Findings of the article point to differences in the use of individual marketing activities in view of engineering field. It was found that companies have to respect corporate goals to fill stakeholders᾿ requirements, with a small improving because of the engineering industry field. Through realisation marketing activities there are many ways how to impact target audience. Also, it was found there is only average dependency between tracking of marketing performance and engineering field. The result of the article is describing relevant approach to prove efficiency of realisation of marketing activities in relation with engineering companies. The companies know the importance of relationship with their customers. Marketing management and realisation of marketing activities has become realm where is possible to find opportunities to increase own competitiveness in view of the growing competitive environment.

  5. Market Entry Strategies of Passenger Carmakers – The Case Study of the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Machková

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2014, the Czech automotive industry had a record-breaking year with 1 278 000 motor vehicles manufactured. This was a result of the investment of three major carmakers, who entered into the Czech Republic, because they believed in the industrial capacity of the country and its strategic location in Central Europe. The goal of this article is to analyze the different entry strategies into the Czech market and to compare the results of different strategic approaches for both foreign private investors and the recipient country. The main research method used in this article is a case study. In our case studies, we will analyze the cases of the Volkswagen group and its acquisition of the manufacturer Škoda, the greenfield investment of Hyundai, and the strategic alliance of the French car producer PSA with Japanese Toyota who had founded the TPCA joint venture in the Czech Republic. All three case studies show examples of good practices and prove that foreign direct investment (FDI has the potential to generate employment, raise productivity, transfer skills and technology, enhance exports and contribute to the long-term economic development of the country.

  6. The approaches to the didactics of physics in the Czech Republic - Historical development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žák, Vojtěch

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe approaches to the didactics of physics which have appeared in the Czech Republic during its development and to discuss mainly their relationships with other fields. It is potentially beneficial to the understanding of the current situation of the Czech didactics of physics and to the prognosis of its future development. The main part of the article includes a description of the particular approaches of the Czech didactics of physics, such as the methodological, application, integration and communication approaches described in chronological order. Special attention is paid to the relationships of the didactics of physics and physics itself, pedagogy and other fields. It is obvious that the methodological approach is narrowly connected to physics, while the application approach comes essentially from pedagogy. The integration approach seeks the utilization of other scientific fields to develop the didactics of physics. It was revealed that the most elaborate is the communication approach. This approach belongs to the concepts that have influenced the current didactical thinking in the Czech Republic to a high extent in other fields as well (including within the didactics of socio-humanist fields). In spite of the importance of the communication approach, it should be admitted that the other approaches are, to a certain extent, employed as well and co-exist.

  7. Generation Y Attitudes towards Shopping: A Comparison of the Czech Republic and Slovakia

    OpenAIRE

    Klapilova Krbova Petra

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study focused on Generation Y (born between 1980 and 2000) behavior in two neighboring European countries, the Czech Republic and Slovakia. This article identifies and describes basic characteristics of this generation’s general behavior as well as defines specifics of their shopping behavior by examining their attitudes towards retailers, brands, sales and discount offers. The sample consisted of 380 respondents: 162 from Slovakia and 218 from...

  8. YouTube advertising and its significance in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Borýsek, Jan

    2014-01-01

    This bachelor's thesis is dealing with current possibilities of advertising on YouTube in the Czech Republic. Based on the analysis of selected advertising campaigns on YouTube it evaluates its effectiveness and impact. By author's own research it identifies internet users' attitude towards advertising on YouTube in comparison with television advertising. The thesis also compares selected media indicators of YouTube and television.

  9. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis of herbaceous invasive neophytes in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Štajerová, Kateřina

    2009-01-01

    I have studied arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis of 44 herbaceous invasive neophytes occuring in the Czech Republic. My results show that about 70% of the examined species are capable to form symbiotic association with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in the field. To my knowledge, mycorrhizal status of 23 invasive species is reported here for the first time. I predicted, based on the hypothesis of Urcelay & Díaz (2003), that the intensity of AMF in the roots of invasive species will be corr...

  10. Electric operation into the Czech Republic and Poland; Elektrischer Betrieb nach Tschechien und Polen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhlmann, Bernd

    2010-06-15

    The electrification of important railway lines in the Czech Republic and Poland was in the past dec-ades extended to the border stations close to Germany on two main lines. To control the resultant system interface points in railway operation, it was necessary depending on the prevailing conditions to take a range of measures, among them on the infrastructure to allow for the change of locomo-tives and use multi-system locomotives in the course of the further development. (orig.)

  11. E-government Policy and its Implementation in the Czech Republic: Selected Shortcomings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Špaček David

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes the specifics and challenges of e-government policy, and then discusses the apparent shortcomings of policy implementation and challenges for further development in the Czech Republic. It draws attention to problems in national e-government policy and in practical policy implementation (instability of governance, low quality of evaluation, low involvement of stakeholders in project design, and public procurement issues.

  12. Βedrock instability of underground storage systems in the Czech Republic, Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakova, Lucie; Broz, Milan; Zaruba, Jiri; Sosna, Karel; Najser, Jan; Rukavickova, Lenka; Franek, Jan; Rudajev, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    Underground storage systems are currently being used worldwide for the geological storage of natural gas (CH4), the geological disposal of CO2, in geothermal energy, or radioactive waste disposal. We introduce a complex approach to the risks posed by induced bedrock instabilities in deep geological underground storage sites. Bedrock instability owing to underground openings has been studied and discussed for many years. The Bohemian Massif in the Czech Republic (Central Europe) is geologically and tectonically complex. However, this setting is ideal for learning about the instability state of rock masses. Longterm geological and mining studies, natural and induced seismicity, radon emanations, and granite properties as potential storage sites for disposal of radioactive waste in the Czech Republic have provided useful information. In addition, the Czech Republic, with an average concentration radon of 140 Bq m-3, has the highest average radon concentrations in the world. Bedrock instabilities might emerge from microscale features, such as grain size and mineral orientation, and microfracturing. Any underground storage facility construction has to consider the stored substance and the geological settings. In the Czech Republic, granites and granitoids are the best underground storage sites. Microcrack networks and migration properties are rock specific and vary considerably. Moreover, the matrix porosity also affects the mechanical properties of the rocks. Any underground storage site has to be selected carefully. The authors suggest to study the complex set of parameters from micro to macroscale for a particular place and type of rock to ensure that the storage remains safe and stable during construction, operation, and after closure.

  13. The Influence of Social Networking Sites on Recruiting Human Resources in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohmova Lucie

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper is focused on the usage of social networking sites (SNS for human resources departments in the process of hiring new employees. It also maps the development and influence of SNS on recruiter's behavior and customs. The main aim is to find out, whether SNS could/will replace traditional online job boards in the Czech Republic. The motivation for the research is to determine whether SNS can be used for serious and practical business purposes.

  14. The occurrence of extractible ink residuals in packaging materials used in the Czech Republic.

    OpenAIRE

    Dupáková, Zdeňka; Dobiáš, Jaroslav; Votavová, Lenka; Klaudisová, Kamila; Voldřich, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The residuals of printing ink components were determined in 94 samples of packaging materials commercially used in the Czech Republic for food packaging. Tested samples included printed polyethylene and polypropylene films, coextruded and laminated films, paperboard beverages boxes, foils for thermo sealing of polystyrene cups and polypropylene cups. Printing ink components were extracted with diethylether, then separated and determined using gas chromatography coupled wit...

  15. Rubus bohemo-polonicus (Rosaceae - a new species of bramble from the Czech Republic and Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Zieliński

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Rubus bohemo-polonicus Travnicek & Zieliński, a regional species belonging to series Radula (Focke Focke, is described from the Czech Republic and Poland. It differs from closely related species (R. radula Weihe, R. salisburgensis Focke ex Caflisch and R. indusiatus Focke mainly by the almost glabrous stems and consistently white petals. Illustrations and a distribution map of the new species are provided.

  16. Performance level and sexual harassment prevalence among female athletes in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Fasting, Kari; Celia H. Brackenridge; Knorre, Nada

    2010-01-01

    The results presented in this article are from a larger research project on issues related to women in sport in the Czech Republic. The article tries to answer research questions related to whether there are any relationships between the experience of sexual harassment among female athletes inside and outside sport, and at different sport performance levels. The sample, totalling 595 women, was divided into three performance groups: elite, competing and exercisers. No significant differences ...

  17. Dementia Still Diagnosed Too Late - Data from the Czech Republic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Luzny

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the study is to evaluate the sensitivity of Czech physicians to the early diagnosis of dementia in patients with memory impairment.A retrospective observational study was designed. We have reviewed the electronic medical records of patients who have been hospitalized for the first time due to dementia of any type at the Kromeriz Mental hospital from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2013 (24-month period. Pluralistic methods combining the qualitative and quantitative approach were used in this study.Dementia of any type was diagnosed in 125 patients in the monitored period. The mean time between patient memory complaints and his / her admission to our facility for their first hospitalization due to dementia was 7.1 years (+- 3.7 years. Most patients with dementia had no prior outpatient treatment of their memory impairment (56.2%; a minority of patients (43.8% had treatment of their memory impairment by an outpatient physician.The sensitivity of Czech physicians to the early diagnosis of dementia is very low. Any delay in starting the treatment of dementia means a worsened effectiveness of this treatment, a worsened quality of life of patients with dementia and their caregivers. Our recommendations for both the early diagnosis and treatment of dementia should be involved in guidelines and should become a part of the pregraduate and postgraduate education of all physicians.

  18. [Current situation in clinical trials with vaccines in the Czech Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čečetková, B; Smetana, J; Chlíbek, R

    2014-11-01

    Clinical trials are an important part of clinical research. The conduction of clinical trials is strictly regulated and has to comply with an approved protocol. Local regulatory authorities, independent ethic committees, sponsors of clinical trials as well as the investigators are involved from the submission until the very end of the trial. All clinical trials performed in the Czech Republic have to be approved by the State Institute for Drug Control and by the Ethics Committee. The regulatory bodies and independent ethics committees evaluate and continuously supervise the justification and protocol of the clinical trial, quality of the investigational medicinal products and, primarily, the safety of the participants (patients and/or healthy volunteers) in clinical trials. In the Czech Republic there are many advanced clinical research centres, either located in private practices or within hospitals. The investigators are able to conduct a wide variety of clinical trials and recruit a high number of subjects for the trials, as well as to comply with the Good Clinical Practice guidelines and other regulatory requirements. The aim of this article is to summarise the current situation of clinical trials in the Czech Republic as well as the opportunities for getting involved in clinical trials and obligations arising for health professionals from such an involvement.

  19. e-Learning trends in Central Europe: The case of the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludvík Eger

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with expert predictions on the development of e-learning in the Czech Republic, a country in Central Europe. The first part of the paper describes the development of e-learning with specific feature in the Czech Republic in relation to the implementation of Information and communication technologies (ICT to schools and the business sector. The second part of the paper presents a survey with selected experts, conducted in the years 2012 and 2013 in the Czech Republic, aiming at identifying the trends of e-learning. Special attention is paid to applying e-learning in the corporate sector. Our survey provides a better understanding of the current and future trends of e-learning to a wide range of stakeholders interested in using e-learning. Understanding the existing and future state of e-learning should be a starting point for further development of any e-learning strategy, in both education and corporate sectors. Therefore, the findings of our survey have important practical implications. The survey also proves that identification of the e-learning trends at the national level is influenced by political, economic, social and technological factors.

  20. Well-being in the Czech Republic in an Aggregate Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fialová Kamila

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article assesses well-being in the Czech Republic compared to other Visegrad countries (Slovakia, Hungary, Poland and neighbouring Germany and Austria. By employing various approaches designed by several international organisations it takes an aggregate perspective to assess both the current well-being and its sustainability into the future. All employed indicators that relate to current well-being evaluate the well-being in the Czech Republic as moderate among the OECD countries. The results indicate that the position in well-being rankings improves with the growing number of dimensions or subjective factors included in the well-being measure, mainly due to the reduction in relative importance of income dimension and higher emphasis on the multidimensionality and complexity of well-being. In the case of sustainability, large differences can be identified in evaluation stemming from Happy Planet Index and Sustainable Society Index perspective. Although both of them agree on unfavourable situation as regards environmental sustainability in the Czech Republic, different accent on economic area alters the final result substantially. The analysis shows that for any well-being assessment, the choice of indicators is crucial and a large portion of caution is necessary when interpreting these.

  1. Reading strategies of primary school pupils in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Najvarová

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on reading with comprehension – an activity of the readerwhich is seen as an interaction between the author and the recipient. In order tounderstand a text better, a reader may employ various techniques and strategies. Thearticle consists of three parts. In the first part, categories reading strategy and readingskill and the relationship between them are defined. In the second part, classificationsof reading strategies are presented and sorted according to various criteria. The thirdpart summarises the findings of a research project that concentrated on the readingstrategies of primary school pupils in Czech primary schools in the 2005/06 schoolyear. The findings indicate primary school teachers’ preferred procedures of using textsin teaching and pupils’ preferred reading strategies by the end of primary education.

  2. 78 FR 59059 - Grain-Oriented Electrical Steel From China, Czech Republic, Germany, Japan, Korea, Poland, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Grain-Oriented Electrical Steel From China, Czech Republic, Germany, Japan, Korea, Poland, and... Republic, Germany, Japan, Korea, Poland, and Russia that are alleged to be sold in the United States...

  3. Maps of Annual Velocities of Vertical Movements At The Territory of The Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyskocil, P.

    In addition to the Austro-Hungarian levelling of second half of 19. century {a}, the following precise levellings were performed at the territory of Czech Republic, in the periods:1920-1938 {b}; 1939-1954{c}; 1960-1973{d}; 1974- 1989{e}; and addition- ally after 1990 especially along the border with Germany {Bavaria} and Austria. All these {repeated} levellings were capable for studies of vertical movements. But qual- itatively better benchmarks were introduced to the levellings performed after 1960 {drilled benchmarks, rod benchmarks} which improved the quality the determination of vertical movements. The first estimations of vertical movements were performed by comparison of adjusted altitudes of levelling {a} and {b}, and {b} and {c} by KRUIS in 1954- 1960. Nevertheless, the disadvantage of these studies was the fact that levellings {a} and {b} followed the railways, the levelling {c} followed usual roads. Moreover the results of direct measurements by levellings {a} and {b} were not complete available.. Then the first levelling of higher quality was the levelling {c} which was used as initial epoch for construction of the maps from levelling {c} and {d} in 1971 and later on from levelling {c} and {e}in 1985. The benchmarks of higher quality, introduced after 1960 were used only in special networks in mining areas of Upper Silesian basin and Sokolov, Most and Kladno coal areas. The vertical move- ments {annual velocities in mm per annum} were determined by adjustment of annual heigh changes between junction benchmarks, reduced cosequently by the actual time interval of measurements along actual levelling line. Finally, the map for levellings {d} and {e} in 2001, using the new benchmarks, was constructed. The properties of the maps 1971, 1985 and 2001 as well as the map of annual velocities of vertical move- ments at the territory of a part of Central Europe are discussed in the paper, using the corresponding maps available.

  4. Workplace bullying and legal protection of employees in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panajotis Cakirpaloglu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Workplace bullying is a subtle manifestation of disturbed relationships in the working collective. This form of victimization of employees in the Czech Republic has, according to independent surveys, expanding dimensions. Empirical evidence generally tends to reveal the prevalence, forms and direction of aggression as well as numerous psychological, health and other consequences of victimization, especially in terms of various socio-demographic indicators. The presented study verifies extensive psychological survey on the sample of N = 3746 employees from the private, public and non-profit sectors in the Czech Republic, using a questionnaire of negative acts NAQ (Negative Act Questionnaire and a status questionnaire. The research confirmed a 12, 14% prevalence of bullying in the workplace in the Czech Republic. There is a balanced representation of men and women in the incidence of bullying, while the highest rates of bullying are reported within the state sector. Victimization in the workplace affects mostly ordinary workers, aged around 42 years, with secondary or higher education. The Czech Republic has not yet made workplace bullying an illegal practise, especially in comparison with other industrialized countries, where since 1990, mobbing is considered a criminal offense. Existing laws in the Czech Republic also do not recognise the concept of mobbing or bossing and therefore do not define these concepts closer. The prohibition of bullying in the workplace necessarily derives from the general provisions of the Anti- Discrimination Act, of the Civil Code, the Labour Code and the laws arising from administrative law. Victims of workplace bullying also get protection by some provisions of the Criminal Code, which protects the victim from aggressor offenses. The relevant legal norm is intended to act as a social regulator, partly preventively in terms of taking measures for the successful identification and elimination of conditions of a

  5. Monetary and exchange rate regimes changes: The cases of Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia and Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josifidis Kosta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores (former transition economies, Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia and the Republic of Serbia, concerning abandonment of the exchange rate targeting and fixed exchange rate regimes and movement toward explicit/implicit inflation targeting and flexible exchange rate regimes. The paper identifies different subperiods concerning crucial monetary and exchange rate regimes, and tracks the changes of specific monetary transmission channels i.e. exchange rate channel, interest rate channel, indirect and direct influences to the exchange rate, with variance decomposition of VAR/VEC model. The empirical results indicate that Polish monetary strategy toward higher monetary and exchange rate flexibility has been performed smoothly, gradually and planned, compared to the Slovak and, especially, Czech case. The comparison of three former transition economies with the Serbian case indicate strong and persistent exchange rate pass-through, low interest rate pass-through, significant indirect and direct influence to the exchange rate as potential obstacles for successful inflation targeting in the Republic of Serbia.

  6. The role of “Azeri-Czech society” for the promotion of the national-cultural values in Eastern Europe (by the example of the Czech Republic)

    OpenAIRE

    ASKEROVA SEVINJ

    2016-01-01

    In the formed article, it is showed the main development directions of activity and creation of Azerbaijani diaspora formed in the Czech Republic. Besides, it has also been researched the role of this diaspora for the promotion of Azerbaijani culture and art.

  7. Review of current and anticipated regulations on air protection in the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jilek, P.; Novotny, V. [Ministry of the Environment of the Czech Republic, Prague (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    Environmental issues, especially the solution of the air pollution problem, have taken on great significance in the Czech Republic (which was a part of the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic until the end of 1992) since the 1989 {open_quotes}Velvet{close_quotes} Revolution. The former CSFR Federal Committee for the Environment and both the Republic Ministries started immediately with creating new environmental legislation, which is the main governmental tool for protecting the environment in the newly developing democracy state system with a market oriented economy. The inspiration for that activity was found in legislation of developed countries - member states of the European Union, and in German environmental law in particular. This paper surveys the major laws and regulations that gradually came into force in the Czech Republic since 1990. The provisions of the primary significance are the Act No.309/1991 S.B., dated July 9, 1991, on the protection of the air against pollutants - The Clean Air Act, the Act No.218/1992 S.B., dated April 27, 1992, which changes and supplements the Act No.309 - The Clean Air Act, the Measure of the Federal Committee for the Environment of October 1, 1991 to the Clean Air Act, and its amended wordings of June 23, 1992, 84/1991 S.B., and 84/1992 S.B., the Act No.389/1991 S.B., dated September 10, 1991 on the state administration of air protection and charges for the pollution of air, and several regulations based on the Act No.389/1991 S.B., issued in the period 1992 -1993.

  8. Market segmentation and eliciting tourists’ motives for visiting the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ja. Valentová

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article. The paper describes a research project focused on motivations to travel by potential and existing foreign visitors that was conducted in order to envisage the creation of a positive image and select the appropriate distribution and marketing promotional mix for the various segments of the Czech tourism market. The paper builds on research that has been already completed and yielded interestig results and further extends the researched themes and selected segments. The paper reports our current findings in the field of motivation of potential visitors in the Czech Republic. We show that segmentation of motives for travelling can be further used in academic research and in the activities of national tourism organizations. Moreover, it is applicable in decision-making process that involves the mix and the offer of tourism destination products. The results of the analysis. Based on the results of the research we can conclude that both the order as well as the intensity of the motives for travel, in the selected segments of the examined countries, to the Czech Republic are different for different segments of tourism. When it comes to motivation based on the selected countries, among push motives dominate in most countries the motives associated with entertainment except for the British, for which climate change and gaining experiences are more important than gaining knowledge of different cultures and ways of life in other countries. However, they are attracted by experiencing something new, unknown and develop personal interests, which is also important for Slovaks, Brazilians, Americans and Ukrainians. Experiences are important for Slovaks, Americans, Ukrainians, Spaniards, Italians, and Germans. Escape from the stress and routine is sought by Slovaks, the British, Italians, the French, the Spanish, and Russians and to a lesser extent by Ukrainians. Excitement from travelling is pursued most by Brazilians, Americans

  9. The Strategy for the Development of the Infrastructure for Spatial Information in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Čada

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Spatial information is often not effectively handled and used, e.g., in public administration. The key reason is that information about what spatial data exists, and where and under which circumstances it can be used, is missing. This leads to a situation whereby data are gathered and maintained multiple times. In October 2014, the Czech government approved the conception of The Strategy for the Development of the Infrastructure for Spatial Information in the Czech Republic to 2020 (GeoInfoStrategy, which serves as a basis for the National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI. Furthermore, in June 2015 the GeoInfoStrategy Action Plan was approved. The vision of the GeoInfoStrategy is that the Czech Republic will use spatial information effectively by 2020. The innovative approach of the GeoInfoStrategy to build the NSDI includes cooperation between all parties—not only public administration, but also the private sector, academia, professional associations and user communities. The principles defined in the GeoInfoStrategy are general and can serve as best practice for other countries building an NSDI that should meet the requirements of all target groups working with spatial information.

  10. Small & Medium Enterprise Assessment in Czech Republic & Russia Using Marketing Analytics Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod Dasan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to focus on the determinants influencing the internationalization of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs in Czech Republic and Russia. The objective is to investigate and evaluate the business environment and, then, examine the importance of developing and promoting entrepreneurship to allow SMEs in Czech & Russia to develop a competitive position in the international marketplace. An overview of the current economic situation facing SMEs in CZ & RU is provided. Then the factors necessary for the expansion of the business will be discussed, along with the challenges of overcoming the resource gaps to be identified. We have conducted empirical surveys along with the use of SPSS statistical tools to predict the potential of revenue growth in SME sector. Information is provided concerning the current situation for SMEs in CZ & RU and the challenges encountered as they face a business environment that is becoming more competitive. We also found that SMEs are increasingly more integrated into the global economy and not limited to regional/international activities. Quantitative analysis shows that there is significant potential for SMEs for the next couple of years despite the economic uncertainty. This paper integrates entrepreneurship, and the resource-based internationalization of SMEs in Czech Republic & Russia, specifically focusing on the use of technology.

  11. Competition among Companies in the Fast Food Market in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Šrédl

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to express the nature and the extent of changes in the consumer preferences in the context of the oligopolistic multinational chains of fast food restaurants. The methodology of the paper is based on the analysis of growing market shares of fast food restaurants in the Czech Republic using the performance indicators of companies. Among the largest fast food restaurants in the Czech Republic are McDonald’s, KFC, Subway and the new fast food chain Parky’s. McDonald’s market share in terms of output is currently 46% of the fast food market. The paper therefore analyzes the last part of the agri-food vertical with clear consequence on the demand for agricultural commodities and for food as a whole. This study is supported by the Internal Grant Agency of Faculty of Economics and Management, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague (Projects No. 20141025 – The growing share of fast food restaurants in consumer demand.

  12. Brand importance across product categories in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Formánek Tomáš

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with customer loyalty to brands and provides an analysis of brand-related attitudes among Czech consumers. Brand loyalty is a very important aspect of competitive marketing and we contribute an empirically supported point of view on the topic. Based on primary data from a complex consumer survey carried out for the purpose of this study, we investigate the extent of brand loyalty across different product categories, mostly fast moving consumer goods (FMCG. For convenience, the analysis of our survey-data may be divided in two main areas. First, product categories are ranked according to their potential power to attract customers’ interest and loyalty towards brands. When loyalty programs are prepared, it is important to discern product categories where loyalty potential is weak from those categories that attract consumer loyalty. Second, sociodemographic features and lifestyle factors from the survey are evaluated with respect to different product categories, by means of logistic regression and subsequent average partial effect (APE analysis. A detailed and practically oriented interpretation of the empirical results is provided by the authors. However, both corporate marketers and academic readers can use the tables with empirical estimation outputs that are provided in this article to draw their own conclusions, which may be focused on the product category of interest and/or focused on any specific consumer group that is of particular interest. Among other topics, this paper emphasizes the fact that brand loyalty is a highly complex phenomenon and that it can and should be analysed from different perspectives.

  13. Occupational and Sectoral Mobility in the Czech Republic and its Changes during the Economic Recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Vavřinová

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reveals the scope and patterns of mobility on the labour market in the Czech Republic in between 2002 and 2013. Occupational and sectoral mobility are analysed using the data from the Labour Force Survey. The LFS data were adjusted into a form of longitudinal data enabling to follow an individual in four consecutive quarters. The frequency of mobility on the Czech labour market and its development during different phases of business cycle is studied. The level of mobility is examined in the entire population of the employed as well as among subgroups defined predominantly by socioeconomic characteristics. Patterns of labour mobility revealed by this paper are discussed in the light of similarly focused studies from abroad and theoretical approaches toward labour mobility.

  14. Primary and secondary prevention of colorectal cancer in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeem, Kateřina; Ševčíková, Jarmila; Kyselý, Zdeněk; Horáková, Dagmar; Vlčková, Jana; Kollárová, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most frequent malignancies in the Czech Republic and worldwide. Also, a high prevalence of overweight and obesity, a high proportion of smokers in the population, and one of the highest per capita alcohol consumption rates are typical for the Czech population. The role of general practitioners in the prevention of colorectal cancer is crucial. In primary prevention, the doctor should emphasise the importance of a healthy lifestyle - a balanced diet rich in fruits and vegetables, maintaining a normal body weight, adequate physical activity, and non-smoking. In secondary prevention, patients should be informed about the possibilities of colorectal cancer screening and the benefits of early detection of the disease. Participation rates of the target population for colorectal cancer screening are low. Steps leading to increased participation in colorectal cancer screening (including postal invitations) play an important role in influencing the mortality of colorectal cancer.

  15. The abolition of user charges and the demand for ambulatory visits: evidence from the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votapkova, Jana; Zilova, Pavlina

    2016-12-01

    This paper estimates the effect of the abolition of user charges for children's outpatient care (30 CZK/1.2 EUR) in 2009 on the demand for ambulatory doctor visits in the Czech Republic. Because the reform applied only to children, we can employ the difference-in-differences approach, where children constitute a treatment group and adults serve as a control group. The dataset covers 1841 observations. Aside from the treatment effect, we control for a number of personal characteristics using micro-level data (European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions). Using the zero-inflated negative binomial model, we found no significant effect from the abolition of user charges on doctor visits, suggesting either that user charges are ineffective in the Czech environment or that their value was set too low. On the contrary, personal income, the number of household members and gender have a significant effect. A number of robustness checks using restricted samples confirm the results.

  16. Factors influencing job satisfaction in post-transition economies: the case of the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čábelková, Inna; Abrhám, Josef; Strielkowski, Wadim

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of factors influencing job satisfaction in post-transition economies on the example of the Czech Republic. Our research shows that women reported higher levels of job satisfaction compared to men. Education proved to be statistically significant in one of three indicators of job satisfaction. Personal income and workplace relationships proved to be positively and significantly related to all the three indicators of job satisfaction. Most of the occupational dummies were significantly related to two out of three indicators of job satisfaction. In addition, we found that Czech entrepreneurs enjoy and value their job, which indicates strong self-selection for doing business in post-transition economies. However, human capital expressed by the level of education was significant factor for job satisfaction, meaning that well-educated people might not be satisfied with their jobs or feel that their education and experience are wasted in the market economy.

  17. Consumer Decision-Making Styles and Local Brand Biasness: Exploration in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanninayake W.M.C.Bandara

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The modern marketer shows a growing interest in the research of consumer decision-making styles to understand how an individual makes his/her buying decisions in the competitive environment. This concept is important because it determines the behavioral patterns of consumers and is relevant for market segmentation. Most of the previous researchers have adapted to Consumer Style Inventory (CSI introduced by Sproles and Kendall in 1986 as a common tool for assessing the decision-making styles of customers. Though researchers have validated CSI in different cultural and social contexts, very limited studies were carried out to explore the relationship between consumer decision-making styles and their domestic brand biasness. Therefore, the present study mainly focuses on exploring the impact of consumer decision-making styles on their preference towards domestic brands in the context of the Czech Republic. The sample for this study was drawn from adult customers who live in the Brno, Zlín, and Olomouc regions in the Czech Republic. A group of students from the Bachelor’s degree programme in Management and Economics, Tomas Bata University in Zlín were selected as enumerators for data collection. Altogether 200 questionnaires were distributed and 123 completed questionnaires were taken in for final analysis. The decision- making styles were measured using Sproles and Kendall’s (1986 CSI instrument. Cronbach’s Alpha values of each construct confirmed that there is a good interring reliability associated with the data. Principle Component Analysis was employed to determine the decision-making styles of Czech customers and the one-way ANOVA was used for testing hypotheses. The findings revealed that seven decision-making styles are appeared among Czech customers and fashion consciousness, recreational orientation, impulsiveness, and price consciousness of customers show a direct relationship with the domestic brand biasness. Other styles did not

  18. Estimation of end of life mobile phones generation: the case study of the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polák, Miloš; Drápalová, Lenka

    2012-08-01

    The volume of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) has been rapidly growing in recent years. In the European Union (EU), legislation promoting the collection and recycling of WEEE has been in force since the year 2003. Yet, both current and recently suggested collection targets for WEEE are completely ineffective when it comes to collection and recycling of small WEEE (s-WEEE), with mobile phones as a typical example. Mobile phones are the most sold EEE and at the same time one of appliances with the lowest collection rate. To improve this situation, it is necessary to assess the amount of generated end of life (EoL) mobile phones as precisely as possible. This paper presents a method of assessment of EoL mobile phones generation based on delay model. Within the scope of this paper, the method has been applied on the Czech Republic data. However, this method can be applied also to other EoL appliances in or outside the Czech Republic. Our results show that the average total lifespan of Czech mobile phones is surprisingly long, exactly 7.99 years. We impute long lifespan particularly to a storage time of EoL mobile phones at households, estimated to be 4.35 years. In the years 1990-2000, only 45 thousands of EoL mobile phones were generated in the Czech Republic, while in the years 2000-2010 the number grew to 6.5 million pieces and it is estimated that in the years 2010-2020 about 26.3 million pieces will be generated. Current European legislation sets targets on collection and recycling of WEEE in general, but no specific collection target for EoL mobile phone exists. In the year 2010 only about 3-6% of Czech EoL mobile phones were collected for recovery and recycling. If we make similar estimation using an estimated average EU value, then within the next 10 years about 1.3 billion of EoL mobile phones would be available for recycling in the EU. This amount contains about 31 tonnes of gold and 325 tonnes of silver. Since Europe is dependent on import

  19. Urinary excretion of uranium in adult inhabitants of the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malátová, Irena; Bečková, Věra; Kotík, Lukáš

    2016-02-01

    The main aim of this study was to determine and evaluate urinary excretion of uranium in the general public of the Czech Republic. This value should serve as a baseline for distinguishing possible increase in uranium content in population living near legacy sites of mining and processing uranium ores and also to help to distinguish the proportion of the uranium content in urine among uranium miners resulting from inhaled dust. The geometric mean of the uranium concentration in urine of 74 inhabitants of the Czech Republic was 0.091 mBq/L (7.4 ng/L) with the 95% confidence interval 0.071-0.12 mBq/L (5.7-9.6 ng/L) respectively. The geometric mean of the daily excretion was 0.15 mBq/d (12.4 ng/d) with the 95% confidence interval 0.12-0.20 mBq/d (9.5-16.1 ng/d) respectively. Despite the legacy of uranium mines and plants processing uranium ore in the Czech Republic, the levels of uranium in urine and therefore, also human body content of uranium, is similar to other countries, esp. Germany, Slovenia and USA. Significant difference in the daily urinary excretion of uranium was found between individuals using public supply and private water wells as a source of drinking water. Age dependence of daily urinary excretion of uranium was not found. Mean values and their range are comparable to other countries, esp. Germany, Slovenia and USA.

  20. Long-term fluctuations of hailstorms in South Moravia, Czech Republic: synthesis of different data sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chromá, Kateřina; Brázdil, Rudolf; Dolák, Lukáš; Řezníčková, Ladislava; Valášek, Hubert; Zahradníček, Pavel

    2016-04-01

    Hailstorms belong to natural phenomena causing great material damage in present time, similarly as it was in the past. In Moravia (eastern part of the Czech Republic), systematic meteorological observations started generally in the latter half of the 19th century. Therefore, in order to create long-term series of hailstorms, it is necessary to search for other sources of information. Different types of documentary evidence are used in historical climatology, such as annals, chronicles, diaries, private letters, newspapers etc. Besides them, institutional documentary evidence of economic and administrative character (e.g. taxation records) has particular importance. This study aims to create a long-term series of hailstorms in South Moravia using various types of documentary evidence (such as taxation records, family archives, chronicles and newspapers which are the most important) and systematic meteorological observations in the station network. Although available hailstorm data cover the 1541-2014 period, incomplete documentary evidence allows reasonable analysis of fluctuations in hailstorm frequency only since the 1770s. The series compiled from documentary data and systematic meteorological observations is used to identify periods of lower and higher hailstorm frequency. Existing data may be used also for the study of spatial hailstorm variability. Basic uncertainties of compiled hailstorm series are discussed. Despite some bias in hailstorm data, South-Moravian hailstorm series significantly extends our knowledge about this phenomenon in the south-eastern part of the Czech Republic. The study is a part of the research project "Hydrometeorological extremes in Southern Moravia derived from documentary evidence" supported by the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic, reg. no. 13-19831S.

  1. Cloven-hoofed animals spatial activity evaluation methods in Doupov Mountains in the Czech Republic

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    J. Jarolímek, J. Masner, M. Ulman, S. Dvořák

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The focus of the project „Collection and interpretation of positional data“ is placed on the use of positional data (or the information about a moving object in the scientific research and educational activities in various fields such as environmental science, logistics, spatial data infrastructure, information management, and others. The objective of this effort is to create an universal model for collection and presentation of moving objects data retrieved through GPS (Global Positioning System, and to verify the model in practice.Several different approaches to process and visualize data about sika deer (Cervus nippon spatial movements in Doupov Mountains are described in the paper. The data base is represented with large data files created through the cooperation of the Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences at the Czech University of Life Sciences in Prague and the Military Forests and Estates of the Czech Republic, a state-owned enterprise.Pieces of knowledge introduced in this paper resulted from solution of an institutional research intention. Internal grant agency of the Faculty of Economics and Management, Czech University of Life Sciences in Prague, grant no. 20121043, „Sběr a interpretace pozičních dat“.The results of the cloven-hoofed animals spatial activity evaluation methods will be available for Research Program titled “Economy of the Czech Agriculture Resources and Their Efficient Use within the Framework of the Multifunctional Agri-food Systems” of the Czech Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports number VZ MSM 6046070906.

  2. Determinants of health among homeless population in the Czech Republic--an empirical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, Ludwig O; Hava, Petr

    2009-12-01

    It is generally recognized, that the delivery of healthcare to homeless population presents a number of specific challenges. In this paper, we try to assess the impact of the homeless people experience with the institutional framework including the access to health services on the health status of the homeless population in the Czech Republic. Multivariate regression is used to evaluate the impact of various dimensions of life experience and other social and economic characteristics of homeless people on their health status. Preliminary results indicate that the experience homeless people have with the institutional framework and their access to health care services are important determinants of their health status.

  3. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Czech Republic 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Czech Republic for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  4. Recent distribution of Sphaerium nucleus (Studer, 1820 (Bivalvia: Sphaeriidae in the Czech Republic

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    Tereza Kořínková

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent data about the distribution of Sphaerium nucleus in the Czech Republic are summarized and used in an attempt to evaluate its conservation status. During the last ten years, this species was found at 40 sites, mostly shallow small water bodies situated in lowland river alluviums. These types of habitats are generally endangered due to the huge human impact and exploration of these areas. The revision of voucher specimens of Sphaerium corneum s.lat. deposited in museum collections yielded a further 22 old records of S. nucleus.

  5. Logistic controlling as a possible way to prosperity in the Czech Republic

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    Liběna Kantnerová

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows problems in the logistics and logistic controlling in the conditions of small and medium-sized enterprises in the Czech Republic. It includes results of the first phase of research within this area made in 2008 – 2009. The set includes answers of 104 enterprises in total of 132 possible answers (in a questionnaire research. We can find the main trends in relationships among the answers, i.e.size of enterprises and the function of the controlling department.

  6. Selected aspects of worksite health promotion (WHP in the Czech republic

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    Radim Šlachta

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organisation (WHO and other internationally active Worksite Health Promotion (WHP organizations co-ordinately aim to implement a healthy lifestyle by health programmes. They also specify general principles to prevent the mass occurrence of non-infectious diseases in the world. Recommended programs are in developed countries usually implemented by administrative institutions and authorities and their results are evaluated. This paper aims to evaluate the implementation of recommended programmes in the Czech Republic by specific aspects - cultural, legislative, medical, economic etc. The paper is an introductory study in a complex and comprehensive interdisciplinary field of human health in the context of workplace and sustainable social development.

  7. [Deceased organ donors, legal regulations governing diagnosis of brain death, overview of donors and liver transplants in the Czech Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorná, E

    2013-08-01

    The key restriction of transplantation medicine globally, as well as in the Czech Republic, concerns the lack of organs. The number of deceased donors, and thus the availability of organ transplants, has been stagnating in our country. The paper describes current legal regulations governing the dia-gnosis of brain death and primary legal and medical criteria for the contraindication of the deceased for organ explantation, gives an overview of the number of liver transplants, age structure, and diagnosis resulting in brain death of the deceased liver donors in the Czech Republic.

  8. Total Petroleum Systems of the North Carpathian Province of Poland, Ukraine, Czech Republic, and Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlewicz, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Three total petroleum systems were identified in the North Carpathian Province (4047) that includes parts of Poland, Ukraine, Austria, and the Czech Republic. They are the Isotopically Light Gas Total Petroleum System, the Mesozoic-Paleogene Composite Total Petroleum System, and the Paleozoic Composite Total Petroleum System. The Foreland Basin Assessment Unit of the Isotopically Light Gas Total Petroleum System is wholly contained within the shallow sedimentary rocks of Neogene molasse in the Carpathian foredeep. The biogenic gas is generated locally as the result of bacterial activity on dispersed organic matter. Migration is also believed to be local, and gas is believed to be trapped in shallow stratigraphic traps. The Mesozoic-Paleogene Composite Total Petroleum System, which includes the Deformed Belt Assessment Unit, is structurally complex, and source rocks, reservoirs, and seals are juxtaposed in such a way that a single stratigraphic section is insufficient to describe the geology. The Menilite Shale, an organic-rich rock widespread throughout the Carpathian region, is the main hydrocarbon source rock. Other Jurassic to Cretaceous formations also contribute to oil and gas in the overthrust zone in Poland and Ukraine but in smaller amounts, because those formations are more localized than the Menilite Shale. The Paleozoic Composite Total Petroleum System is defined on the basis of the suspected source rock for two oil or gas fields in western Poland. The Paleozoic Reservoirs Assessment Unit encompasses Devonian organic-rich shale believed to be a source of deep gas within the total petroleum system. East of this field is a Paleozoic oil accumulation whose source is uncertain; however, it possesses geochemical similarities to oil generated by Upper Carboniferous coals. The undiscovered resources in the North Carpathian Province are, at the mean, 4.61 trillion cubic feet of gas and 359 million barrels of oil. Many favorable parts of the province have been

  9. Experiences with Railway Regulation in Great Britain and the Czech Republic – Round Table Report1

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    Nash Chris

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the Round Table was to compare British and Czech experiences with railway regulation and competition introduction and to determine which lessons can be learnt. Special attention was paid to the question of whether the very complex British reform can be an inspiration for further liberalisation of the railway sector in the Czech Republic or whether there are any reform mistakes that are best avoided. Based on two introductory presentations and subsequent plenary discussion, some consensus emerged. The participants agreed that there is no one-size-fits-all solution to railway regulation and that the introduction of competition should take into account the different circumstances of a particular country. Franchising in passenger operations in Britain successfully stimulated demand but also increased costs to the industry, so its implementation should be completed with care. It seems very unlikely that open-access competition would be a viable solution for the whole passenger rail market because it is limited to a few commercially attractive routes, and as Czech experience suggests, it creates many new problems. Finally, it was confirmed that a strong and dedicated regulator is needed in a newly liberalised environment in order to solve many emerging conflicts and disputes.

  10. The current economic situation in China and its impact on the Czech Republic

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    Hana Stverkova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, many companies try to enter to the international sector and to extend here their activity. Their international cooperation is an integral part of the action; it is necessary to know the cultural differences. Therefore it is important to understand the social development including the Social Progress Index and the secondary analysis of an economic situation in China; and its subsequent impact on the economy not only in the Czech Republic based on evaluation of Czech-Chinese business relations. China was in the last five years the male rotor of the world economic growth and became a significant importer of commodities. Last year, the Chinese economic growth rate slowed down, which could have negative consequences on other economies. This is also the possible reason for some Czech companies leaving the Chinese market; they transfer their production parts back to Europe or India. A presumption of high living standard, which all countries of the world and their inhabitants want to achieve, is according to the current paradigm of economic science the economic growth. The economy does not take pace in a vertical line, but at the horizontal level as the meaning of sharing in the net among the individuals. And the cooperation does not take place in the horizontal line but in the vertical line, which essentially changes the way of people's working.

  11. Tornadoes within the Czech Republic: from early medieval chronicles to the "internet society"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setvák, Martin; Šálek, Milan; Munzar, Jan

    This paper addresses the historical documentation of tornadoes and the awareness of tornadic events in the area of the present Czech Republic throughout the last nine centuries. The oldest records of tornado occurrence in the region can be found in chronicles from the first half of the 12th century—the two most interesting of these are presented here in translation from the original Latin texts. Several other cases of possible tornadoes and waterspouts can be found in chronicles from the 12th and 13th centuries. However, from the descriptions of the events, it is not always clear if the phenomenon was a tornado, waterspout, dust swirl, or if it was of a non-tornadic nature. From the 14th to 19th centuries, tornado records are rather scarce for the region. However, this is likely to have a non-meteorological explanation. Gregor Mendel's (1871) essay " Die Windhose vom 13. October 1870" can be considered as a distinctive "breakpoint" in the documentation history of tornadoes in the territory of the present Czech Republic, followed later by the work of Edler von Wahlburg [Das Wetter 28 (1911) 135] and Wegener [Wind-und-Wasserhosen in Europa. F. Vieweg & Sohn, Braunschweig, 1917]. During the "socialist" period, the term " tornado" was seldom used and they were poorly understood, producing a view that "tornadoes do not occur in Central Europe". The situation began to change with the works of Munzar [Tromby (tonáda) na územı´ Èeské republiky v letech 1119-1993. Zbornı´k Dejin Fyziky, vol. XI. Voj. Akadémia SNP, Liptovský Mikuláš, pp. 69-72, 1993 (in Czech)] and Šálek [Meteorol. Zpr. 47 (1994) 172], and new records showed that about one tornado per year occurred between 1994 and 1999. Finally, between 2000 and 2002, the number of documented tornadoes in the Czech Republic was five to eight cases per year.

  12. Remediation of uranium in-situ leaching area at Straz Pod Ralskem, Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vokal, Vojtech; Muzak, Jiri; Ekert, Vladimir [DIAMO, s. e., TUU, Pod Vinici 84, Straz pod Ralskem, 471 27 (Czech Republic)

    2013-07-01

    A large-scale development in exploration and production of uranium ores in the Czech Republic was done in the 2nd half of the 20. century. Many uranium deposits were discovered in the territory of the Czech Republic. One of the most considerable deposits in the Czech Republic is the site Hamr na Jezere - Straz pod Ralskem where both mining methods - the underground mining and the acidic in-situ leaching - were used. The extensive production of uranium led to widespread environmental impacts and contamination of ground waters. Over the period of 'chemical' leaching of uranium (ca. 32 years), a total of more than 4 million tons of sulphuric acid and other chemicals have been injected into the ground. Most of the products (approx. 99.5 %) of the acids reactions with the rocks are located in the Cenomanian aquifer. The contamination of Cenomanian aquifer covers the area larger then 27 km{sup 2}. The influenced volume of groundwater is more than 380 million m{sup 3}. The total amount of dissolved SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} is about 3.6 million tons. After 1990 a large-scale environmental program was established and the Czech government decided to liquidate the ISL Mine and start the remediation in 1996. The remediation consists of contaminated groundwater pumping, removing of the contaminants and discharging or reinjection of treated water. Nowadays four main remedial technological installations with sufficient capacity for reaching of the target values of remedial parameters in 2037 are used - the 'Station for Acid Solutions Liquidation No. One', the 'Mother liquor reprocessing' station, the 'Neutralization and Decontamination Station NDS 6' and the 'Neutralization and Decontamination Station NDS 10'. It is expected that the amount of withdrawn contaminants will vary from 80 000 to 120 000 tons per year. Total costs of all remediation activities are expected to be in excess of 2 billion EUR. (authors)

  13. THE ROLE OF PUBLIC DISCOURSE IN THREAT FRAMING: THE CASE OF ISLAMOPHOBIA IN CZECH REPUBLIC

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    Donatella BONANSINGA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Perception and interpretation of risks do not always come from a direct experience but are filtered by the mass media and political discourse. The message they spread and the interpretations of reality they suggest have a profound impact on the (misperceptions developed by citizens. Currently all over the European Union the Islamic threat, as linked to terrorism, is conceived and perceived as a fundamental threat to security. But is there a real threat? By means of a discursive analysis, this paper aims at exploring the dynamics of threat construction as related to the framing of Islam as an issue of security concern, by focusing on the role of public discourse and by providing some insights from Czech Republic (CZ. Czech Republic is an interesting case to study misperceptions, insecurity complexes and the manipulation of public discourse, as the percentage of Muslim population in the country is tantamount to zero but Islamophobic feelings are gathering momentum and rising consistently. The fundamental question driving the research aims at explaining why a country with a numerically negligible Muslim minority is experiencing growing public hostility, manifested through the raising mobilization of citizens against Islam. The hypothesis suggests that the exposure of public opinion to specific media representations and political rhetoric may induce misperception and the development of Islamophobic sentiments. The paper will firstly go through an overview of the literature on the topic; it will then analyze the general trends in Islamophobic discourse in CZ, through the lens of the securitization theory.

  14. Spatial Patterns of Heat-Related Cardiovascular Mortality in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Aleš; Burkart, Katrin; Kyselý, Jan; Schuster, Christian; Plavcová, Eva; Hanzlíková, Hana; Štěpánek, Petr; Lakes, Tobia

    2016-03-04

    The study examines spatial patterns of effects of high temperature extremes on cardiovascular mortality in the Czech Republic at a district level during 1994-2009. Daily baseline mortality for each district was determined using a single location-stratified generalized additive model. Mean relative deviations of mortality from the baseline were calculated on days exceeding the 90th percentile of mean daily temperature in summer, and they were correlated with selected demographic, socioeconomic, and physical-environmental variables for the districts. Groups of districts with similar characteristics were identified according to socioeconomic status and urbanization level in order to provide a more general picture than possible on the district level. We evaluated lagged patterns of excess mortality after hot spell occurrences in: (i) urban areas vs. predominantly rural areas; and (ii) regions with different overall socioeconomic level. Our findings suggest that climatic conditions, altitude, and urbanization generally affect the spatial distribution of districts with the highest excess cardiovascular mortality, while socioeconomic status did not show a significant effect in the analysis across the Czech Republic as a whole. Only within deprived populations, socioeconomic status played a relevant role as well. After taking into account lagged effects of temperature on excess mortality, we found that the effect of hot spells was significant in highly urbanized regions, while most excess deaths in rural districts may be attributed to harvesting effects.

  15. Aspects of Private Labels Development in the Segment of Organic Food in Czech Republic

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    Olga Kutnohorska

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with various aspects of the private labels building. It primarily focuses on organic food market in the Czech Republic, but on this market it illustrates the general trends, both in brand building, as well as in the importance of a brand in purchasing decisions. Organic food market is specific as there is high importance of product attributes, which are based on customer's confidence. Many of the important criteria for the decision to purchase (the way of cultivation and processing of food, freshness, taste, etc. are not possible to be objectively assessed before buying. A brand name plays a large role in the confidence based attributes. Consumers perceive it as a certain guarantee of the expected quality. In the field of organic food there are still not strong brands but there is the space and the need to differentiate organic from conventional foods, in particular. A suitable option could be the retail chain private labels, which are already partially developed as far as for consumers subconscious expectations are concerned. The final part of the article provides an overview of the current offer of organic food private labels in the Czech Republic.

  16. The Eastern Enlargement of the European Union: Public Discourses in the Czech and Slovak Republics

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    Tereza Novotna

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the so-called Eastern enlargement of the European Union from the point of view of the Czech and Slovak Republics. Although they joined the EU at the same time, the experience of both states is diverse. The author argues that the chief obstacles on the “way back to Europe” were not so much the implementation of the acquis, but internal political weakness and unsatisfactory public discourse on the merits of joining the the EU. Slovakia, with its incorporation into the second wave of candidate countries due to its unacceptable political situation during Meciar’s government, is used as the best exemplar of the political weakness. The Czech Republic illustrates, with its initial sense of exceptionalism that turned into nationalistic-populist rhetoric of political parties’ leaders and eventually mounted into relatively low level of “yes-votes” in the closing referendum, represents the poor public discourse. Methodologically, the author analyses discursive interactions and institutional capacity using an actor-centered approach.

  17. The System of Support for Projects Co-Financed By EU Funds in the Czech Republic

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    Jana KOSTALOVA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the system of support for projects co-f nanced through European Union funds (structural funds and the Cohesion Fund which were applied in the Czech Republic during the programming period 2007-2013, both from the point of view of the process of applying for such support and from the point of view of proj-ect implementation. The authors aimed to ana-lyze and evaluate the system from the point of view of the project organizers, identify the prob-lem areas in this system, and propose measures to improve it, which could be usable for speci-f cation of the conditions for the programming period 2014-2020. The paper f rst characterizes the system of support for projects co-f nanced by EU funds applied in the Czech Republic during the programming period 2007-2013. Next, it dis-cusses the outcomes of a questionnaire survey focused on the evaluation of project organizers’ satisfaction with the selected areas of applying for support and project implementation, and on the proposal of possible measures to improve both the system of making an application and project implementation. Finally, the paper spec-if es the measures to be taken to eliminate the problem areas in the system of support for proj-ects co-f nanced by EU funds.

  18. The macroeconomic analysis of public goods and their influence in the region of Czech Republic

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    Richard POSPÍŠIL

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the region of Czech Republic, the provision of public goods is one of the State’s most important activities with society-wide impacts. Therefore, the debate on the structure and scope of public budgets is legitimate and ongoing on a society-wide scale. Mainstream fiscal theory considers public goods to be one of the failures of market equilibrium, classifying them as being close to positive externalities. In this case, the activity of the State brings benefits to other entities that are not involved in this activity and do not even directly pay for it. The main characteristics of these goods include irreducibility of their amount in society, non-excludability and non-rivalry. There are a number of goods between purely private and purely public goods which, to varying extents, exhibit both elements. Today, the majority of goods provided by the public sector are of such a nature; as a result, the form of allocation and the subsequent redistribution of resources are crucial when analysing public goods. The present paper analyses public goods in the Czech Republic from an economic and legal perspective using Cost-Benefit Analysis, including their efficiency and society-wide benefits.

  19. RPAS ACCURACY TESTING FOR USING IT IN THE CADASTRE OF REAL ESTATES OF THE CZECH REPUBLIC

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    E. Housarová

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, interest in the collection of data using remotely piloted aircraft systems (RPAS has sharply risen. RPAS technology has a very wide area of use; one of its main advantages is its accuracy, timeliness of data, frequency of collecting data and low operating costs. RPAS can be used for the mapping of small, dangerous and inaccessible areas in contrast with ordinary aerial photogrammetry. In the cadastre of real estates of the Czech Republic, it is possible to map out areas by using aerial photogrammetry, so it has been done in the past. However, this is a relatively expensive and complex technology, and therefore we are looking for new alternatives. An alternative would be to use RPAS technology for data acquisition. The testing of the possibility of using RPAS for the cadastre of real estates of the Czech Republic is the subject of this paper. When evaluating results we compared point coordinates measured by geodetic method, GNSS technology and RPAS technology.

  20. The physical protection of nuclear material and nuclear facilities in the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedlacek, J.; Bartak, L. [State Office for Nuclear Safety, Senovazne nam. 9, 110 00 Prague 1 (Czech Republic)

    2003-07-01

    The paper describes comprehensively past and present of physical protection of nuclear facilities and materials in the Czech Republic, particularly: the changes made in ensuring and legislation of physical protection following the political changes in 1989; the basic concept and regulation in physical protection and the effort made to strengthen the national regulatory programmes, as well as a brief survey of the nuclear facilities in the Czech Republic; experience in design, operation, inspection and licensing of the integrated physical protection system for nuclear power plants with WWER-440 and WWER-1000 reactors; the role of the police as a response force and the role of the new private security companies; the upgrading of the physical protection systems at the different types of the nuclear installations to fulfill the more strict requirements of the new Atomic Law No. 18/1997 Coll. and Regulation No. 144/1997 Coll., on physical protection of nuclear materials and nuclear facilities; the follow up actions in connection with IAEA IPPAS missions carried out in 1998 and 2002 are given.

  1. Are Men More Innovative and Aggressive in Business? Case Study from the Czech Republic

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    Bartoš Přemysl

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available SMEs make a major contribution to the growth and employment in the EU. In today’s fierce competition in the market economic activities the SMEs had gradually developed into a major force for national economic and social development in every country of world. The aim of this article is to examine the approach to innovativeness and competitive aggressiveness between males and females in the segment of small and medium-sized enterprises. Based on the results of the questionnaire which was conducted in May 2015 in the Czech Republic we tried to test four hypotheses on the relationship between the gender of entrepreneurs of SMEs and their attitude to innovativeness and competitive aggressiveness. The results of our research have pointed out some differences between genders. Men-entrepreneurs who do business in the segment of SMEs in the Czech Republic are slightly more innovative and are significantly more aggressive in regard to competitors than women, as they apply aggressive approach and their companies are perceived as aggressive.

  2. Monitoring radionuclides in the atmosphere over the Czech Republic after the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulík, Petr; Hýža, Miroslav; Bečková, Věra; Borecký, Zdeněk; Havránek, Jiří; Hölgye, Zoltán; Lušňák, Jan; Malá, Helena; Matzner, Jan; Pilátová, Helena; Rada, Jiří; Schlesingerová, Eva; Šindelková, Eva; Dragounová, Lenka; Vlček, Jaroslav

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents the results of atmospheric radioactivity monitoring over the Czech Republic, as obtained by the Radiation Monitoring Network, following the Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Maximum values for (131)I were 5.6 mBq m(-3) in aerosol form and 13 mBq m(-3) in gaseous form. The maximum values for (134)Cs and (137)Cs were 0.64 and 0.72 mBq m(-3), respectively. The estimated effective half-time for removing the activity from the atmosphere was 6-7 d and 3.5 d for caesium and iodine, respectively. The gaseous-to-total activity ratios of (131)I ranged between 0.3 and 0.9, with an arithmetic mean value of 0.77. The mean value for the (134)Cs/(137)Cs ratios was close to 1.0. The effective inhalation dose due to the accident for an adult living in the Czech Republic was estimated at <4 × 10(-5) mSv, out of which the proportion of (131)I was 88%.

  3. The Turn into Dangerous Meat: Case Study of Horsemeat Food Fraud in the Czech Republic

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    Eva Kotašková

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyze context and strategies to decrease the alternative use of safe food product that does not fit into the market system. This process is revealed in a case study of a horsemeat food fraud in the Czech Republic that took place in 2013. Unlike many other European countries, in the Czech Republic food products containing undeclared horsemeat were not given to charities or used as a source of fuel but were classified as dangerous and thus turned to a category of non-edible food. How can we understand this way of processing and what can this case say about attitudes towards classification of food? Following a story of products containing undeclared horsemeat, a network of context and strategies that are relevant in this case is developed. The analysis is inspired by Science and Technology Studies, mainly the study of classification and standards. The horsemeat case shows that categories of waste and food are consequences of depoliticization of politics, market regulation, technologies, and understanding of objects. Together with various strategies of decreasing the possibilities to negotiate leads to preservation of prevailing standards and classifications.

  4. Monitoring Bridge Deformation in the Czech Republic with Sentinel-1 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlavacova, Ivana; Kolomaznik, Jan; Lazecky, Milan

    2016-08-01

    In the Czech republic, as well as in other areas, the bridges are of various age and various condition. It seems that more problems can be found on recently- built bridges, but this is due to the fact that the old ones are usually not monitored in such a detail or not at all. The aim of monitoring bridges is to find possible deformations before the deformations get large/significant to endanger the people and/or traffic. However, there are more deformation causes of the bridges, and most of them are reversible, such as thermal dilation, bending with load etc. The problem is to recognize these components from the irreversible deformations, and one needs a large dataset, covering at least 18 month data (to separate the thermal dilation component from the linear deformation component). The direction of the irreversible movements can be arbitrary, and due to the easily accessible Sentinel-1 data, we try to monitor the bridge from various directions.For improving the accuracy we plan to make experiment with corner reflectors to enhance the intensity, and therefore to lower the standard deviation of the movement, however this experiment will be evaluated in future.Our project monitors few bridges in the Czech republic, of various length and age.

  5. Aviation Demand and Economic Growth in the Czech Republic: Cointegration Estimation and Causality Analysis

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    Bilal Mehmood

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the paper is to empirically examine the aviation-led growth hypothesis for the Czech Republic by testing causality between aviation and economic growth. We resort to econometric tests such as unit root tests and test of cointegration purposed by Johansen (1988. Fully Modified OLS, Dynamic OLS and Conical Cointegration Regression are used to estimate the cointegration equation for time span of 42 years from 1970 to 2012. Empirical results reveal the existence of cointegration between aviation demand and economic growth. Graphic methods such as Cholesky impulse response function (both accumulated and non-accumulated and variance decomposition have also been applied to render the analysis rigorous. The positive contribution of aviation demand to economic growth is similar in all three estimation techniques of cointegration equation. Finally, Granger causality test is also applied to find the direction of causal relationship. Findings help in lime-lighting the importance of aviation industry in economic growth for a developing country like the Czech Republic.

  6. Family archives as a source of information about past hydrometeorological extremes in Southern Moravia (Czech Republic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chromá, Kateřina

    2014-05-01

    Meteorological and hydrological extremes (hydrometeorological extremes - HMEs) cause great material damage or even loss of human lives in the present time, as well as it was in the past. For the study of their temporal and spatial variability in periods with only natural forcing factors in comparison with those combining also anthropogenic effects it is essential to have the longest possible series of HMEs. In the Czech Lands (recently the Czech Republic), systematic meteorological and hydrological observations started generally in the latter half of the 19th century. Therefore, in order to create long-term series of such extremes, it is necessary to search for other sources of information. There exist different types of documentary evidence used in historical climatology and hydrology, represented by various sources such as annals, chronicles, diaries, private letters, newspapers etc. Besides them, institutional documentary evidence (of economic and administrative character) has particular importance (e.g. taxation records). Documents in family archives represent further promising source of data related to HMEs. The documents kept by the most important lord families in Moravia (e.g. Liechtensteins, Dietrichsteins) are located in Moravian Land Archives in Brno. Besides data about family members, industrial and agricultural business, military questions, travelling and social events, they contain direct or indirect information about HMEs. It concerns descriptions of catastrophic phenomena on the particular demesne (mainly with respect to damage) as well as correspondence related to tax reductions (i.e. they can overlap with taxation records of particular estates). This contribution shows the potential of family archives as a source of information about HMEs, up to now only rarely used, which may extend our knowledge about them. Several examples of such documents are presented. The study is a part of the research project "Hydrometeorological extremes in Southern

  7. Security of the Population in the Czech Republic from the Aaspect of Crime and Penitentiary System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Kamenický

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Th e empirical study concerning wide area of security of the Czech population deals with both its aspects –crime and prison population. First, we have the picture of macro-economic view on the issues through theinternational comparison of government expenditures on individual areas of public order and security. Morecomprehensive part of the paper maps out the development of registered and cleared-up crime in the CzechRepublic by main types, it pays attention to selected groups of perpetrators (children, juveniles, criminal repeatersand also its signifi cant regional dimensions, including attempts to explain it. Overwhelming quantitativeview on crime is extended also by subjective evaluation of security of population near their residence.Signifi cance of qualitative view increases mainly in attempt to make international comparison where traditional“hard“ data on crime hit diff erent legal environment also in geographically close countries within theEU. Social pathology and criminal legislation infl uence also the composition of prison population which isassessed from the aspect of sex, age, citizenship, education, the level of imposed sentence and criminal history.Increasing number of prisoners has recently negatively infl uenced the occupancy rate of prisons, which raisesquestions concerning sustainability of fi nancing of penitentiary system especially in the period of total economicdepression. Presidential amnesty in January 2013 released more than a quarter of all prisoners whichresulted in one-shot signifi cant decrease in occupancy rate. Th is event modifi ed also the structure of prisonpopulation. Th e position of the Czech Republic within EU improved signifi cantly in terms of occupancy rate,but still remained unfavourable as regards total rate of imprisonment of population.

  8. Comparison of Urban and Suburban Rail Transport in Germany and in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seidenglanz Daniel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Rail transport is an environmentally friendly form of passenger transport which can be utilized effectively also in urban and suburban transport systems. The paper describes the urban and suburban rail transport system including comparison of selected Czech (Prague, Brno and Ostrava and German metropolitan regions (Munich, Nuremberg and Dresden. Its aim is to analyze the importance of various factors influencing the differences between the situation in Germany and in the Czech Republic. Therefore, the research question is whether these differences are primarily caused by a different liberalization stage, or whether they are a result of other factors such as available infrastructure, investment level, rail transport services budget, structure and activity of ordering bodies and coordinators or geographical context. The supply of city and suburban rail transport is quite good in Germany and in the Czech Republic, although trains in Munich, Nuremberg and Dresden run more frequently, faster and are better interconnected with car transport. German rail transport sector is at a higher stage of liberalization, and tendering procedures are the preferred selection method for contractor carriers. However, a degree of liberalization of the railway sector is not the key marker indicating a better standard of urban and suburban rail transport in Germany because it is the high standard which is achieved as the consequence of the professional activity of the ordering bodies and train service coordinators in combination with geographical conditions, available financial sources and effective transport infrastructure. On the other hand, the importance of liberalization cannot be totally overlooked as tenders are a tool for the ordering bodies to strongly affect the price and quality of transport services in their area. The supply of better quality and attractive transport to passengers could increase the usage of rail transport in metropolitan regions and could

  9. Electricity industry development trends and the environmental programs in the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karas, P. [CEZ, Prague (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    The process of industrialization in the Czech Republic, which is more intensive than in other parts of central Europe, has been under way since the mid-nineteenth century. Over the last 40 years, large-scale industrial activity was based on extensive use of domestic primary energy sources, especially brown-coal/lignite. The escalation of this usage inflicted heavy devastation to large portions of industrial zones and, as a result, worsened living conditions through atmospheric pollution and other environmental impacts in large regions of central Europe. The Czech electricity industry and CEZ, a.s. (the nation`s principal electricity generator, responsible for meeting eighty percent of national electricity demand, and operator of the nationwide EHV transmission system) has been challenged to cope with all environmental issues by the end of 1997, in compliance with the strict limits set by the Clean Air Act of 1991, which are comparable to standard implemented in advanced industrial countries. A review of the critical environmental issues is presented and the role of the individual and of the State is analyzed. The approach of CEZ, a.s., towards a better natural environment and its response to legal environment provisions have been incorporated into the company`s development program. It comprises decommissioning the most obsolete fossil-fuel fired power stations; rehabilitation of thermal power plants; supplementing the coal/lignite-fired units selected for future operation with FGD systems and retrofitting them with DENOX equipment; a larger share of nuclear electricity generation after the completion of the Temelin NPP (2 units of 1000MW each) and, last but not least, initiating DSM (demand-side management) programs of energy-electricity savings in the Czech Republic.

  10. Global journalism in the Czech Republic : A mixed-methods study of awareness and presence of global journalism in Czech mediascape

    OpenAIRE

    Zvolánková, Eliška

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explain the concept of global journalism and to describe its presence in the Czech Republic. The development of journalism in the last years, which is connected to globalisation and digitalisation of media, and various global journalism theo-ries are introduced first to give the theoretical background. Then Peter Berglez's theory of global journalism is accepted as the main one for this work and it is described into greater details, including strong and weak points...

  11. Czech Delegation visiting the LHC magnet string test

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1998-01-01

    List of participants: Czech Technical University, Prague; Charles University, Prague; Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic; Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic and Association of Innovation Enterprising, Czech Republic

  12. Material Consumption in the Czech Republic: Focus on Foreign Trade and Raw Material Equivalents of Imports and Exports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kovanda

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a comparison of indicators based on an economy-wide material flow analysis, namely imports, exports, domestic material consumption, raw material equivalents of imports, raw material equivalents of exports and raw material consumption. These indicators were calculated for the Czech Republic for 1995-2010 using, besides economy-wide material flow analysis, the hybrid input-output life cycle assessment method, which allows for a calculation of raw material equivalents of imports and exports. The results showed that calculation of indicators including raw material equivalents is useful, as they provided some important information which was not obvious from imports, exports and domestic material consumption. This includes the facts that the latter indicators tended to underestimate environmental pressure related to consumption of materials, high dependency of the Czech production system on metal ores from abroad and quite unequal and unfair distribution of environmental pressures between the Czech Republic and its trading partners.

  13. Migratory Trends in the Czech Republic: “Divergence or Convergence” vis-a-vis the Developed World?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Drbohlav

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is to analyse whether the geopolitical and socio-economic integration and “harmonisation” of the Czech Republic with Western Europe is accompanied by a divergence or convergence of the Czech migratory reality vis-a-vis the developed western world. When testing resemblance two kinds of measurements are used: 1 quantitative – (in terms of the numbers of international migrants, and 2 “qualitative” – a in terms of regularities linked with the migration itself and those that tackle mutual relationships among immigration, the socio-economic development of the destination country and subjective attitudes of the majority population towards minority groups: 3 hypotheses are tested in this regard; b in terms of migratory policies and practices. The results clearly show us that convergence rather than divergence is characteristic of the current migratory trends in the Czech Republic as compared to the developed world, mainly Western Europe.

  14. The Right to Be Included: Homeschoolers Combat the Structural Discrimination Embodied in Their Lawful Protection in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kašparová, Irena

    2015-01-01

    There is a 240-year tradition of compulsory school attendance in the Czech Republic. To many, compulsory school attendance is synonymous with the right to be educated. After the collapse of communism in 1989, along with the democratization of the government, the education system was slowly opened to alternatives, including the right to educate…

  15. Humboldt Goes to the Labour Market: How Academic Higher Education Fuels Labour Market Success in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabian, Petr; Sima, Karel; Kyncilova, Lucie

    2011-01-01

    The Czech Republic is one of the post-communist countries where the transformation from late industrial to knowledge economies and knowledge societies was complicated by the simultaneous transformations from communist centrally planned economies to democratic regimes and market economies. Furthermore, the transformation of higher education itself…

  16. European Standards for Quality Assurance and Institutional Practices of Student Assessment in the UK, the Netherlands and the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohoutek, Jan

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the student assessment procedures of 12 universities in the UK, the Netherlands and the Czech Republic with respect to their alignment with the European standards and guidelines on the quality of assessing higher education students (European Standards and Guidelines for Quality Assurance [ESG] 1.3). Based on qualitative…

  17. Fall of the iron curtain: male life expectancy in Slovakia, in the Czech Republic and in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginter, Emil; Simko, Vladimir; Wsolova, Ladislava

    2009-12-01

    Year 1989, the fall of communism, represents a dramatic watershed. Changes and reforms reflected also upon the quality of health care and the health of populations living on eastern side of the divide. Until then, Eastern Europe had free socialized medicine, albeit troubled by lack of up-to-date medications and absence of modern diagnostic equipment. Noting the admirable progress in health in some regions of the former Soviet empire during its transformation provides invaluable sociological lesson. Furthermore, focusing on health trends in two Central European countries, the Czech republic (CZ) and Slovakia (SK), brings about another quality to such evaluation. Dramatic improvement in the life expectancy (LE) is represented mainly in the decrease of cardiovascular mortality, more in the Czech Republic than in Slovakia. Favorable trend of male LE in the Czech Republic exceeded several established West European countries, while in Russia, Belarus and Ukraine the life expectancy actually deteriorated. When life expectancy in Slovakia is compared with the Czech Republic, its poorer outcome results from a higher cardiovascular mortality, as well as from liver, digestive and respiratory disorders. Root causes of this difference are possibly in a marked difference in funding of health care between SK and CZ, higher consumption of alcohol and cigarettes, as well as in a sizeable disadvantaged Roma minority in Slovakia.

  18. An approach to the implementation of European Directive 2007/60/EC on flood risk management in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dráb

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Directive 2007/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2007 on the assessment and management of flood risks (the Flood Risk Directive signifies that flood risk analysis methods are gaining ground in EC Member States and, therefore, also in the Czech Republic (CR. Procedures of flood risk analysis have been developed in the Czech Republic since the catastrophic floods of 1997 in line with European and worldwide trends and have been tested and applied in hundreds of case studies to date. Currently, the Flood Risk Directive Guideline based on past experience with flood risk analysis applications is being processed.

    The aim of the paper is to present flood risk analysis procedures and specially developed techniques for the assembly of flood hazard, danger and flood risk maps. Methods related to flood risk management plans are briefly mentioned as well. The following particular problems are discussed in more detail: an application and extension of the "danger matrix" approach, the definition of residual danger, the formulation of efficiency criteria and preliminary multi-criteria flood risk assessment. These issues were tested in practical applications at pilot locations in the Czech Republic. Present experience provides evidence that the flood risk analysis methods used in the Czech Republic are in harmony with the requirements of the Flood Risk Directive. The proposed and applied methods are based primarily on existing available data such as flood extent maps, cadastral maps, the Register of Census Districts and Structures and others.

  19. [On teaching the chemistry of pharmaceutical auxiliary substances within the framework of pharmaceutical education in the Czech and Slovak Republics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Subert

    2011-02-01

    The paper emphasizes the need of the introduction of the subject Chemistry of Pharmaceutical Auxiliaries into the Pharmacy study programme at more colleges in the Czech and Slovak Republics. It also introduces and discusses some topics for possible extension of the content of the courses of the subject (the presented examples are taken form the field of analytical chemistry of pharmaceutical auxiliaries).

  20. Common Legacy, Different Paths: The Transformation of Educational Systems in the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary and Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Mikolaj; Wojciuk, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this work is to better understand the institutional changes in the educational systems of the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia. We demonstrate that the educational reforms implemented during the transformation introduced very different institutional arrangements in the four countries, despite the fact that their systems…

  1. Do they Compete Differently? Strategies of MNEs and Domestic Companies in the Environment of the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylva Žáková Talpová

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: The Czech Republic is still considered an emerging economy and MNEs are important players in most of its markets. Hence, knowledge of their strategies is essential and valuable not only for companies already present on the Czech market, but also for those who intend to enter the Czech market. Methodology/methods: The analysis has centred on a sample of 155 foreign multinational and 118 Czech companies. Using the empirical data, a logistic regression model was subsequently employed to determine whether the strategies chosen by the firms are related to any of the environmental variables. I employed ANOVA and linear regression model to determine whether certain strategy choices are related to higher company performance for MNEs and DCs. Scientific aim: This study aims to examine the strategy-environment configuration of multinational and domestic companies in the Czech Republic and to ascertain which strategy is the most advantageous. Findings: When the environment is complex, MNEs tend to use prospector strategy to deal with such environment in the Czech Republic. For DCs, it is analyzer strategy. The findings also imply that in an emerging economy, an analyzer strategy for DCs and a prospector strategy for MNEs fit with dynamic and hostile environment, if the aim of these companies is to increase performance. In addition, a prospector strategy is related to higher performance for DCs. Conclusions: The results imply that the adoption of a heterogeneous strategy-environment configuration by MNE and domestic companies in smaller transition economy leads to better performance for both of them. This study offers a different insight into the strategic behaviour of companies and extends the existing knowledge by adding the ownership variable into the strategy-environment relationship. Output of this study can serve as the basis for decision-making in companies already active in the Czech marketplace and, particularly, as

  2. Projected changes in the evolution of drought assessed with the SPEI over the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potop, V.; Boroneana, C.; Stepanek, P.; Skalak, P.; Mozny, M.

    2012-04-01

    In previous studies the spatial and temporal evolution of drought events in the Czech Republic were extensively analyzed by comparing results from the most advanced drought indices (e.g. the SPI and SPEI), which take into account the role of antecedent conditions in quantifying drought severity. In the present study, the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) was adopted to assess and project drought characteristics in the Czech Republic based on the regional climate model ALADIN-Climate/CZ simulated data. The simulations were conducted at high resolution (10km) for the current (1961-2000) and two future climates (2021-2050 and 2071-2100). First, the observed data of air temperature and precipitation totals was transferred into a regular grid of ALADIN-Climate/CZ model. The bias correction was applied on the scenario runs. The bias correction method is based on variable correction using individual percentiles whose relationship is derived from observations and control RCM simulation. The SPEI was calculated based on observed monthly data of mean temperature and precipitation totals for the period 1961-1990, as reference period, and for the periods 2021-2050 and 2071-2100, as future climates under A1B SRES scenario. The SPEI were calculated with various lags, 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months because the drought at these time scales is relevant for agricultural, hydrological and socio-economic impact, respectively. The study refers at the warm season of the year (April to September). As in the case of observational study, we have identified three climatically homogeneous regions, corresponding to the altitudes below 400 m, between 401 and 700 m and, above 700 m. For these three regions the frequency distribution of the SPEI values in 7 classes of drought category (%) were calculated based on grid point data falling in each region, both for the observed data and scenario runs. The paper presents the projected changes in frequency distribution of SPEI at

  3. The economic burden of the care and treatment for people with Alzheimer's disease: the outlook for the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marešová, Petra; Zahálková, Veronika

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to specify the cost of treatment and care for people with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in the Czech Republic and also with a view to the future. Data availability is evaluated as well as the quality of cost comparison with other developed countries. Data for the Czech Republic will include data from the health insurance company regarding medicines and treatment, as well as a selected home caring for people with dementia and, ultimately, the Social Security Administration. The basic methods include an analysis of data from publicly available sources, direct interviews with the representatives of nursing homes caring for people with dementia and the representative of the Social Security Administration of the Czech Republic. Items will be specified within the category of direct costs. For the study, the indirect costs related to the loss of patient as well as caring person productivity are not considered. Costs for treatment and care are based from the data on 4162 patients, the costs of a bed from data on 391 beds in homes for the elderly. The average annual cost per patient with AD in the Czech Republic was calculated and came to the amount of 12,783 EUR. These items include outpatient care, inpatient care in a medical facility, inpatient care in homes and medications. In terms of share of these items on the direct costs, the largest item are services provided by special homes which contributes to the direct costs by 94 %, medications create 1 % and treatment (both outpatient and inpatient) 5 %. In the case of home care the total costs are lower at 4698 EUR. The Czech Republic as well as other developed countries are faced with the problem of unified accounting cost of people suffering from Alzheimer's disease. This then causes the calculation of the economic burden to be very difficult and indicative values.

  4. The abandoned surface mining sites in the Czech Republic: mapping and creating a database with a GIS web application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorný, Richard; Tereza Peterková, Marie

    2016-05-01

    Based on the vectorization of the 55-volume book series the Quarry Inventories of the Czechoslovak Republic/Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, published in the years 1932-1961, a new comprehensive database was built comprising 9958 surface mining sites of raw materials, which were active in the first half of the 20th century. The mapped area covers 40.9 % of the territory of the Czech Republic. For the purposes of visualization, a map application, the Quarry Inventories Online, was created that enables the data visualization.

  5. International outsourcing over the business cycle: some intuition for Germany, the Czech Republic and Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrine LEVASSEUR

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we assess the extent to which multinational firms – in the first instance, the German ones – may adjust their international outsourcing over the business cycle in the Czech Republic and Slovakia. For that purpose, we have used monthly data of production for the manufacturing sector as a whole and some of its sub-sectors, since 2000 onwards. Our econometrical estimates suggest that there would be an asymmetry in the international outsourcing across the states of the economy, meaning that multinationals firms would be engaged differently in outsourcing activities, depending on whether bad or good economic times occur. Yet, such an asymmetry is found increasing over the time for German and French multinationals operating in the transport equipment sector of Slovakia. Another conclusion is that international outsourcing made by multinational firms in Slovakia may account for a portion of its large business cycles volatility.

  6. Vegetation of the Landfill Supíkovice (Olomouc Region, Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cimalová Šárka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of floristic and vegetation analyses of the landfill Supíkovice. Ruderal, segetal and meadow vegetation units were recorded in June 2015. The most interesting findings were threatened weed species growing in decontamination patches on loamy and nutrient-poor soils in the central part of the landfill. Dianthus armeria (C4a and Filago arvensis (C3 are listed in the national Red List of the Czech Republic. Moreover, these taxa were evaluated in the same category of rarity on the regional level. Apart from the above mentioned, Centaurea cyanus (C4a and Papaver dubium (C4a, registered only in the regional Red List of vascular plants of the Moravian-Silesian Region (see methods, were found. Besides threatened species, relatively small populations of invasive taxa as Erigeron annuus, Impatiens parviflora or Reynoutria sp., were also recorded on the landfill Supíkovice.

  7. Home education in the post-communist countries: Case study of the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvona KOSTELECKÁ

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the emergence of home education in European post-communist countries after 1989. The case of the Czech Republic representing the development and characteristic features of home education in the whole region is studied in detail. Additionalinformation about homeschooling in other post-communist countries are provided wherever they are available in order to provide a more comprehensive picture of the issue. The driving forces and history of home education after 1989 are described. Current homeschooling legislation is analyzed with special attention paid to the processes of the legal enrolment of individuals into home education, supervision and assessment of educational results. The article concludes that despite the existence of country-specificcharacteristics, many features of home education in post-communist countries are similar. These generally include the rather strict regulation of home education and the high importance of schools as both gate-keeping and supervising institutions.

  8. Mathematical aspects of the kriging applied on landslide in Halenkovice (Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zůvala Robert

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Kriging is one of the geostatistical techniques for spatial data analysis that is usually used for a modelling of natural phenomena or a creation of digital elevation models. In this paper, we introduce kriging methods in the context of a landslide modelling in time. The proposed procedure, as well as most of the statistical methods, is designed for complete data sets, i.e. the observations at the beginning and the end of the study are available. In order to use all the information from the data and to avoid the loss of information after omitting observations with missing values, the algorithm for imputation of missing data values based on kriging techniques is proposed. The methodology was verified by the landslide modelling in Halenkovice, Czech Republic, during the period from June 2008 to March 2010. The obtained results showed a potential of kriging methods for the landslide modelling.

  9. Mathematical aspects of the kriging applied on landslide in Halenkovice (Czech Republic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zůvala, Robert; Fišerová, Eva; Marek, Lukáš

    2016-06-01

    Kriging is one of the geostatistical techniques for spatial data analysis that is usually used for a modelling of natural phenomena or a creation of digital elevation models. In this paper, we introduce kriging methods in the context of a landslide modelling in time. The proposed procedure, as well as most of the statistical methods, is designed for complete data sets, i.e. the observations at the beginning and the end of the study are available. In order to use all the information from the data and to avoid the loss of information after omitting observations with missing values, the algorithm for imputation of missing data values based on kriging techniques is proposed. The methodology was verified by the landslide modelling in Halenkovice, Czech Republic, during the period from June 2008 to March 2010. The obtained results showed a potential of kriging methods for the landslide modelling.

  10. Minimal Adequate Model of Unemployment Duration in the Post-Crisis Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Čabla

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Unemployment is one of the leading economic problems in a developed world. The aim of this paper is to identify the differences in unemployment duration in different strata in the post-crisis Czech Republic via building a minimal adequate model, and to quantify the differences. Data from Labour Force Surveys are used and since they are interval censored in nature, proper metodology must be used. The minimal adequate model is built through the accelerated failure time modelling, maximum likelihood estimates and likelihood ratio tests. Variables at the beginning are sex, marital status, age, education, municipality size and number of persons in a household, containing altogether 29 model parameters. The minimal adequate model contains 5 parameters and differences are found between men and women, the youngest category and the rest and the university educated and the rest. The estimated expected values, variances, medians, modes and 90th percentiles are provided for all subgroups.

  11. Determination of ergosterol levels in barley and malt varieties in the Czech Republic via HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlicková, Lenka; Gadas, David; Havlová, Pavla; Havel, Josef

    2008-06-11

    Ergosterol is considered to be a suitable indicator of mold infestation in barley and malt. In this study ergosterol levels in different varieties of barley and malt produced in the Czech Republic were determined. A modified high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was statistically processed, validated (Effivalidation program), and applied to 124 samples of barley and malt. Ergosterol was isolated by extraction and saponification, and the quantification was performed using HPLC with diode array detection. The content of ergosterol ranged between the limit of detection (LOD) and 36.3 mg/kg in barley and between the LOD and 131.1 mg/kg in malt. Ergosterol is presumably connected with metabolites generated when barley grain is attacked by pathogens, and such barley often shows a high overfoaming (gushing) value. However, it was found that the content of ergosterol does not correlate with the degree of beer gushing.

  12. Comparison and Evaluation of Bank Efficiency in Austria and the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitalkova Zuzana

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article compares and evaluates the efficiency of the banking sector in Austria and the Czech Republic in the period 2004-2011. The paper is divided into the following parts. It begins with a literature review dealing with the bank efficiency generally and then with the efficiency of the banking sector in chosen countries. The second section provides an overview of used methodology. The non-parametric Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA with undesirable output is used for estimating the efficiency. The undesirable output is usually omitted by current authors. Simultaneously were used CCR and BCC models that differ in returns to scale. Section three summarizes the results, discusses them and compares the estimated efficiency rates in both states. This study also attempts to further identify the main sources of inefficiency.

  13. A Curse of Coal? Exploring Unintended Regional Consequences of Coal Energy in The Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frantál Bohumil

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on coal energy from a geographical perspective, the unintended regional consequences of coal mining and combustion in the Czech Republic are discussed and analysed in terms of the environmental injustice and resource curse theories. The explorative case study attempts to identify significant associations between the spatially uneven distribution of coal power plants and the environmental and socioeconomic characteristics and development trends of affected areas. The findings indicate that the coal industries have contributed to slightly above average incomes and pensions, and have provided households with some technical services such as district heating. However, these positive effects have come at high environmental and health costs paid by the local populations. Above average rates of unemployment, homelessness and crime indicate that the benefits have been unevenly distributed economically. A higher proportion of uneducated people and ethnic minorities in affected districts suggest that coal energy is environmentally unjust.

  14. Multi-temporal analysis of vegetation reflectance using MERIS data in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štych Přemysl

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Accurate high temporal resolution data is a very important source of information for understanding processes in the landscape. High temporal and spectral resolution data enable the monitoring of dynamic landscape processes. For this reason, since 2008 a receiving station for Metosat, NOAA and Envisat data has been installed at the Department of Applied Geoinformatics and Cartography, Faculty of Science, Charles University in Prague. The aim of this study is to analyse the spectral characteristics of vegetation using MERIS data in the Czech Republic. Spectral characteristics of vegetation were examined both by analysing changes in reflectivity as well as by utilising vegetation indices. Vegetation in forests and agricultural land was evaluated. The results present the spectral characteristics of selected associations of vegetation based on MERIS data and a discussion of the methods of multitemporal classification of land cover.

  15. Genome-wide differential gene expression in children exposed to air pollution in the Czech Republic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Leeuwen, D M; van Herwijnen, M H M; Pedersen, Marie

    2006-01-01

    The Teplice area in the Czech Republic is a mining district where elevated levels of air pollution including airborne carcinogens, have been demonstrated, especially during winter time. This environmental exposure can impact human health; in particular children may be more vulnerable. To study....... This suggests an effect of air pollution on the primary structural unit of the condensed DNA. In addition, several other pathways were modulated. Based on the results of this study, we suggest that transcriptomic analysis represents a promising biomarker for environmental carcinogenesis....... the impact of air pollution in children at the transcriptional level, peripheral blood cells were subjected to whole genome response analysis, in order to identify significantly modulated biological pathways and processes as a result of exposure. Using genome-wide oligonucleotide microarrays, we investigated...

  16. Phthalates in PM2.5 airborne particles in the Moravian-Silesian Region, Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Růžičková

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Industrial area of the Moravian-Silesian Region (the Czech Republic is highly polluted by air contaminants, especially emissions of particulate matter. Samples of PM2.5 particles were analysed by pyrolysis gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. Concentrations of phthalates were determined for the winter season, transitional period and the summer season. The relative concentrations of phthalates in PM2.5 particles have the same proportion in both heating and non-heating season: di(2ethylexyl phthalate > di-n-butyl phthalate > diisononyl phthalate > diethyl phthalate. The most common increase in concentration in the winter season is from 5 to 10 times higher; the maximum of average concentration was 44 times higher than in the non-heating season.

  17. DIFFERENCES IN SOCIAL AND MACHIAVELLIAN INTELLIGENCE BETWEEN THE MANAGEMENT STUDENTS FROM THE CZECH AND SLOVAK REPUBLIC

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    Miroslav Frankovský

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Identifying and specifying social and Machiavellian intelligence is related to the broader discussion about the existence of several kinds of intelligence. When characterizing these two particular types it is inevitable to take a broader social context defining them into account. In the report we present the results of comparisons of assessing the selected attributes of social and Machiavellian intelligence by the management students from Czech Republic and Slovakia by means of the TSIS methodology, Mach IV and EMESI - an own methodology for detecting social intelligence. The presented comparisons are based on the influence of the macrosocial and microsocial environments on perception of the studied types of intelligence. This comparative analysis is connected also to the theoretical and methodological verification of the original methodology for measuring social intelligence - EMESI.

  18. Ice Hockey Lung – A Case of Mass Nitrogen Dioxide Poisoning in The Czech Republic

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    Kristian Brat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen dioxide (NO2 is a toxic gas, a product of combustion in malfunctioning ice-resurfacing machines. NO2 poisoning is rare but potentially lethal. The authors report a case of mass NO2 poisoning involving 15 amateur ice hockey players in the Czech Republic. All players were treated in the Department of Respiratory Diseases at Brno University Hospital in November 2010 – three as inpatients because they developed pneumonitis. All patients were followed-up until November 2011. Complete recovery in all but one patient was achieved by December 2010. None of the 15 patients developed asthma-like disease or chronic cough. Corticosteroids appeared to be useful in treatment. Electric-powered ice-resurfacing machines are preferable in indoor ice skating arenas.

  19. Fluctuation analysis of high frequency electric power load in the Czech Republic

    CERN Document Server

    Kracík, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the electric power load in the Czech Republic (CR) which exhibits a seasonality as well as other oscillations typical for European countries. Moreover, we detect 1/f noise property of electrical power load with extra additional peaks that allows to separate it into a deterministic and stochastic part. We then focus on the analysis of the stochastic part using improved Multi-fractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis method (MFDFA) to investigate power load datasets with a minute resolution. Extracting the noise part of the signal by using Fourier transform allows us to apply this method to obtain the fluctuation function and to estimate the generalized Hurst exponent together with the correlated Hurst exponent, its improvement for the non-Gaussian datasets. The results exhibit a strong presence of persistent behaviour and the dataset is characterized by a non-Gaussian skewed distribution. There are also indications for the presence of the probability distribution that has heavier tail than the Gaussian...

  20. [Iodine deficiency in the world and in the Czech Republic--current status and perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamrazil, V; Bílek, R; Cerovská, J; Dvoráková, M; Nemecek, J

    2010-12-01

    Iodopenia is importance world-wide problem--the cause of spectrum of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). The "simple" way for its compensation is iodine supplementation--preferably by iodinization of salt: in the Czech Republic prevalence of IDD was very high in the past. The complex program for compensation of iodine deficiency realized in the CR includes improvement of salt iodization, supplementation of pregnant and lactating women, fortification of products for babies' nutrition and increasing use of iodinized salt in general population incl. food industry. Thus CR is country with compensated iodine deficiency according to criteria WHO, UNICEF, ICCIDD. In future, however, systematic interest should be focused on optimalization of iodine saturation, esp. in pregnant women and evaluation of possible risk of supranormal iodine intake (impairment of thyroid function, activation of thyroid autoimmunity). Taking in account, the changes of nutrition and life style systematic monitoring of quality of iodine supplementation seems to be essential.

  1. A functional interaction approach to the definition of meso regions: The case of the Czech Republic

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    Erlebach Martin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The definition of functional meso regions for the territory of the Czech Republic is articulated in this article. Functional regions reflect horizontal interactions in space and are presented as a useful tool for various types of geographical analyses, and also for spatial planning, economic policy designs, etc. This paper attempts to add to the discussion on the need to delineate areal units at different hierarchical levels, and to understand the functional flows and spatial behaviours of the population in a given space. Three agglomerative methods are applied in the paper (the CURDS regionalisation algorithm, Intramax, and cluster analysis, and they have not been used previously in Czech geography for the delineation of functional meso regions. Existing functional regions at the micro-level, based on daily travel-to-work flows from the 2001 census, have served as the building blocks. The analyses have produced five regional systems at the meso level, based on daily labour commuting movements of the population. Basic statistics and a characterisation of these systems are provided in this paper.

  2. Teenage overweight and obesity: A pilot study of obesogenic and obesoprotective environments in the Czech Republic

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    Spilková Jana

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Child overweight and obesity represent a serious health problem worldwide. The Czech Republic now ranks the fourth most obese country in Europe and obesity and overweight is becoming more and more frequent in children and teenagers. This pilot study estimates the prevalence of obesity and overweight among Czech teenagers aged 14–15 years in terms of neighbourhood characteristics, and assesses the effects of neighbourhood environmental quality versus family or personal-level factors on teenage obesity and overweight. The results show that unsafe environments result in the risk of lesser physical activity of their inhabitants, but since the vast majority (92% of the students felt safe in their neighbourhoods, mediation through safety of the neighbourhood is not at stake. Second, the housing estates demonstrate the most severe problems with both obesity and overweight and their built environments, but when perceptions of sporting facilities and similar opportunities for physical activity are factored in, they do not have low scores; therefore, mediation by physical activity is not a relevant response to the obesity problem. These findings imply that the most important obesogenic and obesoprotective factors are likely to be found within the family environment and personal life styles.

  3. Experiences with electronic personal dosimeters at Dukovany Nuclear Power Plant-Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurochova, Bozena; Zelenka, Zdenik [Personal Dosimetry Department NPP Dukovany (Czech Republic)

    2004-07-01

    The Dukovany Nuclear Power Plant operates four WWER-440 type reactors. Unit 1 has been operating since 1985, Unit 2 and Unit 3 since 1986, Unit 4 was connected to the grid in 1987. At Dukovany NPP occupational dosimetry is performed by approved Personal Dosimetry Service. The basic facilities for measuring external exposure are film badge (legal dosimeter), electronic personal dosimeter (EPD) and radio-photoluminescent dosimeter (RPL) as operational dosimeter, TLD for measuring doses to the extremities and TLD albedo dosimeter as neutron dosimeter. The presentation is based on the experiences with electronic personal dosimeters gathered at Dukovany NPP for the last three years. Electronic Personal Dosimetry System (EPDS) was developing by Czech company VF, a.s. and from 2002 year is also used at Temelin NPP (Czech Republic), SE VYZ Bohunice (Slovakia) and SE Mochovce NPP (Slovakia) as well. EPDS is designed for Merlin Gerin, Siemens and RADOS electronic dosimeters. Application SW for data analysis is used for daily monitoring of personal doses and for evaluation of collective doses during outages. System gives information about collective doses on devices and collective doses for select work tasks during outages. In addition EPDS allows the calculation of dose indexes I{sub D}. (I{sub D} is the ratio of the relevant collective dose and the number of equivalent working hours). This information is applicable for planning doses on special working activities for next outages and allows a detection radiation sources also.

  4. The Entreprenurial Perception of SME Business Environment Quality in the Czech Republic

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    Kljucnikov Aleksandr

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article defines and quantifies important factors of the quality of the business environment for small and medium-sized firms (SMEs in the Czech Republic.To do so, itcompares the attitudes of entrepreneurs categorized by gender, education, age and firm size. A study of the business environment was conducted in 2015 from a sample of 1,141 respondents (the owners of companies, and the results were analyzed. It was found that only 10% of the entrepreneurs positively evaluated the applicable forms of state financial support. The study also demonstrated no statistically-significant response differences among the designated social groups. 64% of Czech entrepreneurs feel the support of their surroundings while doing business,45% think that SMEs have restricted access to external sources of financing, and over half note the intensive influence of market risk. It was also determined that there are statistically-significant differences in the pattern of responses between men and women and between micro-enterprises and small and medium-sized enterprises.

  5. Effects of pollution on chub in the River Elbe, Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randak, T; Zlabek, V; Pulkrabova, J; Kolarova, J; Kroupova, H; Siroka, Z; Velisek, J; Svobodova, Z; Hajslova, J

    2009-03-01

    The Elbe River is one of the most polluted aquatic ecosystems in the Czech Republic. The effect of three major chemical plants located on the Elbe River (at Pardubice, Neratovice, and Usti nad Labem) on fish was studied in 2004. Health status, chemical concentrations (Hg, PCB, DDT, HCH, HCB, OCS, 4-tert-nonylphenols, 4-tert-octylphenol) in muscle, and biomarkers (hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), plasma vitellogenin, and plasma 11-ketotestosterone) were assessed in male chub (Leuciscus cephalus L.). Differences between localities upstream (US) and downstream (DS) from the monitored source of pollution were identified. Fish from DS sampling sites showed significantly higher levels of contaminants than fish from US sampling sites. Generally, the concentrations of pollutants in fish from the Elbe sites were significantly higher compared to the reference site. Reduced gonad size, decreased plasma levels of 11-ketotestosterone, EROD and vitellogenin induction, and histopathologies of male gonads indicated harmful effects of aquatic pollution in fish from the Czech portion of the Elbe River.

  6. Tachylyte in Cenozoic basaltic lavas from the Czech Republic and Iceland: contrasting compositional trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrych, Jaromír; Krmíček, Lukáš; Teschner, Claudia; Řanda, Zdeněk; Skála, Roman; Jonášová, Šárka; Fediuk, Ferry; Adamovič, Jiří; Pokorný, Richard

    2016-11-01

    Tachylytes from rift-related volcanic rocks were recognized as: (i) irregular veinlets in host alkaline lava flows of the Kozákov volcano, Czech Republic, (ii) (sub)angular xenoliths in alkaline lava of the feeding channel of the Bukovec volcano, Czech Republic, and (iii) paleosurface of a tholeiitic lava flow from Hafrafell, Iceland. The tachylyte from Kozákov is phonotephrite to tephriphonolite in composition while that from Bukovec corresponds to trachyandesite to tephriphonolite. Both glass and host rock from Hafrafell are of tholeiitic basalt composition. The tachylyte from Kozákov, compared with the host rock, revealed a substantial enrichment in major elements such as Si, Al and alkalis along with Rb, Sr, Ba, Nb, Zr, REE, Th and U. The tachylyte from Bukovec displays contrasting trends in the incompatible element contents. The similarity in composition of the Hafrafell tachylyte paleosurface layer and parental tholeiitic basalt is characteristic for lavas. The host/parent rocks and tachylytes have similar initial Sr-Nd characteristics testifying for their co-magmatic sources. The initial ɛNd values of host/parent rocks and tachylytes from the Bohemian Massif (+3.4 to +3.9) and those from Iceland (+6.3) are interpreted as primary magma values. Only the tachylyte from Bukovec shows a different ɛNd value of -2.1, corresponding to a xenolith of primarily sedimentary/metamorphic origin. The tachylyte from Kozákov is a product of an additional late magmatic portion of fluids penetrating through an irregular fissure system of basaltic lava. The Bukovec tachylyte is represented by xenoliths originated during the interaction of ascending basaltic melt with granitoids or orthogneisses, whereas the Hafrafell tachylyte is a product of a rapid cooling on the surface of a basalt flow.

  7. The sence and availability of industry standards of indebtedness for businesses in the Czech Republic

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    Strýčková Lenka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article was to reveal attitude of businesses in the Czech Republic towards capital structure optimization and the use of industry standards as benchmarks for their level of leverage. Despite several decades of capital structure theories development and refinement, none of the theories indicating how managers should act seem to be ready to determine the definite ratio of debt and equity used in corporate capital structure yet. The use of debt offers a company both pluses by creating more investment opportunities, and minuses associated with the higher risk for investors. Most capital structure models assume vigorous approach of companies towards capital structure optimization. Companies may, however, exert rather a passive approach towards their capital structure. The questionnaire survey indicated that majority of respondents had no target value of the debt ratio. This contribution was focused on the sense and availability of sectoral recommendations concerning corporate indebtedness that might serve as a useful benchmark for companies. By comparing financial ratios to other businesses in the same industry, it is possible to make judgements about a company’s basic financial health. The sense of the use of industry standards for the debt ratio is that the ratio appropriate for other firms in a similar branch should be appropriate for the company as well. Availability of industry standards in countries with highly developed capital markets is extensive. Availability and accessibility of industry standards for companies in the Czech Republic proofed to be requiring more effort and knowledge. The questionnaire survey indicated that most respondents don't use industry standards for the debt ratio as they have no interest in comparison with the indebtedness in the sector. However, there was a noticeable group of respondents which stated that they don’t use any industry standards for indebtedness at present, but they would

  8. Present-day vegetation helps quantifying past land cover in selected regions of the Czech Republic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojtěch Abraham

    Full Text Available The REVEALS model is a tool for recalculating pollen data into vegetation abundances on a regional scale. We explored the general effect of selected parameters by performing simulations and ascertained the best model setting for the Czech Republic using the shallowest samples from 120 fossil sites and data on actual regional vegetation (60 km radius. Vegetation proportions of 17 taxa were obtained by combining the CORINE Land Cover map with forest inventories, agricultural statistics and habitat mapping data. Our simulation shows that changing the site radius for all taxa substantially affects REVEALS estimates of taxa with heavy or light pollen grains. Decreasing the site radius has a similar effect as increasing the wind speed parameter. However, adjusting the site radius to 1 m for local taxa only (even taxa with light pollen yields lower, more correct estimates despite their high pollen signal. Increasing the background radius does not affect the estimates significantly. Our comparison of estimates with actual vegetation in seven regions shows that the most accurate relative pollen productivity estimates (PPEs come from Central Europe and Southern Sweden. The initial simulation and pollen data yielded unrealistic estimates for Abies under the default setting of the wind speed parameter (3 m/s. We therefore propose the setting of 4 m/s, which corresponds to the spring average in most regions of the Czech Republic studied. Ad hoc adjustment of PPEs with this setting improves the match 3-4-fold. We consider these values (apart from four exceptions to be appropriate, because they are within the ranges of standard errors, so they are related to original PPEs. Setting a 1 m radius for local taxa (Alnus, Salix, Poaceae significantly improves the match between estimates and actual vegetation. However, further adjustments to PPEs exceed the ranges of original values, so their relevance is uncertain.

  9. The rainfall erosivity factor in the Czech Republic and its uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanel, Martin; Máca, Petr; Bašta, Petr; Vlnas, Radek; Pech, Pavel

    2016-10-01

    In the present paper, the rainfall erosivity factor (R factor) for the area of the Czech Republic is assessed. Based on 10 min data for 96 stations and corresponding R factor estimates, a number of spatial interpolation methods are applied and cross-validated. These methods include inverse distance weighting, standard, ordinary, and regression kriging with parameters estimated by the method of moments and restricted maximum likelihood, and a generalized least-squares (GLS) model. For the regression-based methods, various statistics of monthly precipitation as well as geographical indices are considered as covariates. In addition to the uncertainty originating from spatial interpolation, the uncertainty due to estimation of the rainfall kinetic energy (needed for calculation of the R factor) as well as the effect of record length and spatial coverage are also addressed. Finally, the contribution of each source of uncertainty is quantified. The average R factor for the area of the Czech Republic is 640 MJ ha-1 mm h-1, with values for the individual stations ranging between 320 and 1520 MJ ha-1 mm h-1. Among various spatial interpolation methods, the GLS model relating the R factor to the altitude, longitude, mean precipitation, and mean fraction of precipitation above the 95th percentile of monthly precipitation performed best. Application of the GLS model also reduced the uncertainty due to the record length, which is substantial when the R factor is estimated for individual sites. Our results revealed that reasonable estimates of the R factor can be obtained even from relatively short records (15-20 years), provided sufficient spatial coverage and covariates are available.

  10. Increasing incidence of Geomyces destructans fungus in bats from the Czech Republic and Slovakia.

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    Natália Martínková

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: White-nose syndrome is a disease of hibernating insectivorous bats associated with the fungus Geomyces destructans. It first appeared in North America in 2006, where over a million bats died since then. In Europe, G. destructans was first identified in France in 2009. Its distribution, infection dynamics, and effects on hibernating bats in Europe are largely unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We screened hibernacula in the Czech Republic and Slovakia for the presence of the fungus during the winter seasons of 2008/2009 and 2009/2010. In winter 2009/2010, we found infected bats in 76 out of 98 surveyed sites, in which the majority had been previously negative. A photographic record of over 6000 hibernating bats, taken since 1994, revealed bats with fungal growths since 1995; however, the incidence of such bats increased in Myotis myotis from 2% in 2007 to 14% by 2010. Microscopic, cultivation and molecular genetic evaluations confirmed the identity of the recently sampled fungus as G. destructans, and demonstrated its continuous distribution in the studied area. At the end of the hibernation season we recorded pathologic changes in the skin of the affected bats, from which the fungus was isolated. We registered no mass mortality caused by the fungus, and the recorded population decline in the last two years of the most affected species, M. myotis, is within the population trend prediction interval. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: G. destructans was found to be widespread in the Czech Republic and Slovakia, with an epizootic incidence in bats during the most recent years. Further development of the situation urgently requires a detailed pan-European monitoring scheme.

  11. Public Sector Employment in the Czech Republic after 1989: Old Legacy in New Realities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Sirovátka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the public and private sectors in post-communist countries was shaped under different circumstances when compared to the old EU countries: ‘non-productive’ occupations like health care, education and social services, which form the core of the public sector, were disadvantaged under the communist regime. In this paper we address the question of how the public sector developed in terms of size and structure of employment and salary levels between 1989 and 2010 (in the long-term and in times of crisis in the Czech Republic and how these changes can be explained. The trends which we have identified in the developments of public sector employment in the Czech Republic mirror the legacy of communism, the processes of transformation and privatization and the political preferences of the governments. We do not find many changes in overall public sector employment during the period of 1989–2010, except for the privatization of state-owned companies resulting from a strategy by government to prevent unemployment. The dynamics of wages in the public sector document the legacy of the communist past, when the salaries in non-productive sectors like education, health and social care were traditionally low relative to the productive branches. The resistance of public sector employees to their increasing disadvantage regarding salaries has been successful only to a limited extent. In the rare cases of highly specialized professional categories (like doctors it was possible to profit from a specific bargaining position. These developments may be best explained by the protest avoidance strategy of the post-communist governments and the political business cycle in its short-term outlook. In the long-term, the drivers which boost the development of social services generally do play a role, contrary to political manipulation.

  12. The Growing Importance of the Practical Application of Corporate Social Responsibility in the Management of Companies in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bris Petr

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is aimed at researching the issue of Corporate Social Responsibility (hereinafter “CSR” in the Czech Republic (hereinafter “CR”. Social responsibility is now an integral part of integrated business management. It has a long tradition in the Czech Republic, because one of the most prominent businessmen of the 20th century – a Czech entrepreneur, Tomas Bata - began to apply CSR in his plants around the world in the first half of the last century. Currently,the issue of CSR becomes increasingly important. There is an integration of positive attitudes, practices or programs into company’s business strategy at the top management level. We followa shift in management focus from the level of “profit only” to a wider view in the context of the three P’s - people - planet - profit. This involves the functioning of the organization with regardto the so called triple - bottom - line, when the company focuses not only on economic growth, but also on environmental and social aspects of its activities. The main objective of the paper is to analyze the current state of CSR in the Czech Republic on the basis of quantitative research (approx. 100 organizations were approached and compare it with an analysis from 2004. The conclusion summarizes the approaches of managers to the issue of CSR in the CR, including some trends.

  13. The Impact of the Crisis on Illegal Employment of Foreigners and the Related Policy - Case study: Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera–Karin BRAZOVA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to provide a critical perspective of the public policy measures to tackle the illegal employment of foreigners in the Czech Republic taken by the Czech government in the wake of the global financial crisis. In the introductory part of the article, the problem of illegal employment of migrants in the Czech Republic is delimitated and put into a theoretical context. Based on the study of official documents as well as on expert interviews, the analysis of the changes in the public policy dealing with the problem of illegal employment is conducted. While the crisis triggered a more open public debate and brought the problem on the agenda of some core public policy actors and while new measures were taken to address the issue, some of the main underlying problems remain unaddressed. In the final part, a possible future development in the area of illegal employment of migrants is outlined, drawing on the global labor migration trends as well as on the current public policy practice in the Czech Republic.

  14. Consumer Ethnocentrism and Attitudes Towards Foreign Beer Brands: With Evidence from Zlin Region in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanninayake W.M.C.Bandara

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In modern times, consumer ethnocentrism has become an important strategic tool used by domestic firms in the face of global competition. However, the ability to use this phenomenon and its practical validity can vary in different industrial and cultural contexts. Hence, in this study, researchers address this issue by investigating the relationship between consumer ethnocentrismand the attitudes of Czech customers towards foreign beer brands while paying special attention to whether the ethnocentric tendencies of the Czech customers are altered by demographic variables. The sample for this study was drawn from adult customers who live in the Zlin region in the Czech Republic. The group of students from the bachelor degree programme in management and economics, Tomas Bata Universty in Zlin were selected as enumerators for data collection. Altogether 155 questionnaires were distributed and 108 completedquestionnaires were taken in for final analysis. The consumer ethnocentric tendency was measured using the famous CETSCALE developed by Shimp and Sharma. Cronbach’s Alpha values of each construct confirmed that a good interring reliability exists with the data. Principle component analysis was employed to determine the important factors of CETSCALE and independent t test, correlation analysis, multiple regression analysis and one way ANOVA were used for testing hypotheses. The results revealed that the ethnocentric tendency of consumers is negatively correlated with the favorable attitudes of customers towards foreign beer brands in Czech Republic and also that highly ethnocentric customers hold less favorableattitudes towards foreign brands. Further findings revealed that there are no significant differences between consumer ethnocentrism and all the demographic variables of Czech customers. Finally, the researchers provide some suggestions for domestic brewery firms in the Czech Republic to develop appropriate branding strategies in considering

  15. Dynamic International Competitiveness of Transition Economies: What Do Trade Figures Tell Us? The Case of Poland and the Czech Republic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Mortensen, Kim

    2002-01-01

    This paper shows that the reform on the structures of the Polish and Czech economies has had an impressively fast effect on the numbers of different products, these countries export to Western countries. The time path may well be described by a logistic curve. The change in the exports...... of these countries may therefore be characterised by a widening, instead of a deepening in specialisation. The paper introduces a new empirical methodology to evaluate the dynamic changes in export activities of a country. The result of this new methodology is that quality competition is becoming increasingly...... important for Poland and the Czech Republic over time....

  16. Remotely sensed vegetation indices for seasonal crop yields predictions in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlavinka, Petr; Semerádová, Daniela; Balek, Jan; Bohovic, Roman; Žalud, Zdeněk; Trnka, Miroslav

    2015-04-01

    Remotely sensed vegetation indices by satellites are valuable tool for vegetation conditions assessment also in the case of field crops. This study is based on the use of NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) and EVI (Enhanced Vegetation Index) derived from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) aboard Terra satellite. Data available from the year 2000 were analyzed and tested for seasonal yields predictions within selected districts of the Czech Republic (Central Europe). Namely the yields of spring barley, winter wheat and oilseed winter rape during the period from 2000 to 2014 were assessed. Observed yields from 14 districts (NUTS 4) were collected and thus 210 seasons were included. Selected districts differ considerably in their soil fertility and terrain configuration and represent transect across various agroclimatic conditions (from warm and dry to relative cool and wet regions). Two approaches were tested: 1) using of composite remotely sensed data (available in 16 day time step) provided by the USGS (https://lpdaac.usgs.gov/); 2) using daily remotely sensed data in combination with originally developed smoothing method. The yields were successfully predicted based on established regression models (remotely sensed data used as independent parameter). Besides others the impact of severe drought episodes within vegetation were identified and yield reductions at district level predicted (even before harvest). As a result the periods with the best relationship between remotely sensed data and yields were identified. The impact of drought conditions as well as normal or above normal yields of field crops could be predicted by proposed method within study region up to 30 days prior to the harvest. It could be concluded that remotely sensed vegetation conditions assessment should be important part of early warning systems focused on drought. Such information should be widely available for various users (decision makers, farmers, etc.) in

  17. Skryjelites auritus gen. et sp. nov. and Quasimolites quasimodo gen. et sp. nov.--two new middle Cambrian hyolithids (?Mollusca) from the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valent, Martin; Fatka, Oldřich; Szabad, Michal; Micka, Václav; Marek, Ladislav

    2015-08-28

    Two new endemic genera and species of extinct group of Hyolitha, Skryjelites auritus gen. et sp. nov. and Quasimolites quasimodo gen. et sp. nov. are described and illustrated from the Buchava Formation of the Barrandian area (Czech Republic).

  18. Dalian Rubber & Plastics Hong Kong Company Acquired a Rubber Machinery Enterprise of the Czech Republic%Dalian Rubber & Plastics Hong Kong Company Acquired a Rubber Machinery Enterprise of the Czech Republic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FengPei

    2011-01-01

    To further widen the international market, improve the technical content of products and boost the profitability of the enterprise, Dalian Rubber & Plastics Hong Kong Company, jointly invested and established by Dalian State-owned Assets Investment and Management Group Co., Ltd. and Dalian Rubber & Plastics Machinery Co., Ltd., plans to invest about EUR 12.50 million to acquire 90% stock fight of Buzuluk Company of the Czech Republic.

  19. Income Expectations of University Students: Sample of Selected Economic Universities in the Czech Republic, England and Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Maršíková

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to analyze students’ perceptions and expectations of their future incomes. By doing so, authors bring a possible quantitative argument about the rate of return of investment into higher education based on data from selected economic universities, and thus open space for discussion about financing of Czech public universities from public or private sources. The authors used data from a large survey among students of selected faculties of economics and compared the results from Czech, Polish and English respondents. All the performed tests have indicated and identified one critical finding that confirmed results of previous surveys:the value of the spot expected rates of return on investment to tertiary education for the Czech Republic never falls below 8.45 per cent, even when allowed for gender of respondents, knowledge about income of respondents’ friends, or level of education of respondents’ parents.

  20. Labour productivity of agricultural business companies and cooperatives in the Czech Republic: A micro-regional level analysis

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    Ženka Jan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on empirical evidence from the Czech Republic, differences in agricultural labour productivity at the micro-regional level are examined. The role of geographical factors: natural conditions, landscape fragmentation, localisation and urbanization economies, are discussed. In addition, we also test the effects of farm size structure to capture the results of internal scale economies. The key importance of natural conditions is confirmed: they were significantly more important than farm characteristics such as size structure, ownership status and mode of production. Regional agricultural labour productivity was positively influenced by the nominal price of agricultural land and population density. Surprisingly, micro-regions dominated by large farms performed at lower productivity levels than micro-regions with fragmented farm size structure in the Czech Republic.

  1. The Role of the OECD and the EU in the Development of Labour Market Policy in the Czech Republic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porte, Caroline de la

    2009-01-01

    ) and the de-regulation of labour markets. However, the OECD actively advocates private actor involvement in labour markets, while the EU insists on the role of the public sector. The inquisitive styles of the two organisations differ: the OECD has a decontextualised and quantified analysis of performance......This article analyses the role of the OECD through its "Jobs Strategy" and the European Union (EU) through the "European Employment Strategy" in the development of macro-economic, employment and labour market policy in the Czech Republic. As a full member of the two organisations, the Czech...... Republic has been subject to their soft non-binding policy advice in the area of labour market reform. The OECD and EU policy models are similar, both insisting on growth-oriented macro-economic policy, supported by active labour market policies, an active and effective public employment service (PES...

  2. A current view of copybooks (the font in the Czech Republic and in selected countries of Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartošová Iva Košek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present research of mixed design, i.e. qualitative and quantitative nature is to draw a comparison of the most widely used copybooks – textbooks in the Czech Republic based on adapted evaluation criteria originally presented by [1] - content, graphic design, format and adequacy of writing tasks and range etc. and subsequently focus the research on an analysis of similar workbooks – copybooks (including the used font in selected European countries. The proposed research project is a follow-up of a research project realized in 2014 and designed to identify the publishing houses having the greatest numbers of sales of textbooks for 1st -3rd grades of primary schools as well as the reasons for which teachers choose the materials from a particular publishing house in the Czech Republic.

  3. Potential of criminological research in evaluation of victim-focused policy and legislation in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Štefunková Michaela

    2016-01-01

    For effective victim-focused legislation, evidence-based knowledge is essential, thus making criminological research of great importance. Victimization surveys represent a globally recognized type of criminological investigation. Although they are primarily focused on measuring the dark figure of crime, they can also provide a broad spectrum of information on victimization-related issues. The latest victimization survey was carried out in the Czech Republic...

  4. Managing Membership Decline in a Hostile Environment: The Case of the Print Unions in the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Abstract This article examines printing trade unions in the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary. Since 1990 they have been under major pressure from financial difficulties resulting from a dramatic fall in membership. This, in turn, stemmed from the hostile environment of privatization, corporate mergers and acquisitions, technological change and anti-trade union policies on the part of some employers. To reduce costs and ensure institutional survival, and potentially revival, the...

  5. Proportions - Disposition Relationship Analysis of a Historical Truss in a Rural House in Vápenná Village, Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krušinský, Peter; Capková, Eva; Augustinková, Lucie; Korenková, Renáta

    2016-12-01

    We have analysed historical trusses based on previous building-historical researches, particularly focusing on sacral buildings, in chosen regions of Slovakia, with one of the primary goals to examine geometric concepts and proportional relationships used for their construction. The knowledge of proportional principles and relationships used in various historical sacral trusses, additionally supported by contemporary literature, was applied to a village house truss from 1774 in Vápenná, Jeseníky district of the Czech Republic.

  6. Family policy instruments oriented towards single parent families in the Czech Republic and in selected European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Kohlová, Hana

    2014-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with family policy oriented towards single parent families. This thesis tries to define reasons why single parent families are arising. It addresses the divorce rate, birth rate, and extramarital fertility. Differences between families with both parents and single parent families are defined and the subjective views of single parents in the Czech Republic are described in this thesis. Provisions from family policy, which take into account single parent families in t...

  7. Nitrogen deposition and its impact on forest ecosystems in the Czech Republic – change in soil chemistry and ground vegetation

    OpenAIRE

    Novotny R; Burianek V; Sramek V; Hunova I; Skorepova I; Zapletal M; Lomsky B

    2016-01-01

    A repeated soil survey (1995 and 2006) on 66 ICP Forests pair plots in the Czech Republic revealed a significant relationship between modeled nitrogen deposition and nitrogen concentration in the soil. Nitrogen deposition was modeled for the years 1995, 2004 and 2006. We found a more significant relationship between deposition data in 2004 and soil data in 2006 than between deposition and soil data from the same year 2006. Concentration of total nitrogen in forest soil increased from 1995 to ...

  8. Education as Employee Motivation and Retention Factor of the Companies Operating in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveta Němečková

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The initial part of the article addresses the human potential of companies as well as the motivation and retention of employees, which play a key role in reaching a company’s commercial and financial goals. The article’s objective is answering questions concerning the importance of employee education as a significant tool of employee motivation and retention. The article’s author has set two hypotheses:H1: It is possible to identify common factors having an impact on employee motivation and retention from job descriptions and position in the management hierarchy’s point of view. It is also possible to find out and name the key factors in motivation and retention preferred by employees in the Czech Republic.H2: The possibility of further education and professional growth is a very important motivational factor for employees.The hypotheses were verified and confirmed through an anonymous questionnaire; the author conducted the research among employees of Czech companies. The research, which was of key importance for data collection, was supplemented by round table discussions with the respondents, helping to confirm and to be more accurate in interpretation of results delivered by the research.A clear result has come of the research; respondents valued further education the most out of sixteen offered benefits provided by employers. The article’s conclusion – referring to the fact of a drop in education investments by companies due to cost cutting pressures (a very dangerous and unhealthy trend from the long-term point of view, according to the article’s author – provides managers with recommendations.

  9. Significant decrease in prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in the Czech Republic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jan Bure(s); Marcela Kopá(c)ová; Ilona Koupil; Bohumil Seifert; Milu(s)ka (S)kodová Fendrichová; Jana (S)pirková; Viktor Vo(r)í(s)ek

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To study possible decrease in prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) infection in the Czech Republic within a 10-year period.METHODS:A total of 22 centres entered the study.The catchment areas of these centres covered cities and towns with more than 20 000 inhabitants,smaller towns (≤ 20 000 inhabitants) with surrounding villages and rural areas,and were spread over the whole country,corresponding well to the geographical distribution of the Czech population.A total of 1 837 subjects (aged 5-98 years) took part in the study,randomly selected out of 38 147 people from the general population.H.pylori infection was investigated by means of a 13C-urea breath test.Breath samples in duplicates were analysed using isotope ratio mass spectrometry.The cut-off point was 3.5.Social and demographic characteristics were based on data from self-completed questionnaires.RESULTS:The overall prevalence of H.pylori infection was 23.5% (430/1826),and 4.8% (20/420) in children aged 15 or less.There was no statistically significant difference in prevalence between males (24.3%; 208/857) and females (22.9%,222/969,P =0.494).H.pylori infection was strongly associated with higher age,among subjects aged 55+ years,prevalence of H.pylori infection was 39.8% (252/633,P <0.001).The highest prevalence of H.pylori infection was found among persons aged 55-64 years (43.9%,97/221) and 75+ years (37.9%,58/153).Among study subjects aged 15+ years,prevalence of H.pylori infection was significantly increased in those with lowest education (odds risk 3.19,95% CI 1.87-5.47).Compared to never married (14.1%),the prevalence of H.pylori infection was statistically significantly higher among married (35.4%,246/694,P < 0.001),divorced (36.8%,49/133,P < 0.001) and widowed study subjects (40.2%,45/112,P < 0.001),both in minimally and fully adjusted analysis.There was no significant difference in the prevalence of H.pylori infection between married and widowed

  10. Mapping of extreme wind speed for landscape modelling of the Bohemian Forest, Czech Republic

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    L. Pop

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Extreme wind events are among the most damaging weather-related hazards in the Czech Republic, forestry is heavily affected. In order to successfully run a landscape model dealing with such effects, spatial distribution of extreme wind speed statistics is needed. The presented method suggests using sector-wise wind field calculations together with extreme value statistics fitted at a reference station. A special algorithm is proposed to provide the data in the form expected by the landscape model, i.e. raster data of annual wind speed maxima. The method is demonstrated on the area of Bohemian Forest that represents one of largest and most compact forested mountains in Central Europe. The reference meteorological station Churáňov is located within the selected domain. Numerical calculations were based on linear model of WAsP Engineering methodology. Observations were cleaned of inhomogeneity and classified into convective and non-convective cases using index CAPE. Due to disjunct sampling of synoptic data, appropriate corrections were applied to the observed extremes. Finally they were fitted with Gumbel distribution. The output of numerical simulation is presented for the windiest direction sector. Another map shows probability that annual extreme exceeds required threshold. The method offers a tool for generation of spatially variable annual maxima of wind speed. It assumes a small limited model domain containing a reliable wind measurement. We believe that this is typical setup for applications similar to one presented in the paper.

  11. Impact of Production from Photovoltaic Power Plants on Increase of Ancillary Services in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Smocek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy resources represent a noticeable part of the overall energetic concept development. New integration of renewable energy resources into power grids has a significant impact on the reliability and quality of power supply. The major problem of the photovoltaic and wind power plants is their dependency on weather conditions, since it has a direct effect on their immediate output produced that shows stochastic behaviour. These stochastic outputs result in very adverse impacts on the power grid. Further development of these resources could lead to exceeding of the control and absorption abilities of the power grid. The power grid must be set in balance with respect to the production and consumption of electric power at any time. The operation of photovoltaic power plants impair keeping this balance. That has an adverse impact on the very operation and maintenance of network parameters within the extent required. This survey deals with analysis focused on operation of the photovoltaic power plants with respect to the increase of reserve power in ancillary services in the Czech Republic.

  12. Carbon exchange between ecosystems and atmosphere in the Czech Republic is affected by climate factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marek, Michal V., E-mail: marek.mv@czechglobe.cz [Global Change Research Centres, Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, Belidla 4a CZ-60300 Brno (Czech Republic); Institute of Forest Ecology Forestry Faculty, Mendel University Brno, Zemedelska 3, CZ-614 00 (Czech Republic); Janous, Dalibor; Taufarova, Klara; Havrankova, Katerina; Pavelka, Marian; Kaplan, Veroslav [Global Change Research Centres, Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, Belidla 4a CZ-60300 Brno (Czech Republic); Markova, Irena [Institute of Forest Ecology Forestry Faculty, Mendel University Brno, Zemedelska 3, CZ-614 00 (Czech Republic)

    2011-05-15

    By comparing five ecosystem types in the Czech Republic over several years, we recorded the highest carbon sequestration potential in an evergreen Norway spruce forest (100%) and an agroecosystem (65%), followed by European beech forest (25%) and a wetland ecosystem (20%). Because of a massive ecosystem respiration, the final carbon gain of the grassland was negative. Climate was shown to be an important factor of carbon uptake by ecosystems: by varying the growing season length (a 22-d longer season in 2005 than in 2007 increased carbon sink by 13%) or by the effect of short- term synoptic situations (e.g. summer hot and dry days reduced net carbon storage by 58% relative to hot and wet days). Carbon uptake is strongly affected by the ontogeny and a production strategy which is demonstrated by the comparison of seasonal course of carbon uptake between coniferous (Norway spruce) and deciduous (European beech) stands. - Highlights: > Highest carbon sequestration potential in evergreen Norway spruce forest (100%) and an agroecosystem (65%), followed by European beech forest (25%) and a wetland ecosystem (20%). > The final carbon gain of the grassland was negative (massive ecosystem respiration). > Climate is important factor of net primary productivity. > Carbon uptake is strongly affected by the ontogeny and a production strategy of ecosystem. - Identification of the apparent differences in the carbon storage by different ecosystem types.

  13. Characteristics of rainfall events in regional climate model simulations for the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svoboda, Vojtěch; Hanel, Martin; Máca, Petr; Kyselý, Jan

    2017-02-01

    Characteristics of rainfall events in an ensemble of 23 regional climate model (RCM) simulations are evaluated against observed data in the Czech Republic for the period 1981-2000. Individual rainfall events are identified using the concept of minimum inter-event time (MIT) and only heavy events (15 % of events with the largest event depths) during the warm season (May-September) are considered. Inasmuch as an RCM grid box represents a spatial average, the effects of areal averaging of rainfall data on characteristics of events are investigated using the observed data. Rainfall events from the RCM simulations are then compared to those from the at-site and area-average observations. Simulated number of heavy events and seasonal total precipitation due to heavy events are on average represented relatively well despite the higher spatial variation compared to observations. RCM-simulated event depths are comparable to the area-average observations, while event durations are overestimated and other characteristics related to rainfall intensity are significantly underestimated. The differences between RCM-simulated and at-site observed rainfall event characteristics are in general dominated by the biases of the climate models rather than the areal-averaging effect. Most of the rainfall event characteristics in the majority of the RCM simulations show a similar altitude-dependence pattern as in the observed data. The number of heavy events and seasonal total precipitation due to heavy events increase with altitude, and this dependence is captured better by the RCM simulations with higher spatial resolution.

  14. Knowledge about epilepsy and attitudes towards affected people among teachers in training in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabcová, Dana; Kohout, Jiří; Kršek, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare knowledge about, confidence with, and attitudes towards epilepsy and affected people between groups of freshmen and senior teachers in training (preservice teachers) at the Faculty of Education in Pilsen, Czech Republic. Two hundred thirty-six freshmen and 138 seniors completed the 21-item Scale of Attitudes Towards People with Epilepsy (ATPE), an 18-item multiple-choice test measuring their knowledge about epilepsy, and a 5-item questionnaire focused on confidence with epilepsy in a school environment. We found that despite a higher level of knowledge about epilepsy among seniors (mean score of 9.6 points compared with 8.48 points for freshmen, pepilepsy, and also confidence in how to manage children affected with this disease did not differ significantly. The presented findings suggest that epilepsy-related training of preservice teachers should be more effective especially with respect to their ability to resolve problems that may happen to children with epilepsy in a class.

  15. Stray dog and cat laws and enforcement in Czech Republic and in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Voslářvá

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing numbers of stray dogs and cats have posed serious public-health, socioeconomic, political and animal-welfare problems in many EU countries. Stray animal population control is a complex issue and there are no easy solutions. Recognising the importance of the issue the European Commission has, since 2007, actively contributed to the elaboration of the first global welfare standards for the control of dog populations in the framework of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE. Problem-solving approaches vary in different countries as there is no common European Community legislation dealing with stray animal control. In this paper the authors describe the characteristics of the stray dog and cat problem in general and focus on existing European legislation. A comparative overview of policies and measures in place in the Czech Republic and in Italy is made to observe the differences between the two countries and understand the different needs in each, considering their historical and social differences (i.e. a post-communist eastern country vs a western country and founder member of what is now the European Union.

  16. Characterization of cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L. genotypes - genetic resources for food production in Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sochor Jiri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine and compare both technological properties and polyphenol content in fruits of eight cornellian cherry (Cornus mas L. cultivars from Czech Republic. The fruits of cultivar ´Vydubeckij´ had the highest dry matter (17.4% and soluble solid (15.8% content among searched cultivars. The highest crude protein and phosphorus values were determined in the fruits of the ´Titus´ cultivar as 10.9 g of crude protein and 435 mg of phosphorus for per kg fresh weight (FW base. The ´Elegantnyj´ and ´Vydubeckij´ cultivars are found to be more suitable for canning industry. The fruits of the ´Vydubeckij´ cultivar contained 10.8 g of pectin and 22.4 g of citric acid per kg fresh weight base, and could be important for technological use because of their excellent gelling ability. ´Devin´,´Vydubeckij´ and ´Titus´ cultivars had the most valuable source of chlorogenic acid (135.6, 110.9 and 115.1 mg per 100 g FW, respectively and quercetin (24.9, 25.2 and 24.2 mg per 100 g FW, respectively. This work should contribute to the popularization of this fruit specie as a valuable source of technological parameters for human nutrition and the canning industry.

  17. Identification of a Buried Late Cenozoic Maar-Diatreme Structure (North Moravia, Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šešulka Vojtěch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The maar-diatreme volcanic structure in the vicinity of the village of Lomnice near the town of Bruntál (North Moravia, Czech Republic has been investigated using a set of geophysical methods including ground magnetometry, gravimetry and electrical resistivity tomography. The structure was detected by an aerial magnetic survey in the second half of the 20th century. Since its discovery only limited information about this buried structure has been available. The coherence of the magnetic anomaly of 190 nT and Bouguer anomaly of -4.7 mGal indicates a volcanic origin of the structure. The funnel-shaped maar-diatreme structure is filled with lacustrine clay and colluvium of Car-boniferous greywacke, which forms the country rock. The surface diameter of the structure is about 600 m, the depth is more than 400 m. The spatial association with other volcanic centers in the surroundings of the town of Bruntál infers the relative dating of the Lomnice maar. The phreatic eruption and maar-diatreme formation could be an indirect conse-quence of effusive activity of the nearby Velký Roudný volcano. The Lomnice structure is the first Plio-Pleistocene maar-diatreme ever described in North Moravia and Silesia.

  18. Entrepreneurial Orientation in the Segment of Micro-Enterprises: Evidence from Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Civelek Mehmet

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this comprehensive research is to identify and explore the dissimilarities of gender and education level of entrepreneurs and enterprises’ age with regards to entrepreneurial orientation (EO in the segment of micro enterprises. All of the dimensions of EO are included such as innovativeness, risk taking, proactiveness, competitive aggressiveness and autonomy for our analysis. The data that we have used for this study, was collected by a structured questionnaire during 2015 in Czech Republic, and consists of 1141 small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs and 740 of them are defined as micro enterprises by using the definition of European Commission. The empirical results of our study indicates a that university educated micro-entrepreneurs are more innovative and autonomous comparing with lower educated micro-entrepreneurs and also younger micro firms are more innovative, risk taker and proactive than the older micro firms. However, our results do not show any significant differences between men and women in relation to the all components of EO. Our result can be explained by having higher percentage of university educated women micro entrepreneurs comparing with their men counterparts and education may have a substitution effect on the gender based differences in the segment of micro firms.

  19. Acinetobacter bohemicus sp. nov. widespread in natural soil and water ecosystems in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krizova, Lenka; Maixnerova, Martina; Sedo, Ondrej; Nemec, Alexandr

    2014-10-01

    We investigated the taxonomic status of a phenetically unique group of 25 Acinetobacter strains which were isolated from multiple soil and water samples collected in natural ecosystems in the Czech Republic. Based on the comparative sequence analyses of the rpoB, gyrB, and 16S rRNA genes, the strains formed a coherent and well separated branch within the genus Acinetobacter. The genomic uniqueness of the group at the species level was supported by the low average nucleotide identity values (≤77.37%) between the whole genome sequences of strain ANC 3994(T) (NCBI accession no. APOH00000000) and the representatives of the known Acinetobacter species. Moreover, all 25 strains created a tight cluster clearly separated from all hitherto described species based on whole-cell protein profiling by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and shared a unique combination of metabolic and physiological properties. The capacity to assimilate l-histidine and the inability to grow at 35°C differentiated them from their phenotypically closest neighbor, Acinetobacter johnsonii. We conclude that the 25 strains represent a novel Acinetobacter species, for which the name Acinetobacter bohemicus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of A. bohemicus is ANC 3994(T) (=CIP 110496(T)=CCUG 63842(T)=CCM 8462(T)).

  20. Efficiency of Mergers of Mechanical Engineering Companies in the Czech Republic

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    Režňáková Mária

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the research results in the field of the efficiency of mergers and acquisitions in the mechanical engineering industry of the Czech Republic. The aim of this paper is to determine whether mergers taking place in mechanical engineering are successful, or possibly to identify factors which may be deemed as synergies sources. In our research, the success rate of mergers is identified on the basis of the increasing revenues and operating profit. It has been established that out of mergers completed in 2004 - 2011, success has been achieved in approximately half of them. For this reason, we have focused on identifying the factors which may serve as the reasons for such a difference. The selected indicators of the cost-to-revenue ratio and utilization of fixed assets, investments, and net working capital we analysed before and after the mergers in both groups of successful and unsuccessful mergers. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to test the results. The research results have demonstrated that synergies are not achieved due to the change in the market power of the merged companied but owing to operational efficiency which is reflected in a drop in labour costs and depreciation to revenues ratios and increasing asset utilization.

  1. Molecular characterization of 'Candidatus Rickettsia vini' in Ixodes arboricola from the Czech Republic and Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakova, Marketa; Bulkova, Alexandra; Costa, Francisco B; Kristin, Anton; Krist, Milos; Krause, Frantisek; Liznarova, Eva; Labruna, Marcelo B; Literak, Ivan

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence of rickettsiae in the tree-hole tick Ixodes arboricola in the Czech Republic and Slovakia. During May to September of 2009 and 2013, bird boxes belonging to three different areas were screened for ticks. In total, 454 nestlings and 109 nests of 10 hole-breeding bird species were examined. Ticks were found on Ficedula albicollis, Parus major, Cyanistes caeruleus and Sitta europaea and/or in their nests. In total, 166 ticks (17 nymphs, 10 males and 139 females) were found at 3 areas (arithmetic mean±standard error: 55.3±45.9). All ticks were tested for the presence of Rickettsia species by polymerase chain reaction targeting the rickettsial genes gltA, ompA, ompB and htrA and amplicon sequencing. All individuals except 3 nymphs were infected with 'Candidatus Rickettsia vini'. Multilocus sequence typing showed closest proximity to Rickettsia japonica and Rickettsia heilongjiangensis cluster. The presence of 'Ca. R. vini' is reported for the first time in Slovakia.

  2. Differentiation of the Demand for the Hunting Tourism in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kroupová Šárka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the world scale, there are various forms of how the hunting tourism is carried out. there is a considerably specific situation in the czech republic originating in the historical development. the assessment of the diversification of the demand for tourist activities was chosen to be the aim of this article. this assessment is based on a questionnaire survey among tourism participants who consume the specific products of the hunting tourism in the tourist regions of Bohemian Forest and south Bohemia. A guided tour in a game enclosure with a professional commentary and wildlife observation showed to be the most interesting offer. the most important thing is the identification of five main segments of demand called “ordinary” gamekeeper's hunting, “occasional” gamekeeper's hunting, angling activities, hunting without the killing and complementary activities. the differences among the latter five segments were identified in the representation of respondents as far as their gender and their membership in a community of anglers or gamekeepers are concerned.

  3. New technologies of waste disposal in Czech Republic, evoked by new laws

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peleska, L. [Czech Power Co., Prague (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    Of the utmost importance for the conception of waste disposal in any country is the fact how rich the respective country is and how realistic its legislators are. The apparently ideal approach to solving this problem is that chosen by more affluent European countries where wastes are recycled, are charged with taxes and duties, and where wastes that necessitate to be disposed are handled similarly as the nuclear wastes. The benefits are evident. The amounts of wastes to be deposited are minimalized. The waste repositories can be sealed by using layers of clay, foil and clay, and during a period of 50 to 100 years, any communication of the repository with the ambient environments can be eliminated. The disadvantage of such waste repositories, if applied to most of wastes, are the high costs associated with their depositioning. The prices of products, which the costs of waste disposal are being reflected in, are thus increasing, and, for this reason, many of products are becoming unmarketable, even on the domestic market. These financial means are often spent for nothing because the service life of some protective elements being at present used for construction of waste repositories is limited in time (for example, the service life of isolating foil is 50 to 1 00 years). Waste disposal in the Czech Republic, particulary from power plants, is discussed.

  4. Study of sugar beet viruses transmitted by Polymyxa betae in the Czech Republic

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    Rysanek Pavel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar beet viruses transmitted by Polymyxa betae are very widespread in the Czech Republic. Beet soil-borne virus (BSBV is present in almost all fields used for sugar beet growing, beet virus Q (BVQ is present in about 50% of fields but beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV is present in some limited regions only. It means that mixed infections of sugar beet by at least two viruses are quite common in the field. P. betae also occurs in almost all fields where sugar beet is now grown. Only two populations of P. betae not transmitting any virus were found. Cystosori of P. betae can harbour viruses without loosing infectivity for a very long time. We were able to detect these viruses in plants grown in soil stored dry for 12 years. BNYVV can cause serious yield losses under mideuropean conditions reaching up to 50% of sugar yield, whereas harmfulness BSBV and BVQ is questionable, because they also occur in fields with no problems concerning sugar beet growing. The host range of these viruses was studied. Both infect all types of beet (sugar fodder, red beet, mangold and spinach and usually are detectable in root system only. Other chenopodiaceous plants are infected only by some virus strains. These strains are also able to spread into above-ground parts of plants.

  5. Heavy Metals in Air Nanoparticles in the Moravian-Silesian Region (Czech Republic

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    Barbora Sýkorová

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Moravian-Silesian Region is one of the most polluted sites by dust particles in the Czech Republic. Therefore, atmospheric concentrations of heavy metals as cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, nickel, lead, antimony, thallium, manganese, iron and zinc, were monitored at 10 localities in the region during summer of 2014. Heavy metals were monitored in 10 particle size classes from 18.3 nm to 9.93 mm. The percentage of the amount of heavy metals in the sum PM at all localities ranged from 0.2 to 2.5 %. It was found that chromium, manganese, iron and zinc were mostly accumulated in dust particles with diameter greater than 1.6 µm. Lead, cadmium and antimony occur mainly in the class below 0.949 µm. These metals are more dangerous for human health, and can have potential carcinogenic effect. The influence of metallurgical industry evaluated on the basis of heavy metals in the individual particle size classes in the air within the Moravian-Silesian Region has not been unequivocally demonstrated.

  6. GIS Visualisations of Mortuary Data from Holešov, Czech Republic

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    Ladislav Šmejda

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a case-study demonstrating the potential of GIS visualisations for analyses of mortuary data, recorded half a century ago at the site of Holešov, Kroměříž district, in the Czech Republic. This cemetery consists of 10 Bell Beaker and 420 Early Bronze Age graves, giving the impression of continuous development over a considerable period of time. The temporality of the cemetery is examined in detail, via its chronological development, as well as the inseparable aspects of its social use and structuring through time. The original data were converted from the printed catalogue into a Geographical Information System (GIS consisting of digitised plans and a database. Exploratory analyses of the data were conducted, based on two complementary perspectives: the spatial reference of recorded features and objects, and the formal similarity of burial assemblages. The former approach includes spatial density and trend surface analyses, the latter applies multivariate factor analysis visualised in GIS, where the extracted factor scores define a new reference system. The methods employed are sometimes unorthodox, specifically because such plots describing formal space have been little employed in GIS-based studies of mortuary behaviour. This article strives to highlight the positive aspects of contemporary computer software in order to encourage researchers to pursue new ways of conceptualising their research ideas through the integration of concepts and methods, which traditionally have been applied to different research domains.

  7. Fluctuation analysis of high frequency electric power load in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kracík, Jiří; Lavička, Hynek

    2016-11-01

    We analyze the electric power load in the Czech Republic (CR) which exhibits a seasonality as well as other oscillations typical for European countries. Moreover, we detect the 1/f noise property of electrical power load with extra additional peaks that allows to separate it into a deterministic and stochastic part. We then focus on the analysis of the stochastic part using improved Multi-fractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis method (MFDFA) to investigate power load datasets with a minute resolution. Extracting the noise part of the signal by using Fourier transform allows us to apply this method to obtain the fluctuation function and to estimate the generalized Hurst exponent together with the correlated Hurst exponent, its improvement for the non-Gaussian datasets. The results exhibit a strong presence of persistent behavior or strong anti-persistent behavior for the differences and the dataset is characterized by a non-Gaussian skewed distribution. There are also indications for the presence of the probability distribution that has heavier tail than the Gaussian distribution.

  8. Practical Experience of Operational Diagnostics and Defectoscopy on Photovoltaic Installations in the Czech Republic

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    Petr Mastny

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental changes concerning the development of photovoltaic (PV installations in the Czech Republic (CR have occurred after 2010. The limits (and subsequent termination of support for the newly installed PV power plants (cancellation of purchase prices for produced electricity were the most important. This change of approach was advised by the relevant state authorities before the end of the year 2010 and resulted in a massive increase in PV installations during 2010. The goal of investors was to get more favorable conditions for the purchase of the electricity produced. A considerable amount of PV installations had been registered by the end of 2010, which do not reach the projected operating performance—this is caused by errors during installation and in many cases by inappropriately used (poor quality components. This paper is focused on the operation of PV power plants in the conditions of the CR. A final analysis of the operational measurements performed and potential approaches and methods applicable to operational diagnosis of defects on PV panels are presented. A brief mention is also made of the economic situation of PV systems operating in the current legislative conditions in the CR.

  9. Contribution to bionomy of Hylesinus fraxini (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae and its monogamy in the Czech Republic

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    Lukášová Karolina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on bionomics of the ash bark beetle Hylesinus fraxini (Panzer 1779. The study area was at Jílové u Prahy in the Central Bohemian Region of the Czech Republic. In February 2014, three common ash (Fraxinus excelsior trees were felled and Hylesinus fraxini infestation was subsequently observed from March. Beetles were collected from 20 debarked logs and dissected under stereomicroscope, and their sex was determined. Five logs with bark beetles were placed into photoeclectors. Beetles that emerged were collected and put into the second photoeclector with fresh ash wood to determine whether they would establish the second generation. The analysis showed that each gallery system with a pair of bark beetles contained one male with only one female. If one adult of H. fraxini was found in the gallery system, it was usually female. Therefore, possible polygamy of Hylesinus fraxini was not confirmed in Central Bohemia. Maternal gallery length significantly correlated with the number of eggs laid per female. Offspring beetles did not establish the second generation, as only maturation feeding occurred in fresh wood.

  10. Meteorological extremes and their impacts on forests in the czech republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brázdil, Rudolf

    Meteorological extremes in the Czech Republic (CR) cause considerable damage to forest stands. The effects of such extremes has increased conspicuously in the latter half of the present century, with salvage felling due to meteorological factors accounting in some years for more than half of the total timber cut in the CR. The most important reason for this salvage felling is damage due to wind (61 %), followed by damage due to snow (16 %), drought, air pollution and ice deposits. Using data from four professionally-maintained weather stations and one special station, time series for maximum wind gusts are analysed as well as the frequencies of days with ice deposits, maximum mass of ice, heights of new snow 10 cm and, for areal precipitation series from Bohemia and Moravia, precipitation sums for the year, the summer half-year and the frequencies of occurrence of dry months. The problems of measuring these characteristics and their homogeneities are discussed. Their annual distribution and their long-term changes (fluctuations, trends) are studied. The main forest disasters of the 20th century attributable to the identified meteorological extremes are described. The analysis does not, however, permit reliable conclusions about the future behaviour of those extremes and their impact on forests under conditions of global warming.

  11. The Flat Tax in Central Europe: Slovakia and the Czech Republic in Comparative Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Michael Ellis

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Why and how have Slovakia and the Czech Republic adopted flat tax policies? That is what this paper answers. This is a curious development given that flat tax policies were noticeably absent from the landscape of most of the world, including Eastern Europe. I argue that two simultaneous processes occur that make adoption viable.  First, at the domestic level, the idea of the flat tax is held in esteem by a number of actors, specifically: elite carriers, tax and financial ministers, think tanks and right-wing political parties. They champion this idea to its adoption, or at the least, introduce the flat tax into the policy-making apparatus. Second, at the international level, policy diffusion of the flat tax takes place. In other words, the experience of previous adopters impacts the decisions of future adopters. Examining both cognitive heuristics theory and rational learning I argue that there are “varieties of diffusion” during the diffusion of the flat tax.

  12. Declining impacts of hot spells on mortality in the Czech Republic: adaptation to climate change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kysely, Jan; Plavcova, Eva

    2010-05-01

    Extreme temperature events have pronounced negative impacts on ecosystems and society, including human health effects. The study examines temporal changes in mortality associated with spells of large positive temperature anomalies (hot spells) in the population of the Czech Republic (central Europe) during 1986-2006. Declining trends in the mortality impacts are found in summer as well as in transition seasons, in spite of rising temperature trends (warming by 1.4 deg. C in summer over the 21-year period). The finding remains unchanged if possible confounding effects of within-season acclimatization to heat and the mortality displacement effect are taken into account. Recent positive socio-economic development, following the collapse of communism in central and eastern Europe in 1989, and better public awareness of heat-related risks are likely the primary causes of the declining vulnerability. The results suggest that climate change may have relatively little influence on heat-related deaths, since changes in other factors that influence vulnerability of the population are dominant instead of temperature trends. It is essential to better understand the observed non-stationarity of the temperature-mortality relationship and the role of adaptation and its limits, both physiological and technological, and to address associated uncertainties in studies dealing with climate change projections of temperature-related mortality.

  13. Local energy policies in Poland and the Czech Republic. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    This project has prepared a study of the framework for energy management in local authorities in Poland and the Czech Republic with the objective of better: identifying the current situation, identifying the opportunities for action both now and in an extended European Union, identifying the constraints that may hinder full integration of East European municipalities in European Union programmes and improve the integration of municipalities in the countries concerned in pan-European networks of municipalities interested in energy issues. The report provides then recommendations to the Commission and to the European Union. First it is vital that more emphasis is put on energy monitoring as an essential first stage in raising finance to improve energy performance. Secondly the existing energy laws seem to generally provide the potential basis for effective energy planning (they simply need to have sufficient support to ensure that they are implemented with reasonable speed). There are problems however in coordinating the actions of competing networks, aggravated by the fact that the coordinators themselves are usually proprietors of one of the networks and so have an interest. It is therefore important that sufficient weight is given to the demand side and consideration could helpfully be given by government as to how this could best be achieved. Thirdly there is need to promote renewable energy with more vigor. Fourthly, the Agenda 21 process will only take off very slowly in the absence of a lead from government. This is confirmed by action in the European Union. (A.L.B.)

  14. Comparative Assessment of Sustainable Energy Development in the Czech Republic, Lithuania and Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Streimikiene Dalia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable energy development and its evaluation is a key resource in learning and understanding the policies implemented by the European Commission and how they work while comparing countries within sustainable energy indicators in the area of sustainable energy. The competitiveness of countries is directly related to the progress achieved in implementing sustainable energy development as the energy sector has great significance for the future development of the country. The energy sector is crucial for economic growth and has a major impact on the environment. Sustainable energy development permits the decoupling of economic growth from energy consumption and the decoupling of energy consumption from atmospheric pollution. This paper views the concept of sustainable energy development and policies that are in place of this topic. It also compares the Czech Republic, Lithuania, and Slovakia within the boundaries of the following sustainable energy development indicators: sustainable consumption and production, marking the production of energy; climate change and energy, marking GHG emissions and the share of renewable energy in gross final energy consumption; sustainable transport, marking the energy consumption of transport relative to GDP.

  15. Significance of Geological Units of the Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic, as Seen by Ambient Noise Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Růžek, Bohuslav; Valentová, Lubica; Gallovič, František

    2016-05-01

    Broadband recordings of 88 seismic stations distributed in the Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic, and covering the time period of up to 12 years were processed by a cross-correlation technique. All correlograms were analyzed by a novel approach to get both group and phase dispersion of Rayleigh and Love waves. Individual dispersion curves were averaged in five distinct geological units which constitute the Bohemian Massif (Saxothuringian, Teplá-Barrandean, Sudetes, Moravo-Silesian, and Moldanubian). Estimated error of the averaged dispersion curves are by an order smaller than the inherent variability due to the 3D distribution of seismic velocities within the units. The averaged dispersion data were inverted for 1D layered velocity models including their uncertainty, which are characteristic for each of the geological unit. We found that, overall, the differences between the inverted velocity models are of similar order as the variability inside the geological units, suggesting that the geological specification of the units is not fully reflected into the S-wave propagation velocities on a regional scale. Nevertheless, careful treatment of the dispersion data allowed us to identify some robust characteristics of the area. The vp to vs ratio is anomalously low (~1.6) for all the units. The Moldanubian is the most rigid and most homogeneous part of the Bohemian Massif. Middle crust in the depth range of ~3-15 km is relatively homogeneous across the investigated region, while both uppermost horizon (0-3 km) and lower crust (>15 km) exhibit lower degree of homogeneity.

  16. Responses to the Economic Crisis among Immigrants in the Czech Republic: Impeding and Inhibiting Factors for Staying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marketa Rulikova

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the impact of the most recent global economic crisis on immigration in the Czech Republic. Developments during this economically troubled period suggest that the “immigration-inexperienced” Czech Republic, which has attracted significant numbers of people seeking economic opportunities in the past decade for the first time, has repeated historical mistakes made by Western European countries during the 1970s oil crisis. Initially, promising economic growth at the beginning of the decade allowed the Czech government to ignore issues of immigration, including controlling inflow and immigrants’ integration into the majority of society. The sudden reality of jobs disappearing in late 2008, irrespective of the fact that many employers in the economic sectors are dependent on foreign guest workers, caught the country unprepared. In an effort to level the unemployment rate and dampen societal unrest, the Czech Republic offered financial assistance to immigrants who opted to depart voluntarily, but officials overestimated the willingness of foreign labourers to return home, even if gainful work vanished.This paper is based on research conducted among participants of the government-assisted Voluntary Return Programme and a follow-up ethnographic study in the Vietnamese, Ukrainian and Mongolian communities in Prague. It can be shown that most immigrants decided to stay despite extreme declines in their living conditions. While the motivations of immigrants to leave or stay are multifaceted, this paper offers an alternative to the “pull-push” model that takes into consideration economic as well as cultural factors, which both impede and inhibit migrants from returning “home”.

  17. The impact of financial crisis on financial supervision in the EU, the USA and the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kučerová, Z.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Globalization and financial integration allows a more efficient allocation of capital in economies. However, integrated financial markets contribute to the dissemination of financial contagion among the financially integrated states. The world financial crisis has uncovered the lack of an efficient system of financial supervision. The paper is focused on the analysis of the impact of the world financial crisis on the systems of financial supervision in the EU, the USA and the Czech Republic. We initially describe the contemporary financial crisis. Then we focus on the system of financial supervision in the EU, the USA and the Czech Republic. We conclude that the system of financial supervision in the EU must be reformed in order to coordinate the different national systems of all EU member states. The same holds for the financial supervision in the USA that is quite complicated because of the dual federal-state banking system. The Czech system of financial supervision does not have to be reformed, because it was modified in 2006 (before the crisis and now it is very simple, definite and well-functioning.

  18. Variation in the vitamin D receptor gene is not associated with risk of colorectal cancer in the Czech Republic.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hughes, David J

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: Increased levels of vitamin D may protect against colorectal cancer (CRC) development and recurrence. Accumulating epidemiologic evidence suggests these effects may be partly mediated by genetic variants of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) proposed to be associated with altered risk of CRC. We wished to determine if common VDR polymorphisms affected CRC risk in the Czech Republic, a homogenous European population with a high CRC incidence rate. METHODS: Frequencies of the common VDR gene polymorphisms rs2238136, rs1544410 (BsmI), rs7975232 (ApaI), and rs731236 (TaqI) were determined using allele-specific PCR in a case control analysis of a series of 754 CRC patients and 627 patients without malignant disease recruited from centers throughout the Czech Republic. Unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association between these variants and risk of CRC. RESULTS: None of the four polymorphisms tested had any significant effect on CRC risk. No significant differences were observed in susceptibility when the population was stratified by anatomical sub-site, sex, BMI, smoking, alcohol, or presence of polyps. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that common variation in the VDR gene had little effect on its own on predisposition to sporadic CRC in the Czech population.

  19. Changes in total concentrations and assessed background concentrations of heavy metals in moss in Lithuania and the Czech Republic between 1995 and 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakalys, J; Kvietkus, K; Sucharová, J; Suchara, I; Valiulis, D

    2009-06-01

    Data on concentrations of heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, V and Zn) in moss collected on the lightly industrialized territory of Lithuania and on the highly industrialized territory of the Czech Republic in 1995, 2000 and 2005 is used to separate the background and anthropogenic contributions to heavy metal concentrations in moss. The distribution of the concentration logarithms allowed us to determine a background mode, and to estimate the background concentration of heavy metals from this mode. The method was then applied for an estimation of the contribution of local sources to the total pollution level in both countries. The average concentrations and the background modes of heavy metals in Lithuania and in the Czech Republic were very similar, except in the case of vanadium, where the background concentration was higher in Lithuania than in the Czech Republic. For most elements, the background concentration in moss had a decreasing tendency in Lithuania and in the Czech Republic between 1995 and 2005, though the concentration of Cu and Hg increased in Lithuania. The variability of chromium concentration in moss differed from the remaining investigated elements in the Czech Republic, and it was expressed as a bimodal lognormal distribution. This variability may be due to simultaneous contamination of moss by chromium from soil and from industrial sources of pollution.

  20. Factors that influence the success of small and medium enterprises in ICT: a case study from the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Krejcí

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium enterprises (SMEs occupy a large niche in the information and technology sector (ICT and play an important role in the functioning on any state’s economy. This paper focuses on a specific local market and uses the Czech Republic as a case study in order to establish the success factors crucial for achieving economic success. It aims at determining those factors with the help of econometric success rate models based on the own data collected via the means of questionnaire survey among ICT enterprise. Our results show that the earnings-employee ratio, average revenues and the investment in own R&D play the most important role in the success of Czech SMEs in question. Both, financial and non-financial indicators perform significantly in the predictions of success.

  1. What was driving land-scape drying in the Czech Republic between 1961 and 2012?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlavinka, Petr; Trnka, Miroslav; Brázdil, Rudolf; Balek, Jan; Semerádová, Daniela; Možný, Martin; Štěpánek, Petr; Dobrovolný, Petr; Zahradníček, Pavel; Dubrovský, Martin; Eitzinger, Josef; Fuchs, Brian; Svoboda, Mark; Hayes, Michael; Žalud, Zdeněk

    2015-04-01

    The drying trends in the Czech Republic especially during May and June are of great concern as they influence the key part of growing season in the region. The fact that April-June period of 2001-2012 showed 50% increase of drought probability compared to 1961-1980 is alarming. In the same time the probability of extreme drought was found to be also rising significantly. This study tries to understand what has driven reported changes in the soil moisture especially during the warm half of the year. Therefore trends of global radiation, temperature, precipitation, relative humidity, wind speed, reference and actual evapotranspiration, snow cover but also start of key phenology phases were assessed and their relationship with the changes in the soil moisture analyzed. In addition measured pan-evaporation data as well as results of studies were used to assess reliability of the reported trends. We have found that increased global radiation and air temperature together with decreased relative humidity (all significant at 0.05) lead the increase of the reference evapotranspiration in all months of growing season. That was the case especially in April, May and August when over 80% of the territory showed statistically significant trends in reference evapotranspiration values. This finding was shown to be consistent with the observed pan evaporation (1968-2012) that was characterized by increasing trends especially during April-June period. These changes in combination with the earlier end of snow cover and earlier start of growing season (in some regions by up to 20 days) led to increased actual evapotranspiration at the start of growing season that tends to deplete the soil moisture earlier, leaving landscape more exposed to impacts of rainfall variability. These results support the concerns about the potentially increased severity of drought events in Central Europe. While the evaporative demand is clearly increasing, it is not matched by the similar increase of

  2. The frequencies of six important thrombophilic mutations in a population of the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvasnička, T; Hájková, J; Bobčíková, P; Cverhová, V; Malíková, I; Ulrych, J; Bříza, J; Dušková, D; Poletínová, S; Kieferová, V; Kvasnička, J

    2014-01-01

    The primary aim was to determine frequencies of mutations related to risk of venous thrombosis in healthy Caucasians in Central Bohemia. In a cohort of 1527 healthy individuals the frequency of risk alleles for the mutations FV Leiden and FII 20210G>A was 4.5% and 1.3%, respectively. Frequency of 4G PAI-1 allele was 55.5%. Genotype frequencies were: GG 91.03%, GA 8.91%, and AA 0.07% for FV Leiden; GG 97.45%, GA 2.49%, and AA 0.07% for FII 20210G>A; 4G/4G 30.26%, 4G/5G 50.56%, and 5G/5G 19.19% for PAI-1. Frequency of the risk allele A in polymorphism SERPINC1 (IVS +141G >A) was 11.3%, and frequencies of genotypes were as follows: GG 78.36%, GA 20.66%, and AA 0.98%. Frequency of the risk allele T for polymorphism GP6 13254T>C was 87.7%, and frequencies of genotypes were as follows: TT 77.14%, TC 21.15%, and CC 1.70%. Frequency of the risk allele A in polymorphism CYP4V2 (Lys259Gln) was 65.2%, and frequencies of genotypes were: CC 12.25%, CA 45.12 %, and AA 42.63%. All observed genotypes and alleles frequencies were without gender differences. Their occurrences confirm a relatively high prevalence of hereditary thrombophilia predisposition in the Czech Republic.

  3. Impacts of temperature extremes on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davídkovová, H.; Kyselý, J.; Plavcová, E.; Urban, A.; Kriz, B.; Kyncl, J.

    2012-04-01

    Elevated mortality associated with high ambient temperatures in summer represents one of the main impacts of weather extremes on human society. Increases in cardiovascular mortality during heat waves have been reported in many European countries; much less is known about which particular cardiovascular disorders are most affected during heat waves, and whether similar patterns are found for morbidity (hospital admissions). Relatively less understood is also cold-related mortality and morbidity in winter, when the relationships between weather and human health are more complex, less direct, and confounded by other factors such as epidemics of influenza/acute respiratory infections. The present study analyses relationships between temperature extremes and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. We make use of the datasets on hospital admissions and daily mortality in the population of the Czech Republic (about 10.3 million) over 1994-2009. The data have been standardized to remove the effects of the long-term trend and the seasonal and weekly cycles. Periods when the morbidity/mortality data were affected by epidemics of influenza and other acute respiratory infections have been removed from the analysis. We use analogous definitions for hot and cold spells based on quantiles of daily average temperature anomalies, which allows for a comparison of the findings for summer hot spells and winter cold spells. The main aims of the study are (i) to identify deviations of mortality and morbidity from the baseline associated with hot and cold spells, (ii) to compare the hot- and cold-spell effects for individual cardiovascular diseases (e.g. ischaemic heart disease I20-I25, cerebrovascular disease I60-I69, hypertension I10, aterosclerosis I70) and to identify those diagnoses that are most closely linked to temperature extremes, (iii) to identify population groups most vulnerable to temperature extremes, and (iv) to compare the links to temperature extremes for morbidity and

  4. Excess cardiovascular mortality associated with cold spells in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyncl Jan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between cardiovascular mortality and winter cold spells was evaluated in the population of the Czech Republic over 21-yr period 1986–2006. No comprehensive study on cold-related mortality in central Europe has been carried out despite the fact that cold air invasions are more frequent and severe in this region than in western and southern Europe. Methods Cold spells were defined as periods of days on which air temperature does not exceed -3.5°C. Days on which mortality was affected by epidemics of influenza/acute respiratory infections were identified and omitted from the analysis. Excess cardiovascular mortality was determined after the long-term changes and the seasonal cycle in mortality had been removed. Excess mortality during and after cold spells was examined in individual age groups and genders. Results Cold spells were associated with positive mean excess cardiovascular mortality in all age groups (25–59, 60–69, 70–79 and 80+ years and in both men and women. The relative mortality effects were most pronounced and most direct in middle-aged men (25–59 years, which contrasts with majority of studies on cold-related mortality in other regions. The estimated excess mortality during the severe cold spells in January 1987 (+274 cardiovascular deaths is comparable to that attributed to the most severe heat wave in this region in 1994. Conclusion The results show that cold stress has a considerable impact on mortality in central Europe, representing a public health threat of an importance similar to heat waves. The elevated mortality risks in men aged 25–59 years may be related to occupational exposure of large numbers of men working outdoors in winter. Early warnings and preventive measures based on weather forecast and targeted on the susceptible parts of the population may help mitigate the effects of cold spells and save lives.

  5. THE EVOLUTION OF THE MACROECONOMIC STABILISATION PENTAGON IN ROMANIA, CZECH REPUBLIC AND HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionita Rodica Oana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to achieve the pentagon analysis of macroeconomic stabilization in Romania, Czech Republic and Hungary in the period 2000 to 2013. It is a comparative analysis of the countries above mentioned in terms of the five key targets of economic policy, aiming the increasing, dynamic balance of each economy: economic growth rate, unemployment rate, inflation rate, the budget deficit as a percentage of Gross Domestic Product, the current account deficit of the balance of payments as a percentage of Gross Domestic Product. The main objective of each economy which passes from planned to market economy should be to cease the economic decline, followed by the elimination of internal and external imbalances and only after that it should be followed by a continuous growth process. All the above mentioned indicators shall be represented on an ad hoc graduated scale. The period of research was chosen so as to obtain a view of the macroeconomic policies in transition from one period to another, in order to highlight the common as well as the main differences in the approach used for economy stabilization. Therefore I have computed the graphical analysis of macroeconomic stabilization pentagon for the three countries in the period 2000- 2013 to captures the dynamics of the economic policy mix. This benchmark tool shows the interdependence which exists between inflation and other important economic indicators. The events occurred in the period starting with 2007/2008 have raised the interest of economics researchers, highlighting the need for significant improvements in the surveillance of the economic and financial system. The global fragility generated concerns regarding the vulnerabilities and causes which led to the occurrence of such events, thus generating different measurement techniques. Despite all its advantages, this approach has a significant limitation consisting in the fact that it can only reveal a picture without surprising other

  6. MBL1 genotypes in wild boar populations from Sweden, Austria, the Czech Republic, and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, I-M; Sandholm, K; Ekdahl, K N; Okumura, N; Uenishi, H; Guldbrandtsen, B; Essler, S E; Knoll, A; Heegaard, P M H; Edfors, I; Juul-Madsen, H R

    2013-04-01

    The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) G949T in the mannose-binding lectin ( MBL ) 1 gene has been associated with low MBL-A concentration in serum and detected at different frequencies in various European pig populations. However, the origin of this SNP is not known. Part of the MBL1 gene was sequenced in 12 wild boar/Large White crossbred pigs from the second backcross (BC 2 ) generation in a family material originating from two wild boar x Large White intercrosses. Also, MBL-A serum concentration was measured in the entire BC 2 generation (n = 45). Furthermore, the genotypes of 68 wild boars from Sweden, Austria, the Czech Republic, and Japan were determined in regard to five previously described SNPs in MBL1 . The T allele of G949T was present among the BC 2 animals. MBL-A serum concentration in the BC 2 animals showed a bimodal distribution, with one-third of the animals at levels between 0.7 and 1.6 μg mL(-1) and the remaining pigs at levels around 13 μg mL(-1) . There was a co-variation between the presence of the T allele and low MBL-A concentration in serum. The genotyping of the wild boars revealed differences between populations. The T allele of G949T was not detected in the Austrian and Japanese samples and is thus unlikely to be an original feature of wild boars. In contrast, it was present at high frequency (0.35) among the Swedish wild boars, probably representing a founder effect. Five MBL1 haplotypes were resolved. Only two of these were present among the Japanese wild boars compared to four in each of the European populations. This difference may reflect differences in selection pressure and population history.

  7. An analysis of conditions for physical activity and physical education in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Pavelka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The school environment is considered suitable for promoting physical activity in children, which influences their attitude not only to physical activity but also to themselves, classmates, and teachers. Besides the family, the school environment is a significant scene for the development of life values, which includes a positive children's attitude to regular physical activity. AIMS: The objective of the study is to use a school-level questionnaire to analyse spatial and organizational conditions for physical activity and schoolbased physical education in primary and secondary schools in the Czech Republic (CR. METHODS: To investigate the conditions for physical activity and physical education in schools in the CR, a selection sample of 92 educational institutions (84 primary schools and 8 multi-year grammar schools were used. Research data were collected in the first half of 2012. Statistical data processing was performed by means of descriptive statistics and graphic illustration from the questionnaire. RESULTS: Apart from physical education lessons, schools provide additional forms of after-school physical activity. As much as 29.4% of schools provide afterschool physical activity, while physically active breaks are promoted by 26.8% of schools. More than 80% of schools have sufficient equipment for the delivery of physical activity and use it on a daily basis. Only in 17% of schools students have free access to this equipment during breaks and free lessons. CONCLUSIONS: Most schools in the CR have sufficient space for the delivery of children's physical activity. The most frequent physical activity during school lessons is physical education, which is delivered in two lessons a week. Promotion of physical activity during breaks and free lessons appears significant in terms of overall physical activity levels in children.

  8. Spatiotemporal Changes in Atmospheric Deposition Rates Across The Czech Republic Estimated in The Selected Biomonitoring Campaigns. Examples of Results Available For Landscape Ecology and Land Use Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchara Ivan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Several large-scale and fine-scale biomonitoring surveys were carried out in the Czech Republic to estimate current and long-term accumulated atmospheric deposition rates using moss, spruce bark and forest floor humus as bioindicators since the end of 1980s. The results of the bioindicator analyses significantly correlated with available figures of deposition rates detected at the EMEP or Czech national measurement stations.

  9. IMPROVEMENT OF LOGISTICS IN MILK PROCESSING ENTERPRISE MADETA, inc. IN ČESKÉ BUDĚJOVICE (CZECH REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drahoš Vaněček

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with increasing competitiveness in the biggest milk processing enterprise in the Czech Republic, Madeta, inc. The paper describes the know-how in logistic management. It concerns first of all outsourcing. Outsourcing is such a system, when the milk processing enterprise transfers specific activities, conducted formerly by itself, to so called logistics providers. This makes possible to focus on essential activities, which are manufacturing milk and milk products and modification of assortments. Into the logistic chain [supply chain] four new firms were incorporated.

  10. The Developmnet of the Self-employed Sector in the Czech Republic in the Years 2006 - 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Tomas Pavlicek

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the article is to analyse the short term economic factors behind the growth in the number of self-employed in the Czech Republic in the period from 2006 to 2010. The article describes the main legislature changes, which affected self-employment, estimates the flows between the self-employment and the wage labour market and evaluates the development of paid tax revenue in relation to the two profit indicators - tax base and mixed income. It is shown that the economic downturn in 200...

  11. Legends as a mirror to cultural identity and quality practice in the Czech Republic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgaard, Jens Jørn; Mansfield, George; Edgeman, Rick L.

    1998-01-01

    business, economic, and environmental challenges that must be overcome if it is to successfully compete with its more prosperous Western European neighbors and globally. Historic Czech pragmatism and resourcefulness, wed with quality improvement efforts offer a partial solution to the Czech dilemma....

  12. Selected information on flight simulators - main requirements, categories and their development, production and using for flight crew training in the both Slovak Republic and Czech Republic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana KOVÁČOVÁ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present the selected information concerning the flight simulators. After some information from the general and historical point of views, the authors are focusing on main requirements for the flight simulators and their categorisation from different aspects, including outline of principal international documents published by ICAO, EASA (covering JAR regulation and FAA referring to and/or dealing with the use of Flight Simulators Training Devices (FSTD and technical and operational requirements in this area for aeroplanes. The concluding chapters of the paper introduce appropriate information on the development and manufacturing organizations in the flight simulators area and the using of this equipment in the both Slovak Republic and Czech Republic.

  13. Mercury in forest ecosystems near chlor-alkali plant in the Czech republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šimeček, Martin; Navratil, Tomas; Rohovec, Jan

    2016-04-01

    A mercury electrolysis chlor-alkali plant has been operating in Neratovice, the central Czech Republic since year 1948. We focused on the assessment of mercury contamination in the plant surroundings. To assess the contamination extent we sampled organic and mineral soils, bedrock, bark, needles and tree rings from several forest sites with variable distance from plant. The soils were predominately arenic cambisol and the vegetation cover composed of mixed to coniferous forests (majorly Pinus sylvestris). At all the sites, the highest concentrations occurred in the organic rich O horizons of the forest soils. The Hg concentrations increased from Oi horizon (up to 252 μg/kg) with fresh organic matter, through Oe horizons (up to 617 μg/kg) to the Oa horizons (up to 813 μg/kg) with relatively highly decomposed organic matter. The Hg concentrations in mineral soil were significantly lower in range from 3 to 44 μg/kg. Sandstone bedrock contained low Hg concentrations from 2.7 to 4.7 μg/kg. The difference between the high Hg in organic and low Hg in mineral horizons results from order of magnitude different content of soil organic matter. In the same time low Hg in mineral soil indicates low level of Hg migration down the soil profile. Apart from the simple comparison of Hg concentrations, insight into the patterns of soil Hg distribution can be gained by examining the stoichiometric ratios of Hg to C. Soil Hg/C should be greater in areas with greater atmospheric Hg deposition. O horizons of sites closer to plant up to 4.5 km exhibited elevated Hg/C ratios (2.0 - 2.2 μg/g) with respect to those at more distant sites (0.7 - 0.9 μg/g). Values of mineral soil Hg/C ratios varied irrespective to the distance from the plant. Organic soil Hg pool decreased from 13.6 mg/m2 in distance of 1.9 km from the plant to 2.6 mg/m2 in distance of 9 km. But the mineral soil Hg pool ranging from 7.6 to 12.3 mg/m2 exhibited no trend with distance. The polluted sites up to 2.5 km from

  14. Lie detection based on nonverbal expressions - study of the Czech Republic Police employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedvika Boukalová

    2014-12-01

    information or who are motivated to lie. The procedure: The material consisted of short video sections originating from real investigation of serious crime. After the pilot study the stimuli material has been created consisting of 21 video-sections lasting 30 seconds, the sound of the videos was filtered, so the paraverbal characteristics were maintained, but the content of the speech was unclear. The research sample consisted of 197 police officers from 5 departments. Selected results: The TRUTH detection accuracy - (the accuracy of correct evaluation of the truth-telling people on the video was situated between 0,25 (25% to 0,75 (75%. The LIE detection accuracy - was situated between 0,44 (44% to 1 (100%. The overall accuracy (means combined accuracy of lie and truth detection was situated between 0,33 (33% and 0.86 (86%. 5 respondents obtained results, that were above the average of the group in all the three categories (truth, lie, overall. The discussion: The results indicate that (among others we can find so called lie bias among the police workers, which is common in the similar professional settings and it involves higher expectations of lie and deceit on the side of the communication partner. In the common population the opposite tendency - so called truth bias - tendency to evaluate others (situations, behavior, statements as truthful is found. The study managed to find police workers, who obtained better results than guessing and also better than the average of the tested group. The main limit of the study is probably the lack of repeated retest of the sample. This and other findings were involved into the police training focused on communication and lie during criminal investigation, which is not systematic in Czech Republic. The plan is to test also other professional groups in the future.

  15. Analysis of the Impact of Transparency, Corruption, Openness in Competition and Tender Procedures on Public Procurement in the Czech Republic

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    František Ochrana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses the impact of transparency and openness to competition in public procurement in the Czech Republic. The problems of the Czech procurement market have been demonstrated on the analysis of a sample of contracts awarded by local government entities. From among a set of factors influencing the efficiency of public procurement, we closely analyse transparency, resilience against corruption, openness, effective administrative award procedure, and formulation of appropriate evaluation criteria for selecting the most suitable bid. Some assumptions were confirmed, including a positive effect of open procedures on the level of competition on the supply side as well as the dominant use of price criteria only. The latter case is probably often caused by low skills of workers at the contracting entities, as well as the lack of resources in public budgets. However, we have to reject the persistent legend of “undershooting” tender prices and subsequently increasing the final prices of public contracts. Increases of final prices are very limited. Based on the results of the analyses presented, we argue that the main problem of the Czech public procurement market lies in a rather low competence of administrators who are not able to use non-price criteria more often.

  16. Carbofuran - A New and Effective Method of Illegal Killing of Otters (Lutra lutra in the Czech Republic

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    Václav Hlaváč

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Carbofuran - a poison recently used to illegally kill otters - is described from the Czech Republic. Six different cases of illegal poisoning of otters have been discovered since 2006 with a total number of 14 killed individuals. Apart from otters, many other animals - namely raptors and other carnivores - have been poisoned by carbofuran in the Czech Republic as well. The poisoning substance is now banned in the EU, however, it has been widely used in agriculture as insecticide and large supplies are generally available. This fact together with relative ease of using it can pose a threat to otter population, especially in areas with raising conflict between otter protection and fish farming. Therefore, it is important to report any suspicious cases of dead wildlife, to immediately carry out laboratory testing in such cases, and to inform relevant officials including the police. It will help monitor the problem and raise local awareness, and could possibly help to catch some persecutors. Taking these actions should be the first step in trying to stop poisoning wildlife by carbofuran.

  17. Clostridium difficile PCR ribotypes 001 and 176 - the common denominator of C. difficile infection epidemiology in the Czech Republic, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krutova, Marcela; Matejkova, Jana; Kuijper, Ed J; Drevinek, Pavel; Nyc, Otakar

    2016-07-21

    In 2014, 18 hospitals in the Czech Republic participated in a survey of the incidence of Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) in the country. The mean CDI incidence was 6.1 (standard deviation (SD):7.2) cases per 10,000 patient bed-days and 37.8 cases (SD: 41.4) per 10,000 admissions. The mean CDI testing frequency was 39.5 tests (SD: 25.4) per 10,000 patient bed-days and 255.8 tests (SD: 164.0) per 10,000 admissions. A total of 774 C. difficile isolates were investigated, of which 225 (29%) belonged to PCR ribotype 176, and 184 isolates (24%) belonged to PCR ribotype 001. Multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) revealed 27 clonal complexes formed by 84% (190/225) of PCR ribotype 176 isolates, and 14 clonal complexes formed by 77% (141/184) of PCR ribotype 001 isolates. Clonal clusters of PCR ribotypes 176 and 001 were observed in 11 and 7 hospitals, respectively. Our data demonstrate the spread of two C. difficile PCR ribotypes within 18 hospitals in the Czech Republic, stressing the importance of standardising CDI testing protocols and implementing mandatory CDI surveillance in the country.

  18. Changes in the VAT Burden on Expenses of Selected Households in the Czech Republic (2007–2014

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    Střílková Regína

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Czech Republic is a typical representative EU Member State which has several times changed VAT rates during the analyzed period 2007–2014 in an effort to consolidate the public budget. These changes are reflected in household spending, which were analyzed by means of the consumer basket, the composition of which is also undergoing changes. Another factor that has an impact on household expenditures is the transfer of commodities between the reduced and standard rate of VAT. The final factor used is the differentiation of households according to their income levels. The aim of this paper is to determine how these changes took effect in the Czech Republic in the share of consumption of commodities included in the standard and reduced VAT rates and in exempt transactions according to household income groups in the analyzed period 2007–2014 and to determine the impact of these changes on the tax burden on selected households by value added tax and confirmation of the assumption of VAT regressivity.

  19. Biology and Yield of Rocket (Eruca sativa Mill. under Field Conditions of the Czech Republic (Central Europe

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    Ivana DOLEŽALOVÁ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Five rocket (Eruca sativa (L. Mill. varieties and accessions were cultivated under field conditions in the Czech Republic (Central Europe and subsequently studied for variation in morphology and yield. Two cultivation techniques (treatments were tested during the growing seasons in 2010 and 2011: directly sown seeds in the field and plantlets cultivated in a glasshouse and later transplanted to the field. There were analysed four morphological parameters of the leaf rosette (leaf shape in outline, leaf margin, leaf apex and leaf colour, marketable yield, nonmarketable parts, and rosette radius. Plants from plantlets transplanted to the field in spring terms (April yielded a substantially higher marketable yield and had a higher rosette radius in contrast to plants from directly sown seeds. Conversely, for the summer terms (late August, September the direct sowing technique produced higher marketable yield in comparison with plantlets treatment. Plants cultivated from directly sowed seeds reached a marketable yield on average from 15 to 60 g per plant while transplanted plants produced on average from 10 to 49 g per plant. It is evident that cultivation of rocket under field conditions of the Czech Republic is possible and provides, when using the appropriate sowing term, more or less stable yields of marketable parts. Details on variation in yield parameters of individual varieties and accessions are presented.

  20. Volunteering and mutual aid in health and social care in the Czech Republic as an example of active citizenship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krízová, Eva

    2012-06-01

    This article informs about recent research findings on voluntary and mutual aid in the Czech Republic with a special attention paid to formal volunteering in health and social care. The data suggest that public involvement is comparable to middle-frequency experienced in European countries. In this respect, volunteering is higher in the Czech Republic than in other former Eastern European countries and is an evidence of a successful and rapid restoration of the civic sector. New patterns of volunteering featured by planning, coordination, and contracting have spread out being strongly supported by national and EU policy measures. Managerial patterns of volunteering are dominating in health and social care institutions. Volunteering in health and social care is firmly motivated by emotional altruism; however, reciprocal (instrumental) and normative motivations are also present, though to a lesser extent compared to other sectors of volunteer activities. In the managerial pattern of volunteering altruism is balanced with personal gains and benefits for those who volunteer. Volunteering is deeply embedded in a civic, humanitarian paradigm instead of a religious faith and duty.

  1. Potential of criminological research in evaluation of victim-focused policy and legislation in the Czech Republic

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    Štefunková Michaela

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For effective victim-focused legislation, evidence-based knowledge is essential, thus making criminological research of great importance. Victimization surveys represent a globally recognized type of criminological investigation. Although they are primarily focused on measuring the dark figure of crime, they can also provide a broad spectrum of information on victimization-related issues. The latest victimization survey was carried out in the Czech Republic by the Institute of Criminology and Social Prevention in 2013. Through face to face interviews, victimization was explored through eight selected offences in the period of 12 months prior the survey. The representative sample included 3000 respondents 15 years of age and older. The next round is planned for 2017. Since 2013, a new Act no. 45/2013 Coll., on Victims of Crime has come into effect in the Czech Republic. This paper will discuss how victimization surveys can enrich the knowledge on victimization-related issues and how they can help in the evaluation of criminal policy.

  2. On the system of monitoring ambient air quality in relation to the health of the population of the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazmarova, H. [National Inst. of Public Health, Prague (Czech Republic)

    1995-12-31

    In 1991 the Government of the Czech republic in Ruling No 369 approved a draft of a system for monitoring the health of the population in relation to the environment on the basis of a need to obtain purposefully targeted information for an appropriate policy for the protection of health and the environment. The aim of monitoring does not and cannot consist of determining the cause and effect relationship between the health status and pollutants. The system of monitoring is an open and comprehensive system of the continual collection, processing and evaluation of data concerned with the load on the organism and damage to human health in relation to environmental pollution. Air pollution and health are one of the six subsystems realised in the whole system (beside drinking water, noise, food, biomarkers, and demographic and health statistics). The aim of the monitoring is to obtain a data base that shall serve three main purposes: (1) Description of the status of health of the population and characteristics of the ambient air, (2) Evaluation of the trend of each index, (3) Assessment and evaluation of the risk to health of the parameters under study. Thirty cities and towns were selected in the Czech Republic for the realisation of the monitoring system. (author)

  3. MIGRATORY ABILITY OF ORCONECTES LIMOSUS THROUGH A FISHPASS AND NOTES ON ITS OCCURRENCE IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC

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    KOZÁK P.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of the spiny-cheek crayfish in the Czech Republic was first reported in the 1980´s in the Elbe River and is a result of its upstream migration from Germany. This study confirms that this species occurs in many other localities across the Czech Republic. Its migration ability was experimentally studied at a thirty-chambers fishpass located at a hydroelectric power station in the Elbe River. Group-marked crayfish were placed into 3 selected chambers. Their up- and downstream movement was then registered for 30 min after crayfish stocking. We found that a large portion of the experimental crayfish was passively carried along the stream and was caught in the lowest chamber. The movement of crayfish against the water current towards the higher-positioned chambers was not recorded. However, crayfish showed to have a high ability to hold their position in a strong water flow. Overall, 56.7 ± 9.43%, 6.7 ± 9.43% and 3.3 ± 4.71% of crayfish remained in the chamber of insertion and 23.3 ± 4.71%, 30.0 ± 14.14% and 26.7 ± 17.00% of crayfish migrated to the lower-positioned chambers.

  4. Plumbotectonic aspects of polymetallic vein mineralization in Paleozoic sediments and Proterozoic basement of Moravia (Czech Republic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobodník, Marek; Jacher-Śliwczyńska, Katarzyna; Taylor, Matthew C.; Schneider, Jens; Dolníček, Zdeněk

    2008-02-01

    A regional isotopic study of Pb and S in hydrothermal galenas and U-Pb and S in potential source rocks was carried out for part of Moravia, Czech Republic. Two major generations of veins, (syn-) Variscan and post-Variscan, are defined based on the Pb-isotope system together with structural constraints (local structures and regional trends). The Pb-isotopic compositions of galena plot in two distinct populations with outliers in 206Pb/204Pb-207Pb/204Pb space. Galena from veins hosted in greywackes provides a cluster with the lowest Pb-Pb ratios: 206Pb/204Pb = 18.15-18.27, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.59-15.61, 208Pb/204Pb = 38.11-38.23. Those hosted in both limestones and greywackes provide the second cluster: 206Pb/204Pb = 18.37-18.44, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.60-15.63, 208Pb/204Pb = 38.14-38.32. These clusters suggest model Pb ages as Early Carboniferous and Triassic-Jurassic, the latter associated with MVT-like deposits. Two samples from veins hosted in Proterozoic rocks lie outside the two clusters: in metagranitoid (206Pb/204Pb = 18.55, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.64, 208Pb/204Pb = 38.29) and in orthogneiss (206Pb/204Pb = 18.79, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.73, 208Pb/204Pb = 38.54). The results from these two samples suggest an interaction of mineralizing fluids with the radiogenic Pb-rich source (basement?). The values of δ34S suggest the Paleozoic host rocks (mostly -6.7 to +5.2‰ CDT) as the source of S for hydrothermal sulfides (mostly -4.8 to +2.5‰ CDT). U-Pb data and Pb isotope evolutionary curves indicate that Late Devonian and Early Carboniferous sediments, especially siliciclastics, are the general dominant contributor of Pb for galena mineralization developed in sedimentary rocks. Plumbotectonic mixing occurred, it is deduced, only between the lower and the upper crust (the latter involving Proterozoic basement containing heterogeneous radiogenic Pb), without any significant input from the mantle. It is concluded that in the Moravo-Silesian and Rhenohercynian zones (including proximal

  5. InSAR Used for Subsidence Monitoring of Mining Area OKR, Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazecky, Milan

    2010-03-01

    The abilities of InSAR processing techniques to detect and monitor subsidence of mining areas were already proved in several works, e.g. of Dr. Perski that used them in Poland. As an ESA project of VSB-TU Ostrava using data from ERS 1,2 and Envisat ASAR, the InSAR has been applied also for the Northern Moravian OKR region in Czech Republic, a region with a long black coal mining history. Mining activities in this area have caused damages and destructions of many buildings, tramlines etc. The problem is still actual, even that only 4 mines are active, since 2007. Via the InSAR processing, an evolution of subsidence during last 10 years is monitored using the Doris software. Due to highly decorrelated interferograms created from newer data (since 2001), the actual state is hardly interpretable though. The critical subsiding objects were detected by pointwise multitemporal InSAR techniques (MT- InSAR) - the permanent scatterers and small baselines methods using the StaMPS software. The results were compared with the in-situ levelling revealing that the estimated rate of subsidence was underestimated. Only the ERS-2 data from period 1999-2000 were successfully used in these advanced InSAR techniques to achieve some reasonable results. Because of gyroscopes failure of ERS-2, the data since January 2001 couldn't be processed successfully by StaMPS due to big differences in the Doppler centroid frequencies of each images - an abortive result of a small baselines method attempt can be presented. Because of used long- wall mining method, that evokes spatial movement of subsidence epicenters in time, a longer time period of dataset usable in MT-InSAR would decrease the processing merit (the character of subsidence in the area is not pointwise in longer time period). This project will continue with a processing of newer datasets to achieve a complete overview of terrain changes in the mining area during the last decade.

  6. Agricolaite, a new mineral of uranium from Jáchymov, Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skála, Roman; Ondruš, Petr; Veselovský, František; Císařová, Ivana; Hloušek, Jan

    2011-11-01

    The new mineral agricolaite, a potassium uranyl carbonate with ideal formula K4(UO2)(CO3)3, occurs in vugs of ankerite gangue in gneisses in the abandoned Giftkiesstollen adit at Jáchymov, Czech Republic. The name is after Georgius Agricola (1494-1555), German scholar and scientist. Agricolaite occurs as isolated equant irregular translucent grains to 0.3 mm with yellow color, pale yellow streak, and vitreous luster. It is brittle with uneven fracture and displays neither cleavage nor parting. Agricolaite is non-fluorescent. Mohs hardness is ~4. It is associated with aragonite, brochantite, posnjakite, malachite, rutherfordine, and "pseudo-voglite". Experimental density is higher than 3.3 g.cm-3, Dcalc is 3.531 g. cm-3. The mineral is monoclinic, space group C2/ c, with a 10.2380(2), b 9.1930(2), c 12.2110(3) Å, β 95.108(2)°, V 1144.71(4) Å3, Z = 4. The strongest lines in the powder X-ray diffraction pattern are d( I)( hkl): 6.061(55)(002), 5.087(57)(200), 3.740(100)(202), 3.393(43)(113), 2.281(52)(402). Average composition based on ten electron microprobe analyses corresponds to (in wt.%) UO3 48.53, K2O 31.49, CO2(calc) 22.04 which gives the empirical formula K3.98(UO2)1.01(CO3)3.00. The crystal structure was solved from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data and refined to R 1 = 0.0184 on the basis of the 1,308 unique reflections with F o > 4 σF o. The structure of agricolaite is identical to that of synthetic K4(UO2)(CO3)3 and consists of separate UO2(CO3)3 groups organized into layers parallel to (100) and two crystallographically non-equivalent sites occupied by K+ cations. Both the mineral and its name were approved by the IMA-CNMNC.

  7. The significance of sediment contamination in the Elbe River floodplain (Czech Republic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalupová, Dagmar; Janský, Bohumír; Langhammer, Jakub; Šobr, Miroslav; Jiři, Medek; Král, Stanislav; Jiřinec, Petr; Kaiglova, Jana; Černý, Michal; Žáček, Miroslav; Leontovyčova, Drahomíra; Halířová, Jarmila

    2015-04-01

    The abstract brings the information about the research that was focused on anthropogenic pollution of river and lake sediments in the middle course of the Elbe River (Czech Republic). The main aim was to identify and to evaluate the significance of old polluted sediments in the river and its side structures (old meanders, cut lakes, oxbow lakes) between Hradec Králové and Mělník (confluence with the Moldau River) and to assess the risk coming from the remobilization of the contaminated matter. The Elbe River floodplain has been highly inhabited since the Middle Ages, and, especially in the 20th century, major industrial plants were founded here. Since that time, the anthropogenic load of the river and it`s floodplain has grown. Although the contaminants bound to the sediment particles are usually stable, the main risk is coming from the fact that under changes in hydrological regime and water quality (floods, changes in pH, redox-potential, presence of complex substances etc.), the pollution can be released and remobilized again. The most endangered areas are: the surroundings of Pardubice (chemical factory Synthesia, Inc.; refinery PARAMO), and Neratovice (chemical factory Spolana, Inc.). The chemical factories situated close to these towns represented the most problematic polluters of the Elbe River especially during 2nd half of 20th century. In the research, the main attention was aimed at subaquatic sediments of selected cut lakes situated in the vicinity of the above mentioned sources of pollution. To describe the outreach of contamination, several further fluvial lakes were taken into account too. Sediment sampling was carried out from boats on lakes and with the help of drilling rig in the floodplain. Gained sediment cores were divided into several parts which were analysed separately. Chemical analyses included substances identified by ICPER (International Commission for the Protection of the Elbe River) as well as chemicals considered as significant in

  8. The Impact of Including Immigrants without Permanent Residence Status in the Public Health Insurance System in the Czech Republic

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    Tepperová Jana

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Whether an individual can or cannot participate in the Czech public health insurance system depends on several characteristics, one of which is whether he/she has permanent residence status in the Czech Republic, and a second whether he/she is employed. This means that those without permanent residence status, including self-employed migrants from third countries, their dependent relatives, and the dependent relatives of third country employees in the Czech Republic, cannot participate in the public health insurance system. Some argue that such migrants should be included in the system, since commercial health insurance is disadvantageous and the contributions they would pay into the public health insurance system would increase the public health insurance agencies’ income. We estimate the value of the contributions to public health insurance that would be paid by third country self-employed and non-working immigrants, if they were insured based on data from 2011 to 2013, and compare this to the assumed costs of their medical care. To calculate the contributions for self-employed migrants we use data on the distribution of the tax base for self-employed persons from personal income tax returns. Our estimation results in an overall negative balance of 22 million CZK on the data for 2012 and 2013. In the current system this deficit would be covered by the state, which would pay contributions to the system for certain (state insured persons amounting to 97 million CZK; overall therefore the inclusion of these immigrants would result in a positive balance of 75 million CZK.

  9. Analysis of pharmacists' opinions, attitudes and experiences with generic drugs and generic substitution in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maly, Josef; Dosedel, Martin; Kubena, Ales; Vlcek, Jiri

    2013-01-01

    Generic substitution (GS) is an integral part of drug policy in many countries. Similarly to other countries its introduction in the Czech Republic gave rise to a vibrant discussion. The aim of the study was to map and analyze pharmacists' opinions of, attitudes towards and experiences with generic drugs and GS after the first year from its legislative embodiment in the Czech Republic. All 7,665 members of the Czech Chamber of Pharmacists were addressed to participate in a questionnaire survey between November 2008 and March 2009. The questionnaire consisted of 28 questions concerning the issue of generic drugs and GS and was divided into five sections. All collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and correlations were tested by selected parametric and non-parametric tests. A total of 615 completed questionnaire forms were returned (a questionnaire return rate of 8.0%). The demographic characteristics of the respondents were as follows: 470 (76.4%) females, mean age of 37.5 years (SD = 10.4) and 429 (69.6%) pharmacists with a practice specialization. Altogether 345 (56.1%) respondents became aware of the issue of brand name and generic drugs during their undergraduate studies. 378 (61.5%) respondents considered generic drugs as bioequivalent and 455 (74.0%) respondents as therapeutically equivalent to the respective brand name drugs. 99 (16.1%) pharmacists believed that generic products are of lower quality than branded drugs and 69 (11.2%) respondents expected generics to cause more adverse drug reactions. GS was perceived as a positive tool by 476 (77.4%) respondents. Only 71 (11.5%) respondents showed acquaintance with all the legal rules for GS. Legislation awareness and attitude towards GS was correlated with age (p generic drugs and GS. Approaching patients on an individual basis and pharmacists' awareness can minimize adverse drug events caused by generic drugs and at the same time enhance the professional status of pharmacists.

  10. Assessment of three classes of DNA adducts in human placentas from smoking and non-snoking women in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three classes of DNA damage were assessed in human placentas collected (2000-2004) from 51 women living in the Teplice region of the Czech Republic, a mining area considered to have some of the worst environmental pollution in Europe in the 1980s. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon ...

  11. Twenty-Five Years After--Rebuilding the Lifelong Learning System in the Czech and Slovak Republic: Progress, Challenges and Lessons Learnt from a Narrative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprlak, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    The lifelong learning system in the Czech Republic and Slovakia share some common traits: traditional model with the dominant role of the initial education, low participation rates, lack of incentives and fragmentation. The results of the narrative research on 15 low-skilled persons demonstrated that negative attitudes towards education are often…

  12. Proceedings of the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS) International Conference on e-Learning (Prague, Czech Republic, July 23-26, 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Miguel Baptista, Ed.; McPherson, Maggie, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    These proceedings contain the papers of the International Conference e-Learning 2013, which was organised by the International Association for Development of the Information Society and is part of the Multi Conference on Computer Science and Information Systems (Prague, Czech Republic, July 23-26, 2013). The e-Learning 2013 conference aims to…

  13. Health Behaviors, Nutritional Status, and Anthropometric Parameters of Roma and Non-Roma Mothers and Their Infants in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambouskova, Jolana; Dlouhy, Pavel; Krizova, Eva; Prochazka, Bohumir; Hrncirova, Dana; Andel, M

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To compare maternal health behaviors, maternal nutritional status, and infant size at birth of Romas and non-Romas in the Czech Republic. Design: Maternal interviews and food frequency questionnaire, maternal blood samples, physical measurements of mothers and infants. Setting: Hospital, maternal/child care center; 2-4 days postpartum.…

  14. PERFORMANCE AND EGGS QUALITY OF HENS OF GENETIC RESOURCES OF THE CZECH REPUBLIC AND SLOVAKIA

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    Zdeněk Ledvinka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the performance and technological values of eggs of Czech Hen and Oravka breeds housed on litter. The assumption was that the genotype of hens affects their performance, egg weight, and parameters of yolk, albumen and eggshell quality. A total of 30 pullets of Czech Hen breed and 30 pullets of Oravka breed in the age of 17 weeks were included in to the experiment. Environmental conditions corresponded to the standard requirements for laying hens in observed type of housing system. Hen day egg production, egg yield, daily feed consumption per hen, feed consumption per egg and egg weight, egg shape index, proportion and index of yolk and albumen,yolk colour and Haugh units score were monitored in the experiment. From the parameters of eggshell, proportion, thickness, strength and colour of eggshell were observed. Performance parameters of laying hens weren't affected by the genotype of hens. Czech Hen breed showed insignificantly the higher value in all indicators. The significantly (P≤0.01 and P≤0.001 better values of eggshell quality parameters were detected in Czech Hen breed. We found out that Czech Hen breed had also statistically significantly lighter colour of eggshell. There were no significant interbreed differences in egg weight, proportion of yolk and albumen. The egg shape index was significantly higher in Oravka. Index of yolk and albumen was also significantly (P≤0.001 higher in Oravka. Haugh units score, that reflect the quality of the eggs, were found significantly (P≤0.001higher in Oravka too. On the other hand, yolk colour was detected significantly (P≤0.001 darker for the Czech Hen.

  15. Fates of pollutants from uranium mining in floodplain of a meandering river (the Ploucnice, Czech Republic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matys Grygar, Tomas; Elznicova, Jitka; Majerova, Lucie; Babek, Ondrej; Kiss, Timea; Havelcova, Martina; Hosek, Michal

    2014-05-01

    The Ploucnice River (Czech Republic) received two groups of element pollutants. The first was Pb-Cu-Sb-Zn association with the onset early in 20th century; we attribute it to diffuse pollution at levels of the river watershed and/or mid European region with both atmospheric and fluvial transports. The second group was U-Zn-Ni-Co-Ba association related to uranium mining and mine-water processing during the 1970s and 1980s. Pollution hence allowed for identifying two chemostratigraphic units in 20th century floodplain fill, whose lower boundaries we interpret as isochronous at a given river reach. Historical and current maps and aerial photographs and current aerial lidar scanning allowed reconstructing the floodplain development. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) produced insight into the floodplain architecture. Three geomorphic levels were identified in the studied river reach: active floodplain, abandoned floodplain (paleochannels there are now inundated at >Q50), and pre-Holocene or early Holocene terrace. Each level has its own pattern of pollution by Pb, U and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The terrace and abandoned floodplain sediments together with deeper sediments from active floodplain allowed construction of background functions for pre-industrial concentrations of target elements and subsequent calculation of enrichment factors. That approach corrects for grain-size effects and thus coarser unsorted terrace sediments, finer silty sands of the abandoned floodplain, and the finest muds of the active floodplain were jointly processed. Such data processing was a pre-requisite for evaluation of weak diffuse pollution from early 20th century and recognition of post-depositional changes in pollutant concentrations. The main portion of pollutants related to uranium mining got into the river system in 1970s with peak in 1981 during a summer flood with >Q50 discharge. The pollution impacted the entire river system (enhanced Ra-226 activities were detected at

  16. PRICE ELASTICITY OF SUPPLY OF BOTTLED QUALITY WHITE WINE IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC

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    Pavel SYROVÁTKA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on the supply of the Czech producers of bottled quality white wine. Namely, a dependence of their sales of this wine category on the market price of bottled quality white wine was examined. Monthly data from the CZSO and SZIF database, years 2004–2012, were used for the price-supply analysis. Price-supply reactions of the Czech wine producers were investigated through two-stage cointegration method developed by Engle and Granger. Short-term and long-term price elasticity of studied market supply was based on the error correction model designed and statistically verified by the authors.

  17. Differences In Self-concept in Children and Adolescents in the Czech Republic Based On Their Age and Sex

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    Miroslav Orel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem: The article presents a study of the differences in self - concept of children and adolescents based on their sex and age. Self - concept is an integral part of each personality. The level of self - concept in pupils may reflect significantly on their overall life satisfaction as wel l as influence their subjective success (individually experienced and their objective success (evaluated externally. Methods: The diagnostic tool used was the Czech adaptation of Children's and adolescents self - concept scale PHCSCS - 2 (Obereignerů et al., 2015. The original American version of Piers - Harris Children Self - concept Scale 2 (PHCSCS - 2 is a 60 - item self - report scale which comprises 7 areas of self - assessment. It includes the subscale of overall self - concept: Total Score (TOT - which represents the level of the respondent’s overall self - concept and six subscales evaluating specific areas of self - concept: Behavioural Adjustment (BEH, Intellectual and School Status (INT, Physical Appearance and Attributes (PHY, Freedom from Anxiety (FRE, Popularity (POP, Happiness and Satisfaction (HAP. The Czech standardization which took place in recent years, respected all requirements for the conversion of a foreign diagnostic tool. The research group included 4901 pupils and students at primary and secondary schools in the Czech Republic aged 9 - 21. The group was divided into twelve groups based on sex and age - group 1 (9 - 10 years, group 2 (11 - 12 years, group 3 (13 - 14 years, group 4 (15 - 16 years, group 5 (17 - 18 years, group 6 (19 - 21 years, equivalently for boys/men and girls/women. The study presents the differences of seven self - concept dimensions, as mentioned above (the Total Score and six subscales in Self - Concept in Children and Adolescent based on sex. Most attention is paid to the Total Score (TOT as a most reliable indicator. The study also reveals development curves of all six subscales of girls/women and boys

  18. Differences in self-concept in children and adolescents in the Czech Republic based on their age and sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Orel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem: The article presents a study of the differences in self-concept of children and adolescents based on their sex and age. Self-concept is an integral part of each personality. The level of self-concept in pupils may reflect significantly on their overall life satisfaction as well as influence their subjective success (individually experienced and their objective success (evaluated externally. Methods: The diagnostic tool used was the Czech adaptation of Children's and adolescents self-concept scale PHCSCS-2 (Obereignerů et al., 2015. The original American version of Piers-Harris Children Self-concept Scale 2 (PHCSCS-2 is a 60-item self-report scale which comprises 7 areas of self-assessment. It includes the subscale of overall self-concept: Total Score (TOT - which represents the level of the respondent’s overall self-concept and six subscales evaluating specific areas of self-concept: Behavioural Adjustment (BEH, Intellectual and School Status (INT, Physical Appearance and Attributes (PHY, Freedom from Anxiety (FRE, Popularity (POP, Happiness and Satisfaction (HAP. The Czech standardization which took place in recent years, respected all requirements for the conversion of a foreign diagnostic tool. The research group included 4901 pupils and students at primary and secondary schools in the Czech Republic aged 9-21. The group was divided into twelve groups based on sex and age - group 1 (9-10 years, group 2 (11-12 years, group 3 (13-14 years, group 4 (1516 years, group 5 (17-18 years, group 6 (19-21 years, equivalently for boys/men and girls/women. The study presents the differences of seven self-concept dimensions, as mentioned above (the Total Score and six subscales in Self-Concept in Children and Adolescent based on sex. Most attention is paid to the Total Score (TOT as a most reliable indicator. The study also reveals development curves of all six subscales of girls/women and boys/men based on age. Results: Statistically

  19. Seasonal diet pattern of non-native tubenose goby (Proterorhinus semilunaris in a lowland reservoir (Mušov, Czech Republic

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    Adámek Z.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The tubenose goby (Proterorhinus semilunaris is a gobiid species currently extending its area of distribution in Central Europe. The objective of the study was to evaluate the annual pattern of its feeding habits in the newly colonised habitats of the Mušov reservoir on the Dyje River (the Danube basin, Czech Republic with respect to natural food resources. In the reservoir, tubenose goby has established a numerous population, densely colonising stony rip-rap banks. Its diet was exclusively of animal origin with significant dominance of and preference for two food items – chironomid (Chironomidae larvae and waterlouse (Asellus aquaticus, which contributed 40.2 and 27.6%, respectively, to the total food bulk ingested. The index of preponderance for the two items was also very high, amounting to 73.8 and 26.5, respectively. In the annual pattern, a remarkable preference for chironomid larvae was recorded in the summer period whilst waterlouse were consumed predominantly in winter months. The proportion of other food items was rather marginal – only corixids, copepods, ceratopogonids and cladocerans were of certain minor importance with proportions of 5.4, 4.3, 4.1 and 3.9%, respectively. Certain signs of cannibalism were also recorded, with 0.9 and 0.2% of the diet consisting of their own progeny and eggs, respectively.

  20. Adaptation to the Impacts of Climate Extremes in Central Europe: A Case Study in a Rural Area in the Czech Republic

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    Robert Stojanov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this paper is to analyse households’ adaptation measures to the impacts of repeated extreme weather events, specifically floods, which belong amongst the most serious manifestation of ongoing climate change in Europe. The case study focuses on a rural area in the north-east part of the Czech Republic, in the catchment basin of the Bečva River. A total of 605 households were addressed within the framework of the questionnaire survey. On the basis of the conducted research, we determined that the total amount of adaptation measures adopted by those dwelling in residential homes within the investigated catchment area was relatively low. In contrast, however, one of the most important adaptation measures—house elevation—was applied by 46.94% of the houses (up to 1 m and by 21.16% houses (elevated more than 1 m respectively. We also found that the amount and scope of adaptation measures realized by households were influenced by certain socio-demographic factors of the inhabitants. The most statistically significant factors included households with more residents or families with more children living in the household, as well as those with a higher level of education. Flood experience, the level of damage, and individual flood risk perception also played an important role.

  1. Damaging hailstorms in South Moravia, Czech Republic, in the seventeenth to twentieth centuries as derived from taxation records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brázdil, Rudolf; Chromá, Kateřina; Valášek, Hubert; Dolák, Lukáš; Řezníčková, Ladislava

    2016-01-01

    Hailstorms are among the hydrometeorological extremes recognised in the historical past of the Czech Lands as grounds for tax relief if agricultural crops or material structures were damaged by them. The administrative process involved three levels (community, regional office, land office). The damage reports and taxation records for South Moravia (the southeastern parts of today's Czech Republic) were mainly stored in the Moravian Land Archives at Brno in estate accounts and collections of family archives. Data related to the date of a given hailstorm, its accompanying convective phenomena, the communities affected and the type of damage, as interpreted from taxation records, has created a database spanning the years 1650 to 1941 AD. A total of 766 records contain descriptions that cover 433 days upon which hailstorms did damage in South Moravia, as well as incidentally provide some additional information for the remainder of the Czech Lands and other parts of the Austro-Hungarian empire. The hailstorms detected concentrate to a large extent around the 1821-1850 period, which accounts for 44.4 % of all events. Although reported most frequently without other convective phenomena, they were often accompanied by torrential rain. The current contribution analyses the four most outstanding hailstorms in detail, those characterised by the highest number of estates and communities affected: 26 May 1830, 18 July 1832, 25 June 1844 and 20 June 1848. Uncertainties in hailstorm data, particularly with regard to their spatial and temporal heterogeneity, are discussed. Finally, the 1811-1850 period, with the highest number of hailstorm days, is compared with hailstorm patterns that derive from systematic meteorological observations in the 1961-2000 reference period. Damaging hailstorms disclosed by taxation data will be used to compile long-term hailstorm series for South Moravia (together with those derived from other documentary evidence and systematic meteorological

  2. The Right to be Included: Homeschoolers Combat the Structural Discrimination Embodied in Their Lawful Protection in the Czech Republic

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    Irena Kašparová

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a 240-year tradition of compulsory school attendance in the Czech Republic. To many, compulsory school attendance is synonymous with the right to be educated. After the collapse of communism in 1989, along with the democratization of the government, the education system was slowly opened to alternatives, including the right to educate children at home, expressed in Act no. 561/2004. This inclusive law has had exclusionary consequences for many families who wish to choose this mode of education. The situation reveals a clear struggle over various forms of capital in the field of education, as famously described by Bourdieu (1998. The article, based on a longitudinal ethnographic study of homeschooling families, maps the structural discriminative dimension of the law and displays the strategies that the actors have adopted in order to combat them.

  3. Newcomers in Politics? The Success of New Political Parties in the Slovak and Czech Republic after 2010?

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    Viera Žúborová

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The last election in the Slovak and Czech Republic was special. It not only took place before the official electoral period (pre-elections, but new political parties were “again” successful. The article focuses not only on both elections in the last two years in a comparative perspective, but it analyses the opportunity structure of success as well, including types of new political parties (according to Lucardie. The article seeks to answer the question: why are new political parties electorally successful, able to break into parliament and even become part of a coalition government? We assume that the emergence and success of new political parties in both countries relied on the ability to promote “old” ideas in a new fashion, colloquially referred to as “new suits” or “old” ideological flows in new breeze.

  4. Linking chemical elements in forest floor humus (Oh-horizon) in the Czech Republic to contamination sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucharova, Julie; Suchara, Ivan; Hola, Marie; Reimann, Clemens; Boyd, Rognvald; Filzmoser, Peter; Englmaier, Peter

    2011-05-01

    While terrestrial moss and other plants are frequently used for environmental mapping and monitoring projects, data on the regional geochemistry of humus are scarce. Humus, however, has a much larger life span than any plant material. It can be seen as the "environmental memory" of an area for at least the last 60-100 years. Here concentrations of 39 elements determined by ICP-MS and ICP AES, pH and ash content are presented for 259 samples of forest floor humus collected at an average sample density of 1 site/300 km2 in the Czech Republic. The scale of anomalies linked to known contamination sources (e.g., lignite mining and burning, metallurgical industry, coal fired power plants, metal smelters) is documented and discussed versus natural processes influencing humus quality. Most maps indicate a local impact from individual contamination sources: often more detailed sampling than used here would be needed to differentiate between likely sources.

  5. Impact of Terms-of-Trade on Slovakia, the Czech Republic, and Croatia in the Short Run

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    Szomolányi Karol

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The terms-of-trade shocks are not main source of business cycles in three post-communist countries (i.e., Slovakia, the Czech Republic, and Croatia. The zero or negative reactions of the trade balance in terms-of-trade positive shocks in the countries exhibit the Obstfeld-Svensson-Razin effect, according to which the Harberger-Laursen-Metzler positive effect on terms-of-trade indicates that the smaller the trade balance, the more persistent the terms-of-trade shock is. The conclusions come from the structural vector autoregressive analysis of the cyclical components of terms-of-trade, trade balance, output, consumption, and investment in three post-communist countries.

  6. Response of Vegetation on Gravel Bars to Management Measures and Floods: Case Study From the Czech Republic

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    Eremiášová Renata

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates response of vegetation on gravel bars to management measures and floods. The management measures consisted of the partial removal of gravel and vegetation cover, and were applied to six gravel bars on the Ostravice River, Czech Republic. Unexpected floods occu-rred in 2010, with the amplitude of 5- to 50-year repetition. Research of vegetation on the gravel bars consisted of vegetation survey before the management works; the monitoring of vegetation development over the following year and the verification of the relationships of species diversity, successional stages and the biotope conditions with the help of multivariate analysis (detrended correspondence analysis. Vegetation on the gravel bars was at different successional stages, and had higher diversity and vegetation cover before the management measures and floods. The mul-tivariate analysis revealed a shift toward initial successional stages with high demand on moisture, temperature and light after both management measures and floods.

  7. Evaluation of the importance of employment pacts and the case study - Moravian-Silesian employment pact in the Czech Republic

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    MSc. Šárká Prudká

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on the evaluation of the effectiveness of a tool that is used in the world and Europe to a comprehensive and systematic solution of the employment at the regional level. These are the so-called employment pacts. The theme is the more up-to-date due to the onset of the global economic crisis since 2008, which brought a deepening of socio-economic problems in the labour market, with negative implications upon an increasing rate of unemployment. The Moravian-Silesian Employment Pact has been chosen for the case study. It was established as the first one of its kind in the Czech Republic, in the structurally affected region of Silesia. The result is the finding that employment pacts are generally a useful tool to resolve problems in regional labor markets.

  8. Action Learning, Team Learning and Co-Operation in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubatova, Slava

    2012-01-01

    This account of practice presents two cases of the application of Action Learning (AL) communication methodology as described by Marquardt [2004. "Optimising the power of action learning". Mountain View, CA: Davies-Black Publishing]. The teams were Czech and international top management teams. The AL methodology was used to improve…

  9. Teachers' Ideas about Multicultural Education in a Changing Society: The Case of the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moree, Dana; Klaassen, Cees; Veugelers, Wiel

    2008-01-01

    This article draws on Czech teachers' ideas about multicultural education at a time when the teaching of multicultural education has become obligatory for primary and secondary schools. After describing the broader context within which this reform has taken place--specifically, the transformation of the educational system and the changing ethnic…

  10. Fluoride partitioning R and D programme for molten salt transmutation reactor systems in the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhlir, J. [Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc, CZ (Czech Republic); Priman, V.; Vanicek, J. [Czech Power Company, Praha (Czech Republic)

    2001-07-01

    The transmutation of spent nuclear fuel is considered a prospective alternative conception to the current conception based on the non-reprocessed spent fuel disposal into underground repository. The Czech research and development programme in the field of partitioning and transmutation is founded on the Molten Salt Transmutation Reactor system concept with fluoride salts based liquid fuel, the fuel cycle of which is grounded on pyrochemical / pyrometallurgical fluoride partitioning of spent fuel. The main research activities in the field of fluoride partitioning are oriented mainly towards technological research of Fluoride Volatility Method and laboratory research on electro-separation methods from fluoride melts media. The Czech national conception in the area of P and T research issues from the national power industry programme and from the Czech Power Company intentions of the extensive utilization of nuclear power in our country. The experimental R and D work is concentrated mainly in the Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc that plays a role of main nuclear research workplace for the Czech Power Company. (author)

  11. Conference on alternatives for pollution control from coal-fired low emission sources, Plzen, Czech Republic. Plzen Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The Conference on Alternatives for Pollution Control from Coal-Fired Emission Sources presented cost-effective approaches for pollution control of low emission sources (LES). It also identified policies and strategies for implementation of pollution control measures at the local level. Plzen, Czech Republic, was chosen as the conference site to show participants first hand the LES problems facing Eastern Europe today. Collectively, these Proceedings contain clear reports on: (a) methods for evaluating the cost effectiveness of alternative approaches to control pollution from small coal-fired boilers and furnaces; (b) cost-effective technologies for controlling pollution from coal-fired boilers and furnaces; (c) case studies of assessment of cost effective pollution control measures for selected cities in eastern Europe; and (d) approaches for actually implementing pollution control measures in cities in Eastern Europe. It is intended that the eastern/central European reader will find in these Proceedings useful measures that can be applied to control emissions and clean the air in his city or region. The conference was sponsored by the United States Agency for International Development (AID), the United States Department of Energy (DOE), and the Czech Ministry of Industry and Trade. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  12. Metropolisation and the Evoluti\ton of Systems of Cities in the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland Since 1950

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    Natalia Zdanowska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the evolution of systems of cities in the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland since 1950, and especially since the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 when Central and Eastern European cities started to experience the process of metropolisation. This period corresponds to an intense globalisation of the economy which has been characterised by some researchers as an emergence of a world urban system. While the metropolises of formerly industrialised countries had already been strongly interconnected on a macro-regional level, Central and Eastern European countries took on the unique approach of prioritising relations directly at an international level. In addition to its highly exacerbated characteristics, the metropolisation in Central and Eastern Europe has been taking place within a substantially shorter time period in relation to other countries. This article investigates how these phenomena might have influenced the configuration of today’s urban systems. After presenting the methodology used to reconstruct urban agglomerations since 1950 until now, we examine the evolution of the Czech, Hungarian and Polish systems of cities by using several national databases. By analysing the changes in urban hierarchy and new urban patterns, we can stress that after 1989 the metropolisation has rather contributed to raise the predominance of the capital city in the urban systems than to diminish inequalities between the cities.

  13. Seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and tick-borne encephalitis virus in zoo animal species in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirmarová, Jana; Tichá, Lucie; Golovchenko, Marina; Salát, Jiří; Grubhoffer, Libor; Rudenko, Nataliia; Nowotny, Norbert; Růžek, Daniel

    2014-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of antibodies against Borrelia bugdorferi (Bb) s.l. and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) in zoo animals in the Czech Republic. We collected 133 serum samples from 69 animal species from 5 zoos located in different parts of the country. The samples were obtained from even-toed ungulates (n=78; 42 species), odd-toed ungulates (n=32; 11 species), carnivores (n=13; 9 species), primates (n=2, 2 species), birds (n=3; 2 species), and reptiles (n=5; 3 species). A high antibody prevalence (60%) was observed for Bb s.l. On the other hand, only two animals had TBEV-specific antibodies: a markhor (Capra falconeri) and a reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), both from the same zoo, located in an area endemic for TBEV. Both of these animals were also positive for Bb s.l. antibodies. Our results indicate that a high number of animal species in the Czech zoos were exposed to Bb s.l. and that TBEV infection occurred at least in one of the investigated zoos. Considering the pathogenic potential of these two tick-borne pathogens, clinical and serological monitoring should be continued, and therapeutic and preventive measures should be taken when necessary.

  14. Lead isotope ratios in tree bark pockets: An indicator of past air pollution in the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conkova, M. [Charles University, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Benatska 8, Prague 1 (Czech Republic)], E-mail: conkova@chmi.cz; Kubiznakova, J. [Czech Hydrometeorogical Institute, Na Sabatce 17, Prague 4 (Czech Republic)], E-mail: kubiznakova@chmi.cz

    2008-10-15

    Tree bark pockets were collected at four sites in the Czech Republic with differing levels of lead (Pb) pollution. The samples, spanning 1923-2005, were separated from beech (Fagus sylvatica) and spruce (Picea abies). Elevated Pb content (0.1-42.4 {mu}g g{sup -1}) reflected air pollution in the city of Prague. The lowest Pb content (0.3-2.6 {mu}g g{sup -1}) was found at the Kosetice EMEP 'background pollution' site. Changes in {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb and {sup 208}Pb/{sup 206}Pb isotope ratios were in agreement with operation times of the Czech main anthropogenic Pb sources. Shortly after the Second World War, the {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb isotope ratio in bark pockets decreased from 1.17 to 1.14 and the {sup 208}Pb/{sup 206}Pb isotope ratio increased from 2.12 to 2.16. Two dominant emission sources responsible for these changes, lignite and leaded petrol combustion, contributed to the shifts in Pb isotope ratios. Low-radiogenic petrol Pb ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb of 1.11) lead to lower {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb in bark pockets over time. High-radiogenic lignite-derived Pb ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb of 1.18 to 1.19) was detected in areas affected by coal combustion rather than by traffic.

  15. DISTRIBUTION OF THE INVASIVE SPINY-CHEEK CRAYFISH (ORCONECTES LIMOSUS IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC. PAST AND PRESENT

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    PETRUSEK A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The American spiny-cheek crayfish, Orconectes limosus, was first introduced into European waters in 1890. The first literature record about the occurrence of O. limosus on the territory of the Czech Republic was published almost 100 years later – in 1989. The presence of this species in Czechia, however, was first recorded already in the 1960s, when crayfish were observed in the dead arms and pools adjacent to the river Elbe (Labe in Central Bohemia. In the following few decades the spiny-cheek crayfish has spread into several larger rivers of the Elbe watershed and some of their smaller tributaries. The eastern part of the country (mostly belonging to the watershed of the river Morava has not yet been colonised by this species. O. limosus can be found in lower reaches of a number of watercourses of a low stream order, but does not seem to penetrate far upstream in such localities. Its distribution in standing waters is largely the result of intentional humanmediated translocations. The long-term coexistence of Orconectes and native crayfish species has not yet been recorded, although both introduced and native crayfish at least occasionally come into contact. As O. limosus is a major carrier of the crayfish plague on the Czech territory, and crayfish plague outbreaks have been recently recorded, the dynamics of Orconectes invasion deserves careful monitoring in the future.

  16. [The fossil record of the Eurasian Neogene insectivores (Erinaceomorpha, Soricomorpha, Mammalia) : Part I / L.W. van den Hoek Ostende, C.S. Doukas and J.W.F. Reumer (editors)]: Czech Republic and Slovak Republic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fejfar, O.; Sabol, M.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction The fossil record of insectivores in Czech Republic comes from two different settings: A. in the stratified deposits in the North Bohemian tectonic rift (the sites; Tuchořice, the Open Mine Merkur-Nord near Chomutov, Dolnice and Františkovy Lázně (Franzensbad), and Β. in the karstic fil

  17. Extending the Life Time of a Nuclear Power Plant: Impact on Nuclear Liabilities in the Czech Republic

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    L. Havlíček

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear power plant (NPP operators have several basic long-term liabilities. Such liabilities include storage, treatment and disposal of radioactive waste generated at the operators’ NPP, storage and management of nuclear fuel irradiated in the reactor of the operator’s NPP (“spent fuel”, disposal of the spent fuel (SF or residues resulting from spent fuel reprocessing. Last but not least, the operator is liable for decommissioning its nuclear facilities. If the operator considers extending the life time of its NPP or if the construction of a new NPP is being evaluated by an investor, an integral part of the economic evaluation must be a comprehensive assessment of future incremental costs related to the above-mentioned long-term liabilities. An economic evaluation performed by standard methods (usually NPV, alternatively real options leads to a decision either to proceed with the project or to shelve it. If the investor decides to go ahead with the project there can be an immediate impact on nuclear liabilities. The impact is not the same for all operator liabilities. Depending on the valid legislation and the nature of the liability, in some cases the extent of the liability must be immediately recalculated when a decision is made to proceed with the project, and the annual accrual of accumulated reserves / funds must be adjusted. In other cases, the change in liability is linked to the generation of additional radioactive waste or spent fuel. In the Czech Republic, responsibility for each of the nuclear liabilities is defined, as is the form in which the financial means are to be accumulated. This paper deals with the impact of NPP life time extension (alternatively NPP power up-rate or construction of a new NPP on individual nuclear liabilities in the conditions of the Czech Republic

  18. Building the framework for climate change adaptation in the urban areas using participatory approach: the Czech Republic experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmer, Adam; Hubatová, Marie; Lupač, Miroslav; Pondělíček, Michael; Šafařík, Miroslav; Šilhánková, Vladimíra; Vačkář, David

    2016-04-01

    The Czech Republic has experienced numerous extreme hydrometeorological / climatological events such as floods (significant ones in 1997, 2002, 2010, 2013), droughts (2013, 2015), heat waves (2015) and windstorms (2007) during past decades. These events are generally attributed to the ongoing climate change and caused loss of lives and significant material damages (up to several % of GDP in some years), especially in urban areas. To initiate the adaptation process of urban areas, the main objective was to prepare a framework for creating climate change adaptation strategies of individual cities reflecting physical-geographical and socioeconomical conditions of the Czech Republic. Three pilot cities (Hradec Králové, Žďár nad Sázavou, Dobru\\vska) were used to optimize entire procedure. Two sets of participatory seminars were organised in order to involve all key stakeholders (the city council, department of the environment, department of the crisis management, hydrometeorological institute, local experts, ...) into the process of creation of the adaptation strategy from its early stage. Lesson learned for the framework were related especially to its applicability on a local level, which is largely a matter of the understandability of the concept. Finally, this illustrative and widely applicable framework (so called 'road map to adaptation strategy') includes five steps: (i) analysis of existing strategies and plans on national, regional and local levels; (ii) analysing climate-change related hazards and key vulnerabilities; (iii) identification of adaptation needs, evaluation of existing adaptation capacity and formulation of future adaptation priorities; (iv) identification of limits and barriers for the adaptation (economical, environmental, ...); and (v) selection of specific types of adaptation measures reflecting identified adaptation needs and formulated adaptation priorities. Keywords: climate change adaptation (CCA); urban areas; participatory approach

  19. Roles of Municipal Councils in Poland and in the Czech Republic: Factors Shaping the Roles and the Dynamic of Change

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    Katarzyna Radzik-Maruszak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Research Question (RQ: After many years of not being in vogue, the issue of representative democracy at the local level has yet again caught the scholars’ attention. The interest is related both to falling turnout in local elections, disappointment in party politics as well as to the impact of the new trends such as the strengthening of the executive power or citizens’ more direct involvement in the decision-making process. Quite often the afore-mentioned trends force local councils to redefine their roles. Purpose: The main objective of the article is to investigate the factors that shape the roles of municipal councils in two CEE countries, Poland and the Czech Republic, and to track the possible dynamic of their change. Method: The analysis conducted in the paper is grounded mainly in institutional theory. The study is based on available statistic data, examination of legal regulations, documents and information included in the corpus of selected articles and books. Results: The outcome of the analysis conducted indicates that in both countries the basic roles of councils – representative, decision - making and administrative one – are being diminished. Nevertheless, the existing institutional framework as well as reforms implemented in recent years provide potential for the development of new roles, such as the facilitator of the governing process or a network coordinator. Organization: The paper may contribute to better organisation of local administration at the municipal level. Society: The study has an impact on the understanding of representative democracy in local self-governments. Originality: The paper elaborates on representative democracy at the municipal level in Poland and the Czech Republic, countries where the discussion over this issue is still much less visible than in Western Europe. Limitations / further research: The paper should be mainly perceived as a kind of theoretical introduction to further

  20. [CZECANCA: CZEch CAncer paNel for Clinical Application-- Design and Optimization of the Targeted Sequencing Panel for the Identification of Cancer Susceptibility in High-risk Individuals from the Czech Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukupová, J; Zemánková, P; Kleiblová, P; Janatová, M; Kleibl, Z

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with hereditary cancer syndromes form a minor but clinically important subgroup of oncology patients, comprising several thousand cases in the Czech Republic annually. In these patients, the identification of pathogenic mutations in cancer susceptibility genes has an important predictive and, in some cases, prognostic value. It also enables rational preventive strategies in asymptomatic carriers from affected families. More than 150 cancer susceptibility genes have been described so far; however, mutations in most of them are very rare, occurring with substantial population variability, and hence their clinical interpretation is very complicated. Diagnostics of mutations in cancer susceptibility genes have benefited from the broad availability of next-generation sequencing analyses using targeted gene panels. In order to rationalize the diagnostics of hereditary cancer syndromes in the Czech Republic, we have prepared the sequence capture panel "CZECANCA", targeting 219 cancer susceptibility genes. Besides more than 50 clinically important high- and moderate-penetrance susceptibility genes, the panel also targets less common candidate genes with uncertain clinical relevance. Alongside the panel design, we have optimized the analytical and bioinformatics pipeline, which will facilitate establishing a collective nationwide database of genotypes and clinical data from the analyzed individuals. The key objective of this project is to provide diagnostic laboratories in the Czech Republic with a reliable procedure and collective database improving the clinical utility of next-generation sequencing analyses in high-risk patients, which would help improve the interpretation of rare or population-specific variants in cancer susceptibility genes.

  1. Effects of Macroeconomic Variables on the Stock Market: The Case of the Czech Republic

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    Yu HSING

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Applying the GARCH model, this paper finds that the Czech stock market index is positively associated with real GDP and the German and US stock market indexes, is negatively influenced by the ratio of government borrowing to GDP, the domestic real interest rate, the CZK/USD exchange rate, the expected inflation rate and the euro area government bond yield, and exhibits a quadratic relationship with the ratio of M2 to GDP. It suggests that the Czech stock market index and the M2/GDP ratio have a positive (negative relationship if the M2/GDP ratio is less (greater than the critical value of 60.0%. Hence, to promote a robust stock market, the authorities are expected to pursue or maintain economic growth, fiscal discipline, currency appreciation, a relatively low interest rate and expected inflation rate, and the M2/GDP ratio which is below the critical value of 60.0%.

  2. Consumer Relevant Online Communication Channels in Czech Republic in the Consumer Goods Category

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Farková

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A lot has been said and written about online communication in the past several years, and just as any new phenomenon, online communication is a disputable topic in many companies. The objective of this article is to analyse the behaviour of Czech consumers online and their preferences for the different online communication channels in the consumer goods category. We have examined what digital media are and how companies can use them, including a close examination of the Czech Internet population. As many of the research studies and data lead to different conclusions, especially concerning communication on social media, we have decided to apply the theoretical knowledge on a case of the Tassimo brand, a capsule coffee machine maker. This study lead us to the conclusion that consumer relevant online communication is about ensuring easily accessible clear information, especially via websites, reviews and recommendations, while social media play a minor role at the moment.

  3. Alpine skiing: Effects of mental training program of junior representatives of the Czech republic

    OpenAIRE

    Hana Hřebíčková; Hana Válková; Sigmund Martin

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Qualitative evaluation case study deals with the implementation of mental skills training program conducted with the Czech national junior alpine skiing team over a period of an annual training cycle and evaluation of its effects by one of the members of the team. The concept of the study is based on current findings of sport psychology in the field of mental training in alpine skiing and other sports. The theoretical framework of the study is the socio-cognitive psychologic...

  4. Market segmentation and eliciting tourists’ motives for visiting the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Ja. Valentová; Jo. Abrhám

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article. The paper describes a research project focused on motivations to travel by potential and existing foreign visitors that was conducted in order to envisage the creation of a positive image and select the appropriate distribution and marketing promotional mix for the various segments of the Czech tourism market. The paper builds on research that has been already completed and yielded interestig results and further extends the researched themes and selected segments. The...

  5. Prerequisites for Increasing the Axle Load on Railway Tracks in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lidmila

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with problems of increasing the axle load on Czech Railways (ED tracks to 250 kN or 300 kN, respectively. The results of a numerical analysis of the effects of increased axle loads on the track bed structure were verified by experimental measurements carried out on track bed construction models in an experimental box on a 1:1 scale. The results of the research are applicable for routine use on ED. 

  6. Comparison of the nuclear power industry in Czech Republic and France

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the nuclear technology and evaluates the most likely technical developments to come until 2030. It examines the features of Czech and French nuclear programs, compares the structures of nuclear sectors and estimates the advantages & drawbacks of further developments in both countries. The paper assesses if certain developments of the nuclear sector in one country can be used in the other country and vice-versa. Finally, proposes a set of recommendations for both countries r...

  7. What Issues Does the Czech Republic Face Concerning Offsets in the Context of Military Purchases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    outcome of this thesis include librarians at a number of different libraries. Foremost, the librarians at the Dudley Knox Library at the Naval...Postgraduate School (NPS), in particular Ms. Ann Jacobson, provided outstanding support. Additionally, the librarians at the National Library of the Czech...for example, F-18 aircraft assembled under license by Patria Industries in Finland for the Finish Air Force). In addition to the buying government and

  8. [Possibility of uterus transplantation trial in Czech Republic - indications, research and clinical experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmel, Roman; Nováčková, Marta; Pastor, Zlatko; Matěcha, Jan; Čekal, Miloš; Froněk, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Uterus transplantation is a novel experimental method of female infertility treatment. It is an appropriate treatment modality for women with absolute uterine factor infertility - congenital uterine malformations, absent uterus, hysterectomized women and non-functional uterus.Successful animal studies confirming the safety and efficacy were performed before introduction of uterus transplantation into human medicine. The first clinical trial was performed in 2012-2013 in Gothenburg, Sweden. The first child from the transplanted womb was delivered in 2014. Concerning the promising results of Swedish trial it is essential to perform trials in some other world centers.In 2015 Czech Ministry of Health permitted uterus transplantation trial in cooperation of two Prague hospitals - namely Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine and University Hospital Motol. The aim of the Czech trial is to reassert feasibility, efficacy and safety of uterus transplantation in two groups of women - 10 recipients from living and 10 from deceased brain donor. We believe that detailed and precise long-term theoretic and practical preparation and perfectly arranged trial are the main conditions of the successful uterine transplantation survey. The first Czech uterus transplantation was performed in April 30, 2016.Up to December 2016 four transplantations out of planned 20 (2 in living donor and 2 in deceased brain donor arm) were carried out by our team.

  9. Modelling precipitation extremes in the Czech Republic: update of intensity–duration–frequency curves

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    Michal Fusek

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Precipitation records from six stations of the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute were subject to statistical analysis with the objectives of updating the intensity–duration–frequency (IDF curves, by applying extreme value distributions, and comparing the updated curves against those produced by an empirical procedure in 1958. Another objective was to investigate differences between both sets of curves, which could be explained by such factors as different measuring instruments, measuring stations altitudes and data analysis methods. It has been shown that the differences between the two sets of IDF curves are significantly influenced by the chosen method of data analysis.

  10. Geomorphological Inventory as a Tool for Proclaiming Geomorphosite (a Case Study of Mt. Myslivna in the Novohradské hory Mts. — Czech Republic)

    OpenAIRE

    Rypl, J.; Kirchner, K. (Karel); Dvořáčková, S.

    2016-01-01

    The study locality of Mt. Myslivna within the Novohradské hory Mts. (the Czech Republic) represents an area with restricted access prior to 1989. Detailed geomorphological inventory carried out in years 2002 – 2010. Destructive as well as accumulative rock landforms were mapped with the use of GPS. The northwestern slopes of Mt. Myslivna were declared a Natural Monument due to its natural beech wood vegetation in 1992. However, the extent of the protected area does not include qualitatively a...

  11. “Missionary zeal of recent converts”: norms and norm entrepreneurs in the foreign policy of the Czech Republic, Poland and Slovakia 1989-2011

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The following dissertation discusses the role of norms and norm entrepreneurs in the foreign policy-making of the Czech Republic, Poland and Bratislava after the downfall of communism. In at attempt to unpack the mechanics and appliance of “soft power” in foreign policy practice in post-communist Central and Eastern Europe, it identifies conditions and analyzes processes via which norms come to play the role of intermediary variable in the articulation and enactment of national interest. Capi...

  12. Lead fluxes and 206Pb/207Pb isotope ratios in rime and snow collected at remote mountain-top locations (Czech Republic, Central Europe): Patterns and sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimova, Nikoleta; Novak, Martin; Chrastny, Vladislav; Curik, Jan; Veselovsky, Frantisek; Blaha, Vladimir; Prechova, Eva; Pasava, Jan; Houskova, Marie; Bohdalkova, Leona; Stepanova, Marketa; Mikova, Jitka; Krachler, Michael; Komarek, Arnost

    2016-10-01

    During three winter seasons (2009-2011), Pb concentrations were measured in precipitation at 10 high-elevation sites in the Czech Republic, close to the borders with Austria, Germany, Poland, and Slovakia. Soluble and insoluble Pb forms were quantified in snow (vertical deposition), and rime (horizontal deposition). The objective was to compare Pb input fluxes into ecosystems via vertical and horizontal deposition, and to identify the residual Pb pollution sources in an era of rapidly decreasing industrial pollution. Lead soluble in diluted HNO3 made up 96% of total Pb deposition, with the remaining 4% Pb bound mainly in silicates. Three times higher concentrations of soluble Pb in rime than in snow, and 2.5 times higher concentrations of insoluble Pb in rime than in snow were associated with slightly different Pb isotope ratios. On average, the 206Pb/207Pb ratios in rime were higher than those in snow. Higher mean 206Pb/207Pb ratios of insoluble Pb (1.175) than in soluble Pb (1.165) may indicate an increasing role of geogenic Pb in recent atmospheric deposition. A distinct reversal to more radiogenic 206Pb/207Pb ratios in snow and rime in 2010, compared to literature data from rain-fed Sphagnum peatlands (1800-2000 A.D.), documented a recent decrease in anthropogenic Pb in the atmosphere of Central Europe. Since the early 1980s, Pb concentrations in snow decreased 18 times in the rural south of the Czech Republic, but only twice in the industrial north of the Czech Republic. Isotope signatures indicated that Pb in today's atmospheric deposition is mainly derived from Mesozoic ores mined/processed in Poland and coal combustion in the Czech Republic and Poland.

  13. Corporate Social Responsibility in Commercial Banking - A Case Study from the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burianova Lenka

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The concept of corporate social responsibility is not new in the banking sector, but nowadays, it becomes highly topical since the crisis has significantly highlighted the need for integration of moral principles in the banking business. Knowledge of business practice indicates the fact that the acceptance of moral principles in business is not integrated into management decisions of companies. It also cannot be accepted that self-regulatory instruments of companies such as CSR will be effective. The existing experience with the implementation of CSR and ethical principles in the banking sector leads to the opinion that the social responsibility of banks and ethics in banking sector are perceived as an appropriate marketing tool for public communication and are not integrated into policies of individual commercial banks. Experience with the crisis demonstrated that there is a lack of moral principles of managers’ decisions. The aim of this article is to introduce theoretical aspects of CSR in commercial banking and measure the level of CSR in selected Czech commercial banks. In the article, the CSR index was calculated for Česká spořitelna, Československá obchodní banka, Komerční banka and GE Money Bank. Results of our research confirmed that the CSR index of selected Czech commercial banks achieves only an average level. There is a significant lack of transparent information in the context of CSR areas.

  14. The use of portable instruments for mapping contaminants in the floodplain of the Ploucnice River (Czech Republic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elznicova, Jitka; Sikora, Martin; Slaba, Eva; Popelka, Jan; Hosek, Michal; Matys Grygar, Tomas

    2015-04-01

    The Ploucnice River (the Czech Republic) was contaminated by uranium mining in the areas of Hamr na Jezere and Straz pod Ralskem mainly in 1971-1987. The pollutants are now deposited all over the floodplain of the river. In 2005 the aerial mapping of radioactive pollution in the floodplain of the Ploucnice River was performed at a height of 80 m above the ground in grid 250 x 250 m. That survey showed uneven, highly localised deposition of gamma-emitting nuclides along nearly the entire reach of the Ploucnice River. We studied several of those radioactivity hotspots 10-25 km downstream from the uranium mining area in aim to understand the reasons for that heterogeneity. The contamination of the floodplain was analysed mainly by two portable (handheld) instruments. The gamma-spectrometer DISA 400A was used for measuring the total surface gamma activity (main target nuclide was Ra-226). Very effective was also the use of portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (XRF) Olympus Innov-X (DELTA Premium), which provides fast analysis of more than 30 elements, such as pollutants (Ba, Ni, Pb, U and Zn) and grain-size sensitive lithogenic elements (Al, Si, Zr, Rb). Besides pollution mapping, XRF also allows for mapping sediment lithology using Al/Si or Rb/Zr element ratios (both proportional to the percentage of fine fraction). The field gamma spectrometry and XRF was performed with points 2-30 meters spaced, which revealed that hotspots according to low resolution (250 m) aerial mapping is composed of one or several strongly polluted areas with sizes up to several tens of metres. Similarly heterogeneous was also the distribution of sediment lithology in the floodplain. In some cases, micromorphology of the floodplain, formed mainly by the past meander abandonments and channel shifts was responsible for the heterogeneity of the pollution. To understand the floodplain development we used old maps and aerial photographs. The Czech Republic has an extensive archive of historical

  15. Factors of Voluntary Mergers of Municipalities: a case study of the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musilová Karolína

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Territorial fragmentation is considered as one of the most problematic characteristics of the Czech municipal system, however, there are no effective ways how to encourage small units to amalgamate. This paper focuses on cases of voluntary mergers that occured in 2002 and 2003, as the number of amalgamated units had no comparison in last 20 years. Through the analysis of documents, data from statistical office, press and interviews with actors we examine the aspect of those mergers such as main causes, process of the merger itself and actors involved. The analysis reveals the amalgamation was not a result of long-term process but more likely an ad hoc solution of problematic situation caused by administrative, economic and socio-demographic factors.

  16. Indicators for Measuring Outputs of Innovative Initiatives in the Czech Republic

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    Veronika Bumberová

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the identification of a set of KPIs that are used in Czech compa - nies to evaluate the outputs of innovative initiatives to maintain and improve organiza- tional performance as a goal of implementation of innovations. The empirical evidence is based on a quantitative data, gathered through an email by structured self-assessment tool (check-list which yielded 194 qualified responses. For the analysis of gained data there was used factor analysis within evaluation by factorial loadings. Results of the factor analysis provide possible groups according their similarity of variability and create new variables. Observed indexes were verified by coefficient Cronbach’s alpha. Findings of the paper serve up suggestions, that especially financial performance indicators are statistical significant in market area and operation management.

  17. The Best and Worst-Paid Sectors in the Czech Republic

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    Bílková Diana

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the issue of diff erent behaviour of wage distribution of two highest and two lowest-paid sectors of the Czech economy in the period since the beginning of the global economic crisis; the former ones are the sectors of “Financial and Insurance Activities” and “Information and Communication”, the latter ones being those of “Accommodation and Food Service Activities” and “Administrative and Support Service Activities”. The aim is to capture the differences between these two groups of sectors, not only in terms of wage levels, but also as far as the variability and concentration of wage distribution is concerned. The gross (nominal monthly wage in CZK represents a research variable. The paper focuses on diff erent developments of wage distribution of the above sector groups in time, wage level forecasts for 2015 and 2016 being included.

  18. Movement Assessment Battery for Children - second edition: Cross-cultural comparison between 11–15 year old children from the Czech Republic and the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Psotta

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With the exception of specific clinical methods, no widely used diagnostic tool for motor development assessment of children exists in the Czech Republic. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children – second edition (MABC-2 seems to be one the most developed instruments for children's motor coordination assessment. However, to use it in the Czech population of children in educational and psychological practice including physical education, the cross-validity of the test battery needs to be examined. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to make a comparative analysis of performance in motor tasks of the MABC-2 measured in a Czech sample of 11–15 year old children and the United Kingdom (UK normative sample from which the norms of the MABC-2 were established. METHODS: The Czech sample of 11–15 year old children (total n = 589; 310 boys, 279 girls formed from a random selection of schools from all the geographical regions of the Czech Republic and all size categories of municipalities, was tested by the MABC-2. The results were compared to the performance of the UK normative sample of the same age (n = 344 reported in the MABC-2 Examiner's Manual by Henderson et al. (2007. For this comparative analysis, the effects size coefficient (d and the z-test were used. RESULTS: From three manual dexterity tests of the MABC-2, mean performance of the Czech sample in the Drawing trail test was shown to be significantly higher than the mean performance of the UK sample in all the age groups of both genders (d = 0.68–1.32; p CONCLUSIONS: The study revealed that the MABC-2 is valid only for assessment of gross motor coordination in Czech children, but not for assessment of manual dexterity and balance. Before the use of this test battery for Czech children for both practical and research purposes, an adjustment of the norms is needed for the Drawing trail test, Two-board balance test and Zig-zag hopping test.

  19. Unintentional introduction of aquatic molluscs from Poland to Prague (Czech Republic

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    Luboš Beran

    2006-02-01

    nitida from a site in north-western part of Poland (Tuchola region, Wisla River Basin about 450 km distant. These molluscs were transported on coir rollers and matting which were used for stabilisation of the reservoir banks during restoration.

  20. Redescription and phylogenetic relationships of Solenodonsaurus janenschi Broili, 1924, from the Late Carboniferous of Nýřany, Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Danto

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The basal tetrapod Solenodonsaurus janenschi Broili, 1924, from Nýřany (Westphalian D, Late Carboniferous, Czech Republic, is redescribed and its phylogenetic position reevaluated. A distinct groove at the base of the maxillary teeth is regarded as an autapomorphic character, which is present in both the large and small specimens. Other characteristic features, which are not unique to S. janenschi, are: an extension of the lacrimal that forms the anteroventral margin of the orbit; a long posterior extension of the jugal; spool-shaped vertebrae, and small, wedge-like intercentra. A phylogenetic analysis based on the data matrix of Ruta, Coates and Quicke suggests that S. janenschi is the sister taxon of the Lepospondyli. Shared characters include the shape of the vertebrae, non-swollen neural arches, and absence of an intertemporal. Although nested within the amniote stem, S. janenschi is not as closely related to basal amniotes as previously suggested. A rather long, slender humerus argues for a predominantly terrestrial mode of life, and the curved, slender ribs, as well as the comparatively small skull, suggest costal ventilation of the lungs similar to that in amniotes, rather than buccal pumping. The morphology of the shallow squamosal embayment in which an ossified dorsal margin is absent, renders the presence of a tympanum unlikely. doi:10.1002/mmng.201200003

  1. Salmonella enterica resistant to antimicrobials in wastewater effluents and black-headed gulls in the Czech Republic, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masarikova, Martina; Manga, Ivan; Cizek, Alois; Dolejska, Monika; Oravcova, Veronika; Myskova, Petra; Karpiskova, Renata; Literak, Ivan

    2016-01-15

    We investigated the presence and epidemiological relatedness of Salmonella isolates from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Brno, Czech Republic and from nestlings of black-headed gulls (Chroicocephalus ridibundus) at the Nove Mlyny waterworks, situated 35 km downstream from the WWTP. During 2012, we collected 37 wastewater samples and 284 gull cloacal swabs. From wastewater samples, we obtained 89 Salmonella isolates belonging to 19 serotypes. At least one resistant strain was contained in 89% of those samples. Ten different serotypes of Salmonella were detected in 38 young gulls, among which 14 (37%) were resistant to antimicrobials. Wastewater isolates were mostly resistant to sulphonamides and tetracycline, gull isolates to tetracycline and ampicillin. We detected the occurrence of blaTEM-1,tet(A), tet(B), tet(G), sul1, sul2, sul3, floR and strA resistance genes. For the first time, we identified a class 1 integron with the dfrA12-orfF-aadA2 gene cassette in S. Infantis. Using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, we confirmed the presence of identical clusters of S. Agona, S. Enteritidis PT8, S. Infantis and S. Senftenberg in wastewater and black-headed gulls, thus indicating the possibility of resistant Salmonella isolates spreading over long distances in the environment.

  2. Declining health disadvantage of non-marital children: Explanation of the trend in the Czech Republic 1990-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Stipkova

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: There has been a rapid spread of non-marital childbearing in the Czech Republic during the last two decades. At the same time, the low birth weight rates of children born to married and unmarried mothers have converged. Objective: The goal is to explain the diminishing gap in low birth weight. Two explanations are assessed: the changing selection of unmarried mothers from disadvantaged socio-demographic groups, and increasing social support for unmarried mothers. Methods: Data from birth register are analysed. Marital status (married vs. unmarried disparities in low birth weight are modelled using logistic regression. Further analyses are then performed with a detailed measurement of partnership status. This detailed variable is partially missing and is thus supplemented with multiple imputation. Results: The main explanation for the narrowing gap between the outcomes of children born to married and unmarried mothers is the increasing social support for unmarried mothers. Unmarried motherhood has become less detrimental to a child's birth weight net of maternal demographic characteristics. The decline in selection from disadvantaged socio-demographic groups has also contributed to the convergence. However, the convergence of birth weight trends towards marital children seems to refer mostly to children of partnered mothers, with children of single mothers lagging behind. Conclusions: The positive trends in the health of non-marital children are interpreted as being the result of the increasing institutionalisation of parenthood in non-marital unions. However, this does not apply to unpartnered motherhood, which continues to represent a health disadvantage.

  3. The reurbanisation concept and its utility for contemporary research on post-socialist cities: The case of the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouředníček Martin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of reurbanisation is discussed in this article from theoretical and methodological perspectives. Reurbanisation has been defined as one of the stages of urban development recently, but it is also tied to processes of gentrification, or perceived as a policy aimed at the revitalisation of inner cities. The main objective of this contribution is to discuss three principal and different perspectives of reurbanisation: firstly, reurbanisation as defined on the macro-scale of settlement system development; secondly, the concept as elaborated at the micro-scale of the transformation of inner cities; and, thirdly, reurbanisation viewed as a specific urban policy at the local government scale of analysis. The authors’ singular understanding of the reurbanisation process – as suburban-to-urban migration – is then presented as an alternative conceptualization of reurbanisation. This paper presents and evaluates the use of the reurbanisation concept in research on residential environments in current conditions in the Czech Republic and relates it to the broader domain of research on post-socialist cities.

  4. Linking chemical elements in forest floor humus (O{sub h}-horizon) in the Czech Republic to contamination sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sucharova, Julie; Suchara, Ivan; Hola, Marie [Silva Tarouca Research Institute for Landscape and Ornamental Gardening, Kvetnove namesti 391, 252 43 Pruhonice (Czech Republic); Reimann, Clemens, E-mail: Clemens.Reimann@ngu.no [Geological Survey of Norway, P.O. Box 6315 Sluppen, 7491 Trondheim (Norway); Boyd, Rognvald [Geological Survey of Norway, P.O. Box 6315 Sluppen, 7491 Trondheim (Norway); Filzmoser, Peter [Institute for Statistics and Probability Theory, Vienna University of Technology, Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8-10, 1040 Wien (Austria); Englmaier, Peter [Faculty of Life Science, University of Vienna, Althanstr. 14, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2011-05-15

    While terrestrial moss and other plants are frequently used for environmental mapping and monitoring projects, data on the regional geochemistry of humus are scarce. Humus, however, has a much larger life span than any plant material. It can be seen as the 'environmental memory' of an area for at least the last 60-100 years. Here concentrations of 39 elements determined by ICP-MS and ICP AES, pH and ash content are presented for 259 samples of forest floor humus collected at an average sample density of 1 site/300 km{sup 2} in the Czech Republic. The scale of anomalies linked to known contamination sources (e.g., lignite mining and burning, metallurgical industry, coal fired power plants, metal smelters) is documented and discussed versus natural processes influencing humus quality. Most maps indicate a local impact from individual contamination sources: often more detailed sampling than used here would be needed to differentiate between likely sources. - Highlights: > Concentrations of 39 elements in forest floor humus are provided. > The capabilities of humus sampling for bio-monitoring purposes are demonstrated. > Geochemical anomalies are linked to known contamination sources. > The study shows the importance of scale for geochemical mapping projects. > Humus provides a picture of the long term contamination history of a country. - Forest floor humus, the atmosphere-biosphere-pedosphere interface, archives an environmental contamination signal over long time periods.

  5. Linking chemical elements in forest floor humus (O-h-horizon) in the Czech Republic to contamination sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sucharova, J.; Suchara, I.; Hola, M.; Reimann, C.; Boyd, R.; Filzmoser, P.; Englmaier, P. [Geological Survey of Norway, Trondheim (Norway)

    2011-05-15

    While terrestrial moss and other plants are frequently used for environmental mapping and monitoring projects, data on the regional geochemistry of humus are scarce. Humus, however, has a much larger life span than any plant material. It can be seen as the 'environmental memory' of an area for at least the last 60-100 years. Here concentrations of 39 elements determined by ICP-MS and ICP AES, pH and ash content are presented for 259 samples of forest floor humus collected at an average sample density of 1 site/300 km{sup 2} in the Czech Republic. The scale of anomalies linked to known contamination sources (e.g., lignite mining and burning, metallurgical industry, coal fired power plants, metal smelters) is documented and discussed versus natural processes influencing humus quality. Most maps indicate a local impact from individual contamination sources: often more detailed sampling than used here would be needed to differentiate between likely sources.

  6. The Role of the Institute of Fiscal Constitution in the System of Public Budgets in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RICHARD POSPÍŠIL

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the long run, public budgets in a great majority of developed economies suffer from recurring deficits and an increasing public debt. However, the condition of public finance deteriorated even in times of economic conjuncture, so the onset of the crisis in 2008 caught most of the developed world without financial reserves, or the so-called fiscal cushion. Thus most EU countries now fail to fulfill both the Maastricht Convergence Criteria and the Fiscal Compact Treaty, even if these are binding legal norms of the EU. Despite this, some EU countries voluntarily accepted a sort of financial debt cap, which the government of the Czech Republic accepted in February 2015 in the form of the so-called financial constitution, which contains a whole range of mechanisms at all levels of public budgets and public expenditures with a public debt in the amount of 55% of the GDP. The goal of this contribution is to analyze the content of the financial constitution, assess its structure and the aspects of its process application, and through selected public budgets also its possible influence on the whole economy. The content of the financial constitution shall also be compared to similar mechanisms abroad, especially in the neighboring countries.

  7. Stone crayfish in the Czech Republic: how does its population density depend on basic chemical and physical properties of water?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlach P.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The stone crayfish (Austropotamobius torrentium Schrank is one of the two native crayfish species in the Czech Republic. The populations as well as physical and chemical parameters of water (pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, undissolved particles, NH3, NH4+, NO2−, NO3−, phosphorus, Ca2+ and SO42 −  of 33 streams were examined to find the ecological plasticity of this crayfish and some relations between these parameters and population densities. The mentioned parameters often significantly varied at the sites. Two approaches were applied to find relations between these parameters and observed abundance. At first, the observed streams were compared using RDA (streams  ×  physical-chemical parameters. No significance was found while testing relationship between the streams grouped along the 1st axis of model and the observed abundances of stone crayfish. However, some correlations between abundance and conductivity, calcium, nitrates and sulphates were found using polynomial regression. These relationships are explicable in terms of mutual correlations, underlying geology and other factors which affect abundances. In conclusion, A. torrentium is able to inhabit waters with a large range of physical and chemical parameters of the water without any fundamental influence on population densities. Water properties play an indisputable role as limiting ecological factors at uncommon concentrations, but population densities are probably influenced much more by the types of habitats, habitat features, predation and other ecological factors.

  8. Internal Combustion Engines as the Main Source of Ultrafine Particles in Residential Neighborhoods: Field Measurements in the Czech Republic

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    Jitka Stolcpartova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafine particles (UFP, diameter < 100 nm exposure has already been associated with adverse effects on human health. Spatial distribution of UFP is non-uniform; they concentrate in the vicinity of the source, e.g. traffic, because of their short lifespan. This work investigates spatial distribution of UFP in three areas in the Czech Republic with different traffic load: High traffic (Prague neighborhood—Sporilov, commuter road vicinity (Libeznice, and a small city with only local traffic (Celakovice. Size-resolved measurements of particles in the 5–500 nm range were taken with a particle classifier mounted, along with batteries, GPS and other accessories, on a handcart and pushed around the areas, making one-minute or longer stops at places of interest. Concentrations along main roads were elevated in comparison with places farther from the road; this pattern was observed in all sites, while particle number distributions both close and away from main roads had similar patterns. The absence of larger particles, the relative absence of higher concentrations of particles away from the main roads, and similar number distributions suggest that high particle number concentrations cannot be readily attributed to sources other than internal combustion engines in vehicles and mobile machinery (i.e., mowers and construction machines.

  9. EU Enlargement and Minority Rights Policies in Central Europe: Explaining Policy Shifts in the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Vermeersch

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available To what extent has the EU's growing concern for norms of minority protection influenced domestic policy-making in the candidate member states in Central Europe? In order to begin to explore this question, the present article assesses the impact of both domestic and international factors on the development of policies towards national minorities in three Central europen countries: the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland. Following an introduction, which places the subject in the context of the larger debates on minority rights, the first part of the article describes the ways in which regional organizations in Europe have attempted to persuade or induce the three countries under consideration to adopt minority rights policies. The second section then describes policy developments in Central Europe and considers the factors that have contributed to policy shifts. Finally, the third part reflects on the uneven impact of the EU's accession criteria on the development of minority rights policies in the candidate countries and concludes that the EU's impact on policy has crucially depended both on domestic interests and receptivity to international concerns for internal security.

  10. Cross-borehole flow analysis to characterize fracture connections in the Melechov Granite, Bohemian-Moravian Highland, Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paillet, Frederick L.; Williams, John H.; Urik, Joseph; Lukes, Joseph; Kobr, Miroslav; Mares, Stanislav

    2012-01-01

    Application of the cross-borehole flow method, in which short pumping cycles in one borehole are used to induce time-transient flow in another borehole, demonstrated that a simple hydraulic model can characterize the fracture connections in the bedrock mass between the two boreholes. The analysis determines the properties of fracture connections rather than those of individual fractures intersecting a single borehole; the model contains a limited number of adjustable parameters so that any correlation between measured and simulated flow test data is significant. The test was conducted in two 200-m deep boreholes spaced 21 m apart in the Melechov Granite in the Bohemian-Moravian Highland, Czech Republic. Transient flow was measured at depth stations between the identified transmissive fractures in one of the boreholes during short-term pumping and recovery periods in the other borehole. Simulated flows, based on simple model geometries, closely matched the measured flows. The relative transmissivity and storage of the inferred fracture connections were corroborated by tracer testing. The results demonstrate that it is possible to assess the properties of a fracture flow network despite being restricted to making measurements in boreholes in which a local population of discrete fractures regulates the hydraulic communication with the larger-scale aquifer system.

  11. Assessment of contamination with trace elements and man-made radionuclides around Temelin Nuclear Power Plant in Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thinova, Lenka; Frontasyeva, Marina; Vergel, Konstantin; Bayushkina, Ekaterina

    2014-11-01

    The results of atmospheric deposition of heavy metals and trace elements, determined in moss Pleurozium schreberi collected around the Temelin Nuclear Power Station in the Czech Republic in 2011, are presented. The monitored area around NPP Temelin comprises 29 sampling sites located along 8 profile radii stretched as of 2, 5, 10, and 20 km from the NPP. Some pollution sources are located in the study area. A total of 42 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, Mo, Ag, Cd, In, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Hg, Pb, Th, and U) were determined by epithermal instrumental neutron activation analysis with the neutron flux density Φepi=3.6×1011n/(cm2s) at the pulsed fast reactor IBR-2, FLNP, JINR. To determine the presence of radionuclides and their measurable activity in samples, laboratory gamma spectrometry was found to be the best detection method. A coaxial HPGe detector with samples in the geometry of Marinelli containers in the laboratory of Faculty of Nuclear Sciences CTU in Prague was used. To assess the influence of NPP Temelin on the Biomass in 20 km radius, the mass activity of 137Cs (Bq/kg) was determined. No other short-term radionuclides have ever been identified in any spectrum.

  12. Heat- and cold-stress effects on cardiovascular mortality and morbidity among urban and rural populations in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Aleš; Davídkovová, Hana; Kyselý, Jan

    2014-08-01

    Several studies have examined the relationship of high and low air temperatures to cardiovascular mortality in the Czech Republic. Much less is understood about heat-/cold-related cardiovascular morbidity and possible regional differences. This paper compares the effects of warm and cold days on excess mortality and morbidity for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in the city of Prague and a rural region of southern Bohemia during 1994-2009. Population size and age structure are similar in the two regions. The results are evaluated for selected population groups (men and women). Excess mortality (number of deaths) and morbidity (number of hospital admissions) were determined as differences between observed and expected daily values, the latter being adjusted for long-term changes, annual and weekly cycles, and epidemics of influenza/acute respiratory infections. Generally higher relative excess CVD mortality on warm days than on cold days was identified in both regions. In contrast to mortality, weak excess CVD morbidity was observed for both warm and cold days. Different responses of individual CVDs to heat versus cold stress may be caused by the different nature of each CVD and different physiological processes induced by heat or cold stress. The slight differences between Prague and southern Bohemia in response to heat versus cold stress suggest the possible influence of environmental and socioeconomic factors such as the effects of urban heat island and exposure to air pollution, lifestyle differences, and divergence in population structure, which may result in differing vulnerability of urban versus rural population to temperature extremes.

  13. The use of radar in hydrological modeling in the Czech Republic – case studies of flash floods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Šálek

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Flash flood induced by severe convection is the hydrometeorological phenomenon that is very difficult to forecast. However, the implementation of radar measurements, especially radar-based Quantitative Precipitation Estimate (QPE and/or radar-based quantitative Precipitation Nowcast (QPN can improve this situation. If the radar is able to capture the development of severe convection and can produce reasonably accurate QPE in short time intervals (e.g. 10 min, then it can be used also with hydrological model. A hydrological model named Hydrog was used for investigation of simulation and possible forecasts of two flash floods that took place in the Czech Republic in 2002 and 2003. The precipitation input consisted of mean-field-bias-adjusted or original radar 10-min estimates along with quantitative precipitation nowcasts up to 2 h based on COTREC method (extrapolation. Taking into account all the limited predictability of the severe convection development and the errors of the radar-based precipitation estimates, the aim of the simulations was to find out to what extend the hydrometeorological prediction system, specifically tuned for these events, was able to forecast a the flash floods. As assumed, the hydrometeorological simulations of the streamflow forecasts lagged behind the actual development but there is still some potential for successful warning, especially for areas where the flood hits lately.

  14. Occult precipitation: sampling, chemical analysis and process modelling in the Sumava Mts., (Czech Republic) and in the Taunus Mts. (Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, V.; Tesar, M.; Buchtele, J.

    1995-04-01

    This paper deals with occult precipitation as a process affecting the water balance and chemistry. The methods used in assessing the fog-water amount are discussed. A micrometeorological mathematical resistance model predicted annual gross deposition of cloud-water of 81 mm year -1 in the Sumava Mts. (South Bohemia); the net deposition was 47 mm year -1. Chemical analyses of occult precipitation (fog- and cloud-water, rime-water) both in the Sumava Mts. (Czech Republic) and in the Taunus Mts. (Germany) were made. Cloud- and fog-water samples were collected using active cloud-water collectors installed on the tops of the Sumava and the Taunus Mts. Altogether, 54 samples of cloud- and fog-water and 45 samples of rime-water were collected and analysed. Concentrations of the major ions were significantly higher in occult precipitation than in rain-water. Enrichment factors for cloud vs. rain varied from two to 32. In the Sumava Mts. the estimated wet deposition for NH 4+, NO 3+ and SO 42- via cloud droplet impaction and sedimentation represents 1410 kg km -2 year -1, 2650 kg km -2 year -1 and 2508 kg km -2 year -1, respectively.

  15. Long-term ¹³⁷Cs activity monitoring of mushrooms in forest ecosystems of the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škrkal, J; Rulík, P; Fantínová, K; Burianová, J; Helebrant, J

    2013-12-01

    This paper reports on results of activity mass concentration analyses performed in various forest mushrooms in the Czech Republic within 1986 and 2011. The estimated effective half-life of (137)Cs and its environmental half-life (i.e. the effective half-life minus the effect of physical decay) were found to be 5.6 ± 0.6 and 6.9 ± 0.7 y, respectively. Non-homogeneity in (137)Cs surface contamination over the country's territory and fungus species-based (137)Cs accumulation capacity then account for a span of up to 4 orders of magnitude in activity mass concentrations measured each year after the Chernobyl accident. The highest geometric activity mass concentration (Bq kg(-1) of dry weight) means of (137)Cs (obtained from samples between years 2004 and 2011) were measured in Suillaceae (1050 Bq kg(-1)) and Boletus badius (930 Bq kg(-1)), the lowest in Agaricus (1 Bq kg(-1)). The geometric mean of all mushrooms amounted to 230 Bq kg(-1), being 440 Bq kg(-1) in Boletales, 150 Bq kg(-1) in Russulales and 21 Bq kg(-1) in Agaricales. Geometric standard deviation levels were generally high. The highest Cs accumulation capacity was observed in Boletales (namely in Suillaceae), while the lowest in Agaricales, being over 3 orders of magnitude lower than in Suillaceae.

  16. Education and Entry into Motherhood: The Czech Republic during State Socialism and the Transition Period (1970-1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The Czech Republic presently shows one of the lowest total fertility rates (TFR in Europe. A decline in period fertility followed the transition from a centrally planned economy to a market economy that started in 1990. In this study, we investigate women's transition to first births, focusing on the impact of female education. We make a distinction between the effects of education attainment and time elapsed since completion of education. There are two aspects to the role of education that influenced the delay of entry into motherhood in the 1990s. First, during early adulthood women spent more time in education than their contemporaries did in the era of state socialism. Second, women entered motherhood much later after completion of education than before, which contrasts with the previous pattern of a strong immediate effect the completion of studies had on first-birth risks. The decline in first-birth risks in the 1990s applies more so to women with a higher level of education than to those with a lower level. We argue that greater education differentiation of labor market opportunities and constraints brought about greater education differentiation in the timing of entry into motherhood.

  17. The first report on Cryptosporidium suis and Cryptosporidium pig genotype II in Eurasian wild boars (Sus scrofa) (Czech Republic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Němejc, Karel; Sak, Bohumil; Květoňová, Dana; Hanzal, Vladimír; Jeníková, Martina; Kváč, Martin

    2012-03-23

    A total of 193 faecal samples of adult Eurasian wild boars were collected at 12 enclosures across the Czech Republic and examined for Cryptosporidium infection using both microscopic and molecular tools. Cryptosporidium oocysts were not detected in any of the 193 faecal samples examined using the aniline-carbol-methyl violet staining method. Thirty-two positive cases of Cryptosporidium infection were detected using either genus- or species-specific nested PCR. Mono-infection with Cryptosporidium suis and Cryptosporidium pig genotype II were found in 13 and 7 cases, respectively. Five mixed infections of C. suis and Cryptosporidium pig genotype II were detected using PCR/RFLP with genus specific primers. The number of detected mixed infections increased 2.4 fold when a species-specific PCR was employed. No other Cryptosporidium spp. was detected. Unlike cryptosporidiosis of domestic pigs, C. suis was detected as a dominant species infecting adult Eurasian wild boars. There was no association between diarrhoea and the presence of Cryptosporidium infection in the Eurasian wild boars studied. This is the first report on the Cryptosporidium infection caused by C. suis and Cryptosporidium pig genotype II in Eurasian wild boars (Sus scrofa).

  18. Predicting long-term recovery of a strongly acidified stream using MAGIC and climate models (Litavka, Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. W. Hardekopf

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Two branches forming the headwaters of a stream in the Czech Republic were studied. Both streams have similar catchment characteristics and historical deposition; however one is rain-fed and strongly affected by acid atmospheric deposition, the other spring-fed and only moderately acidified. The MAGIC model was used to reconstruct past stream water and soil chemistry of the rain-fed branch, and predict future recovery up to 2050 under current proposed emissions levels. A future increase in air temperature calculated by a regional climate model was then used to derive climate-related scenarios to test possible factors affecting chemical recovery up to 2100. Macroinvertebrates were sampled from both branches, and differences in stream chemistry were reflected in the community structures. According to modelled forecasts, recovery of the rain-fed branch will be gradual and limited, and continued high levels of sulphate release from the soils will continue to dominate stream water chemistry, while scenarios related to a predicted increase in temperature will have little impact. The likelihood of colonization of species from the spring-fed branch was evaluated considering the predicted extent of chemical recovery. The results suggest that the possibility of colonization of species from the spring-fed branch to the rain-fed will be limited to only the acid-tolerant stonefly, caddisfly and dipteran taxa in the modelled period.

  19. Predicting long-term recovery of a strongly acidified stream using MAGIC and climate models (Litavka, Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. W. Hardekopf

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Two branches forming the headwaters of a stream in the Czech Republic were studied. Both streams have similar catchment characteristics and historical deposition; however one is rain-fed and strongly affected by acid atmospheric deposition, the other spring-fed and only moderately acidified. The MAGIC model was used to reconstruct past stream water and soil chemistry of the rain-fed branch, and predict future recovery up to 2050 under current proposed emissions levels. A future increase in air temperature calculated by a regional climate model was then used to derive climate-related scenarios to test possible factors affecting chemical recovery up to 2100. Macroinvertebrates were sampled from both branches, and differences in stream chemistry were reflected in the community structures. According to modelled forecasts, recovery of the rain-fed branch will be gradual and limited, and continued high levels of sulphate release from the soils will continue to dominate stream water chemistry, while scenarios related to a predicted increase temperature will have little impact. The likelihood of colonization of species from the spring-fed branch was evaluated considering the predicted extent of chemical recovery. The results suggest that the possibility of colonization of species from the spring-fed branch to the rain-fed will be limited to only the acid-tolerant stonefly, caddisfly and dipteran taxa in the modelled period.

  20. Bioaccumulation of mercury in muscle tissue of fish in the Elbe River (Czech Republic): multispecies monitoring study 1991-1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusek, L; Svobodová, Z; Janousková, D; Vykusová, B; Jarkovský, J; Smíd, R; Pavlis, P

    2005-06-01

    The study monitored mercury (Hg) contamination of fish muscle tissue at 13 geographical sites that can be regarded as crucial points for an ecotoxicological assessment of the Czech Republic section of the Elbe River. The descriptive part of the study was primarily aimed at comparative evaluation of the Hg load during the period 1991-1996. The conclusions were supported by multivariate statistical analyses of the content of Hg in the muscle tissue of 1251 fish belonging to 23 species with four dominant indicator species: Perca fluviatilis (n=163), Abramis brama (n=173), Rutilus rutilus (n=148), and Leuciscus cephalus (n=166). Considering data from 3- to 5-year-old fish, significantly increased contamination was detected in typical predators compared to the other fish species in all sites (PElbe River environment. Multivariate multispecies analyses found the age of analyzed individuals and the feeding strategy of a given species as the most important, however mutually interactive, covariates for Hg accumulation in muscle tissue. The analyses revealed decreasing sensitivity of older predator individuals to differentiate highly and moderately contaminated sites. Benthophagous species mostly kept their discrimination capacity toward contaminated sites in all age categories, with the exception of bream that was rather linked to the pattern typical for predator species. The unclear position of omnivorous species, represented namely by roach, corresponded with their weak bioindicator power, mainly in the young age categories.

  1. Total mercury and mercury species in birds and fish in an aquatic ecosystem in the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houserova, Pavlina [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry, Zemedelska 1, CZ-613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Kuban, Vlastimil [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry, Zemedelska 1, CZ-613 00 Brno (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: kuban@mendelu.cz; Kracmar, Stanislav [Department of Animal Nutrition, Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry, Zemedelska 1, CZ-613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Sitko, Jilji [Commenius Museum, Moravian Ornithological Station, Horni nam. 1, Prerov CZ-751 52 (Czech Republic)

    2007-01-15

    Total mercury and mercury species (methylmercury-MeHg, inorganic mercury - Hg{sup 2+}) were determined in the aquatic ecosystem Zahlinice (Czech Republic). Four tissues (muscle, intestines, liver and kidney) of three bird species - cormorant, great crested grebe and Eurasian buzzard, muscle tissues of common carp, grass carp, northern pike, goldfish, common tench, perch and rudd, aquatic plants (reed mace and common reed), sediments and water were analysed. Relative contents of MeHg (of total Hg) were in the range from 71% to 94% and from 15% up to 62% in the muscle and intestines and in liver, respectively, for all birds. Statistically significant differences were found between contents of MeHg in liver tissues of young and adult cormorant populations (F {sub 4.6} = 56.71, P < 10{sup -5}). Relative contents of MeHg in muscle tissues of fishes were in the range from 65.1% to 87.9% of total Hg. - The distribution of the mercury species among the organs of the individual birds is discussed.

  2. Mobile Learning Usage and Preferences of Vocational Secondary School Students: The cases of Austria, the Czech Republic, and Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biloš Antun

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to determine the current status of mobile device usage and mobile learning adoption in vocational education and training (VET secondary schools in three European Union countries (Austria, the Czech Republic, and Germany. The research focused on exploring students’ mobile device usage habits, their attitudes toward education in the context of mobile application support, and preferences regarding mobile learning features. The research confirmed a high level of mobile device usage among secondary school students on a daily basis; smartphones and laptops were the most commonly used devices. The vast majority of participants perceived themselves to be advanced mobile device users, but reported a deficit of ICT-assisted mobile learning experience. However, the majority of respondents with prior ICT-assisted education experience described it as a positive or very positive experience. In addition, study participants tended to agree that mobile learning will play a significant role in education in the future. The paper also explored the reported differences among the students in the three countries and suggested several implications for understanding students’ views of mobile learning. The findings provide insights into possibilities of m-learning implementation while creating a framework for m-learning application development in the VET secondary school environment.

  3. THE ROLE OF THE INSTITUTE OF FISCAL CONSTITUTION IN THE SYSTEM OF PUBLIC BUDGETS IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard POSPÍŠIL

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the long run, public budgets in a great majority of developed economies suffer from recurring deficits and an increasing public debt. However, the condition of public finace deteriorated even in times of economic conjuncture, so the onset of the crisis in 2008 caught most of the developed world without financial reserves, or the so-called fiscal cushion. Thus most EU countries now fail to fulfill both the Maastricht Convergence Criteria and the Fiscal Compact Treaty, even if these are binding legal norms of the EU. Despite this, some EU countries voluntarily accepted a sort of financial debt cap, which the government of the Czech Republic accepted in February 2015 in the form of the so-called financial constitution, which contains a whole range of mechanisms at all levels of public budgets and public expenditures with a public debt in the amount of 55% of the GDP. The goal of this contribution is to analyze the content of the financial constitution, assess its structure and the aspects of its process application, and through selected public budgets also its possible influence on the whole economy. The content of the financial constitution shall also be compared to similar mechanisms abroad, especially in the neighboring countries.

  4. Distance matters. Assessing socioeconomic impacts of the Dukovany nuclear power plant in the Czech Republic: Local perceptions and statistical evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frantál Bohumil

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of geographical distance on the extent of socioeconomic impacts of the Dukovany nuclear power plant in the Czech Republic is assessed by combining two different research approaches. First, we survey how people living in municipalities in the vicinity of the power plant perceive impacts on their personal quality of life. Second, we explore the effects of the power plant on regional development by analysing long-term statistical data about the unemployment rate, the share of workers in the energy sector and overall job opportunities in the respective municipalities. The results indicate that the power plant has had significant positive impacts on surrounding communities both as perceived by residents and as evidenced by the statistical data. The level of impacts is, however, significantly influenced by the spatial and social distances of communities and individuals from the power plant. The perception of positive impacts correlates with geographical proximity to the power plant, while the hypothetical distance where positive effects on the quality of life are no longer perceived was estimated at about 15 km. Positive effects are also more likely to be reported by highly educated, young and middle-aged and economically active persons, whose work is connected to the power plant.

  5. Comparison of overbank fines magnetic pollution in the rivers of Czech Republic by using MS/Fe ratio and enrichment factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famera, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Martin Famera1, Tereza Novakova3,4, Tomas Matys Grygar3, Jitka Elznicová, Andrea Tipanová1, Ondrej Babek1,2, Martin Chadima5 1Department of Geology, Palacky University, 17. listopadu 1192/12, 771 46 Olomouc, Czech Republic 2Department of Geological Sciences, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, 611 37 Brno, Czech Republic 3Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR, v.v.i., 250 68 Rez, Czech Republic 4Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Science, Albertov 6, 128 43 Prague, Czech Republic 5Agico, s.r.o., Jecna 29a, 621 00 Brno, Czech Republic Magnetic susceptibility (MS) normalized to the content of Fe is able to effectively remove the influence of facies (grain-size effect) in determining the background values, as well as Al normalization of heavy metal concentrations. Normalization MS/Fe is also used to determine the contamination of sediments by magnetic particles, using calculation of enrichment factor of magnetic susceptibility in sediments. In our study, we compared the magnetic enrichment of overbank fines of five rivers in Czech Republic (the Ploucnice, the Morava, the Jizera, the Litavka, and the Berounka rivers). Magnetic susceptibility was measured using KLY-2 Kappabridge (Agico, Czech Republic) and mass-specific data were expressed in m3×kg-1. X-ray fluorescence elementary analysis of powdered sediments was performed by ED XRF MiniPal 4.0 (PANalytical, the Netherlands). ED XRF results were calibrated to ppm values using results obtained from selected samples by ICP MS. Compared samples were taken from lithogenic parts of profiles, unaffected by anthropogenic contamination and pedogenetic and reductimorphic processes. Results showed high variability of the measured values. In the Litavka and the Morava River sediments were measured low values of MS (˂150×10-9) at relatively high contents of Fe (20-45 000 ppm). In contrast, lower flow of the Jizera River showed low Fe contents (˂12000 ppm) having MS values in a wide range (70-800×10-9). The Plou

  6. Assessment and documentation of non-healing, chronic wounds in inpatient health care facilities in the Czech Republic: an evaluation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorná, Andrea; Leaper, David

    2015-04-01

    The foundation of health care management of patients with non-healing, chronic wounds needs accurate evaluation followed by the selection of an appropriate therapeutic strategy. Assessment of non-healing, chronic wounds in clinical practice in the Czech Republic is not standardised. The aim of this study was to analyse the methods being used to assess non-healing, chronic wounds in inpatient facilities in the Czech Republic. The research was carried out at 77 inpatient medical facilities (8 university/faculty hospitals, 63 hospitals and 6 long- term hospitals) across all regions of the Czech Republic. A mixed model was used for the research (participatory observation including creation of field notes and content analysis of documents for documentation and analysis of qualitative and quantitative data). The results of this research have corroborated the suspicion of inconsistencies in procedures used by general nurses for assessment of non-healing, chronic wounds. However, the situation was found to be more positive with regard to evaluation of basic/fundamental parameters of a wound (e.g. size, depth and location of a wound) compared with the evaluation of more specific parameters (e.g. exudate or signs of infection). This included not only the number of observed variables, but also the action taken. Both were significantly improved when a consultant for wound healing was present (P = 0·047). The same applied to facilities possessing a certificate of quality issued by the Czech Wound Management Association (P = 0·010). In conclusion, an effective strategy for wound management depends on the method and scope of the assessment of non-healing, chronic wounds in place in clinical practice in observed facilities; improvement may be expected following the general introduction of a 'non-healing, chronic wound assessment' algorithm.

  7. Czech phycology : bulletin of the Phycological Section, Czech Botanical Society

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Czech Phycological Society is a scientific organization that is dedicated to the development of phycology in the area of the Czech Republic and Central Europe, and the distribution of phycological information. The Society organizes the Annual Meetings and Conferences and publishes the Bulletin Czech Phycology.

  8. Do Japanese Companies in the Czech Republic Perform Better than Others?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blahova, Michaela; Pálka, Přemysl; Edgeman, Rick

    Republic (irrespective the owner’s country of origin) in order to find out whether Japanese companies have been succeeding in combining a new focus on strategy, profit orientation, global outlook and flexibility with their traditional strengths of efficient processes, quality orientation, attention...... did not prove the causal relationship between the enhanced performance of Japanese companies and changes that have been in progress in the world economy recently, it identified companies with above-average performance values that respond to changes in economies and adapt their business focus fast...

  9. International and Domestic Challenges to Comprehensive National Cybersecurity: A Case Study of the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadiya Kostyuk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available While many countries and companies have fallen victim to cyber attacks over the past few years, including American companies such as Apple, Microsoft, and Facebook, Czech websites remained relatively safe until March 2013, when they were interrupted by a series of cyber attacks. Even though the origin of the attacks remains debatable, this case study demonstrates the importance of cooperation between nations in the nascent phase of the internet development and their more powerful allies. Domestic challenges that nations face in addressing cybersecurity in an effective and comprehensive manner include ambiguous legislation, recalcitrant officials, and a lack of both fiscal and human capital. To address these challenges, nations should cooperate with their more capable allies, such as the EU and NATO, create better cyber protective measures, train and hire qualified specialists in the public sector, and intensify private-public partnership. Until an international agenda on cyberspace is set, these nations with limited resources should cooperate with developed nations lest they risk more severe attacks in the future.

  10. Impact of Definition of Consumption Units on Equivalised Household Incomes in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Malá

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Equivalised incomes are frequently used in order to make adjustments to the actual incomes of households in a way that enables analysis of the relative wellbeing of households of different sizes and compositions (numbers of adults, numbers of children and their ages. In the paper, different methods of evaluation of equivalised units (equivalised numbers of members are discussed and their impact on derived equivalised incomes is shown. Equivalised total annual net incomes of Czech households (in CZK defined by four scales (numbers of members, OECD-modified scale, OECD scale, square root scale are analysed for the time period 2007–2010 based on EU-SILC data from the surveys in 2008 to 2011. The incomes are compared with respect to sample distributions and descriptive characteristics of their level and variability; development in time is also of interest. A  strong dependence is expected and quantified (from different points of view among all the equivalised incomes treated (in given years.

  11. Determination of nickel in hydrogenated fats and selected chocolate bars in Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohnalova, Lucie; Bucek, Pavel; Vobornik, Petr; Dohnal, Vlastimil

    2017-02-15

    Nickel is a metal that can be present in products containing hardened edible oils, possibly as leftover catalyst from the vegetable oil hardening process. Nickel may cause toxic effects including the promotion of cancer and contact allergy. In this work, nickel content was determined in hydrogenated vegetable fats and confectionery products, made with these fats, available on the Czech market using newly developed method combining microwave digestion and graphite furnace AAS. While concentrations of 0.086±0.014mg.kg(-1) or less were found in hydrogenated vegetable fats, the Ni content in confectionery products was significantly higher, varying between 0.742±0.066 and 3.141±0.217mg.kg(-1). Based on an average consumer basket, daily intake of nickel from vegetable fats is at least twice as low as intake from confectionery products. Based on results, the levels of nickel in neither vegetable fats nor confectionery products, do not represent a significant health risk.

  12. Daphne mosaic virus (DapMV), a new potyvirus from Daphne mezereum in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fránová, J; Petrzik, K; Lesemann, D-E; Navrátil, M

    2006-04-01

    Daphne shrubs with light green rings and mosaic on leaves contained flexuous filamentous virions (696 x 13 nm) and cylindrical inclusions typical of the subdivision III of Edwardson's classification for inclusions induced by members of the family Potyviridae. Decoration tests using antisera to 67 potyviruses revealed distant serological relations among chilli veinal mottle virus, Colombian datura virus, papaya ringspot virus, tobacco vein mottling virus and yam mosaic virus. The 3' terminal region of the virus genome was amplified by RT-PCR using primers specific for cloned and sequenced members of the family Potyviridae. The most similar sequences in the GenBank were those of isolates of wild potato mosaic virus (WPMV) and yam mild mosaic virus (YMMV), originating from Peru and Guadeloupe, respectively. The new sequence had 63.2% and 61.9% nucleotide identity to WPMV and YMMV in the coat protein gene. The results suggest that the Czech isolate from daphne should be regarded as a new member of the genus Potyvirus. The name daphne mosaic virus (DapMV) is suggested for this virus.

  13. Social Networks as an Integration Tool in Rural Areas – Agricultural Enterprises of the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Stočes

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Social networks have been growing at a rapid pace. Social media represent one of the most significant phenomena of today's world and are more and more integrated from the private sphere into the commercial one (e.g. into marketing where social media already play a substantial role. The present paper is aimed at introducing an initial study on the use of social media in agricultural enterprises. The study was thus targeted at agricultural enterprises – both legal entities (public limited companies, limited liability companies and last but not least cooperatives and natural persons (farmers that farm the total area of more than 100 hectares (a basic selection criterion of the survey. This interesting study was conducted by means of a questionnaire survey that included information on social media awareness, development and use within the respective group of respondents (bigger agricultural enterprises. The paper deals with social media as such and naturally with the survey results. The data retrieved from the questionnaire were used not only for monitoring social networks integration in the agrarian sector (important factor in rural areas but as well for exploring the potential of modern information tools in agriculture promotion. The survey has been carried out in mutual cooperation of the Department of Information Technologies with the Information and Consulting Centre, Faculty of Economics and Management, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague.

  14. CEO and Businesses are Losing Trust: Comparison of EU, USA, Czech and Slovak Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisa Kasl Kollmannová

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an in-depth study based on open-source data analysis (Edelman Trust Barometer and EuropeanCommunication Monitor concerning the general loss of trust, which both commercial companies, governments and,on a minor scale, also NGOs have been experiencing since the Global Financial Crisis in 2008. Trust is an essentialline of corporate communications, public relations and reputation management of companies and it is personalizedby the CEOs and top management. According to the data, the trust of CEOs saw the biggest decline in the U.S.while in Slovakia the trust is still quite high; on the contrary, in the E.U. in general, the level of trust of CEOs reacheda historical minimum of 30%. The overall shift from trusting the traditional authorities, such as government, CEOsand offi cial representatives to academics, stakeholders, employees and general “vox populi” can be seen globally.The aim of this article is to defi ne trust and the social and communications context of building trust as a key factorin a company´s reputation. Finally, clear managerial implications on reputation management focusing on Czech andSlovak CEOs and businesses will be given.

  15. Entrepreneurship in SME Segment: Case Study from the Czech Republic and Slovakia

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    Jaroslav Belás

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Definition and comparison of the current business environment of the Czech and Slovakian SMEs in the selected regions are the main objectives of the article. In accordance with this objective motivational factors, status in the society, relationship to the state, level of the corruption, approach to loan financing, and business optimism in the business environment have been examined. In details, there have been quantified the differences between the trading companies and the others, between the companies over 10 years old and the others, and between the micro-enterprises and the others. There were compared the opinions of entrepreneurs who stated that their main motivation to start a business was money to the opinions of other entrepreneurs. Our research has produced interesting findings. It was found out that money is an important motive for starting a business, although there are some regional differences in this area. Entrepreneurs negatively perceive the relationship between surroundings and their activities, the relationship of the state to the business and corruption that they encounter while performing their business activities. The businessmen rather criticized the banks’ approach of banks to fund their needs and at the same time they expressed a great deal of business optimism.

  16. Surface Ozone Measured at GLOBE Schools in the Czech Republic: A Demonstration of the Importance of Student Contribution to the Larger Science Picture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pippin, Margaret R.; Creilson, John K.; Henderson, Bryana L.; Ladd, Irene H.; Fishman, Jack; Votapkova, Dana; Krpcova, Ilona

    2008-01-01

    GLOBE (Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment) is a worldwide hands-on, primary and secondary school-based education and science program, developed to give students a chance to perform real science by making measurements, analyzing data, and participating in research in collaboration with scientists. As part of the GLOBE Surface Ozone Protocol and with the assistance of the TEREZA Association in the Czech Republic, schools in the Czech Republic have been making and reporting daily measurements of surface ozone and surface meteorological data since 2001. Using a hand-held ozone monitor developed for GLOBE, students at several Czech schools have generated multiyear data records of surface ozone from 2001 to 2005. Analysis of the data shows surface ozone levels were anomalously high during the summer of 2003 relative to other summers. These findings are consistent with measurements by the European Environment Agency that highlights the summer of 2003 as having exceptionally long-lasting and spatially extensive episodes of high surface ozone, especially during the first half of August. Further analysis of the summer s prevailing meteorology shows not only that it was one of the hottest on record, a finding also seen in the student data, but the conditions for production of ozone were ideal. Findings such as these increase student, teacher, and scientist confidence in the utility of the GLOBE data for engaging budding scientists in the collection, analysis, and eventual interpretation of the data for inquiry-based education.

  17. Preliminary trial to ascertain the feeling of uncertainty of young women in Poland and Czech Republic in the context of their intention to have a child

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    Andrzej Brodziak

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency and severity of a sense of uncertainty concerning important determinants of human existence in selected groups of young women in Poland and the Czech Republic, when they found themselves to be at the right age to have children. Material and methods. Data were obtained based on a self developed questionnaire. The study involved 42 nursing students in the second year of studies in Poland and 51 nursing students in the Czech Republic. The average age in these two groups was 21.7 and 22.8 years respectively The results were analyzed statistically using the chi-square test. Results. Polish young women in comparison to Czech women are more often afraid of considerable nuisance problems with future work, unsatisfactory relationships with future partners, and a sense of forthcoming impending dangers. Conclusions. The results suggest considerable uncertainty with regard to important spheres of human existence among young people. In the light of similar observations made by authors from countries of different economic standard, the insecurity is only one affecting factor among others. The results indicate the advisability of undertaking research on different approved models of the family

  18. Specificity of Czech Economic Transformation

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    Haberle, Ondřej

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to describe the economic transformation in Czech Republic in 1990-1997 with accent on difference between transformation process in Czech Republic and other transition countries. Theoretical part is based on the description of the model of centrally planned economy and transformation theory. Practical part discuss macroeconomy a microeconomy measures of economic transformation.

  19. Stakeholder Groups of Public and Private Universities in the Czech Republic – Identification, Categorization and Prioritization

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    Slabá Marie

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available With regard to changes in the environment of tertiary education and tertiary educational systems, universities are now unlikely to succeed as ‘separated closed’ institutions that are unresponsive to their environment and stakeholders. Stakeholder analysis is considered as an important part of university management and marketing and universities have to take care of key stakeholder groups and build long term relationships with them. This paper focuses on the stakeholder analysis and adopts the stake-holder theory and analysis for the needs of the Czech market of tertiary education. This paper analyses results of the author’s online questionnaire that provided the input for data analysis deploying basic descriptive analysis and first steps of stakeholder analysis – identification, categorization and prioritization. Results of author’s research show that there are only slight differences between public and private universities and their perspective concerning generic stakeholder groups of universities. However the research revealed two controversial stakeholder groups – donors and competitors. In comparison with other stakeholder groups perception of these two stakeholder groups by public and private universities is very different. Stakeholder groups of public and private universities were categorized into four basic groups - primary internal stakeholder groups, primary external stakeholder groups, secondary internal stakeholder groups, and secondary external stakeholder groups. Primary internal and external stakeholder groups which are crucial for survival of universities are the most important stakeholder groups for universities. The author identified ten most important stakeholder groups for public and private universities separately, based on assigned priorities that will be used for further research.

  20. Qualification Requirements for Foreign Suppliers in Public Procurement – Evidence from the Czech Republic

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    Vyklický Martin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Qualification requirements for foreign suppliers in Public Procurement (PP are quite different in each European Union (EU member state. The most complex requirements for foreign suppliers in the context of public purchases are included in the Czech PP law. The aim of this paper is to make an overview of the problem of qualification requirements for foreign suppliers in the PP law of the CR. Its sub-objectives are the identification and explanation of solutions to the problem in the PP legislation of neighboring countries of the CR that are also members of the EU. The methodological part of the contribution is based mainly on the analysis and critical evaluation of the current state of legal issues relating to the proof of qualification of foreign suppliers in PP orders of the CR; with examples of fairly extensive decision-making practices of the Office for the Protection of Competition and law courts, including the jurisprudence of the European Court of Justice. The paper highlights the unnecessary complexity of qualification requirements that, on purely formal grounds, inhibits submissions of tenders from potential foreign suppliers that would otherwise be able to submit a bid for a public contract without any problems whatsoever. The authors are using and applying a comparative-legal method in the context of the comparison of the PP legislation of neighboring countries of the CR that are also members of the EU. The case study of foreign suppliers bidding for above-threshold public tenders in the CR at the minimum legal requirements of the contracting authority (CA for proof of qualification, the comparation study with selected EU countries or analysis of the development of the proportion of public contracts awarded to foreign suppliers in 2010–2014 shows that there is legislation uncertainty in EU PP law that should be reduced and simplified on an EC basis.

  1. Sorption and degradation of selected pharmaceuticals in representative soils of the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodesova, Radka; Kocarek, Martin; Klement, Ales; Golovko, Oksana; Grabic, Roman; Fer, Miroslav; Nikodem, Antonin; Jaksik, Ondrej

    2015-04-01

    Knowledge of contaminant behavior (e.g. its sorption onto soil particle, degradation etc.) is essential when assessing contaminant migration in soil and groundwater environment. This study was focused on evaluating sorption isotherms and half-lives for 7 pharmaceuticals (clarithromycin, trimethoprim, metoprolol, atenolol, clindamycin, carbamazepine, sulfamethoxazole) on 13 soils of different soil properties. Sorption of ionizable compounds was highly affected by soil pH. The sorption coefficient of sulfamethoxazole was negatively correlated to soil pH and thus positively related to hydrolytic acidity and exchangeable acidity. Sorption coefficients for clindamycin and clarithromycin were positively related to soil pH and thus negatively related to hydrolytic acidity and exchangeable acidity and positively related to base cation saturation. Sorption coefficients for the remaining pharmaceuticals (trimethoprim, metoprolol, atenolol, and carbamazepine) were also positively correlated with the base cation saturation and cation exchange capacity. Degradation rates in some degree reflected sorption of studied pharmaceuticals on soil particles and increased with decreasing sorption. The highest mobility in studied soils was observed for sulfamethoxazole, but this pharmaceutical was relatively quickly degraded. The second highest mobility was found for carbamazepine, which mostly did not noticeably degrade during our experiments. Thus this pharmaceutical has the highest potential to migrate in water environment. The lowest mobility was observed for clarithromycin. However, this pharmaceutical due to its stability may be retained in an environment for a long time. Acknowledgement: The authors acknowledge the financial support of the Czech Science Foundation (Project No. 13-12477S, Transport of pharmaceuticals in soils). References: Kodesova, R., Grabic, R., Kocarek, M., Klement, A., Golovko, O., Fer, M., Nikodem, A., Jaksik, O., Pharmaceuticals' sorptions relative to

  2. Status of a Quality Management System in the Czech Republic as a Condition for Business Competitiveness

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    Kateřina Kovářová

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: Quality management systems are frequently used instruments for strategic management in business. Corporate management understands the importance of proving the quality of their products as well as other aspects, particularly environmental and safety issues in business connections and their possible negative impact on the company’s competitiveness and image. Methodology/methods: A data analysis was carried out based on a questionnaire research conducted in a selection group of Czech businesses with the objective to identify the reasons for introducing and using a management system, or to identify difficulties and problems in introducing it. The questionnaire research was statistically processed using analytic classification, hypotheses testing as well as a correlation analysis. The objective of the research was to validate or invalidate the hypotheses concerning the measures taken by a business in implementing and maintaining a quality management system (QMS, problems in its implementation, and to analyse competitive advantages and influence on the image. Findings: The research results confirmed that internal reasons for QMS implementation prevail in national businesses. Nevertheless, the main problem is the complexity of QMS/ understanding of the QMS by employees. An implemented QMS motivates the personnel, however, only a small number of enterprises use it to motivate their employees. The main benefits quoted by the respondents were improved company process management and relations between the processes, increased customer satisfaction as well as improved corporate image. Conclusions: A quality management system helps organisations to introduce system and order. Corporate processes are systematically managed, which significantly contributes to meeting the business objectives of a company. Having integrated the implemented QMS in their organisation, the respondents demonstrated they can effectively work with it and

  3. The development of innovation activities clusters in Russia and in the Czech Republic

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    Alexey Lesnik

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Innovative development becomes the main tendency of the modern world economy. The paper presents a comparative analysis of the development of Russian and Czech clusters engaged in innovation activities. Innovative cluster is one of the most effective forms for reaching a high level of competitiveness. Development of the cluster as a new form of managing, economic interaction and connections allows to reach social and economic effect. The whole point of the innovative cluster is that the enterprises and the organizations merge with each other and create a new product or service and put means in development. Cooperation between companies allows toreduce costs for its development and researches with the commercialization of the new good or service in the future. The activity of the cluster has a constructive nature, which consists in the majority of participants of innovative cluster do not compete among themselves; they work for the common objective. Innovative clusters exist not only in the developed countries, but also in the developing states. Innovative activity in the developed countries arose earlier and began to form rapider. The innovative clusters have promoted the development of the European countries. Domination of the clusters in the economy is significant both for national, and for a regional economy, where high geographical concentration of the interconnected industries is observed. The cluster approach gives the effective tool for the achievement of main goals: increase of the level of profitableness of the region and employment of the population, promotes strengthening of the competitive advantages of separate companies and all economy as a whole.

  4. Application of current knowledge and trends in sports training of top level volleyball teams in the Czech Republic

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    Michal Lehnert

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To achieve the best results in top volleyball it is necessary to analyze the current state and to react adequately to development trends, which characterize modern volleyball. OBJECTIVES: The goal of the study was to acquire information regarding how do top volleyball coaches of senior and junior volleyball teams in the Czech Republic put current knowledge and trends in volleyball sport training and coaching in practice. METHODS: We created a survey consisting of 31 questions, which were divided into 5 areas: respecting of the current requirements of game performance in training, training efficiency, conditioning, coaching and psycho-social aspects. The survey was sent to 49 coaches, 24 of them replied (response rate 49 %. RESULTS: The research shows that coaches do not apply all important knowledge and trends for players' preparation (76 % of correct answers in total. Groups of coaches were further divided to subgroups according to gender of the trained teams, age categories, coaches work load and 1st and 2nd class coaches. The comparison of the answers in the subgroup of coaches with respect to segregated areas has only pointed at a difference between male and female teams in the area of psycho-social training aspects (Z = 1.756; p = 0.079; d = 0.717. The comparison of coaches' groups answers to individual questions show that: a coaches of male teams base their training sessions on real game situations and choose the content of the exercises with the ball more thoroughly (Z = 1.85; p = 0.07; d = 0.75 and require defensive game combinations at the net more often (Z = 1.81; p = 0.07; d = 0.74; b junior teams are behind (Z = 1.90; p = 0.06; d = 0.77 senior teams in the number of training hours with the ball a week and in making conditions for successful realization of offensive game combinations with fast set (Z = 2.10; p = 0.04; d = 0.86; c 1st class coaches within the scope of condition training pay more attention to core training

  5. Alpine skiing: Effects of mental training program of junior representatives of the Czech republic

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    Hana Hřebíčková

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Qualitative evaluation case study deals with the implementation of mental skills training program conducted with the Czech national junior alpine skiing team over a period of an annual training cycle and evaluation of its effects by one of the members of the team. The concept of the study is based on current findings of sport psychology in the field of mental training in alpine skiing and other sports. The theoretical framework of the study is the socio-cognitive psychological paradigm (Bandura, 1986, 1997 and cognitive-behavioral approach. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the work is a qualitative evaluation of a program involving relaxation, concentration and imaginative techniques and goal setting by one of its participants. METHODS: Evaluation is carried out through semi-structured interview with the participant. The interview was analyzed in a scientific software Atlas.ti 6.2. The method of creating clusters were used for analysis. RESULTS: From the participants answers we understand the subjectively perceived benefit of the program based on understanding of the possibility of influencing the mental part of his performance. The racer presents that he learned the practical application of certain techniques of the mental preparation, particularly imagery and the mental plan of the race, which contributed to better coping with the race situation. The racer achieved the improvement in his FIS ranking standings in all the disciplines over the monitored season. Research findings are used in the proposal of practical recommendations for mental preparation in the training of top and performing skiers. CONCLUSION: An important factor in the success of the mental skills training program is cooperation of all interested participants, that are athlete, coach and psychologist. With applying the psychological techniques the key factors are mental support, encouragement, and development of confidence of the athlete in his own abilities. A well

  6. Hydrometeorological extremes derived from taxation records for south-eastern Moravia, Czech Republic, 1751–1900 AD

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    H. Valášek

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Historical written records associated with tax relief at ten estates located in south-eastern Moravia (Czech Republic are used for the study of hydrometeorological extremes and their impacts during the period 1751–1900 AD. At the time, the taxation system in Moravia allowed farmers to request tax relief if their crop yields had been negatively affected by hydrological and meteorological extremes. The documentation involved contains information about the type of extreme event and the date of its occurrence, while the impact on crops may often be derived. A total of 175 extreme events resulting in some kind of damage are documented for 1751–1900, with the highest concentration between 1811 and 1860 (74.9% of all events analysed. The nature of events leading to damage (of a possible 272 types include hailstorm (25.7%, torrential rain (21.7%, flood (21.0%, followed by thunderstorm, flash flood, late frost and windstorm. The four most outstanding events, affecting the highest number of settlements, were thunderstorms with hailstorms (25 June 1825, 20 May 1847 and 29 June 1890 and flooding of the River Morava (mid-June 1847. Hydrometeorological extremes in the 1816–1855 period are compared with those occurring during the recent 1961–2000 period. The results obtained are inevitably influenced by uncertainties related to taxation records, such as their temporal and spatial incompleteness, the limits of the period of outside agricultural work (i.e. mainly May–August and the purpose for which they were originally collected (primarily tax alleviation, i.e. information about hydrometeorological extremes was of secondary importance. Taxation records constitute an important source of data for historical climatology and historical hydrology and have a great potential for use in many European countries.

  7. Thirteen years on the hunt for Buxbaumia viridis in the Czech Republic: still on the tip of the iceberg?

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    Eva Holá

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rare epixylic moss Buxbaumia viridis, which is one of the “Annex II” species of the European “Habitat directive”, has been recorded at 124 localities in the Czech Republic in course of the last 13 years. Most of them were discovered in the last five years following a dedicated search at both historical sites of occurrence and new localities with putatively suitable habitat conditions. The recent and historical area of occupancy and extent of occurrence are not obviously different, although most of the recent localities are concentrated in the Western Carpathians and the Hrubý Jeseník Mts. Surprisingly, only 38% of the localities are located in natural forest habitats, of which herb-rich and acidophilous beech forests were among the most commonly inhabited ones. The rest of occurrences were recorded in non-natural forests (habitats strongly influenced or created by man, particularly the coniferous forest plantations. Sufficient amount of decaying wood of the advanced decay stages, as well as sufficient and constant humidity are crucial prerequisites for the occurrence of B. viridis in both types of forests. True epixylic moss Herzogiella seligeri and the liverwort Chiloscyphus profundus were recorded as the most common associated species, while the rest of commonly co-occurring species were facultatively epixylic, ground or ubiquitous bryophytes; other specialized and rare epixylic mosses or liverworts were only rarely recorded. We also designed a potential distribution model for B. viridis based on the distribution of habitats most commonly occupied by the studied moss. Despite the simplicity of the model, its close match with the recent distribution in the Western Carpathians, the Hrubý Jeseník Mts. and Šumava Mts. supports its relevance for the real distribution of B. viridis.

  8. Occurrence and removal of estrogens, progesterone and testosterone in three constructed wetlands treating municipal sewage in the Czech Republic.

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    Vymazal, Jan; Březinová, Tereza; Koželuh, Milan

    2015-12-01

    Estrogenic hormones, progesterone and testosterone are endocrine-disrupting chemicals and their presence in aquatic environments represents a potentially adverse environmental and public health impact. There is a considerable amount of information about removal of estrogens, progesterone and testosterone in conventional wastewater treatment plants, namely activated sludge systems. However, the information about removal of these compounds in constructed wetlands is very limited. Three constructed wetlands with horizontal subsurface flow in the Czech Republic have been selected to evaluate removal of estrogens (estrone, estriol, 17β-estradiol, 17α-ethinylestradiol), testosterone and progesterone. Monitored constructed wetlands for 100, 150 and 200 PE have been in operation for more than 10 years and all systems exhibit very high treatment efficiency for organics and suspended solids. The results indicate that removal of all estrogens, progesterone and testosterone was high and only estrone was found in the outflow from one constructed wetland in concentrations above the limit of quantification 1 ng l(-1). The limits of quantification for other estrogens, i.e., 10 ng l(-1) for estriol, 1 ng l(-1) for 17β-estradiol and 2 ng l(-1) for 17α-ethinylestradiol were not exceeded in the outflow of all monitored constructed wetlands. Also, for progesterone and testosterone, all outflow concentrations were below the LOQ of 0.5 ng l(-1). The results indicated that constructed wetlands with horizontal subsurface flow are a promising technology for elimination of estrogens, progesterone and testosterone from municipal sewage but more information is needed to confirm this finding.

  9. Contrasting patterns of hot spell effects on morbidity and mortality for cardiovascular diseases in the Czech Republic, 1994-2009

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    Hanzlíková, Hana; Plavcová, Eva; Kynčl, Jan; Kříž, Bohumír; Kyselý, Jan

    2015-11-01

    The study examines effects of hot spells on cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality in the population of the Czech Republic, with emphasis on differences between ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and cerebrovascular disease (CD) and between morbidity and mortality. Daily data on CVD morbidity (hospital admissions) and mortality over 1994-2009 were obtained from national hospitalization and mortality registers and standardized to account for long-term changes as well as seasonal and weekly cycles. Hot spells were defined as periods of at least two consecutive days with average daily air temperature anomalies above the 95 % quantile during June to August. Relative deviations of mortality and morbidity from the baseline were evaluated. Hot spells were associated with excess mortality for all examined cardiovascular causes (CVD, IHD and CD). The increases were more pronounced for CD than IHD mortality in most population groups, mainly in males. In the younger population (0-64 years), however, significant excess mortality was observed for IHD while there was no excess mortality for CD. A short-term displacement effect was found to be much larger for mortality due to CD than IHD. Excess CVD mortality was not accompanied by increases in hospital admissions and below-expected-levels of morbidity prevailed during hot spells, particularly for IHD in the elderly. This suggests that out-of-hospital deaths represent a major part of excess CVD mortality during heat and that for in-hospital excess deaths CVD is a masked comorbid condition rather than the primary diagnosis responsible for hospitalization.

  10. A new Late Cretaceous ginkgoalean reproductive structure Nehvizdyella gen. nov. from the Czech Republic and its whole-plant reconstruction.

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    Kvacek, Jirí; Falcon-Lang, Howard J; Dasková, Jirina

    2005-12-01

    During the Mesozoic Era, gingkoaleans comprised a diverse and widespread group. Here we describe ginkgoalean fossils in their facies context from the Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian) Peruc-Korycany Formation of the Czech Republic and present a reconstruction of tree architecture and ecology. Newly described in this study is the ovuliferous reproductive structure, Nehvizdyella bipartita gen. et sp. nov. (Ginkgoales). This ovuliferous organ consists of a bifurcating axis, terminated by large cupule-like structures, probably homologous to the collar of the recent Ginkgo. Each cupule encloses an orthotropous ovule. In specimens with the early developmental stages preserved, the entire ovule and young seed, with the exception of the micropylar area, is embedded in the cupule. Mature seeds consist of sclerotesta and sarcotesta. Monosulcate pollen grains of Cycadopites-type are found adhering to the seeds. Although similar to Ginkgo in terms of its large size and reduced number of seeds, N. bipartita differs from the extant genus in having ovules completely enclosed in a cupule-like structure. The co-occurrence of N. bipartita with ginkgoalean leaves of Eretmophyllum obtusum (Velenovský) Kvaček, J., ginkgoalean short shoots of Pecinovicladus kvacekii Falcon-Lang, and ginkgoalean trunk wood of Ginkgoxylon gruettii Pons and Vozenin-Serra in monodominant taphocoenoses at four geographically distant localities suggests that these remains all belong to one plant. This is supported by the close morphological and anatomical similarity between the different organs. Facies analysis of plant assemblages indicates that our Cretaceous tree occupied a water-stressed coastal salt marsh environment. It therefore represents the first unequivocal halophyte among the Ginkgoales.

  11. Decreasing Seroprevalence of Measles Antibodies after Vaccination – Possible Gap in Measles Protection in Adults in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Jan; Chlibek, Roman; Hanovcova, Irena; Sosovickova, Renata; Smetanova, Libuse; Gal, Peter; Dite, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Aims In recent years, Europe has recorded an increase in the number of measles outbreaks despite the implementation of vaccination into the National Immunization Programs. The Czech Republic introduced vaccination against measles into National Immunization Program in 1969. The aim of this study was to determine seroprevalence of IgG antibodies against measles in adults. Methods Our study was designed as a prospective, multicenter cohort study. Samples of blood were taken from adults aged 18 years and over. Specific IgG antibodies were determined by ELISA method. Results A number of 1911 sera samples were obtained. The total seropositivity reached 83.3%, 14.3% of the results were negative and 2.4% were borderline. When comparing the individual age groups, the highest antibody seropositivity (> 96%) was detected in persons aged 50 years and over who were naturally infected in pre-vaccine era. The lowest seropositivity was recorded in the age groups 30–39 years (61.5%), 40–49 years (77.5%) and 18–29 years (81.1%). Conclusions A long term high rate of seropositivity persists after natural measles infection. By contrast, it decreases over time after vaccination. Similarly, the concentrations of antibodies in persons with measles history persist for a longer time at a higher level than in vaccinated persons. Our results indicate possible gap in measles protection in adults born after implementation of vaccination into the National Immunization Programs. There are two probable reasons, decrease of measles antibody seropositivity in time after vaccination in setting of limited natural booster and one-dose vaccination schedule used in the first years after implementation. PMID:28085960

  12. Natural habitats matter: Determinants of spatial pattern in the composition of animal assemblages of the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divíšek, Jan; Zelený, David; Culek, Martin; Št'astný, Karel

    2014-08-01

    Studies that explore species-environment relationships at a broad scale are usually limited by the availability of sufficient habitat description, which is often too coarse to differentiate natural habitat patches. Therefore, it is not well understood how the distribution of natural habitats affects broad-scale patterns in the distribution of animal species. In this study, we evaluate the role of field-mapped natural habitats, land-cover types derived from remote sensing and climate on the composition of assemblages of five distinct animal groups, namely non-volant mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and butterflies native to the Czech Republic. First, we used variation partitioning based on redundancy analysis to evaluate the extent to which the environmental variables and their spatial structure might underlie the observed spatial patterns in the composition of animal assemblages. Second, we partitioned variations explained by climate, natural habitats and land-cover to compare their relative importance. Finally, we tested the independent effects of each variable in order to evaluate the significance of their contributions to the environmental model. Our results showed that spatial patterns in the composition of assemblages of almost all the considered animal groups may be ascribed mostly to variations in the environment. Although the shared effects of climatic variables, natural habitats and land-cover types explained the largest proportion of variation in each animal group, the variation explained purely by natural habitats was always higher than the variation explained purely by climate or land-cover. We conclude that most spatial variation in the composition of assemblages of almost all animal groups probably arises from biological processes operating within a spatially structured environment and suggest that natural habitats are important to explain observed patterns because they often perform better than habitat descriptions based on remote sensing. This

  13. Environmental and animal factors associated with gestation length in Holstein cows and heifers in two herds in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasek, R; Rezac, P; Havlicek, Z

    2017-01-01

    The objective was to assess the effects of the month of conception, month of calving, sex of the calf, and twins on gestation length (GL) in Holstein cows and heifers in two dairy herds with different milk yields. The study was performed in northeast Czech Republic over a 6-year period on two commercial dairy herds with a mean annual milk production of 11,060 kg per cow in the higher milk-producing herd and 8854 kg per cow in the lower milk-producing herd. Gestation length in cows that conceived in different months of the year was longer in the higher milk-producing herd than that in the lower milk-producing herd throughout the year (P Gestation length in cows that conceived in different months of the year was longer than that in heifers through the whole year in both herds (P Gestation length in cows and heifers that conceived in the first months of the year was longer than in those that conceived in the last months of the year in both herds (P Gestation length in cows and heifers that calved in late fall and throughout winter was longer than in those that calved in spring and summer in both herds (P Gestation length in females carrying male calves was longer than in those carrying female calves (P Gestation length in cows (P < 0.0001) and heifers (P < 0.05) carrying singles was longer than in those carrying twins in both herds. In conclusion, results indicate that GL in Holstein cattle is associated with the month of conception, month of calving, herd, parity, sex of the calf, and twins.

  14. The Profile and Work of Officials in Central and Regional Administration Compared: The Case of the Czech Republic

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    Veselý Arnošt

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the profiles and work tasks of officials in central and regional administration in the Czech Republic. It analyzes data from surveys among the officials of eleven ministries in 2013 (N = 1351 and fourteen regional offices in 2012 (N = 783. First, the profile of ministerial officials (MOs is compared with that of regional-level officials (ROs. In accordance with our hypotheses, on average it is found that MOs are, when compared to ROs, older, more educated and have spent more time in civil service. Th ere is also a higher proportion of men in ministries than in regional offices. On the other hand, ministerial work seems to be affected by higher levels of fluctuation than jobs in the regional offices. Second, we compare work tasks of MOs and ROs. As expected, MOs are more involved in analytical tasks and research than ROs. In contrast, ROs are more likely to implement policies or programs, direct and monitor programs or lower-level bodies, provide advice for political bodies of the region, negotiate with elected politicians, communicate with citizens and provide methodological guidance, train or lecture. Contrary to our theoretical expectations, we found a strong positive correlation between analytical and brokering tasks (communication and negotiation. We thus reject the hypothesis that analytical tasks are at odds with negotiating and communication. Instead, it is concluded that most officials are multitaskers, and it is especially so in regional offices. It is hypothesized that this might be caused by the fact that regional offices are smaller and have a lower capacity to specialize

  15. Microalgal biofilms on common yew needles in relation to anthropogenic air pollution in urban Prague, Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nováková, Radka; Neustupa, Jiří

    2015-03-01

    Excessive occurrence of microalgae on needles of gymnosperms was reported for the first time in the 1980s from the Scandinavian countries. Since then, it has been repeatedly encountered on needles from various European forest habitats. The abundance of these biofilms has been related to the climatic conditions, such as temperature and precipitation, as well as to the air pollution by nitrogen and sulfur oxides. Urban areas typically have relatively homogenous climates and profound variation in levels of air pollution. Therefore, variation in the occurrence of biofilms in localities within an urban area may be related to local anthropogenic air pollution. We investigated the abundance of biofilms occurring on needles of the common yew (Taxus baccata) in the city of Prague, Czech Republic. The biofilms were composed of algae, fungi and particulate matter. The cover area of the biofilms was marginally explained by a positive influence of short-term maximum atmospheric levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The amounts of the microalgae were also positively influenced by short-term maximum NO2 levels. In addition, high atmospheric levels of particulate matter (PM10) were related to low abundance of algae. The microbial biofilms growing on widely cultivated conifers, such as the common yew, form one of the few commonly occurring natural communities in highly urbanized central areas of temperate European cities. Consequently, we propose that microscopic analysis of biofilms may be used as a rapid and cheap method to collect ecological data. Such data may be used in biomonitoring schemes illustrating the effects of anthropogenic air pollution on natural microcommunities in urban areas.

  16. EFFECTS OF FOG PRECIPITATION ON WATER RESOURCES AND DRINKING WATER TREATMENT IN THE JIZERA MOUNTAINS, THE CZECH REPUBLIC

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    Josef Křeček

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Water yield from catchments with a high evidence of fog or low clouds could be increased by the canopy fog drip. However, in areas with the acid atmospheric deposition, this process can lead to the decline of water quality. The aim of this study is to analyze fog related processes in headwater catchments of the Jizera Mountains (the Czech Republic with special attention to water quality and the drinking water treatment. In two years (2011-2012, the fog drip was observed by twelve passive fog collectors at transect of the Jizerka experimental catchment. Methods of space interpolation and extrapolation (ArcGis 10.2 were applied to approximate the areal atmospheric deposition of fog water, sulphur and nitrogen, in catchments of the drinking water reservoirs Josefův Důl and Souš. The mean annual fog drip from vegetation canopy was found between 88 and 106 mm (i.e. 7 to 9 percent of precipitation, and 11 to 13 percent of water yield, estimated by standard rain gauge monitoring. But, the mean annual load of sulphur and nitrogen by the fog drip was 1,975 and 1,080, kilograms per square kilometre, respectively (i.e. 55 and 48 percent of total deposition of sulphur and nitrogen, registered in the bulk. The acidification of surface waters leads to rising operational costs in the water treatment plants (liming, reduce of heavy metals, more frequent control of sand filters etc.. In a catchment scale, the additional precipitation, caused by the canopy fog drip, could be controlled by the effective watershed management (support of forests stands near the native composition with presence of deciduous trees: beech, mountain ash, or birch.

  17. Prevalence of Elder Abuse and Neglect in Seniors with Psychiatric Morbidity - Example from Central Moravia, Czech Republic

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    Jan Luzny

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Elder abuse and neglect (EAN comprises emotional, financial, physical, and sexual abuse, neglect by other individuals, and self-neglect. Elder abuse and neglect in seniors with psychiatric morbidity was not monitored in the Czech Republic at all, despite the literature shows mental morbidity as one of the important risk factor for developing elder abuse and neglect.Methods: We designed comparative cross sectional study comprising 305 seniors hospitalized in Mental Hospital Kromeriz in June 2011 - group of 202 seniors hospitalized due to mental disorder in psychogeriatric ward and group of 103 seniors hospitalized due to somatic disorder in internal ward. Content analysis of medical records was done in both groups of seniors, with regards to symptoms of elder abuse. Then, we discussed the topic of elder abuse with 30 nurses of psychogeriatric ward in focus group interview.Results: Between two compared groups of seniors we detected statistically higher prevalence of elder abuse in seniors with psychiatric morbidity (48 cases, 23.8% prevalence of EAN, compared to somatically ill seniors (3 cases, 2.9%. As for nursing staff, 5 from 30 nurses (16.7% have never heard about symptoms of elder abuse and neglect, 10 from 30 nurses (33.3% had just a partial knowledge about elder abuse and neglect and its symptoms, the rest of nurses (15 from 30 nurses, 50.0% had good knowledge about elder abuse and neglect and its symptoms.Conclusion: Elder abuse and neglect seems to be a relevant problem in senior population with mental disorders. Development of educational programs for nursing and medical staff about Elder abuse and neglect (symptoms of EAN, early detection of EAN, knowledge how to report cases of EAN could improve the situation and help mentally ill seniors to better quality of life.

  18. Use of Aerial Images for Regular Updates of Buildings in the Fundamental Base of Geographic Data of the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hron, V.; Halounova, L.

    2015-03-01

    Digital aerial images (DAI) include position, elevation and also spectral information (visible bands and near-infrared band) about the captured area. The aim of this paper is to present the possibilities of automatic analysis of DAI for updating of the Fundamental Base of Geographic Data of the Czech Republic with a focus on buildings. Regular updates of buildings (automatic detection of new and demolished buildings) are based on the analysis of coloured point clouds created by an automatic image matching technique from each time period. The created approach compares point clouds from different time periods to each other. The advantage of this solution is that it is independent of the manner of keeping the buildings in the database. It does not matter whether the buildings in the database have correct positions and their footprints correspond to the roof shapes or external walls. The involved method is robust because a digital surface model generated by image matching techniques can contain numerous errors. Shaded areas and objects with blurred textures are problematic for automatic image correlation algorithms and lead to false results. For this reason, derived layers containing additional information are used. Shadow masks (layers with modelled shadows) are used for the verification of indications and to filter out errors in the shaded areas using a contextual evaluation. Furthermore, additional information about the road and railway networks and morphological operations of opening and closing were used to achieve more accurate results. All these information sources are then evaluated using decision logic, which uses the generally applicable rules that are available for different datasets without the need for modification. The method was tested on different datasets with various types of buildings (villages, suburbs and city centres) which cover more than 20 square kilometres. The developed solution leads to very promising results without the need of acquiring

  19. Unintentional Pharmaceutical-Related Medication Errors Caused by Laypersons Reported to the Toxicological Information Centre in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Michal; Leššo, Roman; Pelclová, Daniela

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of the article was to study unintentional pharmaceutical-related poisonings committed by laypersons that were reported to the Toxicological Information Centre in the Czech Republic. Identifying frequency, sources, reasons and consequences of the medication errors in laypersons could help to reduce the overall rate of medication errors. Records of medication error enquiries from 2013 to 2014 were extracted from the electronic database, and the following variables were reviewed: drug class, dosage form, dose, age of the subject, cause of the error, time interval from ingestion to the call, symptoms, prognosis at the time of the call and first aid recommended. Of the calls, 1354 met the inclusion criteria. Among them, central nervous system-affecting drugs (23.6%), respiratory drugs (18.5%) and alimentary drugs (16.2%) were the most common drug classes involved in the medication errors. The highest proportion of the patients was in the youngest age subgroup 0-5 year-old (46%). The reasons for the medication errors involved the leaflet misinterpretation and mistaken dose (53.6%), mixing up medications (19.2%), attempting to reduce pain with repeated doses (6.4%), erroneous routes of administration (2.2%), psychiatric/elderly patients (2.7%), others (9.0%) or unknown (6.9%). A high proportion of children among the patients may be due to the fact that children's dosages for many drugs vary by their weight, and more medications come in a variety of concentrations. Most overdoses could be prevented by safer labelling, proper cap closure systems for liquid products and medication reconciliation by both physicians and pharmacists.

  20. The role of game (wild boar and roe deer) in the spread of tick-borne encephalitis in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriz, Bohumir; Daniel, Milan; Benes, Cestmir; Maly, Marek

    2014-11-01

    In the Czech Republic, the incidence of human tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) has been increasing over the last two decades. At the same time, populations of game have also shown an upward trend. In this country, the ungulate game is the main host group of hosts for Ixodes ricinus female ticks. This study examined the potential contribution of two most widespread game species (roe deer [Capreolus capreolus] and wild boar [Sus scrofa]) to the high incidence of TBE in the Czech Republic, using the annual numbers of culls as a proxy for the game population. This was an ecological study, with annual figures for geographical areas-municipalities with extended competence (MEC)-used as units of analysis. Between 2003 and 2011, a total of 6213 TBE cases were reported, and 1062,308 roe deer and 989,222 wild boars were culled; the culls of roe deer did not demonstrate a clear temporal trend, but wild boar culls almost doubled (from 77,269 to 143,378 per year). Statistical analyses revealed a positive association between TBE incidence rate and the relative number of culled wild boars. In multivariate analyses, a change in the numbers of culled wild boars between the 25th and 75th percentile was associated with TBE incidence rate ratio of 1.23 (95% confidence interval 1.07-1.41, p=0.003). By contrast, the association of TBE with culled roe deer was not statistically significant (p=0.481). The results suggest that the size of the wild boar population may have contributed to the current high levels and the rising trend in incidence of TBE, whereas the regulated population of roe deer does not seem to be implicated in recent geographical or temporal variations in TBE in the Czech Republic.

  1. Historický vývoj pojetí didaktiky fyziky v České republice / Historical development of approaches to didactics of physics in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Vojtěch Žák

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the review is to describe the approaches to the didactics of physics which appeared in the Czech Republic during its development, and to discuss especially the relationships between the didactics of physics and other fields. It should be beneficial to the understanding of the current situation and to the prognosis of the future development. The main, part of the paper includes the characteristics of particular approaches of the Czech didactics of physics. In chronological order...

  2. Solidification of spent ion exchange resins into the SIAL matrix at the Dukovany NPP, Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatransky, Peter; Prazska, Milena; Harvan, David [AMEC Nuclear Slovakia, Trnava, Slovak Republic, 917 01 (Slovakia)

    2013-07-01

    Based on the decision of the State Office for Nuclear Safety, the Dukovany NPP has been obliged to secure the efficient capacities for the disposal of spent ion exchange resins. Therefore, in September 2010, based on the contract with supplier company AMEC Nuclear Slovakia s.r.o. has begun with pumping and treatment of ion exchange resins from the storage tank 0TW30B02, situated in the auxiliary building. The SIAL{sup R} technology, developed in AMEC Nuclear Slovakia, has been used for the solidification purposes. This technology allows an on-site treatment of various special radioactive waste streams (resins, sludge, sludge/resins and borates) at the room temperature. The SIAL{sup R} matrix and technology were licensed by the Czech State Office for Nuclear Safety in 2007. On-site treatment and solidification of spent ion exchange resins at Dukovany NPP involves process of resin removal from tank using remotely operated manipulator, resin transportation, resin separation from free water, resin filling into 200 dm{sup 3} drums and solidification into SIAL{sup R} matrix in 200 dm{sup 3} drums using the FIZA S 200 facility. The final product is observed for compressive strength, leachability, radionuclide composition, dose rate, solids and total weight. After meeting the requirements for final disposal and consolidation, the drums are being transported for the final disposal to the Repository at Dukovany site. During the 3 month's trial operation in 2010, and the normal operation in 2011 and 2012, 189 tons of dewatered resins have been treated into 1960 drums, with total activity higher than 920 GBq. At the end of trial run (2010), 22 tons of dewatered resins were treated into 235 drums. During standard operation approximately 91 tons in 960 drums (2011) and 76 tons in 765 drums (2012) were treated. The weights of resins in the drum ware in the range from 89 - 106 kg and compressive strength limit (10 MPa) has already been achieved 24 hours after fixation. The

  3. German Language Proficiency among Students of Business and Management in the Czech Republic and its Perception: The Importance of German Language Skills on the Labour Market and the Role of Universities in Foreign Language Training

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    Zinecker Marek

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an empirical study designed to map German language proficiency among students at Czech universities of business and management. The results of this empirical survey can be summarised as follows. First, the ability of students at Czech universities of business and management to communicate in German is poor, and exceeds the general German language proficiency of the Czech population only to an insignificant extent. Second, the school environment (the opportunity to learn the language, compulsory subject, language study motivation has a decisive influence on the respondents’ ability to communicate in German. Third, nearly three-quarters of the respondents perceive German as a language that is very or rather important for their profession and career growth. Fourth, almost two-thirds of the respondents consider the role played by a university of business and management in the improvement of German language proficiency rather or very important. In conclusion, the study proposes directions for the potential development of the national educational system in the area of German language proficiency of university graduates in business and management in the Czech Republic, with an emphasis on the concept of content and language integrated learning (CLIL. We believe that the survey results are also very important from the point of view of enterprises operating in the Czech Republic because of the very close economic relations between the Czech Republic and German-speaking countries.

  4. OBSERVING OF RADIOACTIVE CAESIUM 137Cs VALUE IN BEEF MEAT (CZECH PIED CATTLE IN LESS-FAVOURED AREAS OF THE CZECH REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Holko

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Value of radiocaesium 137Cs as one of Risk Factors in beef meat is very important for human health. Beef meat (m. longissimus lumborum et thoracis from Czech Pied cattle in two less-favoured areas located more then 500 meters above sea level (Bohemian Forest Bohemian and Moravian Highland was dependent on Sex (decrease by female, increase by male, P<1.10-6 and on area (P<1.10-6. Value of radiocaesium 137Cs in beef meat ( = 0,42 Bq.kg-1; sx = 0,28 was less then food standard (600 Bq.kg-1. This observed result are responding to finding another authors and could be used for next more detailed research in optimal utilization of Czech Pied cattle in less-favoured areas.

  5. Welcome to Czech Art Festival in Beijing!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ A glimpse of exoticism from Czechia in golden Beijing! Czech Embassy will give a panorama of natural environment,history and relics,cultural fruits and industrial development of the Czech Republic to everyone.

  6. Part I. Feasibility Study for a Plan of Action to Investigate the Effects of Air Pollution on Health in PHARE Countries Part II. Air Pollution and Health. Country Descriptions for the PHARE countries. Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary, Czech Republic, Poland and Slovak Republic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lebret E; Wolters N; Elliott P; Fletcher T

    1993-01-01

    The feasibility study was carried out on behalf of CEC-DG-I(OPS) in the PHARE countries Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania and the Slovak Republic. Two country visits to each of the countries were involved. On the basis of information supplied by experts met during these visits and

  7. Digestive structures in Ordovician trilobites Colpocoryphe and Flexicalymene from the Barrandian area of Czech Republic

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    Oldřich Fatka

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Two recently discovered specimens of the abundant calymenoid trilobite Colpocoryphe Novák in Perner, 1918 from the Middle Ordovician Šárka Formation and one specimen of Flexicalymene (Flexicalymene pragensis Vaněk & Vokáč, 1997 from the Upper Ordovician Bohdalec Formation, all from the Prague Basin, display remains of the digestive system. In Colpocoryphe, an internal mould of an articulated exoskeleton contains a post-stomach part of the alimentary canal preserved through the narrow axial region of the occipital ring, all thoracic segments as well as in the axial part of the pygidial shield. The anterior part of the digestive system is poorly known as the specimen shows the hypostome preserved in situ and the space between the glabella and the hypostome is represented by an empty cavity associated with probable remains of gut diverticulae on both sides of the cephalon. The second, incomplete specimen consists of five posterior thoracic segments articulated with the pygidium. The axial region of this specimen is preserved with a clearly discernible segmented intestine which terminates at the axial tip and then bends ventrally. In an enrolled specimen of Flexicalymene pragensis, supposed remains of the alimentary tract are comparatively poorly preserved but discernible in the middle and posterior parts of the thoracic axis and in the anterior part of the pygidial axis. Digestive structures within the family Calymenidae have not been described previously. Earlier discoveries of the digestive system in Ordovician trilobites of the Barrandian area are briefly reviewed.

  8. Large woody debris mobility and accumulation by an extreme flood - an example from the Dyje River, Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macka, Zdenek; Krejci, Lukas

    2010-05-01

    Large woody debris (LWD) in the form of logs, branches and their fragments play an important geomorphic and ecological role in forested watersheds. Especially when organized in accumulations and jams, LWD have been found to change hydraulic, morphological, sedimentary and biological characteristics of fluvial ecosystems. Our study focuses on LWD jams distribution and properties within the 44 km long forested reach of the Dyje River in south-eastern Czech Republic. The study reach is located between two large water reservoirs and the flow is regulated showing significant daily fluctuation of discharges due to water releases for power generation. River flows in the deeply incised meandering valley with the narrow and patchy floodplain. In 2002, and especially 2006 large volumes of LWD have been transported by river and the water reservoir downstream was congested with wood. Peak discharge of 2006 flood equalled 306 m3.s-1 which was estimated as 500 year flood. The flood caused significant mobility and redistribution of woody debris as in aquatic, so in riparian segment of the river corridor. The high rate of LWD transport is favoured by large bankfull channel width which exceeds the average tree height. LWD jams were defined as aggregations of three or more wood pieces with diameter ≥ 0.1 m and length ≥ 1 m. We surveyed LWD jams in 62 river reaches, which have been located at meander apexes, inflections and intermediate positions; the length of the reaches was 200 m. The overall number of registered LWD jams was 200. Majority of jams consist of solely allochthonous (transported) wood pieces (65 %), some jams are combination of large key trees and trapped transported pieces (29%), and only small proportion are jams formed by locally uprooted trees (12,6%). Number of wood pieces varies greatly from 3 to 98, the most common being the interval 5 - 10 pieces per jam. Spatial distribution of jams is longitudinally and transversally irregular within the river corridor

  9. [Comparative study of 2-piece colostomy systems (ConvaTec Combihesive Flexible, Coloplast 2002 and Hollister Guardian in the Czech Republic)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antos, F; Dvorák, J; Hoch, J; Pesková, M; Schmidt, D; Slauf, P; Vseticek, J; Wechsler, J

    1996-02-01

    In three surgical centres in the Czech Republik three modern two-piece colostomic systems where compared which are at present available in the Czech republik, incl. an attempt to assess how they influence the quality of life of the patients. The investigation comprised 117 patients mean age 59 years-93 after colostomy, 13 with ileostomy. The investigated systems were ConvaTec Combihesive Flexible, Coloplast 2002, Hollister Guardian two-piece ostomy systems with a closed sac and inner filter. The main investigated parameters were: tolerance of the products, preference expressed by the patient, the state of the skin beneath the plaster and the index of general health (GWBI). From the investigation ensued that in the Czech Republic the system ConvaTec Combihesive proved very useful and there probably will not be a demand for a change to another system offered by distinguished producers, as such a change would not entail any advantages. It was revealed that when the ConvaTec Combihesive system is used, the skin is maintained in a good condition which has a favourable impact on the feeling of wellbeing and improves the quality of life.

  10. An international, multicenter, observational survey to evaluate diabetes control in subjects using insulin for the treatment of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Czech Republic and Slovak Republic: study protocol for a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brož J

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Jan Brož,1 Denisa Janickova Zdarska,1 Jana Urbanova,2 Marek Brabec,3 Bohumila Krivska,4 Viera Donicova,5 Radka Stepanova,6 Emil Martinka,7 Milan Kvapil1 1Department of Internal Medicine, Second Faculty of Medicine, 2Center for Research on Diabetes, Metabolism and Nutrition, Second Department of Internal Medicine, Third Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, 3Institute of Computer Science of the ASCR, vvi, 4Sanofi, Prague, Czech Republic; 5Private Department of Diabetology, Internal Medicine and Metabolism, Kosice, Slovak Republic; 6ADDS sro, Brno, Czech Republic; 7National Institute of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Lubochna, Slovak Republic Background: Despite the improvements in insulin therapy, a large number of patients fail to achieve their target glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c levels. Control of diabetes is often unsatisfactory because the patient does not know about the principles of successful insulin therapy (ie, blood glucose self-monitoring, the principles of insulin administration, titration, current dose adjustments, dietary recommendations, and physical activity preventive measures or because these principles are applied incorrectly or insufficiently. Furthermore, the fear of hypoglycemia may lead to maintaining higher than recommended blood glucose levels. Methods/design: This is a noninterventional, international study focusing on a questionnaire survey of diabetes patients (patient-reported outcome treated with insulin for at least 1 year. It is designed so that the data obtained reflect real access of patients to insulin treatment. The primary objective is to show the results of glycemic control of diabetes (HbA1c achieved in diabetes patients treated with at least one dose of insulin. The secondary objective is to monitor the factors potentially affecting these results, which include the frequency and other characteristics of hypoglycemia, the frequency of blood glucose self-monitoring, and the effects produced when the results

  11. Remarks to the ecology of the boreo-montane polypore Amylocystis lapponica based on data from the Czech Republic and Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Holec

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Czech Republic, the rare polypore Amylocystis lapponica continuously occurs in the Boubínský prales virgin forest (southern Bohemia: Šumava Mts. where it has been documented for more than 60 years. Similarly, in Poland it has been known only from the Puszcza Białowieska virgin forest (northeastern Poland for more than 50 years. Generally, it is considered a species of boreal coniferous forests of northern Europe (taiga and montane coniferous forests in Central and Southern Europe. However, the data from the Czech Republic, Slovakia and western Ukraine show that it also grows in mixed montane forests composed mainly of Fagus sylvatica, Picea abies and Abies alba. In Poland, the locality is situated in a lowland forest consisting mostly of Carpinus betulus, Quercus robur and Tilia cordata. In Central Europe, A. lapponica occurs only in virgin forest refuges with the following habitat conditions: vegetation continuity (never cut, natural tree species composition, multi-aged structure, rich presence of dead wood in various stages of decay, relatively large area of the virgin forest surrounded by near-natural forests, stable, cold and humid meso- and microclimate. Consequently, A. lapponica may be considered an indicator of long-term vegetation continuity and stable habitat conditions.

  12. Golden jackal (Canis aureus in the Czech Republic: the first record of a live animal and its long-term persistence in the colonized habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klára Pyšková

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A golden jackal (Canis aureus individual was recorded ~40 km east of Prague in the Czech Republic. It is the first record of a living golden jackal in the country; up to now several individuals have been recorded but all of them were either shot dead or killed by a vehicle. The observed animal was documented by camera traps set up for research of carnivore diversity in different habitats in the study area. It was first photographed on 19 June 2015, and in total there were 57 records made by 12 traps until 24 March 2016 when the animal was still present in the area. Forty-nine of the 57 records were made in a shrubby grassland over an area of ~100 ha, 39% of sightings were during the day and 61% in the night. There were two distinct peaks in the circadian activity of the animal, from 4 to 10 a.m., and from 6 p.m. to midnight. We also review the verified records of the golden jackal in the Czech Republic, some of which were only published in local hunting magazines. However, the observation reported in this paper represents the first evidence of a long-term occurrence in Europe of the same golden jackal individual, that persisted for at least nine months and over winter, northwest of Hungarian-Austrian border where the population has been known to reproduce.

  13. Hydromorphological parameters of natural channel behavior in conditions of the Hercynian System and the flysch belt of the Western Carpathians on the territory of the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujanová, Kateřina; Matoušková, Milada; Kliment, Zdeněk

    2016-04-01

    A fundamental prerequisite for assessing the current ecological status of streams is the establishment of reference conditions for each stream type that serve as a benchmark. The hydromorphological reference conditions reflect the natural channel behavior, which is extremely variable. Significant parameters of natural channel behavior were determined using a combination of four selected statistical methods: Principal Component Analysis, Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering, correlation, and regression. Macroscale analyses of data about altitude, stream order, channel slope, valley floor slope, sinuosity, and characteristics of the hydrological regime were conducted for 3197 reaches of major rivers in the Czech Republic with total length of 15,636 km. On the basis of selected significant parameters and their threshold values, channels were classified into groups of river characteristics based on shared behaviors. The channel behavior within these groups was validated using hydromorphological characteristics of natural channels determined during field research at reference sites. Classification of channels into groups confirmed the fundamental differences between channel behavior under conditions of the Hercynian System and the flysch belt of the Western Carpathians in the Czech Republic and determined a specific group in the flattened high areas of mountains in the Bohemian Massif. Validating confirmed the distinctions between groups of river characteristics and the uniqueness of each one; it also emphasized the benefits of using qualitative data and riparian zone characteristics for describing channel behavior. Channel slope, entrenchment ratio, bed structure, and d50 were determined as quantitative characteristics of natural channel behavior.

  14. Effect of industrial dust on precipitation chemistry in the Czech Republic (Central Europe) from 1850 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopáček, Jiří; Hejzlar, Josef; Krám, Pavel; Oulehle, Filip; Posch, Maximilian

    2016-10-15

    Using statistical relationships between the composition of precipitation at eight long-term monitoring stations and emission rates of sulphur (S) and nitrogen (N) compounds, as well as industrial dust in the Czech Republic and Slovakia (Central Europe), we modelled historic pH and concentrations of sulphate (SO4(2-)), nitrate (NO3(-)), ammonium (NH4(+)), chloride (Cl(-)), base cations (BC), and bicarbonate (HCO3(-)) in bulk precipitation from 1850 to 2013. Our model suggests that concentrations of SO4(2-), NO3(-), and HCO3(-) were similar (11-16 μeq l(-1)) in 1850. Cations were dominated by NH4(+) and BC (24-27 μeq l(-1)) and precipitation pH was >5.6. The carbonate buffering system was depleted around 1920 and precipitation further acidified at an exponential rate until the 1980s, when concentrations of SO4(2-), NO3(-), Cl(-), NH4(+) and BC reached maxima of 126, 55, 16, 76, and 57 μeq l(-1), respectively, and pH decreased to 4.2. Dust emissions from industrial sources were an important source of BC. Without their contribution, pH would have decreased to 4.0 in the 1980s, and the carbonate buffering system would have been depleted already in the 1870s. Since the late 1980s, concentrations of strong acid anions and BC have decreased by 46-81% (i.e. more than in Europe on average) due to a 53-93% reduction in regional emissions of S and N compounds and dust from industrial and agricultural sources. The present composition of precipitation is similar to the late 19th century, except for NO3(-) concentrations, which are similar to those during 1926-1950. Precipitation pH now exceeds 5.0, the carbonate buffering system has been re-established, and HCO3(-) has again become (after almost a century) a significant component of precipitation chemistry.

  15. Methodology for application of field rainfall simulator to revise c-factor database for conditions of the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Martin; Dostál, Tomáš; Krása, Josef; Kavka, Petr; Davidová, Tereza; Brant, Václav; Kroulík, Milan; Mistr, Martin; Novotný, Ivan

    2016-04-01

    The presentation will introduce a methodology of determination of crop and cover management factor (C-faktor) for the universal soil loss equation (USLE) using field rainfall simulator. The aim of the project is to determine the C-factor value for the different phenophases of the main crops of the central-european region, while also taking into account the different agrotechnical methods. By using the field rainfall simulator, it is possible to perform the measurements in specific phenophases, which is otherwise difficult to execute due to the variability and fortuity of the natural rainfall. Due to the number of measurements needed, two identical simulators will be used, operated by two independent teams, with coordinated methodology. The methodology will mainly specify the length of simulation, the rainfall intensity, and the sampling technique. The presentation includes a more detailed account of the methods selected. Due to the wide range of variable crops and soils, it is not possible to execute the measurements for all possible combinations. We therefore decided to perform the measurements for previously selected combinations of soils,crops and agrotechnologies that are the most common in the Czech Republic. During the experiments, the volume of the surface runoff and amount of sediment will be measured in their temporal distribution, as well as several other important parameters. The key values of the 3D matrix of the combinations of the crop, agrotechnique and soil will be determined experimentally. The remaining values will be determined by interpolation or by a model analogy. There are several methods used for C-factor calculation from measured experimental data. Some of these are not suitable to be used considering the type of data gathered. The presentation will discuss the benefits and drawbacks of these methods, as well as the final design of the method used. The problems concerning the selection of a relevant measurement method as well as the final

  16. Atmospheric deposition levels of chosen elements in the Czech Republic determined in the framework of the International Bryomonitoring Program 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sucharova, J.; Suchara, I. [Research Institute of Ornamental Gardening, Laboratory of Trace Elements, CZ-252 43, Pruhonice (Czech Republic)

    1998-11-03

    In order to determine the atmospheric loads of 13 elements (Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mo, Ni, Pb, S, V, Zn), samples of Pleurozium schreberi (81.1%), Hypnum cupressiforme (11.2%) and Pseudoscleropodium purum (7.7%) bryophytes (mosses) were taken and analysed from an approx. 20x20-km grid extending over the entire territory (78-864 km{sup 2}) of the Czech Republic (abbreviated 'the CZ' in this study). The level of the elements found in the bryophytes reflects the relative atmospheric deposition loads of the elements at the investigated sites. Five hot spots indicating relatively high deposition levels were identified in the CZ. The marginal hot spots are the following: the CZ part of the so-called Black Triangle I territory in northwestern CZ; the CZ part of the Black Triangle II territory in northeastern CZ; and the CZ part of the Sudeten mountains (Jizerske Mts and Giant Mts) and their foothills in northern CZ. Inland hot spots were found in the southwestern industrial part of central Bohemia and in the southern Moravian industrial district. The average element contents in CZ bryophytes were comparable with the respective average values obtained in Germany and Poland. However, the CZ average bryophyte values were higher and lower in comparison to the average Austrian and Slovak values, respectively. The CZ average relative atmospheric deposition loads of the elements were found to be 2-3 times higher than the respective loads in the cleanest parts of Europe (e.g. clean parts of Nordic countries). A comparison of the analytical results obtained repeatedly at 20 identical localities in the CZ showed a significant decrease in the relative deposition loads of all of the investigated elements in 1995 as compared to 1991. This decrease has been caused by the dramatic restriction of the industrial production, mainly that of the metallurgical and chemical industries, in the CZ. Desulphurisation programs and the effective trapping of flying dust particles in CZ

  17. Characteristics of Quinolone Resistance in Escherichia coli Isolates from Humans, Animals, and the Environment in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röderova, Magdalena; Halova, Dana; Papousek, Ivo; Dolejska, Monika; Masarikova, Martina; Hanulik, Vojtech; Pudova, Vendula; Broz, Petr; Htoutou-Sedlakova, Miroslava; Sauer, Pavel; Bardon, Jan; Cizek, Alois; Kolar, Milan; Literak, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Escherichia coli is a common commensal bacterial species of humans and animals that may become a troublesome pathogen causing serious diseases. The aim of this study was to characterize the quinolone resistance phenotypes and genotypes in E. coli isolates of different origin from one area of the Czech Republic. E. coli isolates were obtained from hospitalized patients and outpatients, chicken farms, retailed turkeys, rooks wintering in the area, and wastewaters. Susceptibility of the isolates grown on the MacConkey agar with ciprofloxacin (0.05 mg/L) to 23 antimicrobial agents was determined. The presence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) and ESBL genes was tested by PCR and sequencing. Specific mutations in gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE were also examined. Multilocus sequence typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis were performed to assess the clonal relationship. In total, 1050 E. coli isolates were obtained, including 303 isolates from humans, 156 from chickens, 105 from turkeys, 114 from the rooks, and 372 from wastewater samples. PMQR genes were detected in 262 (25%) isolates. The highest occurrence was observed in isolates from retailed turkey (49% of the isolates were positive) and inpatients (32%). The qnrS1 gene was the most common PMQR determinant identified in 146 (56%) followed by aac(6′)-Ib-cr in 77 (29%), qnrB19 in 41 (16%), and qnrB1 in 9 (3%) isolates. All isolates with high level of ciprofloxacin resistance (>32 mg/L) carried double or triple mutations in gyrA combined with single or double mutations in parC. The most frequently identified substitutions were Ser(83)Leu; Asp(87)Asn in GyrA, together with Ser(80)Ile, or Glu(84)Val in ParC. Majority of these isolates showed resistance to beta-lactams and multiresistance phenotype was found in 95% isolates. Forty-eight different sequence types among 144 isolates analyzed were found, including five major clones ST131 (26), ST355 (19), ST48 (13), ST95 (10), and ST10 (5). No isolates

  18. Refining the Early Devonian time scale using Milankovitch cyclicity in Lochkovian-Pragian sediments (Prague Synform, Czech Republic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, A. C.; Hladil, J.; Chadimová, L.; Slavík, L.; Hilgen, F. J.; Bábek, O.; Dekkers, M. J.

    2016-12-01

    The Early Devonian geological time scale (base of the Devonian at 418.8 ± 2.9 Myr, Becker et al., 2012) suffers from poor age control, with associated large uncertainties between 2.5 and 4.2 Myr on the stage boundaries. Identifying orbital cycles from sedimentary successions can serve as a very powerful chronometer to test and, where appropriate, improve age models. Here, we focus on the Lochkovian and Pragian, the two lowermost Devonian stages. High-resolution magnetic susceptibility (χin - 5 to 10 cm sampling interval) and gamma ray spectrometry (GRS - 25 to 50 cm sampling interval) records were gathered from two main limestone sections, Požár-CS (118 m, spanning the Lochkov and Praha Formations) and Pod Barrandovem (174 m; Praha Formation), both in the Czech Republic. An additional section (Branžovy, 65 m, Praha Formation) was sampled for GRS (every 50 cm). The χin and GRS records are very similar, so χin variations are driven by variations in the samples' paramagnetic clay mineral content, reflecting changes in detrital input. Therefore, climatic variations are very likely captured in our records. Multiple spectral analysis and statistical techniques such as: Continuous Wavelet Transform, Evolutive Harmonic Analysis, Multi-taper method and Average Spectral Misfit, were used in concert to reach an optimal astronomical interpretation. The Požár-CS section shows distinctly varying sediment accumulation rates. The Lochkovian (essentially equivalent to the Lochkov Formation (Fm.)) is interpreted to include a total of nineteen 405 kyr eccentricity cycles, constraining its duration to 7.7 ± 2.8 Myr. The Praha Fm. includes fourteen 405 kyr eccentricity cycles in the three sampled sections, while the Pragian Stage only includes about four 405 kyr eccentricity cycles, thus exhibiting durations of 5.7 ± 0.6 Myr and 1.7 ± 0.7 Myr respectively. Because the Lochkov Fm. contains an interval with very low sediment accumulation rate and because the Praha Fm. was

  19. Analysis of Influence of Terrain Relief Roughness on dem Accuracy Generated from LIDAR in the Czech Republic Territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubacek, M.; Kovarik, V.; Kratochvil, V.

    2016-06-01

    Digital elevation models are today a common part of geographic information systems and derived applications. The way of their creation is varied. It depends on the extent of area, required accuracy, delivery time, financial resources and technologies available. The first model covering the whole territory of the Czech Republic was created already in the early 1980's. Currently, the 5th DEM generation is being finished. Data collection for this model was realized using the airborne laser scanning which allowed creating the DEM of a new generation having the precision up to a decimetre. Model of such a precision expands the possibilities of employing the DEM and it also offers new opportunities for the use of elevation data especially in a domain of modelling the phenomena dependent on highly accurate data. The examples are precise modelling of hydrological phenomena, studying micro-relief objects, modelling the vehicle movement, detecting and describing historical changes of a landscape, designing constructions etc. Due to a nature of the technology used for collecting data and generating DEM, it is assumed that the resulting model achieves lower accuracy in areas covered by vegetation and in built-up areas. Therefore the verification of model accuracy was carried out in five selected areas in Moravia. The network of check points was established using a total station in each area. To determine the reference heights of check points, the known geodetic points whose heights were defined using levelling were used. Up to several thousands of points were surveyed in each area. Individual points were selected according to a different configuration of relief, different surface types, and different vegetation coverage. The sets of deviations were obtained by comparing the DEM 5G heights with reference heights which was followed by verification of tested elevation model. Results of the analysis showed that the model reaches generally higher precision than the declared one in

  20. ANALYSIS OF INFLUENCE OF TERRAIN RELIEF ROUGHNESS ON DEM ACCURACY GENERATED FROM LIDAR IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC TERRITORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hubacek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Digital elevation models are today a common part of geographic information systems and derived applications. The way of their creation is varied. It depends on the extent of area, required accuracy, delivery time, financial resources and technologies available. The first model covering the whole territory of the Czech Republic was created already in the early 1980's. Currently, the 5th DEM generation is being finished. Data collection for this model was realized using the airborne laser scanning which allowed creating the DEM of a new generation having the precision up to a decimetre. Model of such a precision expands the possibilities of employing the DEM and it also offers new opportunities for the use of elevation data especially in a domain of modelling the phenomena dependent on highly accurate data. The examples are precise modelling of hydrological phenomena, studying micro-relief objects, modelling the vehicle movement, detecting and describing historical changes of a landscape, designing constructions etc. Due to a nature of the technology used for collecting data and generating DEM, it is assumed that the resulting model achieves lower accuracy in areas covered by vegetation and in built-up areas. Therefore the verification of model accuracy was carried out in five selected areas in Moravia. The network of check points was established using a total station in each area. To determine the reference heights of check points, the known geodetic points whose heights were defined using levelling were used. Up to several thousands of points were surveyed in each area. Individual points were selected according to a different configuration of relief, different surface types, and different vegetation coverage. The sets of deviations were obtained by comparing the DEM 5G heights with reference heights which was followed by verification of tested elevation model. Results of the analysis showed that the model reaches generally higher precision than

  1. Impact of forest disturbance on the runoff response in headwater catchments. Case study: Sumava mountains, Czech republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhammer, Jakub; Hais, Martin; Bartunkova, Kristyna; Su, Ye

    2013-04-01

    The forest disturbance and stream modifications are important phenomenon affecting the natural dynamics of erosion and sedimentation processes on montane and submontane streams. The changes in land use, land cover structure, forest cover and stream modifications, occurring in the cultural landscape have significant effect on the dynamics of fluvial processes, especially in relation to the extreme runoff events. The contribution discusses the relations between forest disturbance and fluvial dynamics, stemming from the research in Sumava Mountains, located at the border between Czech Republic and Germany, Central Europe. The study area is located in headwater region, affected by different types of forest disturbance in past three decades - bark beetle outbreak, repeated windstorms and clear-cut forest management. The streams in experimental catchments here displayed extensive dynamics of erosion and sedimentation after the extreme floods in 2002 and 2009 and were affected by artificial modifications. The analysis is based on the combination of different research techniques, including remote sensed data processing, network of automated high frequency rainfall-runoff monitoring or field survey of stream modifications and geomorphologic changes on riverbeds after extreme events. Using landsat satellite data and aerial photographs we created model of Bark beetle dispersion and clear-cutting between 1985 and 2007. This model enables to describe disturbance dynamic, which is needed for understanding of nature those processes. Next analysis of Landsat satellite data was used to detect the effect of forest disturbance on the wetness and temperature properties of land cover, affected by two significant different types of forest disturbance - bark beetle outbreak and clear cut. The rainfall-runoff analysis using multivariate geostatistical techniques was focused on experimental catchments with similar conditions of climate, physiography and topography but different type

  2. Documentation and evaluation of slope instabilities and other geological phenomena in the Geopark Bohemian Paradise (Czech Republic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krejčí, Oldřich; Krejčí, Vladimíra; Švábenická, Lilian; Hartvich, Filip

    2016-04-01

    Geographically, the area is part of the Bohemian Cretaceous Basin, the unit Jičín Hilly land. Since October 2005, the area belongs to the European Geopark UNESCO Bohemian Paradise. The reason of the protection is a major complex of rocks, natural forest communities and geomorphological valuable territory. The territory has been newly geologically mapped in a scale of 1 : 25,000. Sediments of the Czech Cretaceous Basin covers an area of 181 km2 and were deposited transgressively on the Permian - Carboniferous and crystalline basement of the Bohemian Massif. Except for locally developed basal sediments of fluvial origin they are mostly shallow marine sediments. Middle Turonian to Lower Coniacian rocks of the Jizera lithofacies are dominant by calcareous sandstones deposited under extremely dynamic conditions. Scattered alkaline volcanics penetrate the older formations as small intrusions and form locally preserved bodies at the surface. Area is strongly predisposed to the development of various types of landforms by structural segmentation of the Cretaceous sandstones and claystones and by Plio-Pleistocene inverse erosion. Numerous archival manuscripts are available from this area together with published geological, engineering-geological, geomorphological and historical papers. This is due to the fact that in 1926 a large landslide destroyed a substantial part of the village Dneboh, situated on the slope below a rock castle Drabske Svetnicky. Drabske Svetnicky is a ruin of a 13th century castle. It is located on the ragged edge of a sandstone cliff high above surrounding landscape. The castle covers a group of seven sandstone rocks, connected with wooden bridges. In the 50ies of the 20th century, an increased attention was paid to Drabske Svetnicky by experts on medieval architecture and a restoration of the original state of the castle rock was accomplished. Remnants of pottery and other findings suggest that the plateau region of the castle was first inhabited

  3. Strategy of Fast Fashion Retailers in the Czech Republic - A Case Study Analysis of Three Chosen Retailers

    OpenAIRE

    Kučmašová, Hana

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this master thesis is to define fast fashion and fast fashion retailing, and describe specifics of their business activities with deep focus on the Czech market. The theoretical part reviews literature dealing with international strategy and management and fashion and fast fashion retailing. The empirical part then focuses on real-life business cases. In order to illustrate the behaviour of fast fashion retailers on the Czech market, a case study method is employed. The attention i...

  4. Application Possibilities and Consequences of Biological Assets and Agricultural Produce Reporting in Accordance with IFRS Principles in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hinke

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Czech national law regulating accounting is not harmonized with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS. Because of this, all financial statements compiled according to Czech regulations are not comparable with IFRS statements. International users of accounting information, e.g. potential investors, therefore have problems to find valid information. This article analyzes the evaluation, accounting recording, and reporting of biological assets and agricultural produce in both accounting systems. It illustrates the principal differences, and explains their impact on financial statements information. Based on a case study, the paper recommends how to implement IFRS principles to the accounting system in Czech agriculture enterprises. The authors recommend using income statements with expenses by function, which is not commonly used by Czech entities. The research findings indicate possible changes in the Czech accounting and tax laws, which may lead to a “more true and fair view” of provided accounting information. The proposals should cause that accounting information provided by financial statements compiled according to Czech law would be identical with accounting information in compliance with IFRS principals. A questionnaire survey revealed scepticism of economists agricultural companies to use fair value as the measurement basis for biological assets and agricultural produce.

  5. 10 October 2013 - D. Braun First Deputy Minister for Regional Development, Czech Republic, P. Styczeń Deputy Minister of Transport, Construction and Maritime Economy, Republic of Poland and F. Palko State Secretary, Ministry of Transport, Construction and Regional Development, Slovak Republic visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 1 with Technology Department, Vacuum, Surfaces and Coatings Group Leader J. M. Jimenez and signing the Guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer

    CERN Multimedia

    Anna Pantelia

    2013-01-01

    10 October 2013 - D. Braun First Deputy Minister for Regional Development, Czech Republic, P. Styczeń Deputy Minister of Transport, Construction and Maritime Economy, Republic of Poland and F. Palko State Secretary, Ministry of Transport, Construction and Regional Development, Slovak Republic visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 1 with Technology Department, Vacuum, Surfaces and Coatings Group Leader J. M. Jimenez and signing the Guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer

  6. Risk of the residents, infrastructure and water bodies by flash floods and sediment transport - assessment for scale of the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostál, Tomáš; Krása, Josef; Bauer, Miroslav; Strouhal, Luděk; Jáchymová, Barbora; Devátý, Jan; David, Václav; Koudelka, Petr; Dočkal, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Pluvial and flash floods, related to massive sediment transport become phenomenon nowadays, under conditions of climate changes. Storm events, related to material damages appear at unexpected places and their effective control is only possible in form of prevention. To apply preventive measures, there have to be defined localities with reasonable reliability, which are endangered by surface runoff and sediment transport produced in the subcatchments, often at agriculturally used landscape. Classification of such localities, concerning of potential damages and magnitude of sediment transport shall be also included within the analyses, to design control measures effectively. Large scale project for whole territory of the Czech Republic (ca 80.000 km2) has therefore been granted b the Ministry of Interior of the Czech Republic, with the aim to define critical points, where interaction between surface runoff connected to massive sediment transport and infrastructure or vulnerable water bodies can occur and to classify them according to potential risk. Advanced GIS routines, based on analyses of land use, soil conditions and morphology had been used to determine the critical points - points, where significant surface runoff occurs and interacts with infrastructure and vulnerable water bodies, based exclusively on the contributing area - flow accumulation. In total, ca 150.000 critical points were determined within the Czech Republic. For each of critical points, its subcatchment had then been analyzed in detail, concerning of soil loss and sediment transport, using simulation model WATEM/SEDEM. The results were used for classification of potential risk of individual critical points, based on mean soil loss within subcatchment, total sediment transport trough the outlet point and subcatchment area. The classification has been done into 5 classes. The boundaries were determined by calibration survey and statistical analysis, performed at three experimental catchments area

  7. Multiproxy evidence of Late Pleistocene environmental changes in the loess-paleosol sequence of Bůhzdař (Czech Republic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flašarová, Kristýna; Vysloužilová, Barbora; Juřičková, Lucie; Šefrna, Luděk; Verecchia, Eric

    2016-04-01

    Loess-paleosol sequences preserve information that can be used to reconstruct paleoenvironement, specifically the climatic conditions and the vegetation present at the time of their formation, or determine their age. A dense network of reliably analyzed sequences from different geographic locations is crucial for representation of ecological and climatic trends during the Pleistocene (Frechen, 2011). The aim of this study is to fill the gap in the geographical distribution of well described loess-paleosol sequences in Central Europe. Therefore, it focuses on a loess-paleosol sequence in Bůhzdař, situated 9 km NW of Prague, Czech Republic. This profile was last studied in 1952 by naturalist Vojen Ložek. This study uses a number of analyses in order to get a multi-proxy record of local paleoenvironmental changes archived in a sequence of alternating loess sediments and paleosols in Bůhzař. Geochemical approaches are combined with paleozoology to define climatic conditions at the time of formation of the strata. Oxygen isotope 18O values of pedogenic carbonates can be used as a proxy of climatic factors such as temperature and precipitation, whereas carbon isotope values can be used to reconstruct changes in the atmospheric CO2 concentration (Obreht et al. 2013), perhaps also the relative proportions of plants using C3 and C4 metabolic pathways (Kaakinen et al., 2006). Findings of fossil malacofauna, which occupied specific ecological niches, can complement these results. The Bůhzdař locality is exceptional in terms of density of pedogenic carbonates, such as loess dolls, pseudomycelia and marl concretions. These concretions are, in some parts, more compact and form a compact layer. Analysis of pedogenic processes could bring new clues regarding the understanding of the way various forms of carbonates were formed. The analyses are in progress and the first results will be presented during an EGU session in April 2016. References Frechen, M. ed. (2011). Loess in

  8. Natural and anthropogenic enrichments of heavy metals in modern soils: the case study in the Jizera floodplain, Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matys Grygar, Tomas; Elznicova, Jitka; Vadinova, Nikola

    2013-04-01

    The timing and realistic quantification of the anthropogenic pollution of soils and sediments are among relevant topics of numerous current environmental geochemistry studies. Geochemical mapping and depth profiling of pollutants in soils and sediments is used for reconstruction of historical pollution and evaluation of previous (cumulative) impacts. In fact, the depth profiles of heavy metals in modern soils are a result of two main processes: deposition of atmospheric fallout (everywhere) or sediment (in floodplains) with anthropogenic components on one hand, and element migration due to biogeochemical processes (Fe oxide transformations, element recycling by plants and joint processes) on the other hand. These processes are not always taken into account, particularly when only one piece of the jigsaw puzzle is in focus, such as development of pollution proxy (e.g., stable lead isotope ratios, MS) or geochemical mapping. Mature soils, of which surface strata are enriched in heavy metals, are too complex systems to allow simple distinguishing natural and anthropogenic portions of that enrichment; possible natural enrichment factor (EF) ~1.5 has been assumed in the case of Pb and Zn by Reimann et al. Floodplains can offer a "natural isolation of pieces of jigsaw puzzle", if deposition and erosion in the floodplain have alternated in the past (such behaviour is relatively common). This alteration can produce terraces or related sediment units of different age, but composed of sediment with the same geochemistry, i.e. material with the same provenance and after the same hydraulic sorting before the deposition. We studied fluvisols in the Jizera floodplain (~50 north-east from Prague, Czech Republic), where a terrace is present along the currently inundated floodplain. We found that atmospheric fallout and/or past pedogenic processes in the terrace above that active floodplain do not cause enrichment of Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn; perhaps there is an exception for Pb. In a

  9. Analyzing ground ozone formation regimes using a principal axis factoring method: A case study of Kladno (Czech Republic) industrial area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malec, L.; Skacel, F. [Department of Gas, Coke and Air Protection, Institute of Chemical Technology in Prague, (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: Lukas.Malec@vscht.cz; Fousek, T. [Institute of Public Health, District of Central Czech Republic, Kladno (Czech Republic); Tekac, V. [Department of Gas, Coke and Air Protection, Institute of Chemical Technology in Prague, (Czech Republic); Kral, P. [Institute of Public Health, District of Central Czech Republic, Kladno (Czech Republic)

    2008-07-15

    Tropospheric ozone is a secondary air pollutant, changes in the ambient content of which are affected by both, the emission rates of primary pollutants and the variability of meteorological conditions. In this paper, we use two multivariate statistical methods to analyze the impact of the meteorological conditions associated with pollutant transformation processes. First, we evaluated the variability of the spatial and temporal distribution of ozone precursor parameters by using discriminant analysis (DA) in locations close to the industrial area of Kladno (a city in the Czech Republic). Second, we interpreted the data set by using factor analysis (FA) to examine the differences between ozone formation processes in summer and in winter. To avoid temperature dependency between the variables, as well as to describe tropospheric washout processes, we used water vapour content rather than the more commonly employed relative humidity parameter. In this way, we were able to successfully determine and subsequently evaluate the various processes of ozone formation, together with the distribution of ozone precursors. High air temperature, radiation and low water content relate to summer pollution episodes, while radiation and wind speed prove to be the most important parameters during winter. [Spanish] El ozono troposferico es un contaminante fotoquimico secundario cuyos contenidos estan influidos tanto por las razones de emision de las sustancias contaminantes primarias como por la variabilidad de las condiciones meteorologicas. En este trabajo utilizamos dos metodos estadisticos multivariados para el analisis de la influencia de las condiciones meteorologicas relacionadas con los procesos de transformacion de las sustancias contaminantes. Primero, estimamos la variabilidad de la descomposicion espacial y temporal de los precursores de ozono mediante el analisis discriminante (DA) en las areas cercanas a la zona industrial de Kladno (una ciudad de la Republica Checa

  10. [The 7th Field Hospital of the Army of the Czech Republic (ACR) in southern Iraq: statistics of professional activity and aspects of a foreign mission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmátal, P; Karnos, V; Sanda, V; Hasek, R; Bohonĕk, M; Cernohous, M; Ondrásek, O

    2004-02-01

    The short communication informs about the work of the field hospital in Iraq. From 3rd June till 10th September 2003 there were 123 patients operated on, 184 patients were hospitalized. The hospital exerted 1,194 bed-days, 131 of them at the intensive care unit. The outpatient department treated 6,953 patients. There were 824 X-ray and ultrasonographic examinations and the laboratory performed 7,941 tests. In their practice the physicians encountered a wide spectrum of surgical and non-surgical diagnoses. Other humanitarian activities (material, organization of transport of children to specialized care in the Czech Republic, blood donor activity) were an integral part of the work. The work in non-standard conditions was significantly complicated by the extreme climate and the high safety risk.

  11. The Conflict between Strategic Method Application and Theoretical Knowledge in Small and Medium Sized Companies: The Case of the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila Šebestová

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper and presented research is to discover the potential conflict between often used managerial methods and the recommended methods for small businesses to find the gap between theory and practice in order to support cooperation between entrepreneurs and the university in the area of management education. The survey was conducted as a two phase project, in the first phase with 529 SMEs and with 214 SMEs in the second phase in the Czech Republic in 2012–2013 within the own research project. The main findings, presented in this paper focus on the conflict between practical knowledge, used in small businesses, when only 48.2% of companies in the first phase and 54.21% in the second phase used some of the methods commonly taught at university level such as controlling, benchmarking or TQM.

  12. Erinaceidae and Talpidae (Erinaceomorpha, Soricomorpha, Mammalia) from the Lower Miocene of Merkur-Nord (Czech Republic, MN 3)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek Ostende, van den L.; Fejfar, O.

    2006-01-01

    The Czech locality of Merkur-Nord (MN 3) has yielded one species of erinaceid and five species of talpids. The hedgehogs are represented by a few fossils of Galerix only. The talpid assemblage is characterised by a dominance of Mygalea magna. The position of Mygalea within the Desmaninae, which prev

  13. Hydrometeorological extremes at the Veselí nad Moravou estate (Czech Republic) in the period 1794-1850 derived from documentary evidence of the economic character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chromá, Kateřina

    2010-05-01

    Hydrometeorological extremes influenced always human activities (agriculture, forestry, water management) and caused losses of human lives and great material damage. Systematic meteorological and hydrological observations in the Czech Lands (recent Czech Republic) started generally in the latter half of the 19th century. In order to create long-term series of hydrometeorological extremes, it is necessary to search for other sources of information for their study before 1850. Such direct and indirect information about hydrometeorological extremes is included in documentary evidence (e.g. chronicles, memoirs, diaries, early visual weather observations, newspapers, economic sources etc.). Documentary evidence of economic character belongs to the most important sources, especially documents related to taxation records. Damage to agricultural crops on the fields or damage to hay on meadows due to the hydrological and meteorological phenomena has been a good reason for the abatement of tax duty. Based on the official correspondence of the estate of Veselí nad Moravou (southern Moravia), archival information about taxation from the Moravian Land Archives in Brno was excerpted. Based on it, 46 hydrometeorological extremes which occurred between the years 1794 and 1850 were selected and further analysed. Because of fields and meadows of the above estate were located along the Morava River, reports of damage due to floods were the most frequent, followed by damage due to torrential rains and hailstorms.

  14. Does the Lowest Bid Price Evaluation Criterion Make for a More Efficient Public Procurement Selection Criterion? (Case of the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochrana František

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Through the institute of public procurement a considerable volume of financial resources is allocated. It is therefore in the interest of contracting entities to seek ways of how to achieve an efficient allocation of resources. Some public contract-awarding entities, along with some public-administration authorities in the Czech Republic, believe that the use of a single evaluation criterion (the lowest bid price results in a more efficient tender for a public contract. It was found that contracting entities in the Czech Republic strongly prefer to use the lowest bid price criterion. Within the examined sample, 86.5 % of public procurements were evaluated this way. The analysis of the examined sample of public contracts proved that the choice of an evaluation criterion, even the preference of the lowest bid price criterion, does not have any obvious impact on the final cost of a public contract. The study concludes that it is inappropriate to prefer the criterion of the lowest bid price within the evaluation of public contracts that are characterised by their complexity (including public contracts for construction works and public service contracts. The findings of the Supreme Audit Office related to the inspection of public contracts indicate that when using the lowest bid price as an evaluation criterion, a public contract may indeed be tendered with the lowest bid price, but not necessarily the best offer in terms of supplied quality. It is therefore not appropriate to use the lowest bid price evaluation criterion to such an extent for the purpose of evaluating work and services. Any improvement to this situation requires a corresponding amendment to the Law on Public Contracts and mainly a radical change in the attitude of the Office for the Protection of Competition towards proposed changes, as indicated within the conclusions and recommendations proposed by this study.

  15. First detection of pike fry-like rhabdovirus in barbel and spring viraemia of carp virus in sturgeon and pike in aquaculture in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicenova, Monika; Reschova, Stanislava; Pokorova, Dagmar; Hulova, Jana; Vesely, Tomas

    2011-06-16

    Rapid antigen detection enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) testing of cell cultures with organ homogenate from fish, collected from farms with a predominance of common carp or in natural aquaculture in the Czech Republic between 1995 and 2008, identified piscine vesiculovirus in 27 of 178 samples. Using reverse transcription semi-nested PCR, targeting a 550 nucleotide region of the glycoprotein (G) gene, piscine vesiculovirus was confirmed in 23 of the 27 organ samples diagnosed by ELISA as infected. PCR products were amplified and sequenced from 18 isolates from common carp Cyprinus carpio (family Cyprinidae), 2 isolates from northern pike Esox lucius (family Esocidae), and 1 isolate each from Siberian sturgeon Acipenser baerii (family Acipenseridae), common barbel Barbus barbus (family Cyprinidae), and koi carp Cyprinus carpio koi (family Cyprinidae). The sequences (based on 401 nucleotides) clustered into 2 genogroups. The majority of isolates (n = 22), including those from sturgeon and pike, grouped with the spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) Genogroup I and Subgroup Id. The 22 isolates could be further subdivided into 2 groups: Id1 (n = 20) and Id2 (n = 2). A marker (a non-conservative nucleotide substitution) for the Id1 SVCV group was identified. It was specifically found in all sequences of Id1 isolates when testing SVCV originating from different countries. The remaining isolate from barbel, was classified in the pike fry-like rhabdovirus Genogroup IV. This is the first confirmation of natural SVCV infection in sturgeon and pike, and pike fry-like rhabdovirus infection in barbel. In the case of the pike fry-like rhabdovirus, this is also its first identification in the Czech Republic. According to the presence/absence of evident clinical signs of rhabdoviral disease in the 3 infected hosts, only the sturgeon seemed to be susceptible to the monitored rhabdovirus.

  16. Comparison of availability and offer of controlled physical activities for pupils with disability in selected regions of Czech Republic and United Kingdom

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    Zuzana Kornatovská

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The European Union and other countries of the world need quality research data, without which it cannot assess how the overall situation of persons with disabilities develops. Objective: The aim of this paper is to compare the availability of controlled physical activities for pupils with mental disabilities, hearing or visual disabilities in selected regions of the Czech Republic and Great Britain (region of South Bohemia and the region West Midlands. Partial aim is to analyse an offer of the controlled physical activities for this population of pupils. Methods: We used analytical investigative methods (Investigative pentagram. The survey was based on explanation, exploration and direct observation. Another method was a tool "ArcGIS" evaluating the distance of polygons and "packaging zones" by driving times for the EU - Index of availability. After that it was determined the availability of controlled physical activities for pupils with the observed types of disability and evaluated the hypothesis H1. In surveyed regions were also examined ways of organizing a range of offers of controlled physical activities for pupils with disabilities. Results: The range of controlled physical activities was verified higher in the West Midlands region compared to the South Bohemian region. It was found that the British region unlike the South Bohemian region accentuated non-confrontational character of the controlled physical activities with health preventive impact (yoga, swimming and social integration (dancing, walking and hiking. Conclusions: It was verified the hypothesis H1, assuming that the availability of controlled physical activities for pupils with mental disabilities, hearing, visual is significantly higher in the surveyed region of the UK compared to the surveyed region in the Czech Republic.

  17. The Effects of Liberalisation of the Passenger Railway Market on the Situation of Regional Rail Connections in Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia and Austria

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    Taczanowski Jakub

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Liberalisation of railway market can be an important instrument for increasing the attractiveness of local rail services and consequently for making the railways more competitive with other means of transport, which could result in changing the modal share in the favour of railways. The differences in the railway liberalisation level as well as in the policies towards rail transport between Central and Eastern European countries are vast, hence the present situation and the future prospects of regional services are diverse. Whereas there is only one railway line in Slovakia which is not operated by the state railway company ZSSK, a few private local connections which complement a very dense network of ČD state railways are in service in the Czech Republic. Poland, by contrast, is a country where liberalisation of railway market is most advanced as several different companies are responsible for transport in the regions. However, the results of this large scale liberalisation are ambiguous as the positive effects (reopening of some lines are balanced by isolation of the new regional government-owned systems from each other. In Austria, by contrast, the existence of several private and regional government-owned local railways which are an indispensable part of the regional transport networks has contributed to maintain an effective transport system. Although the effects of liberalisation on the local railway networks can often be ambiguous, several cases from the Czech Republic, Austria and Poland show that privatisation and municipalisation may have a positive effect on the railway service as it has enabled to maintain the service on many sections which were at risk of closure. However, the most important condition of the effective transport development seems to be an active cooperation between the railway operators and the local governments as an expression of appropriate transport policy.

  18. Prevalence of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica in minced meat, pig tongues and hearts at the retail level in the Czech Republic detected by real time PCR

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    Alena Lorencova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Yersiniosis is the third most frequently reported zoonosis in the European Union and Yersinia enterocolitica is the most common species causing human infections. Pigs are assumed to be the main reservoir of human pathogenic Y. enterocolitica with the presence of bacteria mainly in the tonsils and intestinal content. Undercooked pork and pork products have been suggested as the primary source of human yersiniosis. Nevertheless, data on the prevalence of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica in foodstuffs including pork products are very limited. A molecular based method (real time PCR targeting the ompF gene (detection of Yersinia genus and the ail gene (a chromosomally located virulence marker of Y. enterocolitica was used to determine the prevalence of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica in minced meat and edible pork offal at the retail level in the Czech Republic. A total of 50 pig tongues, 50 pig hearts, and 93 samples of minced meat containing pork were purchased at nine retail outlets in Brno. High detection rates of Yersinia spp. were found in all types of samples (pig tongues, 80.0%; pig hearts, 40.0%; and minced meat, 55.9%. The highest prevalence of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica was found in pig tongues (40.0%, followed by pig hearts (18.0% and minced meat samples (17.2%. Although from the point of view of food safety the merely molecular detection of DNA of the pathogenic bacteria could represent a false positive result, our results indicate the presence of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica in raw pork products at the retail level in the Czech Republic, which may pose a risk of consumer infection. Sufficient heat treatment and prevention of cross-contamination during preparation of food in the kitchen should be recommended.

  19. Intelligent and efficient use of renewable energy sources in Saxonia and Czech Republic. Technical, economic and legal aspects; Intelligenter und effizienter Einsatz von (er)neu(erbar)en Energien in Sachsen und Tschechien. Technische, wirtschaftliche und rechtliche Aspekte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gramlich, Ludwig; Orantek, Kerstin (eds.)

    2011-07-01

    Within the meeting in Oberwiesenthal (Federal Republic of Germany) between 30th September and 02nd October, 2011, the following lectures were held: (a) Utilization of renewable energy sources in Czech Republic (Martin Neruda); (b) Scenarios of energy and ecology development in the next 20 years (Behumir Stedron); (c) Climatic protection and emission trading (Rainer Wolf); (d) Nuclear energy - suicide mission or glimmer of hope (Michael Hietschold); (e) Energetic questions in areas near to the area (Martin Maslaton); (f) Climatic protection and renewable energy sources in the Vogtland district - State of the art and problems (Tobias Pohl); (g) Complex reconstruction of plate buildings - economic and energetic potential (Jan Antonin); (h) Ecologic forms of traffic and their preferential treatment in metropolises (Jana Halirova); (i) Utilization of renewable energy sources in air traffic (Rosina Kasica); (j) Smart Metering - on the way to an economical technology? (Uwe Goetze); (k) Integration of an enhanced number of electric vehicles in the low voltage network (Jens Teuscher); (l) Intelligent electric cars and the concept of green energy (Zdenek Votruba); (m) Smart grids under the conditions of Czech Republic (Petr Marecek); (n) Possibilities of utilization of nuclear power plants as a source for a central heat supply of neighbouring agglomerations - with focus on Czech Republic (Tomas Kralik).

  20. Better the Devil You Don't Know: Post-Revolutionary Journalism and Media Ownership in the Czech Republic

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    Lenka Waschková Císařová

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article we map some of the key developments on the Czech print media market following the fall of communism in 1989. We focus on ownership changes and their impact on the conduct of professional journalism. In the 1990s foreign media companies (dominantly German and Swiss entered the Czech media market and brought with them a profit-oriented model of journalism. Our research in the mid-2000s explored these changes and their impact on journalists’ professional conduct. At the time journalists stressed commercial pressures, however, in the mid-2010s with the departure of foreign print media owners (except for one and the emergence of local ones, journalists voiced concerns about interference in content for political purposes. We also note that the journalists we interviewed did not reflect on the influence of government on the conduct of their profession, for example, through media regulation.