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Sample records for basin brazil impacted

  1. Uncertainty in climate change impacts on water resources in the Rio Grande Basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Nóbrega

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available We quantify uncertainty in the impacts of climate change on the discharge of the Rio Grande, a major tributary of the River Paraná in South America and one of the most important basins in Brazil for water supply and hydro-electric power generation. We consider uncertainty in climate projections associated with the SRES (greenhouse-gas emission scenarios (A1b, A2, B1, B2 and increases in global mean air temperature of 1 to 6 °C for the HadCM3 GCM as well as uncertainties related to GCM structure. For the latter, multimodel runs using 6 GCMs (CCCMA CGCM31, CSIRO Mk30, IPSL CM4, MPI ECHAM5, NCAR CCSM30, UKMO HadGEM1 and HadCM3 as baseline, for a + 2 °C increase in global mean temperature. Pattern-scaled GCM-outputs are applied to a large-scale hydrological model (MGB-IPH of the Rio Grande Basin. Based on simulations using HadCM3, mean annual river discharge increases, relative to the baseline period (1961–1990, by + 5% to + 10% under the SRES emissions scenarios and from + 8% to + 51% with prescribed increases in global mean air temperature of between 1 and 6 °C. Substantial uncertainty in projected changes to mean river discharge (− 28% to + 13% under the 2 °C warming scenario is, however, associated with the choice of GCM. We conclude that, in the case of the Rio Grande Basin, the most important source of uncertainty derives from the GCM rather than the emission scenario or the magnitude of rise in mean global temperature.

  2. Uncertainty in climate change impacts on water resources in the Rio Grande Basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Nóbrega

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We quantify uncertainty in the impacts of climate change on the discharge of Rio Grande, a major tributary of the Paraná River in South America and one of the most important basins in Brazil for water supply and hydro-electric power generation. We consider uncertainty in climate projections associated with the greenhouse-gas emission scenarios (A1b, A2, B1, B2 and increases in global mean air temperature of 1 to 6° C for the HadCM3 GCM (Global Circulation Model as well as uncertainties related to GCM structure. For the latter, multimodel runs using 6 GCMs (CCCMA CGCM31, CSIRO Mk30, IPSL CM4, MPI ECHAM5, NCAR CCSM30, UKMO HadGEM1 and HadCM3 as baseline, for a +2° C increase in global mean temperature. Pattern-scaled GCM-outputs are applied to a large-scale hydrological model (MGB-IPH of Rio Grande Basin. Based on simulations using HadCM3, mean annual river discharge increases, relative to the baseline or control run period (1961–1990, by +5% to +10% under the SRES emissions scenarios and from +8% to +51% with prescribed increases in global mean air temperature of between 1 and 6° C. Substantial uncertainty in projected changes to mean river discharge (−28% to +13% under the 2° C warming scenario is, however, associated with the choice of GCM. We conclude that, in the case of Rio Grande Basin, the most important source of uncertainty derives from the GCM rather than the emission scenario or the magnitude of rise in mean global temperature.

  3. Study of human occupation impacts in the Batedor river basin in the Mantiqueira Mountain in the municipal district of Cruzeiro, SP, Brazil

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    Marcelo dos Santos Targa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The study of hydrographic basins as territorial units integrating the management of hydric resources is essential to guarantee sustainable use of natural resources in these basins. The establishment of the Paraíba do Sul hydrographic basins committee, in 1994, determined the need for management planning and action integration in the Paraíba do Sul basin which incorporates a variety of industries and intense land use. The Batedor river, in the municipality of Cruzeiro, SP, flows into the Passa Vinte which is an affluent of Paraíba do Sul river. Its mouth is located at 22°31’0.63”S and 45°01’2.07”W. Its farthest water contributing source lies about 8.5 km, near the Itaguaré peak 2,308 m high, in the Mantiqueira Mountain on the border of São Paulo and Minas Gerais States. To characterize land use in the Batedor hydrographic basin, Landsat imagery and topographic charts were analyzed based on remote sensing and geoprocessing techniques. This paper describes the study of impacts related to land and water resources use in the Batedor river basin and the generation of educational environmental material. Results have shown that this basin has good water supply, has no flooding risk and has several springs running down the Mantiqueira Moutain slopes that form young creeks with few meanders. Irregular human occupation for housing and subsistence agriculture, mainly banana plantations can be seen in deep slopes and riparian areas, as well as degraded pastures that indicate inappropriate land use and no conformance to pertinent legislation. The decrease in forest vegetation cover can cause severe erosion with significant soil loss and sediment deposition in the river, thus reducing water quality and quantity during the dry season. This basin is currently responsible for 70% of the Cruzeiro, SP water supply.

  4. Study of human occupation impacts in the Batedor river basin in the Mantiqueira mountain in the municipality of Cruzeiro, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo dos Santos Targa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The study of hydrographic basins as territorial units integrating the management of hydric resources is essential to guarantee sustainable use of natural resources in these basins. The establishment of the Paraíba do Sul hydrographic basins committee, in 1994, determined the need for management planning information and integration actions in the Paraíba do Sul basin which incorporates a variety of industries and intense land use. The Batedor river, in the municipality of Cruzeiro, SP, flows into the Passa Vinte which is an affluent of Paraíba do Sul river. Its mouth is located at 22°31’0.63”S and 45°01’2.07”W. Its farthest water contributing source lies about 8.5 km, near the Itaguaré peak 2,308 m high, in the Mantiqueira mountain on the border of São Paulo and Minas Gerais States. To characterize land use in the Batedor hydrographic basin, Landsat imagery and topographic charts were analyzed based on remote sensing and geoprocessing techniques. This paper describes the study of impacts related to land and water resources use in the Batedor river basin and the generation of support material for environmental education. Results has shown that this basin has good water supply, has no flooding risk and has several springs running down the Mantiqueira Moutain slopes that form young creeks with few meanders. Irregular human occupation for housing and subsistence agriculture, mainly banana plantations can be seen in deep slopes and riparian areas, as well as degraded pastures that indicate inappropriate land use and no conformance to pertinent legislation. The decrease in forest vegetation cover can cause severe erosion with significant soil loss and sediment deposition in the river, thus reducing water quality and regulated quantity. This basin is currently responsible for 70% of the water supply for the city of Cruzeiro, SP.

  5. Towards the response of water balance to sugarcane expansion in the Rio Grande Basin, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    F. F. Pereira; Tursunov, M.; C. B. Uvo

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the short-, medium- and long-term impacts of expansion of the sugarcane plantation on the water balance of the Rio Grande Basin, Brazil, as estimated by changes in evapotranspiration, soil moisture content and surface runoff calculated by a hydrological model. Twenty years of simulation are made using three different land use scenarios that include the basin area planted with sugarcane in 1993, 2000 and 2007 as estimated from satellite im...

  6. The Mackenzie Basin impacts study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1989, a commitment was made to begin development of a framework for an integrated regional impact assessment of global warming scenarios in the Mackenzie Basin, the most populated region of Canada's north. The project, called Mackenzie Basin Impact Study (MBIS), is led by a multidisciplinary working group from government and non-governmental organizations with interests in the Basin. Objectives of MBIS include defining the direction and magnitude of regional-scale impacts of global warming scenarios on the physical, biological, and human systems of the Basin. MBIS will also identify regional sensitivities to climate, inter-system linkages, uncertainties, policy implications, and research needs. MBIS research activities as of March 1992 are outlined and policy concerns related to global warming are listed. Two new methodologies are being developed by MBIS to address particular economic and policy concerns: a socio-economic resource accounting framework and an integrated land assessment framework. Throughout MBIS, opportunities will be presented for western science and traditional native knowledge to be integrated

  7. Amazon dams and waterways: Brazil's Tapajós Basin plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnside, Philip M

    2015-09-01

    Brazil plans to build 43 "large" dams (>30 MW) in the Tapajós Basin, ten of which are priorities for completion by 2022. Impacts include flooding indigenous lands and conservation units. The Tapajós River and two tributaries (the Juruena and Teles Pires Rivers) are also the focus of plans for waterways to transport soybeans from Mato Grosso to ports on the Amazon River. Dams would allow barges to pass rapids and waterfalls. The waterway plans require dams in a continuous chain, including the Chacorão Dam that would flood 18,700 ha of the Munduruku Indigenous Land. Protections in Brazil's constitution and legislation and in international conventions are easily neutralized through application of "security suspensions," as has already occurred during licensing of several dams currently under construction in the Tapajós Basin. Few are aware of "security suspensions," resulting in little impetus to change these laws. PMID:25794814

  8. Evolution and palaeoenvironment of the Bauru Basin (Upper Cretaceous, Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Luiz Alberto; Magalhães Ribeiro, Claudia Maria

    2015-08-01

    The Bauru Basin was one of the great Cretaceous desert basins of the world, evolved in arid zone called Southern Hot Arid Belt. Its paleobiological record consists mainly of dinosaurs, crocodiles and turtles. The Bauru Basin is an extensive region of the South American continent that includes parts of the southeast and south of Brazil, covering an area of 370,000 km2. It is an interior continental basin that developed as a result of subsidence of the central-southern part of the South-American Platform during the Late Cretaceous (Coniacian-Maastrichtian). This sag basin is filled by a sandy siliciclastic sequence with a preserved maximum thickness of 480 m, deposited in semiarid to desert conditions. Its basement consists of volcanic rocks (mainly basalts) of the Lower Cretaceous (Hauterivian) Serra Geral basalt flows, of the Paraná-Etendeka Continental Flood Basalt Province. The sag basin was filled by an essentially siliciclastic psammitic sequence. In lithostratigraphic terms the sequence consists of the Caiuá and Bauru groups. The northern and northeastern edges of the basin provide a record of more proximal original deposits, such as associations of conglomeratic sand facies from alluvial fans, lakes, and intertwined distributary river systems. The progressive basin filling led to the burial of the basaltic substrate by extensive blanket sand sheets, associated with deposits of small dunes and small shallow lakes that retained mud (such as loess). Also in this intermediate context between the edges (more humid) and the interior (dry), wide sand sheet areas crossed by unconfined desert rivers (wadis) occurred. In the central axis of the elliptical basin a regional drainage system formed, flowing from northeast to southwest between the edges of the basin and the hot and dry inner periphery of the Caiuá desert (southwest). Life in the Bauru Basin flourished most in the areas with the greatest water availability, in which dinosaurs, crocodiles, turtles, fish

  9. Hydrological studies in experimental and representative basins in Pernambuco State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Montenegro, S.M.G.L.; da Silva, B. B.; A. C. D. Antonino; J. R. S. Lima; E.S. Souza; de Oliveira, L. M. M.; de Moura, A. E. S. S.; Souza, R. M. S.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrological studies in experimental and representative basins are of fundamental importance for water resources management. This paper presents some activities of hydrological research in experimental and representative basins of the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. The study areas are located at Tapacurá and Mundaú representative basins and at the Gameleira experimental basin, and in experimental plots in Pajeú basin. In the Tapacurá basin, three studies were performed: (1) different monthly co...

  10. Contribution to the stratigraphy of the onshore Paraiba Basin, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossetti, Dilce F.; Valeriano, Marcio M., E-mail: rossetti@dsr.inpe.br [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Divisao de Sensoriamento Remoto; Goes, Ana M.; Brito-Neves, Benjamim B. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias; Bezerra, Francisco H.R.; Ochoa, Felipe L. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e da Terra. Departamento de Geologia

    2012-06-15

    Several publications have contributed to improve the stratigraphy of the Paraiba Basin in northeastern Brazil. However, the characterization and distribution of sedimentary units in onshore areas of this basin are still incomplete, despite their significance for reconstructing the tectono- sedimentary evolution of the South American passive margin. This work provides new information to differentiate among lithologically similar strata, otherwise entirely unrelated in time. This approach included morphological, sedimentological and stratigraphic descriptions based on surface and sub-surface data integrated with remote sensing, optically stimulated luminescence dating, U+Th/He dating of weathered goethite, and heavy mineral analysis. Based on this study, it was possible to show that Cretaceous units are constrained to the eastern part of the onshore Paraiba Basin. Except for a few outcrops of carbonatic-rocks nearby the modern coastline, deposits of this age are not exposed to the surface in the study area. Instead, the sedimentary cover throughout the basin is constituted by mineralogically and chronologically distinctive deposits, inserted in the Barreiras Formation and mostly in the Post-Barreiras Sediments, of early/middle Miocene and Late Pleistocene-Holocene ages, respectively. The data presented in this work support tectonic deformation as a factor of great relevance to the distribution of the sedimentary units of the Paraiba Basin. (author)

  11. Tectonics and sedimentation in the Curitiba Basin, south of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamuni, Eduardo; Ebert, Hans Dirk; da Silva Borges, Mauricio; Hasui, Yociteru; Costa, João Batista Sena; Salamuni, Riad

    2003-03-01

    The Curitiba Basin, Paraná, lies parallel to the west side of the Serra do Mar range and is part of a continental rift near the Atlantic coast of southeastern Brazil. It bears unconsolidated and poorly consolidated sediments divided in two formations: the lower Guabirotuba Formation and the overlying Tinguis Formation, both developed over Precambrian basement. Field observations, water well drill cores, and interpretations of satellite images lead to the inference that regional tectonic processes were responsible for the origin of the Basin in the continental rift context and for morphotecatonic evolution through block tilting, dissection, and erosion. The structural framework of the sediments and the basement is characterized by NE-SW-trending normal faults (extensional tectonic D 1 event) reactivated by NE-SW-trending strike-slip and reverse oblique faults (younger transtensional tectonic D 2' to transpressional tectonic D 2″ event). This tectonic event, which started in the Paleogene and controlled the basin geometry, began as a halfgraben and was later reactivated as a pull-apart basin. D 2 is a neotectonic event that controls the current morphostructures. The Basin is connected to the structural rearrangement of the South American platform, which underwent a generalized extensional or trantensional process and, in late Oligocene, changed to a compressional to transpressional regime.

  12. Fishes of the Taquari-Antas river basin (Patos Lagoon basin), southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, F G; De Fries, L C C; Ferrer, J; Bertaco, V A; Luz-Agostinho, K D G; Silva, J F P; Cardoso, A R; Lucena, Z M S; Lucena, C A S

    2013-02-01

    The aquatic habitats of the Taquari-Antas river basin (in the Patos Lagoon basin, southern Brazil) are under marked environmental transformation because of river damming for hydropower production. In order to provide an information baseline on the fish fauna of the Taquari-Antas basin, we provide a comprehensive survey of fish species based on primary and secondary data. We found 5,299 valid records of fish species in the basin, representing 119 species and 519 sampling sites. There are 13 non-native species, six of which are native to other Neotropical river basins. About 24% of the total native species are still lacking a taxonomic description at the species level. Three native long-distance migratory species were recorded (Leporinus obtusidens, Prochilodus lineatus, Salminus brasiliensis), as well as two potential mid-distance migrators (Parapimelodus nigribarbis and Pimelodus pintado). Although there is only one officially endangered species in the basin (S. brasiliensis), restricted range species (21.7% of total species) should be considered in conservation efforts. PMID:23644791

  13. LAND PARCELING AND NEIGHBORHOOD IMPACTS IN BRAZIL

    OpenAIRE

    Sérgio Antonio Röhm; José Augusto de Lollo

    2009-01-01

    The proposal and implementation of parceling real estate into smaller lots in Brazil is done according to legal and technical formalities. However, these instruments have proved inefficient in reducing the resulting environmental impacts. The ambiguities of the federal, state and municipal laws and regulations have limited the effectiveness of the actions of urban administrators. Law 10257/2001 emerged as an alternative to overcome these difficulties, proposing the adoption of neighborhood im...

  14. Sediments of Afonso Bezerra belt-Macaiba (meridional border of Potiguar basin, RN, Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mineralogy of sediments from Potiguar basin, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil, is investigated and its origin is determined. Usual sedimentologic methods and X-ray diffraction were used. (M.C.K.)

  15. Social impacts of Brazil's Tucurui Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tucurui Dam, which blocked the Tocantins River in 1984 in Brazil's eastern Amazonian state of Para, is a continuing source of controversy. Most benefits of the power go to aluminum smelting companies, where only a tiny amount of employment is generated. Often presented by authorities as a model for hydroelectric development because of the substantial power that it produces, the project's social and environmental impacts are also substantial. Examination of Tucurui reveals a systematic overestimation of benefits and underestimation of impacts as presented by authorities. Tucurui offers many as-yet unlearned lessons for hydroelectric development in Amazonia

  16. Silviculture of eucaliptus plantations in the Paraiba do Sul basin, Brazil, and its potential implication on the basin ecohydrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriello, Felix; Andres Rodriguez, Daniel; Marques Neves, Otto; Vicens, Raul

    2014-05-01

    Silviculture of eucaliptus plantations is an important driver of the Mata Atlântica biome conversion into another land use in the Paraíba do Sul basin, in the southeastern of Brazil. This region is located in one of the most developed areas in Brazil, between Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, the most important cities in Brazil, linked by Presidente Dutra highway. Between both cities there are another cities that produce a variety of goods - from meat to planes, cars and mobile phones. This area is, at the same time, one the most important hot spot for the Mata Atlântica biome. Here we have a large Mata Atlântica fragment protected by law and others fragments being conversed to pasture, agriculture, silviculture and urban areas. Paraiba do Sul river drains the region and runs into Rio de Janeiro State. The basin is highly anthropized, with multiple approaches of its waters resources. Its waters also serve Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area. Because land use and land cover changes impact the water yield in a basin, the study of its dynamic its of great importance for water resources management. We study the land use and land cover change in the region between 1986 and 2010, focusing in the development of silviculture of eucaliptus plantations. We used the HAND (Height Above Nearest Drainage) approach that uses the height above the nearest water body, acquired from SRTM Data and transformed into a Terrain Numeric Mode, to classify the landscape into three different ecohydrological environments: floodplain, mountain top and hillslope. This classes were intersected with 1986 and 2010 land use and cover change classification obtained from Landsat imagery. Results show that silviculture has increased in the region from 1986 to 2010. In both years, silviculture areas are mainly located at the hillslope (47%), while floodplain and mountain top share 28 % and 23 % respectively. Available census data from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, IBGE, for 1995 and

  17. Changes in precipitation extremes in Brazil (Paraná River Basin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandonadi, Leandro; Acquaotta, Fiorella; Fratianni, Simona; Zavattini, João Afonso

    2016-02-01

    This research was aimed at addressing aspects related to variation in the amount of precipitation during the period from 1986 to 2011 in the Paraná River Hydrographical Basin, Brazil, for 32 meteorological stations using 11 climate indices created by the ETCCDI (Expert Team, ET, on Climate Change Detection and Indices, ETCCDI). The daily rainfall data were organized in spreadsheets, which were subjected to an intense quality control and an accurate historical research. For each pluviometric index, we have estimated the trends and the statistical significant of the slopes have been calculated. The results confirm that an increase in total precipitation in almost all analyzed stations was registered, and the extreme precipitations were the main contributors to such additions. In fact, the significant increase in total annual rainfall in north-central sector of the basin are related to higher rates of heavy rain, mainly above 95th percentile, as well as to the highest event of rainfall above 10 mm. Instead the northern part of the region, showed declining trends of extreme rainfall, caused mainly by the reduction in the rainfall occurrences over 95th percentile. In order to evaluate the impact that the increasing extreme rainfall may cause in large urban centers, we have investigated the data of two municipalities (Curitiba, PR and Goiânia, GO-Brazil), where the positive trend can cause inconvenience to the population (floods and inundations) suggesting, at least, the need of implementation of more effective urban planning for the future.

  18. Igneous pyrometamorphism in the Potiguar Basin, Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa dos Santos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the Potiguar Basin (NE Brazil, cretaceous rocks (sandstones, siltstones, shales, limestones are intruded by Paleogene to Neogene basic bodies. As a result, were formed buchites, pyrometamorphic rocks indicating very low pressures and very high temperatures. Field descriptions permitted distinguishing light buchites (LB and dark buchites (DB, which were investigated throughout petrographic, electron microprobe and X-ray diffraction studies. LBs contain abundant clasts of quartz surrounded by radial tridymite needles, besides phenocrysts of sanidine and clinopyroxene included in a vitreous groundmass. DBs have mainly microcrystals of Fe-cordierite (sekaninaite, mullite, armalcolite, ilmenite and spinel, dispersed within a black cryptocrystalline matrix. Chemically, LBs are richer in SiO2 (~76.7% and K2O (~5.7% and poorer in Al2O3 (~12.8% when compared to DBs (respectively ~51.5, ~0.2 and ~42.7%. Based on phase diagrams published in the literature, the habit of crystals (acicular, elongated sometimes hollow crystals and the significant content of glassy material we consider that the liquid formed by melting at ~1100 – 1150o C of sedimentary material cooled quickly at very high temperatures and pressures below 1 kbar. The results obtained are relevant in petrological terms, and may also have economic implications since a large number of basic bodies intrude rocks with hydrocarbon reservoirs.

  19. Columbia Basin College Facts & Impacts, 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columbia Basin Coll., Pasco, WA.

    This fact book for Columbia Basin College (CBC) (Washington) offers statistics on staff and faculty, students, degrees awarded, hot programs, enrollment; student services, financial aid, economic impact, educational partnerships, and governance. CBC serves more than 13,000 students annually and offers associate degrees in arts, science, and…

  20. Environmental impact assessment of land use systems using emergy in Teresópolis-Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos Torrico Albino; Marc Janssens

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a set of indices based on emergy analysis for the Côrrego Sujo basin, Teresópolis-Brazil. Encompassing natural and agricultural systems, the Côrrego Sujo basin has been affected by destruction and fragmentation of natural habitats and unsustainable land use practices. The main objective is to evaluate the environmental impact of the land use systems, the load capacity and the use of natural and economic resources. The studied land use systems were: i) agriculture, ii) gras...

  1. The Alegre Lineament and its role over the tectonic evolution of the Campos Basin and adjacent continental margin, Southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calegari, Salomão Silva; Neves, Mirna Aparecida; Guadagnin, Felipe; França, George Sand; Vincentelli, Maria Gabriela Castillo

    2016-08-01

    The structural framework and tectonic evolution of the sedimentary basins along the eastern margin of the South American continent are closely associated with the tectonic framework and crustal heterogeneities inherited from the Precambrian basement. However, the role of NW-SE and NNW-SSE structures observed at the outcropping basement in Southeastern Brazil and its impact over the development of those basins have not been closely investigated. In the continental region adjacent to the Campos Basin, we described a geological feature with NNW-SSE orientation, named in this paper as the Alegre Fracture Zone (AFZ), which is observed in the onshore basement and can be projected to the offshore basin. The main goal of this work was to study this structural lineament and its influence on the tectonic evolution of the central portion of the Campos Basin and adjacent mainland. The onshore area was investigated through remote sensing data joint with field observations, and the offshore area was studied through the interpretation of 2-D seismic data calibrated by geophysical well logs. We concluded that the AFZ occurs in both onshore and offshore as a brittle deformation zone formed by multiple sets of fractures that originated in the Cambrian and were reactivated mainly as normal faults during the rift phase and in the Cenozoic. In the Campos Basin, the AFZ delimitates the western side of the Corvina-Parati Low, composing a complex fault system with the NE-SW faults and the NW-SE transfer faults.

  2. Estimation of Phosphorus Emissions in the Upper Iguazu Basin (brazil) Using GIS and the More Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta Porras, E. A.; Kishi, R. T.; Fuchs, S.; Hilgert, S.

    2016-06-01

    Pollution emissions into the drainage basin have direct impact on surface water quality. These emissions result from human activities that turn into pollution loads when they reach the water bodies, as point or diffuse sources. Their pollution potential depends on the characteristics and quantity of the transported materials. The estimation of pollution loads can assist decision-making in basin management. Knowledge about the potential pollution sources allows for a prioritization of pollution control policies to achieve the desired water quality. Consequently, it helps avoiding problems such as eutrophication of water bodies. The focus of the research described in this study is related to phosphorus emissions into river basins. The study area is the upper Iguazu basin that lies in the northeast region of the State of Paraná, Brazil, covering about 2,965 km2 and around 4 million inhabitants live concentrated on just 16% of its area. The MoRE (Modeling of Regionalized Emissions) model was used to estimate phosphorus emissions. MoRE is a model that uses empirical approaches to model processes in analytical units, capable of using spatially distributed parameters, covering both, emissions from point sources as well as non-point sources. In order to model the processes, the basin was divided into 152 analytical units with an average size of 20 km2. Available data was organized in a GIS environment. Using e.g. layers of precipitation, the Digital Terrain Model from a 1:10000 scale map as well as soils and land cover, which were derived from remote sensing imagery. Further data is used, such as point pollution discharges and statistical socio-economic data. The model shows that one of the main pollution sources in the upper Iguazu basin is the domestic sewage that enters the river as point source (effluents of treatment stations) and/or as diffuse pollution, caused by failures of sanitary sewer systems or clandestine sewer discharges, accounting for about 56% of the

  3. Statistical distribution models for migratory fish in Jacuí basin, South Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Thaís P. Alves; Nelson F. Fontoura

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify the distribution patterns of migratory fishes in the Jacuí river basin (Rio Grande do Sul, South Brazil), proposing a statistical model of presumed distribution based on geomorphologic environmental data. Through maps of occurrence probability, we hope to contribute to decisions regarding basin environmental management. The analyzed species were: Salminus brasiliensis (dourado), Leporinus obtusidens (piava), Prochilodus lineatus (grumatã) and Pimel...

  4. Mackenzie Basin impact study: Interim report 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mackenzie Basin Impact Study (MIBS) is a six-year study undertaken to assess the potential impacts on the Mackenzie River Basin region and its inhabitants. The study framework, structure, organization, methods, and data are described. Highlights of work to date are reviewed. The MBIS employs scenarios of future warmer climates and changes in population and economic conditions. Research is coordinated by an interagency working committee and research activities cover 28 areas including permafrost, hydrology, sea ice, boreal ecosystems, freshwater fish, wildlife, forestry, agriculture, tourism, community studies, and defense. Six issues have been identified: interjurisdictional water management, sustainability of native lifestyles, economic development opportunities, infrastructure and buildings, and sustainability of ecosystems. An integrated assessment approach is used in the MBIS, combining scientific and indigenous traditional knowledge and attempting to include all interactions that occur between sectors. Two methods are being developed: socio-economic integration using a resource accounting framework, and an integrated land assessment framework. Four scenarios of warmer climates have been developed, all showing increased precipitation for the basin as a whole. Moderate growth in the resource sector is predicted. Preliminary results of some research are reported, including a lengthened open-water season in the Beaufort Sea accompanied by a greater extent of open water. 44 figs., 16 tabs

  5. Magnetic properties of mesozoic volcanic rocks from Maranhao Basin, in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two paleomagnetic poles were determined from 113 samples of Jurassic volcanic rocks, lying in the western part of Maranhao Basin (Porto Franco-Estreito), in Brazil and 157 samples of sills and dikes of lower cretaceous age (Teresina Picos-Floriano) from the eastern part. The analysis of magnetic minerals of samples were done by thermomagnetic curves and X-ray diffraction. (Author)

  6. Uranium prospecting in the Iguatu and Frade basins (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mineral Exploration Department of CNEN studied the possibilities of uranium occurences in the Iguatu and Frade Basins in the preliminary research program designated 'Small Basins of the Northeast' which contitutes the object of this report. The two basins are located in the State of Ceara. The results of geologic and radiometric researches ahowed that the possibilities for uranium mineralizations were small, since the analyses of samples from the two main anomalies showed the radioactivity came from the remains of monazite. Further analysis of sedimentologic factors indicated favorable confitions for uranium concentration, taking into consideration the large variations of vertical and lateral granulometries, which permit spectulation about the flow of uraniferous solutions. radiometric measurements of surface samples were insignificant and no uranium mineral was found. The result of research of the sedimentary Frade Basin was negative for uranium mineralization. The basin was entirely eroded, remaining as an outcrop described in this report. (F.E.)

  7. Radioecological impact of effluents from a nuclear facility being decommissioned in the Antas river hydro graphic basin in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Radioecological impact of effluents in the Antas reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Antas reservoir receives the treated effluents which come from acid drainage of uranium ore from the UTM-INB (Ore Treatment Unit - Brazilian Nuclear Industries), located in Caldas, Minas Gerais. This study was conducted in order to determine the possible environmental impact caused by discharge of the treated liquid effluent from the UTM into the Antas reservoir. Biological (ciliated protozoa and Peridinium sp. phytoflagellate) and physicochemical variables (manganese, zinc, sulfate, uranium, dissolved oxygen and temperature), trophic state and saprobity indexes were evaluated. Sampling in reservoir (Cab, P41, P14S, and P14F points) took place during the dry winter season (July 2006). Each day, samples were collected four times (6:00 am, 12:00 pm, 6:00 pm, and 12:00 am). Biological variables analyzed at the Antas reservoir classified it as an oligo trophic and beta-mesosaprobic environment. Chemical parameters indicate failures in the nuclear facility effluent treatment plant, showing that effluents outside of standard limits established by Brazilian current legislation for Class II water are being discharged at point P41. These results agree with biological analyses, since point P41 has the lowest diversity and biomass values for ciliated protozoa organisms, indicating possible environmental impacts on the ecosystem due to effluent discharge by this mining company.(author)

  8. Apollo Basin, Moon: Estimation of Impact Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echaurren, J. C.

    2015-07-01

    The Apollo Basin is a, pre-Nectarian, multi-ring basin located within the large South Pole-Aitken Basin (SPA). Multispectral data from both Galileo and Clementine showed that the composition of materials in Apollo is distinct…

  9. Well successfully drilled with high performance water-based fluid: Santos Basins, offshore Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornasier, Frank C.; Luzardo, Juan P. [Halliburton Company, Houston, TX (United States); Bishnoi, M.L. [Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Ltda. (ONGC), Dehradun (India)

    2012-07-01

    Santos Basin is a 352,260 square kilometers (136,010 sq mi) offshore pre-salt basin. It is located in the South Atlantic Ocean, some 300 kilometers (190 mi) South East of Sao Paulo, Brazil. One of the largest Brazilian sedimentary basins, it is the site of several recent significant oil fields, including Tupi and Jupiter. The criteria for drilling fluid selection is based upon the following factors: maximum cost efficiency, environmental friendliness, optimum borehole stability, and ease of use. The recommended drilling fluid formulation takes into consideration the experience gained during the drilling of wells in the Santos Basin area. The operator wanted to use a high-performance water-based fluid (HPWBF) that could provide shale inhibition, wellbore stability, lubricity and improved rate of penetration (ROP) as an alternative to synthetic-based drilling fluids to present value in terms of economics and environmental friendliness. The HPWBF consists of three synergistic products: a hydration suppressant, a dispersion suppressant, and an accretion suppressant. The system is formulated based on customized solutions for managing the clay reactivity. High logistics costs require drilling fluids that can be prepared with sea water and discharged to the sea without environmental impact. The HPWBF is a clay-free system designed for maximum shale inhibition in highly reactive formations. The system can provide wellbore stability, high rates of penetration, and acceptable rheological properties over a wide range of temperatures, with the added benefit of allowing cuttings discharge based upon water base environmental restrictions. Since no oil is used in the formulation, the HPWBF eliminates the need for cuttings processing and monitoring equipment, and exceeds the environmental requirements by achieving an LC50 value of 345,478.22 ppm in comparison with the minimum requirement (LC50 > 30,000 ppm in 96 hr), permitting use and discharge to the sea. The HPWBF selected

  10. Distribution, Statistics, and Resurfacing of Large Impact Basins on Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassett, Caleb I.; Head, James W.; Baker, David M. H.; Chapman, Clark R.; Murchie, Scott L.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Oberst, Juergen; Prockter, Louise M.; Smith, David E.; Solomon, Sean C.; Strom, Robert G.; Xiao, Zhiyong; Zuber, Maria T.

    2012-01-01

    The distribution and geological history of large impact basins (diameter D greater than or equal to 300 km) on Mercury is important to understanding the planet's stratigraphy and surface evolution. It is also informative to compare the density of impact basins on Mercury with that of the Moon to understand similarities and differences in their impact crater and basin populations [1, 2]. A variety of impact basins were proposed on the basis of geological mapping with Mariner 10 data [e.g. 3]. This basin population can now be re-assessed and extended to the full planet, using data from the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft. Note that small-to- medium-sized peak-ring basins on Mercury are being examined separately [4, 5]; only the three largest peak-ring basins on Mercury overlap with the size range we consider here. In this study, we (1) re-examine the large basins suggested on the basis of Mariner 10 data, (2) suggest additional basins from MESSENGER's global coverage of Mercury, (3) assess the size-frequency distribution of mercurian basins on the basis of these global observations and compare it to the Moon, and (4) analyze the implications of these observations for the modification history of basins on Mercury.

  11. Hydrological studies in experimental and representative basins in Pernambuco State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro, S. M. G. L.; da Silva, B. B.; Antonino, A. C. D.; Lima, J. R. S.; de Souza, E. S.; de Oliveira, L. M. M.; de Moura, A. E. S. S.; Souza, R. M. S.

    2014-09-01

    Hydrological studies in experimental and representative basins are of fundamental importance for water resources management. This paper presents some activities of hydrological research in experimental and representative basins of the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. The study areas are located at Tapacurá and Mundaú representative basins and at the Gameleira experimental basin, and in experimental plots in Pajeú basin. In the Tapacurá basin, three studies were performed: (1) different monthly coefficients "k" of the Thornthwaite method were tested to calculate the effective temperature and, consequently, the reference evapotranspiration, giving rise to the method identified as Modified Thornthwaite; (2) the spatial variability of the retention curve and hydraulic conductivity parameters were analysed using the Beerkan method; (3) changes in vegetation cover were evaluated through the NDVI and NDWI indexes using TM-Landsat 5 images. In the Mundaú representative basin, the performance of different evapotranspiration methods was evaluated and compared to the FAO standard method, Penman-Monteith. In the Pajeú basin, the experimental plot is covered by pasture and sensors were installed to monitor the following variables: rainfall, air temperature, the energy balance components (net radiation, latent and sensible heat, and soil heat flux), wind velocity and CO2 flux into atmosphere, soil moisture and runoff.

  12. Chemotaxonomical aspects of lower Cretaceous amber from Reconcavo Basin, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Ricardo; Azevedo, Debora A., E-mail: ricardopereira@iq.ufrj.b, E-mail: debora@iq.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IQ/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Carvalho, Ismar S. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias; Fernandes, Antonio Carlos S. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Museu Nacional. Dept. de Geologia e Paleontologia

    2011-07-01

    The chemical composition of Lower Cretaceous amber samples from Reconcavo Basin (Salvador, Bahia) was performed by GC-MS to characterize possible botanical sources. The compounds identified were hydrocarbonic and polar diterpenoids, such as abietane, dehydroabietane, tetrahydroretene, dehydroabietol, dehydroabietic acid, ferruginol and sugiol. Other diterpenoid classes were not detected as well as triterpenoids. The composition of the extracts and chemosystematic data allows relating the samples to conifers of Podocarpaceae or Cheirolepidiaceae families due to detection of ferruginol, a specific biomarker to these families. The data concerning Cretaceous amber in the Reconcavo Basin provided information concerning the presence of a resinous flora in the Maracangalha Formation sediments during the Lower Cretaceous. (author)

  13. Evolution of the Rembrandt impact basin on Mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watters, Thomas R; Head, James W; Solomon, Sean C; Robinson, Mark S; Chapman, Clark R; Denevi, Brett W; Fassett, Caleb I; Murchie, Scott L; Strom, Robert G

    2009-05-01

    MESSENGER's second Mercury flyby revealed a ~715-kilometer-diameter impact basin, the second-largest well-preserved basin-scale impact structure known on the planet. The Rembrandt basin is comparable in age to the Caloris basin, is partially flooded by volcanic plains, and displays a unique wheel-and-spoke-like pattern of basin-radial and basin-concentric wrinkle ridges and graben. Stratigraphic relations indicate a multistaged infilling and deformational history involving successive or overlapping phases of contractional and extensional deformation. The youngest deformation of the basin involved the formation of a approximately 1000-kilometer-long lobate scarp, a product of the global cooling and contraction of Mercury. PMID:19407197

  14. A taphonomic model for the Mesosauride assemblage of the Irati Formation (Paraná Basin, Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Soares, M B

    2003-01-01

    The Irati Formation (Permian, Paraná Basin, Brazil) is made up of a succession of black bituminous and nonbituminous shales and mudstones with interbedded carbonate layers, which record deposition in marine environments. Mesosaur remains are abundant at several sites in this formation, where they occur preserved in centimetre- thick beds and displaying various degrees of skeletal disarticulation. This paper seeks to establish a model to explain the processes that generated the mesosaurian tap...

  15. Considerations on fluorides anomalies in Botucatu-Piramboia aquifers system, Parana basin, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groundwater of a great number of deep wells dug to exploit the Botucatu-Piramboia aquifer system in the Parana Basin, Brazil, have high fluoride concentrations, over 1 ppm, that turns groundwater useless for human supply. Investigations being carried out a the Center for Groundwater Research (CEPAS) of the Institute of Geosciences at USP, Sao Paulo, indicate a relationship between fluoride concentration and groundwater age, dated with radiocarbon. (author)

  16. Ituglanis agreste, a new catfish from the rio de Contas basin, northeastern Brazil (Siluriformes: Trichomycteridae)

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio M. Q. Lima; Cinara P. Neves; Rafael M. Campos-Paiva

    2013-01-01

    Ituglanis agreste, a new species of catfish, is described from a tributary stream of the rio Gongogi drainage, rio de Contas basin, Bahia State, northeastern Brazil, from a transition area between the Atlantic Rain Forest and the semi-arid Caatinga savanna. This species is distinguished from its congeners by the following characters: elongate interopercle plate with high number of odontodes (26-30), high number of ribs (5-6), fewer vertebrae (36), number of branchiostegal rays (7), number of ...

  17. The geologically recent giant impact basins at Vesta's south pole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Paul; O'Brien, David P; Marchi, Simone; Gaskell, Robert; Preusker, Frank; Roatsch, Thomas; Jaumann, Ralf; Buczkowski, Debra; McCord, Thomas; McSween, Harry Y; Williams, David; Yingst, Aileen; Raymond, Carol; Russell, Chris

    2012-05-11

    Dawn's global mapping of Vesta reveals that its observed south polar depression is composed of two overlapping giant impact features. These large basins provide exceptional windows into impact processes at planetary scales. The youngest, Rheasilvia, is 500 kilometers wide and 19 kilometers deep and finds its nearest morphologic analog among large basins on low-gravity icy satellites. Extensive ejecta deposits occur, but impact melt volume is low, exposing an unusual spiral fracture pattern that is likely related to faulting during uplift and convergence of the basin floor. Rheasilvia obliterated half of another 400-kilometer-wide impact basin, Veneneia. Both basins are unexpectedly young, roughly 1 to 2 billion years, and their formation substantially reset Vestan geology and excavated sufficient volumes of older compositionally heterogeneous crustal material to have created the Vestoids and howardite-eucrite-diogenite meteorites. PMID:22582256

  18. Environmental impact assessment of land use systems using emergy in Teresópolis-Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Torrico Albino

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a set of indices based on emergy analysis for the Côrrego Sujo basin, Teresópolis-Brazil. Encompassing natural and agricultural systems, the Côrrego Sujo basin has been affected by destruction and fragmentation of natural habitats and unsustainable land use practices. The main objective is to evaluate the environmental impact of the land use systems, the load capacity and the use of natural and economic resources. The studied land use systems were: i agriculture, ii grassland and cattle, iii rainforest and iv forest in regeneration stage (fallow: 1, 2 and 3 years old. Emergy analysis integrates all flows within a system of coupled economic and environmental work in common biophysical units (solar emjoules – seJ. The main conclusions of the study are: the basin does not have dependence of purchased resources and the environmental impact is moderate; the efficiency of the basin as a system is highly positive and it represents a positive contribution to the economy; the emergy exchange ratio is moderate and; the biggest contributions to the system come from natural sources showing that the ecological sustainability is moderate to good.

  19. The global nuclear safety regime and its impact in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work describes the Global Nuclear Safety Regime that was established worldwide after the accident at the Tchernobyl nuclear power plant. This regime is composed of biding international safety conventions, globally accepted safety standard, and a voluntary peer review system. The impact of this Global Regime in Brazil is also discussed. (Author)

  20. Post-breakup Basin Evolution along the South-Atlantic Margins in Brazil and Angola/Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukla, P. A.; Strozyk, F.; Back, S.

    2013-12-01

    The post-breakup tectono-stratigraphic evolution of large offshore basins along the South American and African continental margins record strongly varying post-rift sedimentary successions. The northernmost segment of the South Atlantic rift and salt basins is characterized by a pronounced asymmetry, with the Brazilian margin comprising narrower and deeper rift basins with less salt in comparison to the Congo-Gabon conjugate margin. Another important observation is that multiple phases of uplift and subsidence are recorded after the break-up of the southern South Atlantic on both sides of the Florianopolis-Walvis Ridge volcanic complex, features that are regarded as atypical when compared to published examples of other post-breakup margin successions. A regional comparison based on tectonic-stratigraphic analysis of selected seismic transects between the large basins offshore southern Brazil (Espirito Santo Basin, Campos Basin, Santos Basin, Pelotas Basin) and southwest Africa (Lower Congo Basin, Kwanza Basin, Namibe Basin, Walvis Basin) provides a comprehensive basin-to-basin documentation of the key geological parameters controlling ocean and continental margin development. This comparison includes the margin configuration, subsidence development through time, sediment influx and storage patterns, type of basin fill (e.g. salt vs. non-salt systems; carbonate-rich vs. clastics-dominated systems) and finally major tectonic and magmatic events. Data from the salt basins indicate that salt-related tectonic deformation is amongst the prime controls for the non-uniform post-rift margin development. The diversity in the stratigraphic architecture of the conjugate margins offshore southern Brazil, Namibia and Angola reflects variations in the interplay of a number of controlling factors, of which the most important are (a) the structural configuration of each margin segment at the time of break-up, (b) the post break-up subsidence history of the respective margin segment

  1. K Basins environmental impact statement technical input document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the technical input necessary to develop and evaluate the alternatives within the Environmental Impact Statement for the Management of Spent Nuclear Fuel From the K Basins at the Hanford Site

  2. ABORTION IN BRAZIL: IMPACTS OF ILLEGALITY IN PUBLIC HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Cruz Santos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Abortion in Brazil provides public health impacts, mainly due to the high rate of maternal morbidity and mortality, because it most often occurs in an illegal practice and / or unsafe, because of the illegality of abortion in certain situations in the country. Therefore, it is an issue that refers to the various reflections, such as legal, moral, cultural, socio-economic and bioethical. Given the above, the study aims to address about abortion in Brazil and the impacts of illegality in public health. Study of literature review, descriptive and discursive, held in the database SciELO sites and governmental and non-governmental organizations. It was evident that the illegality of abortion in Brazil is harmful to the health of women who resort to unsafe practices and / or illegal, a violation of human rights, the women’s autonomy, as well as providing public health impacts, and sometimes this actually happens because the deficit in quality of care, specifically to sexual and reproductive health, as the actions of Family Planning. It is considered that the way of abortion in Brazil requires modifications, especially with regard to legislative and bioethics conflicts.

  3. Deep sea Caridea (Crustacea, Decapoda from Campos Basin, RJ, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene A. Cardoso

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available During the Campos Basin Deep Sea Environmental Project coordinated by CENPES/PETROBRAS two collecting campaigns were performed. Both used the N/RB Astrogaroupa and fishery nets to collect samples from the continental slope in Campos Basin, RJ (21º48'S to 22º48'S. Campaign Oceanprof I occurred in February, 2003 and collected 18 samples at depths between 1074 and 1649 m. Oceanprof II occurred in August, 2003 and collected 22 samples at depths between 1059 and 1640 m. A total of 14 caridean species were collected: Parapontophilus sp. (Crangonidae; Glyphocrangon longirostris (Smith, 1882 (Glyphocrangonidae; Lebbeus sp. (Hippolytidae; Nematocarcinus ensifer (Smith, 1882 (Nematocarcinidae; Acanthephyra eximia Smith, 1884; A. quadrispinosa Kemp, 1939; A. stylorostratis (Bate, 1888; Janicella spinicauda (A. Milne Edwards, 1883; Meningodora vesca (Smith, 1887; Notostomus elegans A. Milne Edwards, 1881; Oplophorus spinosus (Brullé, 1839; and Systellaspis debilis (A. Milne Edwards, 1881 (Oplophoridae; Heterocarpus inopinatus Tavares, 1999 and Plesionika sp. (Pandalidae. Three out of these 14 species, Parapontophilus sp., Lebbeus sp. and Plesionika sp. are still under investigation and were not included in the present study. From the 11 species identified Nematocarcinus ensifer is a new record for the Brazilian continental slope.Durante o Projeto de Caracterização Ambiental de Águas Profundas da Bacia de Campos coordenado pelo CENPES/PETROBRAS duas campanhas de coleta foram realizadas. Ambas utilizaram o N/RB Astrogaroupa e redes de pesca de arrasto com porta para coletar amostras do talude continental da Bacia de Campos, RJ (21º48' S a 22º48'S. A campanha Oceanprof I ocorreu em fevereiro de 2003, coletou 18 amostras em profundidades que variaram entre 1074 e 1649 m e a Oceanprof II em agosto de 2003 coletou 22 amostras em profundidades variando entre 1059 e 1640 m. No total, 14 espécies de Caridea foram coletadas: Parapontophilus sp. (Crangonidae

  4. Glacial geologic confirmation of an intraplate boundary, in the Paraná basin of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyles, N.; Eyles, C. H.

    1993-05-01

    The predrift fit of South America and Africa remains problematic given the inability to match all parts of the coastlines simultaneously. Early opening of the South Atlantic Ocean may have been facilitated by intraplate deformation in either South America or Africa, but the location of such deformation is controversial and poorly constrained. Broad-scale remote sensing has suggested an intraplate boundary in South America, stretching from the Cochabamba bend in the Andes to the Rio Grande-Walvis rise, but the inferred boundary crosses the Paranaá basin of Brazil where any evidence of deformation is obscured by Late Jurassic flood basalts. A subsurface study of the upper Paleozoic glaciogenic infill of the Paranaá basin (the 1300-m-thick Itarare Group; ca. 300-260 Ma) identifies repeated episodes of intracratonic rifting on either side of an accommodation zone crossing the basin along the trend of the inferred intraplate boundary. Renewed influence of this zone during the opening of the South Atlantic is suggested by the asymmetric distribution of successive magma units within the Serra Geral lava pile and by the trend of dike swarms. The intraplate boundary identified within the Paranaá basin may extend westward along the northern margin of the Chaco basin in Bolivia.

  5. Petrobras expands gas reinjection in Brazil`s Amazonas State and Campos Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosso, S. [Dresser-Rand, Houston, TX (United States)

    1999-05-01

    Petrobras contracted with Dresser-Rand Co. and its affiliate Paragon Engineering Services Inc. to design, procure and fabricate the process modules and develop the overall layouts of the gas compression systems for four Brazilian projects: the Urucu region, the Marlim field (P-19), the Albacora field (P-31) and the Corvina field (P-9). The high-pressure Urucu injection project is the only one of the four that is onshore. This is the first time the two US companies have combined their expertise on joint projects in Brazil. However, it is not their first effort in South America. The paper briefly describes the gas compression efforts using turbocompressors.

  6. ESTIMATION OF PHOSPHORUS EMISSIONS IN THE UPPER IGUAZU BASIN (BRAZIL) USING GIS AND THE MORE MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    Acosta Porras, E. A.; Kishi, R. T.; S. Fuchs; S. Hilgert

    2016-01-01

    Pollution emissions into the drainage basin have direct impact on surface water quality. These emissions result from human activities that turn into pollution loads when they reach the water bodies, as point or diffuse sources. Their pollution potential depends on the characteristics and quantity of the transported materials. The estimation of pollution loads can assist decision-making in basin management. Knowledge about the potential pollution sources allows for a prioritization of...

  7. Impacts of Land Use Changes on Water Balance of the Amazon Basin Using Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, C. B.; Mohanty, B.

    2013-12-01

    Current problems related to increasing deforestation in Amazon Basin and its impact to climate change are among the major challenges faced by scientific community. This has led us to study the effects of landuse/cover change in Amazonian basin for protection and proper management of water resources. The use of remote sensing data over the amazon basin provides insight into understanding the water cycle and its impact on climate change. Data at different scales are used to evaluate this hypothesis. MODIS data with 1 km resolution is used to study the land use changes from 2001 to 2012. Change detection technique is applied to evaluate time series hydrological behavior of the basin. Data from point scale and regional scale such as MODIS products and Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) and point scale data available from Experiment and Large Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA), HidroWeb system, the National Water Agency (ANA) and by the National Institute of Meteorology (INMET), from Brazil are used. This work aims to contribute to the current challenge of sustainability of water resources in the Amazon region because of alterations of the landuse cover.

  8. The Marlin and Albacora giant fields, Campos Basin, offshore Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Souza, J.M.; Scarton, J.C.; Candido, A.; Cora, C.A.G. (Petrobras, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil))

    1990-09-01

    The Albacore and Marlim giant fields are located in the province of Campos basin, about 110 km (68 mi) offshore Cape Sao Tome, in water depths ranging from 200 m (656 ft) to 2,000 m (6562 ft). The Albacora field was discovered in September 1984 by the wildcat 1-RJS-297, drilled in 293 m (961 ft) of water. Subsequently, the wildcats 1-RJS-305 and 1-RJS-342 extended the field limits to deeper waters. The Albacora field is approximately 235 km{sup 2} (90 mi{sup 2}) in area, with an estimated volume of 4.5 billion bbl of oil in place. The Marlim field was discovered in February 1985 by the wildcat 1-RJS-219A, in a water depth of 853 m (2,800 ft). The Marlim field area is about 152 km{sup 2} (58 mi{sup 2}), and the latest estimate of oil in place is about 8.2 billion bbl. The Marlim complex encompasses Marlim field itself and the surrounding proved and potential areas known as East-of-, West-of-, and South-of-Marlim, respectively. The current estimated volume of oil in place in the Marlim complex is close to 13.9 billion bbl, with a total surface of about 350 km{sup 2} (135 mi{sup 2}). Oil production in the Albacora field comes from Lower Cretaceous (Albian) and Tertiary (Eocene, Oligocene, and Miocene) turbidite reservoirs. Oligocene turbidite sandstones are the potential reservoirs in the Marlim field. These deposits are genetically associated with sea level variations and are mainly composed of massive sandstones and, subordinately, of contourites. Both fields are structurally and stratigraphically controlled accumulations. Hydrocarbons are trapped in anticlines and/or faulted blocks associated with salt tectonics. Stratigraphic contributions result from sandstone bodies pinching out against shales and marls. The development of these fields has been supported by three-dimensional seismic data. The Albacora field is being gradually put on stream from shallower to deeper waters.

  9. Austrolebias varzeae, a new annual fish from the upper rio Uruguay basin, southern Brazil (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson J. E. M. Costa; Reis, Roberto E.; Everton R. Behr

    2004-01-01

    Austrolebias varzeae n. sp. is described from rio da Várzea floodplains, upper rio Uruguay basin, southern Brazil. It seems to be closely related to A. carvalhoi (Myers), with which it shares a similar color pattern of male and an apomorphic morphology of the autopalatine. The new species differs from A. carvalhoi by having more anal-fin rays in males and more caudal-fin rays. Austrolebias varzeae is distinguished from all other species of the genus by a unique color pattern, in which there a...

  10. Geochemical characterization and miospore biochronostratigraphy of the Frasnian anoxic event in the Parnaiba basin, Northeast Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive shales of Frasnian age in the Parnaiba Basin present high concentrations of organic matter. They correspond to a condensed section related to the Devonian maximum marine transgression. Combined geochemical, palynological and clay mineral data point out to a dominant algal contribution in the composition of the organic matter, as well as to anoxic depositional settings. This radioactive shale interval corresponds to the onset of a long-lasting, global anoxic event which was to be intensified in the Late Frasnian, and thus can be regarded as a marker for chronostratigraphic correlations. It includes the main source rocks of Devonian age in the Palaeozoic basins of north Brazil, and therefore represents a target of potential interest for hydrocarbon exploration. (authors). 16 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab., 17 photos

  11. Multispectral Study of the Schrödinger Impact Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, B.; Osinski, G.; Antonenko, I.; Stooke, P. J.

    2009-05-01

    The Schrödinger impact basin is located on the lunar far side near the south pole (76oS, 134oE) and is one of only two young multiring impact basins on the lunar surface [1]. With a diameter size of 312 km and basin floor 2-3 km deep, Schrödinger is the least modified impact basin of its size. A peak ring structure 150 km in diameter lies on the basin floor, formed by uplift of pre-Schrödinger crustal materials. Ejecta material, smooth in texture, covers the basin walls and extends out onto the surrounding surface up to 100 km in all directions. The first geological map published of Schrödinger was generated using preliminary Clementine data [1]. The map described the geology and geomorphology within the inner basin with smooth and rough plains of shocked material occupying most of the basin floor. The rough plains are identified by presence of hummocks, swales, and low knobs. Smooth plains have no discernable features identifiable. Ghost craters are found along both smooth and rough patches. A volcanic vent in the inner eastern corner of Schrödinger is interpreted as a source for pyroclastic eruptions within the area. Located along the volcanic vent is a north-east trending graben. There are thin patches of impact melt sheets along the basin walls and peak ring. A lobate ridge located near the centre of the inner basin is interpreted as having formed by buckling of the melt sheet. A more recent geologic map using high resolution Clementine UVVIS data and topography data is in agreement with the proposed geology within the Schrödinger basin [2]. Contacts between various units are better outlined in the recent map. Using spectra derived from high resolution Clementine UVVIS images and Lunar Prospector data we determine the composition of impact melt, impact ejecta, and the extent of proposed cryptomare deposits [3]. We also use Fe, Th, and Ti abundance in determining the composition of these units. Our goal is to determine the abundance and distribution of

  12. Seabed acoustic classification in the Pelotas basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Lumi Costa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study sought to develop a seabed map of the region of the Pelotas Basin using acoustic methods. A total number of 1,507,823 seabed reflectivity data, collected during six oceanographic surveys, were processed to generate a seabed map. Data processing consisted of the classification of the acoustic parameter BSBS (Bottom Surface Backscattering Strength obtained with the Scientific Echosounder EK 500 operating at a frequency of 38 kHz. BSBS is expressed in decibels (dB, and corresponds to a logarithm of the ratio between incident acoustic energy and the energy reflected by the seabed. Four BSBS value classes, associated with different sediment types, were established. High BSBS values are associated with coarse sediments, whereas low values indicate fine sediments. A seabed reflectivity map was generated using the Natural Neighbor method to interpolate the BSBS values organized according to the pre-established classes. Four features with high BSBS values were identified at 100-200 m depth. The largest one was found in the region of Santa Marta Cape and attributed mainly to consolidated seabed and/or the presence of biodetritic material, according to comparison with maps available in the literature. Above 500m depth, there was a predominance of acoustically low reflectivity sea floor, which was attributed to the presence of muddy sediment. Considering the lack of information on the seabed at great depths, the acoustic method was shown to be an alternative tool to obtain data on seabed characteristics in these regions.O presente estudo teve como objetivo principal a realização de um mapeamento de fundo, através de metodologia acústica, para a região da Bacia de Pelotas. Um total de 1.507.823 dados de refletividade de fundo provenientes de seis Cruzeiros Oceanográficos foi processado para elaboração de um mapa de refletividade de fundo. Esse processamento consistiu numa classificação dos valores do parâmetro acústico BSBS

  13. AMS-14C measurements for the carbonate platform of the offshore Campos Basin, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of our accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) program in Brazil we prepared and measured some red algae carbonate crust samples from Campos Basin, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The measurements were performed at Purdue Rare Isotope Measurement Laboratory (PRIME Lab), Purdue University, IN, USA. This carbonate material is interlaminated with foraminiferal lime mud reflecting recurrent intervals of carbonate development, which might be linked to outer-shelf oceanographic circulation

  14. Diagnostic of ribeirão Mestre d’Armas sub-basin using two methods of rapid environmental assessment, Federal District, Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Joveli

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid environmental assessments have been used to describe the quality and semi-quantitative attributes of the ecosystems along an environmental gradient using visual observations and few measurements. The aim of this study was to identify and measure anthropogenic impacts on ribeirão Mestre d’Armas sub-basin, Federal District, Central Brazil, and to propose its environmental zoning. This study was performed using two methods based on rapid environmental assessment: a rapid river assessment protocol, to evaluate in an integrated form the features of a lotic system section according to the conservation or degradation condition of the fluvial environment; and the Leopold matrix, to identify and evaluate the anthropogenic impacts. The environmental zoning of this sub-basin detected three areas: preserved, transition and urban areas. The environmental assessment revealed, the preserved area had lotic stretches with natural features under low magnitude of impacts, except on burned areas. In the transition area, there was a predominance of lotic stretches with altered features, due to agriculture and livestock activities of intermediate level of impacts. Finally, the urban area had altered and impacted lotic stretches of higher magnitude due to anthropogenic impacts. Thus, this study revealed large differences among the areas detected by environmental zoning, according to the methods used. These methods were considered complementary in relation to environmental diagnostic of the ribeirão Mestre d’Armas sub-basin.

  15. Visan miospore biostratigraphy and correlation of the Poti Formation (Parnaba Basin, northern Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo; Loboziak

    2000-10-01

    The Poti Formation, which consists mainly of sandstones with minor proportions of carbonaceous shales and other siliciclastic lithologies, represents all the Viséan strata thus far recorded in the Parnaíba Basin, northern Brazil.Well-preserved miospores featuring species with both Southern Euramerican and Gondwanan affinities have been recovered from this formation in four well sections. The most characteristic species are listed in this paper, and brief systematic descriptions are presented for the most significant species, along with comments on their biostratigraphy. A new generic combination is proposed: Cordylosporites magnidictyus (Playford and Helby) Loboziak and Melo comb. nov. Comparisons with miospores illustrated from the Grand Erg Occidental, Algerian Sahara, are tentatively proposed.In terms of the Western European Carboniferous palynozonation, miospore assemblages from the Poti Formation are assignable to the Perotrilites tessellatus-Schulzospora campyloptera (TC)-Raistrickia nigra-Triquitrites marginatus (NM) zonal range. This corresponds to the upper part of the Holkerian and the whole Asbian, which are British regional stages for the lower to middle parts of the upper Viséan. The Viséan age formerly attributed to biostratigraphic interval XII of Petrobras' regional palynostratigraphic scheme is therefore confirmed. As already noted in our recent investigations of the Faro Formation in the Amazon Basin and equivalent strata of the Solimões Basin, latest Tournaisian and early to middle Viséan sections are either absent or barren of characteristic miospores in the Parnaíba Basin as well. PMID:11042330

  16. Taxonomic revision of the fossil pulmonate mollusks of Itaboraí Basin (Paleocene, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Brincalepe Salvador

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The limestones of Itaboraí Basin (Middle Paleocene, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, harbor a rich fossil molluscan fauna consisting exclusively of pulmonate snails, both terrestrial and freshwater. An extensive taxonomic revision of this paleofauna is conducted here. A new genus, Cortana, is described as well as two new species, Eoborus fusiforme and Gastrocopta itaboraiensis. The revised classification is as follows: Austrodiscus lopesi (Charopidae; Biomphalaria itaboraiensis (Planorbidae; "Brachypodella" britoi (Urocoptidae; Brasilennea arethusae, Brasilennea guttula, Brasilennea minor (Cerionidae; Bulimulus fazendicus, Bulimulus trindadeae, Cortana carvalhoi, Cyclodontina coelhoi, Itaborahia lamegoi, Leiostracus ferreirai, Plagiodontes aff. dentatus (Orthalicidae; Cecilioides sommeri (Ferussaciidae; Eoborus rotundus, Eoborus sanctijosephi, Eoborus fusiforme (Strophocheilidae; Gastrocopta mezzalirai, Gastrocopta itaboraiensis (Gastrocoptidae; Temesa magalhaesi (Clausiliidae. The species Strobilopsis mauryae was considered a synonym of Brasilennea arethusae; Bulimulus sommeri a synonym of Itaborahia lamegoi; and Vorticifex fluminensis a synonym of Eoborus sanctijosephi. Itaboraí Basin has the most ancient records of the families Orthalicidae, Gastrocoptidae, Ferussaciidae and Strophocheilidae. Moreover, the basin's records of Charopidae, Clausiliidae, Cerionidae, and Urocoptidae are among the most ancient in the world and, among these, those of Cerionidae, Clausiliidae and Urocoptidae deserve special attention since they are greatly removed from these families' current distribution. Additionally, Itaboraí has the most ancient records for the genera Austrodiscus, Brachypodella, Bulimulus, Cecilioides, Cyclodontina, Eoborus, Gastrocopta, Leiostracus, Plagiodontes and Temesa. There are three endemic genera in the basin: Brasilennea, Cortana and Itaborahia. Further discussion on paleobiogeography and evolution of this paleofauna is also provided.

  17. Temporal evaluation of soil use conflicts in the Formoso river basin, state of Tocantins, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaio Cesar Cardoso de Lima Fonseca Alves

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The importance of permanent preservation areas (PPA is mainly associated to their environmental role to maintain, preserve, and conserve water resources and ecosystems within a basin. The objective of this study was to delimitate and quantify the areas of PPA along watercourses as well as anthropized areas within PPAs boundaries, in the Formoso river basin, state of Tocantins, Brazil. PPAs area was delimited considering boundaries according to the Brazilian Forest Law. We sampled areas within the watercourses classified up to hierarchical Level 4. Watercourses handling draw, automatic delimitation of PPA, and visual classification of the soil use conflicts based on LANDSAT 5 TM of 1985, 1998 and 2011 were carried out on Geographical Information System ArcGIS. PPA of the watercourses sampled in this study represent 1.14% (24,491.35 ha of the drainage area of the Formoso river basin. For 1985, an area of about 3,616.48 ha was quantified, which is characterized by conflicts related to soil use. However, these conflict areas were reduced to 3,341.25 ha and 3,345.37 ha, respectively, for 1998 and 2011. Due to the intense agricultural land expansion observed in the basin in the last decades, the mentioned reductions in soil use conflicts between 1985 and 1998 and subsequent maintenance can be linked to changes on Brazilian environmental legislation.

  18. The impact of civil status on womencs wages in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Regina Madalozzo; Carolina Flores Gomes

    2012-01-01

    Consensual union, also known as cohabitation, has become more frequent in recent decades in Brazil and many other countries. In this context, some studies have analyzed the impact of marriage on women's wages. This article analyzes the effects of marital status on Brazilian women's wages by specifically investigating the individual characteristics of these effects using data from the 2000 Brazilian Census Database. This study concludes that wages differ by up to 15 per cent between married an...

  19. The role of environmental land use conflicts in soil fertility: A study on the Uberaba River basin, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera, C A; Valle Junior, R F; Varandas, S G P; Sanches Fernandes, L F; Pacheco, F A L

    2016-08-15

    In the Uberaba River basin (state of Minas Gerais, Brazil), pastures for livestock production have invaded areas of native vegetation (Cerrado biome), while already existing pastures were invaded by crop agriculture, with an expansion of sugar cane plantations in the most recent years. In some areas of the basin, these land use changes were classified as environmental land use conflicts because the new uses were not conforming to land capability, i.e. the soil's natural use. Where the areas in conflict became dense, some soil properties have changed significantly, namely the organic matter content and the exchangeable potassium concentration, which have decreased drastically (5kg/m(3) per 10% increase in the conflict area) threatening the fertility of soil. Besides, these changes may have triggered a cascade of other environmental damages, specifically the increase of soil erosion and the degradation of water quality with negative impacts on aquatic biodiversity, related to a disruption of soil organic matter structural functions. Because half the Uberaba catchment has been considered is a state of accentuated environmental degradation, not only caused by environmental land use conflicts, conservation measures have been proposed and requested for immediate implementation across the watershed. PMID:27107645

  20. The impact of Amazonian deforestation on Amazon basin rainfall

    OpenAIRE

    Spracklen, DV; Garcia-Carreras, L.

    2015-01-01

    We completed a meta-analysis of regional and global climate model simulations (n=96) of the impact of Amazonian deforestation on Amazon basin rainfall. Across all simulations, mean (±1σ) change in annual mean Amazon basin rainfall was -12±11%. Variability in simulated rainfall was not explained by differences in model resolution or surface parameters. Across all simulations we find a negative linear relationship between rainfall and deforestation extent, although individual studies often simu...

  1. Plantation forestry in Brazil: the potential impacts of climatic change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most climatic changes predicted to occur in Brazil would replace yields of silvicultural plantations, mainly through increased frequency and severity of droughts brought on by global warming and by reduction of water vapor sources in Amazonia caused by deforestation. Some additional negative effects could result from changes in temperature, and positive effects could result from CO2 enrichment. The net effects would be negative, forcing the country to expand plantations onto less-productive land, requiring increased plantation area (and consequent economic losses) out of proportion to the climatic change itself. These impacts would affect carbon sequestration and storage consequences of any plans for subsidizing silviculture as a global warming mitigation option. Climate change can be expected to increase the area of plantations needed to supply projected internal demand for and exports of end products from Brazil. June-July-August (dry season) precipitation reductions indicated by simulations reported by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) correspond to rainfall declines in this critical season of approximately 34% in Amazonia, 39% in Southern Brazil and 61% in the Northeast. As an example, if rainfall in Brazilian plantation areas (most of which are now in Southern Brazil) were to decline by 50%, the area needed in 2050 would expand by an estimated 38% over the constant climate case, bringing the total area to 4.5 times the 1991 area. These large areas of additional plantations imply substantial social and environmental impacts. Further addition of plantation area as a global warming response option would augment these impacts, indicating the need for caution in evaluating carbon sequestration proposals. (author)

  2. Plantation forestry in Brazil: the potential impacts of climatic change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fearnside, P.M. [National Institute for Research in the Amazon, Manaus (Brazil). Dept. of Ecology

    1999-11-01

    Most climatic changes predicted to occur in Brazil would replace yields of silvicultural plantations, mainly through increased frequency and severity of droughts brought on by global warming and by reduction of water vapor sources in Amazonia caused by deforestation. Some additional negative effects could result from changes in temperature, and positive effects could result from CO{sub 2} enrichment. The net effects would be negative, forcing the country to expand plantations onto less-productive land, requiring increased plantation area (and consequent economic losses) out of proportion to the climatic change itself. These impacts would affect carbon sequestration and storage consequences of any plans for subsidizing silviculture as a global warming mitigation option. Climate change can be expected to increase the area of plantations needed to supply projected internal demand for and exports of end products from Brazil. June-July-August (dry season) precipitation reductions indicated by simulations reported by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) correspond to rainfall declines in this critical season of approximately 34% in Amazonia, 39% in Southern Brazil and 61% in the Northeast. As an example, if rainfall in Brazilian plantation areas (most of which are now in Southern Brazil) were to decline by 50%, the area needed in 2050 would expand by an estimated 38% over the constant climate case, bringing the total area to 4.5 times the 1991 area. These large areas of additional plantations imply substantial social and environmental impacts. Further addition of plantation area as a global warming response option would augment these impacts, indicating the need for caution in evaluating carbon sequestration proposals. (author)

  3. Plantation forestry in Brazil: the potential impacts of climatic change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fearnside, P.M. [National Institute for Research in the Amazon, Manaus (Brazil). Dept. of Ecology

    1999-07-01

    Most climatic changes predicted to occur in Brazil would replace yields of silvicultural plantations, mainly through increased frequency and severity of droughts brought on by global warming and by reduction of water vapor sources in Amazonia caused by deforestation. Some additional negative effects could result from changes in temperature, and positive effects could result from CO{sub 2} enrichment. The net effects would be negative, forcing the country to expand plantations onto less-productive land, requiring increased plantation area (and consequent economic losses) out of proportion to the climatic change itself. These impacts would affect carbon sequestration and storage consequences of any plans for subsidizing silviculture as a global warming mitigation option. Climate change can be expected to increase the area of plantations needed to supply projected internal demand for and exports of end products from Brazil. June-July-August (dry season) precipitation reductions indicated by simulations reported by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) correspond to rainfall declines in this critical season of approximately 34% in Amazonia, 39% in Southern Brazil and 61% in the Northeast. As an example, if rainfall in Brazilian plantation areas (most of which are now in Southern Brazil) were to decline by 50%, the area needed in 2050 would expand by an estimated 38% over the constant climate case, bringing the total area to 4.5 times the 1991 area. These large areas of additional plantations imply substantial social and environmental impacts. Further addition of plantation area as a global warming response option would augment these impacts, indicating the need for caution in evaluating carbon sequestration proposals. (author)

  4. Managing the Health Impacts of Drought in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Aderita Sena; Christovam Barcellos; Carlos Freitas; Carlos Corvalan

    2014-01-01

    Drought is often a hidden risk with the potential to become a silent public health disaster. It is difficult to define precisely when it starts or when it is over, and although it is a climatological event, its impacts depend on other human activities, and are intensified by social vulnerability. In Brazil, half of all natural disaster events are drought related, and they cause half of the impacts in number of affected persons. One large affected area is the semiarid region of Brazil’s Northe...

  5. The flora of Early Permian coal measures from the Parana Basin in Brazil: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iannuzzi, Roberto [Centro de Investigacoes do Gondwana, Instituto de Geociencias, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500, Porto Alegre, RS, 91.509-900 (Brazil)

    2010-08-01

    This paper presents an updated overview integrating both previous and newly published data on the most important floras found associated with Early Permian coal seams in the Parana Basin, Brazil. These floras occur within the Rio Bonito Formation and correspond to the Gondwana ''Glossopteris Flora.'' For this review, five floras are selected, in ascending stratigraphic order: the ''Sao Joao do Triunfo,'' ''Figueira,'' ''Quiteria,'' ''Morro do Papaleo'' and ''Irapua Bed'' floras. They are the best-known floras of the basin in terms of taxonomic composition, paleoecology and environments of deposition. An early-mid Sakmarian to earliest Artinskian age is indicated for the Rio Bonito Formation based on absolute radiometric and relative biostratigraphic ages. Integration of available information about the selected floras allows evaluation of taphonomic and paleoecological factors to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the Early Permian floral record in the Parana Basin. The variation observed in both the taxonomic composition of individual floras and in the frequency of occurrence of different plant groups is due to the broad range of environmental/edaphic conditions that prevailed in the many different depositional settings represented in the Rio Bonito Formation. A more precise age determination obtained for the plant-bearing deposits permits the establishment of a more confident correlation between the Early Permian floral succession in the Parana Basin and other Early Permian floral successions in other basins. The Sakmarian global warming favored the appearance of pecopterid and sphenopterid ferns amongst the spore-producing plants, and the glossopterids amongst the pollen-producing plants. (author)

  6. Indus Basin Floods: Mechanisms, Impacts, and Management

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank (ADB)

    2013-01-01

    More than 138 million people in the Indus River Basin in Pakistan depend on irrigated agriculture. But rising population pressures, climate change, and the continuous degradation of ecosystem services have resulted in increased flood risks, worsened by inadequate flood planning and management. The devastating 2010 flood alone caused damage of about $10 billion. This report proposes a contemporary holistic approach, applying scientific assessments that take people, land, and water into account...

  7. Stratigraphy of the Caloris Basin, Mercury: Implications for Volcanic History and Basin Impact Melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Carolyn M.; Denevi, Brett W.; Barnouin, Olivier S.; Klimczak, Christian; Chabot, Nancy L.; Head, James W.; Murchie, Scott L.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Prockter, Louis M.; Robinson, Mark S.; Solomon, Sean C.; Watters, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    Caloris basin, Mercury's youngest large impact basin, is filled by volcanic plains that are spectrally distinct from surrounding material. Post-plains impact craters of a variety of sizes populate the basin interior, and the spectra of the material they have excavated enable the thickness of the volcanic fill to be estimated and reveal the nature of the subsurface. The thickness of the interior volcanic plains is consistently at least 2.5 km, reaching 3.5 km in places, with thinner fill toward the edge of the basin. No systematic variations in fill thickness are observed with long-wavelength topography or azimuth. The lack of correlation between plains thickness and variations in elevation at large horizontal scales within the basin indicates that plains emplacement must have predated most, if not all, of the changes in long-wavelength topography that affected the basin. There are no embayed or unambiguously buried (ghost) craters with diameters greater than 10 km in the Caloris interior plains. The absence of such ghost craters indicates that one or more of the following scenarios must hold: the plains are sufficiently thick to have buried all evidence of craters that formed between the Caloris impact event and the emplacement of the plains; the plains were emplaced soon after basin formation; or the complex tectonic deformation of the basin interior has disguised wrinkle-ridge rings localized by buried craters. That low-reflectance material (LRM) was exposed by every impact that penetrated through the surface volcanic plains provides a means to explore near-surface stratigraphy. If all occurrences of LRM are derived from a single layer, the subsurface LRM deposit is at least 7.5-8.5 km thick and its top likely once made up the Caloris basin floor. The Caloris-forming impact would have generated a layer of impact melt 3-15 km thick; such a layer could account for the entire thickness of LRM. This material would have been derived from a combination of lower crust

  8. Identifying and Characterizing Impact Melt Outcrops in the Nectaris Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, B. A.; Lawerence, S. J.; Petro, N. E.; Bart, G. D.; Clegg-Watkins, R. N.; Denevi, B. W.; Ghent, R. R.; Klima, R. L.; Morgan, G. A.; Spudis, P. D.; Stopar, J. D.

    2016-01-01

    The Nectaris Basin is an 820-km diameter, multi-ring impact basin located on the near side of the Moon. Nectaris is a defining stratigraphic horizon based on relationships between ejecta units, giving its name to the Nectarian epoch of lunar history. Lunar basin chronology based on higher resolution LRO imagery and topography, while assigning some important basins like Serenitatis to pre-Nectarian time, were generally consistent with those previously derived. Based on this stratigraphy, at least 11 large basins formed in the time between Nectaris and Imbrium. The absolute age of Nectaris, therefore, is a crucial marker in the lunar time-stratigraphic sequence for understanding the impact flux on the Moon, and by extension, the entire inner solar system. For several decades, workers have attempted to constrain the age of the Nectaris basin through radiometric dating of lunar samples. However, there is little agreement on which samples in our collection represent Nectaris, if any, and what the correct radiometric age of such samples is. The importance of the age of Nectaris goes far beyond assigning a stratigraphic marker to lunar chronology. Several dynamical models use Nectaris as their pin date, so that this date becomes crucial in understanding the time-correlated effects in the rest of the solar system. The importance of the Nectaris basin age, coupled with its nearside, mid-latitude location, make remnants of the impact-melt sheet an attractive target for a future mission, either for in-situ dating or for sample return. We have started exploring this possibility. We have begun a consortium data-analysis effort bringing multiple datasets and analysis methods to bear on these putative impact-melt deposits to characterize their extent, elemental composition and mineralogy, maturity and geologic setting, and to identify potential landing sites that meet both operational safety and science requirements.

  9. Evaluation of drought regimes and impacts in the Limpopo basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemaw, B. F.; Kileshye-Onema, J.-M.

    2014-01-01

    Drought is a common phenomenon in the Limpopo River basin. In essence, droughts are long-term hydro-meteorological events affecting vast regions and causing significant non-structural damages. In the interest of riparian states' joint integrated water resources development and management of the Limpopo basin, inter regional drought severity and its impacts should be understood. The study focussed on case studies in the basin which is subdivided into four homogeneous regions owing to topographic and climate variations based on the previous work of the same authors. Using the medium range time series of the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) as an indicator of drought, for each homogeneous region monthly and annual Severity-Area-Frequency (SAF) curves and maps of probability of drought occurrence were constructed. The results indicated localized severe droughts in higher frequencies, while only moderate to severe low frequency droughts may spread over wider areas in the basin. The region-level Drought-Severity Indices can be used as indicators for planning localized interventions and drought mitigation efforts in the basin. The approach can also be used to develop improved drought indicators, to assess the relationship between drought hazard and vulnerability and to enhance the performance of methods currently used for drought forecasting. Results on the meteorological drought linkage with hydrological and vegetation or agricultural drought indices are presented as means of validation of the specific drought regimes and their localized impact in each homogeneous region. In general, this preliminary investigation reveals that the western part of the basin will face a higher risk of drought when compared to other regions of the Limpopo basin in terms of the medium-term drought. The Limpopo basin is water stressed and livelihood challenges remain at large, thus impacts of droughts and related resilience options should be taken into account in the formulation of

  10. Dams in the Amazon: Belo Monte and Brazil's hydroelectric development of the Xingu River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnside, Phillip M

    2006-07-01

    Hydroelectric dams represent major investments and major sources of environmental and social impacts. Powerful forces surround the decision-making process on public investments in the various options for the generation and conservation of electricity. Brazil's proposed Belo Monte Dam (formerly Kararaô) and its upstream counterpart, the Altamira Dam (better known by its former name of Babaquara) are at the center of controversies on the decision-making process for major infrastructure projects in Amazonia. The Belo Monte Dam by itself would have a small reservoir area (440 km2) and large installed capacity (11, 181.3 MW), but the Altamira/Babaquara Dam that would regulate the flow of the Xingu River (thereby increasing power generation at Belo Monte) would flood a vast area (6140 km2). The great impact of dams provides a powerful reason for Brazil to reassess its current policies that allocate large amounts of energy in the country's national grid to subsidized aluminum smelting for export. The case of Belo Monte and the five additional dams planned upstream (including the Altamira/Babaquara Dam) indicate the need for Brazil to reform its environmental assessment and licensing system to include the impacts of multiple interdependent projects. PMID:16738820

  11. Chemostratigraphy of the Sudbury impact basin fill: Volatile metal loss and post-impact evolution of a submarine impact basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Edel M.; Goodhue, Robbie; Ames, Doreen E.; Kamber, Balz S.

    2016-06-01

    The 1.85 Ga Sudbury structure provides a unique opportunity to study the sequence of events that occurred within a hydrothermally active subaqueous impact crater during the late stages of an impact and in its aftermath. Here we provide the first comprehensive chemostratigraphic study for the lower crater fill, represented by the ca. 1.4 km thick Onaping Formation. Carefully hand-picked ash-sized matrix of 81 samples was analysed for major elements, full trace elements and C isotopes. In most general terms, the composition of the clast-free matrix resembles that of the underlying melt sheet. However, many elements show interesting chemostratigraphies. The high field strength element evolution clearly indicates that the crater rim remained intact during the deposition of the entire Onaping Formation, collapsing only at the transition to the overlying Onwatin Formation. An interesting feature is that several volatile metals (e.g., Pb, Sb) are depleted by >90% in the lower Onaping Formation, suggesting that the impact resulted in a net loss of at least some volatile species, supporting the idea of "impact erosion," whereby volatile elements were vaporised and lost to space during impact. Reduced C contents in the lower Onaping Formation are low (plate tectonics. Regardless of hydrothermal input, enclosed submarine impact basins also provided diverse isolated environments (potential future oases) for the establishment of life.

  12. Could giant basin-forming impacts have killed Martian dynamo?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, W.; Jiang, W.; Roberts, J.; Frey, H. V.

    2014-11-01

    The observed strong remanent crustal magnetization at the surface of Mars suggests an active dynamo in the past and ceased to exist around early to middle Noachian era, estimated by examining remagnetization strengths in extant and buried impact basins. We investigate whether the Martian dynamo could have been killed by these large basin-forming impacts, via numerical simulation of subcritical dynamos with impact-induced thermal heterogeneity across the core-mantle boundary. We find that subcritical dynamos are prone to the impacts centered on locations within 30° of the equator but can easily survive those at higher latitudes. Our results further suggest that magnetic timing places a strong constraint on postimpact polar reorientation, e.g., a minimum 16° polar reorientation is needed if Utopia is the dynamo killer.

  13. Could Giant Basin-Forming Impacts Have Killed Martian Dynamo?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, W.; Jiang, W.; Roberts, J.; Frey, H. V.

    2014-01-01

    The observed strong remanent crustal magnetization at the surface of Mars suggests an active dynamo in the past and ceased to exist around early to middle Noachian era, estimated by examining remagnetization strengths in extant and buried impact basins. We investigate whether the Martian dynamo could have been killed by these large basin-forming impacts, via numerical simulation of subcritical dynamos with impact-induced thermal heterogeneity across the core-mantle boundary. We find that subcritical dynamos are prone to the impacts centered on locations within 30 deg of the equator but can easily survive those at higher latitudes. Our results further suggest that magnetic timing places a strong constraint on postimpact polar reorientation, e.g., a minimum 16 deg polar reorientation is needed if Utopia is the dynamo killer.

  14. The impact of civil status on womencs wages in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Madalozzo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Consensual union, also known as cohabitation, has become more frequent in recent decades in Brazil and many other countries. In this context, some studies have analyzed the impact of marriage on women's wages. This article analyzes the effects of marital status on Brazilian women's wages by specifically investigating the individual characteristics of these effects using data from the 2000 Brazilian Census Database. This study concludes that wages differ by up to 15 per cent between married and single women and up to 3 per cent between married and cohabiting women.

  15. OSL dating results of post-Barreiras sediments in the Paraiba basin, Northeastern Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tudela, Diego R.G.; Munita, Casimiro S., E-mail: drtudela@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Mittani, Juan C.R.; Tatumi, Sonia H., E-mail: tatumi@fatecsp.br [Faculdade de Tecnologia de Sao Paulo (FATEC-SP/CEETEPS), Laboratorio de Datacao e Luminescencia de Cristais, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Rossetti, Dilce F., E-mail: rossetti@dsr.inpe.br [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Centro de Observacao da Terra, Divisao de Sensoriamento Remoto - DSR

    2011-07-01

    In the present study we show ages of 39 sediments samples of two sedimentary units (PB1 and PB2) collected from Paraiba Basin, northeastern Brazil, obtained by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) making use of standardized growth curve (SGC) and applying single aliquot regenerative dose (SAR) protocol in 15 randomly selected samples to validate the equivalent Dose (D{sub e}). Environmental radiation dosimetry of the area was performed to evaluate the natural concentrations of {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K and in this way annual dose rates of the locations were evaluated. The results showed natural radioisotopes concentrations between 0.542-4.879 ppm for U, 1.314-26.098 ppm for Th and 0.141-1.12% for K and annual dose rates between 439-4172{mu}Gy/yr. The ages ranged from 1.8-178.3 kyr were obtained, and they are in agreements with the geological considerations. (author)

  16. Geochemical evaluation of marginal basins in the south of Bahia state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geochemical analyses were performed on more than 700 rock samples and 4 oil samples, from Mucuri, Cumuruxatiba and Jequitinhonha basins, offshore Bahia state, Brazil. The methods employed in this study includes the evaluation of organic carbon contents, Rock-Eval pyrolysis, vitrinite reflectance, carbon isotopes, assessment of oils and extrats by liquid and gas chromatography and gas chromatography - spectrometry. Three main source rock systems have been identified in offshore Bahia: the Mucuri shales from Rio da Serra and Aratu Stages lower Neocomian related to a lacustrine fresh water environment; the Jiquia shales (Upper Neocomian) deposited in a lacustrine saline water environment, and the Alagoas Shales related to an evaporitic environment of Aptian age. (author)

  17. The Maturely, Immature Orientale Impact Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, J. T.; Lawrence, D. J.; Stickle, A. M.; Delen, O.; Patterson, G.; Greenhagen, B. T.

    2015-12-01

    Lunar surface maturity is consistently examined using the NIR optical maturity parameter (OMAT) [1]. However, the NIR only provides a perspective of the upper microns of the lunar surface. Recent studies of Lunar Prospector (LP) and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter data sets are now demonstrating additional measures of maturity with sensitivities to greater depths (~2 m) in the regolith. These include thermal infrared, S-band radar, and epithermal neutron data sets [2-4]. Interestingly, each of these parameters is directly comparable to OMAT despite each measuring slightly different aspects of the regolith. This is demonstrated by Lawrence et al. [3] where LP-measured non-polar highlands epithermal neutrons trend well with albedo, OMAT, and the Christensen Feature (CF). Lawrence et al. [3] used these data to derive and map highlands hydrogen (H) which is dominantly a function of H-implantation. With this in mind, areas of enriched-H are mature, while areas of depleted H are immature. Surface roughness as measured by S-band radar [4], also provides a measure of maturity. In this case, the circular polarization ratio (CPR) is high when rough and immature, and low when smooth and mature. Knowing this, one can recognize areas in the non-polar lunar highlands that show contradictory measures of maturity. For example, while many lunar localities show consistently immature albedo, OMAT, CF, CPR, and H concentrations (e.g., Tycho), others do not. Orientale basin is the most prominent example, shown to have immature CPR, CF, and H concentrations despite a relatively mature albedo and OMAT values as well as an old age determination (~3.8 Ga). To better understand how the lunar regolith is weathering in the upper 1-2 m of regolith with time we examine the Orientale basin relative to other highlands regions. [1] Lucey et al. (2000) JGR, 105, 20377; [2] Lucey et al. (2013) LPSC, 44, 2890; [3] Lawrence et al. (2015) Icarus, j.icarus.2015.01.005; [4] Neish et al. (2013) JGR, 118

  18. Managing the health impacts of drought in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sena, Aderita; Barcellos, Christovam; Freitas, Carlos; Corvalan, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Drought is often a hidden risk with the potential to become a silent public health disaster. It is difficult to define precisely when it starts or when it is over, and although it is a climatological event, its impacts depend on other human activities, and are intensified by social vulnerability. In Brazil, half of all natural disaster events are drought related, and they cause half of the impacts in number of affected persons. One large affected area is the semiarid region of Brazil's Northeast, which has historically been affected by drought. Many health and well-being indicators in this region are worse than the rest of the country, based on an analysis of 5565 municipalities using available census data for 1991, 2000 and 2010, which allowed separating the 1133 municipalities affected by drought in order to compare them with the rest of the country. Although great progress has been made in reducing social and economic vulnerability, climate change and the expected changes in the semiarid region in the next few decades call for a review of current programs, particularly in public health, and the planning of new interventions with local communities. This study reviews the literature, analyzes available data and identifies possible actions and actors. The aim is to ensure there will be sufficient and sustainable local adaptive capacity and resilience, for a population already living within the limits of environmental vulnerability. PMID:25325358

  19. The microbial nature of laminated limestones: Lessons from the Upper Aptian, Araripe Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catto, Bruno; Jahnert, Ricardo Jorge; Warren, Lucas Verissimo; Varejao, Filipe Giovanini; Assine, Mario Luis

    2016-07-01

    The Araripe Basin, located in northeastern Brazil, originated during the Gondwana continental break-up responsible for the opening of the South Atlantic during the Early Cretaceous. In the Araripe Basin, the post-rift Aptian sequence corresponds to the Santana Group, which is composed, in upward succession, of mostly clastic continental and rare carbonate layers of the Barbalha, Crato, Ipubi and Romualdo Formations. The laminated limestones of the Crato Formation were deposited in a lacustrine environment preceding the deposition of the Ipubi Formation evaporites. They are age-equivalent to the limestones of the pre-salt interval of the east coast of Brazil, which contains large petroleum reserves. The excellent preservation of its macrofossils has made the Crato Formation known worldwide as a Fossil Lagerstätte. The limestones are macroscopically homogeneous, and their deposition has been previously attributed to chemical precipitation. Although the carbonate laminites are macroscopically undifferentiated, mineralogical variations, microscopic texture and distinctive biotic aspects supported the characterization of four microfacies: planar laminated, crustiform, nodular and rhythmic. The microfacies analysis indicated a strong and pervasive biological activity in the Crato limestone morphogenesis. Organominerals precipitated by the metabolic action of cyanobacteria and/or sulfate-reducing bacteria and methanogenic-oxidizing archea are represented by calcite and pyrite. Calcified coccoid and filaments are common, furthermore, the presence of calcified biofilms composed of exopolymeric substances (EPS) is ubiquitous. The presence of amorphous organic matter (AOM) and gypsum, particularly in the rhythmic microfacies, indicates anoxic/dysoxic conditions and stressful environments during periods of drought and low lake levels which favored the development and preservation of microbial biofilms. Phytoclasts and miospores when present in the succession indicate an

  20. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis- INAA: environmental studies in Das Velhas Basin, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis - INAA was applied to determine concentrations of several elements in unpolluted areas and in the mining and farming region of the Das Velhas Basin, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. INAA was applied using the TRIGA Mark I IPR - R1 reactor at the Nuclear Technology Development Center of the National Committee of Nuclear Energy (CDTN/CNEN), in Belo Horizonte city, Minas Gerais State. At 100 kW of potency the flux of neutrons is 6.6 1011 n.cm-2.s-1. The samples analyzed were: water; sediment; gravel of gold mine and forage. The obtained results for the Das Velhas Basin in water and sediment samples - mining companies region - show a high level (μg/g) of contamination with the analyzed elements, mainly in the sediment samples. During the period of floods, in farming region hundreds of kilometers away, contamination is found in fish and forage, reaching and harming both people and animals that live in the marginal region. (Author)

  1. Uranium mining impacts on water resources in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium mining and milling activities started operations in Brazil during the 80's. The first production Center was deployed in Pocos de Caldas (CIPC) State of Minas Gerais. The mine was exhausted in 1997, after has produced only 1200 t of U3O8. The second uranium plant began the operations in Caetite (URA), Bahia State, since 1999 and keeps operations until now with an annual U3O8 production of up to 400 t. The company plans to double this mark in Caetite production center with the exploration of another uranium deposits and initiate underground operations of current open-pit mine. Simultaneously, they are seeking a license for a third plant in the State of Ceara that could produce the double of foreseen capacity in URA. This scenery drives to some issues related to the impact of uranium production on water resources of the respective watersheds. The CIPC plant is a closing mine site, which requires permanent treatment of the company due to the fact their sources of pollutants are subject to the occurrence of Acid Mine Drainage. The URA plant is located in a semi-arid region of Brazil. The extraction of uranium from the ore is achieved by means of a Heap-Leach process, which has low water demand supplied by a network of wells and from a dam, but can contribute to change the groundwater quality and in some cases the extinguishing of wells was observed. An overall assessment of these impacts in national level could produce some lessons that we must take advantage for the ongoing project of Santa Quiteria or even in future sites. (author)

  2. THE DOHA DEVELOPMENT AGENDA AND BRAZIL: A CLOSER LOOK INTO THE DISTRIBUTIONAL IMPACTS INSIDE AGRICULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira Filho, Joaquim Bento de Souza; Horridge, Mark

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we extend previous results about how trade integration can affect poverty and income distribution in Brazil. To assess the impacts of a Doha Development Agenda (DDA) scenario on poverty and income distribution in Brazil, a 2 computable general equilibrium model (CGE) of Brazil was used, linked to a microsimulation (MS) model. This method was proposed by Ferreira Filho and Horridge, and guarantees consistency between both models. The model comprises 112,055 Brazilian households a...

  3. The impact of Amazonian deforestation on Amazon basin rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spracklen, D. V.; Garcia-Carreras, L.

    2015-11-01

    We completed a meta-analysis of regional and global climate model simulations (n = 96) of the impact of Amazonian deforestation on Amazon basin rainfall. Across all simulations, mean (±1σ) change in annual mean Amazon basin rainfall was -12 ± 11%. Variability in simulated rainfall was not explained by differences in model resolution or surface parameters. Across all simulations we find a negative linear relationship between rainfall and deforestation extent, although individual studies often simulate a nonlinear response. Using the linear relationship, we estimate that deforestation in 2010 has reduced annual mean rainfall across the Amazon basin by 1.8 ± 0.3%, less than the interannual variability in observed rainfall. This may explain why a reduction in Amazon rainfall has not consistently been observed. We estimate that business-as-usual deforestation (based on deforestation rates prior to 2004) would lead to an 8.1 ± 1.4% reduction in annual mean Amazon basin rainfall by 2050, greater than natural variability.

  4. The use of Po-210 a geochronometer at Corumbatai river basin, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The geochronology of 210Pb allows to measure the rate of accumulation of sediments in the environment (Koide et al., 1973), the recent pollution history for heavy metals, i.e. the rate of affluence of pollutants, as well the rates of regional erosion and growth of saline swamps (Evans and Rigler, 1980; McCafferty and Thomson, 1980; Battarbee et al., 1985; Christensen and Goetz, 1987). The 210Pb atoms are removed from atmosphere by precipitation, entering directly into lakes and reservoirs through the rain or indirectly by the superficial drainage in the basin hydrographic, mechanisms that finalize after deposition in the bottom of lakes and oceans when are incorporated into the column of sediments, being subjected to chemical changes. However, besides possessing 210Pb originated from the atmosphere, the sediments also contain 210Pb generated by the decay of 226Ra. The 210Pb originated in the atmosphere and present in the sediments has been referred to as 'non-supported' 210Pb and the 210Pb resultant of 226Ra decay present in the sediment has been referred to as 'supported' 210Pb. In order to determine the sedimentation rate and to establish a chronological evaluation at the Corumbata river basin, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, on using the unstable lead (210Pb) present in bottom sediments, in this work was quantified the 210Po, 'grandson' of 210Pb. Such nuclide presents a half-life of 138.4 days and declines for the stable 206Pb, emitting an alpha particle of 5.3 MeV of energy (Eakins and Morrison, 1978) (au)

  5. Austrolebias varzeae, a new annual fish from the upper rio Uruguay basin, southern Brazil (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson J. E. M. Costa

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Austrolebias varzeae n. sp. is described from rio da Várzea floodplains, upper rio Uruguay basin, southern Brazil. It seems to be closely related to A. carvalhoi (Myers, with which it shares a similar color pattern of male and an apomorphic morphology of the autopalatine. The new species differs from A. carvalhoi by having more anal-fin rays in males and more caudal-fin rays. Austrolebias varzeae is distinguished from all other species of the genus by a unique color pattern, in which there are three distinctively darker and narrower bars on the anterior portion of male flank. Putative close relationships between A. varzeae and A. carvalhoi suggest a closely related biogeographic history between upper Uruguay and upper Iguaçu River basins, corroborated by a biogeographic pattern of the anablepid genus Jenynsia.Austrolebias varzeae sp. n. é descrita da várzea do rio da Várzea, bacia do rio Uruguai superior, sul do Brasil. Ela parece estar estreitamente aparentada a A. carvalhoi, com a qual compartilha um padrão de colorido similar e uma morfologia apomórfica do autopalatino. A nova espécie difere de A. carvalhoi por possuir mais raios na nadadeira anal de machos e mais raios na nadadeira caudal. Austrolebias varzeae se distingue de todas as espécies do gênero por um padrão de colorido exclusivo, no qual há três barras distintivamente mais estreitas e mais escuras na porção anterior do flanco do macho. As supostas estreitas relações de parentesco entre A. varzeae e A. carvalhoi sugerem uma história biogeográfica intimamente relacionada entre as bacias do rio Uruguai e do rio Iguaçu superiores, corroborada por um padrão biogeográfico do gênero anablepídeo Jenynsia.

  6. THE IMPACT OF THE GLOBAL NUCLEAR SAFETY REGIME IN BRAZIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A turning point of the world nuclear industry with respect to safety occurred due to the accident at Chernobyl, in 1986. A side from the tragic personal losses and the enormous financial damage, the Chernobyl accident has literally demonstrated that ''a nuclear accident anywhere is an accident everywhere''. The impact was felt immediately by the nuclear industry, with plant cancellations (e.g. Austria), elimination of national programs (e.g. Italy) and general construction delays. However, the reaction of the nuclear industry was equally immediate, which led to the proposal and establishment of a Global Nuclear Safety Regime. This regime is composed of biding international safety conventions, globally accepted safety standard, and a voluntary peer review system. In a previous work, the author has presented in detail the components of this Regime, and briefly discussed its impact in the Brazilian nuclear power organizations, including the Regulatory Body. This work, on the opposite, briefly reviews the Global Nuclear Safety Regime, and concentrates in detail in the discussion of its impact in Brazil, showing how it has produced some changes, and where the peer pressure regime has failed to produce real results

  7. Palynostratigraphy and sedimentary facies of Middle Miocene fluvial deposits of the Amazonas Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dino, Rodolfo; Soares, Emílio Alberto Amaral; Antonioli, Luzia; Riccomini, Claudio; Nogueira, Afonso César Rodrigues

    2012-03-01

    Palynostratigraphic and sedimentary facies analyses were made on sedimentary deposits from the left bank of the Solimões River, southwest of Manaus, State of Amazonas, Brazil. These provided the age-dating and subdivision of a post-Cretaceous stratigraphic succession in the Amazonas Basin. The Novo Remanso Formation is subdivided into upper and lower units, and delineated by discontinuous surfaces at its top and bottom. The formation consists primarily of sandstones and minor mudstones and conglomerates, reflecting fluvial channel, point bar and floodplain facies of a fluvial meandering paleosystem. Fairly well-preserved palynoflora was recovered from four palynologically productive samples collected in a local irregular concentration of gray clay deposits, rich in organic material and fossilized wood, at the top of the Novo Remanso Formation upper unit. The palynoflora is dominated by terrestrial spores and pollen grains, and is characterized by abundant angiosperm pollen grains ( Tricolpites, Grimsdalea, Perisyncolporites, Tricolporites and Malvacearumpollis). Trilete spores are almost as abundant as the angiosperm pollen, and are represented mainly by the genera Deltoidospora, Verrutriletes, and Hamulatisporis. Gymnosperm pollen is scarce. The presence of the index species Grimsdalea magnaclavata Germeraad et al. (1968) indicates that these deposits belong to the Middle Miocene homonymous palynozone (Lorente, 1986; Hoorn, 1993; Jaramillo et al., 2011). Sedimentological characteristics (poorly sorted, angular to sub-angular, fine to very-coarse quartz sands facies) are typical of the Novo Remanso Formation upper part. These are associated with a paleoflow to the NE-E and SE-E, and with an entirely lowland-derived palinofloristic content with no Andean ferns and gymnosperms representatives. All together, this suggests a cratonic origin for this Middle Miocene fluvial paleosystem, which was probably born in the Purus Arch eastern flank and areas surrounding the

  8. Clay mineral facies and lateritization in basalts of the southeastern Parana Basin, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seventeen samples from two lateritic profiles, each with five facies, were studied. These profiles occur on the old planation surface of the plateau basalts of the southern part of ParanáBasin, Brazil. Optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, electron microprobe, Mössbauer spectroscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectra were used to obtain information about the nature and chemical composition of each weathering facies. In addition, scanning electron microscopy and analyses of clay minerals were performed to detect microcrystalline environmental changes. Both profiles have two major parts: a loose red-clay latosol separated from an underlying mottled clay and an alterite facies; a stone line may or may not be present between the latosol and the underlying units. In both profiles the latosol consists principally of kaolinite, hematite and goethite. Two alterite facies, shaped by differential weathering, are also present in the lower profile: a halloysite–nontronite clayey matrix with a well developed fissure system occurs in the argillaceous alterite and a network of Al–goethite aggregates is typical of the highly porous cortex of the boulder alterite that is found in the stone line and below it. Gibbsite has crystallized in the large pores of porphyritic boulder alterite but is absent in the small pores of the subaphyric boulder alterite. Clay minerals observed in fissures include halloysite associated with goethite and manganese oxides. The basalt has hydrothermal green-clays (mixed layers and trioctahedral smectites) that formed between primary plagioclase, pyroxene and Ti–magnetite crystals while fresh corestones of the boulder alterite have cryptocrystalline iron-rich material. The study of these profiles shows one principal evolutionary trend for clay minerals. This trend is from smectite and mixed layers that form green clays in altered bedrock at the base of the profile to an intermediate association of nontronite and halloysite in the argillaceous

  9. Depositional, diagenetic and stratigraphic aspects of microfacies from Riachuelo Formation, Albian, Sergipe Basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Vinícius Gabrig Turbay

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The rocks of the Riachuelo Formation, Sergipe Basin, Brazil, represent an example of carbonate sedimentation related to the drift phase during the opening of the South Atlantic Ocean. The Carapeba and Brejo quarries exhibit the best onshore outcrops of the drift carbonate section along the Brazilian continental edge. Field studies and microfacies analysis of the outcropped sedimentary section showed six sedimentary deposits related to the physiography of a carbonate shelf. Proximal mixed deposits are represented by the rich-terrigenous dolostone. Levels with alternate layers of fine grained sandstones and siltstones are here related to distal facies of submarine fans deposits. Mudstones with miliolids and textularids represent a lagoonal environment in a semi-restricted middle shelf. Packstones, grainstones and occasionally wackestones with oncoids, intraclasts and peloids represent sedimentary deposits related to the back of shallow sandy bars and environments at the interface with the lagoon. Grainstones whit ooliths, oncoids, intraclasts and bioclasts, with trough cross-bedding, represent a shallower shoreface environment over the shallow carbonate back on outer shelf. Cements and other post- depositional features suggest four different diagenetic environments: a marine phreatic diagenetic environment with active water circulation; b marine phreatic diagenetic environment with stagnant water; c freshwater phreatic diagenetic environment; d burial diagenetic environment. The sedimentary succession is formed by shallowing upward cycles overlain by a possible transgressive surface, which may indicate the passage of a lowstand to a transgressive system tract.

  10. Impact and Implications of Recent and Potential Changes to Brazil's Subnational Fiscal Framework

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    Brazil's subnational fiscal framework has remained a source of unabated controversy despite its relative stability over the past decade. The objective of this study is to evaluate the nature and impact of recent and expected changes to Brazil's subnational fiscal framework in light of these debates. More specifically, this work has focused on recent and proposed changes to: 1) the Tax on G...

  11. Climate Change Impacts in a Colombian Andean Tropical Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo, O. L.; Vélez, J. J.; Londoño, A.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change and climate variability have a large impact on water resources. Developing regions have less capacity to prepare for, respond to, and recover from climate-related hazards and effects, and then, populations may be disproportionately affected. In Colombia, the geographical location and the marked irregularity in the terrain, give as a result, a complex climate. These factors have contributed to the water supply of the territory. Unfortunately, the visualization of abundant and inexhaustible water resources created a great disregard for them. Besides, the water supply is not distributed uniformly across the country, and then there is water-deficit in some areas as Andean Region, where the largest population and the main development centers are located. In recent decades, water conflicts have emerged locally and regionally, which have generated a crisis in the allocation mechanisms and have improved the understanding of the water situation in Colombia. The Second National Communication to CCMNU alerts on possible future consequences of climate change and the need for regional studies for understanding climate change impacts on the fragile ecosystems of high mountains as paramos and fog forest, which are water production regulators. Colombian water resources are greatly affected by changes in rainfall patterns influenced by El Niño and La Niña. The recent disasters in the 2010-2011 rainy seasons have caught the attention of not only the authorities but from the scientific community to explore strategies to improve water management by tracking, anticipating and responding to climate variability and climate change. Whereas sound water management is built upon long-term, the country is undertaking a pilot exercise for the integrated management of water resources, five Basins are selected, among them, is the Chinchiná River Basin; this Andean tropical Basin is located on the western slopes at the central range in the Andes between 4°48 and 5°12 N

  12. Contribution to the stratigraphy of the onshore Paraíba Basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilce F. Rossetti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Several publications have contributed to improve the stratigraphy of the Paraíba Basin in northeastern Brazil. However, the characterization and distribution of sedimentary units in onshore areas of this basin are still incomplete, despite their significance for reconstructing the tectono-sedimentary evolution of the South American passive margin. This work provides new information to differentiate among lithologically similar strata, otherwise entirely unrelated in time. This approach included morphological, sedimentological and stratigraphic descriptions based on surface and sub-surface data integrated with remote sensing, optically stimulated luminescence dating, U+Th/He dating of weathered goethite, and heavy mineral analysis. Based on this study, it was possible to show that Cretaceous units are constrained to the eastern part of the onshore Paraíba Basin. Except for a few outcrops of carbonatic rocks nearby the modern coastline, deposits of this age are not exposed to the surface in the study area. Instead, the sedimentary cover throughout the basin is constituted by mineralogically and chronologically distinctive deposits, inserted in the Barreiras Formation and mostly in the Post-Barreiras Sediments, of early/middle Miocene and Late Pleistocene-Holocene ages, respectively. The data presented in this work support tectonic deformation as a factor of great relevance to the distribution of the sedimentary units of the Paraíba Basin.Várias publicações têm contribuído para melhorar a estratigrafia da Bacia Paraíba no nordeste do Brasil. Entretanto, a caracterização e distribuição das unidades sedimentares em áreas continentais desta bacia são ainda incompletas, apesar de sua importância para reconstruir a evolução tectono-sedimentar da margem passiva sulamericana. Este trabalho fornece novas informações para diferenciar entre estratos litologicamente similares que, por outro lado, não são relacionados no tempo. Esta

  13. Managing the Health Impacts of Drought in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sena, Aderita; Barcellos, Christovam; Freitas, Carlos; Corvalan, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Drought is often a hidden risk with the potential to become a silent public health disaster. It is difficult to define precisely when it starts or when it is over, and although it is a climatological event, its impacts depend on other human activities, and are intensified by social vulnerability. In Brazil, half of all natural disaster events are drought related, and they cause half of the impacts in number of affected persons. One large affected area is the semiarid region of Brazil’s Northeast, which has historically been affected by drought. Many health and well-being indicators in this region are worse than the rest of the country, based on an analysis of 5565 municipalities using available census data for 1991, 2000 and 2010, which allowed separating the 1133 municipalities affected by drought in order to compare them with the rest of the country. Although great progress has been made in reducing social and economic vulnerability, climate change and the expected changes in the semiarid region in the next few decades call for a review of current programs, particularly in public health, and the planning of new interventions with local communities. This study reviews the literature, analyzes available data and identifies possible actions and actors. The aim is to ensure there will be sufficient and sustainable local adaptive capacity and resilience, for a population already living within the limits of environmental vulnerability. PMID:25325358

  14. Managing the Health Impacts of Drought in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aderita Sena

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Drought is often a hidden risk with the potential to become a silent public health disaster. It is difficult to define precisely when it starts or when it is over, and although it is a climatological event, its impacts depend on other human activities, and are intensified by social vulnerability. In Brazil, half of all natural disaster events are drought related, and they cause half of the impacts in number of affected persons. One large affected area is the semiarid region of Brazil’s Northeast, which has historically been affected by drought. Many health and well-being indicators in this region are worse than the rest of the country, based on an analysis of 5565 municipalities using available census data for 1991, 2000 and 2010, which allowed separating the 1133 municipalities affected by drought in order to compare them with the rest of the country. Although great progress has been made in reducing social and economic vulnerability, climate change and the expected changes in the semiarid region in the next few decades call for a review of current programs, particularly in public health, and the planning of new interventions with local communities. This study reviews the literature, analyzes available data and identifies possible actions and actors. The aim is to ensure there will be sufficient and sustainable local adaptive capacity and resilience, for a population already living within the limits of environmental vulnerability.

  15. The influence of oceanic basins on drought and ecosystem dynamics in Northeast Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 2012 drought in Northeast Brazil was the harshest in decades, with potentially significant impacts on the vegetation of the unique semi-arid caatinga biome and on local livelihoods. Here, we use a coupled climate–vegetation model (CCM3-IBIS) to: (1) investigate the role of the Pacific and Atlantic oceans in the 2012 drought, and; (2) evaluate the response of the caatinga vegetation to the 2012 climate extreme. Our results indicate that anomalous sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the Atlantic Ocean were the primary factor forcing the 2012 drought, with Pacific Ocean SST having a larger role in sustaining typical climatic conditions in the region. The drought strongly influenced net primary production in the caatinga, causing a reduction in annual net ecosystem exchange indicating a reduction in amount of CO2 released to the atmosphere. (letter)

  16. Regional comparison of syn- and post-rift sequences in salt and salt-free basins offshore Brazil and Angola/Namibia, South Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strozyk, Frank; Back, Stefan; Kukla, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The large South Atlantic basins offshore South America and Africa record a highly variable syn- to post-breakup tectono-stratigraphic development. The present-day diversity in the structural and sedimentary architecture of the conjugate margins offshore southern Brazil, Namibia and Angola reflects variations in the interplay of a number of controlling factors, of which the most important are i) the structural configuration of each margin segment at the time of break-up, ii) the post break-up geodynamic history including tectonics and magmatism, and iii) variations in the type, quantity and distribution of sediment input to the respective margin segment. Particularly the basins around the Rio Grande Rise - Walvis Ridge volcanic complex show a pronounced tectono-stratigraphic asymmetry both along the respective continental margin and across the Atlantic. Only a few attempts exist to establish a regional tectono-stratigraphic correlation framework across the South Atlantic Ocean, mainly because of the lack of data across entire margin segments and limited resolution of basin wide geophysics. Still unresolved issues particularly concern the explanation of the basin-specific geological evolution of respective margin segments along the same continental margin, as well as the correlation of conjugate basins and margin segments across the Atlantic Ocean. In our study we present interpretations and first-pass restorations of regional 2D seismic-reflectivity data from the large basins offshore Brazil (Pelotas Basin, Santos Basin, Campos Basin, Espirito Santo Basin), and offshore Namibia and Angola (Walvis Basin, Namibe Basin, Benguela Basin, Kwanza Basin), which represent four adjacent pairs of conjugate basins on both sides of the South Atlantic. Results are used to document and compare on a basin-scale the contrasting styles of rift and post-rift settings during and after the continental breakup.

  17. Exploration potential of Paraiba and Natal platform basins, NE Brazil; Potencial exploratorio das bacias da Paraiba e da plataforma de Natal, NE do Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Jose A. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Lima Filho, Mario; Neumann, Virginio H. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia; Maranhao Neto, Jose Carneiro; Araujo, Joao A.A. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Programa de Pos Graduacao em Geociencias

    2008-07-01

    The portion of Brazilian continental margin located between the Pernambuco Shear Zone (ZCPE) and Touros High, enclosing Natal Platform and Paraiba basin, NE Brazil, presents a thin sedimentary cover represented by Neo- Cretaceous deposits, over an elevated basement. In this zone the narrow platform ends abruptly against the ocean plate, forming a scarped slope. This area corresponds to the Transverse zone of Northeast Brazil (TZN) limited by two extensive transcurrent E-W shear zones that acted as accommodation zones for the strain produced by the advance of the southern and northern rift branches. During the Aptian, the rift suffered a NE deflection and contoured the Borborema Province and the TZN. The resistance of this block to the rift advance generated a prominent and elevated region into the Atlantic gulf which resulted in the absence of rift deposition over the Brazilian margin and its deviation to the African side. The model suggested by this paper denominates this area as the 'exception zone' of the Brazilian margin, which possess a poor petroliferous potential and need to be separated from the sector corresponding to the Pernambuco basin, located to south of ZCPE, representing the last piece of margin before the rift deflection and possessing an important petroliferous potential. (author)

  18. Taxonomic revision of the fossil pulmonate mollusks of Itaboraí Basin (Paleocene, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Brincalepe Salvador

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The limestones of Itaboraí Basin (Middle Paleocene, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, harbor a rich fossil molluscan fauna consisting exclusively of pulmonate snails, both terrestrial and freshwater. An extensive taxonomic revision of this paleofauna is conducted here. A new genus, Cortana, is described as well as two new species, Eoborus fusiforme and Gastrocopta itaboraiensis. The revised classification is as follows: Austrodiscus lopesi (Charopidae; Biomphalaria itaboraiensis (Planorbidae; "Brachypodella" britoi (Urocoptidae; Brasilennea arethusae, Brasilennea guttula, Brasilennea minor (Cerionidae; Bulimulus fazendicus, Bulimulus trindadeae, Cortana carvalhoi, Cyclodontina coelhoi, Itaborahia lamegoi, Leiostracus ferreirai, Plagiodontes aff. dentatus (Orthalicidae; Cecilioides sommeri (Ferussaciidae; Eoborus rotundus, Eoborus sanctijosephi, Eoborus fusiforme (Strophocheilidae; Gastrocopta mezzalirai, Gastrocopta itaboraiensis (Gastrocoptidae; Temesa magalhaesi (Clausiliidae. The species Strobilopsis mauryae was considered a synonym of Brasilennea arethusae; Bulimulus sommeri a synonym of Itaborahia lamegoi; and Vorticifex fluminensis a synonym of Eoborus sanctijosephi. Itaboraí Basin has the most ancient records of the families Orthalicidae, Gastrocoptidae, Ferussaciidae and Strophocheilidae. Moreover, the basin's records of Charopidae, Clausiliidae, Cerionidae, and Urocoptidae are among the most ancient in the world and, among these, those of Cerionidae, Clausiliidae and Urocoptidae deserve special attention since they are greatly removed from these families' current distribution. Additionally, Itaboraí has the most ancient records for the genera Austrodiscus, Brachypodella, Bulimulus, Cecilioides, Cyclodontina, Eoborus, Gastrocopta, Leiostracus, Plagiodontes and Temesa. There are three endemic genera in the basin: Brasilennea, Cortana and Itaborahia. Further discussion on paleobiogeography and evolution of this paleofauna is also provided.Os calc

  19. The fish fauna in tropical rivers: The case of the Sorocaba river basin, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welber Senteio Smith

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey was carried out on the fish species in the Sorocaba River basin, the main tributary of the left margin of the Tietê River, located in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The species were collected with gill nets. After identification of the specimens, their relative abundance, weight and standard length were determined. Up to the present moment there are not any studies that focus this subject in this hydrographic basin. Fifty-three species, distributed in eighteen families and six orders were collected. Characiformes were represented by twenty-eight species, Siluriformes by seventeen species, the Gymnotiformes by three species, Perciformes and Cyprinodontiformes by two species, and the Synbranchiformes by one species. Among the collected species there were two exotic. The most abundant species were Astyanax fasciatus and Hypostomus ancistroides. In relation to total weight the most representative species were Hoplias malabaricus and Hypostomus ancistroides. Cyprinus carpio, Prochilodus lineatus, Schizodon nasutus and Hoplias malabaricus were the most representative species in relation to average weight. Largest standard length were recorded for Sternopygus macrurus, Steindachnerina insculpta, Eigenmannia aff. virescens and Cyprinus carpioSe realizó un análisis de las especies de peces de la cuenca del Río Sorocaba, el principal tributario de la margen izquierda del Río Tietê, localizado en el estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil. Las especies fueron recolectadas con redes agalleras. Luego de la identificación de los especímenes, fue determinada su abundancia relativa, peso, y longitud estandar. Hasta el presente, no hay ningún otro estudio que analice estos aspectos en dicha cuenca hidrográfica. Fueron recolectados 55 especies, distribuidas en 18 familias y 6 ordenes. Los Characiformes estuvieron representados por 28 especies, Siluriformes por 17 especies, Gymnotiformes por 3 especies, Perciformes y Cyprinodontiformes por 2 especies, y

  20. 78 FR 35314 - Availability of Final Environmental Impact Statement; Bunker Hill Groundwater Basin, Riverside...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ..., 2011 (76 FR 3655). The Environmental Protection Agency Notice of Availability was published on January... Bureau of Reclamation Availability of Final Environmental Impact Statement; Bunker Hill Groundwater Basin... capacity in the Bunker Hill Groundwater Basin and the Chino Basin. We issued a Notice of Intent on...

  1. Volcanism and stratigraphy of the Neoproterozoic Campo Alegre Basin, SC, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERGIO B. CITRONI

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The depositional succession of the Campo Alegre Basin (Santa Catarina - southern Brazil was investigated having the evolution of the volcanic activity as background. The different stratigraphic units are interpreted as belonging to different volcanic stages: Bateias Formation, conglomerates and sandstones, related with a pre-volcanic stage; Campo Alegre Group, at the main volcanic stage, with each different formation corresponding to different episodes of volcanism - Rio Negrinho Formation, corresponding to the basic volcanism, Avenca Grande Formation to ignimbritic event, Serra de São Miguel Formation to the acid volcanism and Fazenda Uirapuru Formation, related to an explosive event; Rio Turvo and Arroio Água Fria formations correspond respectively to inner and extra-caldera deposits.A sucessão deposicional das rochas vulcânicas e sedimentares da Bacia de Campo Alegre (Santa Catarina - sul do Brasil foi estabelecida tendo como "background" a evolução da atividade vulcânica. As diferentes unidades estratigráficas são consideradas como pertencentes a diferentes estágios do vulcanismo: Formação Bateias, constituída por conglomerados e arenitos, é relacionada a um estágio pré-vulcânico; Grupo Campo Alegre, depositado durante o estágio vulcânico principal, é constituído de diferentes formações que refletem os diversos momentos desse vulcanismo - Formação Rio Negrinho, relacionada ao vulcanismo básico, Formação Avenca Grande a eventos ignimbríticos, Formação Serra de São Miguel ao vulcanismo ácido e a Formação Fazenda Uirapuru a um evento explosivo; as formações Rio Turvo e Arroio Água Fria correspondem respectivamente a depósitos do interior e do exterior de uma caldeira abatida.

  2. Dolomitized cells within chert of the Permian Assistência Formation, Paraná Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calça, Cléber P.; Fairchild, Thomas R.; Cavalazzi, Barbara; Hachiro, Jorge; Petri, Setembrino; Huila, Manuel Fernando Gonzalez; Toma, Henrique E.; Araki, Koiti

    2016-04-01

    Dolomitic microscopic structures in the form of microspheres, "horseshoe- shaped" objects, and thin botryoidal crusts found within microfossiliferous chert within stromatolites of the Evaporite Bed (EB) of the Permian Assistência Formation, Irati Subgroup, Paraná Basin, Brazil, have been investigated by means of optical microscopy, X-ray fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectrometry and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry. The microspheres were identified as dolomitized coccoidal cyanobacteria based on similarity in size, spheroidal and paired hemispheroidal morphologies and colonial habit to co-occurring silicified organic-walled cyanobacteria embedded within the same microfabric and rock samples. The co-occurrence of dolomite, pyrite framboids, and abundant dispersed carbonaceous material and silicified cells is consistent with a hypersaline depositional environment with abundant cyanobacterial mats and elevated Mg2 +/Ca2 + ratios and reducing conditions with active anoxic microbial processes near the water-(bio)sediment interface. The abundance of extracellular polymeric substances facilitated anoxic microbial processes (sulfate reduction), providing essential conditions for possible primary microbially induced dolomitization. In most of the dolomitized cells dolomite occurs only as an external layer; in fully dolomitized cells magnesium is richest in the outermost layer. Presumably, the dolomitization process was favored by the presence of anoxic microbial degraders and negatively charged functional groups at the surface of the cyanobacterial cells. Botryoidal dolomite rims of silica-filled fenestrae formed by a similar process and inherited the botryoidal morphology of the cell as originally lining the fenestrae. Silicification interrupted the dolomitization of the largely organic biosediment, mostly by permineralization, but locally by substitution, thereby preserving not only dolomitic microspheres, but also huge numbers of structurally

  3. Shallow properties of faults in carbonate rocks - The Jandaíra Formation, Potiguar Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, F. H.; Bertotti, G.; Rabelo, J.; Silva, A. T.; Carneiro, M. A.; Cazarin, C. L.; Silva, C. C.; Vieira, M. M.; Bisdom, K.; Moraes, A.

    2014-12-01

    We studied the development of shallow faults in the Jandaíra Formation, a Turonian-Campanian carbonate platform in the Potiguar Basin, northeastern Brazil. Our main goal was to characterize fault geometry and properties such as porosity and permeability, and associate these results with fluid flow in shallow conditions. We used an integrated multidisciplinary approach, which combined Quickbird satellite and an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV, drone) imagery, structural and sedimentary-facies mapping, and petrographic and petrophysical analyses. The Jandaíra Formation presents a variety of carbonate facies, which include mudstones to bioclastic, peloidal, intraclastic, and oolitic grainstones. We modeled our remote sensing and structural data using a finite element analysis system for 2D deformation modeling. We applied the magnitudes and directions of the present-day stress field to simulate depths as deep as 500 m. These stress data were derived from borehole breakout data and drilling-induced tensile fractures observed in resistivity image logs. Our results indicate the occurrence of dilation processes along three sets of joints that were reactivated as faults in the upper crust: N-S, NE-, and E-W-striking faults. These faults provided preferential leaching pathways to fresh water percolation, contributing to localized dissolution and increased secondary porosity and permeability. The results also indicate that the tectonic stresses are concentrated in preferred structural zones such as fault intersection and termination, which are sites of increased fracturing and dissolution. Dissolution by fluids increased permeability in carbonate rocks from primary values of 0.0-0.94 mD to as much as 1370.11 mD. This process is mostly Cenozoic.

  4. Growth ring analysis of fossil coniferous woods from early cretaceous of Araripe Basin (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etiene F. Pires

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Growth ring analysis on silicified coniferous woods from the Missão Velha Formation (Araripe Basin - Brazil has yielded important information about periodicity of wood production during the Early Cretaceous in the equatorial belt. Despite warm temperatures, dendrological data indicate that the climate was characterized by cyclical alternation of dry and rainy periods influenced by cyclical precipitations, typical of tropical wet and dry or savanna climate. The abundance of false growth rings can be attributed to both occasional droughts and arthropod damage. The present climate data agree with palaeoclimatic models that inferred summer-wet biomes for the Late Jurassic/Early Cretaceous boundary in the southern equatorial belt.A partir de análise de anéis de crescimento em lenhos de coníferas silicificadas provenientes da Formação Missão Velha(Bacia do Araripe - Brasil, obteve-se importantes informações a respeito da periodicidade de produção lenhosa duranteo início do Cretáceo, na região do equador. Apesar das estimativas de temperatura apresentarem-se elevadas, os dados dendrológicos indicam que o clima foi caracterizado pela alternância cíclica de períodos secos e chuvosos, influenciado por precipitações periódicas, típico das condições atuais de climatropical úmido e seco ou savana. A abundância de falsosanéis de crescimento pode ser atribuída tanto a secas ocasionais quanto a danos causados por artrópodes. Os dados paleoclimáticos aqui obtidos corroboram com modelos paleoclimáticos que inferem a ocorrência de um bioma de verões úmidos para o limite Neojurássico/Eocretáceo ao sul do equador.

  5. Equilibrium and Disequilibrium of River Basins: Effects on Stream Captures in Serra do Mar and Serra da Mantiqueira, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    DA Silva, L. M.

    2015-12-01

    Landscapes are mainly driven by river processes that control the dynamic reorganization of networks. Discovering and identifying whether river basins are in geometric equilibrium or disequilibrium requires an analysis of water divides, channels that shift laterally or expand upstream and river captures. Issues specifically discussed include the variation of drainage area change and erosion rates of the basins. In southeastern Brazil there are two main escarpments with extensive geomorphic surfaces: Serra do Mar and Serra da Mantiqueira Mountains. These landscapes are constituted of Neoproterozoic and early Paleozoic rocks, presenting steep escarpments with low-elevation coastal plains and higher elevation interior plateaus. To identify whether river basins and river profiles are in equilibrium or disequilibrium in Serra do Mar and Serra da Mantiqueira Mountains, we used the proxy (χ), evaluating the effect of drainage area change and erosion rates. We selected basins that drain both sides of these two main escarpments (oceanic and continental sides) and have denudation rates derived from pre-existing cosmogenic isotopes data (Rio de Janeiro, Paraná and Minas Gerais). Despite being an ancient and tectonically stable landscape, part of the coastal plain of Serra do Mar Mountain in Rio de Janeiro and Paraná is in geometric disequilibrium, with water divides moving in the direction of higher χ values. To achieve equilibrium, some basins located in the continental side are retracting and disappearing, losing area to the coastal basins. On the contrary, there are some adjacent sub-basins that are close to equilibrium, without strong contrasts in χ values. The same pattern was observed in Serra da Mantiqueira (Minas Gerais state), with stream captures and river network reorganization in its main rivers. The initial results suggest a strong contrast between erosion rates in the continental and the oceanic portions of the escarpments.

  6. Fishes of the Taquari-Antas river basin (Patos Lagoon basin), southern Brazil Peixes da bacia do rio Taquari-Antas (sistema da Laguna dos Patos), sul do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    FG. Becker; Fries LCC. De; J. Ferrer; VA. Bertaco; KDG. Luz-Agostinho; JFP Silva; AR. Cardoso; ZMS. Lucena; CAS. Lucena

    2013-01-01

    The aquatic habitats of the Taquari-Antas river basin (in the Patos Lagoon basin, southern Brazil) are under marked environmental transformation because of river damming for hydropower production. In order to provide an information baseline on the fish fauna of the Taquari-Antas basin, we provide a comprehensive survey of fish species based on primary and secondary data. We found 5,299 valid records of fish species in the basin, representing 119 species and 519 sampling sites. There are 13 no...

  7. Organochlorine pesticides in Piracicaba river basin (São Paulo/Brazil: a survey of sediment, bivalve and fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Mariano Lopes da Silva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper was to evaluate the level of occurrence of the organochlorine compounds in samples of sediments, bivalves and two fish species collected in the Piracicaba River basin (São Paulo, Brazil. The isomers alpha and gamma of HCH and Heptachlor were most frequently detected in samples of sediments and specimens of bivalve and fish. Therefore, although the levels of these compounds found were not critically high, they are still found in the environment. This fact suggests that they are still being used, despite the fact that the use of these compounds was outlawed more than twenty years ago.

  8. Evaluation and prediction of oil biodegradation: a novel approach integrating geochemical and basin modeling techniques in offshore Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baudino, Roger [YPF S.A. (Argentina); Santos, Glauce Figueiredo dos; Losilla, Carlos; Cabrera, Ricardo; Loncarich, Ariel; Gavarrino, Alejandro [RepsolYPF do Brasil, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Oil fields accounting for a large portion of the world reserves are severely affected by biological degradation. In Brazil, giant fields of the Campos Basin are producing biodegraded oils with widely variable fluid characteristics (10 to 40 deg API) and no apparent logical distribution nor predictability. Modern geochemical techniques allow defining the level of biodegradation. When original (non-degraded) oil samples and other with varying degradation level are available it might be possible to define a distribution trend and to relate it to present day geological factors such as temperature and reservoir geometry. However, other critical factors must be taken into account. But most of all, it is fundamental to have a vision in time of their evolution. This can only be achieved through 3D Basin Models coupled with modern visualization tools. The multi-disciplinary work-flow described here integrates three-dimensional numerical simulations with modern geochemical analyses. (author)

  9. Susceptibility and compatibility of Biomphalaria tenagophila from the Río de la Plata basin with Schistosoma mansoni from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borda, Carlos Edgardo; Rea, María Josefa F

    2010-07-01

    Schistosomiasis has expanded to southern parts of Brazil. Between 2005-2007 the dispersion and the proliferation of Biomphalaria tenagophila was verified in the province of Corrientes near the Brazilian border. In order to study the possibility that schistosomiasis might spread into the basins of the Paraná and Uruguay Rivers, 440 B. tenagophila collected from 10 populations groups were experimentally exposed to infection with Schistosoma mansoni of the SJ2 strain. Snails from five localities were susceptible. Frandsen's index (TCP/100) shows that those snails from Mirungá (11%), Aguacerito (2%) and Curupicay (2%) were Class I and not very compatible. Meanwhile, snails from Copra (6%) and Pay-Ubre (22%), in the Paraná River basin, were Class II and poorly compatible. PMID:20721498

  10. Susceptibility and compatibility of Biomphalaria tenagophila from the Río de la Plata basin with Schistosoma mansoni from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Edgardo Borda

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis has expanded to southern parts of Brazil. Between 2005-2007 the dispersion and the proliferation of Biomphalaria tenagophila was verified in the province of Corrientes near the Brazilian border. In order to study the possibility that schistosomiasis might spread into the basins of the Paraná and Uruguay Rivers, 440 B. tenagophila collected from 10 populations groups were experimentally exposed to infection with Schistosoma mansoni of the SJ2 strain. Snails from five localities were susceptible. Frandsen's index (TCP/100 shows that those snails from Mirungá (11%, Aguacerito (2% and Curupicay (2% were Class I and not very compatible. Meanwhile, snails from Copra (6% and Pay-Ubre (22%, in the Paraná River basin, were Class II and poorly compatible.

  11. Pulling Marbles from a Bag: Deducing the Regional Impact History of the SPA Basin from Impact-Melt Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Barbara A.; Coker, Robert F.

    2010-01-01

    The South Pole Aitken (SPA) basin is the stratigraphically oldest identifiable lunar basin and is therefore one of the most important targets for absolute age-dating to help understand whether ancient lunar bombardment history smoothly declined or was punctuated by a cataclysm. A feasible near-term approach to this problem is to robotically collect a sample from near the center of the basin, where vertical and lateral mixing provided by post-basin impacts ensures that such a sample will be composed of small rock fragments from SPA itself, from local impact craters, and from faraway giant basins. The range of ages, intermediate spikes in the age distribution, and the oldest ages are all part of the definition of the absolute age and impact history recorded within the SPA basin.

  12. Crustal structure beneath the Paleozoic Parnaíba Basin revealed by airborne gravity and magnetic data, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castroa, David L.; Fuck, Reinhardt A.; Phillips, Jeffrey D. Phillips; Vidotti, Roberta M.; Bezerra, Francisco H.R.; Dantas, Elton L.

    2014-01-01

    The Parnaíba Basin is a large Paleozoic syneclise in northeastern Brazil underlain by Precambrian crystalline basement, which comprises a complex lithostructural and tectonic framework formed during the Neoproterozoic–Eopaleozoic Brasiliano–Pan African orogenic collage. A sag basin up to 3.5 km thick and 1000 km long formed after the collage. The lithologic composition, structure, and role in the basin evolution of the underlying basement are the focus of this study. Airborne gravity and magnetic data were modeled to reveal the general crustal structure underneath the Parnaíba Basin. Results indicate that gravity and magnetic signatures delineate the main boundaries and structural trends of three cratonic areas and surrounding Neoproterozoic fold belts in the basement. Triangular-shaped basement inliers are geophysically defined in the central region of this continental-scale Neoproterozoic convergence zone. A 3-D gravity inversion constrained by seismological data reveals that basement inliers exhibit a 36–40.5 km deep crustal root, with borders defined by a high-density and thinner crust. Forward modeling of gravity and magnetic data indicates that lateral boundaries between crustal units are limited by Brasiliano shear zones, representing lithospheric sutures of the Amazonian and São Francisco Cratons, Tocantins Province and Parnaíba Block. In addition, coincident residual gravity, residual magnetic, and pseudo-gravity lows indicate two complex systems of Eopaleozoic rifts related to the initial phase of the sag deposition, which follow basement trends in several directions.

  13. Participatory and decentralized water resources management: challenges and perspectives for the North Paraíba River Basin committee - Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, M A F M; Vieira, Z M C L; Ribeiro, M M R

    2012-01-01

    The Brazilian Water Resources Policy (Law 9433/1997) establishes participatory and decentralized management, involving civil society, water users and governmental bodies, with the basin committees as the basis of this process. Fifteen years after its implementation, it is possible to perceive accomplishments, but, at the same time, there are some difficulties in regards to the operation of the basin committees in the country. Considering the North Paraíba River Basin - which is completely included in the State of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil, and presents great social and economic importance for the state - this article analyzes the process of formation, installation and functioning of its Basin Committee (CBH-PB), focusing on its composition, the reasons for the mobilization and demobilization of its members, the intra-relations between segments, and the inter-relations between the CBH-PB and other entities of the State Water Management System (the Water Executive Agency and the State Water Resources Council). The level of decentralization and the quality of participatory management (as it is being performed at the CBH-PB) are discussed and guidelines are suggested in order to allow greater effectiveness to the committee. PMID:22925876

  14. Assessing the spatial and temporal water quality in the sub-basin of the Poxim river, Sergipe state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Carlos Nogueira

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of the land use and cover in the Poxim river basin, in Sergipe, Brazil, is a determinant factor for reducing the superficial water quality. This study aimed to identify aspects of water quality related to the land use and cover in four different monitoring stations, in the rainy and dry season. The monitored parameters were pH, DO, BOD, COD, turbidity, total dissolved solids (TDS, total phosphorus, ammonia, nitrite and nitrate, between July 2009 and June 2010. Water samples were collected at four monitoring stations (E1, in the Poxim-Mirim River; E2, in the Poxim-Açu River; E3, in the main river, near the confluence of the two tributaries; and E4, at the Sanitation Company of Sergipe State water supply intake and analyzed at the Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry of the Federal University of Sergipe State. The results were compared with Brazilian standards for fresh water quality (Class 2, according to CONAMA Resolution nº 357/2005. BOD and COD showed a higher input of organic matter in the monitoring station E3. OD values were critical in all four stations. The nutrients nitrogen and phosphorus had higher concentrations at stations E1 and E2 (upper basin, with agricultural practices. In the lower basin, there is a considerable deterioration of water quality, possibly due to the urbanization process. The studied parameters indicate the low quality of water in the Poxim River basin and the need to adopt appropriate mitigation measures.

  15. Why deep drilling in the Colônia Basin (Brazil)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledru, M.-P.; Reimold, W. U.; Ariztegui, D.; Bard, E.; Crósta, A. P.; Riccomini, C.; Sawakuchi, A. O.

    2015-12-01

    The Colônia Deep Drilling Project held its first International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) workshop in September 2014 at the University of São Paulo (Brazil). Twenty-seven experts from six countries discussed the feasibility and the expectations of a deep drilling in the structure of Colônia located at the southwestern margin of the city of São Paulo. After presenting the studies performed at the site during the last decades, participants focused on the objectives, priorities and detailed planning for a full deep-drilling proposal. An excursion to the site and new auger coring showed the importance of the Colônia site for studying the evolution of a tropical rainforest and to evaluate the interplay between the South American summer monsoon, the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and the southern Westerlies belt during the last 5 million years. In addition, deep drilling will eventually solve the still unresolved issue of the origin of the structure of Colônia as a result of meteorite impact or endogenous processes.

  16. Large Impact Basins on Mercury: Global Distribution, Characteristics, and Modification History from MESSENGER Orbital Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassett, Caleb I.; Head, James W.; Baker, David M. H.; Zuber, Maria T.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Solomon, Sean C.; Klimczak, Christian; Strom, Robert G.; Chapman, Clark R.; Prockter, Louise M.; Phillips, Roger J.; Oberst, Juergen; Preusker, Frank

    2012-01-01

    The formation of large impact basins (diameter D greater than or equal to 300 km) was an important process in the early evolution of Mercury and influenced the planet's topography, stratigraphy, and crustal structure. We catalog and characterize this basin population on Mercury from global observations by the MESSENGER spacecraft, and we use the new data to evaluate basins suggested on the basis of the Mariner 10 flybys. Forty-two certain or probable impact basins are recognized a few additional basins that may have been degraded to the point of ambiguity are plausible on the basis of new data but are classified as uncertain. The spatial density of large basins (D greater than or equal to 500 km) on Mercury is lower than that on the Moon. Morphological characteristics of basins on Mercury suggest that on average they are more degraded than lunar basins. These observations are consistent with more efficient modification, degradation, and obliteration of the largest basins on Mercury than on the Moon. This distinction may be a result of differences in the basin formation process (producing fewer rings), greater relaxation of topography after basin formation (subduing relief), and/or higher rates of volcanism during the period of heavy bombardment on Mercury compared to the Moon (burying basin rings and interiors).

  17. Metal and trace element sediment assessment from Guarapiranga reservoir, Alto Tiete Basin, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Guarapiranga Reservoir, located in Sao Paulo metropolitan region, Brazil, is responsible for supplying about 20% of the entire population's water needs of this region or approximately 3.7 million people. However, this system has shown significant degradation in water quality, due to untreated domestic sewage and industrial effluents. In this study sediment samples were collected at five points along the reservoir and total concentration of some major (Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Hg, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Tb, Th, U, V and Zn) and rare earth (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb) elements were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). By inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) the concentrations of Al, Ba, Be, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Ti, V e Zn were determined after digestion procedure following US EPA 3051 methodology. The concentrations of metals Cd and Pb were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) and total Hg by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS). Methodology validation according to precision and accuracy was performed by reference materials analyses for the three different analytical techniques used. Multielemental results obtained by INAA were compared to NASC (North American Shale Composite), Upper Continental Crust (UCC) and soil from Guarapiranga park values. The Enrichment Factor (EF) and Geo accumulation Index (Igeo) were also evaluated for these data. Metal concentration results by ICP OES and AAS in the samples were compared to the TEL and PEL oriented values established by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment and also adopted by CETESB (Environmental Protection Agency of the Sao Paulo State). The results were also compared to regional reference values (VRR) of limnic sediments from the Alto Tiete Basin. From these data an assessment of metal and trace element accumulated in the sediments from the

  18. Measurements and modelling of evapotransiration to assess agricultural water productivity in basins with changing land use patterns : a case study in the São Francisco River basin, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Castro Teixeira, de, A.H.

    2008-01-01

    Key words: Vineyards, mango, energy balance, evapotranspiration, water productivity, Bowen ratio, eddy correlation, water balance, natural vegetation, latent heat flux, sensible heat flux, biomass, water productivity, remote sensing, water management. . The São Francisco River basin in Brazil is marked by socio-eco¬nomic disparities and environmental vulnerabilities. Water managers in the semi-arid region of the basin are faced with several challenges, such as competition among different wate...

  19. Water politics in Brazil subsidiarity and humanity aspects for the semi-arid sustainable river basin management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Patricia Borba Vilar; Xavier, Yanko Marcius de Alencarr [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Direito Publico

    2010-02-15

    This paper examines Brazilian national constitutional law interpretation about water resources management, environmental protection and sustainable development principles. Institutional scenario is characterized under an economical format, important to conciliate human rights guaranties, national development and water protection. We provide subsidies for legal and institutional analysis considering human rights and an equity desirable scenario. Institutional context in Brazil assumes that Federal Law No. 9433/97 determined that water management must improve its multiple uses, decentralization and social participation. Water resources management in Brazil is legally and institutionally marked by the presence of the subsidiarity principle. We analyze the case in current national scene, with its consequent conflict in Sao Francisco River Basin, a semi arid Northeastern River Basin. This work also reflects some aspects of water pricing as defined by State politics. Some parameters are discussed as an elementary presupposition for water regulatory instruments that will define respective water management policy. Therefore, when defining criteria water fees, laws must comply with constitutional principles and the parameters established by the Brazilian Water Law (Law 9.433/97). The lack of reasonability and proportionality in dealing with the formal aspects and, specially, in defining water allocation, can obstruct the subsidiary principle application as determined by the Law 9433/97 and National Water Resources Policy. The question is observed in a more detailed focus over Northeastern Brazilian semi-arid region, where scarcity and traditional relations on politics are difficult to deal with, according to a renewed vision of the State and sustainable development principles. (author)

  20. Geophysical evidence of pre-sag rifting and post-rifting fault reactivation in the Parnaíba basin, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    de Castro, David Lopes; Bezerra, Francisco Hilário; Fuck, Reinhardt Adolfo; Vidotti, Roberta Mary

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the rifting mechanism that preceded the prolonged subsidence of the Paleozoic Parnaíba basin in Brazil and shed light on the tectonic evolution of this large cratonic basin in the South American platform. From the analysis of aeromagnetic, aerogravity, seismic reflection and borehole data, we concluded the following: (1) large pseudo-gravity and gravity lows mimic graben structures but are associated with linear supracrustal strips in the basement. (2...

  1. Fishing resources in the rio Cuiabá basin, Pantanal do Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia. A. F. Mateus

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The rio Cuiabá is one of the most important tributaries of the upper rio Paraguay basin that form the Pantanal wetlands. The fishing resources of the rio Cuiabá basin were studied based on landing data obtained from the Fish Market of the city of Cuiabá, State of Mato grosso, Brazil. A description is given of the composition and origin of the 2000 and 2001 catch. The rio Cuiabá is the main source of fish for Cuiabá, although some fish sold locally comes from the rio Paraguay. The 2000-2001 catch consisted mainly of migratory species. The main landed species were the pimelodids pintado -Pseudoplatystoma corruscans, cachara -Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum, and jaú -Paulicea luetkeni, and the characiforms pacu -Piaractus mesopotamicus, piraputanga -Brycon microlepis, piavuçu -Leporinus macrocephalus, and dourado -Salminus brasiliensis. Large catfishes (Pimelodidae represented 70% of the landed fish, among which pintado was the most abundant. The data indicate that current catches are smaller than those recorded in the early 1980s and fish are caught far off the urban zone. Moreover, although the number and composition of species caught were similar to those of the 80s, the distribution of species abundance has changed. Currently, fisheries catch more carnivorous species than fish from lower trophic levels. These findings cannot be credited solely to overfishing, but appear to result from a complex interaction of factors, i.e., environmental degradation, changes in market preferences, and restrictive legal fishing regulations.O recurso pesqueiro da bacia do rio Cuiabá, um dos mais importantes tributários da bacia do Alto Paraguai, formadora do Pantanal, foi estudado a partir dos dados de desembarque de pescado obtidos no Mercado do Porto de Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brasil. São descritas a composição e procedência das capturas para os anos de 2000 e 2001. O rio Cuiabá é a fonte dominante de pescado para a cidade de Cuiabá, mas uma parte do

  2. Statistical distribution models for migratory fish in Jacuí basin, South Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís P. Alves

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to identify the distribution patterns of migratory fishes in the Jacuí river basin (Rio Grande do Sul, South Brazil, proposing a statistical model of presumed distribution based on geomorphologic environmental data. Through maps of occurrence probability, we hope to contribute to decisions regarding basin environmental management. The analyzed species were: Salminus brasiliensis (dourado, Leporinus obtusidens (piava, Prochilodus lineatus (grumatã and Pimelodus pintado (pintado. Samples were made through interviews with fishermen and local inhabitants, covering the main channel and tributaries of the rivers Jacuí, Taquari-Antas, Vacacaí, Vacacaí-Mirim, Pardo, Pardinho, Sinos, and Caí. The sampling program resulted in 204 interviews, being 187 considered as valid in 155 different sampling points. The probability of migratory fish occurrence was adjusted through the LOGIT routine of the Idrisi Andes Software: P = e(b0 + b1 . altitude + b2 . basin area . (1 + e(b0 + b1 . altitude + b2 . basin area-1, where P is the occurrence probability of the species (0-1 and b0, b1 and b2 are the equation parameters. Model accuracy, for estimating presence, ranged from 82% to 93%. Pimelodus pintado was cited to occur in 121 points among the 155 sampled (78.06%, Prochilodus lineatus in 72 (46.45%, L. obtusidens in 62 (40.00% and S. brasiliensis in 58 (37.42%. Equation parameters were estimated (± standard error as follow: S. brasiliensis: b0 = -2.8762 ± 0.2597; b1 = 1.3028 ± 0.0332; b2 = 1.1487 ± 0.0301; L. obtusidens: b0 = -0.8364 ± 0.2213; b1 = -1.5564 ± 0.0462; b2 = 0.9947 ± 0.0206; Prochilodus lineatus: b0= 0; b1= -1.3067 ± 0.0544; b2= 0.8128 ± 0.0177; Pimelodus pintado: b0= -0.9487 ± 0.3688; b1= -0.8269 ± 0.0496; b2= 0.9255 ± 0.0304.O objetivo do presente estudo foi identificar o padrão de distribuição de peixes migradores da bacia hidrográfica do rio Jacuí (Rio Grande do Sul, Sul do Brasil, propondo um

  3. Measurements and modelling of evapotransiration to assess agricultural water productivity in basins with changing land use patterns : a case study in the São Francisco River basin, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro Teixeira, de A.H.

    2008-01-01

    Key words: Vineyards, mango, energy balance, evapotranspiration, water productivity, Bowen ratio, eddy correlation, water balance, natural vegetation, latent heat flux, sensible heat flux, biomass, water productivity, remote sensing, water management. . The São Francisco River basin in Brazil is m

  4. Mechanical Erosion in a Tropical River Basin in Southeastern Brazil: Chemical Characteristics and Annual Fluvial Transport Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Martins Fernandes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the mechanical erosion processes that occur in a tropical river basin, located in the São Paulo state, southeastern Brazil, through the chemical characterization of fine suspended sediments and the transport mechanisms near the river mouth, from March 2009 to September 2010. The chemical characterization indicated the predominance of SiO2, Al2O3, and Fe2O3 and showed no significant seasonal influences on the major element concentrations, expressed as oxides. The concentration variations observed were related to the mobility of chemical species. The evaluation of the rock-alteration degree indicated that the physical weathering was intense in the drainage basin. The fine suspended sediments charge was influenced by the variation discharges throughout the study period. The solid charge estimate of the surface runoff discharge was four times higher in the rainy season than the dry season. The transport of fine suspended sediments at the Sorocaba River mouth was 55.70 t km−2 a−1, corresponding to a specific physical degradation of 37.88 m Ma−1, a value associated with the mechanical erosion rate that corresponds to the soil thickness reduction in the drainage basin.

  5. Crop water parameters of irrigated wine and table grapes to support water productivity analysis in the Sao Francisco river basin, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro Teixeira, de A.H.; Bastiaanssen, W.G.M.; Bassoi, L.H.

    2007-01-01

    Energy and water balance parameters were measured in two commercial vineyards in the semiarid region of the São Francisco river basin, Brazil. Actual evapotranspiration (ET) was acquired with the Bowen ratio surface energy balance method. The ratio of the latent heat flux to the available energy, or

  6. Continuous Mantle Exhumation at the Outer Continental Margin of the Santos, Campos and Espírito Santo Basins, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalan, P. V.; Severino, M. G.; Rigoti, C. A.; Magnavita, L. P.; Oliveira, J. B.; Viana, A. R.

    2011-12-01

    The interpretation of 12,000 km of very deep (PSTM to 16 sec., PSDM to 25 km) 2D seismic sections, coupled with gravimetric and magnetometric modeling line-by-line, and the integration of the results with the regional data bank of Petrobras, all together viewed in terms of the recent tectonic models developed for the rupturing and separation of mega-plates, led to a regional (500,000 km2), first-time ever, 3D-view of the deep structure underlying the prolific sedimentary basins of Santos, Campos and Espírito Santo in southeastern Brazil. The three basins are situated onto a continental margin that narrows gradually, from south to north, from a very wide (Santos), through an intermediate (Campos), and then to a narrow (Espírito Santo) passive margin. The seismic sections shows very well the dual rheological behavior of the continental crust, consisting of a deeper and plastic lower crust (with numerous short and strong reflections that display sub-horizontal ductile flow) and a shallower and brittle upper crust (represented by a mostly transparent and faulted seismic facies topped by the sedimentary sections of the rift and thermal subsidence phases). The crustal structure of the Santos Basin shows a zonation from west to east of alternating bands of NE-SW-trending thin (plastic basement terrains) and thick (resistant basement terrains) stretched continental crust. In vertical section this zonation is displayed as a series of necking zones, leading to a highly irregular, low to moderate crustal taper. Such zonation is less developed in the Campos Basin, where the crustal taper is moderate and regular, and practically non-existent in the Espírito Santo Basin, where the crustal taper is high. The most outstanding crustal feature shared in common by the three basins is the exhumation of mantle between the tip of the hyper-extended continental crust and the tabular-shaped oceanic crust. Although the crustal taper varies significantly from basin to basin their

  7. Impacts and Ophiolites: A Way to Recognize Large Terrestrial Impact Basins?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olds, E. P.

    2015-12-01

    That Chicxulub Crater is located on ~35 km thick continental crust is apparently inconsistent with oceanic crustal/upper mantle geochemical signatures detected globally in the KT boundary impact layer [1-5 and unpublished Cr isotope data from the Yin lab at UC Davis] since introduction of the Alvarez hypothesis [6]. Apparent excavation and ejection of mafic/ultramafic target rock by the KT boundary impact might imply an additional KT impact site involving oceanic lithosphere. We speculate: 1) The Greater Antilles island chain ophiolite belt marks the rim of a ~700 km diameter impact basin, deformed and dismembered from an originally circular form by at least 50 million years of left lateral shear on the North American-Caribbean transform plate boundary; 2) Other ophiolite segments may similarly mark rims of large impact basins deformed to greater or lesser extent by, and serving as strain markers for, relative plate motions over geologic time; 3) The Greater Antilles/Chicxulub and Sulu Sea Basin/Spratly Island cases may constitute doublet craters of similar size ratio and separation distance; 4) Plate boundaries may be formed or modified by such impacts. Problems include: 1) The KT fireball layer should be tens of cm thick rather than a few mm thick [8-9]; 2) Impact basins of this size/scale are not expected in the Phanerozoic/Proterozoic [10]; References: [1] DePaolo D. J. et al. 1983. EPSL 64:356-373. [2] Hildebrand A. R. and Boynton W. V. 1988, LPI Contributions 673:78-79. [3] Hildebrand A. R. and Boynton W. V.. 1990. Science 248:843-847. [4] Montanari A. et al. 1983. Geology 11:668. [5] Bohor B. F. et al. 1989. Meteoritics 24:253. [6] Alvarez L. W. et al. 1980 Science 208:1095-1108. [7][8] Grieve R.A.F. and Cintala M.J. 1992 Meteoritics 27: 526-538. [9] Pierazzo E. et al. 1997 Icarus 127/2:408-423. [10] Ivanov B.A. et al. 2002 Asteroids III 89-101

  8. Potential sample sites for South Pole-Aitken basin impact melt within the Schrödinger basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Debra; Kring, David A.

    2015-10-01

    Determining the age of the South Pole-Aitken (SPA) basin ranks among the highest priorities in lunar science. This datum would constrain the timing of the oldest and largest basin-forming event on the Moon, information that is essential to any evaluation of the collisional evolution of the early Solar System. To locate material that preserves the age of SPA, a geochemical model of SPA impact melt is integrated with chemical and mineralogical analyses of the lunar surface determined from orbit. Results suggest the southern wall of Schrödinger basin contains material with the mineralogical and geochemical signatures of SPA melt and, thus, represents a candidate destination for sampling material that can constrain the age of the SPA impact.

  9. Quaternary colluvial episodes (Upper Paraná River Hydrographic Basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alethea E.M. Sallun

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Colluvial deposits occur extensively in the Upper Paraná River Hydrographic Basin (UPRHB in Southeastern,Southern, and Western central Brazil. These deposits were recognized as an allostratigraphic unit and related to creeping during the Quaternary. Every studied colluvial profile is homogeneous, which indicates relatively long periods of landscape stability that is sufficient for the development of a thick soil cover. The deposits were dated by luminescence and indicate periods of more intense colluvial deposition between 6 and 220 ky B.P. These events correspond approximately to the transitions between the oxygen isotope stages 2-3-4 and 5-6, suggesting that this aggradation was influenced by climatic changes. However, the most important alluviation episode was tentatively correlated with the Middle to Upper Pleniglacial of the Wisconsin glaciation. The most intensive and frequent periods of precipitation that occurred during climate transitions are probably correlated with aggradation events. The regularity of the colluvial deposits suggests continuous uplift accompanied by sediment deposition throughout the UPRHB due to neotectonic activity during the last million years.Depósitos coluviais ocorrem extensivamente na Bacia Hidrográfica do Alto Rio Paraná, no sudeste, sul e centro-oeste do Brasil. Esses depósitos foram reconhecidos como uma unidade aloestratigráfica, e são interpretados como depósitos formados por processos de rastejo durante o Quaternário. Cada perfil coluvial estudado é muito homogêneo, e indica relativamente períodos longos de estabilidade da paisagem, suficiente para desenvolvimento de espessa cobertura. Estes depósitos foram datados por luminescência para estabelecer cronologicamente períodos de deposição coluvial mais intensa entre 6 e 220 ky B.P. Estes eventos correspondem aproximadamente às transições entre os estágios de isótopos do oxigênio 2-3-4 e 5-6, sugerindo que essa agradação esteve

  10. Mercury in sediments from shelf and continental slope at Campos Basin near Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Beatriz; Hintelmann, Holger; Dimock, Brian; Gomes de Almeida, Marcelo; Falcão, Ana Paula; de Rezende, Carlos Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a global pollutant due to its ability to undergo long-range transport from source regions to remote parts of the world, and its ubiquitous presence in aquatic ecosystems. The Hg isotope ratios could be an effective tool for tracing the sources and process of Hg in the environment. This study aimed to establish the distribution of mercury in surface sediments of three transects (25- 3000m water depth) in continental shelf and slope in Campos Basin-RJ-Brazil, using the Hg isotopes to understand the geochemical processes relating to Hg cycling that occur in a subtropical coastal environment. The study area was divided into three transects: A (located to the south and close to a upwelling area), D (located opposite the mouth of the Paraiba do Sul River) and I (located north near the top of Vitória-ES). Sampling isobaths were 25, 50, 75, 100, 150, 400, 700, 1000, 1300, 1900, 2500 and 3000m. The Total Hg, MMHg and Hg stable isotopes were determined based on EPA Method 1631, EPA method 1630 and Foucher and Hintelmann (2006), respectively. The silt/clay ranged from 0.05 to 95%, and the organic carbon (OC) from 0.07 to 1.43 % for all transects. THg and MMHg concentrations in the shelf were 11.9 ± 7.2 (1.7- 22.2) ng.g‑1 and 0.15 ± 0.12 (0.02 - 0.40) ng.g‑1; in the slope 30.3 ± 9.2 (11.6 - 51.6) ng.g‑1 and 0.13 ± 0.06 (0.03 -0.29) ng.g‑1 , respectively. The δ202Hg and Δ199Hg varied from -0.32 to -1.85 ‰ (-0.79 ± 0.44‰) and -0.41 to 0.09 ‰ (-0.03 ± 0.12 ‰) for all transects, respectively. The delta values between both regions are significantly different, the shelf region showed δ202Hg from -0.59 to -2.19 ‰ (mean: -1.52 ±0.65) and Δ199Hg from - 0.53 to 0.08 ‰ (mean: -0.27 ±0.55) and the slope region were observed δ202Hg values from -0.32 to -1.82 ‰ (mean: -0.73 ±0.39 ‰ n=18) and gΔ199Hg from -0.23 to 0.09‰ (mean: -0.02 ±0.08‰ n=5). The slope appears to be enriched with heavier isotopes compared to the shelf, however

  11. Geochronological data from the Faxinal coal succession, southern Parana Basin, Brazil: A preliminary approach combining radiometric U-Pb dating and palynostratigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra-Sommer, M.; Cazzulo-Klepzig, M.; Menegat, R.; Formoso, M.L.L.; Basei, M.A.; Barboza, E.; Simas, M.W. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2008-03-15

    A radiometric zircon age of 285.4 {+-} 8.6 Ma (IDTIMS U-Pb) is reported from a tonstein layer interbedded with coal seams in the Faxinal coalfield, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Calibration of palynostratigraphic data with the absolute age shows that the coal depositional interval in the southern Parana Basin is constrained to the Sakmarian. Consequently, the basal Gondwana sequence in the southern part of the basin should lie at the Carboniferous-Permian boundary, not within the Sakmarian as previously considered. The new results are significant for correlations between the Parana Basin and the Argentinian Paganzo Basin (302 {+-} 6 Ma and 288 {+-} 7 Ma) and with the Karoo Basin, specifically with the top of the Dwyka Tillite (302 {+-} 3 Ma and 299.2 {+-} 3.2 Ma) and the lowermost Ecca Group (288 {+-} 3 Ma and 289.6 {+-} 3.8 Ma). The evidence signifies widespread latest Carboniferous volcanic activity in western Gondwana.

  12. Geomorphological and morphometric analysis of the river basin of Salsa, south coast of the state of Paraiba / Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper aims to extend the knowledge on the geomorphology of the river basin of Salsa , located in the municipality of Conde, State of Paraíba / Brazil . The research was to develop guiding object thematic maps related to morphometric aspects of the basin such as fluvial hierarchy , hypsometric and slope . After obtaining the morphometric data can assess the likely tectonic influences on the morphology of this basin. Literature searches , acquisition and analysis of cartographic data (satellite imagery , topographic and thematic maps), where with the help of software SPRING 5:03 , were made the thematic maps of the basin : For this research, the following milestones have been met. In addition, there have been two topographic profiles of the area through which it was possible to further analyze the geomorphological aspects and clinográficos watershed. Already in possession of the first results of this research it was observed with the analysis of charts and topographic profiles the high level of dissection Barriers Training and dissection of this discrepancy between the left and right margins . Barriers in Education, was observed indicative of tectonics from setbacks headwater quite different slots and obsequente towards the River Salsa (SN), which is discordant from the direction of the main waterways and Training Barriers own inclination is that WE . These findings are important because the geomorphological analysis of litoestatigráfica unit is of paramount importance for the understanding of the mechanisms governing the morphology of the northeast coast, mainly in relation to the mechanisms that govern the morphology of watersheds coast of Paraiba

  13. A new species of the catfish genus Centromochlus (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae: Centromochlinae from the upper rio Paraná basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Maria Sarmento-Soares

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Centromochlus comprises twelve species, distributed in the main inland watersheds of South America, including the Orinoco, Essequibo, coastal rivers of Suriname, Amazon, upper Paraná and São Francisco basins. The new species is described from the upper rio Paraná based on material collected in 1965 during the construction of the UHE Ilha Solteira, São Paulo, Brazil. The new species is easily distinguished from all congeners due to absence of adipose fin, a condition otherwise restricted to Gelanoglanis nanonocticolus, among centromochlin catfishes. The new species comprises small catfishes (adults ranging from 35 to 39 mm SL, in which modified anal fin of males is devoid of denticulations or spines, and most posterior rays reduced in length. In addition, Tatia simplex Mees is transferred to Centromochlus and its generic reassignment discussed.

  14. Copper speciation in Iguaçu river basin, at Curitiba's metropolitan region, Brazil, by ligand competition using DPASV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadeu Grassi, M.; Sodré, F. F.

    2003-05-01

    Copper concentrations and speciation in two different sites located in the Iguaçu River Basin, Brazil, were evaluated during a 10-months period, in this work. Results showed a seasonal influence on copper levels with a major contribution of non-point sources during the rainy season, when concentrations of copper were similar in both Irai and Iguaçu Rivers. During the dry season the discharge of raw sewage was the primary source of copper for the sampling point located downstream the city of Curitiba, in the Iguaçu River, which exhibited higher metal concentrations. Speciation results also showed different patterns. Higher copper contents were found in the particulate phase in Iguaçu River, whereas labile copper concentrations were relatively greater in Irai River waters.

  15. Geochemical behavior of radionuclides and heavy metals in soils from Corumbatai River basin (SP), Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this research was to study the geochemical behavior of radionuclides and heavy metals in soils of agricultural use at Corumbatai River basin (SP). The natural concentration and variability in sedimentary rocks at Corumbatai river basin follow the trend Ca > Mg > K > Na, with the concentration of heavy metals and radionuclides. The distribution of exposure rate in soils shows the occurrence of higher values towards south of the Corumbatai river basin, region where are applied phosphate fertilizers, amendments and 'vinhaca' in sugar cane crops. Heavy metals and radionuclides incorporated in phosphate fertilizers and amendments are annually added during the fertilization process in the sugar cane crops, but if they are utilized in accordance with the recommended rate, they do not rise the concentration levels in soils up to hazards levels. Thus, they are lower transferred from soils to sugar cane at Corumbatai river basin, not offering hazard to the ecosystem and animal or human health. (author)

  16. Geochemistry of Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) sills from deep boreholes in the Amazonas and Solimões basins, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatlen Heimdal, Thea; Svensen, Henrik H.; Pereira, Egberto; Planke, Sverre

    2016-04-01

    The Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) is one of the most extensive Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs), and is associated with the breakup of Pangea and the subsequent opening of the central Atlantic Ocean. A large part of the province, including > 1 M km2 basins containing sill intrusions, is located in Brazil but has received limited attention due to the lack of outcrops. We have studied CAMP sills from seven deep boreholes (up to 3100 m deep) in the Amazonas and Solimões basins, northern Brazil. The boreholes contain up to ~ 482 m of sills (18 % of the stratigraphy), with a maximum individual sill thickness of 140 m. The sills were partly emplaced into thick Carboniferous evaporites. The main mineral phases of the sills include plagioclase and pyroxene, with accessory apatite, biotite, ilmenite and quartz. The majority of the sills are low-Ti dolerites (TiO2 rocks range from basalt to basaltic andesite and plot in the tholeiitic field defined within the total alkali versus silica (TAS) classification. C1 chondrite normalized Rare Earth Element (REE) patterns for both Ti-groups show increasing LREE compared to HREE (La/Lu = 2.2 - 4.1) with no major anomalies, and attest to a relatively evolved nature (La = 17-65 ppm). Primitive mantle normalized patterns for low-Ti rocks show negative anomalies for Nb, Ta, P and Ti and positive for K, whereas the high-Ti rocks show generally opposite anomalies. Late stage patches in the dolerites contain apatite, quartz and Cl-bearing biotite, suggesting the presence of halogens that may partly derive from the host sedimentary rocks.

  17. Dealing with variability in water availability: the case of the Verde Grande River basin, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Collischonn, B.; Lopes, A. V.; Pante, A. R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a water resources management strategy developed by the Brazilian National Water Agency (ANA) to cope with the conflicts between water users in the Verde Grande River basin, located at the southern border of the Brazilian semi-arid region. The basin is dominated by water-demanding fruit irrigation agriculture, which has grown significantly and without adequate water use control, over the last 30 years. The current water demand for irrigation exceeds water availability (unde...

  18. Tectonic-stratigraphic evolution of Cumuruxatiba Basin - Brazil; Evolucao tectono-estratigrafica da Bacia de Cumuruxatiba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobato, Gustavo; Fernandes, Flavio L.; Silva, Eric Zagotto; Ferreira Neto, Walter Dias [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Modelagem Multidisciplinar de Bacias Sedimentares; Ribeiro, Juliana [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    In recent years, the exploratory interest on Cumuruxatiba Basin has been inconstant, with modest discoveries of oil. Aiming to deepen the geological knowledge of the basin and in order to attract the interest of oil companies, the ANP (National Agency of Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels) signed contract with COPPE/UFRJ for carrying out an analysis basin project. The project was developed by the Basin Analysis Multidisciplinary Modeling Laboratory (Lab2M/UFRJ) in the period 2006/2007, and was with the main objective outline the main structural and seismo-stratigraphic features of the basin, and in an integrated and multidisciplinary way, build a model of its sedimentation and tectono-stratigraphic evolution. This paper presents the results of the regional seismic mapping, aided by well and potential methods data. The stratigraphic succession the basin has been divided into genetic units (UN-B, UN-C e UN-D) corresponding to second order depositional sequences, they are: UN-B, corresponding by a rift and sag-rift siliciclastic deposits, plus the Aptian evaporitic deposits; UN-C, characterized by carbonatic deposits, and shelf related sediments; and UN-D, corresponding by a final transgressive (siliciclastic) - regressive (mix) cycle, between Cenomanian and actual days. (author)

  19. The Impact of Structured Teaching Methods on the Quality of Education in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leme, Maria Carolina; Louzano, Paula; Ponczek, Vladimir; Souza, Andre Portela

    2012-01-01

    This paper estimates the impact of the use of structured methods on the quality of education for students in primary public school in Brazil. Structured methods encompass a range of pedagogical and managerial instruments applied in the educational system. In recent years, several municipalities in the state of Sao Paulo have contracted out private…

  20. Mapping Music Education Research in Brazil and Argentina: The British Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschke, Liane; Martinez, Isabel

    2004-01-01

    In this brief article we share with our colleagues around the world the British impact on the development of music education and psychology of music research in Brazil and Argentina. Although both countries are pursuing similar research policies, their research areas differ. Brazilian research on music education has had its focus on curriculum…

  1. Benthic disturbance and impact experiments in the Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, R.; Nath, B.N.; Valsangkar, A.B.; Parthiban, G.; Sivakholundu, K.M.; Walker, G.A.

    As a part of the Environmental Impact Assessment studies for nodule mining, a long-term program has been initiated in the Central Indian Basin. Multidisciplinary studies on geological, biological, physical and chemical parameters were carried out...

  2. Eco-environmental impact of inter-basin water transfer projects: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Wen

    2016-07-01

    The objective reality of uneven water resource distribution and imbalanced water demand of the human society makes it inevitable to transfer water. It has been an age-old method to adopt the inter-basin water transfers (IBTs) for alleviating and even resolving the urgent demand of the water-deficient areas. A number of countries have made attempts and have achieved enormous benefits. However, IBTs inevitably involve the redistribution of water resources in relevant basins and may cause changes of the ecological environment in different basins. Such changes are two-sided, namely, the positive impacts, including adding new basins for water-deficient areas, facilitating water cycle, improving meteorological conditions in the recipient basins, mitigating ecological water shortage, repairing the damaged ecological system, and preserving the endangered wild fauna and flora, as well as the negative impacts, including salinization and aridification of the donor basins, damage to the ecological environment of the donor basins and the both sides of the conveying channel system, increase of water consumption in the recipient basins, and spread of diseases, etc. Because IBTs have enormous ecological risk, it is necessary to comprehensively analyze the inter-basin water balance relationship, coordinate the possible conflicts and environmental quality problems between regions, and strengthen the argumentation of the ecological risk of water transfer and eco-compensation measures. In addition, there are some effective alternative measures for IBTs, such as attaching importance to water cycle, improving water use efficiency, developing sea water desalination, and rainwater harvesting technology, etc. PMID:27178293

  3. Water budget comparison of global climate models and experimental data in Onça Creek basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, D. C. D.; Marin, I. S. P.; Wendland, E.

    2014-09-01

    Groundwater is an important part of the hydrological cycle, accounting for more than 25% of human needs on the global scale. As a result of aquifer overexploitation associated with climate change, even in the most conservative future climate scenarios, mean water-table levels can experience drastic drops. Although there are efforts to include groundwater dynamics in global climate models (GCMs), its influence is still not taken into full account in GCM water budgets, although it is as important as the other water sources considered. To assess the role of percolation in the water balance, we compared the water budget from climate forcing scenarios using 10 GCMs with the water budget from experimental data of a basin in São Paulo state, Brazil. We used the delta factor approach to correct the bias of the model's temperature and precipitation for a control period from 1970 to 1999, and calculated evapotranspiration using the Thornthwaite method. Experimental data for runoff and interception were derived for the basin's representative crops (sugar cane and pasture) for both water budgets. As the GCMs ignore subsurface flow and the only input considered is precipitation and snow melt, the excess surface water is assumed to be redistributed among the other water budget components. The experimental data shows that there is enough available water for infiltration, indicating that recharge cannot be ignored in the water balance. This leads to the possibility of the models' overestimating the other components to compensate for the ignored recharge.

  4. Socio-Environmental Impact Assessment of Oleaginous Crops for Biodiesel Production in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Geraldo Stachetti Rodrigues; Izilda Aparecida Rodrigues; Cláudio Cesar de Almeida Buschinelli; Marcos Antônio Vieira Ligo; Adriana Marlene Moreno Pires; Rosa T. S. Frighetto; Luiz José Maria Irias

    2007-01-01

    Socio-environmental impact assessments were carried out on oleaginous crops for biodiesel production under the context of expanding demand in five regions of Brazil. The study brought together representatives of the main interest groups in Delphi-type workshops. Major impacts are related with increases in demand for inputs, resources, and energy, with potential risks on water quality and habitat conservation. In some instances, management practices may improve soil quality, favoring habitats ...

  5. Jurassic–cretaceous deformational phases in the Paraná intracratonic basin, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Strieder

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the domes and basins, regional arcs and synclines, and brittle structures of the Paraná Basin flood volcanism to characterize the deformational phases in its Jurassic to Cretaceous history. First-stage fieldwork revealed brittle structures, extensional joints, and strike-slip faults, and second-stage fieldwork investigated the connections of the brittle structures to both open folds and dome-and-basin features. Fault-slip data inversion was performed using two different techniques to distinguish local and remote stress/strain. Geometric and kinematic analyses completed the investigations of the deformation, which characterized two deformational phases for the Jurassic to Cretaceous periods in the Paraná Basin. Both developed under regional bi-directional constrictional (σ1 ≥ σ2 ≫ σ3 stress regimes that produced a number of non-cylindrical folds. A D1 deformational phase produced the N–S and E–W orthogonally oriented domes and basins. The D2 arcs and synclines are oriented towards the NW and NE and indicate a clockwise rotation (35–40° of both horizontal principal stress tensors. The extensional joints and strike-slip faults characterize the local stress field in the outer rim of the orthogonally buckled single volcanic flow, whereas the inner rim of the buckled single flow supported constriction and thus, developed the local arcuate folds.

  6. Assessment of water quality in areas of ecological economic zoning of the Guapiaçu-Macacu basin, RJ, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Darcilio Fernandes Baptista; Jaime Lopes da Mota Oliveira; Lia Amorim Chaves Fernandes; Priscilla da Silva Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Aquatic ecosystems have often been significantly altered by multiple impacts. The Guapiaçu-Macacu Hydrographic Complex is an important basin in Rio de Janeiro characterized by distinct ecological zones that make up an Ecological Economic Zoning. This research evaluated ecological upright in segments of this Complex located in Wildlife Conservation Zone (WCZ) and the Agricultural Use Zone (AUZ) using the Protocol Visual Assessment (PVA) and physical, chemicals and microbiology methods. The res...

  7. Agriculture, Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil, South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    The large field patterns in this view of the Rio Sao Francisco basin, Brazil, South America, (11.5S, 43.5W) indicate a commercial agriculture venture; family subsistence farms are much smaller and laid out in different patterns. Land clearing in Brazil has increased at an alarming rate in recent years and preliminary estimates suggest a 25 to 30% increase in deforestation since 1984. The long term impact on the ecological processes are still unknown.

  8. Health Impact Assessment of Air Pollution in São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Karina Camasmie; Miraglia, Simone Georges El Khouri

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological research suggests that air pollution may cause chronic diseases, as well as exacerbation of related pathologies such as cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality. This study evaluates air pollution scenarios considering a Health Impact Assessment approach in São Paulo, Brazil. We have analyzed abatement scenarios of Particulate Matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter air pollution would also lower the demand for hospital care, since hospitalizations would diminish. In this sense, Brazil should urgently adopt WHO air pollution standards in order to improve the quality of life of its population. PMID:27409629

  9. Health Impact Assessment of Air Pollution in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Karina Camasmie; Miraglia, Simone Georges El Khouri

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological research suggests that air pollution may cause chronic diseases, as well as exacerbation of related pathologies such as cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality. This study evaluates air pollution scenarios considering a Health Impact Assessment approach in São Paulo, Brazil. We have analyzed abatement scenarios of Particulate Matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter resources are scarce. Moreover, the reduced levels of air pollution would also lower the demand for hospital care, since hospitalizations would diminish. In this sense, Brazil should urgently adopt WHO air pollution standards in order to improve the quality of life of its population. PMID:27409629

  10. Mudanças climáticas e impactos na necessidade hídrica das culturas perenes na Bacia do Jaguaribe, no Estado do Ceará Climate change and impacts on water requirement of permanent crops in the Jaguaribe Basin, Ceará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Sonsol Gondim

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os impactos das mudanças climáticas na demanda de água para irrigação de culturas perenes, na Bacia do Jaguaribe, no Estado do Ceará. Foi empregado o sistema integrado de modelagem regional PRECIS ("Providing Regional Climates for Impact Studies", e aplicado o método de redução de escala de bacia hidrográfica, com as condições de contorno do modelo climático regional (HadRM3P. Foi utilizado um conjunto de climatologia de base do modelo de 1961 a 1990 e de projeções climáticas futuras. As coordenadas geográficas da região em estudo foram consideradas para interpolação num sistema de informação geográfica. A evapotranspiração de referência foi estimada por meio de dados da temperatura média mensal. As mudanças climáticas projetadas aumentaram a demanda projetada de água para irrigação, porque a evapotranspiração foi estimada para aumentos de 3,1 a 2,2% e a precipitação pluvial foi estimada para diminuições de 30,9 a 37,3%. O aumento da necessidade hídrica foi estimada em 32,9% a 43,9%, para o ano de 2040, conforme o cenário analisado.The aim of this study was to estimate climate change impacts on irrigation water demand for permanent crops. The PRECIS (Providing Regional Climates for Impact Studies system was applied, and downscaling techniques were used at the river basin level, with the boundary conditions of the regional climate model (HadRM3P. A climate data set was generated for 1961 to 1990 (baseline and for future climate projections. The regional geographical coordinates were considered for interpolation in a georeferenced coordinated system. The reference evapotranspiration was estimated through data of monthly average temperature. Projected climate change increased projected irrigation water demand, because evapotranspiration was estimated to increase by 3.1 to 2.2% and rainfall was estimated to decrease by 30.9 to 37.3%. The 2040 water need was estimated to

  11. Infrastructure sufficiency in meeting water demand under climate-induced socio-hydrological transition in the urbanizing Capibaribe River BasinBrazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ribeiro Neto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Water availability for a range of human uses will increasingly be affected by climate change especially in the arid and semi-arid tropics. This paper aims to evaluate the ability of reservoirs and related infrastructure to meet targets for water supply in the Capibaribe River Basin (CRB, in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. The basin has experienced spatial and sectoral (agriculture-urban reconfiguration of water demands. Human settlements that were once dispersed, relying on intermittent sources of surface water, are now increasingly experiencing water-scarcity effects. As a result, rural populations in the CRB are concentrating around infrastructural water supplies in a socio-hydrological transition process that results from (a hydroclimatic variability, (b investment and assistance programs that may enhance but can also supplant local adaptive capacity, and (c demographic trends driving urbanization of the state capital, Recife, which mirror urban growth across Brazil. In the CRB, demands are currently composed of 69.1% urban potable water, 14.3% industrial, 16.6% irrigation (with ecosystem-service demands met by residual flow. Based on the application of linked hydrologic and water-resources models using precipitation and temperature projections of the IPCC SRES A1B scenario, a reduction in rainfall of 31.8% translated to streamflow reduction of 67.4% under present reservoir operations rules. The increasing demand due to population was also taken into account. This would entail severe water supply reductions for human consumption (−45.3% and irrigation (−78.0% by the end of the 21st century. This study demonstrates the vulnerabilities of the infrastructure system during socio-hydrological transition in response to hydroclimatic and demand variabilities in the CRB and also indicates the differential spatial impacts and vulnerability of multiple uses of water to changes over time. The paper concludes with a discussion of the broader

  12. Green line fracturing systems fluids in Campos Basin, Brazil; Sistemas de fluidos de fraturamento na Bacia de Campos: evolucao em beneficio do meio ambiente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Alexandre B. de; Araujo, Cosme J.C. de; Martinho, Flavio M.; Gaspar, Fernando [BJ Services do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The constant demand for Services Companies in Oil and Gas Industry to reduce the environmental impacts has led to a race in search of new cleaner technologies. Fluids with low toxicity are the target of research and development by the companies which are committed to ensure the aspects of quality, health, safety and environment from manufacturing up to the use in the final destination of these products. The replacement of these fluids is happening at a larger speed than in the past on the based in two factors: greater awareness on the part of these companies in relation to the environmental and by new environmental laws. The fluids systems used in fracturing operations are not an exception to this rule. Service companies today are in the process of replacing their formulations with systems less aggressive to the environment so-called 'green' systems. In this context the new technological developments of fracturing fluids are of fundamental importance to assist the new environmental requirements of both operators and government regulatory bodies and also to ensure better effectiveness of these products. This paper reports the research, development and application of new environmentally acceptable fracturing fluids technology, reviews the pioneering case histories in offshore operations and the benefits experienced in the Campos Basin - Brazil. (author)

  13. Strengthening Adaptation to Extreme Climate Events in Southwestern Amazonia: an Example from the Trinational Acre River Basin in the Madre de Dios/Peru - Acre/Brazil - Pando/Bolivia (MAP) Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, I. F.

    2015-12-01

    Southwestern Amazonia, where Bolivia, Brazil and Peru meet, faces numerous challenges to the sustainable utilization of land and water resources as the region experiences rapid population and economic growth, expanding agriculture, transportation and energy sectors, along with frequent flooding and droughts. It is also predicted to be one of the most susceptible areas for climate change in the coming decade. The Acre River Basin, one of the few trinational basins in Amazonia, lies at the center of the Madre de Dios Region (Peru), Acre State (Brazil) and Pando Department (Bolivia) or MAP Region. It covers approximately 7,500 km2 and its inhabitants range from indigenous groups avoiding contact with industrial society to more than 60,000 dwellers of a binational urban center. The basin incorporates most the challenges facing the region and this paper discusses steps underway to address the basin's vulnerability to climate-related threats. A trinational group of professionals used GIS databases and local knowledge to classify these threats and possible societal responses. To prioritize threats and to propose responses, this group adapted a method proposed by the Queensland Climate Change Centre of Excellence of Australia to develop climate risk matrices for assessing impacts, adaptation, risk and vulnerability. The three priority climate variables were prolonged and more frequent droughts, more intense flooding, and more days with temperatures > 35oC. The final matrix proposed two areas of concentration - 1) Reduce the vulnerability of communities to hydro-meteorological extreme events and 2) Protect and restore ecosystems that maintain critical water-related resources with actions in public policy, capacity-building, and immediate activities. These results are being incorporated into the Amazon Project of the Global Environment Fund of the United Nations Environment Program, administered by the Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organization (ACTO).

  14. Four new species of Polycirrus Grube, 1850 (Polychaeta: Terebellidae) from Campos Basin, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrerette, Orlemir; Nogueira, João Miguel De Matos

    2013-01-01

    Four new species of Polycirrus were collected at the Campos Basin, state of Rio de Janeiro, during a survey coordinated by CENPES/PETROBRAS under the scope of the project, "Environmental Heterogeneity in the Campos Basin". These species are P. nonatoi sp. nov., P. papillosus sp. nov., P. breviuncinatus sp. nov., and P. habitats sp. nov. All these species are herein described and compared with the morphologically most similar congeners. In addition, a key is provided for the identification of the species of Polycirrus which have been originally described for the Brazilian coast. PMID:26176130

  15. Deep structure of the Santos Basin-São Paulo Plateau System, SE Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Evain, M.; Afilhado, A; Rigoti, C; Loureiro, A.; D. Alves; Klingelhoefer, F.; Schnurle, P; Feld, A.; Fuck, R.; Soares, J.; de Lima, M. Vinicius; Corela, C.; L. Matias; Benabdellouahed, M.; Baltzer, A.

    2015-01-01

    International audience The structure and nature of the crust underlying the Santos Basin-São Paulo Plateau System (SSPS), in the SE Brazilian margin, are discussed based on five wide-angle seismic profiles acquired during the Santos Basin (SanBa) experiment in 2011. Velocity models allow us to precisely divide the SSPS in six domains from unthinned continental crust (Domain CC) to normal oceanic crust (Domain OC). A seventh domain (Domain D), a triangular shape region in the SE of the SSPS...

  16. Actual stage of organic geochemical knowledge from Campos and Espirito Santo basins, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos and Espirito Santo basins display several similar geochemical aspects. The microbial and other degradation processes caused changes in the composition of the oils in the reservoir rocks. The oils are biodegraded in different degrees, with the reservoir temperature developing an important role in the control of the biodegradation process. The migration pathway model is similar for Campos and Espirito Santo basins, involving the upward secondary migration through a window in the evaporitic seals. The oils passed to the marine sequence where migration and accumulation were controlled by faults, regional unconformities and by reservoirs. The geochemical correlation of oils are realized by gaseous and liquid chromatography analysis, carbon isotopes and biolabelled compounds. (author)

  17. Uranium prospecting in Cerro Partido Region-Encruzilhada do Sul Basin-RS, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cerro Partido residual basin is a shallow (85 meters) and small (25km2) sedimentary basin, a remainder of the erosive cicle, enclosed in the pre-cambrian granitic rocks of the Rio Grande do Sul Shield. Grades of 0.2+ U3O8 were found in its upper-paleozoic sandstones and shales drilles for uranium. The small size and thicknesses of these concentrations prevent their economic mining. However, the different levels of the shield exposed by tectonics, the intrusive granitic, riolitic and syenitic rocks, the anomalous uranium contents in sedimentary and crystalline rocks recommend further investigations on the shield area

  18. Evaluation of different methods to estimate daily reference evapotranspiration in ungauged basins in Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro Fontoura, Jessica; Allasia, Daniel; Herbstrith Froemming, Gabriel; Freitas Ferreira, Pedro; Tassi, Rutineia

    2016-04-01

    Evapotranspiration is a key process of hydrological cycle and a sole term that links land surface water balance and land surface energy balance. Due to the higher information requirements of the Penman-Monteith method and the existing data uncertainty, simplified empirical methods for calculating potential and actual evapotranspiration are widely used in hydrological models. This is especially important in Brazil, where the monitoring of meteorological data is precarious. In this study were compared different methods for estimating evapotranspiration for Rio Grande do Sul, the Southernmost State of Brazil, aiming to suggest alternatives to the recommended method (Penman-Monteith-FAO 56) for estimate daily reference evapotranspiration (ETo) when meteorological data is missing or not available. The input dataset included daily and hourly-observed data from conventional and automatic weather stations respectively maintained by the National Weather Institute of Brazil (INMET) from the period of 1 January 2007 to 31 January 2010. Dataset included maximum temperature (Tmax, °C), minimum temperature (Tmin, °C), mean relative humidity (%), wind speed at 2 m height (u2, m s‑1), daily solar radiation (Rs, MJ m‑ 2) and atmospheric pressure (kPa) that were grouped at daily time-step. Was tested the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Penman-Monteith method (PM) at its full form, against PM assuming missing several variables not normally available in Brazil in order to calculate daily reference ETo. Missing variables were estimated as suggested in FAO56 publication or from climatological means. Furthermore, PM was also compared against the following simplified empirical methods: Hargreaves-Samani, Priestley-Taylor, Mccloud, McGuiness-Bordne, Romanenko, Radiation-Temperature, Tanner-Pelton. The statistical analysis indicates that even if just Tmin and Tmax are available, it is better to use PM estimating missing variables from syntetic data than

  19. The impacts of mega discoveries of oil and natural gas in the pre-salt Santos Basin: Brazil 2000 - 2030 - 2050; Os impactos das mega descobertas de oleo e gas natural no pre-sal da Bacia de Santos: Brasil 2000 - 2030 - 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahia, Raymundo Ruy; Reis, Lucio Eduardo Solano [Universidade da Amazonia (GEPEE/UNAMA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Nucleo de Socio-economia. Grupo de Estudos e Pesquisas Economicas Energeticas], e-mail: ruybahia@uol.com.br, e-mail: lereis2000@gmail.com

    2008-07-01

    This paper is a follow-up of four papers presented at the V CBPE 2006 e XI CBE 2006 updating the investment needs to expand the electric energy (EE) Offer. Such analysis revealed an hydro matrix over cost investments of 293 bi US$ (10bi US$/year) as compared to the hydro thermo matrix. Such data proof the unviability to supply the Southern, Southeastern and Central-West regions demand with Amazonian hydroelectricity. Furthermore, evaluations about the impacts of the huge underestimate volumes of proved reserves of oil and NG of 20 Gboe from the Projects Tupi, Carioca and Parati and Jupiter discoveries are limited to a small geographic area of 15,000 sqkm (122 x 122 km) that is only 9 percent of the Pre-Salt total area of 160,000 sqkm supporting the hypothesis of 160 Gboe for the ultimate ROR for both Campos and Pre-Salt Basins plus all others exploratory fronts offshore and onshore. In this probable case the mid-points of oil and NG will migrate to the 2070 year. Under these circumstances either scenarios will support the oil and NG self-sufficiencies for those regions Southern, Southeastern and Central-West regions, up to the 2050 year and probably extended to the 2070 year. The estimated volume of the potential proved reserve NG Jupiter Project is also underestimate but large enough (7,0 Gboe = 1,100 billion of cubic meter= Gmc) to supply 80 percent (80 GW) of the total 101 GW expansion offer of EE up to the 2030 year. Finally there is not a single good reason to justify the supply the EE demand of the Southern, Southeastern and Central-West regions with the unviable Amazonian hydroelectricity. (author)

  20. Geochronologic study of sediments deposition of two lakes from the Rio Negro basin, Amazonas State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1963 the radionuclide 210Pb became an important tool for dating (geochronology) recent sediments (up to 120 years). In this work the sedimentary geochronology of two lakes from the Negro River Basin was determined, using different radiochemical separation methods for 210Pb and 226Ra. (author)

  1. Molecular differentiation of species of the genus Zungaro (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae) from the Amazon and Paraná-Paraguay River basins in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boni, T A; Padial, A A; Prioli, S M A P; Lucio, L C; Maniglia, T C; Bignotto, T S; Panarari-Antunes, R S; Prioli, R A; Prioli, A J

    2011-01-01

    Fish species of the Zungaro genus (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae) are amongst the largest migratory fish in Latin America and have considerable economic importance for commercial fishing in Brazil. However, natural populations of this large catfish are experiencing a severe decline. There are significant taxonomical inconsistencies for this fish. Two geographically separated species of the fish were initially described, one endemic in the Amazon and another in the Paraná-Paraguay River basins. A taxonomic review had recently proposed that there is only one Zungaro species in Brazil, based on morphological data. We made a molecular study of Zungaro populations in an attempt to solve taxonomical inconsistencies and to analyze genetic diversity in natural populations of this genus. We analyzed two regions of the mitochondrial DNA (the control region and the ATPase 6 gene region) of individuals sampled from the Paraná-Paraguay River and Amazon River basins. Analyses based on p-distances and maximum likelihood phylogenetic models showed a genetic difference between populations corresponding to different species. Genetic differentiation between Zungaro populations was at the same level as that observed between other Siluriformes species, using the same DNA sequences. We conclude that Zungaro species of the Paraná-Paraguay River basin do not belong to the same species found in the Amazon basin. This finding has a significant implication for conservation of this fish, given that populations are disappearing at a high rate in the Paraná-Paraguay River basin, mainly due to impoundments. PMID:22095604

  2. Seven new species of the killifish genus Rivulus (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae) from the Paraná, Paraguay and upperAraguaia river basins, central Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson J. E. M. Costa

    2005-01-01

    Seven new species of the Rivulus punctatus group collected during recent field studies in central Brazil are described. Rivulus dapazi n. sp., from the upper rio Correntes drainage, rio Paraguay basin, is diagnosed by a unique color pattern of the anal and caudal fins in males; R. cyanopterus n. sp., from the upper rio São Lourenço drainage, rio Paraguay basin, is diagnosed by a unique color pattern of the anal fin in both sexes; R. rossoi n. sp., from the rio Inhanduí drainage, rio Paraná ba...

  3. Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technological advances by newly industrialized countries (NICs) have become a central concern of the recent literature on the political economy of development. Striking a fatal blow to dependency thinking, in so far as it had diagnosed a structural barrier to technological development, these countries have absorbed foreign technology and have developed a very impressive domestic technological capacity. Moreover, their exports have evolved from a traditional reliance on raw materials and unprocessed goods to include increasingly sophisticated manufactured goods and technology itself. The capabilities, motivations, and structures behind nuclear exports must be examined in light of these secular trends. This paper reports on this exploratory analysis of the country's emergence as a nuclear supplier which focuses on six major areas: the balance of motivations and constraints underlying Brazil's nuclear export potential; areas of extant capabilities that would allow the country to play a significant role as a nuclear supplier; formal and informal structures beneath nuclear export policy; patterns of nuclear trade as reflected in past transactions; prospects for continuity and change; generalizability of findings to other emerging suppliers

  4. Lunar Impact Basins: Stratigraphy, Sequence and Ages from Superposed Impact Crater Populations Measured from Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassett, C. I.; Head, J. W.; Kadish, S. J.; Mazarico, E.; Neumann, G. A.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.

    2012-01-01

    Impact basin formation is a fundamental process in the evolution of the Moon and records the history of impactors in the early solar system. In order to assess the stratigraphy, sequence, and ages of impact basins and the impactor population as a function of time, we have used topography from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) to measure the superposed impact crater size-frequency distributions for 30 lunar basins (D = 300 km). These data generally support the widely used Wilhelms sequence of lunar basins, although we find significantly higher densities of superposed craters on many lunar basins than derived by Wilhelms (50% higher densities). Our data also provide new insight into the timing of the transition between distinct crater populations characteristic of ancient and young lunar terrains. The transition from a lunar impact flux dominated by Population 1 to Population 2 occurred before the mid-Nectarian. This is before the end of the period of rapid cratering, and potentially before the end of the hypothesized Late Heavy Bombardment. LOLA-derived crater densities also suggest that many Pre-Nectarian basins, such as South Pole-Aitken, have been cratered to saturation equilibrium. Finally, both crater counts and stratigraphic observations based on LOLA data are applicable to specific basin stratigraphic problems of interest; for example, using these data, we suggest that Serenitatis is older than Nectaris, and Humboldtianum is younger than Crisium. Sample return missions to specific basins can anchor these measurements to a Pre-Imbrian absolute chronology.

  5. Pulling Marbles from a Bag: Deducing the Regional Impact History of the SPA Basin from Impact Melt Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Barbara A.; Coker, R. F.

    2009-01-01

    The South Pole-Aitken (SPA) basin is an important target for absolute age-dating. Vertical and lateral impact mixing ensures that regolith within SPA will contain rock fragments from SPA itself, local impact craters, and faraway giant basins. About 20% of the regolith at any given site is foreign [1, 2], but much of this material will be cold ejecta, not impact melt. We calculated the fraction of contributed impact melt using scaling laws to estimate the amount and provenance of impact melt, demonstrating that SPA melt is the dominant impact melt rock (>70%) likely to be present. We also constructed a statistical model to illustrate how many randomly-selected impact-melt fragments would need to be dated, and with what accuracy, to confidently reproduce the impact history of a site. A detailed impact history becomes recognizable after a few hundred to a thousand randomly-selected marbles, however, it will be useful to have more information (e.g. compositional, mineralogical, remote sensing) to group fragments. These exercises show that SPA melt has a high probability of being present in a scoop sample and that dating of a few hundred to a thousand impact-melt fragments will yield the impact history of the SPA basin.

  6. Zircon fission track and U–Pb dating methods applied to São Paulo and Taubaté Basins located in the southeast Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zircon samples from the Cenozoic São Paulo and Taubaté Basins and Mantiqueira Mountain Range (southeast Brazil) were concomitantly dated by zircon Fission Track Method (FTM) and in situ U–Pb dating method. While FTM detrital-zircon data are ideally used to provide low-temperature information, U–Pb single detrital grain ages record the time of zircon formation in igneous or high grade metamorphic environments. This methodology may be used to study the possible sources of the basins sediments. The results suggest that the São Paulo Basin is composed of sediments from just one source, the Mantiqueira Mountain Range. On the other hand, the Taubaté Basin presents further sediment sources besides the Mantiqueira Mountain Range. - Highlights: ► Zircons from São Paulo and Taubaté Basins were dated by FTM and U–Pb. ► The zircon ages were compared with ages from the Mantiqueira Mountain Range (source). ► Results suggest the Mantiqueira is the source of sediments for the São Paulo Basin. ► The Taubaté Basin presents further sediment sources besides the Mantiqueira

  7. Climate and Hydrological Data Analysis for hydrological and solute transport modelling purposes in the Muriaé River basin, Atlantic Forest Biome, SE Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Juliana; Künne, Annika; Kralisch, Sven; Fink, Manfred; Brenning, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    The Muriaé River basin in SE Brazil has been experiencing an increasing pressure on water resources, due to the population growth of the Rio de Janeiro urban area connected with the growth of the industrial and agricultural sector. This leads to water scarcity, riverine forest degradation, soil erosion and water quality problems among other impacts. Additionally the region has been suffering with seasonal precipitation variations leading to extreme events such as droughts, floods and landslides. Climate projections for the near future indicate a high inter-annual variability of rainfall with an increase in the frequency and intensity of heavy rainfall events combined with a statistically significant increase in the duration of dry periods and a reduced duration of wet periods. This may lead to increased soil erosion during the wet season, while the longer dry periods may reduce the vegetation cover, leaving the soil even more exposed and vulnerable to soil erosion. In consequence, it is crucial to understand how climate affects the interaction between the timing of extreme rainfall events, hydrological processes, vegetation growth, soil cover and soil erosion. In this context, physically-based hydrological modelling can contribute to a better understanding of spatial-temporal process dynamics in the Earth's system and support Integrated Water Resourses Management (IWRM) and adaptation strategies. The study area is the Muriaé river basin which has an area of approx. 8000 km² in Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro States. The basin is representative of a region of domain of hillslopes areas with the predominancy of pasture for livestock production. This study will present some of the relevant analyses which have been carried out on data (climate and streamflow) prior to using them for hydrological modelling, including consistency checks, homogeneity, pattern and statistical analyses, or annual and seasonal trends detection. Several inconsistencies on the raw data were

  8. Natural Arsenic in Groundwater and Alkaline Lakes at the upper Paraguay basin, Pantanal, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Barbiero, Laurent; Furquim, S.A.C.; Vallès, Vincent; Furian, S.; Sakamoto, Arnaldo; Rezende Filho, A.,; Fort, Monique

    2007-01-01

    A distinctive feature of Nhecolândia, a sub-region of the Pantanal wetland in Brazil, is the presence of both saline (alkaline) and freshwater lakes. Saline lakes were attributed to a past arid phase during the Pleistocene, but recent studies have shown that the geochemistry of the saline lakes arises from the current concentration process of fresh waters that is supplied to the Pantanal every year. The region is mainly used for cattle farming, more recently eco-tourism is becoming widespread...

  9. A new species of Scinax Wagler, 1830 (Anura: Hylidae from the middle Amazon river basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo José Sturaro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the hylid genus Scinax is described and illustrated. The new taxon was found in the Amazonian rainforest of northern Brazil, municipalities of Maués and Careiro da Várzea, state of Amazonas. The new species is characterized by its moderate size (male mean snout-vent length 36.3mm; body robust; large, orange, black-bordered axillary and inguinal spots; and bilobate vocal sac. This new species was found in primary and secondary forest on branches of shrubs or trees in, or next to, permanent ponds and flooded areas.

  10. Sedimentary and tectonic environments for uranium mineralization on the Parana Basin, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Parana Basin is an isolated intracratonic basin in Southeastern South America and is characterized by Paleozoic and Mesozoic clastic sediments and by the location of one of the world's largest lava flows. Uranium mineralization occurs mainly in lower Devonian epineritic feldsphatic sandstones and in fluvio-deltaic channels developed in middle Permian mudstones and sandstones. Stratigraphic and sedimentologic conditions plus tectonic barriers in association with underground water controlled the mineralization. Two uranium deposits with 4250 and 6800 tonnes U of RAR plus EAR were found containing primary (pitchblende and coffinite) and secondary (autunite, sabugalite, uranocircite) minerals. A paleochannel model for the Permo-carboniferous mineralization is quite well established whereas many questions are still open for the confirmation of a model for the Devonian occurrences. Host rock sedimentary environment, ore-forming conditions and source rocks are discussed. (author)

  11. TOTAL MERCURY (HgT) BIOACCUMULATION AND FISH FOOD HABITS IN NEGRO RIVER BASIN, AMAZON, BRAZIL

    OpenAIRE

    Jean Louchard Ferreira Soares; Ynglea Georgina de Freitas Goch; José Reinaldo Pacheco Peleja; Bruce Rider Forsberg; Edivaldo Júnior de Souza Lemos; Otávio Peleja de Sousa

    2016-01-01

    In the Amazon, the fish is the main nutritional source for the riverine. Thus, fish have been commonly used in environmental monitoring work to be good biomonitors. This study analyzed the total mercury concentration (THg) in fish of different species and feeding habits in order to investigate the existence of bioaccumulation in species in the basin of the Negro river and verify that the THg levels found are in accordance with the stipulated limit for consumption human. Sampling points were d...

  12. Microhabitat preferences of six Drosera (Droseraceae) from Tibagi river basin, Paraná state, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis Panayotis Saridakis; José Marcelo Domingues Torezan; Galdino Andrade

    2004-01-01

    We studied the microhabitats and the climatic requirements of six Drosera taxa, which occur in the subtropical grasslands of the Tibagi river basin. They are annual,or most communly, perennial herbs known as carnivorous plants, whose leaves are transformed into traps for the capture and digestion of small insects as an adaptation for supplying nutricional deficiencies. They usually occur in distrophic substrata. In order to contribute to conservation plans for the species of the genus, threat...

  13. Hydrochemistry of the Parauari-Maues Acu river basin (Amazon region, Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical composition of the Parauari-Maues Acu basin is studied through the determination of pH, calcium, magnesium, iron, chloride, sodium, potassium, zinc, copper and manganese. Four expeditions were made and samples were collected in 16 different points of the main course. Chemical analysis of the rivers waters shows seasonal flutuations of the concentrations of the elements in the main river as well as in the main afluents like Nambi river, Amana river and Urupadi river. (Author)

  14. Three new species of Hyphessobrycon (Characiformes: Characidae) from the upper rio Araguaia basin in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Flávio C. T. Lima; Cristiano R. Moreira

    2003-01-01

    Three new species of Hyphessobrycon (Characiformes: Characidae) are described from the upper rio Araguaia basin. Hyphessobrycon langeanii n. sp. is distinguished from all congeners by the presence of a well-defined, round humeral spot, a reticulate color pattern, a broad, horizontally-elongate caudal-peduncle blotch, and a relatively wide, faint midlateral dark stripe. Hyphessobrycon eilyos n. sp. is distinguished from all congeners by the absence of humeral and caudal spots; by the presence ...

  15. The evolution of Neoproterozoic magmatism in Southernmost Brazil: shoshonitic, high-K tholeiitic and silica-saturated, sodic alkaline volcanism in post-collisional basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sommer Carlos A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Neoproterozoic shoshonitic and mildly alkaline bimodal volcanism of Southernmost Brazil is represented by rock assemblages associated to sedimentary successions, deposited in strike-slip basins formed at the post-collisional stages of the Brasilian/Pan-African orogenic cycle. The best-preserved volcano sedimentary associations occur in the Camaquã and Campo Alegre Basins, respectively in the Sul-riograndense and Catarinense Shields and are outside the main shear belts or overlying the unaffected basement areas. These basins are characterized by alternation of volcanic cycles and siliciclastic sedimentation developed dominantly on a continental setting under subaerial conditions. This volcanism and the coeval plutonism evolved from high-K tholeiitic and calc-alkaline to shoshonitic and ended with a silica-saturated sodic alkaline magmatism, and its evolution were developed during at least 60 Ma. The compositional variation and evolution of post-collisional magmatism in southern Brazil are interpreted as the result mainly of melting of a heterogeneous mantle source, which includes garnet-phlogopite-bearing peridotites, veined-peridotites with abundant hydrated phases, such as amphibole, apatite and phlogopite, and eventually with the addition of an asthenospheric component. The subduction-related metasomatic character of post-collisional magmatism mantle sources in southern Brazil is put in evidence by Nb-negative anomalies and isotope features typical of EM1 sources.

  16. The evolution of Neoproterozoic magmatism in Southernmost Brazil: shoshonitic, high-K tholeiitic and silica-saturated, sodic alkaline volcanism in post-collisional basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Carlos A; Lima, Evandro F; Nardi, Lauro V S; Liz, Joaquim D; Waichel, Breno L

    2006-09-01

    The Neoproterozoic shoshonitic and mildly alkaline bimodal volcanism of Southernmost Brazil is represented by rock assemblages associated to sedimentary successions, deposited in strike-slip basins formed at the post-collisional stages of the Brasilian/Pan-African orogenic cycle. The best-preserved volcano sedimentary associations occur in the Camaquã and Campo Alegre Basins, respectively in the Sul-riograndense and Catarinense Shields and are outside the main shear belts or overlying the unaffected basement areas. These basins are characterized by alternation of volcanic cycles and siliciclastic sedimentation developed dominantly on a continental setting under subaerial conditions. This volcanism and the coeval plutonism evolved from high-K tholeiitic and calc-alkaline to shoshonitic and ended with a silica-saturated sodic alkaline magmatism, and its evolution were developed during at least 60 Ma. The compositional variation and evolution of post-collisional magmatism in southern Brazil are interpreted as the result mainly of melting of a heterogeneous mantle source, which includes garnet-phlogopite-bearing peridotites, veined-peridotites with abundant hydrated phases, such as amphibole, apatite and phlogopite, and eventually with the addition of an asthenospheric component. The subduction-related metasomatic character of post-collisional magmatism mantle sources in southern Brazil is put in evidence by Nb-negative anomalies and isotope features typical of EM1 sources. PMID:16936944

  17. Late Neogene Sequence Stratigraphic Evolution of the Foz do Amazonas Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorini, Christian; Haq, Bilal U.; Tadeu dos Reis, Antonio; Guizan Silva, Cleverson; Cruz, Alberto; Soares, Emilson; Grangeon, Didier

    2014-05-01

    The margin of the Foz do Amazonas Basin saw a shift from predominantly carbonate to siliciclastic sedimentation in the early late Miocene. By this time the Amazon shelf had also been incised by a canyon that allowed direct influx of sediment to the basin floor, thus confirming that the paleo-Amazon fan had already initiated by that time (9.5-8.3Ma). Above this interval, during a prolonged lowstand, Messinian third-order sequences are preserved only in the incised-valley fills of the canyon with no equivalent strata on the shelf. Third and fourth-order sequences younger than Messinian are preserved on the shelf after sea-level rise above the shelf by early Pliocene. Sequences younger than 3.8 Ma often show fourth-order cyclicity with average duration of 400 kyr (larger scale eccentricity cycles) often preserved in high sedimentation rate areas of river deltas. Mass wasting and transportation of slope sediments to the basin began to play an important role in sediment dispersal at least as far back as mid Pliocene, after rapid progradation had produced steeper slopes 23 more prone to failure.

  18. Conodont color alteration index and upper Paleozoic thermal history of the Amazonas Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Cassiane Negreiros; Sanz-López, Javier; Blanco-Ferrera, Silvia; Lemos, Valesca Brasil; Scomazzon, Ana Karina

    2015-12-01

    The conodont color alteration index (CAI) was determined in elements from core samples of the Frasnian Barreirinha Formation (one well) and of the Pennsylvanian-Permian Tapajós Group (twenty three wells and one limestone quarry) in the Amazonas Basin. The thermal history of the basin is analyzed using the CAI value distribution represented in maps and stratigraphic sections through correlation schemes, and in conjunction with previously published data. The pattern of palaeotemperatures for CAI values of 1.5-3 is coincident with organic matter maturation under a sedimentary overburden providing diagenetic conditions in the oil/gas window. Locally, conodonts show metamorphism (CAI value of 6-7) in relation to the intrusion of diabase bodies in beds including high geothermal gradient evaporites. Microtextural alteration on the surface conodonts commonly shows several types of overgrowth microtextures developed in diagenetic conditions. Locally, recrystallization in conodonts with a high CAI value is congruent with contact metamorphism in relation to Mesozoic intrusions. The CAI values of 1.5 or 2 observed close to the surface in several areas of the basin may be interpreted in relation to a high thermal palaeogradient derived from the magmatic episode or/and to the local denudation of the upper part of the Paleozoic succession prior to this thermal event.

  19. The Neo-Alagoas in the Ceara, Araripe and Potiguar basins (Brazil): stratigraphic and paleoecologycal caracterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stratigraphic analysis of the Alagoas Stage (local stage) in Ceara Basin allows the investigated interval to be divided into two parts, with distictive tectono-sedimentary and paleobiological features. The lower part shows non-marine environmental character and the upper part, informally named Aptian-Albian transition, contains marine organisms in certain levels. These records would represent the first phases of a primitive equatorial Atlantic Ocean in the area. The Trairi Beds at the top of the continental section were deposited in an environmental complex which includes a marginal sabkha, reflecting cyclical conditions of extreme aridity or humidity. Similar events have ocurred in the Potiguar Basin with the Ponta do Tubarao Beds and in Araripe Basin with the deposition of thinny calcareous and shale layers, here informally named ''Batateria Beds''. These environmental conditions provided an excellent setting for preservation of organic matter due to cyclical anoxic processes. The observation that the organic extracts from shales of all these strata are similar supports the hypothesis of correspondence of these events. (author)

  20. Study of silting on basin streams of Bodocongó, Campina Grande, State of Paraiba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelma Sales Santos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to produce thematic maps that reflect the expansion of space-time silting of the basin's Creek Bodocongó for the period from 1989 to 2007. The study area is located in the marsh west of the state of Paraiba in the city of Campina Grande. Analysis of images TM/Landsat-5, SSC / CBERS - 2 and data from work the field were made. The digital processing of Landsat images was performed from SPRING - 4.3. The results showed that the basin presented a reduction in the mirror of the water dam around 19% over 18 years. Between the years 1989 and 2007, this dam had 27.28 ha of mirror of water, already in April 2007 this area was reduced to 22.17 ha, according to analysis from CBERS images. The silting is one of the most aggravating consequences of degradation due to poor storage conditions, lack of supervision of public agencies and control the activities found along the whole basin.

  1. Indus Basin of Pakistan : Impacts of Climate Risks on Water and Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Winston; Yang, Yi-chen; Savitsky, Andre; Alford, Donald; Brown, Casey; Wescoat, James; Debowicz, Dario; Robinson, Sherman

    2013-01-01

    This study, Indus basin of Pakistan: the impacts of climate risks on water and agriculture was undertaken at a pivotal time in the region. The weak summer monsoon in 2009 created drought conditions throughout the country. This followed an already tenuous situation for many rural households faced with high fuel and fertilizer costs and the impacts of rising global food prices. Then catastro...

  2. The Causal Impacts of Child Labor Law in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Piza, Caio; Portela Souza, André

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the causal impact of the change in Brazil’s child labor law of December 1998. The change increased the minimum legal age of entry into the labor force from 14 to 16 years. The analysis uses a difference-in-differences approach to estimate the impact of this change in the law on labor force participation rates as a whole, as well as for the formal and informal sectors ...

  3. Environmental pollution in Piracicaba Basin, Minas Gerais State, 'Steel Valley', Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total heavy metal and trace elements concentrations were evaluated in smelting waste areas, in Piracicaba River, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The studies samples were surface water, border sediment, and fish muscle (Acara - Geophagus Brasiliensis). Elevated concentrations were found in Acara muscle fish As (1.3 - 1.8 μg g-1), Hg (0.7 - 1.84 μg g-1), Cr (0.7 - 4.1 μg g-1), Zn ( 43 - 76 μg g-1); in sediment Fe (81996 - 461147 μg g-1), Cr (126 - 447 μg g-1), Co ( 540 - 1016 μg g-1), Th (7.9 - 50 μg g-1). For the water samples the similar high heavy metal concentrations of Al, As, Cr, Fe, and Zn in all sampling sites were above the maximum limits permitted by Brazilian Environmental Council. The high level of heavy metals can affect the aquatic and cattle animals and human health. To conclusion the region studied in Piracicaba River in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, is not in agreement with the environmental parameters for 'water class 3' according to Resolution by Brazilian Environmental Standards (CONAMA). An urgent program of measures for assessment and monitoring is necessary in this River. (author)

  4. Environmental pollution in Piracicaba Basin, Minas Gerais state, 'steel valley', Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total heavy metal and trace elements concentrations were evaluated in smelting waste areas, in Piracicaba River, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The studies samples were surface water, border sediment, and fish muscle (Acara - Geophagus Brasiliensis). Elevated concentrations were found in Acara muscle fish As (1.3 - 1.8 μg g-1), Hg (0.7 - 1.84 μg g-1), Cr (0.7 - 4.1 μg g-1), Zn ( 43 - 76 μg g-1); in sediment Fe (81996 - 461147 μg g-1), Cr (126 - 447 μg g-1), Co ( 540 - 1016 μg g-1), Th (7.9 - 50 μg g-1). For the water samples the similar high heavy metal concentrations of Al, As, Cr, Fe, and Zn in all sampling sites were above the maximum limits permitted by Brazilian Environmental Council. The high level of heavy metals can affect the aquatic and cattle animals and human health. To conclusion the region studied in Piracicaba River in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, is not in agreement with the environmental parameters for 'water class 3' according to Resolution by Brazilian Environmental Standards (CONAMA). An urgent program of measures for assessment and monitoring is necessary in this River. (author)

  5. Simulation of the Impact of Deforestation on the Rainfall in Lake Victoria Basin.

    OpenAIRE

    Muhati, D.; Ininda, J.; Opijah, E.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past four decades, Lake Victoria basin has experienced drastic environmental changes on account of both natural and anthropogenic factors. The natural factors include prolonged droughts and the recent emergence of water hyacinth in the Lake, while anthropogenic factors include the deforestation rates, poor agricultural practices, and destruction of critical wetlands. This study examines the potential impact of deforestation on the rainfall over the lake Victoria basin. To assess the ...

  6. Potential Evapotranspiration Methods and their Impact on the Assessment of River Basin Runoff Under Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Yates, D; Strzepek, K. M.

    1994-01-01

    The current trend in increased amounts of green house gases in the atmosphere will likely affect both precipitation and evapotranspiration, which will in turn affect the runoff response of river basins. These impacts on river basin discharge are discussed in the context of changes in evapotranspiration estimates which are found by coupling a monthly water balance model to account for changes in soil moisture and micrometerological and empirical estimates of potential evapotranspiration. The p...

  7. Modelling economic impacts of deficit irrigated maize in Brazil with consideration of different rainfall regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Gonçalo C.; Martins, Juliano D.; Silva, Francisco G. da; Carlesso, Reimar; L. S. Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Deficit irrigation is often required to cope with droughts and limited water availability. However, to select an appropriate irrigation management, it is necessary to assess when economic impacts of deficit irrigation are acceptable. Thus, the main goal of this study was to evaluate economic water productivity for maize submitted to various levels of water deficits and different irrigation systems. The study was based on two different experiments conducted in Southern Brazil, o...

  8. Impactos das mudanças climáticas na demanda de irrigação da bananeira na Bacia do Jaguaribe Impact of climate change on irrigation requirement of banana in Jaguaribe river Basin, Ceará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens S. Gondim

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available As mudanças climáticas têm potencial de alterar os processos do ciclo hidrológico, tais como precipitação, que afeta o escoamento superficial, temperatura e umidade relativa do ar devido à sua estreita relação com evaporação e vazão em corpos hídricos e evapotranspiração das plantas. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi analisar os impactos das mudanças climáticas na necessidade hídrica da cultura da bananeira, considerando-se cenários de mudanças climáticas em escala local, em nível de bacia hidrográfica (rio Jaguaribe, no trecho compreendido entre as barragens do Castanhão e de Itaiçaba. Um conjunto composto de uma baseline (climatologia de base do modelo de 1961-1990 e de projeções climáticas, foi processado. Os dados foram então extraídos considerando-se as coordenadas geográficas da região em estudo, com resolução de 0,44 x 0,44º, a fim de abranger toda a área. Estimou-se a evapotranspiração de referência (ETo através de dados da temperatura média mensal e se projetou uma elevação na necessidade hídrica bruta média anual para 2040 com relação às condições iniciais, de 1.989 mm para 2.536 mm e 2.491 mm (27,50 e 25,24% para os cenários A2 e B2, elaborados pelo Painel Intergovernamental de Mudanças Climáticas, respectivamente.Climate change has a potential to impact hydrologic cycle processes, such as rainfall, which affect run-off, temperature and air humidity that have relationship to evaporation over water bodies and plant evapotranspiration. The purpose of this study was to assess impacts of climate change on irrigation water demand of banana, at the river basin level (Jaguaribe river, between Castanhão and Itaiçaba Dams. A climate data set was generated by a climate model for 1961-90 (baseline and the future. The output climate data has been generated, considering a georreferenced coordenated system of the study area in a 0.44 x 0.44º resolution, generating spatial distribution output

  9. The social and economic impact of nuclear energy in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model for structural analysis is introduced and discussed. An application is made to the 'Brazilian Nuclear System' defined by a structural matrix lying upon 42 factors (of which 11 are political 7 economic, 9 technological, 6 sociological, 7 ecological and 2 psychdogical, whose interactions are evalueted. The hierarchical ordering of these 42 factors shows the preponderance of the political ones, the technological factors being the least important. The study is completed by calculating the impact of a PWR pant construction in Brazilian territory, using an enlarged input-output method the sectorial impacts are determined for industrial production, value added, inderect imports and capital goods industries

  10. Dissolved organic matter and terrestrial-lotic linkages in the Central Amazon Basin of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Michael E.; Richey, Jeffrey E.; Brandes, Jay A.; Pimentel, Tania P.

    1997-09-01

    We evaluate the hypothesis that decomposition and adsorption reactions operating in upland soils of headwater catchments control the concentration and composition of dissolved and fine particulate organic matter in rivers of the Amazon basin. In two contrasting first-order catchments characteristic of the central Amazon basin, we analyzed plant, litter, soil, groundwater, and stream water chemistry. Our results indicate that clear and persistent differences exist in the concentration and elemental composition of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in stream waters and groundwaters from the two catchments, due mainly to corresponding differences in soil texture and chemistry. Within the more oxide and clay rich Oxisols underlying terra firme forest, groundwater DOM concentrations were uniformly low (120 μMC) and C/N ratios averaged 10. Conversely, within the oxide and clay deficient Spodosols underlying campinarana forest, groundwater DOM concentrations were greatly elevated (3000 μMC), and C/N ratios averaged near 60. We found that, in the terra firme/Oxisol terrain, the majority of DOM contributions to the stream derived from the riparian zone, while in the campinarana/Spodosol terrain, upland groundwater contributions could account for the concentration and composition of DOM in the stream. The implications of our findings are that in the terra firme terrains which dominate the region, upland soil profiles are not the site of definitive processes which impart compositional signatures to organic matter carried by the largest rivers of the Amazon basin, as was hypothesized. Instead, we suggest that definitive reactions are focused primarily in the river corridor.

  11. Reassessment of the potential economic impact of cattle parasites in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisi, Laerte; Leite, Romário Cerqueira; Martins, João Ricardo de Souza; Barros, Antonio Thadeu Medeiros de; Andreotti, Renato; Cançado, Paulo Henrique Duarte; León, Adalberto Angel Pérez de; Pereira, Jairo Barros; Villela, Humberto Silva

    2014-01-01

    The profitability of livestock activities can be diminished significantly by the effects of parasites. Economic losses caused by cattle parasites in Brazil were estimated on an annual basis, considering the total number of animals at risk and the potential detrimental effects of parasitism on cattle productivity. Estimates in U.S. dollars (USD) were based on reported yield losses among untreated animals and reflected some of the effects of parasitic diseases. Relevant parasites that affect cattle productivity in Brazil, and their economic impact in USD billions include: gastrointestinal nematodes - $7.11; cattle tick (Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus) - $3.24; horn fly (Haematobia irritans) - $2.56; cattle grub (Dermatobia hominis) - $0.38; New World screwworm fly (Cochliomyia hominivorax) - $0.34; and stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans) - $0.34. The combined annual economic loss due to internal and external parasites of cattle in Brazil considered here was estimated to be at least USD 13.96 billion. These findings are discussed in the context of methodologies and research that are required in order to improve the accuracy of these economic impact assessments. This information needs to be taken into consideration when developing sustainable policies for mitigating the impact of parasitism on the profitability of Brazilian cattle producers. PMID:25054492

  12. Impact of over-the-counter restrictions on antibiotic consumption in Brazil and Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yared Santa-Ana-Tellez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Latin American countries over-the-counter (OTC dispensing of antibiotics is common. In 2010, both Mexico and Brazil implemented policies to enforce existing laws of restricting consumption of antibiotics only to patients presenting a prescription. The objective of the present study is therefore to evaluate the impact of OTC restrictions (2010 on antibiotics consumption in Brazil and Mexico. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Retail quarterly sales data in kilograms of oral and injectable antibiotics between January 2007 and June 2012 for Brazil and Mexico were obtained from IMS Health. The unit of analysis for antibiotics consumption was the defined daily dose per 1,000 inhabitants per day (DDD/TID according to the WHO ATC classification system. Interrupted time series analysis was conducted using antihypertensives as reference group to account for changes occurring independently of the OTC restrictions directed at antibiotics. To reduce the effect of (a seasonality and (b autocorrelation, dummy variables and Prais-Winsten regression were used respectively. Between 2007 and 2012 total antibiotic usage increased in Brazil (from 5.7 to 8.5 DDD/TID, +49.3% and decreased in Mexico (10.5 to 7.5 DDD/TID, -29.2%. Interrupted time series analysis showed a change in level of consumption of -1.35 DDD/TID (p<0.01 for Brazil and -1.17 DDD/TID (p<0.00 for Mexico. In Brazil the penicillins, sulfonamides and macrolides consumption had a decrease in level after the intervention of 0.64 DDD/TID (p = 0.02, 0.41 (p = 0.02 and 0.47 (p = 0.01 respectively. While in Mexico it was found that only penicillins and sulfonamides had significant changes in level of -0.86 DDD/TID (p<0.00 and -0.17 DDD/TID (p = 0.07. CONCLUSIONS: Despite different overall usage patterns of antibiotics in Brazil and Mexico, the effect of the OTC restrictions on antibiotics usage was similar. In Brazil the trend of increased usage of antibiotics was tempered after the OTC restrictions; in

  13. Results of the marine biota monitoring during drilling activity on Campos Basin, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petta, Claudia Brigagao de; Bastos, Fabio; Danielski, Monica; Ferreira, Mariana; Gama, Mariana; Coelho, Ana Paula Athanazio; Maia, Decio [Aecom do Brasil Ltda, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The Environmental Monitoring Project (PMA) aims to report environmental changes arising from drilling activity, in relation to the marine fauna. This project can also help in the monitoring of accidental spills. Since the professionals spend six hours of the day monitoring the ocean around the rigs, they can locate and identify oil stains, notify the responsible onboard, and also help in the monitoring of the oil stain. Such Project has been developed onboard a drilling unit working in Campos Basin. The results presented here were collected during the drilling activity in Bijupira and Salema fields, by Shell Brasil Petroleo Ltda, from July 13th to October 8th, 2011.

  14. Soil gamma ray spectrometry of the Buquira river basin, SP, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural radioactivity found in rocks and its evaluation been frequently used for studies of environmental geochemistry, particularly those of detection and control of pollutants and the consequent changes in environment after antropic interferences. In this work natural radioactivity in forty nine soil samples in the basin of Buquira river, at the Northeast region of Sao Paulo State, has been analysed and measured with a Ge-HP gamma ray spectrometer. A table with the most relevant results found in rocks is shown and discussed. (author)

  15. Aerosol emissions from forest and grassland burnings in the Southern Amazonas Basin and Central Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forest and grassland clearing by means of prescribed fires in tropical areas of the world may be responsible for large inputs of fine particulates to the global atmosphere besides being a major source of trace gases. The major continents on which extensive biomass burning takes place are Africa and South America. Such agricultural practices of burning have been employed throughout man's existence, but the importance and significance of such burning relative to anthropogenic industrial emissions to the atmosphere has not until extremely recently been seriously studied. In August-September 1979 project Brushfire 1979 took place based in Brasilia, Brazil. The Air Quality Division of the National Center for Atmospheric Research made ground level and aircraft measurements of trace gases (e.g. CO2, CO, CH4, N2O, H2, CH3CL, COS, NO, NO2, O3) and Florida State University sampled ground level aerosol emissions from grass and forest burnings. (orig./RW)

  16. New insights into Gondwana paleography based on palinological data from Morro do Chaves Formation (Sergipe-Alagoas Basin, Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves Garcia, Gustavo; Vasconcellos Garcia, Antônio Jorge; Henriques, Maria Helena

    2016-04-01

    The Sergipe-Alagoas basin (NE Brazil) has been widely studied in the frame of oil exploration, because it displays the most complete exposition of the stratigraphic sequences from the basins of the Brazilian continental margin. In this context, the aim of this workis to present the results of the bio-stratigraphic and paleo-environmental analysis of Morro do Chaves Formation (Lower Cretaceous), in Alagoas Sub-basin, part of the transitional section situated between the rift phase and restricted marine environment associated with the South Atlantic ocean opening. The material was analyzed from the palynological point of view and was collected in the InterCement quarry, located in São Miguel dos Campos, State of Alagoas. From 17 outcrop rock samples collected, nine had palynological content; among these only six were considered for biostratigraphic analysis purposes. In addition to outcrop samples, 28 samples were processed from four core drill. The paleoenvironmental analysis was based on the palynological content of the collected samples and on the paleontological and geological information available. The studied sedimentary package corresponds to carbonate and fine siliciclastic deposits, with approximately 70.0 m in thickness. The unit in question is formed by carbonatic "coquinóides" rocks interspersed with shale levels of dark green color. Palinofloristic assemblages were recuperated between 5.0 m and 70.0 m of the outcropping section. In the recovered material it was possible to identify 9 kinds of spores and 8 kinds of pollen grains, and two genera of fungi. Due to the degree of preservation of the material, age was established by the occurrence of Dicheiropollis etruscus specimens, which has enabled the recognition of the Dicheiropollis etruscus palinozone (upper Barremian). In microscopic observations under fluorescent light some algalic vesicles components were also recognized and classified as possible algae of the Prasinophyceae class, indicating

  17. Rovearinids (stemless crinoids) in the Albian carbonates of the offshore Santos Basin, southeastern Brazil: stratigraphic, palaeobiogeographic and palaeoceanographic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias-Brito, D.; Ferré, B.

    2001-06-01

    Microfacies analysis of marine carbonates cored by Petrobras well 1-SPS-6 in the offshore Santos Basin (southeastern Brazil) has revealed a remarkable fossil assemblage of calpionellids (colomiellids), favusellids, hedbergellids, globigerinelloidids, buliminids, radiolarians, inoceramid prisms, roveacrinids, and saccocomids(?) preserved in lower Albian calcimudstones-wackestones of the lower part of the Guarujá Formation. This assemblage represents an allochtonous accumulation in a deep neritic to shallow bathyal hypoxic environment. Besides 'saccocomid-like' sections, the only determinable sections of roveacrinids are thecal plates of Poecilocrinus dispandus elongatus Peck, 1943. This species was previously only known from the Weno Formation of Texas. The Brazilian material extends its records farther south from at least the lower Albian, which then represents the earliest occurrence of this peculiar family in the South Atlantic region. Taking into account their Albian global distribution and the location of their oldest representative (Hauterivian near Alicante, Spain), the Roveacrinidae dispersed westward throughout all of Cretaceous Tethys. The Tethyan origin of Roveacrinidae is further evidence that, during late Aptian-Albian times, the northern South Atlantic (north of the Walvis-São Paulo Ridge) was supplied by a Tethyan water mass.

  18. Biochronostratigraphy and paleoenvironment analysis of Neogene deposits from the Pelotas Basin (well 2-TG-96-RS), Southernmost Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Wagner G; Zerfass, Geise S A; Souza, Paulo A; Helenes, Javier

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents the integration of micropaleontological (palynology and foraminifera) and isotopic (87Sr/86Sr) analysis of a selected interval from the well 2-TG-96-RS, drilled on the onshore portion of the Pelotas Basin, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. A total of eight samples of the section between 140.20 and 73.50 m in depth was selected for palynological analysis, revealing diversified and abundant palynomorph associations. Species of spores, pollen grains and dinoflagellate cysts are the most common palynomorphs found. Planktic and benthic calcareous foraminifera were recovered from the lowest two levels of the section (140.20 and 134.30 m). Based on the stratigraphic range of the species of dinoflagellate cysts and sporomorphs, a span age from Late Miocene to Early Pliocene is assigned. The relative age obtained from the 87Sr/86Sr ratio in shells of calcareous foraminifers indicates a Late Miocene (Messinian) correspondence, corroborating the biostratigraphic positioning performed with palynomorphs. Paleoenvironmental interpretations based on the quantitative distribution of organic components (palynomorphs, phytoclasts and amorphous organic matter) throughout the section and on foraminiferal associations indicate a shallow marine depositional environment for the section. Two palynologicals intervals were recognized based on palynofacies analysis, related to middle to outer shelf (140.20 to 128.90 m) and inner shelf (115.75 to 73.50 m) conditions. PMID:26312424

  19. Pedogenic calcretes within fracture systems and beddings in Neoproterozoic limestones of the Irecê Basin, northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, S. V. F.; Balsamo, F.; Vieira, M. M.; Iacumin, P.; Srivastava, N. K.; Storti, F.; Bezerra, F. H. R.

    2016-07-01

    Calcretes or caliches are continental limestones developed by surficial weathering process that takes place mostly in arid and semi-arid regions. In the Irecê Basin, northeastern Brazil, in addition to the regular occurrence of pedogenic calcretes, a peculiar type of structurally controlled calcretes occurs on Neoproterozoic limestones. These peculiar calcretes developed near the surface and occur (1) between layers, (2) inside fractures and (3) within major thrust faults. Fieldwork on selected outcrops was integrated with petrographic, mineralogic, geochemical, density and mercury intrusion porosity analyses to constrain the environment of formation and their petrophysical properties. The results revealed that this type of calcrete is the product of multiepisodic events of dissolution and precipitation occurring during the wet and dry seasons in the region along fractures and beddings. Based on the petrophysical results, we suggest that these calcretes may have an important role in the migration of fluids through the impermeable host carbonate rock and that they act as a conduit for fluid flow, as revealed by their high porosity (mean value = 26%) and remarkable pore connectivity.

  20. The Aquatic Environment as a Reservoir of Vibrio cholerae O1 in Hydrographic Basins of the State of Pernambuco, Brazil

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    Carina Lucena Mendes-Marques

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available After the worldwide cholera epidemic in 1993, permanent environmental monitoring of hydrographic basins was established in Pernambuco, Brazil, where cholera is endemic. After a quiescent period, 4 rfbN (serogroup O1 positive water samples that were culture negative were detected by multiplex single-tube nested PCR (MSTNPCR; 2 of these were also ctxA (cholera toxin positive. From May to June 2012, 30 V. cholerae O1 isolates were obtained by culturing samples. These isolates were analyzed for the presence of virulence genes by PCR, intergenic spacer region 16S-23S PCR (ISR-PCR, and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. The isolates were positive for the rfbN gene and negative for the assessed pathogenic genes and were classified into 2 groups by ISR and the same profile by PFGE. Close genetic similarity was observed between them (2012 and environmental strains from 2004 to 2005, indicating the permanence of endemic V. cholerae O1 in the region.

  1. XX/XO, a rare sex chromosome system in Potamotrygon freshwater stingray from the Amazon Basin, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Valentim, Francisco Carlos; Porto, Jorge Ivan Rebelo; Bertollo, Luiz Antonio Carlos; Gross, Maria Claudia; Feldberg, Eliana

    2013-09-01

    Potamotrygonidae is a representative family of South American freshwater elasmobranchs. Cytogenetic studies were performed in a Potamotrygon species from the middle Negro River, Amazonas, Brazil, here named as Potamotrygon sp. C. Mitotic and meiotic chromosomes were analyzed using conventional staining techniques, C-banding, and detection of the nucleolus organizing regions (NOR) with Silver nitrate (Ag-NOR). The diploid number was distinct between sexes, with males having 2n = 67 chromosomes, karyotype formula 19m + 8sm + 10st + 30a, and fundamental number (FN) = 104, and females having 2n = 68 chromosomes, karyotype formula 20m + 8sm + 10st + 30a, and FN = 106. A large chromosome, corresponding to pair number two in the female karyotype, was missing in the male complement. Male meiotic cells had 33 bivalents plus a large univalent chromosome in metaphase I, and n = 33 and n = 34 chromosomes in metaphase II. These characteristics are consistent with a sex chromosome system of the XX/XO type. Several Ag-NOR sites were identified in both male and female karyotypes. Positive C-banding was located only in the centromeric regions of the chromosomes. This sex chromosome system, which rarely occurs in fish, is now being described for the first time among the freshwater rays of the Amazon basin. PMID:24068425

  2. Pollen grains in quaternary sediments from the Campos Basin, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Core BU-91-GL-05

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    Aline Gonçalves de Freitas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Here, we describe pollen grains extracted from a Pleistocene-Holocene sediment core (BU-91-GL-05; 22°48'45"S; 41°54'13"W taken from the Albacora Slope (22°48'45"S; 41°54'13"W, located in the Campos Basin of the northern region of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The analysis resulted in the identification and morphological description of 46 types of pollen: one of a gymnosperm genus (Podocarpus; and 45 of angiosperm taxa across 27 families-one family of monocotyledons (Poaceae and 26 families (30 types of dicotyledons. The most common angiosperm families were Amaranthaceae (Chenopodium, Amaranthus and Gomphrena; Fabaceae (Fabaceae type, Bauhinia, Inga and Canavalia; Malpighiaceae (Tetrapteris, Heteropteris and Peixotoa; Malvaceae (Sida, Abutilon, Hibiscus and Pseudobombax; Rubiaceae (Faramea, Borreria and Psychotria; Asteraceae (Eupatorium and tribe Vernonieae; Bignoniaceae (Bignoniaceae type, Adenocalymma and Tabebuia; and Onagraceae (Fuchsia and Ludwigia. The palynoflora in this study are associated with dense montane and submontane Atlantic Forest, semideciduous forest and restinga (coastal woodland, all of which are present in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Palynological analysis can provide important data about paleovegetation and paleoclimatic changes in the studied area during the Quaternary, specifically in the last 145,000 years.

  3. Mercury (Hg) in fish consumed by the local population of the Jaguaribe River lower basin, Northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, B G B; Lacerda, L D

    2014-12-01

    The knowledge of Hg concentrations in fish is of considerable interest since these organisms are a major source of protein to coastal human populations and fishing communities. The main source of human exposure to Hg contamination occurs through the consumption of fish. In this paper, we compare Hg concentration in 13 fish species from Jaguaribe River lower basin and an adjacent coastal region in the northeastern coast of Brazil. We sampled fish from three stretches of the river: fluvial, estuarine, and marine regions. We tested the hypothesis that Hg concentration in muscle tissue vary according to species, location, and trophic level. Significant differences were observed among species and trophic level, but these could not be observed among the regions studied. As expected, the highest concentrations were observed in carnivorous fish (5.6-107.5; 26.9 ± 18.8 ng g(-1)). Hg concentrations observed in this study are similar to those observed in regions of low environmental contamination. We estimated Hg intake to vary between 0.02 and 0.22 ng Hg kg body weight(-1) week(-1), for the average body weight of 56.7 kg, which was considered as low exposure and therefore, a low risk to consumers of fish from the regions studied. PMID:25119275

  4. The decentralization of the health system in Colombia and Brazil and its impact on leprosy control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalk, Andreas; Fleischer, Klaus

    2004-03-01

    Decentralization policies are an integrated component of health sector reform in an increasing number of countries. The ability of such policies to improve the health system's quality and efficiency is backed up by limited scientific evidence. This study intends to evaluate the impact of decentralization on a specialized field of disease control (leprosy control) in Colombia and Brazil. It analyses the respective juridical base, epidemiological indicators and local publications. Furthermore, 39 semi-structured interviews with key informants were conducted. In both countries, the devolution of technical responsibility and financial resources to the municipalities was the implemented form of decentralization. Access to preventive and curative health care and the community participation in decision-making improved clearly only in Brazil. The decentralization to private providers in Colombia had dubious effects on service quality in general and still more on public health. The flow of finances (including finance collection through state-owned taxes instead of insurance companies) seemed to be better controlled in Brazil. Leprosy control in Brazil took advantage of the decentralization process; in Colombia, it came close to a collapse. PMID:15072128

  5. Neogene Palynomorphs from the 2-CA-1-RS Well, Pelotas Basin, Brazil: Biostratigraphic and Paleoecological Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Guimarães da Silva

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available There is information available on calcareous microfossils found in the pre-Quaternary section of the Pelotas Basin.However, there is relatively sparse palynological data, since palynological studies only started to be systematicallyconducted in the last years. This paper presents palynological results regarding 20 samples collected between depths of262-145 m in the 2-CA-1-RS well, which is located in the onshore portion of this basin, in the Rio Grande do Sul state. Fivesamples showed rich and diverse associations of palynomorphs and fifteen samples showed a predominance of amorphousorganic matter or phytoclasts. Species of spores, pollen grains, dinoflagellate cysts, as well as microforaminiferal linigs,scolecodonts, acritarchs, Chlorococcales algae (Botryococcus and fungal spores were also identified in this study.Quantitative analysis on the distribution of particulate organic matter along the section allowed the identification oftwo palynological assemblages. The results indicate marine paleoenvironments, varying from the bottom to the top, forthe studied section. Assemblage 1 (262 – 248 m is interpreted as distal marine environment in open ocean, whereasAssemblage 2 (190 – 160 m is associated with proximal marine environments. The stratigraphic range of certain speciesof dinoflagellate cysts indicates ages ranging from the Miocene to the Quaternary.

  6. Biodiversity and community structure of zooplankton in the Sub-basin of Rio Poxim, Sergipe, Brazil

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    Eliane Maria de Souza Nogueira

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The zooplankton of aquatic environments is composed mostly of protozoans, rotifers, cladocerans and copepods, which play an important role in the food chain, transferring mass and energy from primary producers to higher trophic levels. This work was prepared with the objective of contributing to the knowledge of zooplankton biodiversity that occurs in the Sub-basin of Rio Poxim. Water samples were taken at monthly intervals at four sampling stations located along the sub-basin in the period August 2009 to July 2010. To obtain the zooplankton community, 100 L of water were filtered on nylon net with an aperture of 50 mm. Were identified 72 taxa distributed in the following taxonomic categories Rotifera, Protozoa, Porifera, Nematoda, Anellida, Cladocera, Copepoda, Ostracoda, Isopoda and Insecta. In terms of species richness, the phylum Rotifera followed by the Protoctista were the most relevant with forty and fifteen taxa, respectively. The most representative taxa in numerical terms were Arcella vulgaris, Notholca sp. Rotary sp. and nematodes. Regarding the community diversity index, the community was characterized as low diversity, but the taxa were distributed evenly in all monitoring points.

  7. TOTAL MERCURY (HgT BIOACCUMULATION AND FISH FOOD HABITS IN NEGRO RIVER BASIN, AMAZON, BRAZIL

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    Jean Louchard Ferreira Soares

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the Amazon, the fish is the main nutritional source for the riverine. Thus, fish have been commonly used in environmental monitoring work to be good biomonitors. This study analyzed the total mercury concentration (THg in fish of different species and feeding habits in order to investigate the existence of bioaccumulation in species in the basin of the Negro river and verify that the THg levels found are in accordance with the stipulated limit for consumption human. Sampling points were distributed in the basin of the Negro river during the period of high water. After the fisheries specimens were identified, measured and weighed. Then muscle samples were taken and subjected to acid digestion and analyzed by Cold Vapor Atomic Fluorescence Spectrophotometer - CVAFS. To research data was used analysis of variance and linear regression. A total of 264 specimens distributed into 10 species were analyzed, and the THg of the concentrations ranged from 0.030 for 1,670 mg.kg-1. The species Hoplias malabaricus, Serrasalmus rhombeus, Hemiodus immaculatus and Cichla temensis showed bioaccumulation. High concentrations of THg were found in carnivorous, piscivorous, planctívos and omnivores fish. No specimen showed mean concentrations of THg in violation to ANVISA, but this occurred in relation to FAO and WHO. keywords: Brazilian Amazon; biomonitoring; high waters; Hg.

  8. Cytogenetic analysis in Thoracocharax stellatus (Kner, 1858 (Characiformes, Gasteropelecidae from Paraguay River Basin, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Silva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Thoracocharax stellatus (Characiformes, Gasteropelecidae is a small Neotropical species of fish, widely distributed in several rivers of South America. Evidence for karyotype heteromorphysm in populations from different geographical regions has been reported for this species. In this way, populations of T. stellatus from the Paraguay River basin were cytogenetically characterized and the results were compared with other studies performed in the same species but from different basins. The results showed a diploid number of 2n = 54 for T. stellatus, with chromosomes arranged in 6 metacentric (m, 6 submetacentric (sm, 2 subtelocentric (st and 40 acrocentric (a, for both sexes, with a simple Nucleolus Organiser Region (NOR system reported by the techniques of silver nitrate impregnation and fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH using 18S rDNA sequences as probe. The distribution of constitutive heterochromatin, observed by the C-band technique and Chromomycin A3 staining showed great similarity among the analyzed populations and consists mainly of discrete blocks in the pericentromeric and telomeric regions of most chromosomes. The presence of female heterogamety was also observed indicating a ZZ/ZW system with W chromosome almost totally heterochromatic. The results also show cytogenetic diversity of the group and are useful to understand the mechanisms of karyotype evolution of the family.

  9. A 4D-variational ocean data assimilation application for Santos Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha Fragoso, Mauricio; de Carvalho, Gabriel Vieira; Soares, Felipe Lobo Mendes; Faller, Daiane Gracieli; de Freitas Assad, Luiz Paulo; Toste, Raquel; Sancho, Lívia Maria Barbosa; Passos, Elisa Nóbrega; Böck, Carina Stefoni; Reis, Bruna; Landau, Luiz; Arango, Hernan G.; Moore, Andrew M.

    2016-03-01

    Aiming to achieve systematic ocean forecasting for the southeastern Brazilian coast, an incremental 4D-Var data assimilation system is applied to a regional ocean model focused mainly in the Santos Basin region. This implementation is performed within the scope of The Santos Basin Ocean Observing System (or Project Azul), a pilot project designed to collect oceanographic data with enough frequency and spatial coverage so to improve regional forecasts through data assimilation. The ocean modeling and data assimilation system of Project Azul is performed with the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS). The observations used in the assimilation cycles include the following: 1-day gridded, 0.1° resolution SST from POES AVHRR; 1-day gridded, 0.3° composite of the MDT SSH from AVISO; and surface and subsurface hydrographic measurements of temperature and salinity collected with gliders and ARGO floats from Project Azul and from UK Met-Office EN3 project dataset. The assimilative model results are compared to forward model results and independent observations, both from remote sensing and in situ sources. The results clearly show that 4D-Var data assimilation leads to an improvement in the skill of ocean hindcast in the studied region.

  10. Tectonics and paleogeography of the Marajó Basin, northern Brazil

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    JOÃO B. S. COSTA

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The Marajó Basin area presents geologic and geomorphologic features chiefly due to the Mesozoic extension and post-Miocene neotectonics. The extension event with an Early and a Late Cretaceous phases originated four sub-basins that constitutes the Marajó Basin, with a thick continental clastic sequence showing marine influence. NW and NNW normal faults and NE and ENE strike-slip faults controlled the basin geometry. The extension, related to the Equatorial Atlantic opening, propagated into the continent along crustal weakness zones of the Precambrian Tumucumaque, Amapá and Araguaia orogenic belts. The neotectonic event is a strike-slip regime which developed transtensional basins filled in by Upper Tertiary shallow marine (Pirabas Formation and transitional sequences (Barreiras Group, followed by Quaternary fluvial deposits and transitional sequences derived from the Amazon and Tocantins rivers and the Marajoara estuary. The current landscape has a typical estuarine morphology. The coast morphology presents sea-cliffs on transitional Upper Tertiary sequences, while inwards dominate hills sustained by Mid-Pleistocene lateritic crust, with a flat erosive surface at 70 m. In the eastern Marajó Island several generations of paleochannels associated with fluvial-estuarine sequences are recognized, while a fluvial-marine plain is widespread on its western side.A área da Bacia do Marajó apresenta feições geológicas e geomorfológicas devidas principamente à distensão Mesozóica e à neotectônica pós-miocênica. O evento de distensão, com fases do Cretáceo Inferior e Superior, originou quatro sub-bacias que contituem a Bacia do Marajó, com uma espessa seqüência clástica continental mostrando influência marinha. Falhas normais NW e NNW e direcionais NE e ENE controlaram a geometria da bacia. A distensão, relacionada com a abertura do Atlântico Equatorial, propagou-se continente adentro ao longo de zonas de fraqueza crustal dos

  11. Impact of Inter‐Basin Water Transfer Projects on Regional Ecological Security from a Telecoupling Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan Quan; Chenxing Wang; Yan Yan; Gang Wu; Hongxun Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Inter‐basin water transfer projects (IBWTPs) offer one of the most important means to solve the mismatch between supply and demand of regional water resources. IBWTPs have impacts on the complex ecosystems of the areas from which water is diverted and to which water is received. These impacts increase damage or risk to regional ecological security and human wellbeing. However, current methods make it difficult to achieve comprehensive analysis of the impacts of whole ecosystems, because of th...

  12. Assessment of the hydrological impacts of green roof: From building scale to basin scale

    OpenAIRE

    Versini, P.-A.; D. Ramier; Berthier, E.; de Gouvello, B.

    2015-01-01

    International audience At the building scale, the use of green roof has shown a positive impact on urban runoff (decrease and slowdown in peak discharge, decrease in runoff volume). The present work aims to study whether similar effects are possible at the basin scale and what is the minimum spreading of green runoff needed to observe significant impacts. It is particularly focused on the circumstances of such impacts and how they can contribute to storm water management in urban environme...

  13. Impact of stormwater infiltration basins on groundwater quality, Perth metropolitan region, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleyard, S. J.

    1993-08-01

    Twelve bores were sunk adjacent to three stormwater infiltration basins in the Perth metropolitan area to examine the impact of runoff from a light industrial area, a medium-density residential area, and a major arterial road on groundwater quality, and to examine the hydrological response of the aquifer to runoff recharge. Automatic and manual water level monitoring between April and November 1990 indicated that groundwater levels responded within minutes to recharge from the infiltration basins. Peak water levels of up to 2.5 m above rest levels occurred 6 24 h after the commencement of ponding in the infiltration basins. There was a marked reduction in salinity and increase in dissolved oxygen concentrations in the upper part of the aquifer downgradient of the infiltration basins. Concentrations of toxic metals, nutrients, pesticides, and phenolic compounds in groundwater near the infiltration basins were low and generally well within Australian drinking water guidelines. However, sediment in the base of an infiltration basin draining a major road contained in excess of 3500 ppm of lead. Phthalates, which are US EPA priority pollutants, were detected in all but one bore near the infiltration basins. Their detection may be a sampling artifact, but they may also be derived from the plastic litter that accumulates in the infiltration basins. The concentration of iron in groundwater near the infiltration basins appears to be controlled by dissolved oxygen concentrations, with high iron concentrations occurring where dissolved oxygen concentrations are low. Pumping bores located near infiltration basins may suffer from iron encrustation problems caused by the mixing of shallow, oxygenated groundwater with water containing higher concentrations of iron from deeper in the aquifer.

  14. Noise impact caused by electrical energy substations in Curitiba, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Fabiano B.; Zannin, Paulo T.

    2003-10-01

    This survey is intended to characterize the noise impact due to electrical energy substations in the city of Curitiba over the population living in their vicinity. This impact has been studied with the aid of a computational tool capable of mapping the acoustical field of substations and their vicinity. Several factors have been considered in this survey: sound power of the transformers; vehicle flow on the surrounding roads; positioning of the firewalls, of the buildings and of the walls; terrain topography. Four substations have been analyzed, and an acoustical map has been traced for each of them. With these maps it was possible to visualize what was the incident noise level on the building facades. The predicted noise levels have been compared to the environmental legislation of the noise emissions in effect in the city.

  15. Impacts of Climate Change on Dengue Risk in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Pereda, Paula Carvalho; Menezes, Tatiane; Denisard C. O. Alves

    2014-01-01

    Climate has relevant impacts on human health. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), climate-sensitive health problems kill millions of people every year and undermine the physical and psychological health of millions (WHO, 2012). In the particular case of vector-borne diseases, climate conditions assure the vectors' survival and reproduction and, consequently, the transmission of the diseases (Kelly-Hope and Thomson, 2008). Increases in heat, precipitation, and humidity can allow ...

  16. The Volta Basin Water Allocation System: assessing the impact of small-scale reservoir development on the water resources of the Volta basin, West Africa

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    R. Kasei

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In the Volta Basin, infrastructure watershed development with respect to the impact of climate conditions is hotly debated due to the lack of adequate tools to model the consequences of such development. There is an ongoing debate on the impact of further development of small and medium scale reservoirs on the water level of Lake Volta, which is essential for hydropower generation at the Akosombo power plant. The GLOWA Volta Project (GVP has developed a Volta Basin Water Allocation System (VB-WAS, a decision support tool that allows assessing the impact of infrastructure development in the basin on the availability of current and future water resources, given the current or future climate conditions. The simulated historic and future discharge time series of the joint climate-hydrological modeling approach (MM5/WaSiM-ETH serve as input data for a river basin management model (MIKE BASIN. MIKE BASIN uses a network approach, and allows fast simulations of water allocation and of the consequences of different development scenarios on the available water resources. The impact of the expansion of small and medium scale reservoirs on the stored volume of Lake Volta has been quantified and assessed in comparison with the impact of climate variability on the water resources of the basin.

  17. Impact of petroleum pollution on aquatic coastal ecosystems in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although oil activities generate numerous forms of environmental impact on biological communities, studies of these impacts on Brazilian coastal ecosystems are rate. Results of tests for the content of oil in sediments and organisms indicate a substantially high rate of degradation. Results for uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in bivalves suggested the recent occurrence of oil spills and that these organisms differed in their capabilities to bioconcentrate oil. The mangrove community has suffered constant inputs of oil and has responded with increased numbers of aerial roots, generation of malformed leaves and fruits by plants, and a decrease in litter production. Studies of the impact of oil on rocky shore communities and the toxicity of oil and its by-products to marine organisms have confirmed the results reported in the literature. Presently most of the available studies deal with the macroscopic effects of oil on organisms and have indicated that the nature of oil, climate characteristics, the physical environment, and the structure of the community influence the symptoms of oil contamination in organisms of coastal waters. Long-term studies should be carried out to assess changes in community structure, sublethal effects in populations, and the resilience of contaminated ecosystems

  18. Lunar surface magnetic field concentrations antipodal to young large impact basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, R. P.; Anderson, K. A.; Hood, L. L.

    1988-01-01

    Planetary electron reflection magnetometry data of the Apollo 15 and 16 subsatellites indicate the presence of major regions of strong surface magnetic fields near the antipodes of four large, young, ringed impact basins. While mechanisms yielding surface magnetic field concentrations antipodal to impact basins are not yet clear, the present results' indicated period of strong lunar magnetic fields, at between about 3.85 and 3.6 aeons, is consistent with lunar paleomagnetic sample data. The origin of the strong surface magnetic fields is discussed.

  19. Multi-basin, Multi-sector Drought Economic Impact Model in Python: Development and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutenson, J. L.; Zhu, L.; Ernest, A. N. S.; Oubeidillah, A.; Bearden, B.; Johnson, T. G.

    2015-12-01

    Drought is one of the most economically disastrous natural hazards, one whose impacts are exacerbated by the lack of abrupt onset and offset that define tornados and hurricanes. In the United States, about 30 billion dollars losses is caused by drought in 2012, resulting in widespread economic impacts for societies, industries, agriculture, and recreation. And in California, the drought cost statewide economic losses about 2.2 billion, with a total loss of 17,100 seasonal and part-time jobs. Driven by a variety of factors including climate change, population growth, increased water demands, alteration to land cover, drought occurs widely all over the world. Drought economic consequence assessment tool are greatly needed to allow decision makers and stakeholders to anticipate and manage effectively. In this study, current drought economic impact modeling methods were reviewed. Most of these models only deal with the impact in the agricultural sector with a focus on a single basin; few of these models analyze long term impact. However, drought impacts are rarely restricted to basin boundaries, and cascading economic impacts are likely to be significant. A holistic approach to multi-basin, multi-sector drought economic impact assessment is needed.In this work, we developed a new model for drought economic impact assessment, Drought Economic Impact Model in Python (PyDEM). This model classified all business establishments into thirteen categories based on NAICS, and using a continuous dynamic social accounting matrix approach, coupled with calculation of the indirect consequences for the local and regional economies and the various resilience. In addition, Environmental Policy Integrated Climate model was combined for analyzing drought caused soil erosion together with agriculture production, and then the long term impacts of drought were achieved. A visible output of this model was presented in GIS. In this presentation, Choctawhatchee-Pea-Yellow River Basins, Alabama

  20. Two new species of Pseudancistrus (Siluriformes, Loricariidae from the Amazon basin, northern Brazil

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    Gabriel da Costa e Silva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Pseudancistrus, a genus diagnosed by non-evertible cheek plates and hypertrophied odontodes along the snout margin, are described from two drainages of the Brazilian Shield: P. kayabi from the rio Teles Pires (rio Tapajós basin and P. asurini from the rio Xingu. The new species are distinguished from congeners (P. barbatus, P. corantijniensis, P. depressus, P. nigrescens, P. reus, and P. zawadzkii by the coloration pattern. Pseudancistrus kayabi has dark bars on the dorsal and caudal fins which are similar to that of P. reus from the Caroní River, Venezuela. Pseudancistrus asurini is unique among Pseudancistrus in having whitish tips of the dorsal and caudal fins in juveniles to medium-sized adults.

  1. Spectroscopic Analysis of a Theropod Dinosaur (Reptilia, Archosauria from the Ipubi Formation, Araripe Basin, Northeastern Brazil

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    João Hermínio da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Araripe Sedimentary Basin is known by the excellence of its fossils, regarding the preservation, diversity, and quantity. Here, we present a spectroscopic analysis using several experimental techniques (X-ray energy dispersion spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy as well as X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis applied in small fragments of bones from the posterior members of a theropod dinosaur. The results agree regarding the different composition of the stone matrix and the fossilized bone, indicating a partial substitution of the material by elements present in the depositional environment. However, differently from what is believed to occur, there is evidence that pyritization is not the only mechanism of fossilization for a specimen of Ipubi formation, but calcification, additionally, plays an important role in the fossil production of this Formation.

  2. Shelf-edge sedimentary systems off Rio de Janeiro State, northern Santos basin-Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, R. M. C.; Dos Reis, A. T.; Gorini, C.; Silva, C. G.; Rabineau, M.; Granjeon, D.

    2012-04-01

    elements provide a hint at a prevailing subsidence regime and effective sediment supply into the basin that clearly contrast with the conveyed idea of a sediment-starved and tectonic stable shelf. They naturally raise questions about the nature and origin of sediment supply, since no significant point siliciclastic fluvial source flows directly into the shelf. Stemming from that, we are forced to speculate about: (A) the role of neotectonic movements involving the Serra do Mar coastal mountain ranges to potentially source clastic influx into the basin during the Quaternary, or about the real importance of secondary drainage basins debouching today; and (B) the mechanical nature of a supposed subsidence during the Pliocene and the Quaternary time span (overloading ? sediment compaction ? thermal cooling ?). The interpretation of industrial seismic lines can provide the answers of many of these questions. The next step of this work is to make a stratigraphy model of the sedimentary systems of Santos basin to understand how the ancient creation of accommodation space can influence the recent sedimentary architecture and how is the change in sedimentary influx and the sedimentary records of different orders of cyclicity.

  3. Dealing with variability in water availability: the case of the Verde Grande River basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collischonn, B.; Lopes, A. V.; Pante, A. R.

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents a water resources management strategy developed by the Brazilian National Water Agency (ANA) to cope with the conflicts between water users in the Verde Grande River basin, located at the southern border of the Brazilian semi-arid region. The basin is dominated by water-demanding fruit irrigation agriculture, which has grown significantly and without adequate water use control, over the last 30 years. The current water demand for irrigation exceeds water availability (understood as a 95 % percentile of the flow duration curve) in a ratio of three to one, meaning that downstream water users are experiencing more frequent water shortages than upstream ones. The management strategy implemented in 2008 has the objective of equalizing risk for all water users and consists of a set of rules designed to restrict water withdrawals according to current river water level (indicative of water availability) and water demand. Under that rule, larger farmers have proportionally larger reductions in water use, preserving small subsistence irrigators. Moreover, dry season streamflow is forecasted at strategic points by the end of every rainy season, providing evaluation of shortage risk. Thus, water users are informed about the forecasts and corresponding restrictions well in advance, allowing for anticipated planning of irrigated areas and practices. In order to enforce restriction rules, water meters were installed in all larger water users and inefficient farmers were obligated to improve their irrigation systems' performance. Finally, increases in irrigated area are only allowed in the case of annual crops and during months of higher water availability (November to June). The strategy differs from convectional approached based only on water use priority and has been successful in dealing with natural variability of water availability, allowing more water to be used in wet years and managing risk in an isonomic manner during dry years.

  4. Geologic and geomorphologic controls of the kaolin deposits of Campo Alegre basin (SC-Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most important kaolin deposits from Campo Alegre region (S C) were formed by the conjunction of at least one hydrothermal phase followed by many others weathering, supergenic, phases. Possibly deposits formed by only one of these processes exist, but these deposits shall be small and smaller than those mined today. Besides kaolinization, illitization/muscovitization and silicification, hydrothermalism also generated pyritized and propilitized zones, with quartz + chlorite. Together, hipogenic alterations related to kaolin deposits are very similar to alterations of high sulfidation epigenetic volcanogenic gold deposits. Most part of the biggest kaolin mines from the southern part of Campo Alegre Basin are distributed along a 13 Km long and 0,5 Km width bent zone that is parallel to structural alignments that point out the eastern Basin border. This zone was originated by deformation that has inclined and broken rocks, generating a fault system alongside and parallel to structural lineaments. This fault system has made possible the ascent of hydrothermal hot aqueous fluids and of diqueform intrusions that caused hydrothermalism genetically related to kaolin deposits. Gamma spectrometry may indicate hydro thermalized zones. Although the potassium equivalent rock contents, derived from aerial gamma spectrometry of the mine regions, varies from a minimum of 2,07% to a maximum of 3,78%, 17 of the 20 mines are on high grade regions, with equivalent potassium contents grater than 3,04% and lower than 3,58%. The 'F factor' ((K.U)/Th) seems to indicate hydro thermalized zones better than potassium equivalent rock contents. Practically all the biggest mines on region are placed where 'F factor' is large, bigger than 10,05% and lower than 13,70%. The biggest mines are restricted to regions with altitudes between 950 and 1060 m. The average altitude of 23 mines is 1012,1+-13,8 m. This zone agrees with an ancient peneplane that makes possible the development of the intense

  5. 210Pb and compositional data of sediments from Rondonian lakes, Madeira River basin, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold exploration has been intensive in Brazilian Amazon over the last 40 years, where the use of mercury as an amalgam has caused abnormal Hg concentrations in water bodies. Special attention has been directed to Madeira River due to fact it is a major tributary of Amazon River and that since 1986, gold exploration has been officially permitted along a 350 km sector of the river. The 210Pb method has been used to date sediments taken from nine lakes situated in Madeira River basin, Rondônia State, and to verify where anthropogenic Hg might exist due to gold exploitation in Madeira River. Activity profiles of excess 210Pb determined in the sediment cores provided a means to evaluate the sedimentation rates using a Constant Flux: Constant Sedimentation (CF:CS) and Constant Rate of Supply (CRS) of unsupported/excess 210Pb models. A significant relationship was found between the CF:CS sedimentation rates and the mean values of the CRS sedimentation rates (Pearson correlation coefficient r=0.59). Chemical data were also determined in the sediments for identifying possible relationships with Hg occurring in the area. Significant values were found in statistical correlation tests realized among the Hg, major oxides and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) content in the sediments. The TOC increased in the sediment cores accompanied by a loss on ignition (LOI) increment, whereas silica decreased following a specific surface area raising associated to the TOC increase. The CRS model always provided ages within the permitted range of the 210Pb-method in the studied lakes, whereas the CF:CS model predicted two values above 140 years. - Highlights: • Gold mining activities. • Madeira River basin at Amazon area. • Pb-210 chronological method. • Models for evaluating sedimentation rates

  6. [Electric power generation and transmission: the impact on indigenous peoples in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koifman, S

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the effects of electric power generation and transmission on indigenous communities in Brazil. According to data from FUNAI (the Brazilian government's Board of Indian Affairs), there are 156 cases of direct impact, present or future, of the electric power sector on Indian settlements geographically distributed throughout Brazil, 65% of which are located in the Northern Region of the country. The principal complaints by indigenous communities relate to the direct effects of flooding following construction of hydroelectric dams, destruction of sacred sites like cemeteries, mosquito proliferation, and health-related hazards such as malaria and other infectious diseases, decrease in game for hunting, crowding out of farm land, and increased invasion of indigenous lands. Future perspectives include a scenario with further construction of hydroelectric dams, especially in the Amazon region, with possible similar effects on indigenous communities. PMID:11283772

  7. Power sector reforms in Brazil and its impacts on energy efficiency and research and development activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the mid-nineties Brazil has implemented significant changes in the country's power sector, including privatization, introduction of competition and the creation of regulatory agency. As reform started in Brazil traditional support to energy efficiency and energy research and development suffered a discontinuation, budget cuts and re-definition of roles of the public agents in charge. At the same time, new regulatory measures and the creation of a national public interest fund have helped to maintain and potentially enhance the country's effort to promote energy efficiency and investments in energy R and D. This paper analyses the impacts of these changes in the areas of energy efficiency and energy research and development and argues for an increased role of developing countries to provide solutions for a meeting energy demand requirements more suitable to their internal markets

  8. Volume of Impact Melt Generated by the Formation of the South Pole-Aitken Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petro, Noah E.

    2011-01-01

    The South Pole-Aitken Basin (SPA) is the largest, deepest, and oldest identified basin on the Moon and as such contains surfaces that are unique due to their age, composition, and depth of origin in the lunar crust [1-5] (Figure 1). SPA has been a target of intense interest as an area for robotic sample return in order to determine the age of the basin and the composition and origin of its interior [6-8]. In response to this interest there have been several efforts to estimate the likely provenance of regolith material within central SPA [9-12]. These model estimates suggest that, despite the formation of basins and craters following SPA, the regolith within SPA is dominated by locally derived material. An assumption of these models has been that the locally derived material is primarily SPA impact-melt as opposed to local basement material (e.g. unmelted lower crust). However, the definitive identification of SPA derived impact melt on the basin floor, either by remote sensing [5, 13] or via photogeology [2, 14] is extremely difficult due to the number of subsequent impacts and volcanic activity [4].

  9. Mapping Buried Impact Craters in the Chryse Basin to Understand the Distribution of Outflow Channel Sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Moira; Frey, Herbert V.

    2016-01-01

    The Chryse Basin's location in the northern hemisphere of Mars allowed it to collect water from a number of major outflow channels. These outflows likely deposited significant amounts of sediment within the Basin. This project's goal was to see if mapping buried impact craters, revealed as Quasi-Circular Depressions (QCDs) in Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data, could be used to determine the distribution and variation of sediment thickness within the Basin. QCDs, including likely buried impact craters, were mapped to test the hypothesis that further into the basin there would be fewer smaller craters because thicker sediments would have preferentially covered them. Mapping was done using Gridview, an interactive graphics program that manipulates data, in this case topographic data from MOLA. It should be possible to estimate the thickness of the sediment from the smallest buried craters found in a given area, and therefore map out the change in sediment thickness across the basin. The smallest QCDs beginning to be completely covered by sediment were just below 30 km in diameter. The minimum sediment needed to cover a QCD of this size was calculated to be between 1-2km. Therefore, the absence of QCDs below 30 km in the NE corner of Chryse could be explained by sediment at least that thick. Lower thickness is expected elsewhere in the basin, especially in the SW, where more QCDs with smaller diameters were found. The method of mapping buried impact craters provides a way to determine variations in sediment thickness within the Chryse Basin. This method could be used on other sediment-covered areas to learn about past water flow.

  10. Hydro-Economic Modeling with Minimum Data Requirements: An Application to the São Francisco River Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, M.; Maneta, M.; Vosti, S.; Wallender, W.; Howitt, R.

    2008-12-01

    Policymakers have been charged with the efficient, equitable, and sustainable use of water resources of the São Francisco River Basin (SFRB), Brazil, and also with the promotion of economic growth and the reduction of poverty within the basin. To date, policymakers lack scientific evidence on the potential consequences for growth, poverty alleviation or environmental sustainability of alternative uses of water resources. To address these key knowledge gaps, we have linked a hydrologic and an economic model of agriculture to investigate how economic decisions affect available water, and vice versa. More specifically, the models are used to predict the effects of the application of Brazilian federal surface water use policies on farmer's net revenues and on the hydrologic system. The Economic Model of Agriculture. A spatially explicit, farm-level model capable of accommodating a broad array of farm sizes and farm/farmer characteristics is developed and used to predict the effects of alternative water policies and neighbors' water use patterns on crop mix choice. A production function comprised of seven categories of non-water-related inputs used in agriculture (land, fertilizers, pesticides, seeds, hired labor, family labor and machinery) and four water-related inputs used in agriculture (applied water, irrigation labor, irrigation capital and energy) is estimated. The parameters emerging from this estimated production function are then introduced into a non-linear, net revenue maximization positive mathematical programming algorithm that is used for simulations. The Hydrological Model. MIKE Basin, a semi-distributed hydrology model, is used to calculate water budgets for the SFRB. MIKE Basin calculates discharge at selected nodes by accumulating runoff down the river network; it simulates reservoirs using stage-area-storage and downstream release rule curves. The data used to run the model are discharge to calculate local runoff, precipitation, reference ET, crop

  11. Preliminary Measurements Of N2O Partial Pressures In Rivers of Amazon Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, C. B.; Rasera, M. F.; Krusche, A. V.; Victoria, R. L.; Richey, J. E.; Cunha, H. B.; Gomes, B. M.

    2006-12-01

    The concentrations of nitrous oxide (N2O), an important component of the greenhouse effect and with a long residence time in the atmosphere, have significantly increased in this century. The reasons for this atmospheric increase in N2O are still partially unexplained. This uncertainty is worse in relation to aquatic environments. Here we report on preliminary measurements of N2O partial pressures in rivers of the Amazon basin. The study areas are in the state of Rondonia (rivers Ji Parana, Urupa, Comemoracao and Pimenta Bueno) and Amazonas (rivers Solimoes and Negro). The rivers were sampled from October 2005 to April 2006, using with immersion pumps, lowered in the middle of the channel to 60% of total depth. Water was pumped directly into a 1 l plastic bottle, which was overflown three times before closing. Using syringes, 60 ml of N2 were injected into the bottle, simultaenously to the withdrawn of 60 ml of sample. N2O was extracted into these 60 ml of N2 by shaking vigorously for 2 minutes. With the same syringes, the gas was taken from the bottles and injected into sealed evacuated 25 ml vials. Atmospheric samples were taken from one meter above the water column and stored the same way. N2O partial pressures were determined on a Shimadzu GC-14 Green House Gas Analyzer. All rivers showed little variations in N2O partial pressures. Average values in the rivers of Rondonia were around 0.41 ± 0.07 μ atm (n=46), whereas the Solimoes and Negro rivers, in the state of Amazonas, showed values around 0.43 ± 0.08 μ atm (n=131). Atmospheric averages were approximately 0.34 ± 0.04 μ atm (n=58) and 0.32 ± 0.03 μ atm (n=134) in the states of Rondonia and Amazonas, respectively. This means that, although these waters are supersatured in CO2, making evasive fluxes of this gas an important component of the C cycle in this basin, the same does not occur in the N cycle. Small differences in partial pressures of N2O between water and air will result in small fluxes of

  12. Neogene vegetation development in the Amazon Basin: evidence from marine well-2, Foz do Amazonas (Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogota-Angel, Raul; Chemale Junior, Farid; Davila, Roberto; Soares, Emilson; Pinto, Ricardo; Do Carmo, Dermeval; Hoorn, Carina

    2014-05-01

    Origen and development of the highly diverse Amazon tropical forest has mostly been inferred from continental sites. However, sediment records in the marine Foz do Amazonas Basin can provide important information to better understand the influence of the Andes uplift and climate change on its plant biomes evolution since the Neogene. Sediment analyses of samples from BP-Petrobras well 1 and 2, drilled in the Amazon Fan, allowed to infer the onset of the transcontinental Amazon river and the fan phase during the middle to late Miocene (c. 10.5 Ma). As part of the CLIMAMAZON research programme we performed pollen analysis on the 10.5 to 0.4 Ma time interval. 76 ditch cutting samples of the upper 4165 m sediments of well 2 permitted us to infer changes in floral composition in the Amazon Basin. The palynological spectra across this interval (nannofossil based age model) include pollen, fern spores, dinocysts and foram lignings. When possible pollen and fern spores were grouped in four vegetation types: estuarine, tropical, mountain forest and high mountain open treeless vegetation. Pollen is generally corroded and reflects the effects of sediment transportation while reworked material is also common. Good pollen producers such as Poaceae, Asteraceae and Cyperaceae are common and reflect indistinctive vegetation types particularly those associated to riverine systems. Rhizophora/Zonocostites spp. indicate "close-distance" mangrove development. Tropical forest biomes are represented by pollen that resemble Moraceae-Urticaceae, Melastomataceae-Combretaceae, Sapotaceae, Alchornea, Euphorbiaceae, Rubiaceae, Bignoniaceae, Mauritia and Arecaceae. Myrica, and particularly sporadic occurrences of fossil fern spores like Lophosoria, and Cyathea suggest the development of a moist Andean forest in areas above 1000 m. First indicators of high altitudes appear in the last part of late Miocene with taxa associated to current Valeriana and particularly Polylepis, a neotropical taxon

  13. Hydrogeochemical modeling of large fluvial basins: impact of climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical weathering of continental surfaces represents the one of carbon sinks at the Earth's surface which regulates the climate through feedback mechanism. The weathering intensity is controlled by climate but also by lithology, vegetal cover, hydrology and presence of smectites and acids in soils. In this work, a study at global scale on grid cells highlighted that a CO2 concentration increase in the atmosphere would involve a decrease of evapotranspiration due to stomatal progressive closure, and a rise of soil acidity related to enhanced bio-spheric productivity. These changes would promote the silicates chemical weathering and as a result, would lead to CO2 consumption increase by 3% for 100 ppmv of CO2 concentration rise in the atmosphere. Then, the study on the one of the most important catchments located in arctic environment, the Mackenzie basin (Canada), showed the high sensitivity of chemical weathering to sulfuric acid production. Indeed, the Mackenzie mean CO2 consumption has decreased by 56%, taking account the pyrite presence in the catchment. In addition, the mean CO2 consumption of this basin could rise by 53% between today climate and a climatic scenario predicted for the end of century. (author)

  14. Artificial maturation of oil shale: The Irati Formation from the Parana Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayer, James L.

    Oil shale samples from the Irati Formation in Brazil were evaluated from an outcrop block, denoted Block 003. The goals of this thesis include: 1) Characterizing the Irati Formation, 2) Comparing the effects of two different types of pyrolysis, anhydrous and hydrous, and 3) Utilizing a variety of geophysical experiments to determine the changes associated with each type of pyrolysis. Primary work included determining total organic carbon, source rock analysis, mineralogy, computer tomography x-ray scans, and scanning electron microscope images before and after pyrolysis, as well as acoustic properties of the samples during pyrolysis. Two types of pyrolysis (hydrous and anhydrous) were performed on samples cored at three different orientations (0°, 45°, and 90°) with respect to the axis of symmetry, requiring six total experiments. During pyrolysis, the overall effective pressure was maintained at 800 psi, and the holding temperature was 365°C. The changes and deformation in the hydrous pyrolysis samples were greater compared to the anhydrous pyrolysis. The velocities gave the best indication of changes occurring during pyrolysis, but it was difficult to maintain the same amplitude and quality of waveforms at higher temperatures. The velocity changes were due to a combination of factors, including thermal deformation of the samples, fracture porosity development, and the release of adsorbed water and bitumen from the sample. Anhydrous pyrolysis in this study did not reduce TOC, while TOC was reduced due to hydrous pyrolysis by 5%, and velocities in the hydrous pyrolysis decreased by up to 30% at 365°C compared to room temperature. Data from this study and future data that can be acquired with the improved high-temperature, high-pressure experiment will assist in future economic production from oil shale at lower temperatures under hydrous pyrolysis conditions.

  15. Early impact basins and the onset of plate tectonics. Ph.D. Thesis - Maryland Univ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, H.

    1977-01-01

    The fundamental crustal dichotomy of the Earth (high and low density crust) was established nearly 4 billion years ago. Therefore, subductable crust was concentrated at the surface of the Earth very early in its history, making possible an early onset for plate tectonics. Simple thermal history calculations spanning 1 billion years show that the basin forming impact thins the lithosphere by at least 25%, and increases the sublithosphere thermal gradients by roughly 20%. The corresponding increase in convective heat transport, combined with the highly fractured nature of the thinned basin lithosphere, suggest that lithospheric breakup or rifting occurred shortly after the formation of the basins. Conditions appropriate for early rifting persisted from some 100,000,000 years following impact. We suggest a very early stage of high temperature, fast spreading "microplate" tectonics, originating before 3.5 billion years ago, and gradually stabilizing over the Archaean into more modern large plate or Wilson Cycle tectonics.

  16. Basin-forming impacts on Mars and the coupled thermal evolution of the interior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkani-Hamed, J.; Roberts, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    The youngest of the Noachian giant impact basins on Mars, are either weakly magnetized or completely demagnetized, indicating that a global magnetic field was not present and that a core dynamo was not operating at the time those basins formed. Shock heating from this sequence of basin-forming impacts modified the pattern of mantle convection. The heating produced by the eight largest impacts (Acidalia, Amazonis, Ares, Chryse, Daedalia, Hellas, Scopolus, and Utopia) penetrates below the core-mantle boundary (CMB). Here, we extend previous workon coupled thermal evolution into 3D, in order to accurately model the spatial relationship between impact basins. At the time of each impact we introduce a temperature perturbation resulting from shock heating into the core and mantle. Stratification of the core occurs very quickly compared to mantle dynamics, and we horizontally average the temperature in the core.We model mantle convection using the 3D finite element code CitcomS, and the thermal evolution of the core using a 1D parameterization.Each impact alters the pattern of mantle dynamics and a significant amount of impact melt is produced in the near surface. However, only the outermost part of the core is affected; the inner core temperature is still adiabatic. Immediately following the impact, the inner core may remain convective. The top of the core will cool by conduction into the deeper core faster than across the CMB, deepening the zone of stable stratification. Further core cooling results in formation of a convecting zone at the top of the core that propagates downwards as the thermal gradient becomes adiabatic at greater depths. Our goal is to obtain a better estimate of the time scale for restoration of post-impact core dynamo activity. Because the disappearance of the magnetic field exposes the early atmosphere to solar wind activity, constraining the history of the dynamo is critical for understanding climate evolution and habitability of the surface.

  17. Marine controlled source electromagnetic (mCSEM) detects hydrocarbon reservoirs in the Santos Basin - Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buonora, Marco Polo Pereira; Rodrigues, Luiz Felipe [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Zerilli, Andrea; Labruzzo, Tiziano [WesternGeco, Houston, TX (United States)

    2008-07-01

    In recent years marine Controlled Source Electromagnetic (mCSEM) has driven the attention of an increasing number of operators due to its sensitivity to map resistive structures, such as hydrocarbon reservoirs beneath the ocean floor and successful case histories have been reported. The Santos basin mCSEM survey was performed as part of a technical co-operation project between PETROBRAS and Schlumberger to assess the integration of selected deep reading electromagnetic technologies into the full cycle of oil field exploration and development. The survey design was based on an in-depth sensitivity study, built on known reservoirs parameters, such as thickness, lateral extent, overburden and resistivities derived from seismic and well data. In this context, the mCSEM data were acquired to calibrate the technology over the area's known reservoirs, quantify the resistivity anomalies associated with those reservoirs, with the expectation that new prospective locations could be found. We show that the mCSEM response of the known reservoirs yields signatures that can be clearly imaged and accurately quantified and there are evident correlations between the mCSEM anomalies and the reservoirs. (author)

  18. Ra-226 concentrations in the hydrographic basins near uranium mining and milling in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A monitoring survey of the 226Ra concentrations in river waters in the vicinity of the mining area and future milling facilities in the Pocos de Caldas region began in January 1977. The objective of the monitoring survey is to establish a baseline to allow future comparisons between the 226Ra concentrations in waters of the hydrographic basins of the Pocos de Caldas plateau before and after the beginning of full scale commercial operations. Open pit mining started in July 1977 in the uranium deposits of Campo do Cercado, but the main uranium body has not been reached yet. Seasonal variations in riverflow are apparently accompanied by little variations in the 226Ra concentrations in river waters. A crude calculational dosimetric model is in the process of being developed to estimate annual dose equivalent to an individual from 226Ra via drinking water and irrigation patterns as a first step to calculate the collective dose equivalent commitment to the population of the Pocos de Caldas plateau and surroundings

  19. Bias-correction and Spatial Disaggregation for Climate Change Impact Assessments at a basin scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyunt, Cho; Koike, Toshio; Yamamoto, Akio; Nemoto, Toshihoro; Kitsuregawa, Masaru

    2013-04-01

    Basin-scale climate change impact studies mainly rely on general circulation models (GCMs) comprising the related emission scenarios. Realistic and reliable data from GCM is crucial for national scale or basin scale impact and vulnerability assessments to build safety society under climate change. However, GCM fail to simulate regional climate features due to the imprecise parameterization schemes in atmospheric physics and coarse resolution scale. This study describes how to exclude some unsatisfactory GCMs with respect to focused basin, how to minimize the biases of GCM precipitation through statistical bias correction and how to cover spatial disaggregation scheme, a kind of downscaling, within in a basin. GCMs rejection is based on the regional climate features of seasonal evolution as a bench mark and mainly depends on spatial correlation and root mean square error of precipitation and atmospheric variables over the target region. Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) and Japanese 25-uear Reanalysis Project (JRA-25) are specified as references in figuring spatial pattern and error of GCM. Statistical bias-correction scheme comprises improvements of three main flaws of GCM precipitation such as low intensity drizzled rain days with no dry day, underestimation of heavy rainfall and inter-annual variability of local climate. Biases of heavy rainfall are conducted by generalized Pareto distribution (GPD) fitting over a peak over threshold series. Frequency of rain day error is fixed by rank order statistics and seasonal variation problem is solved by using a gamma distribution fitting in each month against insi-tu stations vs. corresponding GCM grids. By implementing the proposed bias-correction technique to all insi-tu stations and their respective GCM grid, an easy and effective downscaling process for impact studies at the basin scale is accomplished. The proposed method have been examined its applicability to some of the basins in various climate

  20. Shallow lacustrine system of the Permian Pedra de Fogo Formation, Western Gondwana, Parnaíba Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Raphael Neto; Nogueira, Afonso César Rodrigues; Bandeira, José; Angélica, Rômulo Simões

    2016-04-01

    The Permian Period of the Parnaíba Basin, northern Brazil, represented here by deposits from the Pedra de Fogo Formation, records important events that occurred in Western Gondwana near its boundary with the Mesozoic Era. The analysis of outcrop based facies from the Permian Pedra de Fogo Formation, which is 100 m thick, carried out along the eastern and western borders of the Parnaiba Basin, allowed the identification of eleven sedimentary facies, which were grouped into three distinct facies associations (FA), representative of a shallow lacustrine system associated with mudflats and ephemeral rivers. Bioturbation, desiccation cracks, silcretes and various siliceous concretions characterize the Pedra de Fogo deposits. The FA1 mudflat deposits occur predominantly at the base of the Pedra de Fogo Formation and consist of laminated claystone/mudstone, mudcrack-bearing sandstones/mudstones and sandstones exhibiting cross-lamination, massive and megaripple bedding. Popcorn-like silicified nodules and casts indicate evaporite deposits. Other common features are silica concretions, silicified tepees and silcretes. FA2 represents nearshore deposits and consists of fine-grained sandstones with evenly parallel lamination, climbing ripple cross-lamination, massive and megaripple bedding and mudstone/siltstone showing evenly parallel lamination. FA3 refers to wadi/inundite deposits, generally organized as fining-upward cycles of metric size, composed of conglomerates and medium-grained pebbly sandstones showing massive bedding and cross-stratification, as well as claystone/siltstone showing evenly parallel to undulate lamination. Scour-and-fill features are isolated in predominantly tabular deposits composed of mudstones interbedded with fine to medium-grained sandstones showing planar to slightly undulate lamination. Silicified plant remains previously classified as belonging to the Psaronius genus found in the uppermost levels of the Pedra de Fogo Formation, near the

  1. Geochemical behavior and dissolved species control in acid sand pit lakes, Sepetiba sedimentary basin, Rio de Janeiro, SE - Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Eduardo D.; Sella, Sílvia M.; Bidone, Edison D.; Silva-Filho, Emmanoel V.

    2010-12-01

    This work shows the influence of pluvial waters on dissolved components and mineral equilibrium of four sand pit lakes, located in the Sepetiba sedimentary basin, SE Brazil. The sand mining activities promote sediment oxidation, lowering pH and increasing SO 4 contents. The relatively high acidity of these waters, similar to ore pit lakes environment and associated acid mine drainage, increases weathering rate, especially of silicate minerals, which produces high Al concentrations, the limiting factor for fish aquaculture. During the dry season, basic cations (Ca, Mg, K and Na), SiO 2 and Al show their higher values due to evapoconcentration and pH are buffered. In the beginning of the wet season, the dilution factor by rainwater increases SO 4 and decreases pH values. The aluminum monomeric forms (Al(OH) 2+ and Al(OH) 2+), the most toxic species for aquatic organisms, occur during the dry season, while AlSO 4+ species predominate during the wet season. Gibbsite, allophane, alunite and jurbanite are the reactive mineral phases indicated by PHREEQC modeling. During the dry season, hydroxialuminosilicate allophane is the main phase in equilibrium with the solution, while the sulphate salts alunite and jurbanite predominate in the rainy season due to the increasing of SO 4 values. Gibbsite is also in equilibrium with sand pit lakes waters, pointing out that hydrolysis reaction is a constant process in the system. Comparing to SiO 2, sulphate is the main Al retriever in the pit waters because the most samples (alunite and jurbanite) are in equilibrium with the solution in both seasons. This Al hydrochemical control allied to some precaution, like pH correction and fertilization of these waters, allows the conditions for fishpond culture. Equilibrium of the majority samples with kaolinite (Ca, Mg, Na diagrams) and primary minerals (K diagram) points to moderate weathering rate in sand pit sediments, which cannot be considered for the whole basin due to the anomalous

  2. The impact of poor governance on water and sediment quality: a case study in the Pitimbu River, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, L.; Adamowski, J.; Gaskin, S.; Saraiva, A.

    2014-09-01

    Applying a collaborative approach under a power-sharing institutional structure, coupled with a shift in paradigms, sustainable water resources management often requires political-institutional reform to achieve its goals. Most of Brazil's river basins are subject to rapid urbanization; however, basin stakeholders generally lack sufficient institutional capacity to address the attending water resource issues. Subject to urbanisation, the Pitimbu River basin supplies potable water to approximately 280 000 people in Brazil's Natal region. This study investigated how current institutional models influence both water management and fluvial contamination by metals. Sediment samples collected at eight sites along the river revealed elevated levels of Pb, Fe, Al, Ni and Zn, whose sources were linked to industries, vehicles, as well as agricultural and construction wastes. Aluminium enrichment of surface waters was mainly linked to inadequate sanitation infrastructure. In light of this, the region's poor institutional capacity must be addressed through institutional reform, including a new management structure open to public collective water management planning. In so doing, Brazil's water policies should acknowledge capacity building as a critical element of institutional reform.

  3. Sommerxylon spiralosus from Upper Triassic in southernmost Paraná Basin (Brazil: a new taxon with taxacean affinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etiene F. Pires

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The anatoical description of silici?ed Gymnospermae woods from Upper Triassic sequences of southernmost Paraná Basin (Brazil has allowed the identi?cation of a new taxon: Sommerxylon spiralosus n.gen. et n.sp. Diagnostic parameters, such as heterocellular medulla composed of parenchymatous and sclerenchymatous cells, primary xylem endarch, secondary xylem with dominant uniseriate bordered pits, spiral thickenings in the radial walls of tracheids, medullar rays homocellular, absence of resiniferous canals and axial parenchyma, indicate its relationship with the family Taxaceae, reporting on the first recognition of this group in the Triassic on Southern Pangea. This evidence supports the hypothesis that the Taxaceae at the Mesozoic were not con?ned to the Northern Hemisphere.A descrição anatômica de lenhos silicificados de Gymnospermae em seqüência do Triássico Superior no sul da Bacia do Paraná (Brasil, possibilitou a identificação de um novo taxon: Sommerxylon spiralosus n.gen. et n.sp. Parâmetros diagnósticos tais como medula heterocelular, composta por células parenquimáticas e esclerenquimáticas, xilema primário endarco, xilema secundário com pontoações areoladas unisseriadas dominantes, espessamentos espiralados nas paredes radiais dos traqueídeos, raios lenhosos homocelulares, ausência de canais resiníferos e de parênquima axial, indicam a sua vinculação à família Taxaceae, constituindo-se em reconhecimento inédito da presença deste grupo no Triássico Superior no sul do Pangea. Esta evidência suporta a hipótese de que a família Taxaceae não estava confinada ao Hemisfério Norte durante o Mesozóico.

  4. The Impact of Dietary and Metabolic Risk Factors on Cardiovascular Diseases and Type 2 Diabetes Mortality in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    de Oliveira Otto, Marcia C.; Afshin, Ashkan; Micha, Renata; Khatibzadeh, Shahab; Fahimi, Saman; Singh, Gitanjali; Danaei, Goodarz; Sichieri, Rosely; Carlos A. Monteiro; Maria L C Louzada; Ezzati, Majid; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2016-01-01

    Background: Trends in food availability and metabolic risk factors in Brazil suggest a shift toward unhealthy dietary patterns and increased cardiometabolic disease risk, yet little is known about the impact of dietary and metabolic risk factors on cardiometabolic mortality in Brazil. Methods: Based on data from Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study, we used comparative risk assessment to estimate the burden of 11 dietary and 4 metabolic risk factors on mortality due to cardiovascular diseases...

  5. The Impact of Dietary and Metabolic Risk Factors on Cardiovascular Diseases and Type 2 Diabetes Mortality in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    de Oliveira Otto, Marcia C.; Ashkan Afshin; Renata Micha; Shahab Khatibzadeh; Saman Fahimi; Gitanjali Singh; Goodarz Danaei; Rosely Sichieri; Carlos A. Monteiro; Maria L C Louzada; Majid Ezzati; Dariush Mozaffarian

    2016-01-01

    Background Trends in food availability and metabolic risk factors in Brazil suggest a shift toward unhealthy dietary patterns and increased cardiometabolic disease risk, yet little is known about the impact of dietary and metabolic risk factors on cardiometabolic mortality in Brazil. Methods Based on data from Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study, we used comparative risk assessment to estimate the burden of 11 dietary and 4 metabolic risk factors on mortality due to cardiovascular diseases a...

  6. Trends in child labor and the impact on health in adulthood in Brazil from 1998 to 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Marislei Nishijima; André Portela Fernandes de Souza; Flávia Mori Sarti

    2015-01-01

    There is little evidence in Brazil on the impact of child labor on health status in adulthood. This study aimed to investigate trends in child labor in Brazil and estimate the long-term effects of child labor on the health of Brazilian adults, using nationally representative databases (Brazilian National Household Sample Survey) from three different years (1998, 2003, and 2008). The models were based on a two-stage linear equation and Generalized Method of Moments (GMM). The results suggest t...

  7. Spatial variability of soil carbon stock in the Urucu river basin, Central Amazon-Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Amazon Forest plays a major role in C sequestration and release. However, few regional estimates of soil organic carbon (SOC) stock in this ecoregion exist. One of the barriers to improve SOC estimates is the lack of recent soil data at high spatial resolution, which hampers the application of new methods for mapping SOC stock. The aims of this work were: (i) to quantify SOC stock under undisturbed vegetation for the 0–30 and the 0–100 cm under Amazon Forest; (ii) to correlate the SOC stock with soil mapping units and relief attributes and (iii) to evaluate three geostatistical techniques to generate maps of SOC stock (ordinary, isotopic and heterotopic cokriging). The study site is located in the Central region of Amazon State, Brazil. The soil survey covered the study site that has an area of 80 km2 and resulted in a 1:10,000 soil map. It consisted of 315 field observations (96 complete soil profiles and 219 boreholes). SOC stock was calculated by summing C stocks by horizon, determined as a product of BD, SOC and the horizon thickness. For each one of the 315 soil observations, relief attributes were derived from a topographic map to understand SOC dynamics. The SOC stocks across 30 and 100 cm soil depth were 3.28 and 7.32 kg C m−2, respectively, which is, 34 and 16%, lower than other studies. The SOC stock is higher in soils developed in relief forms exhibiting well-drained soils, which are covered by Upland Dense Tropical Rainforest. Only SOC stock in the upper 100 cm exhibited spatial dependence allowing the generation of spatial variability maps based on spatial (co)-regionalization. The CTI was inversely correlated with SOC stock and was the only auxiliary variable feasible to be used in cokriging interpolation. The heterotopic cokriging presented the best performance for mapping SOC stock. - Highlights: • The SOC stocks across 30 and 100 cm depth were 3.28 and 7.32 kg C m−2, respectively. • SOC stocks were 34 and 16%, respectively, lower

  8. Spatial variability of soil carbon stock in the Urucu river basin, Central Amazon-Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceddia, Marcos Bacis, E-mail: marcosceddia@gmail.com [Department of Soil, Institute of Agronomy, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropédica, RJ 23890-000 (Brazil); Villela, André Luis Oliveira [Colégio Técnico da UFRRJ, RJ, Seropédica 23890-000 (Brazil); Pinheiro, Érika Flávia Machado [Department of Soil, Institute of Agronomy, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropédica, RJ 23890-000 (Brazil); Wendroth, Ole [Department of Plant & Soil Sciences, University of Kentucky, College of Agriculture, Lexington, KY (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The Amazon Forest plays a major role in C sequestration and release. However, few regional estimates of soil organic carbon (SOC) stock in this ecoregion exist. One of the barriers to improve SOC estimates is the lack of recent soil data at high spatial resolution, which hampers the application of new methods for mapping SOC stock. The aims of this work were: (i) to quantify SOC stock under undisturbed vegetation for the 0–30 and the 0–100 cm under Amazon Forest; (ii) to correlate the SOC stock with soil mapping units and relief attributes and (iii) to evaluate three geostatistical techniques to generate maps of SOC stock (ordinary, isotopic and heterotopic cokriging). The study site is located in the Central region of Amazon State, Brazil. The soil survey covered the study site that has an area of 80 km{sup 2} and resulted in a 1:10,000 soil map. It consisted of 315 field observations (96 complete soil profiles and 219 boreholes). SOC stock was calculated by summing C stocks by horizon, determined as a product of BD, SOC and the horizon thickness. For each one of the 315 soil observations, relief attributes were derived from a topographic map to understand SOC dynamics. The SOC stocks across 30 and 100 cm soil depth were 3.28 and 7.32 kg C m{sup −2}, respectively, which is, 34 and 16%, lower than other studies. The SOC stock is higher in soils developed in relief forms exhibiting well-drained soils, which are covered by Upland Dense Tropical Rainforest. Only SOC stock in the upper 100 cm exhibited spatial dependence allowing the generation of spatial variability maps based on spatial (co)-regionalization. The CTI was inversely correlated with SOC stock and was the only auxiliary variable feasible to be used in cokriging interpolation. The heterotopic cokriging presented the best performance for mapping SOC stock. - Highlights: • The SOC stocks across 30 and 100 cm depth were 3.28 and 7.32 kg C m{sup −2}, respectively. • SOC stocks were 34 and 16

  9. The formation of peak-ring basins: Working hypotheses and path forward in using observations to constrain models of impact-basin formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, David M. H.; Head, James W.; Collins, Gareth S.; Potter, Ross W. K.

    2016-07-01

    Impact basins provide windows into the crustal structure and stratigraphy of planetary bodies; however, interpreting the stratigraphic origin of basin materials requires an understanding of the processes controlling basin formation and morphology. Peak-ring basins (exhibiting a rim crest and single interior ring of peaks) provide important insight into the basin-formation process, as they are transitional between complex craters with central peaks and larger multi-ring basins. New image and altimetry data from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter as well as a suite of remote sensing datasets have permitted a reassessment of the origin of lunar peak-ring basins. We synthesize morphometric, spectroscopic, and gravity observations of lunar peak-ring basins and describe two working hypotheses for the formation of peak rings that involve interactions between inward collapsing walls of the transient cavity and large central uplifts of the crust and mantle. Major facets of our observations are then compared and discussed in the context of numerical simulations of peak-ring basin formation in order to plot a course for future model refinement and development.

  10. A process-based investigation into the impact of the Congo basin deforestation on surface climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jean P.; Tompkins, Adrian M.; Bouka-Biona, Clobite; Sanda, I. Seidou

    2015-06-01

    The sensitivity of climate to the loss of the Congo basin rainforest through changes in land cover properties is examined using a regional climate model. The complete removal of the Congo basin rainforest results in a dipole rainfall anomaly pattern, characterized by a decrease (˜-42%) in rainfall over the western Congo and an increase (˜10%) in the basin's eastern part. Three further experiments systematically examine the individual response to the changes in albedo, surface roughness, and evapotranspiration efficiency that accompany deforestation. The increased albedo (˜) caused by the Congo basin rainforest clearance results in cooler and drier climate conditions over the entire basin. The drying is accompanied with a reduction in available surface energy. Reducing evapotranspiration efficiency or roughness length produces similar positive air temperature anomaly patterns. The decreased evapotranspiration efficiency leads to a dipole response in rainfall, similar to that resulting from a reduced surface roughness following Congo basin rainforest clearance. This precipitation anomaly pattern is strongly linked to the change in low-level water vapor transport, the influence of the Rift valley highlands, and the spatial pattern of water recycling activity. The climate responds linearly to the separate albedo, surface roughness, and evapotranspiration efficiency changes, which can be summed to produce a close approximation to the impact of the full deforestation experiment. It is suggested that the widely contrasting climate responses to deforestation in the literature could be partly due to the relative magnitude of change of the radiative and nonradiative parameterizations in their respective land surface schemes.

  11. Possible Future Climate Change Impacts on the Hydrological Drought Events in the Weihe River Basin, China

    OpenAIRE

    Fei Yuan; Mingwei Ma; Liliang Ren; Hongren Shen; Yue Li; Shanhu Jiang; Xiaoli Yang; Chongxu Zhao; Hao Kong

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative evaluation of future climate change impacts on hydrological drought characteristics is one of important measures for implementing sustainable water resources management and effective disaster mitigation in drought-prone regions under the changing environment. In this study, a modeling system for projecting the potential future climate change impacts on hydrological droughts in the Weihe River basin (WRB) in North China is presented. This system consists of a large-scale hydrologi...

  12. Climate change in Guadiana river basin and its impacts on crop water demand

    OpenAIRE

    Valverde, Pedro; Serralheiro, Ricardo; Carvalho, Mário; Shahidian, Shakib

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluates climate change tendencies over several climatic parameters observed in the Guadiana river basin, south Portugal and its potential impacts on crop water and irrigation requirements. Parameters analyzed were annual rainfall and its seasonal distribution, temperature and evapotranspiration, collected from available regional meteorological data from a 46-year period (1963-2009). The impacts of climate change in Guadiana basin’s irrigated crops was studied running long-term so...

  13. The impact of global warming on the runoff in the Yangtze River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua; Hu, Kang; Xu, Chongyu; Hou, Yukun

    2016-04-01

    As the largest water system in China, the Yangtze River is important to China. The amount and distribution of water resources are a key impact factor to the ecology protection and the economy development in the Yangtze River basin. In this study, the impact of global warming on the runoff in the Yangtze River basin has been evaluated by coupling the GCMs (Global Climate Models) and a monthly water balance model. In the study hydro-meteorological data from 140 gauges and hydrological data from 20 stations are used. The spatial-temporal changing trends of the runoff, precipitation and temperature are analyzed by using the Mann-Kendall method during the period of 1960-2015. A bias correction method and a statistical downscaling method (MC-SVM, Markov Chain-Support Vector Machine) are used to deal with the temperature and precipitation from a regional climate model and their performances have been evaluated. To simulate the runoff in the basin, the two-parameter monthly water balance model is calibrated and validated in the 20 sub-basins. The CMIP5 projections downscaled from RCM are used as inputs into the water balance model to predict the future possible changes on runoff under global warming. The results will be helpful to maintain the health of the water ecology and the sustainability of water resources utilization in the basin.

  14. Pressure effects on martian crustal magnetization near large impact basins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kletetschka, Günther; Connerly, J. E. P.; Ness, N. F.; Acuna, M. H.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 11 (2004), s. 1839-1848. ISSN 1086-9379 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA3013406 Keywords : martian magnetism * shock pressure * impact Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.673, year: 2004 http://esoads.eso.org//full/2004M%26PS...39.1839K/0001839.000.html

  15. A multibiomarker evaluation of urban, industrial, and agricultural exposure of small characins in a large freshwater basin in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Carolina A; Souza-Bastos, Luciana R; Chiesse, Juliana; Tincani, Flávio H; Piancini, Laercio D S; Randi, Marco A F; Prodocimo, Viviane; Cestari, Marta M; Silva-de-Assis, Helena C; Abilhoa, Vinícius; Vitule, Jean R S; Bastos, Leonardo P; de Oliveira-Ribeiro, Ciro A

    2015-09-01

    Iguaçu River is the second most polluted river of Brazil. It receives agrochemicals and contaminants of urban and industrial sources along its course. A multibiomarker approach was employed here to evaluate the health of a small characin (Astyanax spp.) at two sites along the river, sampled during a dry (autumn) and a rainy (spring) season. Biomarkers were condition factor and somatic indices (gonads and liver); genetic damage (comet assay and micronucleus test); enzyme activities such as hepatic catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST), lipoperoxidation (LPO), branchial and renal carbonic anhydrase (CA), acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the muscle and the brain, histopathology of the liver and gills, and concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in bile. There were no consistent differences in biomarker responses between the two study sites. Some biomarkers revealed greater potential impact in the rainy season, when increased amounts of contaminants are washed into the river (combined CAT inhibition and LPO increase, CA upregulation). Other biomarkers, however, revealed potential greater impact in the dry season, when contaminants potentially concentrate (GST induction, AChE inhibition, and liver histopathological alterations). Although of a complex nature, field experiments such as this provide rich data for monitoring protocols and assessment of general risk of exposure to pollutants of river systems. PMID:25940483

  16. Modeling the Impact of Climate Change on Water Resources in the Senegal River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbaye, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    In this study we assess the impact of climate change on water resources by using uncorrected and bias corrected data from the regional climate model REMO simulations over the Senegal River Basin. Both simulations were used as input of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology - Hydrological Model over the Upper Senegal Basin.Applying the bias correction simulations of present day climate (1971-2000) substantially improved for both temporal and spatial variations of the analyzed climate parameters (precipitation, temperature) when compared to observations and independent station data. Additionally, the bias corrected input give better representation of the mean river flow, the low flows (10th percentile) and the high flows (90thpercentile) at the outlet of the USB.For the future, the regional climate model projections for precipitation show a general decrease by the end of 21stcentury (2071-2100) for both scenarios RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 and datasets in the majority of the basin, except the Guinean highlands where a slight increase is found. In case of the potential changes of the maximum consecutive number of dry days and wet days, the northern basin is likely to face the most pronounced increase of dry days and decrease of wet days, although slight increase of heavy rainfall is found with similar spatial patterns in both data. Furthermore, a general temperature increase is projected over the entire basin for both scenarios, but more pronounced under the RCP8.5 scenario. Warm night's percent is found to be higher than warm day's percent. As for the potential changes of the basin's hydrology, a general decrease of river discharge, runoff, actual evapotranspiration, soil moisture is found under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 in all simulations. The decrease is higher under RCP8.5 with uncorrected data in the northern basin. However, there are some localized increases of runoff in some parts of the basin. Furthermore, the available water resources are projected to substantially decrease

  17. Petrophysical properties of carbonate rocks: example from the cretaceous Jandaira Formation, Potiguar basin - Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Francisco; Soares, José; Bezerra, Francisco; Cavalcanti, Bruno; Cazarin, Caroline

    2015-04-01

    Carbonate sediments are prone to rapid and pervasive diagenetic alterations that change the mineralogy and pore structure within carbonate units. In particular, cementation and dissolution processes continuously modify the pore structure to create or destroy porosity. In extreme cases these modifications can completely change the mineralogy from calcite to dolomite, in the properties of rock for soil (Caliche), or reverse the pore distribution whereby original grains are dissolved to produce pores as the original pore space is filled with cement to form the rock. These processes are common in fractured carbonate units. All these modifications alter the elastic properties of the rock and, therefore, the sonic velocity. This study presents the result of relationship among diagenesis, porosity, grain density, and sonic velocity, in limestones, dolomites and caliche samples from the Jandaíra Formation, Potiguar basin, Brasil. This stratigraphic unit have been subjected to fracturing since the late Cretaceous. The rock and soil samples were collected in outcrops, prepared as plugs, and analyzed at ambient temperature. The porosity and grain density analysis were performed under ambient pressure, while elastic properties analyses were conducted with samples under confining pressure between 5 and 40 MPa. The result is a wide range of sonic velocity in carbonates, in which compressional-wave velocity (VP) ranges from 3507 to 6119 m/s and shear-wave velocity (VS) range from 2114 to 3451 m/s. The ratio VS1/VS2 indicate a level of anisotropy equal to 2%, without any clear relationship with porosity. The elastics properties are affected by rock alteration process or by modification of mineral composition, due to the presence of clay minerals and organic matter, The porosity and grain density values range from 3.2 to 21.5%, and 2.7 to 2.8 (g/cm3), respectively. The grain density analysis in the carbonate rocks indicate the existence of two groups: the first group of calcareous

  18. Microhabitat preferences of six Drosera (Droseraceae from Tibagi river basin, Paraná state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Panayotis Saridakis

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available We studied the microhabitats and the climatic requirements of six Drosera taxa, which occur in the subtropical grasslands of the Tibagi river basin. They are annual,or most communly, perennial herbs known as carnivorous plants, whose leaves are transformed into traps for the capture and digestion of small insects as an adaptation for supplying nutricional deficiencies. They usually occur in distrophic substrata. In order to contribute to conservation plans for the species of the genus, threatened by the conversion of the natural grasslands into pastures, we tried to define their preferential habitats and climatic requirements. We verified that the variables of microhabitat and altitude presented significant correlation at 5% probability level, while the variables in annual average relative humidity, annual average temperature and type of substratum types did not show significant correlation.Nós estudamos os microhabitats e as exigências climáticas de seis taxa de Drosera (Droseraceae, que ocorrem nos campos subtropicais da bacia do rio Tibagi. São ervas perenes, conhecidas como plantas carnívoras, cujas folhas são transformadas em armadilhas para a captura e digestão de pequenos animais, o que tem sido referido como adaptação para suprir deficiências nutricionais, já que geralmente ocorrem em substratos distróficos. Para auxiliar na elaboração de planos de conservação para as espécies do gênero, ameaçadas pela conversão dos campos em pastagens, nós procuramos definir os habitats preferenciais e as exigências climáticas. Verificou-se que as variáveis: tipo de microhabitat e altitude apresentam correlação significativa no nível de 5%, enquanto as variáveis: umidade relativa média anual, temperatura média anual e tipo de substrato, não apresentaram correlação significativa. Os resultados obtidos sugerem que a distribuição dos taxa de Drosera estudados está relacionada principalmente com a variação de altitude e

  19. Government participations impacts in the petroleum exploration and production in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The central issue of debate was the need to align the energy sector's options and organization with changing global patterns of economic and social development, characterized by the increasing role played by the private sector, greater integration in the world economy, and new economic and social priorities such as efficiency, decentralization, deregulation, and a closer attention to environmental issues. The aim of the work was to analyze the impacts of the applicable government participations to the petroleum exploration and production in Brazil based in the economic theory after the Decree-Law 2705/98

  20. Methanogenesis in an impacted and two dystrophic coastal lagoons (Macaé, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furtado André Luiz dos Santos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the methanogenic activity in sediment of the Imboacica (human impacted, Cabiúnas and Comprida coastal lagoons in Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil. Methane was not detected in water and sediment samples from the three lagoons. The measured nutrient concentrations in the pore-water indicated that methanogens activity was not limited by nutrients. Methanogenic activity was not detected under in vitro conditions, indicating that terminal organic carbon mineralisation via methanogenesis was negligible for the top 6 cm of sediment at the sampling time.

  1. The Impact of Social Movements: A study of Brazil's 2013 Protests

    OpenAIRE

    Borelli, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    In June 2013, Brazil saw a resurgence of its nation wide social movement, the size of which had not been seen for little over 20 years, since the fall of its military dictatorship. The mobilizations began by demanding a R$0.20 decrease in transportation fare costs, but soon its demands evolved into better public policy and anti-corruption measures. This paper explores the degree of success obtained by both branches of the movement, as well as what factors influenced their impact on policy mak...

  2. A new long-finned Corydoras Lacépède, 1803 (Siluriformes: Callichthyidae from the lower rio Paraná basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz F. C. Tencatt

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Corydoras is described from the lower rio Paraná basin, just downstream from Itaipu Dam, Brazil, close to Paraguay boundary. The new species can be distinguished from most of its congeners by the infraorbital 2 with a posterior laminar expansion conspicuously reduced, first and second dorsal-fin branched rays conspicuously elongated in males, mesethmoid entirely covered by skin, and by the presence of four to six irregular black or brownish blotches on the midline of the flank. The probable occurrence of the new species in the floodplain of the upper portion of the rio Paraná drainage is discussed.

  3. A new species of Microglanis(Siluriformes: Pseudopimelodidae from the upper rio Tocantins basin, Goiás State, Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Akio Shibatta

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Microglanis is described from the upper rio Tocantins basin, Barro Alto, Goiás State, Brazil. This species is distinguished from the others by presenting a unique color pattern, consisting of round spots in the flank between the larger dark brown blotches. Moreover, it can be distinguished by the combination of the following features: caudal fin emarginate, the upper lobe slightly larger than the lower, lateral line relatively long, reaching vertical through posterior margin of the pelvic fin, and light stripe on supra-occipital region absent or very narrow and with irregular shape.

  4. Cynolebias parnaibensis, a new seasonal killifish from the Caatinga, Parnaíba River basin, northeastern Brazil, with notes on sound producing courtship behavior (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson J. E. M. Costa; Telton P. A Ramos; Luisa C Alexandre; Robson T. C. Ramos

    2010-01-01

    Cynolebias parnaibensis from the Canindé River drainage, Parnaíba River basin, northeastern Brazil, is described. It is considered to be a member of a clade endemic to the Caatinga. The clade is diagnosed, e. g., by a series of structural modifications of the pharyngeal jaw apparatus, which is related to the sound production exhibited by males during courtship behavior. The courtship sound of C. parnaibensis consists of a single pulse named as thump (duration 0.031-0.133s; interthump interval...

  5. Two new species of Cyphocharax (Teleostei: Characiformes: Curimatidae) from headwaters of the Jequitinhonha and São Francisco river basins, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Guilherme Moreira; Penido, Iago De Souza; Mello, Gabriel Caetano Guimarães De; Pessali, Tiago Casarim

    2016-01-01

    Two new species of Cyphocharax from southeastern Brazil are described. Both new species share with C. punctatus, and C. vanderi the presence of a midlateral series of irregular patches of dark pigmentation along the lateral line. Cyphocharax jagunco, new species, from Rio Jequitinhonha basin, is distinguished from C. lundi, C. punctatus, and C. vanderi by the number of patches of dark pigmentation along lateral line; the number of pored scales posterior to the hypural joint; the number of scales in the lateral line; and the number of scales rows above lateral line. Cyphocharax lundi, new species, from Rio São Francisco basin, is distinguished from C. jagunco, C. punctatus, and C. vanderi by the presence of dark spots above the lateral line; and the number of scales in the lateral line. Comments on the relationships of the new species within Cyphocharax are presented. PMID:27394625

  6. Parotocinclus halbothi, a new species of small armored catfish (Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae, from the Trombetas and Marowijne River basins, in Brazil and Suriname

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pablo Lehmann

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Parotocinclus halbothiis described as a new species from the Trombetas and Marowijne river basins, in Brazil and Suriname. The new species is distinguished from its congeners in the Guianas, Orinoco, and Amazon basins by details of color pattern, form and arrangement of bony plates, body shape, and morphometric features. It is distinguished from all other species of Parotocinclusby the elongation of the canal cheek plate on the ventral surface of head posteriorly to contact the cleithrum. The new species is differentiated from Parotocinclus collinsae, the most similar species in terms of color pattern, by the small, circular, median abdominal plates, the poorly developed preanal shield with two or three plates, and by having the adipose fin rudimentary. This new species is one of the smallest loricariid catfishes known to date.

  7. Three new species of Hyphessobrycon (Characiformes: Characidae from the upper rio Araguaia basin in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio C. T. Lima

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of Hyphessobrycon (Characiformes: Characidae are described from the upper rio Araguaia basin. Hyphessobrycon langeanii n. sp. is distinguished from all congeners by the presence of a well-defined, round humeral spot, a reticulate color pattern, a broad, horizontally-elongate caudal-peduncle blotch, and a relatively wide, faint midlateral dark stripe. Hyphessobrycon eilyos n. sp. is distinguished from all congeners by the absence of humeral and caudal spots; by the presence of numerous dark chromatophores on the lateral surface of the body, intensely concentrated on the ventral region from the pelvic-fin origin to the end of the caudal-fin base, dorsal, adipose, and caudal fins with carmine red pigmentation in life; and the presence of 7-11 maxillary teeth. Hyphessobrycon weitzmanorum n. sp. is distinguished from all congeners by the combination of the possession of two humeral spots and a general dark color pattern. These three new species, along with Creagrutus molinus (Characidae, Apareiodon tigrinus (Parodontidae, Aspidoras velites (Callichthyidae, an undescribed member of the Hypoptopomatinae (Loricariidae, Cnesterodon septentrionalis (Poeciliidae, and Simpsonichthys cholopteryx (Rivulidae, all of which are apparently endemic of the upper rio Araguaia, indicate that this area is a previously unrecognized area of endemism.Três novas espécies do gênero Hyphessobrycon (Characiformes: Characidae são descritas para a bacia do alto rio Araguaia. Hyphessobrycon langeanii n.sp. se distingue de seus congêneres pela presença de uma mancha umeral redonda e bem definida, de um padrão reticulado de colorido, de uma mancha no pedúnculo caudal horizontalmente alongada e de uma faixa longitudinal larga e difusa. Hyphessobrycon eilyos n.sp. se distingue de seus congêneres pela ausência de manchas umeral e caudal, pela presença de numerosos cromatóforos escuros nas laterais do corpo, mais concentrado na porção ventral da origem

  8. Impact of Placer Mining on Sediment Transport in Headwaters of the Lake Baikal Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietron, J.; Jarsjo, J.; Chalov, S.

    2015-12-01

    Adverse practices in alluvial surface mining (placer mining) can lead to shifts in sediment transport regimes of rivers. However, some placer mines are located in remote parts of river basins, which constrain data availability in mining impact assessments. One such mining area is the Zaamar Goldfield (Northern Mongolia) which stretches 60 km along the Tuul River. The area is located in the headwaters of the Lake Baikal Basin, and may impact the UNESCO World Heritage Site of Lake Baikal. Previous studies indicate that the mining industry in the Zaamar Goldfield loads the river system with considerable amount of contaminated sediments (heavy metals). Still, transport processes and possible changes in local to regional sediment transport need to be better understood. In this work, we use snapshot field measurements and various flow and transport modelling techniques to analyze (1) the impact of placer mining in the sediment delivery to the river system and (2) the dynamics of further sediment transport to downstream Tuul River. Our results indicate that surface mining operations and waste management have considerable impact on the sediment input from the landscape. Furthermore, dynamic in-channel storage of sediments can act as intermittent sources of mining sediments. These effects occur in addition to impacts of on-going changes in hydro-climatic conditions of the area. We hope that our methodology and results will aid in studying similar unmonitored and mining-affected river basins.

  9. Use of GIS in hydrological study and impact assessment for heavy metals in area next to radioactive wastes deposit, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies around the management and disposal of radioactive waste have been conducted for decades. In Brazil, the National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) is responsible for Intermediate Radioactive Waste deposits, located in Fundao Island, Rio de Janeiro (RJ). According to CNEN 8.01 norm, it is necessary to characterize and to study the location area around the deposit. Within this context, the objective of this study was to characterize the Canal Cunha Basin, the western of Guanabara Bay and study the Environmental Impact, with determination of heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Cd, Zn and Ni) in said river basin and bay. The work involves collecting water and sediment samples in five georeferenced points. The sediment samples was collected using the EPA Method 3051 and the reading of the concentrations of heavy metals in water and sediment was performed by ICP-OES. Maps were generated for characterization and spatial distribution of these metals on Canal Cunha Basin. The Canal Cunha's drainage composes a territory with 62.85 km2 (approximated area) and 37.01 km of perimeter The high occupancy rates in the urban area that decrease the rate of infiltration and changes in physiography caused by construction of embankments because a reverse behavior expected, which increases the runoff coefficient of 0.74. The results show that in periods of high river discharge, there is a drift of large amounts of Pb, Cu and Cd to the waters of the Canal Cunha and Guanabara Bay. Zn and Ni presented higher concentrations in the dry season. The Pb, Cu, Cd, Zn and Ni concentrations are smaller than the concentrations found in the sediment. This probably happens because Cunha Canal Basin and western of Guanabara Bay receive high organic load, and also because of the high percentage of fine sediment in this, thus promoting the adsorption of metals, not contaminating the water and thus not reaching the food chain. (author)

  10. Trends in child labor and the impact on health in adulthood in Brazil from 1998 to 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marislei Nishijima

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There is little evidence in Brazil on the impact of child labor on health status in adulthood. This study aimed to investigate trends in child labor in Brazil and estimate the long-term effects of child labor on the health of Brazilian adults, using nationally representative databases (Brazilian National Household Sample Survey from three different years (1998, 2003, and 2008. The models were based on a two-stage linear equation and Generalized Method of Moments (GMM. The results suggest that child labor has declined in Brazil, although the data still show patterns of early entry into the country’s labor market. Regardless of the type of work, child labor adversely affected health outcomes in adulthood, both directly (impacts on health outcomes and indirectly (losses in educational attainment. Child labor places a long-term burden on Brazilians, jeopardizing the formation of human capital through negative impacts on health outcomes in adulthood.

  11. Investigation of Pollution from Land Based Sources and Activities and their Impacts on the Marine Environment: the Caroni River Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Gabbadon, P.; Banjoo, D.; Bullock, C.; Norville, W.; Sookbir, S.; Lloyd, G.; Ragbirsingh, Y.; Juman, R.; Chin, X.; de Souza, G.; Lall, R; Rambarath-Parasram, V.; O'Brien-Delpesh, C.

    2006-01-01

    "The Institute of Marine Affairs (IMA) is investigating the impacts of pollution from land-based sources and activities of the Caroni River Basin (CRB) on the marine environment... The project will investigate the types, sources, levels of pollution, fate of pollutants, and potential impacts on the marine environment. In addition, the project will investigate the impacts of physical alterations of habitats caused by land uses in the Caroni River Basin."

  12. Lava flooding of ancient planetary crusts: geometry, thickness, and volumes of flooded lunar impact basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimates of lava volumes on planetary surfaces provide important data on the lava flooding history and thermal evolution of a planet. Lack of information concerning the configuration of the topography prior to volcanic flooding requires the use of a variety of techniques to estimate lava thicknesses and volumes. A technique is described and developed which provides volume estimates by artificially flooding unflooded lunar topography characteristic of certain geological environments, and tracking the area covered, lava thicknesses, and lava volumes. Comparisons of map patterns of incompletely buried topography in these artificially flooded areas are then made to lava-flooded topography on the Moon in order to estimate the actual lava volumes. This technique is applied to two areas related to lunar impact basins; the relatively unflooded Orientale basin, and the Archimedes-Apennine Bench region of the Imbrium basin. (Auth.)

  13. Santa Bárbara Formation (Caçapava do Sul, southern Brazil): depositional sequences and evolution of an Early Paleozoic postcollisional basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Borba, André Weissheimer; Pimentel Mizusaki, Ana Maria

    2003-10-01

    The Santa Bárbara Formation, located in southernmost Brazil, comprises red-colored conglomerates, sandstones, and siltstones. It was deposited in the Early Paleozoic under continental conditions in a restricted, strike-slip basin (Santa Bárbara basin) in response to the postcollisional stresses of the Brasiliano/Pan-African cycle (900-500 Ma). Five facies associations are recognized: alluvial fans, fan-delta front, lacustrine, sandy braided, and gravel bed braided river deposits. The application of sequence stratigraphy enables the recognition of three depositional sequences. The two basal sequences (I and II) represent a coherent depositional pattern, with axial fluvial and fan-delta systems that deposit northeastward and lateral contribution from alluvial fans. Such coarse deposits are composed mainly of metamorphic clasts derived from the erosion of 'Caçapava high', the eastern steep margin of the Santa Bárbara basin. Sequence III lies unconformably over the basal subunits and reflects the inversion of the axial systems, in that the paleocurrents of the gravel bed deposits systematically point south/southwestward. The alluvial fan deposits of Sequence III also suggest a tectonic rearrangement of the basin, with partial erosion of the basal sequences and the presence of granitoid fragments, which reflects a deeper denudation stage for the Caçapava high and possibly a significant hiatus at the base of Sequence III.

  14. Human Health Impact of Fluoride in Groundwater in the Chiang Mai Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Y.; Takizawa, S.; Wattanachira, S.; Wongrueng, A.; Ibaraki, M.

    2005-12-01

    Chiang Mai Basin, in Northern Thailand, is known as a fluorotic area. Groundwater of the Chiang Mai Basin has been gradually replaced by contaminated surface water since the 1980's. People have been exposed to fluoride contaminated groundwater since that time. As a result, harmful health effects on dental and skeletal growth were observed in the 90's. These include dental and skeletal fluorosis. Dental fluorosis is characterized by yellow or white spots on teeth and pitting or mottled enamel, consequently causing the teeth to look unsightly. Skeletal fluorosis leads to changes in bone structure, making them extremely weak and brittle. The most severe form of this is known as ``crippling skeletal fluorosis,'' a condition that can cause immobility, muscle wasting, and neurological problems related to spinal cord compression. This study focuses on the problematic issue of the Chiang Mai Basin's groundwater from the viewpoint of fluoride occurrence and current health impacts. Chiang Mai and Lamphun Provinces comprise the Chiang Mai Basin. Fluoride rich granites or fluorite deposits are scattered across the mountainside of the Lamphun Province. Tropical savanna climate conditions with seasonal monsoons bring more than 1,000 mm of annual precipitation, which can prompt weathering of minerals containing fluoride. The Ping River dominates the Basin, and the main eastern tributary of the Ping River runs through the Lamphun Province. The Basin has geological units composed of lower semi-consolidated Tertiary fluvial and upper unconsolidated Quaternary alluvium deposits. The main aquifers are in the upper unconsolidated unit. High fluoride concentrations tend to be observed in the aquifer located in lower part of this unconsolidated unit. We have been investigating two areas in the Basin. These two locations are similar with respect to geological and hydrological settings. However, one area in which groundwater is Ca-bicarbonate dominant has a low fluoride occurrence

  15. Geophysical evidence of pre-sag rifting and post-rifting fault reactivation in the Parnaíba basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes de Castro, David; Hilário Bezerra, Francisco; Adolfo Fuck, Reinhardt; Vidotti, Roberta Mary

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the rifting mechanism that preceded the prolonged subsidence of the Paleozoic Parnaíba basin in Brazil and shed light on the tectonic evolution of this large cratonic basin in the South American platform. From the analysis of aeromagnetic, aerogravity, seismic reflection and borehole data, we concluded the following: (1) large pseudo-gravity and gravity lows mimic graben structures but are associated with linear supracrustal strips in the basement. (2) Seismic data indicate that 120-200 km wide and up to 300 km long rift zones occur in other parts of the basins. These rift zones mark the early stage of the 3.5 km thick sag basin. (3) The rifting phase occurred in the early Paleozoic and had a subsidence rate of 47 m Myr-1. (4) This rifting phase was followed by a long period of sag basin subsidence at a rate of 9.5 m Myr-1 between the Silurian and the late Cretaceous, during which rift faults propagated and influenced deposition. These data interpretations support the following succession of events: (1) after the Brasiliano orogeny (740-580 Ma), brittle reactivation of ductile basement shear zones led to normal and dextral oblique-slip faulting concentrated along the Transbrasiliano Lineament, a continental-scale shear zone that marks the boundary between basement crustal blocks. (2) The post-orogenic tectonic brittle reactivation of the ductile basement shear zones led to normal faulting associated with dextral oblique-slip crustal extension. In the west, pure-shear extension induced the formation of rift zones that crosscut metamorphic foliations and shear zones within the Parnaíba block. (3) The rift faults experienced multiple reactivation phases. (4) Similar processes may have occurred in coeval basins in the Laurentia and Central African blocks of Gondwana.

  16. Bouguer gravity anomaly of the Moon from CE-1 topography data: Implications for the impact basin evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Qing; CHEN Chao; HUANG Qian; CHEN Bo; PING JinSong

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the terrain correction for lunar free-air gravity anomaly (FAGA) is calculated in spherical coordinates based on the global topography data detected by the laser altimeter on Chang'E-1 (CE-1).The obtained lunar Bouguer gravity anomaly (BGA) reveals density irregularities of the interior mass.BGA is important in characterizing the mascon basins. According to the BGA of the Moon, the South Pole-Aitken (SPA) basin is considered the largest mascon basin on the Moon, and the feature of BGA in the basin implies the impacting direction. Further, the mascon basins seem to be classified into two types, Type Highland and Type Plain. For the mascon basins of Type Highland the dense materials mainly come from the shallow crust, which are associated with the basalt deposits. The other type, Type Plain, includes mascon basins whose major dense materials may be located deep at the lithosphere, corresponding to the uplifted mantle.

  17. Impacts of production of hydrocarbons in Campos Basin: missing or not detected; Impactos da producao de hidrocarbonetos na Bacia de Campos: ausentes ou nao detectados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Carolina E. [Instituto Brasileiro de Meio Ambiente e Recursos Naturais Renovaveis (CGPEG/DILIC/IBAMA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao Geral de Petroleo e Gas. Diretoria de Licenciamento; Gama, Bernardo A. Perez da [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    According to the Brazilian legislation, the Environmental Impacts Monitoring Plan is one of the requirements of the environmental licensing to offshore oil and gas production activities. The Monitoring Plan's structure is based upon sampling and evaluation of numerous parameter settings in water and sediment compartments, while the conclusion as to the existence or absence of impact is obtained after statistical analysis of the results. The aim of this work was to evaluate the methodological adequacy of monitoring and to calculate the statistical power of tests applied with the purpose to determine the reliability of their findings. Experiences in other countries like Australia have shown that this is an important instrument in preparing an effective environmental study regarding the detection of impacts. In Brazil, this is the first initiative to critically evaluate the results of reports of environmental monitoring originated from the licensing of hydrocarbons production activities. Campaign reports forwarded to the environmental agency in charge, i.e., the Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources (IBAMA), and the selected ventures are located in the Campos Basin and have different operating companies. The results were both relevant and concerning. All monitoring reports confirmed the absence of alterations or impacts on the biotic media for sediment compartments, but the greater statistical power did not exceed 25% for a great magnitude impact. Thus it was concluded that if the oil production activity has caused alterations or impacts to bentonic organisms, the carried out monitoring was inefficient to detect them even if they were of great magnitude. This analysis is expected to be an instrument for future changes in environmental licensing procedures e for the improvement of the environmental public management in Brazil. (author)

  18. Phylogeography and RAPD-PCR variation in Hoplias malabaricus (Bloch, 1794) (Pisces, Teleostei) in southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Dergam Jorge A.; Paiva Samuel R.; Schaeffer Carlos E.; Godinho Alexandre L.; Vieira Fabio

    2002-01-01

    In the Rio Doce basin of southeastern Brazil, the freshwater fish Hoplias malabaricus (trahira) is a widespread predatory characin and one of the few resilient native fishes in a highly impacted lake system. In order to test for genetic differentiation in populations within this basin and for biogeographic relationships among populations of this species in other basins, a study was conducted using RAPD-PCR analysis of Rio Doce samples (N = 63) and phylogeographic analyses with mitochondrial D...

  19. Impacts of Climate Trends and Variability on Livestock Production in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, A.; Munger, J.; Gibbs, H.

    2015-12-01

    Cattle systems of Brazil are of major economic and environmental importance. They occupy ¼ of the land surface of the country, account for over 15 billion USD of annual revenue through the sale of beef, leather, and milk, are closely associated with deforestation, and have been projected to substantially grow in the coming decades. Sustainable intensification of production in the sector could help to limit environmental harm from increased production, but productivity growth could be inhibited by climate change. Gauging the potential future impacts of climate change on the Brazilian livestock sector can be aided by examining past evidence of the link between climate and cattle production and productivity. We use statistical techniques to investigate the contribution of climate variability and climate change to variability in cattle system output in Brazil's municipalities over the period 1974 to 2013. We find significant impacts of both temperature and precipitation variability and temperature trends on municipality-level exports and the production of both milk and beef. Pasture productivity, represented by a vegetation index, also varies significantly with climate shocks. In some regions, losses from exposure to climate trends were of comparable magnitude to technology and/or market-driven productivity gains over the study period.

  20. The impact of CO2 taxation on the configuration of new refineries: An application to Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article evaluates the impact of pricing CO2 emissions over the configuration of new refinery complexes in their conceptual phase. Two refineries' schemes were simulated through a linear programming optimization model in order to compare the optimum configuration obtained before and after the input of different CO2 prices. The cases analyzed represent refining projects to be located in Brazil, a growing market for fuels and petrochemical feedstocks, as well as an oil producing country with rising crude exports. After 2012, emerging countries, such as Brazil, may adopt carbon emission reduction targets. Therefore, it is worth analyzing the impact of pricing CO2 emissions in these countries, where the majority of new refining projects will be located. Our findings indicate that the initial refinery configurations proposed are quite rigid technologically for CO2 prices up to US$ 100/t CO2. For CO2 prices higher than US$ 100/t CO2, refineries reduced their emissions by increasing the consumption of natural gas used to produce hydrogen, and through changes in the original configurations towards less-energy consuming process units. Promising technological advances, such as carbon capture and storage (CCS), can also diminish the rigidity of the model and facilitate actions to curb carbon emissions.

  1. Sustainability assessment of water hyacinth fast pyrolysis in the Upper Paraguay River basin, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, Luz Selene; Ortega, Enrique; Bergier, Ivan; Mesa-Pérez, Juan Miguel; Salis, Suzana Maria; Luengo, Carlos Alberto

    2015-11-01

    Fast pyrolysis of naturally produced water hyacinth was assessed through Emergy accounting approach. Two analyses were carried out to evaluate the influence of additional services and externalities on Emergy indicators for a pyrolysis plant unit able to process 1000 kg of dry biomass per hour. The initial approach was a traditional Emergy assessment in which financial fluxes and externalities were not considered. The second approach included taxes and fees of the Brazilian government, interests related to financing operations and assumes a reserve financial fund of 5% of the total investment as externalities cost. For the first evaluation, the renewability of 86% indicates that local and renewable resources mainly support the process and the Emergy Yield Ratio of 3.2 shows that the system has a potential contribution to the regional economy due to the local resources use. The inclusion of financial fluxes and externalities in the second evaluation reduces both renewability and Emergy Yield Ratio, whereas it increases the Emergy Investment Ratio which means a higher dependence on external resources. The second analysis allows portraying significant forces of the industrial and financial systems and the evaluation of the externalities' impact on the general system Emergy behavior. A comparison of the renewability of water hyacinth fast pyrolysis with other biofuels like soybean biodiesel and sugarcane ethanol indicates that the former is less dependent on fossil fuel resources, machinery and fertilizers. To complement the sustainability assessment provided by the Emergy method, a regular financial analysis for the second defined system was done. It shows that the system is financially attractive even with the accounting of additional costs. The results obtained in this study could be used as the maximum and minimum thresholds to subsidize regulatory policies for new economic activities in tropical wetlands involving natural resources exploitation and bio

  2. Trophic organization and fish assemblage structure as disturbance indicators in headwater streams of lower Sorocaba River basin, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Botti Cruz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies that investigate the relationship patterns between environmental structure complexity and fish fauna provide crucial information to stream restoration efforts. In order to test the hypothesis that streams with more complex environmental structure sustain more diverse and functionally more complex fish communities we sampled fish fauna from Sorocaba River headwater stream reaches (SE - Brazil. Reaches represented two distinct treatments: (1 a simplified reach, characterized by unstable fine substrate, clay, deeper channel and higher water velocity and (2 structurally complex reaches, characterized by coarse substrate, with gravel, pebble, rock, stems and branches and leaves inside the channel, producing a diverse pattern of microhabitat, associated with sequences of pools, runs, and riffles. Both trophic structure and taxonomic composition varied significantly between treatments. Invertivorous trophic group exclusively occurred in structurally complex reaches, which also presented greater diversity and species richness. We suggest enhancing in-stream environmental structure that suffered simplification processes due to human impacts in order to reestablish fish communities and ecossistemic functioning.

  3. Sustainable Tourism and Eradication of Poverty (Step: impact assessment of a tourism development program in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Cortes Neri

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to evaluate the social impacts of the Tourism Development Program (Prodetur in the northeastern town of Porto Seguro, Bahia, Brazil. The method used is based on the difference in difference technique applied to the 1991 and 2000 Census microdata. The results suggest social advances following from poverty relief based on income - where the benefits are distributed, generally, in a relatively equal manner between the native and migrant population. There is a relative deterioration in the sanitary situation, which consists of a very serious problem in the mid- and long-term, whose costs are mostly borne by the native population. Therefore, maintaining the natural capital is the main aspect that distances Porto Seguro’s tourism supply from the concept of sustainability. The article also relies on difference in difference estimators to assess the impacts of local public policies related to the sector.

  4. Erosion rates and landscape evolution of the lowlands of the Upper Paraguay river basin (Brazil) from cosmogenic 10Be

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pupim, Fabiano do Nascimento; Bierman, Paul R.; Assine, Mario Luis; Rood, Dylan H.; Silva, Aguinaldo; Merino, Eder Renato

    2015-04-01

    The importance of Earth's low sloping areas in regard to global erosion and sediment fluxes has been widely and vigorously debated. It is a crucial area of research to elucidate geologically meaningful rates of land-surface change and thus the speed of element cycling on Earth. However, there are large portions of Earth where erosion rates have not been well or extensively measured, for example, the tropical lowlands. The Cuiabana lowlands are an extensive low-altitude and low-relief dissected metamorphic terrain situated in the Upper Paraguay river basin, central-west Brazil. Besides exposures of highly variable dissected metamorphic rocks, flat residual lateritic caps related to a Late Cenozoic planation surface dominate interfluves of the Cuiabana lowlands. The timescale over which the lowlands evolved and the planation surface developed, and the rate at which they have been modified by erosion, are poorly known. Here, we present measurements of in situ produced cosmogenic 10Be in outcropping metamorphic bedrock and clastic-lateritic caps to quantify rates of erosion of the surface and associated landforms in order to better understand the Quaternary landscape evolution of these lowlands. Overall, slow erosion rates (mean 10 m/Ma) suggest a stable tectonic environment in these lowlands. Erosion rates vary widely between different lithologies (range 0.57 to 28.3 m/Ma) consistent with differential erosion driving regional landform evolution. The lowest erosion rates are associated with the low-relief area (irregular plains), where clastic-laterite (mean 0.67 m/Ma) and quartzite (mean 2.6 m/Ma) crop out, whereas the highest erosion rates are associated with dissection of residual hills, dominated by metasandstone (mean 11.6 m/Ma) and phyllite (mean 27.6 m/Ma). These data imply that the Cuiabana lowland is comprised of two dominant landform sets with distinct and different dynamics. Because the planation surface (mostly lowlands) is lowering and losing mass more

  5. Impact of extreme precipitation events in the Miño-Sil river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-González, Manuel; Añel, Juan Antonio; de la Torre, Laura

    2015-04-01

    We herein research the impact of extreme rainfall events in the Miño-Sil basin, a heavily dammed basin located in the northwestern Iberian Peninsula. Extreme rainfall events are very important in this basin because with 106 dams it is the most dammed in Spain. These dams are almost exclusively used for hydropower generation, the installed generating capacity reaches more than 2700 MW and represents almost 9% of the total installed electrical generation capacity of the Iberian Peninsula, therefore with a potential impact on the energy market. We research the extreme events of rainfall an their return periods trying to reproduce the past extreme events of rainfall and their time periods to prove the proper functioning of the adapted model, so we can forecast future extreme events of rainfall in the basin. This research tries to optimize the storage of dams and adapt the management to problems as climate change. The results obtained are very relevant for hydroelectric generation because the operation of hydropower system depends primarily on the availability of storaged water.

  6. Ecosystem services in Mediterranean river basin: climate change impact on water provisioning and erosion control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangash, Rubab F; Passuello, Ana; Sanchez-Canales, María; Terrado, Marta; López, Alfredo; Elorza, F Javier; Ziv, Guy; Acuña, Vicenç; Schuhmacher, Marta

    2013-08-01

    The Mediterranean basin is considered one of the most vulnerable regions of the world to climate change and such changes impact the capacity of ecosystems to provide goods and services to human society. The predicted future scenarios for this region present an increased frequency of floods and extended droughts, especially at the Iberian Peninsula. This paper evaluates the impacts of climate change on the water provisioning and erosion control services in the densely populated Mediterranean Llobregat river basin of. The assessment of ecosystem services and their mapping at the basin scale identify the current pressures on the river basin including the source area in the Pyrenees Mountains. Drinking water provisioning is expected to decrease between 3 and 49%, while total hydropower production will decrease between 5 and 43%. Erosion control will be reduced by up to 23%, indicating that costs for dredging the reservoirs as well as for treating drinking water will also increase. Based on these data, the concept for an appropriate quantification and related spatial visualization of ecosystem service is elaborated and discussed. PMID:23660520

  7. The onset of flood basalt volcanism, Northern Paraná Basin, Brazil: A precise U-Pb baddeleyite/zircon age for a Chapecó-type dacite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janasi, Valdecir de Assis; de Freitas, Vivian Azor; Heaman, Larry H.

    2011-02-01

    We report the first U-Pb baddeleyite/zircon date for a felsic volcanic rock from the Paraná Large Igneous Province in south Brazil. The new date of 134.3 ± 0.8 Ma for a hypocrystalline Chapecó-type dacite from Ourinhos (northern Paraná basin) is an important regional time marker for the onset of flood basalt volcanism in the northern and western portion of the province. The dated dacite was erupted onto basement rocks and is overlain by a high-Ti basalt sequence, interpreted to be correlative with Pitanga basalts elsewhere. This new U-Pb date for the Ourinhos dacite is consistent with the local stratigraphy being slightly older than the few reliable step-heating 40Ar/39Ar dates currently available for overlying high-Ti basalts (133.6-131.5 Ma). This indicates an ~ 3 Ma time span for the building of the voluminous high-Ti lava sequence of the Paraná basin. On the other hand, it overlaps the 40Ar/39Ar dates (134.8-134.1 Ma) available for the stratigraphically older low-Ti basalt (Gramado + Esmeralda types) and dacite-rhyolite (Palmas type) sequences from South Brazil, which is consistent with the short-lived character of this volcanism and its rapid succession by the high-Ti sequence.

  8. Depositional setting, petrology and chemistry of Permian coals from the Paraná Basin: 2. South Santa Catarina Coalfield, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkreuth, W.; Holz, M.; Mexias, A.; Balbinot, M.; Levandowski, J.; Willett, J.; Finkelman, R.; Burger, H.

    2010-01-01

    In Brazil economically important coal deposits occur in the southern part of the Paran?? Basin, where coal seams occur in the Permian Rio Bonito Formation, with major coal development in the states of Rio Grande de Sul and Santa Catarina. The current paper presents results on sequence stratigraphic interpretation of the coal-bearing strata, and petrological and geochemical coal seam characterization from the South Santa Catarina Coalfield, Paran?? Basin.In terms of sequence stratigraphic interpretation the precursor mires of the Santa Catarina coal seams formed in an estuarine-barrier shoreface depositional environment, with major peat accumulation in a high stand systems tract (Pre-Bonito and Bonito seams), a lowstand systems tract (Ponta Alta seam, seam A, seam B) and a transgressive systems tract (Irapu??, Barro Branco and Treviso seams).Seam thicknesses range from 1.70 to 2.39. m, but high proportions of impure coal (coaly shale and shaley coal), carbonaceous shale and partings reduce the net coal thickness significantly. Coal lithoypes are variable, with banded coal predominant in the Barro Branco seam, and banded dull and dull coal predominantly in Bonito and Irapu?? seams, respectively. Results from petrographic analyses indicate a vitrinite reflectance range from 0.76 to 1.63 %Rrandom (HVB A to LVB coal). Maceral group distribution varies significantly, with the Barro Branco seam having the highest vitrinite content (mean 67.5 vol%), whereas the Irapu?? seam has the highest inertinite content (33.8. vol%). Liptinite mean values range from 7.8. vol% (Barro Branco seam) to 22.5. vol% (Irapu?? seam).Results from proximate analyses indicate for the three seams high ash yields (50.2 - 64.2wt.%). Considering the International Classification of in-Seam Coals, all samples are in fact classified as carbonaceous rocks (>50wt.% ash). Sulfur contents range from 3.4 to 7.7 wt.%, of which the major part occurs as pyritic sulfur. Results of X-ray diffraction indicate the

  9. Assessment of climate change impact on water resources in the Upper Senegal basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamine Mbaye, Mamadou; Hagemann, Stefan; Haensler, Andreas; Stacke, Tobias; Thierno Gaye, Amadou

    2015-04-01

    This study assesses the potential impacts of climate change on water resources and the effect of statistical bias correction on the projected climate change signal in hydrological variables over the Upper Senegal Basin (West Africa). Original and bias corrected climate data from the regional climate model REMO were used as input for the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology-Hydrology Model (MPI-HM) to simulate river discharge, runoff, soil moisture and evapotranspiration. The results during the historical period (1971-2000) show that using the bias corrected input yields a better representation of the mean river flow regimes and the 10th and 90th percentiles of river flow at the outlet of the Upper Senegal Basin (USB). The Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient is 0.92 using the bias corrected input, which demonstrates the ability of the model in simulating river flow. The percent bias of 3.88% indicates a slight overestimation of the river flow by the model using the corrected input. The evaluation demonstrates the ability of the bias correction and its necessity for the simulation of historical river regimes. As for the potential changes of hydrological variables by the end of 21st century (2071-2100), a general decrease of river discharge, runoff, actual evapotranspiration, soil moisture is found under two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) in all simulations. The decrease is higher under RCP8.5 with uncorrected data in the northern basin. However, there are some localized increases in some parts of the basin (e.g Guinean Highlands). The projected climate change signal of these above variables has the same spatial pattern and tendency for the uncorrected and bias corrected data although the magnitude of the corrected signal is somewhat lower than that uncorrected. Furthermore, the available water resources are projected to substantially decrease by more than -50% in the majority of the basin (especially in driest and hottest northern basin

  10. Draft environmental impact statement. Bison basin project, Fremont County, Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Construction and operation of leach uranium mine and recovery plant designed to produce one million lb of U3O8 per year at a rate not to exceed 400,000 lb/y in Fremont County, Wyoming are proposed. The project site would consist of 761 acres lying 50 miles south of Riverton and 30 miles southwest of Jeffery City. The in situ leach process, implemented to mine ore contained in the Laney member of the Green River formation, would involve use of sodium carbonate-bicarbonate solution and an oxidizing agent injected and recovered through a complex of well patterns. Each well pattern would consist of six injection wells surrounding a central production well. Only about 40 acres would be mined, while another 13.5 acres would be excavated for equipment foundations and evaporation ponds. Recycling of mined formation water through a reverse osmosis cleanup system and placing it back into the formation after mining was complete would restore the groundwater system to its former potential. Solid wastes produced by the mining process would be removed to a licensed disposal site. Positive Impacts: Uranium ore produced by the mine and refined by the plant would aid in meeting demand for this resource which is estimated to double to a level of 15,000 tons per year within the next 5 years and to reach 45,000-50,000 tons per year by 1990. Some monetary benefits would accrue to local communities due to local expenditures resulting from construction and operation. Negative Impacts: Project activities would result in displacement of livestock grazing practices from 57 acres of land. Some local deterioration of groundwater quality would be expected, and approximately 240 acre-feet of groundwater would be removed from the aquifer permanently. Radon-222 and other small radioactive emissions would result from the solution mining process

  11. Modeling Impact of Climate Change on Water Resources and Agriculture Demand in the Volta Basin and other Basin Systems in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Barnabas A. Amisigo; Alyssa McCluskey; Richard Swanson

    2015-01-01

    An assessment of the impacts of projected climate change on water availability and crop production in the Volta Basin and the southwestern and coastal basin systems of Ghana has been undertaken as a component of the impacts and adaptation study for Ghana by UNU-WIDER and the University of Ghana. Four climate change scenarios were considered in addition to a reference (no change) scenario—two dry and two wet scenarios. To conduct the analysis, a portion of a special framework using three wat...

  12. Impact of Climate Change on Groundwater Resources in the Klela Basin, Southern Mali

    OpenAIRE

    Adama Toure; Bernd Diekkrüger; Adama Mariko

    2016-01-01

    Investigations of groundwater resources in order to understand aquifer system behavior are vital to the inhabitants of the Klela Basin, Mali, because groundwater is the only permanent water resource and is used for drinking water and irrigation. Due to climate change, this vital resource is being threatened. Therefore, MODFLOW was applied in this study to simulate groundwater dynamics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of climate change on groundwater resources in the Klela bas...

  13. Impact Assessment and monitoring programme in the Subarnarekha river basin (INDIA)

    OpenAIRE

    Lemiere, Bruno; Billaud, Pierre; Roy, Stéphane; Négrel, Philippe; Brochot, Stéphane; Machard De Gramont, Hubert

    2011-01-01

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) is the main instrument used by Governments to ensure that environmental management in companies is in conformity with society's environmental objectives. Despite its project-specific applications, the scope can be widened to a regional scale (e.g. a river basin) in view of assessing the cumulative effects of multiple industrial activities on the environment and human living conditions. Within the Subarnarekha catchment, mines, processing plants and copper...

  14. Impact of global dimming on reference evapotranspiration in Hai River basin, China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, N.; Zeng, X.; Sun, H

    2015-01-01

    Global radiation can impact the surface energy balance and hydrological cycle. This study analysed changes in global radiation in Hai River basin, China during 1960 to 2012. Global radiation decreased significantly from 1960 to 1989 and increased from 1990 to 2012, which has been described as “from dimming to brightening”. Sunshine duration was used as a proxy index where radiation records were unavailable. Results showed that sunshine duration (for 45 stations) show a significant decreasing ...

  15. An Impact Model of the Imbrium Basin for Distribution of Thorium on Lunar Surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider the thorium distributions that are coincident with the distribution of ejecta after the Mare Imbrium impact occurs on the lunar surface and derive a simple model on the spherical target to predict the thickness of Imbrium ejecta deposits as a function of distance from the centre of the Imbrium basin. Then we use the result of Lunar Prospector's gamma ray experiment to test the hypothesis that the distribution of thorium on the lunar surface has an origin from the Mare Imbrium

  16. Environmental impacts in the Czech part of the Upper Silesian coal basin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šňupárek, Richard; Martinec, Petr; Schejbalová, Božena

    Athens: Heliotopos Conferences Ltd, 2005 - (Agioutantis, Z.; Komnitsas, K.), s. 223-228 ISBN 960-88153-7-1. [Geoenvironment and Geotechnics. Milos island (GR), 12.09.2005-14.09.2005] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IBS3086005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : Upper Silesian coal basin * impacts of mining on surface Subject RIV: DH - Mining, incl. Coal Mining

  17. Biomonitoring of Pb and Cd in two impacted watersheds in Southeast Brazil, using the freshwater mussel Anodontites trapesialis (Lamarck, 1819 (Bivalvia : Mycetopodidae as a biological monitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa C. Tomazelli

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out to investigate the contamination of Piracicaba and Mogi-Guaçu River basins (São Paulo State, Southeastern, Brazil for heavy metals (Cd and Pb, using the limnic bivalve Anodontites trapesialis as a biological monitor. The results showed that the concentrations of Pb were higher than the control group in both basins, showing the bioavailability of this non-essential element in the basins. The concentrations were higher in the Mogi-Guaçu than in the Piracicaba basin, and in the slightly contaminated sites in both basins. There was no correlation between the degree of human impact and Cd and Pb concentrations, it was not possible to infer about concentrations of these heavy metals in the bivalves based only in a broad evaluation of human impact.O principal objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a contaminação pelos metais pesados Cd e Pb nas bacias dos rios Piracicaba e Mogi-Guaçu (Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, utilizando o bivalve limnico Anodontites trapesialis como indicador biológico. As bacias estudadas apresentam diferentes graus de impacto, sendo a qualidade da água geralmente melhor na bacia do rio Mogi-Guaçu. Os teores de Pb detectados nos bivalves não podem ser considerados críticos, contudo, houve acúmulo em relação ao grupo de controle em ambas as bacias, especialmente na bacia do rio Mogi-Guaçu. As maiores concentrações dos elementos, especialmente Pb, foram observadas nos locais menos poluídos e na bacia menos degradada. Este fato sugere que estas concentrações não estão sendo afetadas apenas pelas atividades antrópicas nas bacias, mas deve-se considerar também fatores que afetem a biodisponibilidade ou fontes específicas e não pontuais.

  18. Mudanças climáticas e impactos na necessidade hídrica das culturas perenes na Bacia do Jaguaribe, no Estado do Ceará Climate change and impacts on water requirement of permanent crops in the Jaguaribe Basin, Ceará, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Rubens Sonsol Gondim; Marco Aurélio Holanda de Castro; Sílvio Roberto Medeiros Evangelista; Adunias dos Santos Teixeira; Sérgio César de França Fuck Júnior

    2008-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os impactos das mudanças climáticas na demanda de água para irrigação de culturas perenes, na Bacia do Jaguaribe, no Estado do Ceará. Foi empregado o sistema integrado de modelagem regional PRECIS ("Providing Regional Climates for Impact Studies"), e aplicado o método de redução de escala de bacia hidrográfica, com as condições de contorno do modelo climático regional (HadRM3P). Foi utilizado um conjunto de climatologia de base do modelo de 1961 a 1990 e ...

  19. Life-cycle cost and impacts: alternatives for managing KE basin sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the results of a life-cycle cost and impacts evaluation of alternatives for managing sludge that will be removed from the K Basins. The two basins are located in the 100-K Area of the Hanford Site. This evaluation was conducted by Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. (FDH) and its subcontractors to support decisions regarding the ultimate disposition of the sludge. The long-range plan for the Hanford Site calls for spent nuclear fuel (SNF), sludge, debris, and water to be removed from the K East (KE) and K West (KW) Basins. This activity will be conducted as a removal action under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). The scope of the CERCLA action will be limited to removing the SNF, sludge, debris, and water from the basins and transferring them to authorized facilities for interim storage and/or treatment and disposal. The scope includes treating the sludge and water in the 100-K Area prior to the transfer. Alternatives for the removal action are evaluated in a CERCLA engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) and include different methods for managing sludge from the KE Basins. The scope of the removal action does not include storing, treating, or disposing of the sludge once it is transferred to the receiving facility and the EE/CA does not evaluate those downstream activities. This life-cycle evaluation goes beyond the EE/CA and considers the full life-cycle costs and impacts of dispositioning sludge

  20. Airburst Impact Origin Hypothesis of Taihu Lake Basin in Southeast of China in Around 7000 Years ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Z.; Zuo, S.

    2013-08-01

    The paper is to report investigation on unique morphology, occurrence, distribution, and mineralogy of siderite concretions found in Taihu Lake, Southeast of China, and discuss airburst impact origin hypothesis of Taihu Lake basin in ~7000 years ago.

  1. Spatial and temporal variation in population structure of Hemigrammus marginatus (Characiformes: Characidae) in streams of the Ivinhema River Basin, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Luzia da Silva Lourenço; Izaias Médice Fernandes; Yzel Rondon Súarez

    2012-01-01

    The present study has assessed spatial and temporal variations in the length structure of Hemigrammus marginatus Ellis, 1911 and estimated growth parameters for the species. Sampling was carried out in five streams in the Vitória and Piravevê sub-basins of the Ivinhema River from January to December 2002. A total of 933 specimens of H. marginatus were caught (97 in the Vitória sub-basin and 836 in the Piravevê sub-basin). Mean length of the individuals caught in the Piravevê sub-basin was sho...

  2. Water management policies and their impact on irrigated crop production in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Burdack, Doreen

    2014-01-01

    The economic impact analysis contained in this book shows how irrigation farming is particularly susceptible when applying certain water management policies in the Australian Murray-Darling Basin, one of the world largest river basins and Australia’s most fertile region. By comparing different pricing and non-pricing water management policies with the help of the Water Integrated Market Model, it is found that the impact of water demand reducing policies is most severe on crops that need to b...

  3. Assessing the impact of cigarette package health warning labels: a cross-country comparison in Brazil, Uruguay, and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, James F; Villalobos, Victor; Szklo, André; Fong, Geoffrey T; Pérez, Cristina; Sebrié, Ernesto; Sansone, Natalie; Figueiredo, Valeska; Boado, Marcelo; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Bianco, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of different health warning labels (HWL). Material and Methods Data from the International Tobacco Control Survey (ITC Survey) were analyzed from adult smokers in Brazil, Uruguay and Mexico, each of which used a different HWL strategy (pictures of human suffering and diseased organs; abstract pictorial representations of risk; and text-only messages, respectively). Main outcomes were HWL salience and cognitive impact. Results HWLs in Uruguay (which was the only country with a HWL on the front of the package) had higher salience than either Brazilian or Mexican packs. People at higher levels of educational attainment in Mexico were more likely to read the text-only HWLs whereas education was unassociated with salience in Brazil or Uruguay. Brazilian HWLs had greater cognitive impacts than HWLs in either Uruguay or Mexico. HWLs in Uruguay generated lower cognitive impacts than the text-only HWLs in Mexico. In Brazil, cognitive impacts were strongest among smokers with low educational attainment. Conclusions This study suggests that HWLs have the most impact when they are prominent (i.e., front and back of the package) and include emotionally engaging imagery that illustrates negative bodily impacts or human suffering due to smoking. PMID:21243191

  4. Climate Change Impacts on Runoff Regimes at a River Basin Scale in Central Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Hoai Nam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Global warming has resulted in significant variability of global climate especially with regard to variation in temperature and precipitation. As a result, it is expected that river flow regimes will be accordingly varied. This study presents a preliminary projection of medium-term and long-term runoff variation caused by climate change at a river basin scale. The large scale precipitation projection at the middle and the end of the 21st century under the A1B scenario simulated by the CGCM model (MRI & JMA, 300 km resolution is statistically downscaled to a basin scale and then used as input for the super-tank model for runoff analysis at the upper Thu Bon River basin in Central Vietnam. Results show that by the middle and the end of this century annual rainfall will increase slightly; together with a rising temperature, potential evapotranspiration is also projected to increase as well. The total annual runoff, as a result, is found to be not distinctly varied relative to the baseline period 1981 - 2000; however, the runoff will decrease in the dry season and increase in the rainy season. The results also indicate the delay tendency of the high river flow period, shifting from Sep-Dec at present to Oct-Jan in the future. The present study demonstrates potential impacts of climate change on streamflow regimes in attempts to propose appropriate adaptation measures and responses at the river basin scales.

  5. Carboniferous geology and uranium potential of the northeast flank of the Parana Basin and southwest flank of the Parnaiba Basin, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Carboniferous sequences of the northeast flank of the Parana Basin and those of the southwest flank of the Parnaiba Basin have been the subject of discussion and polemics for quite a long time, especially in terms of their stratigraphic relations and depositional environments. Thus, we reinforce our main objective, which is to furnish data for the definition of the uranium potential in these Carboniferous sediments, by adding recently acquired information that should aid in the clarification of the existing controversies. The Carboniferous along the northeast flank of the Parana Basin is represented by the Aquidauana Formation which has been informally divided into three members: lower, middle and upper members. The middle member, of marine origin, constitutes a prospective target for uranium and phosphate associations, in which sandstones interbedded with shales constitute the host rocks. On the other hand, the Carboniferous of the southwest margin of the Parnaiba Basin, which encompasses the Longa, Poti and Piaui Formations has shown very remote possibilities of uranium occurrences. The regional structural framework, as reflected by the Carboniferous rocks along both basin flanks, is characterized by homoclines cut by gravity faults. The faults along these weakness zones were occasionally intruded by basic rocks of Cretaceous age. Superimposed on the regional structure, open folds appear in the form of anticlines and domes. These folds are discontinuous structures resulting from uplift due to vertical stresses or result from differential subsidence along the limbs of the folds. (Author)

  6. Depositional tracts and stratigraphic architecture of the Itajaí Basin sedimentary sucessions (Neoproterozoic, northeastern Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Silva Costa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Neoproterozoic sedimentary successions of the Itajaí Basin show depositional trends and a stratigraphic framework characteristics of foreland basin system. The sedimentary environments have developed in basin conditions ranging from deep marine context, transitional shallow marine, to continental. Stratigraphic architecture comprises three depositional tracts (DT: DTI - submarine fans system that records the initial basin sedimentation and involves frontal and distal turbiditic deposits; DTII - transitional to shallow marine depositional system that represents the efective infill fase of basin, and includes deltaic succession with braided channels dominated plain; and DTIII - fluvial braided and alluvial fan depositional system that comprises the final stage of basin sedimentation. Arkoses and greywacke of the DTI present paleocurrent unimodals patterns and general trend to south-southeast, suggesting source area from Santa Catarina Granulitic Complex. The sandstones and conglomerates of DTII and DTIII have opposite paleocurrent pattern, indicating source area from both Metamorphic Brusque Complex and Florianópolis Batolith. Integration of paleoenvironmental and stratigraphic data, with previous information (U-Pb in detrital zircon, allowed a consistent interpretation on the sedimentary evolution and detrital sources of the basin and represent a progress on the discussions on the knowledge of the Itajaí Basin and its significance in the evolutionary context of the Dom Feliciano Belt.

  7. Contribution to the knowledge of threatened terrestrial fauna of Brazil: data from PETROBRAS environmental impact assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basbaum, Marcos A.; Fonseca, Renata A.A. [SEEBLA - Servicos de Engenharia Emilio Baumgart Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: mbasbaum.seebla@petrobras.com.br, e-mail: renataamorim.seebla@petrobras.com.br; Torggler, Bianca F.; Fernandes, Renato; Guimaraes, Ricardo Z.P. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: torggler@petrobras.com.br, e-mail: renatofer@petrobras.com.br, e-mail: rzaluar@petrobras.com.br

    2009-12-19

    One of the major problems related to the protection of threatened species in Brazil is the current lack of primary data on their occurrence. PETROBRAS, due to the processes of environmental licensing of new pipelines, held numerous studies on the occurrence of several species. Most of these studies took place in Atlantic Forest remnants located in the states of Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais, Espirito Santo, Bahia, Sergipe, Alagoas and Pernambuco. This study compared primary data from these Environmental Impact Assessments with the Brazilian list of threatened species published by MMA (Brazilian Ministry of Environment). Many threatened species were recorded in areas where native forest fragments are reduced in number and size, such as those in the Northeastern region. (author)

  8. Impacts of Sewage Sludge in Tropical Soil: A Case Study in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A long-term assay was conducted to evaluate the environmental impacts of agriculture use of sewage sludge on a tropical soil. This paper describes and discusses the results obtained by applying a interdisciplinary approach and the valuable insights gained. Experimental site was located in Jaguariuna (SP, Brazil). Multiyear comparison was developed with the application of sewage sludge obtained from wastewater treatment plants at Barueri (domestic and industrial sewage) and Franca (domestic sewage), Sao Paulo State. The treatments were control, mineral fertilization, and sewage sludge applied based on the N concentration that provides the same amount of N as in the mineral fertilization recommended for corn crop, two, four, and eight times the N recommended dosage. The results obtained indicated that the amount of sewage sludge used in agricultural areas must be calculated based on the N crop needs, and annual application must be avoided to prevent over applications.

  9. Impact of sugar cane cultivation on biogeochemistry and phytoplankton dynamics in a tropical lagoon and estuary in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Spörl, Gertrud

    2011-01-01

    Sugar cane cultivation has become the main land use in northeast and southeast Brazil and it is still increasing because of a growing national and international demand of sugar and biofuel. Shallow coastal lagoons and estuaries are the linkage between terrestrial and marine environments and are susceptible to anthropogenic modifications. Little is know about the impact of sugar cane cultivation in these systems. Aim of this study was to gain knowledge on the impact of effluents from sugar can...

  10. What Is the Impact of Non-Contributory Pensions on Poverty? Estimates from Brazil and South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Barrientos, Armando

    2003-01-01

    This paper considers the impact of cash transfer programmes for the old in Brazil and South Africa on poverty among households with older people. Using datasets collected specifically for the purpose, the paper constructs conditional and unconditional estimates of the poverty reduction capacity of these programmes. The paper finds that non-contributory pensions have a measurable and significant impact upon poverty reduction and poverty prevention in the two countries studied.

  11. Characterization of environmental quality of forest fragments changes in Jundiaí-Mirim river basin-Brazil using the Markov Chain model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasimoto Fengler, Felipe; Leite de Moraes, Jener Fernando; Irio Ribeiro, Admilson; Peche Filho, Afonso; Araujo de Medeiros, Gerson; Baldin Damame, Desirée; Márcia Longo, Regina

    2015-04-01

    In Brazil is common practice the concurrency of large urban centers water catchment in distant sites. There's no policy to preserve strategic springs in the urban territory. Thus, rural areas, located in the surrounds of municipals, usually provide water and others environment services to the population that reside on cities. The Jundiaí-Mirim river basin, located in the most urbanized state in Brazil, São Paulo, composes an interesting example of this situation. It is located in a rural area near large urban centers, with large industrial parks, near the capital of state. As result of expansion of the cities on its surrounds their lands have had a historic of monetary valorization, making its territories attractive to the housing market. Consequently, the region has an intense process of urbanization that resulted in an increasing environmental disturbance in the areas of natural vegetation. In the other hand, the watershed is the principal water supplier of Jundiaí city, and houses forest remaining of an important Biome in Brazil, the Atlantic Rain Forest. Given the need to preserve its water production capacity and the forest remnants there, this study modeled the environmental quality of forest fragments through indicators of disturbance and evaluated the changes that occur between 1972 and 2013 using the Markov Chain model. The environment quality was determined by nine indicators of environmental disturbance (distance of urban areas, roads, edge land use, size, distance of others forest fragments, land capacity of use, watershed forest cover, number of forest fragments in the watersheds, shape of the forest fragment), obtained by techniques of Geoprocessing, and integrated by Multicriteria Analysis. The Markov Chain model showed a constant tendency of deteriorating in natural vegetation environmental quality, attributed to the intense process of occupation of the river basin. The results showed a historical trend of transformation in forest fragments with

  12. The environmental impact on air quality and exposure to carbon monoxide from charcoal production in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Gabriel Meneghetti Faé; Encarnação, Fábio

    2012-07-01

    Black wattle silviculture is an important activity in southern Brazil. Much of the wood is used in the production of charcoal and the pyrolysis products impacts on air quality. This paper estimates the level of atmospheric contamination from the production of charcoal in one region of Brazil. We describe a low-cost charcoal kiln that can capture condensable gases and we estimate the levels of exposure of kiln workers to carbon monoxide. The latter results indicated that exposure to carbon monoxide can be reduced from an average of 950 ppm to 907 ppm and the mass of gases reduced by 16.8%. PMID:22541721

  13. Diagenesis of Paleozoic playa-lake and ephemeral-stream deposits from the Pimenta Bueno Formation, Siluro-Devonian (?) of the Parecis Basin, central Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, K.; Morad, S.; Al-Aasm, I. S.; De Ros, L. F.

    2011-07-01

    The Parecis Basin is a large intracratonic rift located in central Brazil and filled with Paleozoic carbonate, evaporite and siliciclastic sediments. The occurrence of gas seeps has recently attracted significant exploration interest by the Brazilian petroleum agency and by Petrobras. The continuously cored PB-01-RO well provided the first opportunity to study the depositional environments, diagenetic evolution and hydrocarbon potential of the largely unknown sedimentary successions of the Parecis Basin. The cored lithologies, belonging to the Siluro-Devonian (?) Pimenta Bueno Formation, are interpreted as deposited in playa-lake and ephemeral-stream environments. The deposits display a strong facies control on the diagenetic mineral assemblages and evolution. Diagenetic minerals in the ephemeral-stream deposits include eogenetic hematite and smectitic clay coats and quartz cement, and the mesogenetic process includes precipitation of sulfates (anhydrite and barite) and carbonates (calcite, dolomite and kutnahorite-ankerite-huntite), followed by partial dissolution of these carbonates and sulfates, and of feldspar grains. Telogenetic processes include the precipitation of hematite and kaolinite within secondary pores, and the replacement of anhydrite by gypsum. A second burial phase and mesodiagenesis is indicated by the precipitation of discrete K-feldspar crystals within moldic pores after dissolved feldspars, and by the illitization of etched, telogenetic kaolinite. The playa-lake deposits show early diagenetic dolomitization of lime mud, precipitation of anhydrite nodules and extensive silicification. The anhydrite nodules were replaced by gypsum and chalcedony during telodiagenesis. Potential source rocks are locally represented by organic shales. The fluvial sandstones show fair reservoir quality and limited compaction, as indicated by their intergranular volume, suggesting that the succession has undergone moderate burial. Potential seals for hydrocarbon

  14. Avaliação da contaminação do Igarapé do Sabino (Bacia do Rio Tibiri por metais pesados, originados dos resíduos e efluentes do Aterro da Ribeira, em São Luís, Maranhão Evaluation of contamination on Sabino streamlet (Basin Rio Tibiri by heavy metals originated from waste and effluents of the Ribeira landfill, in São Luis island, state of Maranhão, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Eduardo Lopes Campos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to carry out an environmental monitoring in sabino narrow river (affluent of Tibiri Basin, in São Luís - MA, Brazil, in order to verify the main environmental impacts caused by effluent residues from Ribeira landfill. Chemical analysis and bibliographic and cartographic researches on this ecosystem were also carried out. In addition, heavy metals, such as Hg, Pb and Zn, were investigated in water samples by ICP-MS technique. It was observed that the contents of such heavy metals were above the tolerance limits established by the Brazilian legislation, showing a strong impact level on the evaluated ecosystem.

  15. Draft environmental impact statement: Management of spent nuclear fuel from the K Basins at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this draft environmental impact statement (DEIS) is to provide information on the potential environmental impacts of managing spent nuclear fuel (SNF) located in the K East (KE) and K West (KW) SNF storage basins at the Hanford Site. These basins are attached to the retired KE and KW Reactors. Approximately 2,100 metric tons (2,315 tons) of SNF are currently located in these two storage basins. The SNF is in the form of metallic uranium, plutonium, and fission products and is, for the most part, fuel from the operation of N Reactor. Small amounts of SNF remain from operation of reactors older than N Reactor. The fuel was never processed to remove uranium and plutonium, and has been stored for periods ranging from 8 to 24 years. Much of the SNF stored in KE Basin is visibly damaged, has deteriorated, and continues to deteriorate. Because the SNF in KW Basin is stored in sealed canisters, its condition is uncertain. The KE and KW Reactors and their associated fuel storage basins were constructed in the early 1950s and are located in the 100-K Area as close as 420 m (1,380 ft) to the Columbia River. The basins are unlined concrete, 4.9-million-L (1.3-million-gal) water pools with an asphaltic membrane beneath each pool. The interior of the KW Basin has been coated with epoxy. The KE Basin has leaked water in the past and may still be leaking small quantities of water contaminated with radionuclides. The K Basins are not suitable for continued long-term storage of SNF. DOE's proposed alternatives include: no action; enhanced K Basin storage; new wet storage; drying/passivation with dry storage; calcination with dry storage; onsite processing; and foreign processing

  16. Petrographic, mineralogical, geochemical and paleo environmental characterization of radioactive anomaly associated to carbonate rocks from Jandaira formation of high cretaceous from Potiguar basin - Rio Grande do Norte - Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Jandaira Formation (Turonian/Maastrichtian - Potiguar Basin, Brazil) presents an anomalous radioactive marker in the upper part of its carbonatic section. This marker of 3-20 m in thickness, comprises an area of about 3500 Km2 and shows a radioactivity of 470 UAPI, against a background of 20 UAPI on the Gamma Ray Log. In the effort of characterizing this marker, petrological, mineralogical, geological and paleontological, analyses were made in ditch samples of selected 23 wells. This marker is composed by bioclastics packstones to mudstones, mainly constituted of planktonic and bentonic forams, deposited in relatively deep water. Chemical analysis of the P 205 richest samples, the ones show that they are also enriched on U, F, As, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, S, Se, V, Y, Yb and on all rare-earth elements. The origin of the radioactive anomaly is due to the presence of sedimentary phosphates (phosphorite) made-up of uraniferous coloform apatite. (author)

  17. Study of weathering velocity of rocks with uranium as a natural tracer. Application to two drainage basins of the north-east of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Study on rock weathering rate, i.e. rock-soil interface formation, by measuring the elements dissolved in river waters. These elements are used as natural tracers. This work has been carried out in the drainage basin of Preto and Salgado Rivers, in Brazil. Conventional elements, sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium have been utilized first and all dissolved salts have been used as natural tracers to allow comparison with other scientific works. Then, uranium has been used because it is not found in rain waters so that corrections are not necessary and because its abundance can be measured by α and γ spectrometry, and the 234U/238U ratio obtained, 234U being more rapidly dissolved during weathering. Another reason is that no interaction occurs between uranium and the biomass. It is then possible to find a geochemical balance for this area

  18. Basin-Scale Hydrologic Impacts of CO2 Storage: Regulatory and Capacity Implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkholzer, J.T.; Zhou, Q.

    2009-04-02

    Industrial-scale injection of CO{sub 2} into saline sedimentary basins will cause large-scale fluid pressurization and migration of native brines, which may affect valuable groundwater resources overlying the deep sequestration reservoirs. In this paper, we discuss how such basin-scale hydrologic impacts can (1) affect regulation of CO{sub 2} storage projects and (2) may reduce current storage capacity estimates. Our assessment arises from a hypothetical future carbon sequestration scenario in the Illinois Basin, which involves twenty individual CO{sub 2} storage projects in a core injection area suitable for long-term storage. Each project is assumed to inject five million tonnes of CO{sub 2} per year for 50 years. A regional-scale three-dimensional simulation model was developed for the Illinois Basin that captures both the local-scale CO{sub 2}-brine flow processes and the large-scale groundwater flow patterns in response to CO{sub 2} storage. The far-field pressure buildup predicted for this selected sequestration scenario suggests that (1) the area that needs to be characterized in a permitting process may comprise a very large region within the basin if reservoir pressurization is considered, and (2) permits cannot be granted on a single-site basis alone because the near- and far-field hydrologic response may be affected by interference between individual sites. Our results also support recent studies in that environmental concerns related to near-field and far-field pressure buildup may be a limiting factor on CO{sub 2} storage capacity. In other words, estimates of storage capacity, if solely based on the effective pore volume available for safe trapping of CO{sub 2}, may have to be revised based on assessments of pressure perturbations and their potential impact on caprock integrity and groundwater resources, respectively. We finally discuss some of the challenges in making reliable predictions of large-scale hydrologic impacts related to CO{sub 2

  19. The impact of a carbon tax on the Susquehanna River Basin economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the first study of the economic impacts of a carbon tax on an environmentally delineated, sub-national area. The study is based on a 32-sector computable general equilibrium model of the Susquehanna River Basin (SRB) of the US. A special feature of the analysis is that it incorporates changes in prices of traded goods facing the focal region as a result of the imposition of a tax imposed globally. The results show that a tax of $16.96 per ton of carbon could have rather negligible negative impacts on the SRB economy as a whole, but that the negative impacts on its energy industries could be sizeable. Also, several sensitivity tests on closure rules and key parameter values indicate that the results are rather robust. 22 refs

  20. Integrated regional assessment of global climatic change. Lessons from the Mackenzie Basin Impact Study (MBIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper outlines the potential role integrated regional assessments of global climatic change scenarios could play in building better links between science and related policy concerns. The concept is illustrated through description of an ongoing case study from Canada-the Mackenzie Basin Impact Study (MBIS). As part of the Government of Canada's Green Plan, the Global Warming Science Program includes a study of regional impacts of global warming scenarios in the Mackenzie Basin, located in northwestern Canada. The MBIS is a six-year program focussing on potential climate-induced changes in the land and water resource base, and the implications of four scenarios of global climatic change on land use and economic policies in this region. These policy issues include interjurisdictional water management, sustainability of native lifestyles, economic development opportunities (agriculture, forestry, tourism, etc.), sustainability of ecosystems and infrastructure maintenance. MBIS is due to be completed in 1997. MBIS represents an attempt to address regional impacts by incorporating a 'family of integrators' into the study framework, and by directly involving stakeholders in planning and research activities. The experience in organizing and carrying out this project may provide some lessons for others interested in organizing regional or country studies

  1. Climate change impact on water resources - Example of an anthropized basin (Llobregat, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versini, P.-A.; Pouget, L.; Mc Ennis, S.; Guiu Carrio, R.; Sempere-Torres, D.; Escaler, I.

    2012-04-01

    The impact of climate change is one of the central topics of study by water agencies and companies. Indeed, the forecasted increase of atmospheric temperature may change the amount, frequency and intensity of precipitation and affect the hydrological cycle: runoff, infiltration, aquifer recharge, etc… Moreover, global change combining climate change but also land use and water demand changes, may cause very important impacts on water availability and quality. Global change scenarios in Spain describe a general trend towards increased temperature and water demand, and reduced precipitation as a result of its geographical situation and socio-economic characteristics. The European project WATER CHANGE (included in the LIFE + Environment Policy and Governance program) aims to develop a modeling system to assess the Global Change impacts, and their associated uncertainties, on water availability for water supply and water use. Its objective is to help river basin agencies and water companies in their long term planning and in the definition of adaptation measures. This work presents the results obtained by applying the modelling system to the Llobregat river basin (Spain). This is an anthropized catchment of about 5000 km2, where water resources are used for different purposes, such as drinking water production, agriculture irrigation, industry and hydroelectric energy production. Based on future global change scenarios, the water resources system has been assessed in terms of water deficit and supply. A cost-benefit analysis has also been conducted in order to evaluate every realistic measure that could optimize and improve the system.

  2. Integrated regional assessment of global climatic change: lessons from the Mackenzie Basin Impact Study (MBIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Stewart J.

    1996-04-01

    This paper outlines the potential role integrated regional assessments of global climatic change scenarios could play in building better links between science and related policy concerns. The concept is illustrated through description of an ongoing case study from Canada—the Mackenzie Basin Impact Study (MBIS). As part of the Government of Canada's Green Plan, the Global Warming Science Program includes a study of regional impacts of global warming scenarios in the Mackenzie Basin, located in northwestern Canada. The MBIS is a six-year program focussing on potential climate-induced changes in the land and water resource base, and the implications of four scenarios of global climatic change on land use and economic policies in this region. These policy issues include interjurisdictional water management, sustainability of native lifestyles, economic development opportunities (agriculture, forestry, tourism, etc.), sustainability of ecosystems and infrastructure maintenance. MBIS is due to be completed in 1997. MBIS represents an attempt to address regional impacts by incorporating a "family of integrators" into the study framework, and by directly involving stakeholders in planning and research activities. The experience in organizing and carrying out this project may provide some lessons for others interested in organizing regional or country studies.

  3. Petrographic and geochemical characterization of the granitic rocks of the Araguainha impact crater, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Dailto; Lana, Cristiano; Souza Filho, Carlos Roberto

    2016-03-01

    Petrographic and geochemical data obtained on the Araguainha impact crater (Goiás/Mato Grosso States, Brazil) indicate the existence of several molten products that originated during impact-induced congruent melting of an alkali-granite exposed in the inner part of the central uplift of the structure. Although previous studies have described these melts to some extent, there is no detailed discussion on the petrographic and geochemical variability in the granite and its impactogenic derivatives, and therefore, little is known about the geochemical behavior and mobility of trace elements during its fusion in the central part of the Araguainha crater. This paper demonstrates that the preserved granitoid exposed in the core of the structure is a magnesium-rich granite, similar to postcollisional, A-type granites, also found in terrains outside the Araguainha crater, in the Brasília orogenic belt. The molten products are texturally distinct and different from the original rock, but have very similar geochemical composition, making it difficult to separate these lithotypes based on concentrations of major and minor elements. This also applies for trace and rare earth elements (REE), thus indicating a high degree of homogenization during impact-induced congruent melting under high pressure and postshock temperature conditions. Petrographic observations, along with geochemical data, indicate that melting occurs selectively, where some of the elements are transported with the melt. Simultaneously, there is an effective dissolution of the rock (granite), which leads to entrainment of the most resistant solid phases (intact or partially molten minerals) into the melt. Minerals more resistant to melting, such as quartz and oxides, contribute substantially to a chemical balance between the preserved granite and the fusion products generated during the meteoritic impact.

  4. USE OF TREND IMPACT ANALYSIS AFFECTS PROJECTIONS OF EUCALYPTUS CULTIVATION IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Lotfi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus forestry is an important source of competitive advantage for Brazil and, since eucalyptus is a basic raw material for industrial segments that are undergoing great expansion, monitoring the growth rate of cultivated area is increasingly relevant.This study resorted to Trend Impact Analysis (TIA to forecast the planting of eucalyptus in Brazil’s reforested areas, adjusting the linear regression of historical data in the light of three events that were under way or that will probably influence the trend: timber funds, the world financial crisis and Biomass to Liquid (BTL technology.The results allow one to infer that, in the short term, eucalyptus cultivation will expand at a rate similar to that of the linear curve, adversely affected by the world crisis and positively affected by timber funds.By 2016, however, the expansion of eucalyptus plantations is expected, largely because of the commercial scale of BTL technology.Key words: Trend Impact Analysis. Eucalyptus. Future Studies.

  5. Energy efficiency standards for refrigerators in Brazil: A methodology for impact evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Brazil energy efficiency standards for cold appliances was established in 2007. A specified single set of MEPS (minimum energy performance standards) for refrigerators, freezers and freezer refrigerators was implemented without evaluating its impacts and estimation of potential electricity savings. This paper presents a methodology for assessing the impacts of the Brazilian MEPS for cold appliances. It uses a bottom-up approach to estimate residential end-use consumption and to evaluate the energy saving potential for refrigerators. The household electricity consumption is projected by modeling appliance ownership using an econometric approach based on the recent household survey data. A cost-benefit analysis for more stringent standards is presented from the perspective of the society and electricity customers. The results showed that even considering the current market conditions (high discount rate for financing new efficient equipment) some MEPS options are advantageous for customers. The analysis also demonstrates significant cost-effective saving potential from the society perspective that could reach 21 TWh throughout the period of 2010-2030-about 25% of current residential consumption.

  6. [Ants as biological indicators of human impact in mangroves of the southeastern coast of Bahia, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delabie, Jacques H C; Paim, Valéria R L de M; Do Nascimento, Ivan C; Campiolo, Sofia; Mariano, Cléa dos S F

    2006-01-01

    Mangroves are common in estuaries along the Atlantic coast of Brazil. Although plant diversity is low, this ecosystem supports a range of animals, offering some resources for non-aquatic organisms. Many insects live in mangroves and, between them, many ant species that are exclusively arboreous. Mangroves throughout the world suffer from high levels of human impact, and this is particularly true for southeastern Bahia, where land-uses include traditional crab and fish exploitation, urban development, refuse pollution, recreation, and timber extraction. The ants of 13 mangrove sites, representing a range of levels of human use, have been studied along 250 km of the southern Bahia littoral, between Itacaré and Porto Seguro. Ants were sampled both inside and on the periphery of the tidal zone, using entomological rainbow, baiting, collect of hollow branches and pit-fall. A total of 108 species have been collected, with the richest genera being Camponotus and Pseudomyrmex, and the most frequent belonging to the genera Azteca and Crematogaster. The ant community living on the periphery of mangrove areas is rather homogeneous regardless of the degree of environmental perturbation, but varies markedly with the disturbance inside the mangroves themselves. The evolution of richness of the both communities, mangrove and periphery, is negatively related to the human effects, even limited to the periphery. Ant communities therefore have the potential to be useful as biological indicators of ecological impacts of land-use in these mangrove systems. PMID:17144131

  7. Early signals of environmental and health impacts caused by uranium mining in Caetite, Bahia, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, Adelson S. de; Rego, Rita de Cassia Franco [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Medicina Preventiva. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Saude, Ambiente e Trabalho; Zucchi, Maria do Rosario [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica da Terra. Lab. de Fisica Nuclear Aplicada; Navarro, Marcus V. Teixeira, E-mail: mvtn@ifba.edu.b [Instituto Federal da Bahia (LAFIR/NTS/IFBA) Salvador, BA (Brazil). Nucleo de Tecnologia em Saude. Lab. de Fisica Radiologica

    2011-07-01

    Uranium mining and processing at Lagoa Real (Bahia, Brazil) in the southwest of Bahia state started in the year 2000.The processing of uranium ore for obtaining U3O8 (yellowcake) is done today in the processing unit of the Brazilian Nuclear Industries INB located in the area of the same municipality above mentioned. The production capacity is 400 tons / year of U3O8, and the reserves in this region are estimated at 100.000 tons of uranium without any other associated minerals, enough to supply the demand for nuclear power plants Angra I and II for over 100 years. Since the granting of AOP (Permanent Operation Authorization) by CNEN (National Commission on Nuclear Energy) in the year 2009, there were some incidents at the facility, such as: solvents and liquid containing uranium overflow; pipes rupture, causing indiscriminate dispersion of toxic acids and other chemical agents; collapse of parts of the slope of the open pit. CNEN admitted in an official press release on April 1, 2011 that 'INB has no capacity to produce annual reports on environmental monitoring (unable to perform radiometric measurements, etc.). The last time a report was released happened in the year 2008. These reports are vital to the environmental impact assessment of the facility'. Another potential source of environmental and health negative impacts on the local population could be linked to radon emission. What are the levels of this important pollutant in the affected areas? (author)

  8. Penicillium excelsum sp. nov from the Brazil Nut Tree Ecosystem in the Amazon Basin'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taniwaki, Marta Hiromi; Pitt, John I; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.;

    2015-01-01

    A new Penicillium species, P. excelsum, is described here using morphological characters, extrolite and partial sequence data from the ITS, β-tubulin and calmodulin genes. It was isolated repeatedly using samples of nut shells and flowers from the brazil nut tree, Bertolletia excelsa, as well as...

  9. Stratigraphic framework and evolution of the Cretaceous continental sequences of the Bauru, Sanfranciscana, and Parecis basins, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batezelli, Alessandro; Ladeira, Francisco Sergio Bernardes

    2016-01-01

    With the breakup of the supercontinent Gondwana, the South American Plate has undergone an intense process of tectonic restructuring that led to the genesis of the interior basins that encompassed continental sedimentary sequences. The Brazilian Bauru, Sanfranciscana and Parecis basins during Late Cretaceous have had their evolution linked to this process of structuring and therefore have very similar sedimentary characteristics. The purpose of this study is to establish a detailed understanding of alluvial sedimentary processes and architecture within a stratigraphic sequence framework using the concept of the stratigraphic base level or the ratio between the accommodation space and sediment supply. The integration of the stratigraphic and facies data contributed to defining the stratigraphic architecture of the Bauru, Sanfranciscana and Parecis Basins, supporting a model for continental sequences that depicts qualitative changes in the sedimentation rate (S) and accommodation space (A) that occurred during the Cretaceous. This study discusses the origin of the unconformity surfaces (K-0, K-1 and K-1A) that separate Sequences 1, 2A and 2B and the sedimentary characteristics of the Bauru, Sanfranciscana and Parecis Basins from the Aptian to the Maastrichtian, comparing the results with other Cretaceous Brazilian basins. The lower Cretaceous Sequence 1 (Caiuá and Areado groups) is interpreted as a low-accommodation systems tract compound by fluvial and aeolian systems. The upper Cretaceous lacustrine, braided river-dominated alluvial fan and aeolian systems display characteristics of the evolution from high-to low-accommodation systems tracts (Sequences 2A and 2B). Unconformity K-0 is related to the origin of the Bauru Basin itself in the Early Cretaceous. In Sanfranciscana and Parecis basins, the unconformity K-0 marks the contact between aeolian deposits from Lower Cretaceous and Upper Cretaceous alluvial systems (Sequences 1 and 2). Unconformity K-1, which was

  10. An impact model of the imbrium basin for distribution of thorium on lunar surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider the thorium distributions that are coincident with the distribution of ejecta after the Mare Imbrium impact occurs on the lunar surface and derive a simple model on the spherical target to predict the thickness of Imbrium ejecta deposits as a function of distance from the centre of the Imbrium basin. Then we use the result of Lunar Prospector's gamma ray experiment to test the hypothesis that the distribution of thorium on the lunar surface has an origin from the Mare Imbrium. (authors)

  11. Snow Cover and Precipitation Impacts on Dry Season Streamflow in the Lower Mekong Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Bell, A. R.; Anchukaitis, K. J.; Buckley, B. M.

    2012-01-01

    Climate change impacts on dry season streamflow in the Mekong River are relatively understudied, despite the fact that water availability during this time is critically important for agricultural and ecological systems. Analyses of two gauging stations (Vientiane and Kratie) in the Lower Mekong Basin (LMB) show significant positive correlations between dry season (March through May, MAM) discharge and upper basin snow cover and local precipitation. Using snow cover, precipitation, and upstream discharge as predictors, we develop skillful regression models for MAM streamflow at Vientiane and Kratie, and force these models with output from a suite of general circulation model (GCM) experiments for the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. The GCM simulations predict divergent trends in snow cover (decreasing) and precipitation (increasing) over the twenty-first century, driving overall negligible long-term trends in dry season streamflow. Our study demonstrates how future changes in dry season streamflow in the LMB will depend on changes in snow cover and precipitation, factors that will need to be considered when assessing the full basin response to other climatic and non-climatic drivers.

  12. Brazil in the global energy world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Frank D.; Vossoughi, Shapour [University of Kansas (KU), KS (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Brazil is the 10th largest energy consumer in the world and the third largest in the Western Hemisphere, behind the United States and Canada. Total primary energy consumption in Brazil has increased significantly in recent years; and over the past decade, Brazil has made great strides in increasing its total energy production, particularly oil. Brazil has the second-largest crude oil reserves in South America (behind Venezuela), and is one of the fastest growing oil producers in the world. According to United States Energy Information Administration (EIA), Brazil had 12.2 billion barrels of proven oil reserves in 2008. In 2007, Brazil's state owned Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS) announced that it had discovered an estimated 5-8 billion barrels of recoverable reserves (including both oil and natural gas) in the Tupi field, located in the Santos Basin. In 2008, subsequent discoveries were announced, to include Jupiter and Carioca (aka Sugar Loaf). Although PETROBRAS has yet to confirm the size of the discoveries, some industry analysts estimate the total extent of recoverable oil and natural gas reserves in the entire pre-salt layer have approached 40 to 80 billion barrels of oil equivalent. The reserves occur below a salt zone that is estimated to be 7,000 meters below the ocean surface. However, Brazil faces many challenges to recover the hydrocarbons to include technical, political, fiscal, and infrastructure hurdles. In spite of the challenges ahead, these discoveries transformed the nature and focus of Brazil's oil industry, economy, and future; and the potential impact of the pre-salt discoveries upon world oil markets is vast. The purpose of this paper is to discuss how the recent discoveries will affect Brazil's future and the impact it will have on the global energy world. (author)

  13. Soil gamma ray spectrometry of the Buquira river basin, SP, Brazil; Gamametria de solos da bacia do rio Buquira, SP, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, Alice

    2002-12-01

    Natural radioactivity found in rocks and its evaluation been frequently used for studies of environmental geochemistry, particularly those of detection and control of pollutants and the consequent changes in environment after antropic interferences. In this work natural radioactivity in forty nine soil samples in the basin of Buquira river, at the Northeast region of Sao Paulo State, has been analysed and measured with a Ge-HP gamma ray spectrometer. A table with the most relevant results found in rocks is shown and discussed. (author)

  14. Moist forest restoration in Brazil: a locally based project of CO{sub 2} sequestration, biodiversity conservation and watershed protection in Corumbatai River Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manfrinato, W.; Azevedo, T. [Imaflora (Brazil); Viana, V. [University of Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    1998-08-01

    This project is a multidisciplinary effort to restore gallery forests in a most degraded Atlantic Moist Forest, recovering the forest fragments in the river basin will (i) establish a pilot project for carbon sequestration, targeting a zero balance for carbon emissions in the region; (ii) improve the watershed quality, thereby decreasing costs of water treatment; (ii) link forest fragments in order to increase biodiversity in the entire basin; (iv) create community involvement with local implementation of environmental education programs. The project is funded by FUNBIO (Brazilian Fund for Biodiversity) and by each participating organization, and is coordinated by Imaflora (Institute for Forest and Agriculture Management and Certification). The Corumbatai Project will be significant as it establishes a new collaborative effort with the alcohol industry which is known to be a promising alternative to fossil fuel. It has the potential to revert a process of many centuries of environmental degradation. It is also a landmark in the process of environmental restoration using a multidisciplinary approach, combining CO{sub 2} sequestration, biodiversity conservation and watershed protection. This experience, in a heavily populated area of Brazil, will generate important information on potential solutions to the problems of Global Change in local initiatives. (author)

  15. Epilithic diatoms in headwater areas of the hydrographical sub-basin of the Andreas Stream, RS, Brazil, and their relation with eutrophication processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Giselda Heinrich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This research aimed to study the composition of epilithic diatom flora in headwater areas of the sub-basin of the Andreas stream, RS, Brazil, and their relation with eutrophication processes. METHODS: Quarterly excursions (March, June, September, December 2012 and Mach 2013 were performed in ten sampling points selected in the sub-basin, to collect samples for the identification and counting the organisms in the group of diatoms (Class Bacillariophyceae. RESULTS: The results indicated the occurrence of 243 taxa, distributed in 53 genera. Of these, 59 were considered abundant, being distributed in 29 genera. Seven species showed elevated tolerance levels to organic pollution and eutrophication: Adlafia drouetiana (R. M. Patrick Metzeltin & Lange-Bertalot, Amphipleura lindheimeri Grunow; Fallacia monoculata (Hustedt D. G. Mann, Navicula cryptotenella Lange-Bertalot, Navicula symmetrica R. M. Patrick, Nitzschia palea (Kützing W. Smith and Sellaphora auldreekie D. G. Mann & S. M. McDonald in Mann et al. CONCLUSION: Although this research has been conducted in headwater areas, the occurrence of these seven species could be explained by considering the use of these areas for agricultural and livestock purposes, compromising the stability of these aquatic ecosystems, due to the significant contribution of fertilizer and organic matter, a condition that characterizes a process of eutrophication.

  16. Assessment of climate change impacts on meteorological and hydrological droughts in the Jucar River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos-Garcia, Patricia; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel; Lopez-Nicolas, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Extreme natural phenomena, and more specifically droughts, constitute a serious environmental, economic and social issue in Southern Mediterranean countries, common in the Mediterranean Spanish basins due to the high temporal and spatial rainfall variability. Drought events are characterized by their complexity, being often difficult to identify and quantify both in time and space, and an universally accepted definition does not even exist. This fact, along with future uncertainty about the duration and intensity of the phenomena on account of climate change, makes necessary increasing the knowledge about the impacts of climate change on droughts in order to design management plans and mitigation strategies. The present abstract aims to evaluate the impact of climate change on both meteorological and hydrological droughts, through the use of a generalization of the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). We use the Standardized Flow Index (SFI) to assess the hydrological drought, using flow time series instead of rainfall time series. In the case of the meteorological droughts, the Standardized Precipitation and Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) has been applied to assess the variability of temperature impacts. In order to characterize climate change impacts on droughts, we have used projections from the CORDEX project (Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment). Future rainfall and temperature time series for short (2011-2040) and medium terms (2041-2070) were obtained, applying a quantile mapping method to correct the bias of these time series. Regarding the hydrological drought, the Témez hydrological model has been applied to simulate the impacts of future temperature and rainfall time series on runoff and river discharges. It is a conceptual, lumped and a few parameters hydrological model. Nevertheless, it is necessary to point out the time difference between the meteorological and the hydrological droughts. The case study is the Jucar river basin

  17. Assessment of the hydrological impacts of green roof: From building scale to basin scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versini, P.-A.; Ramier, D.; Berthier, E.; de Gouvello, B.

    2015-05-01

    At the building scale, the use of green roof has shown a positive impact on urban runoff (decrease and slow-down in peak discharge, decrease in runoff volume). The present work aims to study whether similar effects are possible at the basin scale and what is the minimum spreading of green runoff needed to observe significant impacts. It is particularly focused on the circumstances of such impacts and how they can contribute to storm water management in urban environment. Based on observations on experimental green roofs, a conceptual model has been developed and integrated into the SWMM urban rainfall-runoff model to reproduce the hydrological behaviour of two different types of green roof. It has been combined with a method defining green roofing scenarios by estimating the maximum roof area that can be covered. This methodology has been applied on a long time series (18 years) to the Châtillon urban basin (Haut-de-Seine county, France) frequently affected by urban flooding. For comparison, the same methodology has been applied at the building scale and a complementary analysis has been conducted to study which hydrometeorological variables may affect the magnitude of these hydrological impacts at both scales. The results show green roofs, when they are widely implemented, can affect urban runoff in terms of peak discharge and volume, and avoid flooding in several cases. Both precipitation - generally accumulated during the whole event- and the initial substrate saturation are likely to have an impact on green roof effects. In this context, the studied green roofs seem useful to mitigate the effects of usual rainfall events but turn out being less helpful for the more severe ones. We conclude that, combined with other infrastructures, green roofs represent an interesting contribution to urban water management in the future.

  18. Impact of Inter‐Basin Water Transfer Projects on Regional Ecological Security from a Telecoupling Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Quan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Inter‐basin water transfer projects (IBWTPs offer one of the most important means to solve the mismatch between supply and demand of regional water resources. IBWTPs have impacts on the complex ecosystems of the areas from which water is diverted and to which water is received. These impacts increase damage or risk to regional ecological security and human wellbeing. However, current methods make it difficult to achieve comprehensive analysis of the impacts of whole ecosystems, because of the long distance between ecosystems and the inconsistency of impact events. In this study, a model was proposed for the analysis of the impacts of IBWTPs on regional ecological security. It is based on the telecoupling framework, and the Driver‐Pressure‐State‐ Impact‐Response (DPSIR model was used to improve the analysis procedure within the telecoupling framework. The Middle Line of the South‐to‐North Water Diversion Project was selected as a case study to illustrate the specific analysis procedure. We realized that information sharing is a key issue in the management of regional security, and that the ecological water requirement, in the form of a single index, could be used to quantitatively assess the impacts on ecological security from IBWTPs.

  19. Model study of the impacts of future climate change on the hydrology of Ganges–Brahmaputra–Meghna basin

    OpenAIRE

    Masood, M.; P. J.-F. Yeh; Hanasaki, N.; Takeuchi, K.

    2015-01-01

    The intensity, duration, and geographic extent of floods in Bangladesh mostly depend on the combined influences of three river systems, the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna (GBM). In addition, climate change is likely to have significant effects on the hydrology and water resources of the GBM basin and may ultimately lead to more serious floods in Bangladesh. However, the assessment of climate change impacts on the basin-scale hydrology by using well-calibrated hydrologic mode...

  20. Ecological impact produced by hard coal mining in Petrosani coal basin and pollution reduction at Jiu River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economical development of the coal basin Petrosani based on exploitation and processing of hard coal unit now a dynamic character without taking into account the environmental aspects. The major environmental problem induced, consists in the pollution of Jiu river as a consequence of the effluent ejected in his waters. The present paper highlights some aspects of environmental impact induced by hard coal mining in coal basin Petrosani

  1. Calibration of hydrodynamic model MIKE 11 for the sub-basin of the Piauitinga river, Sergipe, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Vinicius Folegatti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In Piauitinga river sub-basin the environment has been suffering from negative actions by humans such as deforestation around springs, inadequate use of the uptaken water, inappropriate use in domestic activities, siltation and sand exploitation, and contamination by domestic, industrial and agricultural residuals. The present study presents the one-dimensional hydrodynamic MIKE 11 model calibration that simulates the water flow in estuary, rivers, irrigation systems, channels and other water bodies. The aim of this work was to fit the MIKE 11 model to available discharge data for this sub-basin. Data from the period of 1994 to 1995 were used for calibration and data from 1996 to 2006 for validation, except the 1997 year, from which data were not available. Manning’s roughness coefficient was the main parameter used for the Piauitinga river sub-basin discharge calibration and other parameters were heat balance, water stratification and groundwater leakage. Results showed that the model had an excellent performance for the Piauitinga basin and had an efficiency coefficient of 0.9 for both periods. This demonstrates that this model can be used to estimate the water quantity in Piauitinga river sub-basin.

  2. Comparison between some trace and heavy metals concentrations in sediments of a river and a natural wetland system in Ribeira do Iguape Basin, São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Calijuri

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available ResumoThe sediment is an integrator site of many processes that take place in the water column. Its study is extremely important for the assessment of environmental impacts to which aquatic ecosystems are subordinated, since the sediments are able to accumulate nutrients and pollutants. The aim of this research was to compare copper, lead, manganese and mercury concentrations in the sediments of Jacupiranguinha River and of a natural wetland, observing the spatial-temporal variation of these concentrations in two sampling periods: October, 2004 and January, 2005. The study area is located in one of the most miserable regions in Brazil, Ribeira do Iguape Basin, whose economy is based on banana cultivation and mining activities. The obtained results contributed to better understand the differences in contaminants´ dynamic for lotic and lentic biological systems. Copper, lead and manganese concentrations were higher in the natural wetland sediment when compared to the river, probably due to the variability of processes in one and other ecosystem. It was possible to observe temporal variation, since the highest concentrations of these three metals were obtained in the sampling during the rainy period. Mercury, however, presented a different behavior. The highest concentrations were obtained in Jacupiranguinha River, reaching 0.8 mg kg-1, painting a deep and serious public health problem. Besides, mercury concentrations during the rainy period were lower in comparison with the period with less intense precipitation, pointing the possibility of this metal’s transportation from Jacupiranguinha river to the other rivers located in the basin.

  3. Detecting Light Hydrocarbon Microseepages and related Intra-sedimentary Structures at the São Francisco Basin, Brazil, using Airborne Geophysical Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curto, J. B.; Pires, A. C.; Silva, A.; Crosta, A. P.

    2011-12-01

    The use of indirect techniques for the detection of light hydrocarbons occurrences on the surface, named as microseepages, has been used to augment hydrocarbon exploration. Surveys developed for this type of application are normally targeted at mapping the effects that microseepages cause on the environment. In Brazil, most available airborne geophysical surveys were not appropriately designed for this type of application and, thus far they have been mostly used to define the main basin structural features. Existing microseepages are known in Remanso do Fogo area (Minas Gerais State, Brazil), located in São Francisco Basin, where the Quaternary sedimentary cover made the identification of new occurrences and associated controlling structures quite difficult. This study investigates the spatial distribution of hydrocarbon related structures in shallower to intra-sedimentary depths in the Remanso do Fogo area, using airborne magnetic and gamma-ray spectrometry data. These data were managed by the ANP (Brazilian Petroleum National Agency) and conducted by Lasa Engineering & Surveys in 2006. In the study area, data were acquired along north-south flight lines spaced 500 m apart and along orthogonal tie lines flown 4 Km apart at a terrain clearance of 100 m. The geophysical data were processed using techniques developed to suppress the influence of regional geological signatures. For the magnetic data, this study focuses on the enhancement of intra-sedimentary structures and possible near surface accumulations of diagenetic magnetic minerals, provided by hydrocarbon related chemical reactions. The amplitude of the analytic signal, calculated with second order derivatives, combined with the total horizontal gradient of the subtraction between the 1200 and 400 meter upward continuations, illuminated the NW and EW magnetic lineaments, which are partially related to the microseepages and the drainage of the area. The distinction of near-surface and deeper signatures also

  4. Description of a new catfish genus (Siluriformes, Loricariidae) from the Tocantins River basin in central Brazil, with comments on the historical zoogeography of the new taxon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Gabriel S. C.; Roxo, Fábio F.; Ochoa, Luz E.; Oliveira, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study presents the description of a new genus of the catfish subfamily Neoplecostominae from the Tocantins River basin. It can be distinguished from other neoplecostomine genera by the presence of (1) three hypertrophied bicuspid odontodes on the lateral portion of the body (character apparently present in mature males); (2) a large area without odontodes around the snout; (3) a post-dorsal ridge on the caudal peduncle; (4) a straight tooth series in the dentary and premaxillary rows; (5) the absence of abdominal plates; (6) a conspicuous series of enlarged papillae just posterior to the dentary teeth; and (7) caudal peduncle ellipsoid in cross section. We used maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods to estimate a time-calibrated tree with the published data on 116 loricariid species using one nuclear and three mitochondrial genes, and we used parametric biogeographic analyses (DEC and DECj models) to estimate ancestral geographic ranges and to infer the colonization routes of the new genus and the other neoplecostomines in the Tocantins River and the hydrographic systems of southeastern Brazil. Our phylogenetic results indicate that the new genus and species is a sister taxon of all the other members of the Neoplecostominae, originating during the Eocene at 47.5 Mya (32.7–64.5 Mya 95% HPD). The present distribution of the new genus and other neoplecostomines may be the result of a historical connection between the drainage basins of the Paraguay and Paraná rivers and the Amazon basin, mainly through headwater captures. PMID:27408594

  5. Assessing the impact of climate change on potential evapotranspiration in Aksu River Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shouhong; LIU Suxia; MO Xingguo; SHU Chang; SUN Yang; ZHANG Chun

    2011-01-01

    Evapotranspiration is one of the key components of hydrological processes.Assessing the impact of climate factors on evapotranspiration is helpful in understanding the impact of climate change on hydrological processes.In this paper,based on the daily meteorological data from 1960 to 2007 within and around the Aksu River Basin,reference evapotranspiration (RET) was estimated with the FAO Penman-Monteith method.The temporal and spatial variations of RET were analyzed by using ARCGIS and Mann-Kendall method.Multiple Regression Analysis was employed to attribute the effects of the variations of air temperature,solar radiation,relative humidity,vapour pressure and wind speed on RET.The results showed that average annual RET in the eastern plain area of the Aksu River Basin was about 1100 mm,which was nearly twice as much as that in the western mountainous area.The trend of annual RET had significant spatial variability.Annual RET was reduced significantly in the southeastern oasis area and southwestern plain area and increased slightly in the mountain areas.The amplitude of the change of RET reached the highest in summer,contributing most of the annual change of RET.Except in some high elevation areas where relative humidity predominated the change of the RET,the variations of wind velocity predominated the changes of RET almost throughout the basin.Taking Kuqa and Ulugqat stations as an example,the variations of wind velocity accounted for more than 50% of the changes of RET.

  6. Impact of climate change on forests, forest products and the carbon cycle in the Congo Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruijt, Bart; Jans, Wilma; Franssen, Wietse; Ludwig, Fulco

    2014-05-01

    Africa is widely seen as the continent most vulnerable to climate change. Current climate variability already has a large impact on the economies of developing countries. Large parts of African economies are highly climate sensitive, in particular agriculture, infrastructure and water sector. In this study we performed an analysis of climate change impacts in the Congo Basin on Forest ecosystem functioning and carbon storage. We emphasise the methodologies and validation involved in modelling the basin-wide carbon budgets. We also studied the potential shifts in broad classes of vegetation types, resulting from climate change. Finally, we compared annual productivity of the Congo forests with statistics of wood fuel and charcoal use for each of the countries in the region. The model simulations suggest that the region's forests will see increasing productivity under future climate, however, the effect of rising CO2 concentrations, stimulating growth, is highly uncertain. From these findings it follows that the potential in the region to implement UNFCCC-REDD+ projects is still very uncertain, but probably sustainable and feasible. The analysis shows that, averaged over 10 years, wood fuel and charcoal use amount to 50% and in some countries up to 100% or even more of the yearly vegetation carbon increase. These percentages generally increases with population density.

  7. Reviewing the adoption and impact of water markets in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, S.; Loch, A.; Zuo, A.; Bjornlund, H.

    2014-10-01

    Water markets have increasingly been adopted as a reallocation tool around the world as water scarcity intensifies. Water markets were first introduced in Australia in the 1980s, and water entitlement and allocation trade have been increasingly adopted by both private individuals and governments. As well as providing an overview of water policy in Australia since the 1900s, this paper examines the adoption of water trading in the southern Murray-Darling Basin of Australia (the largest hydrologically connected water market in Australia), and investigates the associated social, economic and environmental impacts that have arisen from the implementation of water markets. This study found that up to 86% of irrigators in one state in the southern Murray-Darling Basin had undertaken at least one water market trade by 2010-2011, hence, water market strategies are now a common tool employed by irrigators to assist their farm management. A variety of institutional, policy and informational changes are identified to increase the benefits from water markets in the future. There is no doubt that managing the impact of climate change and water scarcity are intertwined, suggesting that policy, institutional and governance responses should be similarly structured and coordinated.

  8. Estimating the Economic Impact of an Eventual Introduction of Huanglongbing (HLB) in the State of Bahia, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, J. M.C.; Silva, S. X.B.; Nascimento, A. S.; Miranda, S. H.G.; Barbosa, C. J.; Laranjeira, F. F.

    2014-01-01

    Bahia is the second most important citrus region in Brazil, accounting for 5.5% of Brazilian production. 80% of this production comes from family based farms, which depend on this crop for economic support. Huanglongbing (HLB) was never recorded in Bahia, but is already spreading in three other citrus-producing states of the country, one of which borders the state of Bahia. Thus, this study aimed to estimate the potential economic impact resulting from an eventual introduction of HLB in Bahia...

  9. Assessing Portuguese Guadiana Basin water management impacts under climate change and paleoclimate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Rodrigo; Oliveira, Bruno; Ramos, Vanessa; Brekke, Levi

    2014-05-01

    The water balance in each reservoir and the subsequent, related, water resource management decisions are, presently, highly information dependent and are therefore often limited to a reactive response (even if aimed towards preventing future issues regarding the water system). Taking advantage of the availability of scenarios for climate projections, it is now possible to estimate the likely future evolution of climate which represents an important stepping stone towards proactive, adaptative, water resource management. The purpose of the present study was to assess the potential effects of climate change in terms of temperature, precipitation, runoff and water availability/scarcity for application in water resource management decisions. The analysis here presented was applied to the Portuguese portion of the Guadiana River Basin, using a combination of observed climate and runoff data and the results of the Global Climate Models. The Guadiana River Basin was represented by its reservoirs on the Portuguese portion of the basin and, for the future period, an estimated value of the inflows originating in the Spanish part of the Basin. The change in climate was determined in terms of relative and absolute variations of climate (precipitation and temperature) and hydrology (runoff and water balance related information). Apart from the previously referred data, an hydrological model and a water management model were applied so as to obtain an extended range of data regarding runoff generation (calibrated to observed data) and water balance in the reservoirs (considering the climate change impacts in the inflows, outflows and water consumption). The water management model was defined in order to represent the reservoirs interaction including upstream to downstream discharges and water transfers. Under the present climate change context, decision-makers and stakeholders are ever more vulnerable to the uncertainties of climate. Projected climate in the Guadiana basin

  10. Patterns of media use in Brazil and their impact on political information levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladimir G Gramacho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available REVISTA DEBATES OPEN JOURNAL SYSTEMS Journal Help USER Username Password Remember me Login LANGUAGE JOURNAL CONTENT Search Search Browse By Issue By Author By Title Other Journals FONT SIZE Make font size smallerMake font size defaultMake font size larger INFORMATION For Readers For Authors For Librarians HOME ABOUT LOGIN REGISTER SEARCH CURRENT ARCHIVES UFRGS Home > Vol 9, No 3 (2015 >\tGramacho Patterns of media use in Brazil and their impact on political information levels Wladimir G Gramacho, André Jácomo Abstract The use of media repertoires that include internet is associated with higher levels of political information policy. This is the main conclusion of this article, whose argument is organized in three stages. The first describes the scene of the Brazilian audience fragmentation and identifies the media usage patterns in the country based on cluster analysis using data from the Brazilian Media Survey 2015. The second indicates the socio-economic characteristics prevailing in each pattern of media use. Finally, the third one examines the influence of these different media repertoires on levels of political information among Brazilians, based on an ordinal logistic regression model.

  11. Radiological impact of phosphogypsum surface application in a no-till system in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivea Maria Piccolomini Dias

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the impact of phosphogypsum application on 226Ra and 228Ra activities in the soil and on their accumulation in soybean grains. A field experiment was carried out in Paraná state, Brazil, on a loamy Typic Hapludox, under no-till system, with increasing phosphogypsum rates: 4, 8, and 12 Mg ha-1. GammA ray spectrometry was carried out using HPGe detectors with 45 and 10% relative efficiencies, for soybean grains and soil, respectively. No increment of 226Ra and 228Ra activities was observed due to the increase in phosphogypsum rates in the soil, and a small reduction was noticed in the grains. Average values found for 226Ra and 228Ra activities were 37 and 57 Bq kg-1 in the soil and 1.44 and 3.19 Bq kg-1 in soybean grains. The application of phosphogypsum for no-till soybean production is a safe practice regarding the risks of radiation damage to human health

  12. The Impact of Trampling on Reef Macrobenthos in Northeastern Brazil: How Effective are Current Conservation Strategies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Gleice S; Burgos, Douglas C; Lira, Simone M A; Schwamborn, Ralf

    2015-10-01

    Tropical reefs are used for intensive tourism in various parts of the world. However, few studies have investigated the effect of regular trampling on these fragile ecosystems. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of different conservation strategies (open access, partial protection, and total long-term closure) on intertidal reef tops in Porto de Galinhas and Tamandaré, Pernambuco State, Brazil. Analysis of the macrobenthic community was performed with photo transects and image analysis (CPCe). Twenty-seven transects were surveyed from January to August 2012, in intensively impacted (I) open-access sites, in partially protected (P) sites with occasional, illegal trampling, and in a permanently closed (C) site. In I sites, total live cover was half the cover found in adjacent P sites. The area of bare rock averaged 53.6 and 25.0% in I and P sites, respectively. In the C site, the area of bare rock was only 19.8%. In I and P sites, macroalgae (Palisada perforata) were dominating, while in the C site, the zoanthid Zoanthus sociatus was most abundant. Shell-bearing vermetids (Petaloconchus varians) and bivalves (Isognomon bicolor) were more abundant at the C site, being possible bioindicators for areas with zero or little trampling. Twelve years of total closure produced near-pristine communities in the C site, dominated by zoanthids and fragile mollusks. This study showed that trampling has severe and long-lasting consequences for the structure of these ecosystems. PMID:26070896

  13. Effect of seawater samples from a pollution impacted area in southeastern Brazil to Mysidopsis juniae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sao Sebastiao Channel, located at the coast of the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, holds the largest oil terminal in the country, besides a small harbor and an extensive touristic activity. Since 1969, when the oil terminal was installed, the area has been submitted to chronic oil pollution due to the terminal's activities and to a number of spills of different magnitudes, caused by accidents with oil tankers. Sewage disposal is another cause of impact in the area. In a research conducted in CETESB's laboratory at the marine Biology Center from University of Sao Paulo, the occurrence of lethal and sublethal effects of seawater samples from that region, on the mysid shrimp Mysidopsis juniae, was analyzed in short-term chronic toxicity tests. The water samples were collected seasonally, for 18 months, at ten stations of the channel. The test endpoints were survival, growth and fecundity. The occurrence of abnormalities was also registered. Survival and length were not significantly affected, and fecundity. The occurrence of abnormalities was also registered. Survival and length were not significantly affected, and fecundity did not reach the minimum acceptable value for controls, of 50%. Dry weight data indicated a detrimental effect of some samples. This could be caused by a lowered lipid content. Abnormalities in the uropod and telson development were observed for some treatments

  14. The Impact of Trampling on Reef Macrobenthos in Northeastern Brazil: How Effective are Current Conservation Strategies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Gleice S.; Burgos, Douglas C.; Lira, Simone M. A.; Schwamborn, Ralf

    2015-10-01

    Tropical reefs are used for intensive tourism in various parts of the world. However, few studies have investigated the effect of regular trampling on these fragile ecosystems. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of different conservation strategies (open access, partial protection, and total long-term closure) on intertidal reef tops in Porto de Galinhas and Tamandaré, Pernambuco State, Brazil. Analysis of the macrobenthic community was performed with photo transects and image analysis (CPCe). Twenty-seven transects were surveyed from January to August 2012, in intensively impacted (I) open-access sites, in partially protected (P) sites with occasional, illegal trampling, and in a permanently closed (C) site. In I sites, total live cover was half the cover found in adjacent P sites. The area of bare rock averaged 53.6 and 25.0 % in I and P sites, respectively. In the C site, the area of bare rock was only 19.8 %. In I and P sites, macroalgae ( Palisada perforata) were dominating, while in the C site, the zoanthid Zoanthus sociatus was most abundant. Shell-bearing vermetids ( Petaloconchus varians) and bivalves ( Isognomon bicolor) were more abundant at the C site, being possible bioindicators for areas with zero or little trampling. Twelve years of total closure produced near-pristine communities in the C site, dominated by zoanthids and fragile mollusks. This study showed that trampling has severe and long-lasting consequences for the structure of these ecosystems.

  15. The Impact of Global Climate Change on the Geographic Distribution and Sustainable Harvest of Hancornia speciosa Gomes (Apocynaceae) in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabout, João Carlos; Magalhães, Mara Rúbia; de Amorim Gomes, Marcos Aurélio; da Cunha, Hélida Ferreira

    2016-04-01

    The global Climate change may affect biodiversity and the functioning of ecosystems by changing the appropriate locations for the development and establishment of the species. The Hancornia speciosa, popularly called Mangaba, is a plant species that has potential commercial value and contributes to rural economic activities in Brazil. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of global climate change on the potential geographic distribution, productivity, and value of production of H. speciosa in Brazil. We used MaxEnt to estimate the potential geographic distribution of the species in current and future (2050) climate scenarios. We obtained the productivity and value of production for 74 municipalities in Brazil. Moreover, to explain the variation the productivity and value of production, we constructed 15 models based on four variables: two ecological (ecological niche model and the presence of Unity of conservation) and two socio-economic (gross domestic product and human developed index). The models were selected using Akaike Information Criteria. Our results suggest that municipalities currently harvesting H. speciosa will have lower harvest rates in the future (mainly in northeastern Brazil). The best model to explain the productivity was ecological niche model; thus, municipalities with higher productivity are inserted in regions with higher environmental suitability (indicated by niche model). Thus, in the future, the municipalities harvesting H. speciosa will produce less because there will be less suitable habitat for H. speciosa, which in turn will affect the H. speciosa harvest and the local economy.

  16. The provision of education and its impacts on college premium in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Guimarães Ferreira

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper tests the existence of causal relationship between the evolution of college-educated labor supply and the performance of the college premium in Brazil. Late college graduation causes sampling composition problem which may bias the impact of labor supply on the college premium. I estimate the impact of the relative supply of college-educated labor on wage, with and without controlling for the composition bias. In both cases, I find a relatively low elasticity of substitution between school groups. However, the estimate of the partial elasticity of substitution between age groups is crucially affected by the chosen estimation procedure.Esse artigo testa a existência de relação causal entre a evolução da oferta de trabalhadores com qualificação universitária e a performance do diferencial salarial entre trabalhadores com nível universitário e trabalhadores com nível secundário, no Brasil. Graduação tardia causa problema de composição amostral que potencialmente viesa o impacto da oferta de trabalho sobre o premio salarial. Eu estimo o impacto da oferta relativa no diferencial de salarios, com e sem controlar os efeitos da graduação tardia. Em ambos os casos, eu encontro coeficientes de elasticidade de substituição baixo entre trabalhadores qualificados e não qualificados. Contudo, o procedimento adotado afeta decisivamente conclusões sobre a elasticidade de substituição entre diferentes grupos etários.

  17. Bouguer gravity anomaly of the Moon from CE-1 topography data:Implications for the impact basin evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In this study,the terrain correction for lunar free-air gravity anomaly (FAGA) is calculated in spherical coordinates based on the global topography data detected by the laser altimeter on Chang’E-1 (CE-1). The obtained lunar Bouguer gravity anomaly (BGA) reveals density irregularities of the interior mass. BGA is important in characterizing the mascon basins. According to the BGA of the Moon,the South Pole-Aitken (SPA) basin is considered the largest mascon basin on the Moon,and the feature of BGA in the basin implies the impacting direction. Further,the mascon basins seem to be classified into two types,Type Highland and Type Plain. For the mascon basins of Type Highland the dense materials mainly come from the shallow crust,which are associated with the basalt deposits. The other type,Type Plain,includes mascon basins whose major dense materials may be located deep at the litho-sphere,corresponding to the uplifted mantle.

  18. Multilevel modeling of NPP change and impacts of water resources in the Lower Heihe River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Haiming; Zhan, Jinyan; Jiang, Qun'ou; Yuan, Yongwei; Li, Zhihui

    Net primary productivity (NPP) lays the foundation for provision of various ecosystem services, and understanding the impacts of potential influencing factors on NPP is of great significance to formulating appropriate management measures to guarantee the sustainable provision of essential ecosystem services. This study analyzed the impacts of potential influencing factors on NPP in the lower Heihe River Basin, a typical arid and semi-arid region in China. First, NPP was estimated with the C-FIX model, and then the multilevel model was used to analyze the impacts of potential influencing factors on NPP during 2000-2008. Finally decomposition analysis was used to further analyze the contribution of influencing factors to NPP change during 2000-2008. The average NPP increased by approximately 9.07% during 2000-2008, and results of the multilevel model indicate that both the socioeconomic variables and demographic variables are useful in explaining NPP change. In particular, coefficients of rainfall and evapotranspiration which represent the water availability reached 0.0456 and 0.2956, respectively. Results of decomposition analysis suggested that the water availability played an important role in increasing NPP, with a contribution rate of 44.17%, and it is necessary to carry out some policies that can promote the water use efficiency to increase NPP under the background of climate change and intensified human activities. There are some uncertainties in the results of this study, but these results still can provide valuable reference information for the water resource management to increase the ecosystem service supply in the lower Heihe River Basin.

  19. Climate Change Impacts to Water Quality in the Owens and Mono Lake Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L.; Roy, S. B.; Mills, B.; Kurkjian, R.

    2011-12-01

    This study describes work to identify potential impacts of future climate changes on water quality in the Mono and Owens Lake basins that are sources of water supply to City of Los Angeles through the Los Angeles Aqueduct (LAA) System. A watershed hydrology and water quality model (the Hydrological Simulation Program Fortran-HSPF; Bicknell et al. 1996) was adapted to the basin to evaluate the potential impacts of climate change on water quality. The water quality parameters studied in this work include temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), total suspended solids (TSS), nutrients (nitrogen as nitrate and phosphorus as ortho-phosphate), chlorophyll a, total organic carbon (TOC), and arsenic. The model was calibrated to baseline water quality data observed for the period of 1994-2004 at six major locations, including streams and reservoirs. Statistically downscaled temperature and precipitation data from six climate models were used to make future projections of water quality impacts: GFDL CM2.1, CNRM CM3, NCAR PCM1.1, CCSM3, ECHAMS/MPI-OM, and MIROC3.2, and projections developed for 2005-2099. Results from this modeling exercise indicate that by the end of the 21st century, the following changes may occur in the watershed: increases in water temperature by 1-2 oC; decreases in DO, average TSS, and arsenic; increases in nutrients, both nitrogen and phosphorus species; and minimal changes in BOD and TOC. The recommended actions of the modeling analysis include more detailed monitoring for selected parameters to provide a foundation for evaluating long term trends and relationships of flow and concentrations of key constituents such as TSS, nutrients, and arsenic that are of interest from the standpoint of drinking water supply.

  20. A conservationist approach on environmental diagnosis of ground use in the Iguatemi river basin, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v34i3.9001

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Antonio Gomes Souto

    2012-01-01

    Landscape Ecology is a contemporary approach in conservation studies in which, coupled to the development and use of GIS-based tools, provides new methods for the analysis of forest fragments. Based on these new approaches, the environmental assessment of ground use in the Iguatemi river basin Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil is provided through conservation-based flora and ecology aspects. A regional map of ground use with field-collected data using Rapid Ecological Assessment methodology an...

  1. Genetic diversity and population structure of Prochilodus costatus and Prochilodus argenteus preceding dam construction in the Paraopeba River, São Francisco River Basin, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge A. Dergam; Isabella F. Pena; Carolina C. R. Horta; Flávia F. Siqueira; Bárbara F. Magalhães; Fábio P. Arantes; Tatiana M. Barroca; Evanguedes Kalapothakis

    2012-01-01

    Curimatã-pioa (Prochilodus costatus) and curimatã-pacu (Prochilodus argenteus) are migratory fish species endemic to the São Francisco River Basin in Brazil. Both species play important roles in local fisheries and ecology in the Paraopeba River. A dam was recently constructed on this river and to help in the development and conservation programs, we characterized the genetic variation of both species before dam construction. Complex hypervariable repeats...

  2. Review of potential environmental impacts of transgenic glyphosate-resistant soybean in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdeira, Antonio L; Gazziero, Dionsio L P; Duke, Stephen O; Matallo, Marcus B; Spadotto, Claudio A

    2007-01-01

    Transgenic glyphosate-resistant soybeans (GRS) have been commercialized and grown extensively in the Western Hemisphere, including Brazil. Worldwide, several studies have shown that previous and potential effects of glyphosate on contamination of soil, water, and air are minimal, compared to those caused by the herbicides that they replace when GRS are adopted. In the USA and Argentina, the advent of glyphosate-resistant soybeans resulted in a significant shift to reduced- and no-tillage practices, thereby significantly reducing environmental degradation by agriculture. Similar shifts in tillage practiced with GRS might be expected in Brazil. Transgenes encoding glyphosate resistance in soybeans are highly unlikely to be a risk to wild plant species in Brazil. Soybean is almost completely self-pollinated and is a non-native species in Brazil, without wild relatives, making introgression of transgenes from GRS virtually impossible. Probably the highest agricultural risk in adopting GRS in Brazil is related to weed resistance. Weed species in GRS fields have shifted in Brazil to those that can more successfully withstand glyphosate or to those that avoid the time of its application. These include Chamaesyce hirta (erva-de-Santa-Luzia), Commelina benghalensis (trapoeraba), Spermacoce latifolia (erva-quente), Richardia brasiliensis (poaia-branca), and Ipomoea spp. (corda-de-viola). Four weed species, Conyza bonariensis, Conyza Canadensis (buva), Lolium multiflorum (azevem), and Euphorbia heterophylla (amendoim bravo), have evolved resistance to glyphosate in GRS in Brazil and have great potential to become problems. PMID:17562462

  3. Modeling Impact of Climate Change on Water Resources and Agriculture Demand in the Volta Basin and other Basin Systems in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnabas A. Amisigo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available An assessment of the impacts of projected climate change on water availability and crop production in the Volta Basin and the southwestern and coastal basin systems of Ghana has been undertaken as a component of the impacts and adaptation study for Ghana by UNU-WIDER and the University of Ghana. Four climate change scenarios were considered in addition to a reference (no change scenario—two dry and two wet scenarios. To conduct the analysis, a portion of a special framework using three water models was used; the framework is called the Strategic Analysis of Climate resilient Development (SACReD. First, the CliRun water balance model was used to simulate catchment runoffs using projected rainfall and temperature under the scenarios. Second, climate impacts on yields of the economically important Ghana crops were modeled using the AquaCrop software. Third, the Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP software was used for the water allocation modeling. The results show that all water demands (municipal, hydropower, and agriculture cannot be simultaneously met currently, or under any of the scenarios used, including the wet scenarios. This calls for an evaluation of groundwater as an additional source of water supply and an integrated water resources management plan in the catchments to balance demand with supply and ensure sustainable socio-economic development. In addition, the AquaCrop model forecasts negative impacts for the crop yields studied, with some crops and regions seeing larger impacts than others.

  4. Supplemental irrigation potential and impact on downstream flow of Karkheh River basin in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessari, Behzad; Bruggeman, Adriana; Akhoond-Ali, Ali Mohammad; Oweis, Theib; Abbasi, Fariborz

    2016-05-01

    Supplemental irrigation of rainfed winter crops improves and stabilises crop yield and water productivity. Although yield increases by supplemental irrigation are well established at the field level, its potential extent and impact on water resources at the basin level are less researched. This work presents a Geographic Information Systems (GIS)-based methodology for identifying areas that are potentially suitable for supplemental irrigation and a computer routine for allocating streamflow for supplemental irrigation in different sub-basins. A case study is presented for the 42 908 km2 upper Karkheh River basin (KRB) in Iran, which has 15 840 km2 of rainfed crop areas. Rainfed crop areas within 1 km from the streams, with slope classes 0-5, 0-8, 0-12, and 0-20 %, were assumed to be suitable for supplemental irrigation. Four streamflow conditions (normal, normal with environmental flow requirements, drought and drought with environmental flow) were considered for the allocation of water resources. Thirty-seven percent (5801 km2) of the rainfed croplands had slopes less than 5 %; 61 % (3559 km2) of this land was suitable for supplemental irrigation, but only 22 % (1278 km2) could be served with irrigation in both autumn (75 mm) and spring (100 mm), under normal flow conditions. If irrigation would be allocated to all suitable land with slopes up to 20 %, 2057 km2 could be irrigated. This would reduce the average annual outflow of the upper KRB by 9 %. If environmental flow requirements are considered, a maximum (0-20 % slopes) of 1444 km2 could receive supplemental irrigation. Under drought conditions a maximum of 1013 km2 could be irrigated, while the outflow would again be reduced by 9 %. Thus, the withdrawal of streamflow for supplemental irrigation has relatively little effect on the outflow of the upper KRB. However, if the main policy goal would be to improve rainfed areas throughout the upper KRB, options for storing surface water need to be developed.

  5. Impacts of Mountain Pine Beetle on Peak Flow in the Fraser Basin in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffler, C.; Rosin, K.; Weiler, M.

    2008-12-01

    Increasing winter temperature in combination with forest management practices are the main drivers for the Mountain Pine Beetle (MPB) epidemic in British Columbia (BC). The infestation of MPB has now turned into a major threat to the natural habitat of the province. The Fraser basin, the largest watershed in BC, is the most affected watershed with an infested forest area of 7.7 million hectares (88% of the watershed) [Redding and Pike 2007]. Forest cover is a key modifier of the watershed's peak flow regime. The peak flow generally increases when forest cover is reduced. Major parts of the Fraser basin have only a limited number of gauging stations (or are even ungauged). The goal of the project was to develop a hydrological model that can predict peak flow increases but does not rely on complex data inputs for its validation and calibration procedures. The model consists of two major components: climate input and runoff. The climate input component determines the mean annual snowmelt as well as the maximum rainfall based on long term climatic averages. This information is then used to determine the time and the capacity of the peak flow for every 3rd order watershed. The runoff component delineates hydrologic processes such as Hortonain Overland Flow, Saturation Overland Flow and Shallow Surface Flow. The model combines the two components and computes a map of peak flow contribution. A peak flow analysis has been carried out to validate the model results using available gauging stations in subcatchments. The validated model has been then applied to the entire watershed to analyze the impacts of MPB on peak flow in the Fraser basin. The presentation will show the conceptual presentation of the hydrological model. It will highlight the results of the peak flow analysis and show initial results of the application of the model. Cited Literature: Redding, T. and Pike, R (2007). Mountain Pine Beetle and Watershed Hydrology Workshop Summary, Streamline Watershed

  6. Biology and ecomorphology of stream fishes from the rio Mogi-Guaçu basin, Southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Katiane M. Ferreira

    2007-01-01

    The córrego Paulicéia is a direct tributary of the rio Mogi-Guaçu, located in Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, State of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. This stream runs inside a savannah-like (cerrado) environment and it associated vegetation. Biological and ecomorphological aspects of its fish community were studied in three stretches of the stream, denominated herein as the upper, middle and lower courses. The fish fauna recorded in this study consisted of 15 species, belonging to five orders an...

  7. Impact of climate change on river discharge in the Teteriv River basin (Ukraine)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didovets, Iulii; Lobanova, Anastasia; Krysanova, Valentina; Snizhko, Sergiy; Bronstert, Axel

    2016-04-01

    The problem of water resources availability in the climate change context arises now in many countries. Ukraine is characterized by a relatively low availability of water resources compared to other countries. It is the 111th among 152 countries by the amount of domestic water resources available per capita. To ensure socio-economic development of the region and to adapt to climate change, a comprehensive assessment of potential changes in qualitative and quantitative characteristics of water resources in the region is needed. The focus of our study is the Teteriv River basin located in northern Ukraine within three administrative districts covering the area of 15,300 km2. The Teteriv is the right largest tributary of the Dnipro River, which is the fourth longest river in Europe. The water resources in the region are intensively used in industry, communal infrastructure, and agriculture. This is evidenced by a large number of dams and industrial objects which have been constructed from the early 20th century. For success of the study, it was necessary to apply a comprehensive hydrological model, tested in similar natural conditions. Therefore, an eco-hydrological model SWIM with the daily time step was applied, as this model was used previously for climate impact assessment in many similar river basins on the European territory. The model was set up, calibrated and validated for the gauge Ivankiv located close to the outlet of the Teteriv River. The Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient for the calibration period is 0.79 (0.86), and percent bias is 4,9% (-3.6%) with the daily (monthly) time step. The future climate scenarios were selected from the IMPRESSIONS (Impacts and Risks from High-End Scenarios: Strategies for Innovative Solutions, www.impressions-project.eu) project, which developed 7 climate scenarios under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 based on GCMs and downscaled using RCMs. The results of climate impact assessment for the Teteriv River basin will be presented.

  8. Hydrological impact of rainwater harvesting in the Modder river basin of central South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. A. Welderufael

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Along the path of water flowing in a river basin are many water-related human interventions that modify the natural systems. Rainwater harvesting is one such intervention that involves harnessing of water in the upstream catchment. Increased water usage at upstream level is an issue of concern for downstream water availability to sustain ecosystem services. The upstream Modder River basin, located in a semi arid region in the central South Africa, is experiencing intermittent meteorological droughts causing water shortages for agriculture, livestock and domestic purpose. To address this problem a technique was developed for small scale farmers with the objective of harnessing rainwater for crop production. However, the hydrological impact of a wider adoption of this technique by farmers has not been well quantified. In this regard, the SWAT hydrological model was used to simulate the hydrological impact of such practices. The scenarios studied were: (1 Baseline scenario, based on the actual land use of 2000, which is dominated by pasture (combination of natural and some improved grass lands (PAST; (2 Partial conversion of Land use 2000 (PAST to conventional agriculture (Agri-CON; and (3 Partial conversion of Land use 2000 (PAST to in-field rainwater harvesting which was aimed at improving the precipitation use efficiency (Agri-IRWH.

    SWAT was calibrated using observed daily mean stream flow data of a sub-catchment (419 km2 in the study area. SWAT performed well in simulating the stream flow giving Nash and Sutcliffe (1970 efficiency index of 0.57 for the monthly stream flow calibration. The simulated water balance results showed that the highest peak mean monthly direct flow was obtained on Agri-CON land use (18 mm, followed by PAST (12 mm and Agri-IRWH land use (9 mm. These were 19 %, 13 % and 11 % of the mean annual rainfall, respectively. The Agri-IRWH scenario reduced direct flow by 38 % compared to Agri-CON. On the other

  9. Progress on the palynostratigraphy of the Permian strata in Rio Grande do Sul State, Paraná Basin, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    A review of published papers and results of analysis of new material have allowed improvements on the palynostratigraphy of the Permian strata of the Paraná Basin in Rio Grande do Sul State. Based on first and last occurrences of certain species of pollen taxa, two palynozones are formalized, these are the Vittatina costabilis and Lueckisporites virkkiae Interval Zones, in ascending order. The Vittatina costabilis Interval Zone is subdivided into two units, in ascending order the Protohaploxy...

  10. An Introduction to the IBMR : A Hydro-Economic Model for Climate Change Impact Assessment in Pakistan’s Indus River Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yi-Chen E.; Brown, Casey M.; Yu, Winston H.; Savitsky, Andre

    2013-01-01

    The Indus Basin Model Revised (IBMR) is a hydro-agro-economic optimization model for agricultural investment planning across Pakistan’s Indus Basin provinces. This study describes IBMR-2012, an update and modification of the model that reflects the current agro-economic conditions in Pakistan for the purpose of evaluating the impact of climate change on water allocation and food security. Results of hydro-climatic parameter sensitivity and basin-wide and provincial-level climate change impact...

  11. Tectonic-stratigraphic evolution of Espirito Santo Basin - Brazil; Evolucao tectono-estratigrafica da Bacia do Espirito Santo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Eric Zagotto; Fernandes, Flavio L.; Lobato, Gustavo; Ferreira Neto, Walter Dias [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Modelagem de Bacias (LAB2M); Petersohn, Eliane [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper documents the analysis of seismic data of the Espirito Santo basin obtained during the project realized through partnership between COPPE/UFRJ/Lab2M with the Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP) during 2006 and 2007. The major objective of the seismic data interpretation in the project was to define the main structural and stratigraphic features in order to build a sedimentation model and a tectonic-stratigraphic evolution model of the Espirito Santo basin. Thus, the sedimentary package has been divided into eight genetic units (UN), grouped into five third order stratigraphic sequences, namely: UN-B, represented by siliciclastics rocks of the rift stage and evaporitic sag-rift stage, deposited during the Aptian; UN-C, which represents the carbonatic rocks deposited in a marine environment, and siliciclastics rocks located in the proximal portions during the Albian; and UN-D, represented by sediments, composed mainly by pelites, deposited in between the Cenomanian and Recent, and includes the Eocene volcanic event, which one changed the sedimentation pattern of the basin. (author)

  12. Phylogenetic signal and major ecological shifts in the ecomorphological structure of stream fish in two river basins in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Andrés Roa-Fuentes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We tested the contribution of the phylogenetic and specific components to the ecomorphological structure of stream fish from the upper Paraguai River and upper São Francisco River basins, and identified nodes in the phylogenetic tree at which major ecological shifts occurred. Fish were sampled between June and October of 2008 in 12 streams (six in each basin. In total, 22 species from the upper Paraguai River basin and 12 from the upper São Francisco River were analyzed. The ecomorphological patterns exhibited phylogenetic signal, indicating that the ecomorphological similarity among species is associated with the degree of relatedness. A strong habitat template is most likely to be the primary cause for a high phylogenetic signal. A significant contribution from the specific component was also detected, supporting the idea that the phylogenetic signal occurs in some clades for some traits, but not in others. The major ecological shifts were observed in the basal nodes, suggesting that ecological niche differences appear to accumulate early in the evolutionary history of major clades. This finding reinforces the role of key traits in the diversification of Neotropical fishes. Ecological shifts in recent groups could be related to morphological modifications associated with habitat use.

  13. Impact of Climate Change on Groundwater Resources in the Klela Basin, Southern Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adama Toure

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Investigations of groundwater resources in order to understand aquifer system behavior are vital to the inhabitants of the Klela Basin, Mali, because groundwater is the only permanent water resource and is used for drinking water and irrigation. Due to climate change, this vital resource is being threatened. Therefore, MODFLOW was applied in this study to simulate groundwater dynamics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of climate change on groundwater resources in the Klela basin using the RCP4.5 (Representative Concentration Scenario 4.5 W/m2 climate scenario. Climatological, geological, hydrogeological, hydraulic and demographic data were collected and used as model input data. Groundwater recharge was estimated to be approximately 165.3 mm/year using the EARTH (Extended model for Aquifer Recharge and soil moisture Transport through the unsaturated Hardrock model. Recharge was then used as groundwater model input. The sandstone aquifer in the study area was simulated in steady and transient conditions. The results showed that hydraulic conductivity values varied from 1.1 to 13.9 m/day. The model was used for scenario quantification after model calibration and verification using three different piezometer data sets. The results of the simulated MODFLOW model showed a decrease in groundwater levels over time.

  14. The impact of inter-annual rainfall variability on food production in the Ganges basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siderius, Christian; Biemans, Hester; van Walsum, Paul; hellegers, Petra; van Ierland, Ekko; Kabat, Pavel

    2014-05-01

    Rainfall variability is expected to increase in the coming decades as the world warms. Especially in regions already water stressed, a higher rainfall variability will jeopardize food security. Recently, the impact of inter-annual rainfall variability has received increasing attention in regional to global analysis on water availability and food security. But the description of the dynamics behind it is still incomplete in most models. Contemporary land surface and hydrological models used for such analyses describe variability in production primarily as a function of yield, a process driven by biophysical parameters, thereby neglecting yearly variations in cropped area, a process driven largely by management decisions. Agricultural statistics for northern India show that the latter process could explain up to 40% of the observed inter-annual variation in food production in various states. We added a simple dynamic land use decision module to a land surface model (LPJmL) and analyzed to what extent this improved the estimation of variability in food production. Using this improved modelling framework we then assessed if and at which scale rainfall variability affects meeting the food self-sufficiency threshold. Early results for the Ganges Basin indicate that, while on basin level variability in crop production is still relatively low, several districts and states are highly affected (RSTD > 50%). Such insight can contribute to better recommendations on the most effective measures, at the most appropriate scale, to buffer variability in food production.

  15. Climate change impact on soil erosion in the Mandakini River Basin, North India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Deepak; Mondal, Arun; Kundu, Sananda; Mishra, Prabhash Kumar

    2016-05-01

    Correct estimation of soil loss at catchment level helps the land and water resources planners to identify priority areas for soil conservation measures. Soil erosion is one of the major hazards affected by the climate change, particularly the increasing intensity of rainfall resulted in increasing erosion, apart from other factors like landuse change. Changes in climate have an adverse effect with increasing rainfall. It has caused increasing concern for modeling the future rainfall and projecting future soil erosion. In the present study, future rainfall has been generated with the downscaling of GCM (Global Circulation Model) data of Mandakini river basin, a hilly catchment in the state of Uttarakhand, India, to obtain future impact on soil erosion within the basin. The USLE is an erosion prediction model designed to predict the long-term average annual soil loss from specific field slopes in specified landuse and management systems (i.e., crops, rangeland, and recreational areas) using remote sensing and GIS technologies. Future soil erosion has shown increasing trend due to increasing rainfall which has been generated from the statistical-based downscaling method.

  16. A Re-Examination of the Relative Ages of Mare-Filled Impact Basins on the Lunar Nearside from the Gravity Signatures of Buried Craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, A. J.; Soderblom, J. M.; Solomon, S. C.; Zuber, M. T.

    2015-05-01

    GRAIL gravity data have revealed more than 100 putative buried impact craters beneath the nearside maria. We use this population of buried craters to re-assess basin chronology and the impact crater density of the lunar nearside.

  17. Permian paleogeography of west-central Pangea: Reconstruction using sabkha-type gypsum-bearing deposits of Parnaíba Basin, Northern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrantes, Francisco R.; Nogueira, Afonso C. R.; Soares, Joelson L.

    2016-07-01

    Extreme aridity during Late Permian - Early Triassic period was the main factor for resetting the entire paleoclimate of the planet. Permian evaporite basins and lacustrine red beds were widely distributed along the supercontinent of Pangea. Sulphate deposits in Western Pangea, particularly in Northern Brazil, accumulated in an extensive playa lake system. Outcrop-based facies and stratigraphic analysis of up to 20 m thick evaporite-siliciclastic deposits reveal the predominance of laminated reddish mudstone with subordinate limestone, marl and lenses of gypsum. The succession was deposited in shallow lacustrine and inland sabkha environments associated with saline pans and mudflats. Gypsum deposits comprise six lithofacies: 1) bottom-growth gypsum, 2) nodular/micronodular gypsum, 3) mosaic gypsum, 4) fibrous/prismatic gypsum, 5) alabastrine gypsum, and 6) rosettes of gypsum. Gypsum types 1 and 2 are interpreted as primary deposition in saline pans. Bottom-growth gypsum forms grass-like crusts while nodular/micronodular gypsum indicates displacive precipitation of the crust in shallow water and the groundwater capillary zone. Types 3 and 4 are early diagenetic precipitates. Abundant inclusions of tiny lath-like anhydrite crystals suggest a primary origin of anhydrite. Alabastrine gypsum, fibrous gypsum (satinspar) and rosettes of gypsum probably derived from near-surface hydration of anhydrite. The gypsum-bearing deposits in the Parnaíba Basin contribute towards understanding paleogeographic changes in Western Pangea. A progressive uplift of East Pangea, culminated in the forced regression and retreat of epicontinental seas to the West. Restricted seas or large lakes were formed before the definitive onset of desert conditions in Pangea, leading to the development of extensive ergs.

  18. Paleoenvironmental reconstitution of Motuca and Sambaíba formations, Permian-Triassic of the Parnaíba Basin in southwest Maranhão state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Romério Abrantes Júnior

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The interval between the Late Paleozoic and Early Mesozoic was marked by paleogeographic and paleoclimatic global changes, partly attributed to catastrophic events. The intense continentalization of the supercontinent Pangaea of End-Permian propitiated the development of extensive deserts that succeeded the coastal and platform environments of Early Permian. The records of these events in northern Brazil are found in intracratonic basins, particularly in the Permo-triassic succession of the Parnaíba Basin. The facies and stratigraphic outcrops analysis of this succession allowed the individualization of 14 sedimentary facies grouped into four facies associations (FA: FA1 and FA2 related to deposits of Motuca Formation and, FA3 and FA4, representative of the base of Sambaíba Formation. The FA1 – Shallow lake/Mudflat consists of red laminated mudstone with lenses of gypsum, calcite and marl, besides lobes of sigmoidal sandstones. The FA2 – Saline pan consists of lenticular bodies of laminated gypsum, nodular gypsum and gypsarenite, overlapped by greenish mudstones with dolomite nodules and palygorskite. The FA3 – sand sheet and FA4 – dunes field are formed, respectively, for orange cream sandstones with even parallel stratification and medium- to large-scale cross-bedding. In the contact between Motuca and Sambaíba formations occurs a deformed interval, laterally continuous for hundreds of kilometers. Brecciated and contorted bedded siltstones and mudstone (Motuca Formation and sandstone with sinsedimentary faults/microfaults, convolute lamination and mud-filled injection dykes (Sambaíba Formation are interpreted as seismites triggered by high magnitude earthquakes (> 8 according Richter scale.

  19. The impact of land abandonment on species richness and abundance in the Mediterranean Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plieninger, Tobias; Hui, Cang; Gaertner, Mirijam;

    2014-01-01

    species richness and abundance in agroforestry, arable land, pastures, and permanent crops of the Mediterranean Basin. In particular, we investigated (1) which taxonomic groups (arthropods, birds, lichen, vascular plants) are more affected by land abandonment; (2) at which spatial and temporal scales...... the effect of land abandonment on species richness and abundance is pronounced; (3) whether previous land use and current protected area status affect the magnitude of changes in the number and abundance of species; and (4) how prevailing landforms and climate modify the impacts of land abandonment. After...... identifying 1240 potential studies, 154 cases from 51 studies that offered comparisons of species richness and abundance and had results relevant to our four areas of investigation were selected for meta-analysis. Results are that land abandonment showed slightly increased (effect size = 0.2109, P,0...

  20. Biogeography and comparative cytogenetics between two populations of Hoplias malabaricus (Bloch, 1794 (Ostariophysi: Erythrinidae from coastal basins in the State of Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uedson Pereira Jacobina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The species Hoplias malabaricus is a predator fish found in nearly all cis-Andean basins. From a cytogenetic point of view, this species comprises, at least, seven differentiated karyomorphs. Several localities have been formerly analyzed in Brazil, however, some regions, such as Bahia State, remain underrepresented. Recently, the Brazilian Environment Ministry classified both Itapicuru and Contas river basins (entirely located within Bahia territory as priority conservation areas, whose biodiversity status lacks enough information. Therefore, the goal of the present work was to characterize, cytogenetically, populations of H. malabaricus from both basins, by using conventional staining, Ag-NOR and C-banding techniques. All specimens presented a diploid number of 2n = 40 with metacentric/submetacentric chromosomes, without differences between sexes, thereby representing the so-called "karyomorph F". The first metacentric pair presented a remarkably larger size in relation to the other pairs. The NORs were multiple, comprising the terminal region on long arms of two chromosomal pairs in both populations. However, the C-banding pattern was somewhat distinguishable between samples. Although sharing heterochromatic blocks at centromeric region of all chromosomes, the population from Itapicuru River basin appeared to have some more conspicuous blocks than those observed in the population from Contas River basin. The similar karyotype observed in both populations suggests a common geological history between them. The present results represent an advance in the knowledge about the cytogenetic pattern of H. malabaricus populations from poorly studied basins.A espécie Hoplias malabaricus é um predador que ocorre em praticamente todas as bacias cis-andinas. Sob o ponto de vista citogenético, ela compreende, pelo menos, sete cariomorfos diferenciáveis. Várias localidades já foram previamente analisadas no Brasil, porém, algumas regiões, como o

  1. The impact of change in MSEs? regulation in municipalities in Sao Paulo state, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Chagas, Andre; Almeida, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    In 2006 was approved, in Brazil, a new regulatory framework, named General Law of Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs), regulating and expanding special conditions for MSEs - that representing more than 90% of companies in Brazil. The Law introduces differential treatment to MSEs for starting a business, reducing legal requirements, and providing differential treatment for government purchases, among others. In São Paulo state, the Law was promulgated in late 2007. About 340 municipalities (out...

  2. Impact of deforestation on local precipitation patterns over the Da River basin, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghileri, Daniela; Spartà, Daniele; Castelletti, Andrea; Boschetti, Mirco

    2014-05-01

    Change in land cover, e.g. from forest to bare soil, might severely impact the hydrological cycle at the river basin scale by altering the balance between rainfall and evaporation, ultimately affecting streamflow dynamics. These changes generally occur over decades, but they might be much more rapid in developing countries, where economic growth and growing population may cause abrupt changes in landscape and ecosystem. Detecting, analysing and modelling these changes is an essential step to design mitigation strategies and adaptation plans, balancing economic development and ecosystem protection. In this work we investigate the impact of land cover changes on the water cycle in the Da River basin, Vietnam. More precisely, the objective is to evaluate the interlink between deforestation and precipitation. The case study is particularly interesting because Vietnam is one of the world fastest growing economies and natural resources have been considerably exploited to support after-war development. Vietnam has the second highest rate of deforestation of primary forests in the world, second to only Nigeria (FAO 2005), with associated problems like abrupt change in run-off, erosion, sediment transport and flash floods. We performed land cover evaluation by combining literature information and Remote Sensing techniques, using Landsat images. We then analysed time series of precipitation observed on the period 1960-2011 in several stations located in the catchment area. We used multiple trend detection techniques, both state-of-the-art (e.g., Linear regression and Mann-Kendall) and novel trend detection techniques (Moving Average on Shifting Horizon), to investigate trends in seasonal pattern of precipitation. Results suggest that deforestation may induce a negative trend in the precipitation volume. The effect is mainly recognizable at the beginning and at the end of the monsoon season, when the local mechanisms of precipitation formation prevail over the large scale

  3. Impacts of projected global warming: A research proposal for the Mackenzie basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the Government of Canada's Green Plan, an assessment of the impacts of global warming scenarios in the Mackenzie Basin is being initiated by the Canadian Climate Centre (CCC). These scenarios include outputs from General Circulation Models, such as the new one produced by CCC, as well as arbitrary and other climate scenarios where possible. Hydrology, permafrost and other first-order physical impacts will be investigated. These will be linked to second-order biological studies describing impacts on vegetation, fire potential, terrestrial and freshwater wildlife. Third-order socioeconomic studies will consider activities of the native and non-native communities in the region, including energy, transportation, tourism and subsistence. An additional set of integration tasks will also be undertaken. Some of these and other issues will not easily lend themselves to quantitative investigation. The authors ability to address these challenges will depend on the quality of researchers that would be willing to participate in this exercise. A multidisciplinary team is being established, utilizing the expertise and cooperation of many government and non-government entities with long-term interests in the Mackenzie. Information from ongoing programs will be combined with commissioned research. Most of the study tasks should begin during 1991, with the main study report due in 1996

  4. Uncertainties in assessing climate change impacts on the hydrology of Mediterranean basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Ralf

    2013-04-01

    There is substantial evidence in historical and recent observations that the Mediterranean and neighboring regions are especially vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. Numerous climate projections, stemming from ensembles of global and regional climate models, agree on severe changes in the climate forcing which are likely to exacerbate subsequent ecological, economic and social impacts. Many of these causal connections are closely linked to the general expectation that water availability will decline in the already water-stressed basins of Africa, the Mediterranean region and the Near East, even though considerable regional variances must be expected. Consequently, climate change impacts on water resources are raising concerns regarding their possible management and security implications. Decreasing access to water resources and other related factors could be a cause or a 'multiplier' of tensions within and between countries. Whether security threats arise from climate impacts or options for cooperation evolve does not depend only on the severity of the impacts themselves, but on social, economic, and institutional vulnerabilities or resilience as well as factors that influence local, national and international relations. However, an assessment of vulnerability and risks hinges on natural, socio-economic, and political conditions and responses, all of which are uncertain. Multidisciplinary research is needed to tackle the multi-facet complexity of climate change impacts on water resources in the Mediterranean and neighboring countries. This is particularly true in a region of overall data scarcity and poor data management and exchange structures. The current potential to develop appropriate regional adaptation measures towards climate change impacts suffers heavily from large uncertainties. These spread along a long chain of components, starting from the definition of emission scenarios to global and regional climate modeling to impact models and a

  5. Air pollution and its impacts on health in Vitoria, Espirito Santo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Clarice Umbelino; de Leon, Antonio Ponce; Juger, Washington; Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the impact of air pollution on respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity of children and adults in the city of Vitoria, state of Espirito Santo. METHODS A study was carried out using time-series models via Poisson regression from hospitalization and pollutant data in Vitoria, ES, Southeastern Brazil, from 2001 to 2006. Fine particulate matter (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and ozone (O3) were tested as independent variables in simple and cumulative lags of up to five days. Temperature, humidity and variables indicating weekdays and city holidays were added as control variables in the models. RESULTS For each increment of 10 µg/m3 of the pollutants PM10, SO2, and O3, the percentage of relative risk (%RR) for hospitalizations due to total respiratory diseases increased 9.67 (95%CI 11.84-7.54), 6.98 (95%CI 9.98-4.17) and 1.93 (95%CI 2.95-0.93), respectively. We found %RR = 6.60 (95%CI 9.53-3.75), %RR = 5.19 (95%CI 9.01-1.5), and %RR = 3.68 (95%CI 5.07-2.31) for respiratory diseases in children under the age of five years for PM10, SO2, and O3, respectively. Cardiovascular diseases showed a significant relationship with O3, with %RR = 2.11 (95%CI 3.18-1.06). CONCLUSIONS Respiratory diseases presented a stronger and more consistent relationship with the pollutants researched in Vitoria. A better dose-response relationship was observed when using cumulative lags in polynomial distributed lag models. PMID:26982960

  6. The Impact of Cardiac Diseases during Pregnancy on Severe Maternal Morbidity and Mortality in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe F Campanharo

    Full Text Available To evaluate maternal heart disease as a cause or complicating factor for severe morbidity in the setting of the Brazilian Network for Surveillance of Severe Maternal Morbidity.Secondary data analysis of this multicenter cross-sectional study was implemented in 27 referral obstetric units in Brazil. From July 2009 to June 2010, a prospective surveillance was conducted among all delivery hospitalizations to identify cases of severe maternal morbidity (SMM, including Potentially Life-Threatening Conditions (PLTC and Maternal Near Miss (MNM, using the new criteria established by the WHO. The variables studied included: sociodemographic characteristics, clinical and obstetric history of the women; perinatal outcome and the occurrence of maternal outcomes (PLTC, MNM, MD between groups of cardiac and non-cardiac patients. Only heart conditions with hemodynamic impact characterizing severity of maternal morbidity were considered. 9555 women were included in the Network with severe pregnancy-related complications: 770 maternal near miss cases and 140 maternal death cases. A total of 293 (3.6% cases were related to heart disease and the condition was known before pregnancy in 82.6% of cases. Maternal near miss occurred in 15% of cardiac disease patients (most due to clinical-surgical causes, p<0.001 and 7.7% of non-cardiac patients (hemorrhagic and hypertensive causes, p<0.001. Maternal death occurred in 4.8% of cardiac patients and in 1.2% of non-cardiac patients, respectively.In this study, heart disease was significantly associated with a higher occurrence of severe maternal outcomes, including maternal death and maternal near miss, among women presenting with any severe maternal morbidity.

  7. Win-wins in NTFP market chains? How governance impacts the sustainability of livelihoods based on Congo Basin forest products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingram, V.J.

    2012-01-01

    Exploring the interrelationships between governance, poverty alleviation and sustainability impacts in the framework of market chains for non-timber forest products originating from the Congo Basin. The research focuses on how governance arrangements help or hinder access to forest resources and the

  8. A Very Large Population of Likely Buried Impact Basins in the Northern Lowlands of Mars Revealed by MOLA Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, H. V.; Shockey, K. M.; Frey, E. L.; Roark, J. H.; Sakimoto, S. E. H.

    2001-01-01

    High resolution Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data have revealed a large number of subdued quasi-circular depressions (QCDs) >50 km diameter in the northern lowlands of Mars which are generally not visible in Viking imagery and which may be buried ancient impact basins. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  9. Concentrations of heavy metals in river sediments of the Canes River Basin, the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research about chimism in the Bengalas river basin was performed as a part of the environmental study project developed in the area, encompassing several knowledge fields. Among these, Environmental Geochemistry played an important role. This work presents the results related to heavy metals in stream sediments, indicating its origins (natural or anthropic) and its availability for aquatic biota. The basin under study has 135.07 Km2, laying in the oriental portion of the Teresópolis country, 100 Km far from the of Rio de Janeiro city. The rivers forming the Bengalas basin cut Pre-Cambrian terrain, formed by Orthognaiss takes 70% of the area, post-tectonic granite(20%), migmatite gneiss (10%) and gabro dikes. The methodology used was the determination of the content of heavy metals through sequencial extraction technique, consisting in the selective remove of metals in the geochemical fractions found in the sediments, cation exchange (bioavailable), carbonaceous, reducible and organic (potentially bioavailable) and residual (non available).The analyze of the results showed that iron was present in all sequential phases and predominated in the residual phase The same behavior was verified for zinc and copper. Manganese had the best distribution through the fractions due to its redox character, allowing bigger solubility and transportation; it appeared in the exchange, residual, organic and carbonaceous phases. Cadmium was found only in the carbonaceous phase, confirming its geochemical tendency. Chrome, on the other hand, was present in the residual and organic phase, while lead was found in the residual and carbonaceous phase

  10. Isotopic composition of precipitations in Brazil: isothermic models and the influence of evapotranspiration in the Amazonic Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The simplest theoretical models of the isotopic fractionation of water during equilibrium isothermical processes are analized in detail. The theoretical results are applied to the interpretation of the stable isotope concentrations in the precipitations of 11 Brazilian cities that belong to the international network of IAEA/WMO. The analysis shows that the experimental data are fairly consistent with such equilibrium models; no non-equilibrium processes need to be assumed. The study of the stable isotope content of precipitations in the Amazonic Basin suggests some modifications to the models in order that the evapotranspiration contribution to the vapour balance be taken into account

  11. Re-Evaluating the Geophysical Evidence for a Procellarum Impact Basin on the Lunar Nearside

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews-Hanna, J. C.

    2016-05-01

    Geophysical evidence does not support the existence of a Procellarum basin. The thin crust is a result of primordial long-wavelength variations. Topography data reveals no evidence for a basin rim. Gravity reveals magmatic-tectonic structures.

  12. A new side-neck turtle (Pelomedusoides: Bothremydidae) from the Early Paleocene (Danian) Maria Farinha Formation, Paraíba Basin, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Anny Rafaela De Araújo; Ghilardi, Aline Marcele; Barreto, Alcina Magnólia Franca

    2016-01-01

    Limestone and marl from Maria Farinha Formation (Paraíba Basin, NE Brazil) accumulated in a shallow continental shelf environment during the expansion of the Atlantic Ocean in early Paleocene (Danian). It contains a rich paleontological record, which comprises many marine invertebrates, several species of bony and cartilaginous fishes, a crocodyliform and turtle remains. Here, we describe a new genus and species of pleurodire turtle from Maria Farinha Formation, based on a nearly complete plastron, an incomplete left pelvic girdle, and four dermal plates of the carapace. We tested the phylogenetic position of Inaechelys pernambucensis gen. et sp. nov. by including it in a comprehensive cladistic analysis of pleurodires. The new species is included within Botrhemydidae, with affinities to Bothremydini, positioned as sister group of Rosasia soutoi. Inaechelys pernambucensis gen. et sp. nov. differs from R. soutoi for the almost straight anterior lobe cranial edge of its plastron, as well as for its pentagonal shaped entoplastron and its abdominal shield midline, which is considerably smaller than the respective femoral shield midline. Inaechelys pernambucensis is the first turtle species formally described from Brazilian Paleocene strata. Within Bothremydidae, it is also the first conclusively fully marine species described for this country. This new record contributes to the understanding of the ecology and paleobiogeographical distribution of Bothremydidae family. PMID:27395602

  13. Evidence of Neoproterozoic back arc basin development in the Central Ribeira Belt, southeastern Brazil: new geochronological and geochemical constraints from the Sao Roque - Acungui Groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ribeira Belt (RB) of southeastern Brazil represents an important manifestation of the Brasiliano Orogeny formed during the assembly of West Gondwana. Contemporaneous sedimentation and volcanism within the RB provide a basis for helping understand its tectonic evolution and paleogeography. U-Pb monazite data from the basal metavolcanic rocks of the Sao Roque Group indicate a crystallization age of 628 Ma and the upper sequence is cut by a 605 Ma (U-Pb zircon) rhyolite intrusion. Zircon and monazite analyses of metavolcanic (mafic) rocks and from metagabbros of the lower Acungui supergroup yield crystallization ages of 614 and 617 ma, respectively. This supergroup is intruded by a 607 ma granite. Geochemical signatures of basal mafic units in both sequences are characteristic of E-MORB subalkaline tholeitic basaltic rocks. Nd isotopic signatures of the metamafic rocks indicate that they were derived in part from the asthenospheric mantle (consistent with emplacement in an extensional setting), whereas the felsic bodies appear to have come from the melting of paleoproterozoic lithosphere. The paleogeographic reconstruction of part of the RB suggests that the Sao Roque/Acungui groups represent extensional sequences, with features of backarc basins, which evolved during the syn-collisional phase of the Brasiliano Orogeny. These data support the hypothesis that we have a rapid evolution (10-20 ma) between extensional and compressional tectonics during the geological history of the Sao Roque/Acungui Backarc. (author)

  14. Palynological and sedimentary analysis of the Igarapé Ipiranga and Querru 1 outcrops of the Itapecuru Formation (Lower Cretaceous, Parnaíba Basin), Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Neila N.; Ferreira, Elizabete P.; Ramos, Renato R. C.; Carvalho, Ismar S.

    2016-03-01

    The siliciclastic sediments of the Itapecuru Formation occur in a large area of the Parnaíba Basin and its deposits crop out along the Itapecuru River, in Maranhão State, northern Brazil. The palynological analysis of the Igarapé Ipiranga and Querru 1 outcrops strata yields a rich and diversified data. The presence of index-palynofloras in assemblages allows the identification of the Complicatisaccus cearensis Zone, of Late Aptian-Early Albian age. Terrestrial palynomorphs are abundant in the assemblages, being represented by bryophytes and pteridophytes, especially perisporate trilete spores (Crybelosporites and Perotrilites), and gymnosperms and angiosperms (Afropollis and Elaterosporites). The composition of palynological assemblages suggests the presence of moist soils for both outcrops. Acritarchs were recovered in the Querru 1 outcrop, which suggest a marine setting supporting a tidal flat environment indicated by facies associations. Furthermore, reworked Paleozoic palynomorphs were observed in the Querru 1 outcrop. The microflora from Igarapé Ipiranga outcrop suggests terrestrial environment corroborating with floodplain environment indicated by facies association.

  15. Diametric structure of the shrub and tree vegetation around the headwaters in the Piauitinga River drainage basin, Salgado – Sergipe, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ednei Santos de Almeida

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in order to analyze the diametric structure of the ciliary vegetation in headwaters in the Piauitinga River drainage basin, located at the town of Salgado, Sergipe, Brazil. One analyzed 14 headwaters, using a classification with regard to the conservation status and the type of reservoir, being divided into 4 categories: 1 punctual preserved (PPr, 1 punctual disturbed (PD, 6 punctual degraded (PD, and 6 diffuse degraded (DD. The survey was conducted through a population census of vegetation in a 50 m radius around the headwaters, equivalent to 0.79 ha, where one recorded all living shrub and tree individuals with diameter at breast height (DBH ≥ 5.0 cm. The individuals were distributed into diametric classes, at 2.5 cm intervals. The punctual preserved and the punctual disturbed headwaters showed a diametric structure characteristic of heterogeneous forests, with an “inverted J” shape. The diffuse and punctual degraded headwaters didn’t show the “inverted J” pattern, except for DD2, perhaps reflecting the higher numberof individuals in this headwater. The intense disturbance generated in the headwater areas, which are currently degraded, promoted the impoverishment of natural regeneration and, as a result, compromised the recruitment of individuals in the early diameter grades.

  16. REPRODUCTIVE CYCLE OF Leporinus copelandii (Pisces: Anostomidae FEMALES FROM THE LOWER PARAÍBA DO SUL RIVER BASIN, RJ – BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Ribeiro Costa Erthal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study were investigate the reproductive biology of the fish Leporinus copelandii, a specie at risk of extinction in the lower Paraíba do Sul River basin. During a period of 14 months, a total of 143 females of red-piau were captured, between Itaocara and Campos dos Goytacazes cities (RJ, Brazil. A histological study shows four stages of the oocyte development (I, II, III and IV and five stages of the reproductive cycle of females: rest (1, initial maturation (2A, intermediary (2B, advanced (2C and spawned (4 were identified. The pattern of L. copelandii oocyte development suggests development type synchronous in two groups, characterizing total spawning. Spawned females were captured in November, two months after the peak of frequency of competent females for reproduction. Histologically, a little occurrence of empty follicles was observed in spawned females. The medium diameter of the type IV oocyte of the spawned females (1475.1 ± 884.3mm was significantly larger (Tukey, P <0.001; VC = 41.73%; n = 259 than advanced maturation females (1202.6 ± 245.3mm, what allows suggesting that the study place probably doesn't represent the reproductive area of L. copelandii.

  17. NAA: metals in surface waters, margin sediments, forage and cattle hair in flood plains of the Rio Doce basin, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metals are toxic and can cause damage to human health when they accumulate in the food chain. The aim of this study was to determine Al, As, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Th, Ti, U, V and Zn in different samples: surface waters, margin sediments, forages and cattle hairs in the region of the Rio Doce basin. The metals were analyzed by Neutron Activation Analysis - NAA at the Centre for Development of Nuclear Technology of the National Commission of Nuclear Energy - CDTN / CNEN. The sampling sites were taken at two points: P1- (Pingo D'agua - city, Ponte Queimada, in a no industrial area) and P2 - (Santana do Paraiso city, industrial and pasture areas, subject to frequent floods). The samples were collected in different seasons: July 2009 (dry season - winter) and February 2010 (rainy season - summer). These points were strategically chosen because P1 is located into the Parque Estadual do Rio Doce, considered a no industrial pollution region. Contrariwise, P2 is located in a region of high concentration of industries. In (P2) the Doce River receives its most polluted affluent upstream the Piracicaba River which is charged of several pollutants of industries of Steel Valley region, Brazil. In general, the results showed higher concentrations of the elements in P2 riverside area of livestock production and subject to flood. (author)

  18. Bryophyte and pteridophyte spores and other palynomorphs in quaternary marine sediments from Campos Basin, southeastern Brazil: Core BU-91-GL-05

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Gonçalves de Freitas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents morphological descriptions and ecological data of cryptogam spores and other non-pollen palynomorphs from Quaternary sediments of Campos Basin, Rio de Janeiro, SE Brazil. The ages were derived from biostratigraphy of planktonic foraminifers and two radiocarbon dates, and suggest that sediment deposition started in the last 140,000 years BP. Thirty different types of palynomorphs were identified, described, and photographed: two bryophyte spores (sensu lato; 21 pteridophyte spores; four freshwater microalgae; onePseudoschizaea; and two microfungi. Some of the identified spores (Sphagnum, Blechnum, Cyatheaceae, Dennstaedtiaceae, Lycopodiella, Microgramma, Polypodium, Acrostichum, Pityrogramma, and Lygodium are related to the modern flora found on the northern coast of Rio de Janeiro State, at the Restinga of Jurubatiba, from vegetation types such as shrub swamp/coastal swamp formation, seasonally flooded forest, Clusia and Ericaceae woods, and disturbed vegetation. The freshwater microalgae and the microfungi are also presently recorded from the coastal lagoons of this region. The high spore concentration in slope sediments reflects the intense terrigenous influx, caused by a relative low sealevel during glacial stages. Palynological analysis suggests the presence of taxa from flooded forests and humid areas in the coastal plain during glacial and interglacial stages of the Late Pleistocene.

  19. Evidence of the color pattern variation in populations of Gymnotus pantanal (Gymnotiformes from three streams in the upper Paraná River basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor André Frana

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Color pattern is an important character in the systematics and alpha-taxonomy of electric fishes of the genus Gymnotus. This paper presents evidence of color variation in populations of G. pantanal found in the streams Jacutinga and Pinheirinho, in the upper Paraná River basin, southern Brazil. Color variations were corroborated for morphological and cytogenetic data. Our results show the importance of integrating morphologic and cytogenetic data in the taxonomy of the Gymnotus species.O padrão de colorido é um caráter muito importante na sistemática e alfa taxonomia de espécies do gênero Gymnotus. O objetivo deste trabalho foi apresentar evidências de variação no padrão de colorido em populações locais de Gymnotus pantanal encontrados nos córregos Jacutinga e Pinheirinho, bacia do alto rio Paraná, sul do Brasil. A variação no padrão de colorido foi corroborada por dados morfológicos e citogenéticos. Nossos resultados demonstram a importância da integração de dados morfológicos e citogenéticos na taxonomia de espécies de Gymnotus.

  20. Distribution of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in soils and sugar cane crops at Corumbatai river basin, Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The common use of phosphate fertilizers NPK and amendments in sugar cane crops in Brazilian agriculture may increase the 226Ra, 232Th and 40K activity concentrations in soils and their availability for plants and human food chain. Thus, the main aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in soils and sugar cane crops in the Corumbatai river basin, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. The gamma spectrometry was utilized to measure the 226Ra, 232Th and 40K activity concentration in all samples. The soil-to-sugar cane transfer factors (TF) were quantified using the ratio between the radionuclide activity concentration in sugar cane and its activity concentration in soil. The results show that, although radionuclides incorporated in phosphate fertilizers and amendments are annually added in the sugar cane crops, if utilized in accordance with the recommended rates, their use does not lead to hazards levels in soils. The soil-to-sugar cane transfer of radionuclides occurred in the following order 40K>226Ra>232Th. Therefore, under these conditions, radionuclides intake through consumption of sugar is not hazardous to human health.

  1. The impact of hydroelectricity development on natural flow discharge and total suspended sediment in the Huong River basin, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, T. B.; Sharif, H. O.

    2012-12-01

    This study aims to evaluate the impact of hydroelectricity dams on discharge and TSS (Total Suspended Sediment) concentration of the Huong River basin in Vietnam. The study is based on the simulation of the SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model using the TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) 3B42 and APHRODITE Water Resources (Asian Precipitation - Highly-Resolved Observation Data Integration Towards Evaluation of Water Resources) V1003R1 Monsoon Asia rainfall products. Study period is eight years, from January, 2003 to December, 2010. A sub-basin upstream of the Huong River basin that receives zero impact from the hydroelectricity dams is used to calibrate the model. Calibrated model for discharge and TSS simulation is then applied for another major sub-basin and the whole Huong River basin. Preliminary results indicate acceptable correlation coefficients between simulated and observed data (R2 ~ 0.5 - 0.7). Results also show that the operation of a hydroelectricity dam in 2010 has significantly decreased 80% - 85% of Huong River discharge during the rainy season of 2010. TSS concentration is also affected by the presence of the dam, but not clearly demonstrated in study results because other factors such as sand and gravel exploitation is also major in adjusting TSS.

  2. Fish fauna in Iberian Mediterranean river basins: biodiversity, introduced species and damming impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Clavero, Miguel; Blanco-Garrido, F.; Prenda, J.

    2004-01-01

    1. A basin approximation was used to analyse distribution patterns of different components of biodiversity (taxonomic richness, endemicity, taxonomic singularity, rarity) and conservation status of freshwater fish fauna in 27 Mediterranean Iberian rivers. 2. Basin area alone explained more than 80% of variation in native species richness. Larger basins featured not only a higher number of native species, but also more endemic and rare species and fewer diversified genera than smaller basins. ...

  3. Business strategy: Obstacles to the consolidation of Digital TV in Brazil and its impact on electronics supply chain from the stakeholder theory view

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Bazanini; Hewdy Lobo Ribeiro; Homero Leoni Bazanini

    2014-01-01

    With the introduction of digital TV in Brazil on December 2, 2007, the managers of the electronics industry, of course, waiting for impacts in the supply chain due to the promise of strong eating of the market. According with exploratory research, qualitative and in-depth interview with the executives of the electronics industry, the research objectivist diagnose the obstacles to consolidation of digital TV in Brazil and its possible strategic changes with the emergence of a new scenario resu...

  4. Temporal characterization of Arsenic in das Velhas River hydrographic basin waters, MG, Brazil for one decade (1998 - 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Maria Diniz Leão

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic, a metalloid with wide distribution in nature, can be found in natural environments in the forms of high toxicity. Monitoring conducted in the Basin of the das Velhas River, MG, demonstrates the occurrence of this metal in all sampling stations distributed over the water course and main tributaries. Thus, this study aims to evaluate the time trends of concentration of arsenic in water courses of the basin of das Velhas River, considering the data of twenty-nine monitoring stations from 1998 to 2007. The tests included the verification of seasonality, autocorrelation and temporal trend with the non-parametric tests of Mann-Kendall and Mann-Kendall seasonal. Eight sampling stations showed seasonality, with higher concentrations observed in rainy season. The autocorrelation was virtually nonexistent, which may be associated with low sample found in a monitoring program (three to six months. Only seven monitoring stations showed significant negative trend, indicating a reduction in the concentration of arsenic over the period studied. The results showed that the time trend studies have great relevance for the management of pollution of water resources from tracking data, providing subsidies for preventive and corrective measures differentiated between the stations and sampling periods of the year and also be used in evaluation of the effectiveness of these measures.

  5. Hydrological Impacts of Land Use Change and Climate Variability in the Headwater Region of the Heihe River Basin, Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Nan, Zhuotong; Xu, Yi; Li, Shuo

    2016-01-01

    Land use change and climate variability are two key factors impacting watershed hydrology, which is strongly related to the availability of water resources and the sustainability of local ecosystems. This study assessed separate and combined hydrological impacts of land use change and climate variability in the headwater region of a typical arid inland river basin, known as the Heihe River Basin, northwest China, in the recent past (1995–2014) and near future (2015–2024), by combining two land use models (i.e., Markov chain model and Dyna-CLUE) with a hydrological model (i.e., SWAT). The potential impacts in the near future were explored using projected land use patterns and hypothetical climate scenarios established on the basis of analyzing long-term climatic observations. Land use changes in the recent past are dominated by the expansion of grassland and a decrease in farmland; meanwhile the climate develops with a wetting and warming trend. Land use changes in this period induce slight reductions in surface runoff, groundwater discharge and streamflow whereas climate changes produce pronounced increases in them. The joint hydrological impacts are similar to those solely induced by climate changes. Spatially, both the effects of land use change and climate variability vary with the sub-basin. The influences of land use changes are more identifiable in some sub-basins, compared with the basin-wide impacts. In the near future, climate changes tend to affect the hydrological regimes much more prominently than land use changes, leading to significant increases in all hydrological components. Nevertheless, the role of land use change should not be overlooked, especially if the climate becomes drier in the future, as in this case it may magnify the hydrological responses. PMID:27348224

  6. Multi-Model CIMP5 projected impacts of increased greenhouse gases on the Niger basin and implications for hydropower production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyerinde, Ganiyu; Wisser, Dominik

    2014-05-01

    Climate change could potentially have large impacts on water availability in West Africa and the predictions are accrued with high uncertainties in this region. Countries in the Niger River basin (West Africa) plan the investment of 200 million in the installation of an additional 400MW of hydropower in the nearest future, adding to the existing 685MW. With the impacts of climate change in the basin already occurring, there is a need for comprehending the influence of future hydro-climatic changes on water resources and hydro-power generation in the basin. This study uses a hydrological model to simulate river flow under present and future conditions and evaluates the impacts of potential changes on electricity production of the largest hydroelectric dam (Kainji) in the Niger Basin. The Kainji reservoir produces 25 per cent of the current energy needs of Nigeria and was subject to large fluctuations in energy production as a result of variable inflow and operational reasons. Inflow into the reservoir was simulated using hydroclimatic data from a set of 7 regional climate models (RCM) with two emission scenarios from the CORDEX-Africa regional downscaling experiment, driven with CMIP5 data. Based on observations of inflow, water level in the reservoir, and energy production we developed a simple hydroelectricity production model to simulate future energy production for the reservoir. Results suggest increases in river flow for the majority of RCM data as a result of increases in precipitation in the headwaters of the basin around 2050 and slightly decreasing trends for low emission scenarios by the end of the century. Despite this consistent increase, shifts in timing of river flow can challenge the reliable production of energy. This analysis could help assess the planning of hydropower schemes in the basin for a sustainable production of hydroelectricity in the future.

  7. Mixed carbonate-siliciclastic sedimentation in forebulge grabens: An example from the Ediacaran Bambuí Group, São Francisco Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Humberto L. S.; Suss, João F.

    2016-06-01

    Mixed carbonate-siliciclastic successions have been described in multiple Phanerozoic sedimentary settings recording the dynamic interplay of tectonics, eustasy, climate, in situ carbonate production, and variations in siliciclastic sediment supply. The Ediacaran Bambuí 1st-order sequence (i.e., Bambuí Group) covers most of the intracratonic São Francisco basin (southeast Brazil) and encompasses thick packages of carbonate and fine- to coarse-grained siliciclastic strata. Recording a marine foreland basin stage that developed in the São Francisco plate during the Neoproterozoic-early Paleozoic West Gondwana assembly, the Ediacaran deposits unconformably overlie Archean-Paleoproterozoic metamorphic assemblages of the Sete Lagoas basement high and fill a series of kilometer-long grabens in the southern São Francisco basin. Seismic data reveal that these troughs developed through the extensional reactivation of ancient basement structures along with the tectonically driven forebulge uplift of the Sete Lagoas high, in the early evolutionary stages of the Bambuí basin cycle. Based on the detailed description of continuous drill cores of a well recently drilled during hydrocarbon exploration campaigns, we recognized two transgressive-regressive 2nd-order sequences preserved within one of the focused grabens: (i) Sequence 1 includes the glaciogenic deposits of the basal Carrancas Formation that grade upward into the carbonate ramp successions of the Sete Lagoas Formation; (ii) Sequence 2 contains the siliciclastic-dominated and deep water to deltaic strata of the Serra de Santa Helena Formation and passes upward into peritidal carbonates of the Lagoa do Jacaré Formation. These sedimentary successions encompass suites of retrogradational, aggradational, and progradational lower-rank cycles and are bounded by erosional surfaces. Regional seismic interpretation, well data, and the available literature indicate that most of these deposits and their correlatives are

  8. ASSESSMENT OF THE POTENTIAL IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE UPON SURFACE WATER RESOURCES IN THE PRAHOVA RIVER BASIN

    OpenAIRE

    M. RETEGAN

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present research is the determination of the impact of possible climatic changes in the 21st century upon surface water resources in the Prahova river basin using the WatBal model (a mathematical-hydrological water-balance model). The analyzed river basin covers an area of 3682 km² and is located outside the curvature of the Carpathian Mountains, in an area where the altitude varies between 60 m and 2500 m. In accordance with the altitude, the annual precipitation varies from a...

  9. Qualitative evaluation of environmental radiological impact in a phosphate associated uranium conventional mine: Santa Quiteria Project, CE, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to identify and evaluate qualitatively the main potential sources of mineral and installation terms of Santa Quiteria, CE, Brazil, evaluating their possible impacts on the environment. The key terms sources in the production of phosphoric acid are usually: the dig of the mines, tailings dams and phospho plaster stack. Thus, this work intends to inform the academic community about this issue, as well as the population in general and also, acting proactively in order to warn about the possible environmental impacts, so that actions to compensate, minimize or avoid these radiological impacts on the environment, can be included in the planning of the industrial mineral project of Santa Quiteria (author)

  10. Melo carboniferous basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is about of the Melo carboniferous basin which limits are: in the South the large and high Tupambae hill, in the west the Paraiso hill and the river mountains, in the North Yaguaron river basin to Candidata in Rio Grande del Sur in Brazil.

  11. Assessment of the impact of energy-efficient household appliances on the electricity consumption in the residential sector of Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morishita, Claudia; Ghisi, Enedir

    2010-09-15

    In many countries the residential sector accounts for about 20.0% of the electricity consumption, which increases the concern about energy savings. The main objective of this paper is to assess the impact of energy-efficient household appliances on the electricity consumption of the Brazilian residential sector by using electricity end-use data. The consumption of each appliance is obtained based on official data from existing studies, being estimated for a dwelling and for the whole residential sector. Results indicate that the potential for energy savings by replacing existing appliances with energy-efficient household appliances would be 29.5% in the residential sector of Brazil.

  12. Impact of climate change on hydrological behaviour and crop production in a glacial river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remesan, Renji; Holman, Ian; Janes, Victoria

    2015-04-01

    Himalayan valleys are confronting severe climate change related issues (flash flood and landslides, water scarcity in higher altitudes) because of fluctuating monsoon precipitation and increasing seasonal temperatures. In this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model has been applied to the River Beas basin, using daily Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation and NCEP Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) meteorological data to simulate the river regime and crop yields. The Beas is regionally significant as it holds two giant dams, one which annually diverts 4700 Mm3 of water to a nearby basin. We have applied Sequential Uncertainty Fitting Ver. 2 (SUFI-2) to quantify the parameter uncertainty of the stream flow modelling. The model evaluation statistics for Daily River flows at the Jwalamukhi and Pong gauges show good agreement with measured flows (Nash Sutcliffe efficiency of 0.70 and PBIAS of 7.54 %). We then applied the models within a scenario-neutral framework to develop hydrological and crop yield Impact Response Surfaces (IRS) for future changes in annual temperature and precipitation for the region from AR5. Future Q10 and Q90 daily flows indicate amplified 'flash flood' situations and increased low flows, respectively, with increasing temperatures due to increased snowmelt from retreating glaciers. Under existing crop and irrigation management practices, the IRS show decreasing and increasing crop yields for summer (monsoon) and winter (post monsoon) crops, respectively, with rising temperature. The sensitivity of winter (post monsoon) crop yields to precipitation increases with increasing temperature. The paper will consider the implications of the research for future agricultural water management and the potential of agronomic and irrigation adaptation to offset yield losses

  13. Impacts of biofuels production alternatives on water quantity and quality in the Iowa River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y.; Liu, S.

    2012-01-01

    Corn stover as well as perennial grasses like switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and miscanthus are being considered as candidates for the second generation biofuel feedstocks. However, the challenges to biofuel development are its effects on the environment, especially water quality. This study evaluates the long-term impacts of biofuel production alternatives (e.g., elevated corn stover removal rates and the potential land cover change) on an ecosystem with a focus on biomass production, soil erosion, water quantity and quality, and soil nitrate nitrogen concentration at the watershed scale. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was modified for setting land cover change scenarios and applied to the Iowa River Basin (a tributary of the Upper Mississippi River Basin). Results show that biomass production can be sustained with an increased stover removal rate as long as the crop demand for nutrients is met with appropriate fertilization. Although a drastic increase (4.7–70.6%) in sediment yield due to erosion and a slight decrease (1.2–3.2%) in water yield were estimated with the stover removal rate ranging between 40% and 100%, the nitrate nitrogen load declined about 6–10.1%. In comparison to growing corn, growing either switchgrass or miscanthus can reduce sediment erosion greatly. However, land cover changes from native grass to switchgrass or miscanthus would lead to a decrease in water yield and an increase in nitrate nitrogen load. In contrast to growing switchgrass, growing miscanthus is more productive in generating biomass, but its higher water demand may reduce water availability in the study area.

  14. Impact of state updating and multi-parametric ensemble for streamflow hindcasting in European river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, S. J.; Rakovec, O.; Kumar, R.; Samaniego, L. E.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate and reliable streamflow prediction is essential to mitigate social and economic damage coming from water-related disasters such as flood and drought. Sequential data assimilation (DA) may facilitate improved streamflow prediction using real-time observations to correct internal model states. In conventional DA methods such as state updating, parametric uncertainty is often ignored mainly due to practical limitations of methodology to specify modeling uncertainty with limited ensemble members. However, if parametric uncertainty related with routing and runoff components is not incorporated properly, predictive uncertainty by model ensemble may be insufficient to capture dynamics of observations, which may deteriorate predictability. Recently, a multi-scale parameter regionalization (MPR) method was proposed to make hydrologic predictions at different scales using a same set of model parameters without losing much of the model performance. The MPR method incorporated within the mesoscale hydrologic model (mHM, http://www.ufz.de/mhm) could effectively represent and control uncertainty of high-dimensional parameters in a distributed model using global parameters. In this study, we evaluate impacts of streamflow data assimilation over European river basins. Especially, a multi-parametric ensemble approach is tested to consider the effects of parametric uncertainty in DA. Because augmentation of parameters is not required within an assimilation window, the approach could be more stable with limited ensemble members and have potential for operational uses. To consider the response times and non-Gaussian characteristics of internal hydrologic processes, lagged particle filtering is utilized. The presentation will be focused on gains and limitations of streamflow data assimilation and multi-parametric ensemble method over large-scale basins.

  15. Deciphering the depositional environment of the laminated Crato fossil beds (Early Cretaceous, Araripe Basin, North-eastern Brazil)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heimhofer, Ulrich; Ariztegui, Daniel; Lenniger, Marc;

    2010-01-01

    bedded, pale to dark lamination. To obtain information on palaeoenvironmental conditions, sample slabs derived from three local stratigraphic sections within the Araripe Basin were studied using high-resolution multiproxy techniques including detailed logging, petrography, mu-XRF scanning and stable...... significant contribution from a benthonic, carbonate-secreting microbial mat community is not supported by these results. Deposition took place under anoxic and, at least during certain episodes, hypersaline bottom water conditions, as evidenced by the virtually undisturbed lamination pattern, the absence of......, promoting equilibration with atmospheric CO2, probably in concert with stagnant conditions and low input of soil-derived carbon. Integration of lithological and isotopic evidence indicates a shift from closed to semi-closed conditions towards a more open lake system during the onset of laminite deposition...

  16. Facies architecture and sequence stratigraphy of an early post-rift fluvial succession, Aptian Barbalha Formation, Araripe Basin, northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Claiton M. S.; Goldberg, Karin; Bardola, Tatiana

    2015-06-01

    The Barbalha Formation (Aptian) records deposition in a fluvial and lacustrine environment accumulated in an early post-rift sag basin. Characterization of the facies architecture and sequence stratigraphic framework of the alluvial succession was carried out through detailed description and interpretation of outcrops and cored wells. The development of depositional sequences in this unit reflects variation in the accommodation-to-sediment supply (A/S) ratio. Two depositional sequences, showing an overall fining-upward trend, are preserved within the succession. The sequences are bounded by regional subaerial unconformities formed during negative A/S ratio, and may be subdivided in Low-accommodation Systems Tracts (LAST) (positive A/S ratio close to zero) and High accommodation Systems Tracts (HAST) (A/S ratio between 0.5 and 1). Sequence 1, with a minimum thickness of 100 m, is characterized by amalgamated, multi-storey, braided fluvial channel sand bodies, defining a LAST. These are interlayered with crevasse splay and floodplain deposits toward the top, passing to open lacustrine deposits, defining a HAST. Sequence 2, with minimum thickness ranging from 50 to 90 m, overlies the organic-rich lacustrine deposits. At the base, this sequence is composed of amalgamated, multistorey braided fluvial channel sand bodies (LAST), similar to Sequence 1, overlain by well-drained floodplain with fixed fluvial channel deposits, interpreted as an anastomosed fluvial system, which are in turn capped by lacustrine deposits, both grouped in a HAST. Paleocurrent data on fluvial deposits of sequences 1 and 2 show a consistent paleoflow to the SE. Sedimentological evidence indicates humid to sub-humid climatic conditions during deposition of sequences 1 and 2. Accumulation of fluvial sequences 1 and 2 was mainly controlled by tectonics. Variation in A/S ratios must be related to tectonic subsidence and uplift of the basin.

  17. A framework for the quantitative assessment of climate change impacts on water-related activities at the basin scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghileri, D.; Pianosi, F.; Soncini-Sessa, R.

    2011-06-01

    While quantitative assessment of the climate change impact on hydrology at the basin scale is quite addressed in the literature, extension of quantitative analysis to impact on the ecological, economic and social sphere is still limited, although well recognized as a key issue to support water resource planning and promote public participation. In this paper we propose a framework for assessing climate change impact on water-related activities at the basin scale. The specific features of our approach are that: (i) the impact quantification is based on a set of performance indicators defined together with the stakeholders, thus explicitly taking into account the water-users preferences; (ii) the management policies are obtained by optimal control techniques, linking stakeholder expectations and decision-making; (iii) the multi-objective nature of the management problem is fully preserved by simulating a set of Pareto-optimal management policies, which allows for evaluating not only variations in the indicator values but also tradeoffs among conflicting objectives. The framework is demonstrated by application to a real world case study, Lake Como basin (Italy). We show that the most conflicting water-related activities within the basin (i.e. hydropower production and agriculture) are likely to be negatively impacted by climate change. We discuss the robustness of the estimated impacts to the climate natural variability and the approximations in modeling the physical system and the socio-economic system, and perform an uncertainty analysis of several sources of uncertainty. We demonstrate that the contribution of natural climate uncertainty is rather remarkable and that, among different modelling uncertainty sources, the one from climate modeling is very significant.

  18. An integrated framework to assess adaptation options to climate change impacts in an irrigated basin in Central North Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicuna, S.; Melo, O.; Meza, F. J.; Alvarez, P.; Maureira, F.; Sanchez, A.; Tapia, A.; Cortes, M.; Dale, L. L.

    2013-12-01

    Future climate conditions could potentially affect water supply and demand on water basins throughout the world but especially on snowmelt-driven agriculture oriented basins that can be found throughout central Chile. Increasing temperature and reducing precipitation will affect both the magnitude and timing of water supply this part of the world. Different adaptation strategies could be implemented to reduce the impacts of such scenarios. Some could be incorporated as planned policies decided at the basin or Water Use Organization levels. Examples include changing large scale irrigation infrastructure (reservoirs and main channels) either physically or its operation. Complementing these strategies it is reasonable to think that at a disaggregated level, farmers would also react (adapt) to these new conditions using a mix of options to either modify their patterns of consumption (irrigation efficiency, crop mix, crop area reduction), increase their ability to access new sources of water (groundwater, water markets) or finally compensate their expected losses (insurance). We present a modeling framework developed to represent these issues using as a case study the Limarí basin located in Central Chile. This basin is a renowned example of how the development of reservoirs and irrigation infrastructure can reduce climate vulnerabilities allowing the economic development of a basin. Farmers in this basin tackle climate variability by adopting different strategies that depend first on the reservoir water volume allocation rule, on the type and size of investment they have at their farms and finally their potential access to water markets and other water supplies options. The framework developed can be used to study these strategies under current and future climate scenarios. The cornerstone of the framework is an hydrology and water resources model developed on the WEAP platform. This model is able to reproduce the large scale hydrologic features of the basin such as

  19. Assessing the impact of climate change upon hydrology and agriculture in the Indrawati Basin, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzoli, Irene; Bocchiola, Daniele; Nana, Ester; Maskey, Shreedhar; Uhlenbrook, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    Agriculture is sensitive to climate change, especially to temperature and precipitation changes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the climate change impacts upon rain-fed crops production in the Indrawati river basin, Nepal. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool SWAT model was used to model hydrology and cropping systems in the catchment, and to predict the influence of different climate change scenarios therein. Daily weather data collected from about 13 weather stations during 4 decades were used to constrain the SWAT model, and data from two hydrometric stations used to calibrate/validate it. Then management practices (crop calendar) were applied to specific Hydrological Response Units (HRUs) for the main crops of the region, rice, corn and wheat. Manual calibration of crop production was also carried, against values of crop yield in the area from literature. The calibrated and validated model was further applied to assess the impact of three future climate change scenarios (RCPs) upon the crop productivity in the region. Three climate models (GCMs) were adopted, each with three RCPs (2.5, 4.5, 8.5). Hence, impacts of climate change were assessed considering three time windows, namely a baseline period (1995-2004), the middle of century (2045-2054) and the end of century (2085-2094). For each GCM and RCP future hydrology and yield was compared to baseline scenario. The results displayed slightly modified hydrological cycle, and somewhat small variation in crop production, variable with models and RCPs, and for crop type, the largest being for wheat. Keywords: Climate Change, Nepal, hydrological cycle, crop yield.

  20. Virtual water flows and Water Balance Impacts of the U.S. Great Lakes Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddell, B. L.; Mayer, A. S.; Mubako, S. T.

    2014-12-01

    To assess the impacts of human water use and trade on water balances, we estimate virtual water flows for counties in the U.S. portion of the Great Lakes basin. This is a water-rich region, but one where ecohydrological 'hotspots' are created by water scarcity in certain locations (Mubako et al., 2012). Trade shifts water uses from one location to another, causing water scarcity in some locations but mitigating water scarcity in other locations. A database of water withdrawals was assembled to give point-wise withdrawals by location, source, and use category (commercial, thermoelectric power, industrial, agricultural, mining). Point-wise consumptive use is aggregated to the county level, giving direct, virtual water exports by county. A county-level trade database provides import and export data for the various use categories. We link the annual virtual water exported from a county for a given use category to corresponding annual trade exports. Virtual water balances for each county by use category are calculated, and then compared with the renewable annual freshwater supply. Preliminary findings are that overall virtual water balances (imports - exports) are positive for almost all counties, because urban areas import goods and services that are more water intensive than the exported goods and services. However, for some agriculturally-intensive counties, the overall impact of virtual water trade on the water balance is close to zero, and the balance for agricultural sector virtual water trade is negative, reflecting a net impact of economic trade on the water balance in these locations. We also compare the virtual water balance to available water resources, using annual precipitation less evapotranspiration as a crude estimate of net renewable water availability. In some counties virtual water exports approach 30% of the available water resources, indicating the potential for water scarcity, especially from an aquatic ecosystem standpoint.

  1. Seven new species of the killifish genus Rivulus (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae from the Paraná, Paraguay and upperAraguaia river basins, central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson J. E. M. Costa

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Seven new species of the Rivulus punctatus group collected during recent field studies in central Brazil are described. Rivulus dapazi n. sp., from the upper rio Correntes drainage, rio Paraguay basin, is diagnosed by a unique color pattern of the anal and caudal fins in males; R. cyanopterus n. sp., from the upper rio São Lourenço drainage, rio Paraguay basin, is diagnosed by a unique color pattern of the anal fin in both sexes; R. rossoi n. sp., from the rio Inhanduí drainage, rio Paraná basin, is diagnosed by a unique color pattern of the caudal fin in males and a reduced number of gill rakers on the first branchial arch; R. litteratus n. sp., from the upper rio Araguaia basin, is diagnosed by unique color patterns of flank in males and caudal fin in females; R. rutilicaudus n. sp., from the rio Verde drainage in Goiás, rio Paraná basin, is diagnosed by a unique color pattern of the caudal fin in females; R. scalaris n. sp., from the rio Sucuruí, rio Aporé, rio Correntes and rio Taquari drainages, rio Paraná basin, is diagnosed by a unique color pattern of the flank in males; and, R. egens n. sp., from the upper rio Verde drainage in Mato Grosso do Sul, rio Paraná basin, is distinguished by a combination of frontal E-scale pattern and the absence of red marks on the caudal fin in males. Combinations of other color patterns and morphological features, including number of scales of the longitudinal series, number of dorsal, anal, caudal and pectoral fin-rays, relative position of dorsal-fin origin and anal-fin rays, and number of vertebrae, are also useful in identification of the new species, but phylogenetic relationships among them are unknown at the present. A key to identification of species of Rivulus from the rio Paraná-Paraguay basin and adjacent headstreams is provided.Sete espécies novas do grupo Rivulus punctatus coletadas durante estudos de campo recentes no Brasil central são descritas. Rivulus dapazi sp. n., da

  2. Traveling Weather Disturbances in Mars' Southern Extratropics: Sway of the Great Impact Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Jeffery L.

    2016-04-01

    ' transient barotropic/baroclinic eddies are significantly influenced by the great impact basins of this hemisphere (e.g., Argyre and Hellas). In addition, the occurrence of a southern storm zone in late winter and early spring is keyed particularly to the western hemisphere via orographic influences arising from the Tharsis highlands, and the Argyre and Hellas impact basins. Geographically localized transient-wave activity diagnostics are constructed that illuminate fundamental differences amongst such simulations and these are described.

  3. Evaluation of the impact of Brazil's sustainability on the behavioral intentions of stakeholders toward the country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldi, Janaina de Moura Engracia

    2016-02-01

    This paper examines the influence of sustainability as a dimension of country image on behavioral intentions (so-called conations) of stakeholders toward Brazil. In addition, sustainable consumption, a moderating variable of the country-of-origin effect (not been identified in other studies), and consumers' gender and familiarity with the country are investigated as moderating variables. The empirical research is of a descriptive nature, and in terms of data collection, a survey method has been used on a sample of undergraduate students from foreign institutions. In total, 427 questionnaires have been considered in the analysis. The results of a multiple regression analyses show that the dimensions of country image (affective, political, technical and sustainability) are reliable factors that have a positive influence on conations toward Brazil, with the affective dimension exerting the strongest influence. Further comparisons show that the sustainability dimension is more important in shaping the conations of female respondents and those with low familiarity with Brazil, whereas the political dimension is more relevant in shaping the conations of male respondents and those with high familiarity with Brazil. Finally, the sustainability dimension has a minor influence on individuals with higher levels of sustainable consumption. PMID:26195177

  4. Phytoplankton density and trophic state of Canha and Pariquera-Açu rivers, Ribeira de Iguape hydrographic basin, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Calijuri

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the lack of studies about lotic eutrophication, mainly for tropical rivers, this research aimed to assess the density of phytoplanktonic community of two tropical rivers located in Ribeira do Iguape Watershed (São Paulo state, Brazil, Canha and Pariquera-Açu Rivers, based on sampling campaigns in January and April, 2007. These results were compared to the mTSI (mean Trophic State Index values. This index was originally developed for lentic aquatic systems and its calculus depends on total phosphorous, orthophosphate and chlorophyll-a concentrations in water samples. Comparing mTSI values in all sampling stations with the phytoplankton quantitative results, it was possible to verify that mTSI may overestimate the trophic state of lotic ecosystems, since the phosphorus species that integrate its calculus contributed to an improper augmentation on mTSI, which were incompatible with the real associated biological response. Thus, for April sampling, although mTSI values were higher, in general, phytoplankton density were lower (minimum of 83 indmL-1 for Canha River and of 66 indmL-1 for Pariquera-Açu River. In this case, the high total phosphorous concentrations by themselves were not enough to promote proportional phytoplanktonic growth, which was probably limited by other factors, like water temperature, suspended solids concentration, river discharge and zooplanktonic predation. In January, on the other hand, mTSI values were lower, but total phytoplankton density was higher. For this sampling, the lower orthophosphate concentrations in water pointed phytoplankton assimilation of this nutrient.

  5. Geochemical characterization in karst basin tributaries of the San Franciscan depression: The Corrente River, western Bahia, NE-Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecomte, Karina L.; Bicalho, Cristina C.; Silva-Filho, Emmanoel V.

    2016-08-01

    Karst aquifers are important freshwater resources for the growing population in Brazil. The sandstones of Urucuia plateau and the limestone of Bambui Group constitute important aquifer systems in the western part of Bahia state. The Corrente River provides ∼30% of the total water flow of the São Francisco River and crosses karstified structures. Surface and groundwater samples were collected during the dry period, the beginning of the wet season, and the wet season. The main objective was to define sources and distribution of dissolved elements and to describe the geochemical processes that govern their mobility within the system. Water samples are classified into three groups, depending on the dominant weathering process. When carbonate dissolution governs, waters are bicarbonate-calcium-type; whereas when the atmospheric precipitation signal is present, the samples in siliciclastic terrain are more Cl- - Na+. Groundwaters reflect bicarbonate-mixed-type, with the highest dissolved concentrations. In contrast to the major elements, trace elements, including Rare Earth Elements (REE), show seasonal behavior: their concentrations increase with the beginning of the wet season, due to re-mobilization and release into the solution of adsorbed elements from the system and the atmospheric dust. The total dissolved REE concentration (800-7500 ng L-1) is one order of magnitude more concentrated in karsts than in siliciclastic rocks. Principal component analysis was performed, explaining >77% of the variance. First factor extracted (REE, Y, Th, Al, Fe) explain the washout and enhancement of atmospheric dust weathering throughout the beginning of the wet seasons. The second component comprises variables related to karsts lithology, representing calcite and dolomite dissolution.

  6. Evaluation of Flood Forecast and Warning in Elbe river basin - Impact of Forecaster's Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danhelka, Jan; Vlasak, Tomas

    2010-05-01

    Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (CHMI) is responsible for flood forecasting and warning in the Czech Republic. To meet that issue CHMI operates hydrological forecasting systems and publish flow forecast in selected profiles. Flood forecast and warning is an output of system that links observation (flow and atmosphere), data processing, weather forecast (especially NWP's QPF), hydrological modeling and modeled outputs evaluation and interpretation by forecaster. Forecast users are interested in final output without separating uncertainties of separate steps of described process. Therefore an evaluation of final operational forecasts was done for profiles within Elbe river basin produced by AquaLog forecasting system during period 2002 to 2008. Effects of uncertainties of observation, data processing and especially meteorological forecasts were not accounted separately. Forecast of flood levels exceedance (peak over the threshold) during forecasting period was the main criterion as flow increase forecast is of the highest importance. Other evaluation criteria included peak flow and volume difference. In addition Nash-Sutcliffe was computed separately for each time step (1 to 48 h) of forecasting period to identify its change with the lead time. Textual flood warnings are issued for administrative regions to initiate flood protection actions in danger of flood. Flood warning hit rate was evaluated at regions level and national level. Evaluation found significant differences of model forecast skill between forecasting profiles, particularly less skill was evaluated at small headwater basins due to domination of QPF uncertainty in these basins. The average hit rate was 0.34 (miss rate = 0.33, false alarm rate = 0.32). However its explored spatial difference is likely to be influenced also by different fit of parameters sets (due to different basin characteristics) and importantly by different impact of human factor. Results suggest that the practice of interactive

  7. Carbon and oxygen stable isotope data as paleoenvironmental indicators for limestones from the Campos, Santos and Espirito Santo Basins, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon and oxygen isotope data of limestones from Campos, Santos and Espirito Santo basins provided additional information on the sedimentation environments of these carbonates. The predominance of δ 13C values between + 1,0 per mille and - 1,0 per mille samples from the Tertiary and the middle section of the Jiquia Stage (Lower Cretaceous) could indiccate, for both carbonate sequences, deposition in a normal marine environment. However, the absence of marine fossils in the Jiquia Stage but not in the Tertiary allows to suggest a normal marine environment for the latter and saline lakes for the former. More positive δ 13C values in the upper portion of the Jiquia Stage and in the Alagoas Stage suggest a restricted marine environment, with a tendency to hypersalinity. During the Albian the carbonate sedimentation could have occurred in a marine enrironment with an above normal salinity, as indicated by values of δ 13C between + 3,0 per mille and + 4,0 per mille. According to δ 18O data, the surface waters were warm, with a tendency of becoming gradually cooler towards the top of the Tertiary. (Author)

  8. Banding chromosome pattern of two species of Pimelodus (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae) from the Parana River basin of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Lenice; Giuliano-Caetano, Lucia; Dias, Ana Lúcia

    2004-01-01

    Cytogenetic studies were carried out on seven specimens of Pimelodus heraldoi and sixteen specimens of Pimelodus sp., both from the Parana River basin. The two species had the same diploid number of 56 chromosomes: P. heraldoi with 22M+22SM+6ST+6A and FN of 106 and Pimelodus sp. with 24M+26SM+4ST+2A and FN of 110. NORs were found at the terminal position of the long arm of one pair of ST chromosomes. C-banding (CB) showed in the two species heterochromatin distributed in various chromosomes of the complement, mainly in telomeric regions and in a pair of metacentric chromosomes with strong heterochromatic staining in both telomeres. Treatment only with the fluorochrome CMA3 confirmed in Pimelodus heraldoi and Pimelodus sp. the nucleolar chromosome pair and showed other fluorescent bands. Combined treatment with CB+CMA3 enhanced fluorescent staining of chromosomes in the two fish species evidencing several bands, including in P. heraldoi a chromosome pair showing fluorescent staining in both telomeres. PMID:19058555

  9. Progress on the palynostratigraphy of the Permian strata in Rio Grande do Sul State, Paraná Basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Paulo A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of published papers and results of analysis of new material have allowed improvements on the palynostratigraphy of the Permian strata of the Paraná Basin in Rio Grande do Sul State. Based on first and last occurrences of certain species of pollen taxa, two palynozones are formalized, these are the Vittatina costabilis and Lueckisporites virkkiae Interval Zones, in ascending order. The Vittatina costabilis Interval Zone is subdivided into two units, in ascending order the Protohaploxypinus goraiensis and the Hamiapollenites karrooensis Subzones, and is recognized from the glacial (Itararé Group and post-glacial sequence (Rio Bonito Formation and the base of the Palermo Formation. The Lueckisporites virkkiae Interval Zone occurs from the uppermost Rio Bonito Formation, through the Palermo and Irati formations, and into the Serra Alta and Teresina formations. The main characteristics and reference sections are established, as well as additional criteria to recognize biostratigraphical units, in accordance with the International Stratigraphic Guide. Palynostratigraphical correlation suggests that the Vittatina costabilis Zone concerns the Early Permian (early Cisuralian, while the Lueckisporites virkkiae is regarded as late Early Permian to early Middle Permian (late Cisularian to early Guadalupian.

  10. Quantification of hydrologic impacts of climate change in a Mediterranean basin in Sardinia, Italy, through high-resolution simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Piras

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Future climate projections robustly indicate that the Mediterranean region will experience a significant decrease of mean annual precipitation and an increase in temperature. These changes are expected to seriously affect the hydrologic regime, with a limitation of water availability and an intensification of hydrologic extremes, and to negatively impact local economies. In this study, we quantify the hydrologic impacts of climate change in the Rio Mannu basin (RMB, an agricultural watershed of 472.5 km2 in Sardinia, Italy. To simulate the wide range of runoff generation mechanisms typical of Mediterranean basins, we adopted a physically-based, distributed hydrologic model. The high-resolution forcings in reference and future conditions (30-year records for each period were provided by four combinations of global and regional climate models, bias-corrected and downscaled in space and time (from ~25 km, 24 h to 5 km, 1 h through statistical tools. The analysis of the hydrologic model outputs indicates that the RMB is expected to be severely impacted by future climate change. The range of simulations consistently predict: (i a significant diminution of mean annual runoff at the basin outlet, mainly due to a decreasing contribution of the runoff generation mechanisms depending on water available in the soil; (ii modest variations in mean annual runoff and intensification of mean annual discharge maxima in flatter sub-basins with clay and loamy soils, likely due to a higher occurrence of infiltration excess runoff; (iii reduction of soil water content and real evapotranspiration in most areas of the basin; and (iv a drop in the groundwater table. Results of this study are useful to support the adoption of adaptive strategies for management and planning of agricultural activities and water resources in the region.

  11. The Impact of Dietary and Metabolic Risk Factors on Cardiovascular Diseases and Type 2 Diabetes Mortality in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia C de Oliveira Otto

    Full Text Available Trends in food availability and metabolic risk factors in Brazil suggest a shift toward unhealthy dietary patterns and increased cardiometabolic disease risk, yet little is known about the impact of dietary and metabolic risk factors on cardiometabolic mortality in Brazil.Based on data from Global Burden of Disease (GBD Study, we used comparative risk assessment to estimate the burden of 11 dietary and 4 metabolic risk factors on mortality due to cardiovascular diseases and diabetes in Brazil in 2010. Information on national diets and metabolic risks were obtained from the Brazilian Household Budget Survey, the Food and Agriculture Organization database, and large observational studies including Brazilian adults. Relative risks for each risk factor were obtained from meta-analyses of randomized trials or prospective cohort studies; and disease-specific mortality from the GBD 2010 database. We quantified uncertainty using probabilistic simulation analyses, incorporating uncertainty in dietary and metabolic data and relative risks by age and sex. Robustness of findings was evaluated by sensitivity to varying feasible optimal levels of each risk factor.In 2010, high systolic blood pressure (SBP and suboptimal diet were the largest contributors to cardiometabolic deaths in Brazil, responsible for 214,263 deaths (95% uncertainty interval [UI]: 195,073 to 233,936 and 202,949 deaths (95% UI: 194,322 to 211,747, respectively. Among individual dietary factors, low intakes of fruits and whole grains and high intakes of sodium were the largest contributors to cardiometabolic deaths. For premature cardiometabolic deaths (before age 70 years, representing 40% of cardiometabolic deaths, the leading risk factors were suboptimal diet (104,169 deaths; 95% UI: 99,964 to 108,002, high SBP (98,923 deaths; 95%UI: 92,912 to 104,609 and high body-mass index (BMI (42,643 deaths; 95%UI: 40,161 to 45,111.suboptimal diet, high SBP, and high BMI are major causes of

  12. The Impact of Dietary and Metabolic Risk Factors on Cardiovascular Diseases and Type 2 Diabetes Mortality in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Otto, Marcia C.; Afshin, Ashkan; Micha, Renata; Khatibzadeh, Shahab; Fahimi, Saman; Singh, Gitanjali; Danaei, Goodarz; Sichieri, Rosely; Monteiro, Carlos A; Louzada, Maria L. C.; Ezzati, Majid; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2016-01-01

    Background Trends in food availability and metabolic risk factors in Brazil suggest a shift toward unhealthy dietary patterns and increased cardiometabolic disease risk, yet little is known about the impact of dietary and metabolic risk factors on cardiometabolic mortality in Brazil. Methods Based on data from Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study, we used comparative risk assessment to estimate the burden of 11 dietary and 4 metabolic risk factors on mortality due to cardiovascular diseases and diabetes in Brazil in 2010. Information on national diets and metabolic risks were obtained from the Brazilian Household Budget Survey, the Food and Agriculture Organization database, and large observational studies including Brazilian adults. Relative risks for each risk factor were obtained from meta-analyses of randomized trials or prospective cohort studies; and disease-specific mortality from the GBD 2010 database. We quantified uncertainty using probabilistic simulation analyses, incorporating uncertainty in dietary and metabolic data and relative risks by age and sex. Robustness of findings was evaluated by sensitivity to varying feasible optimal levels of each risk factor. Results In 2010, high systolic blood pressure (SBP) and suboptimal diet were the largest contributors to cardiometabolic deaths in Brazil, responsible for 214,263 deaths (95% uncertainty interval [UI]: 195,073 to 233,936) and 202,949 deaths (95% UI: 194,322 to 211,747), respectively. Among individual dietary factors, low intakes of fruits and whole grains and high intakes of sodium were the largest contributors to cardiometabolic deaths. For premature cardiometabolic deaths (before age 70 years, representing 40% of cardiometabolic deaths), the leading risk factors were suboptimal diet (104,169 deaths; 95% UI: 99,964 to 108,002), high SBP (98,923 deaths; 95%UI: 92,912 to 104,609) and high body-mass index (BMI) (42,643 deaths; 95%UI: 40,161 to 45,111). Conclusion suboptimal diet, high SBP, and high

  13. Impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall on water quality in the coastal zone of Salvador (Bahia, Brazil)

    KAUST Repository

    Roth, F.

    2016-03-30

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic signatures of suspended particulate organic matter and seawater biological oxygen demand (BOD) were measured along a coastal transect during summer 2015 to investigate pollution impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall close to Salvador, Brazil. Impacts of untreated sewage discharge were evident at the outfall site by depleted δ13Corg and δ15N signatures and 4-fold increased BOD rates. Pollution effects of a sewage plume were detectable for more than 6 km downstream from the outfall site, as seasonal wind- and tide-driven shelf hydrodynamics facilitated its advective transport into near-shore waters. There, sewage pollution was detectable at recreational beaches by depleted stable isotope signatures and elevated BOD rates at high tides, suggesting high bacterial activity and increased infection risk by human pathogens. These findings indicate the urgent necessity for appropriate wastewater treatment in Salvador to achieve acceptable standards for released effluents and coastal zone water quality.

  14. Impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall on water quality in the coastal zone of Salvador (Bahia, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, F; Lessa, G C; Wild, C; Kikuchi, R K P; Naumann, M S

    2016-05-15

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic signatures of suspended particulate organic matter and seawater biological oxygen demand (BOD) were measured along a coastal transect during summer 2015 to investigate pollution impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall close to Salvador, Brazil. Impacts of untreated sewage discharge were evident at the outfall site by depleted δ(13)Corg and δ(15)N signatures and 4-fold increased BOD rates. Pollution effects of a sewage plume were detectable for more than 6km downstream from the outfall site, as seasonal wind- and tide-driven shelf hydrodynamics facilitated its advective transport into near-shore waters. There, sewage pollution was detectable at recreational beaches by depleted stable isotope signatures and elevated BOD rates at high tides, suggesting high bacterial activity and increased infection risk by human pathogens. These findings indicate the urgent necessity for appropriate wastewater treatment in Salvador to achieve acceptable standards for released effluents and coastal zone water quality. PMID:27038882

  15. Preliminary evaluations of social and environmental impacts from mine-industrial project - uranium of Lagoa Real, Bahia, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Uranium Province of Lagoa Real is situated in the central south of the State of Bahia and constitutes at the moment the second uranium resource of Brazil, containing, in several anomalies, as available resource, 93.850 ton. of U sub(3) O sub(8). The Uranio do Brasil S.A. develops a mine-industrial complex in this Province with the aim to extract and benefit uranium and intending to improve in 1992. The project is considered with high hazard, because involves te management of radioactive material, and becomes necessary an available of environmental impact, in accordance with CONAMA 001/86 and an active participation of the society. This paper aims to indentify the social and environmental impacts of this process, as a contribution of this important discussion. (author)

  16. Description and relationships of Otothyropsis marapoama, a new genus and species of hypoptopomatine catfish (Siluriformes: Loricariidae from rio Tietê basin, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre C. Ribeiro

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Otothyropsis marapoama, a new genus and species, is described based on specimens recently collected in a headwater stream of the middle stretch of the rio Tietê, a river from the upper rio Paraná basin in southeastern Brazil. The new taxon belongs to a clade also encompassing the genera Schizolecis, Otothyris and Pseudotothyris. Otothyropsis marapoama is hypothesized to be the sister-group of Pseudotothyris and Otothyris based mainly on the presence of several derived characters of the swimbladder capsule and associated bones. Several paedomorphic characters shared by Pseudotothyris and Otothyris and their significance for the phylogenetic position of the new genus are discussed.Otothyropsis marapoama, novo gênero e espécie, é descrito baseado em espécimes recentemente coletados em um riacho de cabeceira da porção media do rio Tietê, um rio da bacia do alto rio Paraná no sudeste do Brasil. O novo táxon pertence a um clado que inclui também os gêneros Schizolecis, Otothyris e Pseudotothyris. Otothyropsis marapoama é considerado o grupo-irmão de Pseudotothyris e Otothyris baseado principalmente na presença de vários caracteres derivados da cápsula da bexiga natatória e ossos associados. Vários caracteres pedomórficos compartilhados por Pseudotothyris e Otothyris e seu significado filogenético para a posição deste novo gênero são discutidos.

  17. Kaolinite, illite and quartz dissolution in the karstification of Paleozoic sandstones of the Furnas Formation, Paraná Basin, Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Mário Sérgio de; Guimarães, Gilson Burigo; Chinelatto, Adilson Luiz; Giannini, Paulo César Fonseca; Pontes, Henrique Simão; Chinelatto, Adriana Scoton Antonio; Atencio, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    Karstification processes in sandstones of the Furnas Formation, Silurian to Devonian of the Paraná Basin, have been described since the mid-twentieth century. However, some geologists still doubt the idea of true karst in sandstones. Studies carried out in the Campos Gerais region, Paraná State, Southern Brazil, aimed at investigating the nature of erosion processes in Furnas Formation and the role of the dissolution in the development of their notorious erosive features and underground cavities. These studies have led to the recognition of dissolution macro to micro features ('furnas', caves, ponds, sinks, ruiniform relief on cliffs and rocky surfaces, grain corrosion, speleothems, mineral reprecipitation and incrustation). The analysis (scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometry and x-ray diffractometry) of sandstones and their alterites has indicated significant dissolution of clay cement along with discrete quartz grain dissolution. This mesodiagenetic cement (kaolinite and illite) is dissolved and reprecipitated as clay minerals with poorly developed crystallinity along with other minerals, such as variscite and minerals of the alunite supergroup, suggesting organic participation in the processes of dissolution and incrustation. The mineral reprecipitation usually forms centimetric speleothems, found in cavities and sheltered rocky surfaces. The cement dissolution associated with other factors (fractures, wet weather, strong hydraulic gradient, antiquity of the landforms) leads to the rock arenisation, the underground erosion and the appearance of the karst features. Carbonate rocks in the basement may locally be increasing the karst forms in the overlying Furnas Formation. The recognition of the karst character of the Furnas Formation sandstones has important implications in the management of underground water resources (increasingly exploited in the region), in the use of the unique geological heritage and in the prevention of geo

  18. Geostatistical and stratigraphic analysis of deltaic reservoirs from the Reconcavo Basin, Brazil; Analise estratigrafica e geoestatistica de reservatorios deltaicos da Bacia do Reconcavo (BA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Carlos Moreira

    1997-07-01

    This study presents the characterization of the external geometry of deltaic oil reservoirs, including the description of their areal distribution using geo statistic tools, such as variography and kriging. A high-resolution stratigraphic study was developed over a 25 km{sup 2} area, by using data from 276 closely-spaced wells of an oil-producer field from the Reconcavo Basin, northeastern Brazil. The studied succession records the progressive lacustrine transgression of a deltaic environment. Core data and stratigraphic cross sections suggest that the oil reservoirs are mostly amalgamated, delta-front lobes, and subordinately, crevasse deposits. Some important geometrical elements were recognized by the detailed variographic analysis developed for each stratigraphic unit (zone). The average width for the groups of deltaic lobes of one zone was measured from the variographic feature informally named as hole effect. This procedure was not possible for the other zones due to the intense lateral amalgamation of sandstones, indicated by many variographic nested structures. Net sand krigged maps for the main zones suggest a NNW-SSE orientation for the deltaic lobes, as also their common amalgamation and compensation arrangements. High-resolution stratigraphic analyses should include a more regional characterization of the depositional system that comprises the studied succession. On the other hand, geostatistical studies should be developed only after the recognition of the depositional processes acting in the study area and the geological meaning of the variable to be treated, including its spatial variability scales as a function of sand body thickness, orientation and amalgamation. (author)

  19. El-Niño southern oscillation and rainfall erosivity in the headwater region of the Grande River Basin, Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Mello

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Relationships between regional climate and oceanic and atmospheric anomalies are important tools in order to promote the development of models for predicting rainfall erosivity, especially in regions with substantial intra-annual variability in the rainfall regime. In this context, this work aimed to analyze the rainfall erosivity in headwaters of Grande River Basin, Southern Minas Gerais State, Brazil. This study considered the two most representative environments, the Mantiqueira Range (MR and Plateau of Southern Minas Gerais (PSM. These areas are affected by the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO indicators Sea Surface Temperature (SST for Niño 3.4 Region and Multivariate ENSO Index (MEI. Rainfall erosivity was calculated for individual rainfall events from January 2006 to December 2010. The analyses were conducted using the monthly data of ENSO indicators and the following rainfall variables: rainfall erosivity (EI30, rainfall depth (P, erosive rainfall depth (E, number of rainfall events (NRE, number of erosive rainfall events (NEE, frequency of occurrence of an early rainfall pattern (EP, occurrence of late rainfall pattern (LP and occurrence of intermediate rainfall patter (IP. Pearson's coefficient of correlation was used to evaluate the relationships between the rainfall variables and SST and MEI. The coefficients of correlation were significant for SST in the PSM sub-region. Correlations between the rainfall variables and negative oscillations of SST were also significant, especially in the MR sub-region, however, the Person's coefficients were lesser than those obtained for the SST positive oscillations. The correlations between the rainfall variables and MEI were also significant but lesser than the SST correlations. These results demonstrate that SST positive oscillations play a more important role in rainfall erosivity, meaning they were more influenced by El-Niño episodes. Also, these results have shown

  20. Study of chemical composition of sludges and scales from the oil production activities and correlation with natural radioactivity - case study: Campos Basin, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work intended to study general aspects related to natural radioactivity, focusing on its occurrence in the oil industry and on sludge and scales samples taken from the Oil E and P region from Campos's Basin. The physical and chemical analysis and the statistical treatment were carried out with the objective of determine the samples composition checking the differences between the sludges and the scales. Third six representative samples were obtained from the Radioprotection and Dosimetry Institute (IRD/CNEN), Brazil, taking into account factors such as activity concentration, physical and chemical aspects and origin. After the oil extraction, samples were classified by aspects as color and granulometry. Ali the studied samples were analyzed by X-rays diffraction being identified the presence of barite, calcite, quartz among others. The results supplied a base for the elaboration of a successive determination scheme which comprehended residual organic material, carbonate, sulfate, silica, chloride and metals as the alkaline, earthy alkaline, aluminum, etc. The sludges presented a highly variable chemical composition, being rich in silica and carbonates. The main components analysis showed a statistical valid relationship among the radium isotopes and the carbonates presence. On the other hand, the scales are made of barium and strontium sulfates (75%), presenting a minor variation on its chemical composition and in the existing radium content. Due to this low variability of the barium, sulfate and radium contents, it has not been possible to consider valid a relationship that could exist among them in the application of the main component analysis. (author)

  1. Impacts of Land Cover Changes on Hydrologic Responses: A Case Study of Chi River Basin, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homdee, Tipaporn; Pongput, Kobkiat; Kanae, Shinjiro

    Land use and land cover (LULC) have been continuously changing, through human activities, leading to variations in hydrological cycle. In this study, we applied SWAT model to investigate potential impacts of LULC on water budget of the Chi river basin in Thailand. Five plausible scenarios of land use change were evaluated, including an conversion of forested area, expansion of farmland, switching of rice paddy fields to energy crops and two scenarios involving conversion of farmland to rice and sugarcane plantation. The results indicated that different land use scenarios contributed to various effects in annual and seasonal water yield and evapotranspiration (ET). Conversion of forested area and farmland showed slightly small changes on water flows and ET. Substitution of paddy fields by sugarcane plantation showed clearly reduced water flows and increased ET by almost 5.0% in dry season. Particularly, in case of expansion of rice paddy fields to farmland, small changes occur on annual flow and ET but more significant effect occur on seasonal flows. The results showed decrease in ET by nearly 12.0%, leading to increase of water yield by up to 5.1% during dry season. Finally, conversion of farmland to sugarcane plantation for biofuel production showed significant effect on seasonal ET, mainly decreasing in dry season by 4.5 % but small changes were detected on water yields.

  2. Impact of global dimming on reference evapotranspiration in Hai River basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, N.; Zeng, X.; Sun, H.

    2015-05-01

    Global radiation can impact the surface energy balance and hydrological cycle. This study analysed changes in global radiation in Hai River basin, China during 1960 to 2012. Global radiation decreased significantly from 1960 to 1989 and increased from 1990 to 2012, which has been described as "from dimming to brightening". Sunshine duration was used as a proxy index where radiation records were unavailable. Results showed that sunshine duration (for 45 stations) show a significant decreasing trend from 1960 to 2012, which was a little different to global radiation (for 6 stations) during the brightening phase. Penman-Monteith model was used for estimating trends of reference evapotranspiration. The consistency of temporal and spatial variations in sunshine duration and reference evapotranspiration was examined during the periods 1960-1989 and 1990-2012. The results showed that the annual reference evapotranspiration trend was consistent with the sunshine duration trend (both were decreasing for 37 of the 45 stations) during 1960 to 1989, followed by an upward trend (for 26 of the 45 stations) from 1990, while the annual sunshine duration indicated a downward trend (for all 45 stations) during the whole period 1960-2012. Overall, global dimming could be the dominant factor for the decreased reference evapotranspiration from 1960 to 1989, while the increased reference evapotranspiration from 1990 to 2012 could be driven by other meteorological variables, especially global warming.

  3. Impacts of precipitation seasonality and ecosystem types on evapotranspiration in the Yukon River Basin, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, W.; Liu, S.; Liu, H.; Randerson, J.T.; Yu, G.; Tieszen, L.L.

    2010-01-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is the largest component of water loss from terrestrial ecosystems; however, large uncertainties exist when estimating the temporal and spatial variations of ET because of concurrent shifts in the magnitude and seasonal distribution of precipitation as well as differences in the response of ecosystem ET to environmental variabilities. In this study, we examined the impacts of precipitation seasonality and ecosystem types on ET quantified by eddy covariance towers from 2002 to 2004 in three ecosystems (grassland, deciduous broadleaf forest, and evergreen needleleaf forest) in the Yukon River Basin, Alaska. The annual precipitation changed greatly in both magnitude and seasonal distribution through the three investigated years. Observations and model results showed that ET was more sensitive to precipitation scarcity in the early growing season than in the late growing season, which was the direct result of different responses of ET components to precipitation in different seasons. The results demonstrated the importance of seasonal variations of precipitation in regulating annual ET and overshadowing the function of annual precipitation. Comparison of ET among ecosystems over the growing season indicated that ET was largest in deciduous broadleaf, intermediate in evergreen needleleaf, and lowest in the grassland ecosystem. These ecosystem differences in ET were related to differences in successional stages and physiologica responses. Copyright 2010 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. Climate change impacts on crop production in Iran's Zayandeh-Rud River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohari, Alireza; Eslamian, Saeid; Abedi-Koupaei, Jahangir; Massah Bavani, Alireza; Wang, Dingbao; Madani, Kaveh

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluates climate change impacts on crop production and water productivity of four major crops (wheat, barley, rice, and corn) in Iran's Zayandeh-Rud River Basin. Multi-model ensemble scenarios are used to deal with uncertainties in climate change projections for the study period (2015-2044). On average, monthly temperature will increase by 1.1 to 1.5°C under climate change. Monthly precipitation changes may be positive or negative in different months of the year. Nevertheless, on the annual basis, precipitation will decrease by 11 to 31% with climate change. While warming can potentially shorten the crop growth period, crop production and water productivity of all crops are expected to decrease due to lower precipitation and higher water requirements under higher temperature. Out of the four studied crops, rice and corn are more vulnerable to climate change due to their high irrigation water demand. So, their continued production can be compromised under climate change. This finding is of particular importance, given the locally high economic and food value of these crops in central Iran. PMID:23178843

  5. The Impact of Land Cover Change on a Simulated Storm Event in the Sydney Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gero, A. F.; Pitman, A. J.

    2006-02-01

    The Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) was run at a 1-km grid spacing over the Sydney basin in Australia to assess the impact of land cover change on a simulated storm event. The simulated storm used NCEP NCAR reanalysis data, first with natural (i.e., pre-European settlement in 1788) land cover and then with satellite-derived land cover representing Sydney's current land use pattern. An intense convective storm develops in the model in close proximity to Sydney's dense urban central business district under current land cover. The storm is absent under natural land cover conditions. A detailed investigation of why the change in land cover generates a storm was performed using factorial analysis, which revealed the storm to be sensitive to the presence of agricultural land in the southwest of the domain. This area interacts with the sea breeze and affects the horizontal divergence and moisture convergence—the triggering mechanisms of the storm. The existence of the storm over the dense urban area of Sydney is therefore coincidental. The results herein support efforts to develop parameterization of urban surfaces in high-resolution simulations of Sydney's meteorological environment but also highlight the need to improve the parameterization of other types of land cover change at the periphery of the urban area, given that these types dominate the explanation of the results.

  6. Evaluating Impacts of Industrial Transformation on Water Consumption in the Heihe River Basin of Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Wu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Growing water scarcity is one of the central challenges for sustainability in China, given its burgeoning industry and huge population, especially in the arid and semi-arid inland river basin where precipitation is very limited. Industrial transformation is an important engine of economic growth, which is required to be implemented by governments at all levels in China. Economic models have generally been applied to evaluate the effects of economic policy change (e.g., industrial transformation or adjustment of price on the allocation of production factors. The computable general equilibrium (CGE model is an effective tool to reallocate the primary factors across sectors for different industrial transformation scenarios. In this research, we first briefly introduced the principles and structure of the CGE model, which embeds water resources as a primary factor of production. Then we chose Zhangye as an example to evaluate the impacts of industrial transformation on water consumption under three designed scenarios with the water-embedded CGE model. Simulation results showed that there will be considerable water saving benefit from industrial transformation when the output value of secondary industry and tertiary industry increases and the contribution of the planting sector to the total output value decreases. Finally, we put forward a scheme that can improve water utilization efficiency in policy options.

  7. Assessing the Impact of Antarctic Oscillation on Precipitation Variability over the La Plata River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, R. M.; Nunes, A.

    2012-12-01

    Although several studies have considered the phase changes of the Antarctic Oscillation (AAO) - the dominant mode of the Southern Hemisphere (SH) extra-tropical circulation - as one of the driven mechanisms in the SH precipitation inter-annual variability, relatively few studies have addressed the AAO phase change impacts on South American precipitation variability. Those studies found that positive (negative) AAO phase reduces (intensifies) precipitation over southeastern South America, and modulates ENSO's influence on that region. During the austral summer, the inter-annual tropical activity intensification (reduction) has been associated with AAO negative (positive) phase, as well as the corresponding variability in the positioning of the subtropical upper-level jet. In this study, the AAO phases were associated with precipitation patterns that affect water supplies for densely cultivated areas in the southeastern South America, more specifically over the La Plata River basin, taking into account the AAO seasonal index and satellite-based precipitation estimates. Changes found in the positioning and intensity of the upper-level jet were also associated with the AAO phases, and ultimately related to precipitation variability.

  8. Gravitational Effects of Flooding and Filling of Impact Basins on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2004-01-01

    The presence of large impact basins and the low northern plains that might have contained ice or liquid water at an earlier stage of Mars evolution suggests that the global gravity field could have been different in the distant past than it is today. In addition, any significant change in the distribution of mass affects the moments of inertia and consequently and could conceivably change the position of the pole and the length of day. Similar effects could have been produced by large erosional processes, such as the removal of crustal material from the Arabia Terra region and subsequent re-deposition in the Chryse region of the northern plains. We have endeavored to estimate the magnitudes of material that might have been involved in these processes and their possible effect on the gravity and dynamics of Mars. We have used present-day topography and gravity field as a starting point, recognizing that both the result of the processes that we are trying to study rather than the state at the times of interest.

  9. 2 D seismic sections interpretation for the Xareu field in the Mundau sub-basin (Ceara basin, Northeastern Brazil); Interpretacao de secoes sismicas 2D para o Campo de Xareu na sub-bacia de Mundau (Bacia do Ceara, NE do Brasil)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antunes, Alex Francisco [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil)]. E-mail: alex@geologia.ufrn.br; Jardim de Sa, Emanuel Ferraz [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Geodinamica e Geofisica; Matos, Renato Marcos Darros de [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia; Keller Filho, Odilon [PETROBRAS S.A., Natal, RN (Brazil). Unidade de Negocios RN/CE; Lima Neto, Francisco Fontes [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas

    2003-07-01

    This paper presents a reinterpretation of seismic sections of the Xareu Oil Field, located in the central portion of the Mundau Sub-basin (Ceara Basin, Northeast Brazil). These seismic sections were acquired during the 80's and the 90's. Their reinterpretation show that the field is structured by a main arrangement of N W-trending listric normal faults, with associated roll-over structures affecting the rocks of the rift (Mundau Formation) and transitional (Paracuru Formation) sections of the basin. Some of these faults also affect the basal and intermediate layers of the drift section (Ubarana Formation), what denotes their reactivation (or even the formation of new faults). the new interpretation allows a better understanding of the frequency, geometry, orientation, style and kinematic of the faults, important factors in the structural characterization of the Xareu Oil Field. (author)

  10. Level of asthma control and its impact on activities of daily living in asthma patients in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Rodrigues Gazzotti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of asthma on activities of daily living and on health status in patients with controlled, partially controlled, or uncontrolled asthma in Brazil. METHODS: We used data related to 400 patients in four Brazilian cities (São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Salvador, and Curitiba, obtained in a survey conducted throughout Latin America in 2011. All study subjects were > 12 years of age and completed a standardized questionnaire in face-to-face interviews. The questions addressed asthma control, hospitalizations, emergency room visits, and school/work absenteeism, as well as the impact of asthma on the quality of life, sleep, and leisure. The level of asthma control was determined in accordance with the Global Initiative for Asthma criteria. RESULTS: Among the 400 respondents, asthma was controlled in 37 (9.3%, partially controlled in 226 (56.5%, and uncontrolled in 137 (34.2%. The numbers of patients with uncontrolled or partially controlled asthma who visited the emergency room, who were hospitalized, and who missed school/work were higher than were those of patients with controlled asthma (p = 0.001, p = 0.05, and p = 0.01, respectively. Among those with uncontrolled asthma, the impact of the disease on activities of daily living, sleep, social activities, and normal physical exertion was greater than it was among those with controlled or partially controlled asthma (p < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: In Brazil, asthma treatment should be monitored more closely in order to increase treatment adherence and, consequently, the level of asthma control, which can improve patient quality of life and minimize the negative impact of the disease.

  11. Genetic variability in Astyanax altiparanae Garutti & Britski, 2000 (Teleostei, Characidae from the Upper Paraná River basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dolores Peres

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Allozyme data was used to assess the genetic diversity Astyanax altiparanae populations from the floodplain of the Upper Paraná River (PR. Specimens were collected in the southern Brazilian state of Paraná from PR in Porto Rico municipality and Ribeirão Ficha (RF in Ubiratã municipality. The authors used 15% (w/v corn starch gel electrophoresis to identify 21 putative loci for 13 enzymatic systems: Aspartate aminotransferase, 2.6.1.1 (AAT, Acid phosphatase, 3.1.3.2 (ACP, Esterase, 3.1.1.1 (EST, Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, 1.1.1.8 (G3PDH, Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, 1.1.1.49 (G6PDH, Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, 5.3.1.9 (GPI, Iditol dehydrogenase, 1.1.1.14 (IDDH, Isocitrate dehydrogenase - NADP+, 1.1.1.42 (IDH, L-Lactate dehydrogenase, 1.1.1.27 (LDH, Malate dehydrogenase, 1.1.1.37 (MDH, Malate dehydrogenase - NADP+, 1.1.1.40 (MDHP, Phosphoglucomutase, 5.4.2.2 (PGM, and Superoxide dismutase, 1.15.1.1 (SOD. The proportion of polymorphic loci were estimated as 52.38% in the PR population and 38.10% in the RF population. Expected estimated heterozygosities were 0.1518 ± 0.0493 for the PR population and 0.0905 ± 0.0464 for the RF population. The A. altiparanae heterozygosity data were similar to previous estimates for other PR basin characid species. Allele frequencies were significantly different between the PR and RF populations in respect to some loci (Acp-1, G3pdh-1, Gpi-A, Iddh-1, Mdhp-1 and Mdhp-2. Wright’s statistics for all loci were estimated as Fis = 0.3919, Fit = 0.4804 and Fst = 0.1455. Our results show that the A. altiparanae populations studied are genetically different and have a high degree of genetic variability.

  12. VIC distributed hydrological model to predict climate change impact in the Hanjiang Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The climate impact studies in hydrology often rely on climate change information at fine spatial resolution. However, the general circulation model (GCM), which is widely used to simulate future climate scenario, operates on a coarse scale and does not provide reliable data on local or regional scale for hydrological modeling. Therefore the outputs from GCM have to be downscaled to obtain the information fit for hydrologic studies. The variable infiltration capacity (VIC) distributed hydrological model with 9×9 km2 grid resolution was applied and calibrated in the Hanjiang Basin. Validation results show that SSVM can approximate observed precipitation and temperature data reasonably well, and that the VIC model can simulate runoff hydrograph with high model efficiency and low relative error. By applying the SSVM model, the trends of precipitation and temperature (including daily mean temperature, daily maximum temperature and daily minimum temperature) projected from CGCM2 under A2 and B2 scenarios will decrease in the 2020s (2011―2040), and increase in the 2080s (2071―2100). However, in the 2050s (2041―2070), the precipitation will be decreased under A2 scenario and no significant changes under B2 scenario, but the temperature will be not obviously changed under both climate change scenarios. Under both climate change scenarios, the impact analysis of runoff, made with the downscaled precipitation and temperature time series as input of the VIC distributed model, has resulted in a decreasing trend for the 2020s and 2050s, and an overall increasing trend for the 2080s.

  13. Quantifying the impact of land use change on hydrological responses in the Upper Ganga Basin, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsarouchi, Georgia-Marina; Mijic, Ana; Moulds, Simon; Chawla, Ila; Mujumdar, Pradeep; Buytaert, Wouter

    2013-04-01

    Quantifying how changes in land use affect the hydrological response at the river basin scale is a challenge in hydrological science and especially in the tropics where many regions are considered data sparse. Earlier work by the authors developed and used high-resolution, reconstructed land cover maps for northern India, based on satellite imagery and historic land-use maps for the years 1984, 1998 and 2010. Large-scale land use changes and their effects on landscape patterns can impact water supply in a watershed by altering hydrological processes such as evaporation, infiltration, surface runoff, groundwater discharge and stream flow. Three land use scenarios were tested to explore the sensitivity of the catchment's response to land use changes: (a) historic land use of 1984 with integrated evolution to 2010; (b) land use of 2010 remaining stable; and (c) hypothetical future projection of land use for 2030. The future scenario was produced with Markov chain analysis and generation of transition probability matrices, indicating transition potentials from one land use class to another. The study used socio-economic (population density), geographic (distances to roads and rivers, and location of protected areas) and biophysical drivers (suitability of soil for agricultural production, slope, aspect, and elevation). The distributed version of the land surface model JULES was integrated at a resolution of 0.01° for the years 1984 to 2030. Based on a sensitivity analysis, the most sensitive parameters were identified. Then, the model was calibrated against measured daily stream flow data. The impact of land use changes was investigated by calculating annual variations in hydrological components, differences in annual stream flow and surface runoff during the simulation period. The land use changes correspond to significant differences on the long-term hydrologic fluxes for each scenario. Once analysed from a future water resources perspective, the results will be

  14. Modelling the impacts of sea level rise on tidal basin ecomorphodynamics and mangrove habitat evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Maanen, Barend; Coco, Giovanni; Bryan, Karin

    2016-04-01

    The evolution of tidal basins and estuaries in tropical and subtropical regions is often influenced by the presence of mangrove forests. These forests are amongst the most productive environments in the world and provide important ecosystem services. However, these intertidal habitats are also extremely vulnerable and are threatened by climate change impacts such as sea level rise. It is therefore of key importance to improve our understanding of how tidal systems occupied by mangrove vegetation respond to rising water levels. An ecomorphodynamic model was developed that simulates morphological change and mangrove forest evolution as a result of mutual feedbacks between physical and biological processes. The model accounts for the effects of mangrove trees on tidal flow patterns and sediment dynamics. Mangrove growth is in turn controlled by hydrodynamic conditions. Under stable water levels, model results indicate that mangrove trees enhance the initiation and branching of tidal channels, partly because the extra flow resistance in mangrove forests favours flow concentration, and thus sediment erosion in between vegetated areas. The landward expansion of the channels, on the other hand, is reduced. Model simulations including sea level rise suggest that mangroves can potentially enhance the ability of the soil surface to maintain an elevation within the upper portion of the intertidal zone. While the sea level is rising, mangroves are migrating landward and the channel network tends to expand landward too. The presence of mangrove trees, however, was found to hinder both the branching and headward erosion of the landward expanding channels. Simulations are performed according to different sea level rise scenarios and with different tidal range conditions to assess which tidal environments are most vulnerable. Changes in the properties of the tidal channel networks are being examined as well. Overall, model results highlight the role of mangroves in driving the

  15. Assessing potential impacts of climate change and variability on the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Basin: A binational approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential impacts of climate change and variability on the Great Lakes environment are serious and complex. The Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Basin is home to 42.5 million US and Canadian citizens and is the industrial and commercial heartland of both nations. The region is rich in human and natural resources, with diverse economic activities and substantial infrastructure which would be affected by major shifts in climate. For example, water level changes could affect wetland distribution and functioning; reductions in streamflow would alter assimilative capacities while warmer water temperatures would influence spring and fall turnover and incidence of anoxia. A binational program has been initiated to conduct interdisciplinary, integrated impact assessments for the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River Basin. The goal of this program is to undertake interdisciplinary, integrated studies to improve the understanding of the complex interactions between climate, the environment, and socioeconomic systems in order to develop informed regional adaptation responses

  16. Numerical simulation of the basin scale hydrogeological impacts of carbon sequestration in deep saline aquifers of the St. Lawrence Lowlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girou, O.; Lemieux, J. M.; Malo, M.

    2015-12-01

    Full-scale carbon capture and storage in deep saline aquifers implies injecting important quantities of carbon in order to significantly reduce greenhouse gases emissions. At the basin scale, impacts related to CO2 injection are pressure perturbation as well as brine migration into freshwater aquifers. In this study, potential impacts of an industrial-scale carbon capture and storage project in Bécancour (Quebec, Canada), in the St. Lawrence Lowlands basin, are discussed, as well as the role played by regional normal faults that divide the basin into multiple compartments. The basin is 300 km long and 90 km wide, formed by sub-horizontal Paleozoic formations on top of which the Utica and Lorraine shale formations represent the caprock of the potential CO2reservoir. These formations cover most of the basin, except in its eroded northwestern part, located between 10 to 40 km away from the potential injection sites. Three injection scenarios were considered, corresponding to greenhouse gases emissions from large emitters located; in Bécancour industrial park, in a larger area that allow affordable transport and in the entire basin without considering transport costs (1, 5, 10 Mt/yr). The numerical model FEFLOW was used to simulate CO2 injection into different compartments to evaluate pressure build up propagation and brine migration in order to define which compartments are best suited for long-term storage. The simulations considered an injection period of 100 years and post-injections period of 1000 years. Numerical simulations indicate that normal faults, which exhibit a low hydraulic conductivity, play a major role orienting pressure build-up and brine migration. Due to the presence of normal faults, no pressure build up occurred close to the surface. Similarly, preliminary mass transport simulations show very limited brine migration. These first results indicate that basin-scale impacts of carbon injection are low for the 3 injection scenarios, however, the

  17. Climate change impacts on groundwater resources: modelled deficits in a chalky aquifer, Geer basin, Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouyère, Serge; Carabin, Guy; Dassargues, Alain

    An integrated hydrological model (MOHISE) was developed in order to study the impact of climate change on the hydrological cycle in representative water basins in Belgium. This model considers most hydrological processes in a physically consistent way, more particularly groundwater flows which are modelled using a spatially distributed, finite-element approach. Thanks to this accurate numerical tool, after detailed calibration and validation, quantitative interpretations can be drawn from the groundwater model results. Considering IPCC climate change scenarios, the integrated approach was applied to evaluate the impact of climate change on the water cycle in the Geer basin in Belgium. The groundwater model is described in detail, and results are discussed in terms of climate change impact on the evolution of groundwater levels and groundwater reserves. From the modelling application on the Geer basin, it appears that, on a pluri-annual basis, most tested scenarios predict a decrease in groundwater levels and reserves in relation to variations in climatic conditions. However, for this aquifer, the tested scenarios show no enhancement of the seasonal changes in groundwater levels. Un modèle hydrologique intégré (MOHISE) a été développé afin d'étudier l'impact du changement climatique sur le cycle hydrologique de bassins versants représentatifs de Belgique. Ce modèle prend en compte tous les processus hydrologiques d'une manière physiquement consistante, plus particulièrement les écoulements souterrains qui sont modélisés par une approche spatialement distribuée aux éléments finis. Grâce à cet outil numérique précis, après une calibration et une validation détaillées, des interprétations quantitatives peuvent être réalisées à partir des résultats du modèle de nappe. Considérant des scénarios de changements climatiques de l'IPCC, l'approche intégrée a été appliquée pour évaluer l'impact du changement climatique sur le cycle de l

  18. Influence of downscaling methods in projecting climate change impact on hydrological extremes of upper Blue Nile basin

    OpenAIRE

    M. T. Taye; Willems, P

    2013-01-01

    Methods from two statistical downscaling categories were used to investigate the impact of climate change on high rainfall and flow extremes of the upper Blue Nile basin. The main downscaling differences considered were on the rainfall variable while a generally similar method was applied for temperature. The applied downscaling methods are a stochastic weather generator, LARS-WG, and an advanced change factor method, the Quantile Perturbation Method (QPM). These were applied on 10 GCM run...

  19. Win-wins in NTFP market chains? How governance impacts the sustainability of livelihoods based on Congo Basin forest products

    OpenAIRE

    Ingram, V.J.

    2012-01-01

    Exploring the interrelationships between governance, poverty alleviation and sustainability impacts in the framework of market chains for non-timber forest products originating from the Congo Basin. The research focuses on how governance arrangements help or hinder access to forest resources and their exploitation, and the implications for poverty alleviation and sustainable livelihoods. The value chains of nine NTFPs are investigated: (Apiculture products: honey, wax and propolis), pygeum ( ...

  20. Preliminary assessment of the cocial, economic and environmental impacts of Water Hyacinth in Lake Victoria basin and status of control

    OpenAIRE

    Mailu, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents preliminary data collected in an assessment of the social, economic and environmental impacts of water hyacinth in the Lake Victoria Basin. A summary of the status of control and strategies for the future is given. The report draws on field observations made, studies through interviews of affected communities and organisations, personal communications and published reports by scientists in the region. Lake Victoria, the world’s second largest freshwater body, su...

  1. Impact of the Hoa Binh Dam (Vietnam) on water and sediment budgets in the Red River basin and delta

    OpenAIRE

    Vinh, V. D.; Ouillon, S.; Thanh, T. D.; Chu, L. V.

    2014-01-01

    The Hoa Binh Dam, located on a tributary of the Red River in Vietnam, has a capacity of 9.45 × 109 m3 and was commissioned in December 1988. Although being important for flood prevention, electricity production, and irrigation in northern Vietnam, the Hoa Binh Dam has also highly influenced the suspended sediment distribution in the lower Red River basin, in the delta and in the coastal zone. Its impact was analysed from 50 yr dataset of water discharg...

  2. Evaluating the impact of PCV-10 on invasive pneumococcal disease in Brazil: A time-series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Ana Lucia; Minamisava, Ruth; Policena, Gabriela; Cristo, Elier B; Domingues, Carla Magda S; de Cunto Brandileone, Maria Cristina; Almeida, Samanta Cristine Grassi; Toscano, Cristiana Maria; Bierrenbach, Ana Luiza

    2016-02-01

    Routine infant immunization with 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-10) began in Brazil in 2010. The impact of the PCV-10 on rates of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) at the population level was not yet evaluated. Serotype-specific IPD changes after PCV-10 introduction is still to be determined. Data from national surveillance system for notifiable diseases (SINAN) and national reference laboratory for S. pneumoniae in Brazil (IAL) were linked to enhance case ascertainment of IPD. An interrupted time-series analysis was conducted to predict trends in the postvaccination IPD rates in the absence of PCV-10 vaccination, taking into consideration seasonality and secular trends. PCVs serotype-specific distribution were assessed before (2008-2009) and after (2011-2013) the introduction of PCV-10 in the immunization program. A total of 9,827 IPD cases were identified from 2008-2013 when combining SINAN and IAL databases. Overall, PCV-10 types decreased by 41.3% after PCV-10 vaccination period, mostly in children aged 2-23 months, while additional PCV-13 serotypes increased by 62.8% mainly in children under 5-year of age. For children aged 2-23 months, targeted by the immunization program, we observed a 44.2% (95%CI, 15.8-72.5%) reduction in IPD rates. In contrast, significant increase in IPD rates were observed for adults aged 18-39 y (18.9%, 95%CI 1.1-36.7%), 40-64 y (52.5%, 95%CI 24.8-80.3%), and elderly ≥ 65 y (79.3%, 95%CI 62.1-96.5%). This is the first report of a time-series analysis for PCV impact in IPD conducted at national level data in a developing country. We were able to show significant impact of PCV-10 on IPD for age groups targeted by vaccination in Brazil, 3 y after its introduction. No impact on other age groups was demonstrated. PMID:26905679

  3. Permafrost and infrastructure in the Usa Basin (Northeast European Russia) : Possible impacts of global warming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazhitova, G.; Karstkarel, N.; Oberman, N.; Romanovsky, V.; Kuhry, P.

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between permafrost conditions and the distribution of infrastructure in the Usa Basin, Northeast European Russia, is analyzed. About 75% of the Basin is underlain by permafrost terrain with various degrees of continuity (isolated patches to continuous permafrost). The region has a h

  4. PETROBRAS and social responsibility: the artificial reefs project in Campos Basin, Brazil; PETROBRAS e responsabilidade social: a instalacao de recifes artificiais na Bacia de Campos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortegiano, Adriana de Santa Marinha Pastorino de Almeida

    2004-07-01

    This article focus on an innovative project launched by PETROBRAS with the main purpose of minimizing the impacts of drilling activities in Campos Basin, over the fishery industry in the northeast region of Rio de Janeiro. This project is seen as a relevant part of PETROBRAS' corporate social responsibility actions. In this sense, it is supposed to consider the interests of all parts directly and indirectly related and affected by the companies' intervention. The major conclusion is that the project could be an important first step to restructure the fishery sector an to harmonize the 'sea users'. A potential improvement could be the promotion of a more effective participation of fishermen in the project and the inclusion of the social and environmental dimensions. (author)

  5. DEVELOPMENT AND THE IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON ENERGY DEMAND: EVIDENCE FROM BRAZIL

    OpenAIRE

    GUILHERME DEPAULA; ROBERT MENDELSOHN

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of climate on residential electricity use for households from different income classes in Brazil. Using cross-sectional data, the study finds that the temperature elasticity of electricity consumption varies significantly across income classes. The temperature elasticity of low income households is not significantly different from zero but middle and high income families have a long run temperature elasticity of 0.8 and 1.6 respectively. As emerging low lat...

  6. The Impact of Cardiac Diseases during Pregnancy on Severe Maternal Morbidity and Mortality in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Campanharo, Felipe F.; Cecatti, Jose G.; Haddad, Samira M; Parpinelli, Mary A; Daniel Born; Costa, Maria L; Rosiane Mattar

    2015-01-01

    Background To evaluate maternal heart disease as a cause or complicating factor for severe morbidity in the setting of the Brazilian Network for Surveillance of Severe Maternal Morbidity. Methods and Findings Secondary data analysis of this multicenter cross-sectional study was implemented in 27 referral obstetric units in Brazil. From July 2009 to June 2010, a prospective surveillance was conducted among all delivery hospitalizations to identify cases of severe maternal morbidity (SMM), incl...

  7. Structural Change and Poverty Reduction in Brazil : The Impact of the Doha Round

    OpenAIRE

    Bussolo, Maurizio; Lay, Jann; van der Mensbrugghe, Dominique

    2006-01-01

    Over the medium time horizon, skill upgrading, differentials in sectoral technological progress, and migration of labor out of farming activities are some of the major structural adjustment factors shaping the evolution of an economy and its connected poverty trends. The main focus of the authors is understanding, for the case of Brazil, how a trade shock interacts with these structural forces and ascertaining whether it enhances or hinders medium-term poverty reduction. In particular, they c...

  8. The Impacts of Global Warming on Farmers in Brazil and India

    OpenAIRE

    Sanghi, A.; Mendelsohn, R

    2008-01-01

    How big a threat is global warming to climate-sensitive and economically important sectors such as agriculture in developing countries? How well will farmers be able to adapt to the threats of global warming? This paper attempts to shed light on these two important questions. A cross-sectional analysis is employed to estimate the climate sensitivity of agriculture in Brazil and India. Using panel data from both countries, the study measures how net farm income or property values vary with cli...

  9. The impact of trade liberalisation on the informal sector in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Fabio Veras Soares

    2005-01-01

    We assess whether or not the trade liberalisation process in Brazil had any effect on both the reduction in the wage differential between registered and non-registered (roughly formal and informal) workers and the fall in the proportion of registered workers. We discuss the channels through which trade liberalisation could affect these two variables and put forward three empirical approaches to test the existence of any correlation between them. Our results suggest that the fall in the wage g...

  10. Economic impact of alternative policy responses to prolonged and severe drought in the Rio Grande Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, James F.; Michelsen, Ari M.; Ward, Frank A.

    2005-02-01

    In the Rio Grande Basin, water is overallocated, demands are growing, and river flows and uses are vulnerable to drought and climate change. Currently, the basin is in the third year of severe drought; irrigation and municipal water diversions have been severely curtailed; extensive diversions threaten endangered species, and reservoir volumes are nearly depleted. A central challenge is development of policies that efficiently and equitably allocate the basin's water resources among competing uses across political and institutional jurisdictions. A basin-wide, nonlinear programming model optimizes resource allocations and water use levels for the upper part of the Rio Grande Basin to test whether institutional adjustments can reduce damages caused by drought. Compared to existing institutions, we find that future drought damages could be reduced by 20 and 33% per year through intracompact and interstate water markets, respectively, that would allow water transfers across water management jurisdictions. Results reveal economic tradeoffs among water uses, regions, and drought control strategies.

  11. Oxacillinase (OXA-producing Acinetobacter baumannii in Brazil: clinical and environmental impact and therapeutic options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheli Medeiros

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Following a worldwide trend, infections caused by MDR OXA-type (Ambler class D carbapenemase-producing Acinetobacter baumannii are currently regarded as a clinical and epidemiological emergency in Brazil. OXA-producing A. baumannii strains have been identified in the states of Alagoas, Amazonas, Bahia, Distrito Federal, Espírito Santo, Goiás, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Paraná, Pernambuco, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina and São Paulo. In some settings, the presence of OXA-23- and/or OXA-143 -producing A. baumannii (so far restricted to Brazil has been endemic and A. baumannii strains carrying blaOXA-23 genes have been detected in hospital wastewater effluents, hence a potential risk to the community and the environment. Although molecular typing by multilocus sequence typing (MLST - Bartual scheme, University of Oxford, http://pubmlst.org/abaumannii/ has revealed the international spread of a clonal complex (CC denominated CC92, in Brazil most OXA-23-producing A. baumannii belong to CC113, CC109 or CC104 clonal complexes. Finally, from a clinical point of view, the main problem of A. baumannii infections is the limited use of antibacterial agents with in vitro activity, often restricted to ampicillin/sulbactam, polymyxin B and/or colistin (polymyxin E.

  12. Impact of canine control on the epidemiology of canine and human visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palatnik-de-Sousa, C B; dos Santos, W R; França-Silva, J C; da Costa, R T; Reis, A B; Palatnik, M; Mayrink, W; Genaro, O

    2001-11-01

    Brazil is the only country endemic for zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL) that regularly conducts epidemiologic and prophylactic control programs that involve the treatment of human cases, insect vector control, and the removal of seropositive infected dogs. This report reviews 60 studies reporting data on the efficacy of these recommended control tools and concludes that in Brazil 1) eradication of the disease in Minas Gerais was achieved by the concomitant use of the three control methods, 2) although seropositivity by an immunofluorescent assay is not completely related to infectiousness, the removal of seropositive dogs leads to a significant reduction of canine and human incidence, 3) improvement of the sensitivity of the diagnostic tool used for canine control should optimize the efficacy of control, and 4) although difficult and expensive, the public health dog control campaigns performed in Brazil reduced the incidence of ZVL and should be maintained since treatment of dogs is an unrealistic intervention, both because of its prohibitive cost and relatively poor effectiveness. PMID:11716106

  13. Determining Regional Actual Evapotranspiration of Irrigated Crops and Natural Vegetation in the São Francisco River Basin (Brazil Using Remote Sensing and Penman-Monteith Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio H. de C. Teixeira

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available To achieve sustainable development and to ensure water availability in hydrological basins, water managers need tools to determine the actual evapotranspiration (ET on a large scale. Field energy balances from irrigated and natural ecosystems together with a net of agro-meteorological stations were used to develop two models for ET quantification at basin scale, based on the Penman-Monteith equation. The first model (PM1 uses the resistances to the latent heat fluxes estimated from satellite measurements, while the second one (PM2 is based on the ratio of ET to the reference evapotranspiration (ET0 and its relation to remote sensing parameters. The models were applied in the Low-Middle São Francisco river basin in Brazil and, after comparison against field results, showed good agreements with PM1 and PM2 explaining, respectively, 79% and 89% of the variances and mean square errors (RMSE of 0.44 and 0.34 mm d−1. Even though the PM1 model was not chosen for ET calculations, the equation for surface resistance (rs was applied to infer the soil moisture conditions in a simplified vegetation classification. The maximum values of rs were for natural vegetation—caatinga (average of 1,937 s m−1. Wine grape and mango orchard presented similar values around 130 s m−1, while table grape presented the lowest ones, averaging 74 s m−1. Petrolina and Juazeiro, in Pernambuco (PE and Bahia (BA states, respectively, were highlighted with the biggest irrigated areas. The highest increments are for vineyards and mango orchards. For the first crop the maximum increment was verified between 2003 and 2004 in Petrolina-PE, when the cultivated area increased 151%. In the case of mango orchards the most significant period was from 2005 to 2006 in Juazeiro-BA (129%. As the best performance was for PM2, it was selected and used to analyse the regional ET at daily and annual scales, making use of Landsat images and a geographic information system for different

  14. Occurrence of B chromosomes in Cyphocharax modestus (Fernández-Yépez, 1948) and Steindachnerina insculpta (Fernández-Yépez, 1948)(Characiformes, Curimatidae) from the Tibagi River basin (Paraná State, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravena, W; Teribele, R; Giuliano-Caetano, L; Dias, A L

    2007-12-01

    We cytogenetically analyzed 18 individuals of Cyphocharax modestus, and 41 individuals of Steindachnerina insculpta from the Tibagi River basin (Paraná State, Brazil). All the specimens had 2n=54 chromosomes, all meta-submetacentric (M-SM). The presence of 1 or 2 B chromosomes was seen in some individuals of C. modestus of the two sampled populations, showing inter- and intra individual variation. In S. insculpta, B chromosomes were also observed but only in one population, also showing inter- and intra individual variation. C-banding was used to show that the identified B chromosomes were totally heterochromatic in the two examined species. PMID:18278358

  15. URBANIZATION AND ITS IMPACTS ON WATER ENVIRONMENT IN TUMEN RIVER BASIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The trans-boundary scope of the Tumen River Basin (TRB) going through China, Russia and DPRK hasbeen defined, and on the basis of this, status of urbanization and its impacts on water environment in recent 20 years inTRB have been analyzed. Urbanization in TRB can be characterized as: 1) There is medium level of overall urbanizationin TRB. Certain distance still exists compared with developed countries. And it is lower than the average urbanizationlevel of Russia and higher than that of China. 2) There is unbalanced distribution of urbanization development in TRB.Urbanization in China part owns the character of low starting point and high-speed development. In Russia part, character of urbanization can be described as high starting point and stable development. In DPRK part, urbanization level islow, and motive power lacks. 3) Due to large population, in China part there is broader region urbanized, larger radiusand higher frequency of human activities, which lead to heavier pressure on environment. Meanwhile, the paper has pointed that impacts of urbanization on water environment are as follows: 1) Urban population growth and industry developmerit increase the demand for freshwater, and also exacerbate the contradiction between limited water supply and increasing freshwater demand. 2) Urban infrastructure doesn't match with urban productive function especially treatment facilities, which results in the pollution of the Tumen River. 3) The pollution situation in the Tumen River got peak point in1995, and presently, such situation has been improved in great scale, due to effective interventions adopted. However,there still exist 2 enterprises that are urgent to be harnessed. Moreover, pollution of municipal sewage will become moreand more apparent. 4) The influence of urbanization on soil is mainly caused by industrial effluent and slag, and polluted water irrigation. Soil and water loss has also been a serious problem caused by urbanization. 5) Urbanization

  16. URBANIZATION AND ITS IMPACTS ON WATER ENVIRONMENT IN TUMEN RIVER BASIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGShi-jun; WANGDan; 等

    2002-01-01

    The trans-boundary scope of the Tumen River Basin(TRB) going through China,Russia and DPRK has been defined,and on the basis of this,status of urbanization and its impacts on water environment in recent 20years in TRB have analyzed.Urbanization in TRB can be characterized as:1)There is medium level of overall urbanization in TRB.Certain distance still exists compared with developed countries.And it is lower than the average urbanization level of Russia and higher than that of China.2)There is unbalanced distribution of urbanization development in TRB.Urbanization in China part owns the character of low starting point and high-speed development.In Russia part,charac-ter of urbanization can be described as high starting point and stable development.In DPRK part,urbanization level is low,and motive power lacks.3)Due to large population,in China part there is broader region urbanized,larger radius and higher frequency of human activities,which lead to heavier pressure on environment.Meanwhile,the paper has point-ed that impacts of urbanization on water environment are as follows:1)Urban population growth and industry develop-ment increase the demand for freshwater,and also exacerbate the contradiction between limited water supply and increase-ing freshwater demand.2)Urban infrastructure doesnˊt match with urban productive function especially treatment facili-ties,which results in the pollution of the Tumen River.3)The pollution situation in the Tumen River got peak point in 1995,and presently,such situation has been improved in great scale,due to effective interventions adopted.However,there still exist 2enterprises that are urgent to be harnessed.Moreover,pollution of municipal sewage will become more and more apparent.4)The influence of urbanization on soil is mainly caused by industrial effluent and slag,and pollut-ed water irrigation.Soil and water loss has also been a serious problem caused by urbanization.5)Urbanization results in the decrease of wetlands area

  17. Climate Change Impact on Smallholder Farmers in the White Volta Basin of the Upper East Region of Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Amikuzuno, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we use the TOA-MD model to test climate change impacts and adaptation strategies with socioeconomic, survey data from the upper White Volta Basin of Ghana. Combining simu-lated and expected crop and livestock yields under three different climate scenarios, the econom-ic impact of climate change to 2050 is analysed. We find that livelihood outcome variables like income and poverty levels as well as adoption rates are sensitive to the different climate scenari-os. Most particularl...

  18. Land Transformation and Occupation Impacts of Farming Practices for the Production of Soybean in Mato Grosso, Brazil, Using Life Cycle Impact Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathuilliere, M. J.; Miranda, E. J.; Couto, E. G.; Johnson, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    The state of Mato Grosso is the largest producer of soybean in Brazil with production continuously increasing since 2000 through a near tripling of cropland area under soybean cultivation. This increase in production has occurred by land cover transformation (extensification into natural ecosystems, e.g. forest to crop) and land use intensification (increase in area by conversion of already cleared land, e.g. pasture to crop), largely to satisfy international demand. In this study, we assess cradle-to-farm gate impacts of soybean production in Mato Grosso using life cycle impact assessment applied to data collected from 110 farms. We combine 21 impact indicators of land transformation and occupation (i.e. land use and land cover change) to show impacts of life cycle stages of production to land, air, water, resource use, biodiversity and ecosystem services. The greatest damage to human health and ecosystem quality came from land transformation which primarily takes place in the tropical forest (Amazon) and savanna (Cerrado/Cerradão) biomes. Soybean production in tropical forest landscapes has greater impacts on climate regulation, biotic production and groundwater recharge compared to production in native savanna areas, while impacts on biodiversity, erosion and soil water purification are roughly equivalent for tropical forest vs. savanna transformation and occupation. Soybean production practices showed hot spots of damage to environmental quality and resources from phosphorous fertilizer application and diesel consumption in machinery through impact pathways such as terrestrial and aquatic acidification and the use of non-renewable energy. Life cycle impact assessment modeling can provide further information into the production process to enlighten decision making with respect to impacts occurring along the soybean product supply chain.

  19. Dispersal Syndromes of fossil Seeds from the Lower Permian of Paraná Basin, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane M. Souza

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The morphological analysis of seeds has been an important subject in modern ecological studies, once it provides evidence about the biology and adaptations of the parent plant. However, this kind of study has been restricted to the ecology of modern plants and is rarely used in interpretations of Paleozoic data. From the understanding of dispersal syndromes analysis as an important tool to paleoecological reconstruction, this study provides a first approach using this tool with seeds from the Lower Permian strata of southern Paraná Basin in Rio Grande do Sul. Based on previously classified seeds and using their biological and taphonomic data, the syndrome of dispersal was interpreted, and their placement in successional groups (pioneer, early-successional and later-successional was suggested. Seven morphospecies were analyzed: Samaropsis gigas, representing a later-successional species living in water bodies with hydrochory as its dispersal syndrome; Samaropsis kurtzii, typical of early-successional species showing anemochory as its dispersal syndrome and living in distal areas in relation to water bodies; Samaropsis aff. S. millaniana, Cordaicarpus aff. C. brasilianus, Cordaicarpus cerronegrensis and Cordaicarpus truncata have typical characteristics of pioneer plants, exhibiting barochory as their primary dispersal syndrome with other syndromes associated.A Análise morfológica das sementes tem sido um importante objeto em estudos ecológicos modernos, uma vez que fornece evidências sobre a biologia e as adaptações das plantas-mãe de sementes. Entretanto, este tipo de estudo tem sido restrito a ecologia de plantas modernas e é raramente utilizado em interpretações de dados paleozóicos. A partir do entendimento da análise das sindromes de dispersão como uma importante ferramenta para reconstruções paleoecológicas, este estudo oferece uma primeira abordagem utilizando essa ferramenta com sementes do Permiano Inferior do Sul da

  20. Biology and ecomorphology of stream fishes from the rio Mogi-Guaçu basin, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katiane M. Ferreira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The córrego Paulicéia is a direct tributary of the rio Mogi-Guaçu, located in Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, State of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. This stream runs inside a savannah-like (cerrado environment and it associated vegetation. Biological and ecomorphological aspects of its fish community were studied in three stretches of the stream, denominated herein as the upper, middle and lower courses. The fish fauna recorded in this study consisted of 15 species, belonging to five orders and nine families, based in a total of 715 collected individuals representing 1,450 kg of biomass. The most important abiotic factors related to the occurrence and distribution of the fish fauna were the substrate, current speed, and presence or absence of riparian vegetation. The analysis of 336 stomach contents of 13 species demonstrated that 65% of food items are autochthonous, 32% allochthonous, and 3% are of unknown origin. Four alimentary guilds could be identified, based on the predominant food items: omnivores with tendency to insectivory - Astyanax paranae, A. fasciatus and Piabina argentea; larvivores - Corydoras difluviatilis, Cetopsorhamdia iheringi, Phenacorhamdia tenebrosa, Characidium gomesi, Eigenmannia virescens, and Rhamdia quelen; periphyton feeders - Hisonotus sp., Hypostomus ancistroides and Synbranchus marmoratus; and piscivore - Hoplias malabaricus. Reproductions data are presented for Astyanax altiparanae and Hisontus sp. Three ecomorphological groups could be established, based on swimming, feeding, and microhabitat strategies: nektonic (A. fasciatus, A. paranae, Bryconamericus stramineus, P. argentea, H. malabaricus and Phallotorynus jucundus, benthic (C. gomesi, P. tenebrosa, C. iheringi, R. quelen, C. difluviatilis, H. ancistroides and Hisonotus sp., and necktobenthic (E. virescens and S. marmoratus.O córrego Paulicéia é um afluente direto do rio Mogi-Guaçu, situado no município de Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, Estado de S

  1. Vector incrimination and effects of antimalarial drugs on malaria transmission and control in the Amazon Basin of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Klein

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available World ecosystems differ significantly and a multidisciplinary malaria control approach must be adjusted to meet these requirements. These include a comprehensive understanding of the malaria vectors, their behavior, seasonal distribution and abundance, susceptibility to insecticides (physiological and behavioral, methods to reduce the numbers of human gametocyte carriers through effective health care systems and antimalarial drug treatment, urban malaria transmission versus rural or forest malaria transmission, and the impact of vaccine development. Many malaria vectors are members of species complexes and individual relationship to malaria transmission, seasonal distribution, bitting behavior, etc. is poorly understood. Additionaly, malaria patients are not examined for circulating gametocytes and both falciparum and vivax malaria patients may be highly infective to mosquitoes after treatment with currently used antimalarial drugs. Studies on the physiological and behavioral effects of DDT and other insecticides are inconclusive and need to be evalusted.

  2. Identification and analysis of local and regional impacts from the introduction of biodiesel production in the state of Piaui [Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent moves towards the insertion of biofuels in the energy matrix of a number of countries are opening new prospects for agricultural production and for agroindustrial chains. The emergence of this new productive base raises new research issues: in what circumstances are the structuring, organization and implementation of these biodiesel productive chains taking place in Brazil? What are the effects of biodiesel production on local economies? Hence, the central objective of this study is identifying their economic and social impacts at the regions where they are installed. The analytical structure was constructed based on theories of regional and spatial economy: location coefficient, shift-share, theories of industrial location. A preliminary analysis identified that a biodiesel productive arrangement is emerging in the State of Piaui, Northeastern Brazil, with the purpose of stimulating regional development using alternative oil-bearing crops. However, the agricultural project in the town of Canto do Buriti/PI has faced problems of both a cultural and productive nature. Preliminary findings reveal productive, organizational, managerial and governance related difficulties and challenges that need to be faced when establishing a new productive base in a location that up to that point lacks a productive tradition. (author)

  3. [The unbearable lightness of aluminum: the social and environmental impacts of Brazil's insertion in the primary aluminum global market].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, Alen Batista; Porto, Marcelo Firpo Souza

    2013-11-01

    This article assesses aluminum production in Brazil and its social, environmental and public health impacts. The effects of the aluminum production chain challenge the idea of sustainable growth affirmed by business groups that operate in the sector. This article upholds the theory that the insertion of Brazil in the global aluminum market is part of a new configuration of the International Division of Labor (IDL), the polluting economic and highly energy dependent activities of which - as is the case of aluminum - have been moving to peripheral nations or emerging countries. The laws in such countries are less stringent, and similarly the environmental movements and the claims of the affected populations in the territories prejudiced in their rights to health, a healthy environment and culture are less influential. The competitiveness of this commodity is guaranteed in the international market, from the production of external factors such as environmental damage, deforestation, emissions of greenhouse gases and scenarios of environmental injustice. This includes undertakings in the construction of hydroelectric dams that expose traditional communities to situations involving the loss of their territories. PMID:24196888

  4. Air Quality and Health Impacts of Future Ethanol Production and Use in São Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scovronick, Noah; França, Daniela; Alonso, Marcelo; Almeida, Claudia; Longo, Karla; Freitas, Saulo; Rudorff, Bernardo; Wilkinson, Paul

    2016-01-01

    It is often argued that liquid biofuels are cleaner than fossil fuels, and therefore better for human health, however, the evidence on this issue is still unclear. Brazil's high uptake of ethanol and role as a major producer makes it the most appropriate case study to assess the merits of different biofuel policies. Accordingly, we modeled the impact on air quality and health of two future fuel scenarios in São Paulo State: a business-as-usual scenario where ethanol production and use proceeds according to government predictions and a counterfactual scenario where ethanol is frozen at 2010 levels and future transport fuel demand is met with gasoline. The population-weighted exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone was 3.0 μg/m³ and 0.3 ppb lower, respectively, in 2020 in the scenario emphasizing gasoline compared with the business-as-usual (ethanol) scenario. The lower exposure to both pollutants in the gasoline scenario would result in the population living 1100 additional life-years in the first year, and if sustained, would increase to 40,000 life-years in year 20 and continue to rise. Without additional measures to limit emissions, increasing the use of ethanol in Brazil could lead to higher air pollution-related population health burdens when compared to policy that prioritizes gasoline. PMID:27409628

  5. Typical synoptic situations and their impacts on the wintertime air pollution in the Guanzhong basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bei, Naifang; Li, Guohui; Huang, Ru-Jin; Cao, Junji; Meng, Ning; Feng, Tian; Liu, Suixin; Zhang, Ting; Zhang, Qiang; Molina, Luisa T.

    2016-06-01

    Rapid industrialization and urbanization have caused severe air pollution in the Guanzhong basin, northwestern China, with heavy haze events occurring frequently in recent winters. Using the NCEP reanalysis data, the large-scale synoptic situations influencing the Guanzhong basin during wintertime of 2013 are categorized into six types to evaluate the contribution of synoptic situations to the air pollution, including "north-low", "southwest-trough", "southeast-high", "transition", "southeast-trough", and "inland-high". The FLEXPART model has been utilized to demonstrate the corresponding pollutant transport patterns for the typical synoptic situations in the basin. Except for "southwest-trough" and "southeast-high" (defined as favorable synoptic situations), the other four synoptic conditions (defined as unfavorable synoptic situations) generally facilitate the accumulation of air pollutants, causing heavy air pollution in the basin. In association with the measurement of PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 µm) in the basin, the unfavorable synoptic situations correspond to high PM2.5 mass concentrations or poor air quality and vice versa. The same analysis has also been applied to winters of 2008-2012, which shows that the basin was mainly influenced by the unfavorable synoptic situations during wintertime leading to poor air quality. The WRF-CHEM model has further been applied to simulate the selected 6 days representing the typical synoptic situations during the wintertime of 2013, and the results generally show a good agreement between the modeled distributions and variations of PM2.5 and the corresponding synoptic situations, demonstrating reasonable classification for the synoptic situations in the basin. Detailed meteorological conditions, such as temperature inversion, low-level horizontal wind speed, and planetary boundary layer, all contribute to heavy air pollution events in the basin under unfavorable synoptic conditions

  6. Assessment of climate change impacts on the hydrology of the Peruvian Amazon-Andes basin

    OpenAIRE

    Casimiro, W. S. L.; Labat, D.; Guyot, Jean-Loup; Ardoin Bardin, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we propose an investigation of the modifications of the hydrological response of two Peruvian AmazonasAndes basins in relationship with the modifications of the precipitation and evapotranspiration rates inferred by the IPCC. These two basins integrate around 10% of the total area of the Amazonian basin. These estimations are based on the application of two monthly hydrological models, GR2M and MWB3, and the climatic projections come from BCM2, CSMK3 and MIHR models for A1B a...

  7. Assessing the impacts of climate change on river basin management: A new method with application to the Nile River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidwell, Amy C.

    A framework is developed for the assessment of climate change impacts on water resources systems. The applied techniques include: quantifying global climate model (GCM) skill over a range of time scales; developing future climate scenarios based on GCM data that are found to skillfully represent the observed climate over an historical baseline period; and using the climate scenarios together with hydrologic and water resources models to make assessments of the potential impacts and implications of climate change on water resources systems. A statistical analysis of GCM skill in East Africa shows that temperature is well represented in the GCMs at monthly to annual time scales. Precipitation is found to be much less reliable in the models and shows skill in fewer seasons and nodes than temperature. Eight climate scenarios, stemming from three global climate models and two atmospheric emissions scenarios, project temperature increases between 2 and 5° Celsius by the year 2080. Precipitation projections vary widely across models as well as regionally. The scenarios project changes in precipitation from -38% to +42%. The climate change impact methodology is applied to the Nile River Basin. It is shown that, in spite of widely varying precipitation projections, the major sub-basins of the Nile River will experience decreases in watershed runoff under all eight climate scenarios. Detailed water resources models are employed to assess the system wide response to the climate-induced hydrologic changes. The assessments indicate that water supply deficits will emerge by 2030 and continue to grow in frequency and magnitude by 2080. Additional impacts include reservoir depletion and reduced hydropower generation. An assessment of the river system response to basin development projects, including additional water storage and wetlands water conservation, indicates that adverse climate impacts may be mitigated for 30 to 40 years. The assessments demonstrate the relevance of

  8. Curonian Lagoon drainage basin modelling and assessment of climate change impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalja Čerkasova

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Curonian Lagoon, which is the largest European coastal lagoon with a surface area of 1578 km2 and a drainage area of 100,458 km2, is facing a severe eutrophication problem. With its increasing water management difficulties, the need for a sophisticated hydrological model of the Curonian Lagoon's drainage area arose, in order to assess possible changes resulting from local and global processes. In this study, we developed and calibrated a sophisticated hydrological model with the required accuracy, as an initial step for the future development of a modelling framework that aims to correctly predict the movement of pesticides, sediments or nutrients, and to evaluate water-management practices. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool was used to implement a model of the study area and to assess the impact of climate-change scenarios on the run-off of the Nemunas River and the Minija River, which are located in the Curonian Lagoons drainage basin. The models calibration and validation were performed using monthly streamflow data, and evaluated using the coefficient of determination (R2 and the Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient (NSE. The calculated values of the R2 and NSE for the Nemunas and Minija Rivers stations were 0.81 and 0.79 for the calibration, and 0.679 and 0.602 for the validation period. Two potential climate-change scenarios were developed within the general patterns of near-term climate projections, as defined by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment Report: both pessimistic (substantial changes in precipitation and temperature and optimistic (insubstantial changes in precipitation and temperature. Both simulations produce similar general patterns in river-discharge change: a strong increase (up to 22% in the winter months, especially in February, a decrease during the spring (up to 10% and summer (up to 18%, and a slight increase during the autumn (up to 10%.

  9. Inter-Basin Water Transfer Impact Assessment on Environment of Pennar to Cauvery Link Canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, S. V. J. S. S.; Prakasa Rao, B. S.; Niranjan, K.

    2016-07-01

    Owing to its striking differences in its climatic conditions, India is frequently facing with extremities such as heavy rain fall in some regions where as some other regions endure little rainfall. The regions receiving heavy precipitation are facing floods resulting in huge amount of water runs into the sea. Contrarily, the regions, without adequate rainfall are suffering from persistent droughts. To overcome such disparities in the distribution of water, National Water Development Agency (NWDA) put a proposal to transfer water through link canals between rivers. The current study is limited to two river basins, Pennar and Cauvery. The present study is confined to Pennar (somasila) to Cauvery (Grand Anicut) whose length is 483 km. The study consist of10 km. buffer on either side of the canal and it occupies 17,215.68 sq. km. out of these 10,105.96 sq.km.is proposed command area which falls in Chittoor, Chengalpattu, North Arcott and South Arcott districts. Using IRS-P6, LISS-III data the characteristics of the rocks, lineaments, drainage, settlements and land use/land cover are mapped for better analysis and the environmental impact. The study indicated that Current fallow land of 5340.14 km2 and 6307.98 km2 of cropland will be brought under cultivation which is more than what is NWDA estimated land that will be benefited. The canal will provide water for irrigation and drinking to 4597 villages and 244 villages to be rehabilitated. 119 culverts/canal bridges and 24 aqueducts have to be constructed across the canal.

  10. Modeling the Impacts of Farming Practices on Water Quality in the Little Miami River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Susanna T. Y.; Naramngam, Sarawuth

    2007-06-01

    Since intensive farming practices are essential to produce enough food for the increasing population, farmers have been using more inorganic fertilizers, pesticides, and herbicides. Agricultural lands are currently one of the major sources of non-point source pollution. However, by changing farming practices in terms of tillage and crop rotation, the levels of contamination can be reduced and the quality of soil and water resources can be improved. Thus, there is a need to investigate the amalgamated hydrologic effects when various tillage and crop rotation practices are operated in tandem. In this study, the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was utilized to evaluate the individual and combined impacts of various farming practices on flow, sediment, ammonia, and total phosphorus loads in the Little Miami River basin. The model was calibrated and validated using the 1990-1994 and 1980-1984 data sets, respectively. The simulated results revealed that the SWAT model provided a good simulation performance. For those tested farming scenarios, no-tillage (NT) offered more environmental benefits than moldboard plowing (MP). Flow, sediment, ammonia, and total phosphorus under NT were lower than those under MP. In terms of crop rotation, continuous soybean and corn-soybean rotation were able to reduce sediment, ammonia, and total phosphorus loads. When the combined effects of tillage and crop rotation were examined, it was found that NT with continuous soybean or corn-soybean rotation could greatly restrain the loss of sediments and nutrients to receiving waters. Since corn-soybean rotation provides higher economic revenue, a combination of NT and corn-soybean rotation can be a viable system for successful farming.

  11. Impacts of Land Use on Surface Water Quality in a Subtropical River Basin: A Case Study of the Dongjiang River Basin, Southeastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao Ding

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the relationship between land use and surface water quality is necessary for effective water management. We estimated the impacts of catchment-wide land use on water quality during the dry and rainy seasons in the Dongjiang River basin, using remote sensing, geographic information systems and multivariate statistical techniques. The results showed that the 83 sites can be divided into three groups representing different land use types: forest, agriculture and urban. Water quality parameters exhibited significant variations between the urban-dominated and forest-dominated sites. The proportion of forested land was positively associated with dissolved oxygen concentration but negatively associated with water temperature, electrical conductivity, permanganate index, total phosphorus, total nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen and chlorophyll-a. The proportion of urban land was strongly positively associated with total nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen concentrations. Forested and urban land use had stronger impacts on water quality in the dry season than in the rainy season. However, agricultural land use did not have a significant impact on water quality. Our study indicates that urban land use was the key factor affecting water quality change, and limiting point-source waste discharge in urban areas during the dry season would be critical for improving water quality in the study area.

  12. Bacteria and phytoplankton production rates in eight river stretches of the middle Rio Doce hidrographic basin (southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Mello Petrucio

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of bacterial secondary production (BSP, together with primary phytoplanktonic production (PPP were conducted during dry and rainy seasons, in eight rivers of different orders submitted to different degrees of human impacts (different trophic degree. We aimed to determine and compare the importance of BSP and PPP in carbon fixation in these different lotic ecosystems. Our results showed that the Ipanema River was the most modified system by anthropogenic effluents inputs. These inputs altered the trophic degree and BSP rates of these streams and rivers.Estudos das taxas de produção secundária bacteriana (PSB, junto com as de produção primária fitoplanctônica (PPF em ecossistemas lóticos são escassos na literatura. Estimativas de PSB e de PPF foram realizadas durante os períodos de chuva e seca em 8 rios de diferentes ordens e submetidos a diferentes graus de impactos antrópicos (diferentes graus de trofia. O objetivo foi quantificar e comparar PSB, PPF e as taxas PSB/PPF para inferir sobre a importância destas comunidades na fixação de carbono nestes ecossistemas lóticos. Os resultados deste estudo permitem concluir que o rio Ipanema é o ambiente mais alterado pelo aporte de efluentes de origem antrópica, e que este aporte altera o grau de trofia em todos os ambientes, refletindo diretamente nas estimativas da PSB.

  13. Impact of income inequality and other social determinants on suicide rate in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Borges Machado

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To analyze whether income inequality and other social determinants are associated with suicide rate in Brazil. METHOD: This study used panel data from all 5,507 Brazilian municipalities from 2000 to 2011. Suicide rates were calculated by sex and standardized by age for each municipality and year. The independent variables of the regression model included the Gini Index, per capita income, percentage of individuals with up to eight years of education, urbanization, average number of residents per household, percentage of divorced people, of Catholics, Pentecostals, and Evangelicals. A multivariable negative binomial regression for panel data with fixed-effects specification was performed. RESULTS: The Gini index was positively associated with suicide rates; the rate ratio (RR was 1.055 (95% CI: 1.011-1.101. Of the other social determinants, income had a significant negative association with suicide rates (RR: 0.968, 95% CI: 0.948-0.988, whereas a low-level education had a positive association (RR: 1.015, 95% CI: 1.010-1.021. CONCLUSIONS: Income inequality represents a community-level risk factor for suicide rates in Brazil. The decrease in income inequality, increase in income per capita, and decrease in the percentage of individuals who did not complete basic studies may have counteracted the increase in suicides in the last decade. Other changes, such as the decrease in the mean residents per household, may have contributed to their increase. Therefore, the implementation of social policies that may improve the population's socioeconomic conditions and reduce income inequality in Brazil, and in other low and middle-income countries, can help to reduce suicide rates.

  14. Eand P opportunities in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castilho, Marcelo [National Petroleum Agency of Brasil (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Brazil is one of the world's largest economies and the country also has significant heavy oil reserves. This report from the National Petroleum Agency of Brazil aims at presenting the situation of the oil and gas sector in Brazil in terms of resources, production, regulatory framework and opportunities for the future. Brazil has numerous sedimentary basins at its disposal, most of them being prospected by both national and foreign companies from all over the world. Brazil has over 14 billion barrels of proven reserves, its production is 2,1 MMBbl/d and heavy oil represents almost 40% of that production. The National Petroleum Agency of Brazil is responsible for the implementation of oil sector policy with the aims of maintaining self-sufficiency, implementing good practices in terms of health and safety, and increasing local content. This paper pointed out that Brazil has an important opportunity to enhance its energy sector through the development of heavy oil.

  15. Environmental impact from pollutant action in the Billings Reservoir in Sao Paulo metropolitan area - Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ELETROPAULO Electricity from Sao Paulo S/A covers 74 municipal district of the State with electric power, signifying 26% of the energy consumed in Brazil. This paper presents problems with the aquatic plants proliferation and the methods used for their control in the ELETROPAULO hydraulic system, compound by generators plants, channels and reservoirs. The main consequences of their evolution and the advantage and disadvantage of the used methods are mentioned. These plant proliferation cause damages for the neighbour population, with some social and sanitary re flexion, and for the Company operation. Considerations for an improvement of the control methods are also cited. (C.G.C.). 1 fig

  16. Agricultural Drainage Water Management in the Upper Mississippi River Basin: Potential Impact and Implementation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The unique soil and climate of the Upper Mississippi River Basin area provide the resources for bountiful agricultural production. Agricultural drainage (both surface and subsurface drainage) is essential for achieving economically viable crop production and management. Drainage practices alter the ...

  17. [Draft] Environmental Impact Statement : San Luis Valley Project : Colorado Closed Basin Division

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Closed Basin Division, San Luis Valley Project, Alamosa and Saguache Counties, Colorado, is a multipurpose water resource plan designated to salvage and deliver...

  18. Impacts of Oil and Gas Production on Winter Ozone Pollution in the Uintah Basin Using Model Source Apportionment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, H. N. Q.; Tran, T. T.; Mansfield, M. L.; Lyman, S. N.

    2014-12-01

    Contributions of emissions from oil and gas activities to elevated ozone concentrations in the Uintah Basin - Utah were evaluated using the CMAQ Integrated Source Apportionment Method (CMAQ-ISAM) technique, and were compared with the results of traditional budgeting methods. Unlike the traditional budgeting method, which compares simulations with and without emissions of the source(s) in question to quantify its impacts, the CMAQ-ISAM technique assigns tags to emissions of each source and tracks their evolution through physical and chemical processes to quantify the final ozone product yield from the source. Model simulations were performed for two episodes in winter 2013 of low and high ozone to provide better understanding of source contributions under different weather conditions. Due to the highly nonlinear ozone chemistry, results obtained from the two methods differed significantly. The growing oil and gas industry in the Uintah Basin is the largest contributor to the elevated zone (>75 ppb) observed in the Basin. This study therefore provides an insight into the impact of oil and gas industry on the ozone issue, and helps in determining effective control strategies.