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Sample records for basic motor abilities

  1. Interpretation of basic concepts in theories of human motor abilities

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    Petrović Adam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic aim of this research is to point to the possible language, logical and knowledge problems in interpretation and understanding of basic concepts in theories of motor abilities (TMA. Such manner of review is not directed only to 'mere understanding', it can lead to a new growth of scientific knowledge. Accordingly, the research question is set, i.e. the research issue: Is there a language, logical and knowledge agreement between basic concepts in the theories of human motor abilities? The answer to the set question direct that a more complete agreement between the basic concepts in the theories of human motor abilities should be searched in a scientific dialog between researchers of various beliefs.

  2. THE EFFECT OF BASIC MOTOR ABILITIES ON DRIBBLING SPEED AND PRECISION IN SOCCER GAME

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    Ismail Selimović; Mehmeti Ejup

    2011-01-01

    Effects of basic motor skills on situational-motor abilities for speed dribble and ball control precision assessment in soccer game at boys aged 12-14 years were analyzed with regression analysis. For this purpose, 17 variables for basic motor parameters were selected, as well as three situational tests. In every example of the regression analysis results, the results obtained showed confirmation of the hypothesis of significant effects of the morphological characteristics on the results in a...

  3. THE EFFECT OF BASIC MOTOR ABILITIES ON DRIBBLING SPEED AND PRECISION IN SOCCER GAME

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    Ismail Selimović

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Effects of basic motor skills on situational-motor abilities for speed dribble and ball control precision assessment in soccer game at boys aged 12-14 years were analyzed with regression analysis. For this purpose, 17 variables for basic motor parameters were selected, as well as three situational tests. In every example of the regression analysis results, the results obtained showed confirmation of the hypothesis of significant effects of the morphological characteristics on the results in analyzed situational- motor tests.

  4. THE EFFECTS OF BASIC MOTOR ABILITIES ON DRIBBLING RESULTS IN SOCCER

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail Selimović; Mehmeti Ejup

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted on a sample of 100 boys aged 12-14 years, members of Sarajevo soccer school teams; FK "ŽELJEZNIČAR", FK "SARAJEVO", FK "NOVI GRAD" and FK "BOSNA". As a predictive variable system, the 17 variables of basic motor skills were applied, and criteria variable was the level of motor control knowledge of ball dribble in football. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of multiple and partial basic motor abilities on the ball dribbling results. Results of regressio...

  5. STRUCTURE OF BASIC MOTOR ABILITIES OF FOOTBALL PLAYERS AT THE AGE OF 10-12

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    Miroslav Smajić

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on a research carried out on the sample of 256 football players at the age of 10-12, using a 20-test battery for evaluation of basic motor abilities, and according to factor analysis, it may generally be concluded that five latent dimensions of structure of basic motor abilities have been isolated, which have been named as: FACTOR OF SPEED-POWER STAMINA, FACTOR OF SPEED OF ALTERNATIVE MOVEMENTS OF LOWER EXTREMITIES AND REPETITIVE STRENGTH OF ARMS, SHOULDERS AND STOMACH MUSCLES, FACTOR OF SUPPLENESS, FACTOR OF STATIC BALANCE, FACTOR OF DYNAMIC BALANCE AND AGILITY

  6. RELATIONS BETWEEN BASIC MOTOR ABILITIES AND SPECIFIC PRECISENESS OF FOOTBALLERS AGED 10-12

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    Miroslav Smajić

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available According to the research on the sample of 256 footballers aged 10-12 and the battery including 20 tests for evaluation of the basic motor abilities and the battery of 24 tests for evaluation of specifi c preciseness, and as per canonic-correlation analysis, a general conclusion can be reached that the boys were rather different in their basic motor abilities. The differences were especially high in explosive strength, coordination, aerobic endurance and balance. One could also conclude that the sample treated in this manner (10-12 years of age is very heterogeneous with respect to basic motor abilities. The subjects showed the highest homogeneity in the tests of specifi c preciseness. They also achieved particularly good results in the tests of vertical target hitting by leg and head. Considering the relations of the basic motor abilities and specifi c preciseness, it was concluded that the structure-based basic motor-canonic factor might be interpreted as FACTOR OF SPEED ENDURANCE AND EXPLOSIVE STRENGTH, whereas structurebased canonic factor of specifi c preciseness might be interpreted as the FACTOR OF SPECIFIC PRECISENESS OF VERTICAL TARGET HITTING BY LEG AND HEAD. The structure of the relations of the fi rst pair of canonic factors indicates that footballers with lower speed endurance and lower explosive strength achieved poorer results in the tests of specifi c preciseness of vertical target hitting by leg and head, and vice versa. Structure of the relations of the second canonic factor indicates quite clearly that the footballers with lower repetitive strength achieved lower results in the tests of specifi c preciseness of horizontal and vertical target by leg and head in a newly created situation. Here of course, the opposite was true, i.e. footballers with higher repetitive strength were better in these tests too.

  7. THE EFFECTS OF BASIC MOTOR ABILITIES ON DRIBBLING RESULTS IN SOCCER

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    Ismail Selimović

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted on a sample of 100 boys aged 12-14 years, members of Sarajevo soccer school teams; FK "ŽELJEZNIČAR", FK "SARAJEVO", FK "NOVI GRAD" and FK "BOSNA". As a predictive variable system, the 17 variables of basic motor skills were applied, and criteria variable was the level of motor control knowledge of ball dribble in football. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of multiple and partial basic motor abilities on the ball dribbling results. Results of regression analysis showed that the significance of mutual influence and prediction criteria system was p <0.01. Variables for general endurance assessment and variable for agility assessment showed statistically significant positive partial correlation coefficients. The explosive strength assessment variable had a statistically significant partial correlation coefficient, but a statistically significant negative partial correlation coefficient was noticed with the flexibility assessment variable

  8. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN FOOTBALL PLAYERS OF DIFFERENT GAMING POSITIONS BASED ON SOME BASIC AND SPECIFIC MOTOR ABILITIES

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    Bogdan Tomić

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on the structure competition activities, and its character can be defined as a hypothetical model of the anthropological characteristics of football players of different gaming positions. Based on hypothetical models of different football players' position can make a division into two groups of players based on game systems that are commonly used in modern football, which is 4-4-2, and the common anthropological characteristics, structure and nature of activities carried out by during the game, so the first group consists of players with smaller volumes of engagement in the game (goalkeeper, two central defenders and two strikers and the second group 190 CRNOGORSKA SPORTSKA AKADEMIJA, „Sport Mont“ časopis br. 31,32,33. consists of players with greater scope to engage in the game (two foreign players and four defensive midfielder (midfielder . The aim is to determine the difference between players of different players' positions on the basis of some basic and specific motor abilities. The sample of 206 football players aged 18 ± 0.5 years is divided into 5 subsamples according to examinees gaming position: forwarders (45, midfield players (47, defenders (41, central defenders (44 and goalkeepers (29. The battery of 16 tests (in which the results are expressed in distance and time - metric. It can be concluded that there are differences between players of different players' positions on the team in relation to the basic and specific motor skills.

  9. Quantitative differences in motor abilities and basic anthropometrics characteristics of boys and girls from fourth grade of primary school

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    Buišić Svetlana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the quantitative differences in motor abilities and basic anthropometric characteristics by gender, we were testing 123 students of the primary school (fourth grade, 10,5 years old. Testing was applied technique of research. Two basic anthropometric measures and 14 motor tests were selected for measuring instruments. Using canonical discriminant analysis leads to results which indicate the presence of statistically significant quantitative differences in motor abilities of boys and girls but not in the anthropometric chararacteristics. Boys were in almost all motor variables statistically significantly better, except in variables for evaluation of flexibility which is more expressed by girls, but in the anthropometric characteristics there is no statistically significant differences relating to gender. Based on research results it is deduced that we need to differentiate primary students of the fourth grade by gender, because of the different levels of motor skills. Fourth grade students do not only need different approach to the work, they also need more frequent physical activity which is indispensable for development and growth.

  10. Training Cognitive Control in Older Adults with the Space Fortress Game: The Role of Training
    Instructions and Basic Motor Ability

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    Helena M Blumen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examined if and how cognitively-healthy older adults can learn to play a complex computer-based action game called the Space Fortress (SF as a function of training instructions (Standard vs. Emphasis Change (EC; e.g. Gopher, Weil & Siegel, 1989 and basic motor ability. A total of 35 cognitively-healthy older adults completed a 3-month SF training program with three SF sessions weekly. Twelve 3-minute games were played during each session. Basic motor ability was assessed with an aiming task, which required rapidly rotating a spaceship to shoot targets. Older adults showed improved performance on the SF task over time, but did not perform at the same level as younger adults. Unlike studies of younger adults, overall SF performance in older adults was greater following standard instructions than following EC instructions. However, this advantage was primarily due to collecting more bonus points and not – the primary goal of the game – shooting and destroying the fortress, which in contrast benefitted from EC instructions. Basic motor ability was low and influenced many different aspects of SF game learning, often interacted with learning rate, and influenced overall SF performance. These findings show that older adults can be trained to deal with the complexity of the SF task but that overall SF performance, and the ability to capitalize on EC instructions, differs when a basic ability such as motor control is low. Hence, the development of this training program as a cognitive intervention that can potentially compensate for age-related cognitive decline should consider that basic motor ability can interact with the efficiency of training instructions that promote the use of cognitive control (e.g. EC instructions – and the confluence between such basic abilities and higher-level cognitive control abilities should be further examined.

  11. Technology and Motor Ability Development

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    Wang, Lin; Lang, Yong; Luo, Zhongmin

    2014-01-01

    As a new member joining the technology family, active video games have been developed to promote physical exercise. This working-in-progress paper shares an ongoing project on examining the basic motor abilities that are enhanced through participating in commercially available active video games. [For the full proceedings see ED557181.

  12. Relationship of Basic Motor and Functional Abilities with Dribbling Speed in 10–17 Years Old Soccer Players

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    Matija Maršič

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the relationship of selected motor and functional abilities with dribbling and changing direction with the ball in 183 young soccer players between 10 and 17 years of age (age 13,0 ± 1,8 years; body height 161,8 ± 13,3 cm; body mass 53,3 ± 14,7 kg. Based on the obtained data and results it was found that after the age of 13, in addition to other skills important for soccer game, it would be necessary to emphasise the elastic power of lower extremities and after the age of 16 additional emphasis should be put on high-speed and quality of execution of specific speed and agility type soccer movements. The most important ability related to dribbling and changing direction with the ball at the age 10-11 is agility. At the age 12-13 these are agility, aerobic-anaerobic endurance and relative elastic power of lower extremities, at the age 14-15 mainly aerobicanaerobic endurance and at the age 16-17, in addition to agility also acceleration and maximum running speed.

  13. “INFLUENCE OF BASIC MOTOR ABILITIES AND CONOTIVE CRITERION ON RESULTS OF SUCCESS IN SOME SPORTS GAMES FOR STUDENTS OF TEACHING SCHOOL”

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    Midhat Mekić

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Upon the results of research it is possible to conclude that high level of influence of basic motor abilities and conotive criterion for successive results of sports games. Dominative predictions of values had conatice characteristic (A1,L17 and one test for judgment of explosiveness of lower extremities. For above mentioned results of this research, first of all, main values of defining hypothesis for further research, as well as promotion of education-teaching process of sports games in high schools.

  14. Deafness and motor abilities level

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    A Zwierzchowska

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The audition injury hinders some motor motions and the organised coordination at the higher level and may be a cause of disturbances and disorder in some motor abilities adoption. It was assumed that deafness including its aetiology and injury mechanism may significantly influence the motor development of human being. The study aimed in checking if the deafness, as a result of various unfavourable factors, determines the motor development of children and youngsters. Consequently the dependency between qualitative features i.e.: signed motor level and aetiology, audition injury mechanism and the deafness degree was examined. The mechanism and aetiology of hearing correlated with the motor abilities displayed statistically significant dependencies in few motor trials only. Revealed correlations regarded mostly the coordination trials excluding the flexibility one. Statistically significant dependencies between the audition diminution and the motor abilities level were not found.

  15. RELATION BETWEEN MOTORIC ABILITIES AND SPECIFIC MOTORIC ABILITIES WITH FOOTBALL PLAYERS FROM 14 TO 16 YEARS OLD

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    Rabit Veseli

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Football is one of the most famous games that man has invented. It is a complex of collective organization and individual ingenuity. No doubt, top results in sport require a serious base of scientific researches and skills. Certainly, modern top results that have been achieved can be analyzed scientifically. It is exactly the scientific approach that is to establish the characteristics of basic importance to provide success in football. It is in favor of top football game to regularly conduct researches, which, as elements of special interest, would cover the basic motoric and specific motoric abilities with football players.The subject of the research is the motoric and specific motoric abilities with young football players aged from 14 to 16. The goal of the research is to establish how the explosive power influences the dribbling skills. The sample of respondents in the research consists of 39 school children at the age of 14 to 16, who play at FC ”Gjilani” and have attended the club for at least two years. They underwent three tests for assessing the explosive power: 1. Standing long jump; 2. 20-meter running and 3. Sargent test. Along with it, two tests for assessing the specific motorics: 1. Dribbling 20 metres with start from the place and 2. Dribbling 20 metres - fly start. The data obtained from the applied five tests is worked out with basic statistic parameters. The relation between motoric and specific motoric abilities is determined through linear regressive analyzes in manifest space. The results suggest that there is a positive and significant relation between the applied motoric and specific motoric abilities. This confirms the close relation between the explosive power and specific motorics of football players expressed through dribbling. Similar results are obtained in the researches of the following authors: Christou et all., 2006, Kraemer et al., 1998, and Young et al., 2001.

  16. Infant motor and cognitive abilities and subsequent executive function.

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    Wu, Meng; Liang, Xi; Lu, Shan; Wang, Zhengyan

    2017-11-01

    Although executive function (EF) is widely considered crucial to several aspects of life, the mechanisms underlying EF development remain largely unexplored, especially for infants. From a behavioral or neurodevelopmental perspective, motor and general cognitive abilities are linked with EF. EF development is a multistage process that starts with sensorimotor interactive behaviors, which become basic cognitive abilities and, in turn, mature EF. This study aims to examine how infant motor and general cognitive abilities are linked with their EF at 3 years of age. This work also aims to explore the potential processes of EF development from early movement. A longitudinal study was conducted with 96 infants (55 girls and 41 boys). The infants' motor and general cognitive abilities were assessed at 1 and 2 years of age with Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Second and Third Editions, respectively. Infants' EFs were assessed at 3 years of age with Working Memory Span task, Day-Night task, Wrapped Gift task, and modified Gift-in-Bag task. Children with higher scores for cognitive ability at 2 years of age performed better in working memory, and children with higher scores for gross motor ability at 2 years performed better in cognitive inhibitory control (IC). Motor ability at 1 year and fine/gross motor ability at 2 years indirectly affected cognitive IC via general cognitive ability at 2 years and working memory. EF development is a multistage process that originates from physical movement to simple cognitive function, and then to complex cognitive function. Infants and toddlers can undergo targeted motor training to promote EF development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. MOTOR STRUCTURE AND BASIC MOVEMENT COMPETENCES IN EARLY CHILD DEVELOPMENT

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    Rado Pišot

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Motor development consists of dynamic and continuous development in motor behaviour and is reflected in motor competences (on the locomotive, manipulative and postural level and motor abilities (coordination, strength, speed, balance, flexibility, precision and endurance. This is a complex process in which a child acquires motor abilities and knowledge in interaction with inherited and environmental factors. A sample of 603 boys and girls, of which 263 were aged five (age deviation +/- 3 days; 18,5 ± 3,1kg body weight; 109,4 ± 4,3 cm body height and 340 were aged six and a half (age deviation +/- 3 days; 23, 7 ± 4, 3 kg body weight; 121 ± 4,8 cm body height, were involved in this study after written consent was obtained from their parents. The children's motor structure was established through the application of 28 tests that had been verified on the Slovene population and established as adequate for the study of motor abilities in the sample children. The factor analysis was applied to uncover the latent structure of motor space, and PB (Štalec Momirović criteria were used to establish the number of significant basic components. The analysis of the motor space structure revealed certain particularities for each age period. In the sample of 5 year old children, the use of PB criterion revealed four latent motor dimensions, in 6.5 year old children, the latent motor space structure was described with four (boys and five (girls factors. Despite the existence of gender differences in motor space structure and certain particularities in each age period mostly related to the factors which influence movement coordination, several very similar dimensions were discovered in both sexes.

  18. Motor learning as a criterion for evaluating coordination motor abilities

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    Boraczynski Tomasz

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the ability of motor learning based on objective, metric criteria, in terms of pedagogical process aimed at improving the accuracy of hits a golf ball to the target. A group of 77 students of physical education participated in the study. Within 8 months there were performed 11 measurement sessions. In each session, subjects performed 10 hits a golf ball to the target from a distance of 9 m. Accuracy of hits was recorded. Effect of motor learning has been demonstrated in the progress of 10 consecutive hits a golf ball to the target in each session (operational control; in the dynamics of performance improvement between sessions (current control; as well as in the total result of eight-month experiment (stage control. There were developed norms for quantitative and qualitative assessment of accuracy of hits a golf ball to the target. Developed quantitative and qualitative criteria for assessing the speed of motor learning in various conditions of the educational process creates the possibility of organization the operational, current and stage control of the level of human coordination motor abilities, as required by leading process.

  19. Quality of Life, Motor Ability, and Weight Status among School-aged Children of Tehran

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    Khodaverdi, F; Bahram, A; Jafarabadi, M Asghari

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between health Related quality of life (HRQOL), motor ability and weight status in children. Methods: Two hundred forty children ages 9–11 yr who were selected via multi stage cluster sampling design from primary schools in the Shahre Qods at Tehran, Iran in 2007. HRQOL was assessed by the pediatric quality of life inventory (PedsQL). Motor abilities were determined by a Basic Motor Ability Test (BMAT). Body mass index was calculate...

  20. Basic timing abilities stay intact in patients with musician's dystonia.

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    M C van der Steen

    Full Text Available Task-specific focal dystonia is a movement disorder that is characterized by the loss of voluntary motor control in extensively trained movements. Musician's dystonia is a type of task-specific dystonia that is elicited in professional musicians during instrumental playing. The disorder has been associated with deficits in timing. In order to test the hypothesis that basic timing abilities are affected by musician's dystonia, we investigated a group of patients (N = 15 and a matched control group (N = 15 on a battery of sensory and sensorimotor synchronization tasks. Results did not show any deficits in auditory-motor processing for patients relative to controls. Both groups benefited from a pacing sequence that adapted to their timing (in a sensorimotor synchronization task at a stable tempo. In a purely perceptual task, both groups were able to detect a misaligned metronome when it was late rather than early relative to a musical beat. Overall, the results suggest that basic timing abilities stay intact in patients with musician's dystonia. This supports the idea that musician's dystonia is a highly task-specific movement disorder in which patients are mostly impaired in tasks closely related to the demands of actually playing their instrument.

  1. Basic Timing Abilities Stay Intact in Patients with Musician's Dystonia

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    van der Steen, M. C.; van Vugt, Floris T.; Keller, Peter E.; Altenmüller, Eckart

    2014-01-01

    Task-specific focal dystonia is a movement disorder that is characterized by the loss of voluntary motor control in extensively trained movements. Musician's dystonia is a type of task-specific dystonia that is elicited in professional musicians during instrumental playing. The disorder has been associated with deficits in timing. In order to test the hypothesis that basic timing abilities are affected by musician's dystonia, we investigated a group of patients (N = 15) and a matched control group (N = 15) on a battery of sensory and sensorimotor synchronization tasks. Results did not show any deficits in auditory-motor processing for patients relative to controls. Both groups benefited from a pacing sequence that adapted to their timing (in a sensorimotor synchronization task at a stable tempo). In a purely perceptual task, both groups were able to detect a misaligned metronome when it was late rather than early relative to a musical beat. Overall, the results suggest that basic timing abilities stay intact in patients with musician's dystonia. This supports the idea that musician's dystonia is a highly task-specific movement disorder in which patients are mostly impaired in tasks closely related to the demands of actually playing their instrument. PMID:24667273

  2. Assessment of motor imagery ability and training

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    André Luiz Felix Rodacki

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in motor imagery ability in response to a specific dart throwing training. Twelve subjects (17-22 years with no previous experience in dart throwing or imagery agreed to participate. Changes in imagery ability were assessed using the Sports Imagery Questionnaire before (pretreatment and after (post-treatment an imagery training program consisting of 10 sessions. Retention (RET was assessed 2 weeks after training. The program included mental exercises designed to develop vivid images, to control one’s own images, and to increase perception about performance. Comparison of the imagery training conditions (training alone, training accompanied, observing a colleague, and during assessment showed no differences between the pretreatment, post-treatment and RET evaluations. Although imagery ability did not respond to training, significant differences between imagery domains (visual, auditory, kinesthetic, and animic were found (p<0.05, except between the visual and animic domains (p=0.58. These differences might be related to subject’s domain preference subject during the imagery process and to the nature of the task in which the skill technique used seems to be a relevant aspect.

  3. RELATION BETWEEN LATENT SPECIFIC MOTOR ABILITIES AND SITUATION MOTOR SKILLS WITH VOLLEYBALL PLAYERS AGED FROM 16 TO 17

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    Rabit Veseli

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The game of volleyball with its dynamic character is present in the world of the sport with permanent development and growing popularity and fans. Volleyball is part of a pollystructural complex sports activities. It is performed on a ground of a relatively small size (18 x 9 meters and is a kind of game that requires of players a high level of advanced motoric abilities (speed, strength, endurance, a fast rate of visual reaction, explosivity, as well as specific motoric skills (precision etc.. Scientific conclusion as well as the growing number of conducted researches in the very game, have a real contribution to its modern development and level of popularity. Situation-motoric skills make a significant dimension in the structure of volleyball game. The subject of the research is specific-motoric abilities and situation-motoric skills of 52 volleyball players aged from 16 to 17. The basic goal of the research is to establish the effect of specific-motoric abilities on situation-motoric skills of volleyball players in latent space. In order to assess the specific-motoric abilities 9 tests are used, and to assess the situation-motoric skills 3 precision tests are used. The results obtained from the 12 applied tests are worked out through the basic statistic parameters. Through component factor analysis 3 latent specific-motoric dimensions are isolated as well as one situation-motoric dimension. By regressive analysis there is established a low but statistically significant relation between the criterion and predictor latent dimensions. That confirms the dependence and relation between the specific-motoric abilities and situation-motoric skills. Researches in the fi eld of similar questions have been conducted by the following authors: Jurko et al., 2013 and Nešić, et al., 2011.

  4. Quality of Life, Motor Ability, and Weight Status Among School-aged Children of Tehran

    OpenAIRE

    M Asghari Jafarabadi; A Bahram; F Khodaverdi

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between health Related quality of life (HRQOL), motor ability and weight status in children.Methods:Two hundred forty children ages 9-11 yr who were selected via multi stage cluster sampling design from primary schools in the Shahre Qods at Tehran,Iran in 2007. HRQOL was assessed by the pediatric quality of life inventory (PedsQL).Motor abilities were determined by a Basic Motor Ability Test (BMAT).Body mass index was calculated to ...

  5. THE EFFECTS OF A BASKETBALL SCHOOL PROGRAM ON SOME MOTOR AND SITUATIONAL-MOTOR ABILITIES OF CHILDREN AGED 12-14 YEARS

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    Alem Kukić

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine quantitative changes that occur under the influence of basketball school program on children, and under the influence of motor and situationalmotor abilities, results obtained on a sample of 65 subjects are analyzed. The applied program from the basketball school gave a statistically significant quantitative changes for basic motor abilities variables, as well as for variables for assesment of situational-motor abilities.

  6. Quality of Life, Motor Ability, and Weight Status among School-aged Children of Tehran.

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    Khodaverdi, F; Bahram, A; Jafarabadi, M Asghari

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between health Related quality of life (HRQOL), motor ability and weight status in children. Two hundred forty children ages 9-11 yr who were selected via multi stage cluster sampling design from primary schools in the Shahre Qods at Tehran, Iran in 2007. HRQOL was assessed by the pediatric quality of life inventory (PedsQL). Motor abilities were determined by a Basic Motor Ability Test (BMAT). Body mass index was calculated to determine weight status. Psychosocial, physical, and total health related qualities of life (all PBMAT variables and weight status. Regardless of motor ability levels, reducing body weight among children is a potential avenue for promoting improved HRQOL. Over weight boys reported significantly worse school performance than over weight girls, suggesting the importance in considering such dimensions in programs aimed at further understanding obesity in children.

  7. ANALYSIS OF RELATIONS BETWEEN JUDO TECHNIQUES AND SPECIFIC MOTOR ABILITIES

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    Patrik Drid

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Specific physical preparation affects the development of motor abilities required for execution of specific movements in judo. When selecting proper specific exercises for judo for a target motor ability, it is necessary to precede it with the study of the structure of specific judo techniques and activities of individual muscle groups engaged for execution of the technique. On the basis of this, one can understand which muscles are most engaged during realization of individual techniques, which serves as a standpoint for selection of a particular complex of specific exercises to produce the highest effects. In addition to the development of particular muscle groups, the means of specific preparation will take effect on the development of those motor abilities which are evaluated as the indispensable for the development of particular qualities which are characteristic for judo. This paper analyses the relationship between judo techniques field and specific motor abilities.

  8. Early motor development and cognitive abilities among Mexican preschoolers.

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    Osorio-Valencia, Erika; Torres-Sánchez, Luisa; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth; Rothenberg, Stephen J; Schnaas, Lourdes

    2017-07-18

    Psychomotricity plays a very important role in children's development, especially for learning involving reading-writing and mathematical calculations. Evaluate motor development in children 3 years old and its relationship with their cognitive abilities at the age of 5 years. Based on a cohort study, we analyzed the information about motor performance evaluated at 3 years old by Peabody Motor Scale and cognitive abilities at 5 years old. The association was estimated using linear regression models adjusted by mother's intelligence quotient, sex, Bayley mental development index at 18 months, and quality of the environment at home (HOME scale). 148 children whose motor performance was determined at age 3 and was evaluated later at age 5 to determine their cognitive abilities. Cognitive abilities (verbal, quantitative, and memory) measured by McCarthy Scales. Significant positive associations were observed between stationary balance at age 3 with verbal abilities (β = 0.67, p = .04) and memory (β = 0.81, p = .02) at 5 years. Grasping and visual-motor integration were significant and positively associated with quantitative abilities (β = 0.74, p = .005; β = 0.61, p = .01) and memory (β = 2.11, p = .001; β = 1.74, p = .004). The results suggest that early motor performance contributes to the establishment of cognitive abilities at 5 years. Evaluation and early motor stimulation before the child is faced with formal learning likely helps to create neuronal networks that facilitate the acquisition of academic knowledge.

  9. LEVEL OF ANTHROPOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS AND MOTOR ABILITIES OF SEDENTARY AND CHILDREN WHO ARE IN TRAINING IN VARIOUS SPORTS ORIENTATION

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    Nela Tatar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Whit the goal to describe anthropometric characteristic and motorical abilities in groups of non sports and children which have some sports training activities, to calculate quantitative and qualitative difference between these groups of children in anthropometric characteristic and motorical abilities, it is conduct survey with the sample of 150 entities, age from 11 to 13, different sports orientation (karate, judo, football and volleyball and non sports children (scholars. In analyze, it was used system of total 27 variables (12 morphological and 15 basic - motorical. Also, descriptive statistical procedures were done and in this paper we present only arithmetical means. For quantitative difference between combination per groups in anthropometric characteristic and motorical abilities it was used ANOVA. According to quantitative and qualitative differences in anthropometric characteristics and motorical abilities from survey, the best anthropometric characteristic were get in groups of volleyball players, and in motorical abilities the best performance shown group of children which train a karate.

  10. Error Argumentation Enhance Adaptability in Adults With Low Motor Ability.

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    Lee, Chi-Mei; Bo, Jin

    2016-01-01

    The authors focused on young adults with varying degrees of motor difficulties and examined their adaptability in a visuomotor adaptation task where the visual feedback of participants' movement error was presented with either 1:1 ratio (i.e., regular feedback schedule) or 1:2 ratio (i.e., enhanced feedback schedule). Within-subject design was used with two feedback schedules counter-balanced and separated for 10 days. Results revealed that participants with greater motor difficulties showed less adaptability than those with normal motor abilities in the regular feedback schedule; however, all participants demonstrated similar level of adaptability in the enhanced feedback schedule. The results suggest that error argumentation enhances adaptability in adults with low motor ability.

  11. The ability to mentally represent action is associated with low motor ability in children: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, Carl; Caçola, Priscila; Bobbio, Tatiana

    2012-05-01

    Theory and anatomical research suggest that the ability to mentally represent intended actions affect level of execution. This study presents preliminary data examining the association between children's ability to mentally represent action and general motor ability. Children aged 7- to 10 years were assessed for motor imagery ability using a simulation of reach task and motor ability via the Movement ABC-2. Motor ability values, based on percentile rank, ranged from 2 to 91, with a mean of 36. The overall correlation between mental representation and motor ability yielded a moderately positive relationship (r = .39). Interestingly, when looking at motor ability subcategories, only Balance was significant in the model, explaining 20% of the variance. These results provide preliminary evidence that children's motor ability and the ability to mentally represent action are associated in a positive direction. Furthermore, given the results for Balance, we speculate that there are clinical implications regarding work with potentially at-risk children. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Fine and Gross Motor Ability in Males with ADHD

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    J Gordon Millichap

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Both fine and gross motor abilities were evaluated in 10-year-old males with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and compared to a group of control children at the School of Psychology, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Australia.

  13. CANONICAL RELATIONS BETWEEN BASIC AND MOTOR - SITUATIONAL-MOTOR SKILLS IN SPORT GAMES

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    Bećir Šabotić

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to establish the correlation between the predictor-basic motor and situational-motor tests in sports games. On the sample of 62 subjects of the first year of high school was carried out measurements which covered 12 basic and 6 motor variables and situational tests in volleyball and basketball.Based on the results of the canonical correlation analysis, it can be concluded that there is a significant relationship between the predictor variables and a set of criterion variables, situational-motor tests basketball and volleyball. These results are logical given the structure of movements from basketball and volleyball that require a high level of coordination and speed.

  14. RELATIONS BETWEEN MOTORIC ABILITIES AND SPECIFIC MOTORIC BASKETBALL SKILLS IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION CLASSES

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    Dejan Milenković

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the relation between motoric and specific motoric basketball skills in physical education classes for elementary school students. The sample was taken from a population of boys and girls in four elementary schools in Niš. Boys (66 and girls (58, have been students of elementary school, 10 years old and all of them have been attending regular physical education classes three times a week. For the assessment of motoric abilities, a set of 12 motoric tests was applied: Explosive strength: squat jump, squat jump arms swing and drop jump; Speed: 20m running from a low start, orbiting hand and orbiting leg; Coordination: jumping over the horizontal rope, envelope test and figure „8“ with bending; Accuracy: darts, shooting with the ball at horizontal target and stiletto. For the assessment of specific motoric basketball skills a set of six tests was applied: elevations precision of ball passing with two hands, horizontal precision of  ball passing with two hands, orbiting ball around the body, orbiting ball through the legs (figure „8“, dribble around a central circle of the basketball court and dribble two "small eights" around two adjacent circles of basketball court. In data processing canonical correlation and regression analysis were used. The results showed that motoric abilities significantly contributed to success of specific motoric tests performance both with boys and also with girls.

  15. Motor ability and inhibitory processes in children with ADHD: a neuroelectric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chiao-Ling; Chang, Yu-Kai; Chan, Yuan-Shuo; Shih, Chia-Hao; Huang, Chung-Ju; Hung, Tsung-Min

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between motor ability and response inhibition using behavioral and electrophysiological indices in children with ADHD. A total of 32 participants were recruited and underwent a motor ability assessment by administering the Basic Motor Ability Test-Revised (BMAT) as well as the Go/No-Go task and event-related potential (ERP) measurements at the same time. The results indicated that the BMAT scores were positively associated with the behavioral and ERP measures. Specifically, the BMAT average score was associated with a faster reaction time and higher accuracy, whereas higher BMAT subset scores predicted a shorter P3 latency in the Go condition. Although the association between the BMAT average score and the No-Go accuracy was limited, higher BMAT average and subset scores predicted a shorter N2 and P3 latency and a larger P3 amplitude in the No-Go condition. These findings suggest that motor abilities may play roles that benefit the cognitive performance of ADHD children.

  16. Motor Imagery Ability in Children with Congenital Hemiplegia: Effect of Lesion Side and Functional Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jacqueline; Reid, Susan M.; Reddihough, Dinah S.; Anderson, Vicki

    2011-01-01

    In addition to motor execution problems, children with hemiplegia have motor planning deficits, which may stem from poor motor imagery ability. This study aimed to provide a greater understanding of motor imagery ability in children with hemiplegia using the hand rotation task. Three groups of children, aged 8-12 years, participated: right…

  17. THE STRUCTURE OF MOTOR ABILITIES IN BASKETBALL PLAYERS

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    Jadranka Kocić

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of basketball game, just like up-to-date sports results represent the stimulus for further fundamental researches in the aim of improvement scientific and methodological basis of a training work and all other factors connected to the improvement of a training process and top sports creativity. The research was conducted with the aim to determine the specifics of motor abilities in basketball players of the junior rank of competition. All the examinees were male, 16 (+/-6 months years old, 132 in total, all of them were basketball players of the basketball club ”Student” from Nis. The batery of tests for the evaluation of motor abilities included tests for the evaluation of coordination, strength (explosive, repetitive and static, flexibility and stamina and it consisted of 13 motor tests in total. The gained results were processed by the program system for multivariant analysis of data, especially made by Popovic D. for personal computers. The gained results are shown in tables and they give insight into the structure of latent dimensions of basketball players. The motor structure of basketball players is explained by 72.3% of common variance. From the matrix of intercorrelations, four main components were gained. The fist defines tests of static strength, flexibility and repetitive strength; the second is saturated by the test for the evaluation of explosive strength, balance and two tests for the evaluation of repetitive strength. The third is the best explained by the test for the evaluation of balance, flexibility and coordination. The fourth main component is defined by explosive strength. Then, the rotation of components into the oblimin solution is conducted and some better structure of latent dimensions is gained that way. In basketball and other popular sports games in our country, scientific and expert methods and possibilities of scientific fundation of the trainig work are very slowly but surely accepted.The trend

  18. 10 CFR 431.385 - Cessation of distribution of a basic model of an electric motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... basic model of an electric motor. (a) In the event that a model of an electric motor is determined non... a model of an electric motor to be in noncompliance, then the manufacturer or private labeler shall... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cessation of distribution of a basic model of an electric...

  19. Motor abilities and anthropometrics in youth cross-country skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöggl, R; Müller, E; Stöggl, T

    2015-02-01

    The purposes were to validate whether general motor abilities and anthropometrics are determinants of youth cross-country (XC) skiing performance; evaluate gender-specific differences; and to establish noninvasive diagnostics. Fifty-one youth XC skiers (34 boys; 13.8 ± 0.6 years and 17 girls; 13.4 ± 0.9 years) performed motor skill and laboratory tests, and anthropometric data were collected and correlated with XC skiing performance. Anthropometrics and maturity status were related to boys but not to girls XC skiing performance. Push-ups and 20-m sprint were correlated to XC skiing performance in both boys and girls. XC skiing performance of boys was predominantly influenced by upper body and trunk strength capacities (medicine ball throw, push-ups, and pull-ups) and jumping power (standing long and triple jump), whereas XC skiing of girls was mainly influenced by aerobic capacities (3000-m run). Laboratory measures did not reveal greater correlations to XC skiing performance compared with simple test concepts of speed, strength, and endurance. Maturity was a major confounding variable in boys but not girls. Use of noninvasive simple test concepts for determination of upper body strength, speed, and endurance represent practicable support for ski clubs, schools, or skiing federations in the guidance and evaluation of young talent, being aware of the effect of maturity especially in boys. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Visual perception and attention in acquisition of motor abilities

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    César Oliva Aravena

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article present a qualitative analysis, relating visual perception to attention in the acquisition of motor abilities process. Research shows that the visual system is already in an advanced stage, right from the moment the baby is born, and that normal eye sight is attained at the age of 5 and continues to improve. On the other hand, attention is an flexible process, subordinated to a cognitive strategy and its relation to eye sight is only functional. The understanfing of the capacity of selective attention is necessary to the teacher or coach for it will help him/her to take decisions on how to teach, which aspects of his/her teaching should be emphasized or inhibited, in the learning process, and wich teaching strategies he/she should use.

  1. QUANTITATIVE CHANGES OF MOTORIC ABILITIES CONDITIONED BY KINEZIOLOGY OPERATORS AT THE CHILDREN WITH SPECIAL NEEDS

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    Branimir Mikić

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The basic mission of the physical training and health education of children with special needs is to satisfy bio-pshico-social need for motion as an expression of satisfying certain needs that can effect on adaptive and creative abilities in modern life circum stances, as well as, on development of health culture of pupils in order to preserve health, correction of inborn and acquired deviation during their growth in early childhood. The most important goal of this research was to define transformation process of basic-motoric abilities, under the influence of experimental program with special needs pupils categorized in light and moderate category of retardation. The research was performed with the children in the „Centre for special needs children youth“.Sample was made with girls and boys, with total of 71 children devided in to three sub-sample according to gender, age and level of retardation. Euro-fit battery was taken as an instrument of research.During this research it was concluded that systematic influence of kineziology operators can positively influence on improved motoric functions of special needs children which is directly refered to intelectual abilities(balance and orientation.

  2. Do motor ability and handwriting kinematic measures predict organizational ability among children with Developmental Coordination Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Sara

    2015-10-01

    Children with Developmental Coordination Disorders (DCD) exhibit deficient daily performance concealed in their perception-action mechanism. The aim of this study was to analyze behavior organization of children with DCD, in varied tasks that require generating and monitoring mental representations related to space and time inputs/requirements, for achieving better insight about their perception-action mechanism. Participants included 42 children aged 7-10, half of whom were defined with DCD and half were typically developing (TD). The children were matched for age, gender and school. They were evaluated using the Movement-ABC and performed three handwriting tasks on an electronic tablet that is part of a computerized system (ComPET - Computerized Penmanship Evaluation Tool). In addition, their teachers completed the Questionnaire for Assessing Students' Organizational Abilities-Teachers (QASOA-T) to assess the children's daily organizational ability. Significant group differences (DCD versus controls) were found for all handwriting kinematic measures across the three handwriting tasks and for the children's organizational abilities. Motor ability predicted a considerable percentage of the variance of the kinematic handwriting measures (30-37%), as well as a high percentage of the variance of their organizational abilities (67%). The coefficient of variance of the pen tilt added an additional 3% to the prediction of their organizational abilities. The results of this study exhibited deficient ability among children with DCD in organizing their behavior in varied real-world tasks requiring generation and monitoring representation related to space and time. The significance of the results to understanding the performance mechanism and implication to the clinical field are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Motor abilities, activities, and participation of institutionalized Brazilian children and adolescents with cerebral palsy

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    Tainá Ribas Mélo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim: To assess motor abilities and functioning of institutionalized children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP within a contextual model of development. Methods: Eleven institutionalized Brazilian children and adolescents aged 2-19 (14 ± 5 years, 5 males and 6 females, were evaluated through the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-88 and 66 and the Functional Independence Measure (FIM, and classified according to the ICF core set. Results: The evaluated individuals have severe impairments as indicated by their GMFM scores and confirmed by their need for full assistance in basic activities of daily living according to the FIM assessment. The difficulties manifested reflected on the ICF body functions and activities and participation domains. Conclusion: Most institutionalized children and adolescents with CP had GMFM-66 scores comparable to those indicated in literature. The ICF-based assessment identified environmental barriers that might be considered for improvement in order to facilitate activities and participation.

  4. Fine Motor Skills Predict Maths Ability Better than They Predict Reading Ability in the Early Primary School Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitchford, Nicola J.; Papini, Chiara; Outhwaite, Laura A.; Gulliford, Anthea

    2016-01-01

    Fine motor skills have long been recognized as an important foundation for development in other domains. However, more precise insights into the role of fine motor skills, and their relationships to other skills in mediating early educational achievements, are needed to support the development of optimal educational interventions. We explored concurrent relationships between two components of fine motor skills, Fine Motor Precision and Fine Motor Integration, and early reading and maths development in two studies with primary school children of low-to-mid socio-economic status in the UK. Two key findings were revealed. First, despite being in the first 2 years of primary school education, significantly better performance was found in reading compared to maths across both studies. This may reflect the protective effects of recent national-level interventions to promote early literacy skills in young children in the UK that have not been similarly promoted for maths. Second, fine motor skills were a better predictor of early maths ability than they were of early reading ability. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that fine motor skills did not significantly predict reading ability when verbal short-term memory was taken into account. In contrast, Fine Motor Integration remained a significant predictor of maths ability, even after the influence of non-verbal IQ had been accounted for. These results suggest that fine motor skills should have a pivotal role in educational interventions designed to support the development of early mathematical skills. PMID:27303342

  5. Fine motor skills predict maths ability better than they predict reading ability in the early primary school years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola J. Pitchford

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fine motor skills have long been recognised as an important foundation for development in other domains. However, more precise insights into the role of fine motor skills, and their relationships to other skills in mediating early educational achievements, are needed to support the development of optimal educational interventions. We explored concurrent relationships between two components of fine motor skills, Fine Motor Precision and Fine Motor Integration, and early reading and maths development in two studies with primary school children of low-to-mid socio-economic status in the U.K. Two key findings were revealed. First, despite being in the first two years of primary school education, significantly better performance was found in reading compared to maths across both studies. This may reflect the protective effects of recent national-level interventions to promote early literacy skills in young children in the U.K. that have not been similarly promoted for maths. Second, fine motor skills were a better predictor of early maths ability than they were of early reading ability. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that fine motor skills did not significantly predict reading ability when verbal short-term memory was taken into account. In contrast, Fine Motor Integration remained a significant predictor of maths ability, even after the influence of non-verbal IQ had been accounted for. These results suggest that fine motor skills should have a pivotal role in educational interventions designed to support the development of early mathematical skills.

  6. Fine Motor Skills Predict Maths Ability Better than They Predict Reading Ability in the Early Primary School Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitchford, Nicola J; Papini, Chiara; Outhwaite, Laura A; Gulliford, Anthea

    2016-01-01

    Fine motor skills have long been recognized as an important foundation for development in other domains. However, more precise insights into the role of fine motor skills, and their relationships to other skills in mediating early educational achievements, are needed to support the development of optimal educational interventions. We explored concurrent relationships between two components of fine motor skills, Fine Motor Precision and Fine Motor Integration, and early reading and maths development in two studies with primary school children of low-to-mid socio-economic status in the UK. Two key findings were revealed. First, despite being in the first 2 years of primary school education, significantly better performance was found in reading compared to maths across both studies. This may reflect the protective effects of recent national-level interventions to promote early literacy skills in young children in the UK that have not been similarly promoted for maths. Second, fine motor skills were a better predictor of early maths ability than they were of early reading ability. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that fine motor skills did not significantly predict reading ability when verbal short-term memory was taken into account. In contrast, Fine Motor Integration remained a significant predictor of maths ability, even after the influence of non-verbal IQ had been accounted for. These results suggest that fine motor skills should have a pivotal role in educational interventions designed to support the development of early mathematical skills.

  7. Relationship between motor coordination, cognitive abilities, and academic achievement in Japanese children with neurodevelopmental disorders

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    Takuya Higashionna

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: These findings stress that it is essential to accurately identify motor coordination impairments and the interventions that would consider motor coordination problems related to cognitive abilities and academic achievement in Japanese children with neurodevelopmental disorders.

  8. THE RELATION OF SOME MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS vs. MOTOR ABILITIES IN BASKETBALL

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    Izedin Mehmeti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the present study was to give a try for clarifying if there is difference present and how the level of differences is in morphologic characteristics and motor abilities (basic and situational specific to basketball abilities between junior basketball club players and their peers –students from secondary high school and to examine some of the properties(causes reasons of the difference. According to the findings obtained from the research, there was not found any statistically significant difference between scores of the participant sample group (n=24 (young basketball players (12 vs high school students (12. Acoording to the study results obtained, basketball coaches should follow the new strategies and developments of modern basketball if they want to fulfill the goals and objectives of every single team. The lack of expertise and competencies of professional staff (coaches-trainers to fulfill their duties and responsibilities correctly is evident in Kosovo’s Junior Basketball League.

  9. Responsiveness of the Test of Basic Motor Skills of Children with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heuvel, Marieke E.; de Jong, Inge; Lauteslager, Peter E. M.; Volman, M. J. M.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the responsiveness of the Test of Basic Motor Skills for Children with Down Syndrome (BMS). Forty-one children with Down Syndrome, 3 to 36 months of age, participated in the study. Gross motor skills were assessed three times using the BMS and the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) before and after a baseline…

  10. The Effects of Basketball Basic Skills Training on Gross Motor Skills Development of Female Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayazit, Betul

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of basketball basic skills training on gross motor skills development of female children in Turkey. For that purpose, 40 female children took part in the study voluntarily. Basketball basic skills test was used to improve the gross motor skills of the female children in the study. Also,…

  11. DIFFERENCES IN THE MOTORIC ABILITIES OF STUDENTS DUE TO THE BODY MASS INDEX (BMI

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    Arben Osmani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:The research has been conducted in order to establish differences in motoric abilities due to the body mass index (BMI with the tested students at the eighth grade (Barlow, & the Expert Committee, 2007. Methods: During the research 160 male students aged 14 were tested. On the base of (BMI they were divided into 3 groups (normal, overweight, and with obesity. They were tested with 6 motor tests for: explosive power, repetitive power, coordination, equilibrium, precision, and flexibility. Along with basic statistic parameters, the differences between the groups are established through: ANOVA, MANOVA and LSD-tests. Results: The obtained results are presented in 5 tables. On the base of the results, a statistically significant difference in favor of the group of normal body mass index is recorded in the following tests: standing a long jump, agility on the ground and keeping balance on one leg. Discussion: The results obtained in this research indicate that obesity and overweight cause a negative effect and result in lower performances concerning some motoric abilities. On the base of the obtained results, it is concluded that the group of students of normal body mass index achieved the best results in the motoric abilities with assessing the following: explosive power, coordination, and equilibrium. As for the motoric ability concerning: precision, repetitive power, and flexibility, there are no established statistically significant differences between the three groups. The obtained results correspond with some former researches (Milanese, et al., 2010; Zhu, Sheng, Wu, & Cairney, 2010, and some do not (De Toia, et al., 2009. References: Barlow SE et al. (2007. Pediatrics, 120, 164–92. De Toia D, Klein D, Weber S, Wessely N, Koch B, Tokarski W, Dordel S, Strüder H, Graf C (2009. European Journal of Obesity, 2(4, 221–5. Zhu YC, Sheng K, Wu SK, Cairney J (2011. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 32(2, 801–7. Milanese C

  12. Relationship between motor abilities and severity of autism spectrum disorder

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    Cvijetić Marija

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the findings in literature, motor skills of children with autism spectrum disorders generally differ from age expectations and are increasingly being associated with speech and language and social development, and adaptive behavior. The aim of the research was to determine the relationship between the development level of fine and gross motor skills and autism severity of children with autism spectrum disorder. The sample included 30 children with autism spectrum disorder and associated intellectual disability, seven to 19 years of age (M=11.97; SD=3.70. The assessment was conducted using the Peabody Motor Development Scale, the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale, and the criteria for describing the level of severity of autism spectrum disorder (APA, 2013. The results have shown that participants' motor skills significantly correlate with social communication (Peabody fine motor skills r=-0.452; p=0.012; Vineland fine motor skills r=-0.511; p=0.004; Vineland total r=-0.391; p=0.032 and restricted, repetitive behaviors (Peabody fine motor skills r=-0.383; p=0.037; Vineland fine motor skills r=-0.433; p=0.017; Vineland total r=-0.371; p=0.044. Lower level of autistic symptomatology is associated with higher motor achievements. It is necessary to pay more attention to the assessment and treatment of motor skills in children with autism spectrum disorder, given the established delay in the development of these skills, and bearing in mind their relationship with the severity of the symptoms of autism spectrum disorder. Timely identification of motor disorders would allow the use of early treatment and potentially lead to better results, compared to later inclusion in intervention programs.

  13. Interlimb Coordination: An Important Facet of Gross-Motor Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbio, Tatiana; Gabbard, Carl; Cacola, Priscila

    2009-01-01

    Motor development attains landmark significance during early childhood. Although early childhood educators may be familiar with the gross-motor skill category, the subcategory of interlimb coordination needs greater attention than it typically receives from teachers of young children. Interlimb coordination primarily involves movements requiring…

  14. CONNECTION OF TURN AHEAD AND TURN BACK WITH MOTORIC ABILITIES OF THE FIFTH GRADE STUDENTS

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    Jovica Petković

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The research is done for the purpose of determination and defining of the level of connection between some motoric abilities with success in realization of programmed contents from the area of gymnastics (turn ahead and turn back. The research is done on the sample of fifty one students from the fifth grade of Elementary School, on ten motoric tests and on two specific motoric assignments – turn ahead and turn back. The results of this research clearly point that there exist the multitude of statistically important coefficients of correlation between treated motoric abilities and applied motoric assignments.

  15. COMPARISON OF MOTOR ABILITIES OF YOUTH FOOTBALL PLAYERS AND PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPILS

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    Miroslav Smajić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Football as a complete sport that is rich in a wide variety of possible movements classified in polistructural, sports complex. To be a football player was able to perform tasks football has, among other things, and have the necessary level of motor abilities that can be achieved only through systematic implementation of training physical training. The aim of this research was to determine the differences in some of the motor abilities between the two researched groups. Methods: In a sample of 196 subjects average age of 12.45 ± 0.03 years, made a comparison of motor abilities. The first group consisted of 82 players - Pioneers FC "Red Star" from Belgrade and the other 114 primary school pupils from Novi Sad. A sample of 9 tests of motor abilities were: long jump from the place, running 20 m, 60 m running, bend straddle the gray, endurance in pull-ups, polygon backwards, slalom with three balls, hand tapping and lifting troops. Comparison of motor abilities of young players and pupils of primary schools was carried out by using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA. Results: An analysis of motor abilities between young players and primary school pupils were found statistically significant differences in all tested variables. Discussion: The research has shown that speed, endurance, coordination and muscle strength of the lower leg predominantly responsible for the success of matching the target foot at a distance, which is an integral part of the training process (Smajic and Molnar, 2007. It is also proven that there is a statistically significant correlation between the explosive and repetitive strength as a predictor of outcome-success rate for jumping in the air at youth players (Stankovic, 2011. References: Kuleš, B., Jerkovic, S. Maric, J. (1991. Influence of running different intentiteta to success in football. Kinesiology, 23 (1-2, 60-65. Malacko, J. (2000. Fundamentals of sports training - a quarter-supplemented and

  16. Disentangling the relationship between children's motor ability, executive function and academic achievement.

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    Mirko Schmidt

    Full Text Available Even though positive relations between children's motor ability and their academic achievement are frequently reported, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Executive function has indeed been proposed, but hardly tested as a potential mediator. The aim of the present study was therefore to examine the mediating role of executive function in the relationship between motor ability and academic achievement, also investigating the individual contribution of specific motor abilities to the hypothesized mediated linkage to academic achievement. At intervals of ten weeks, 236 children aged between 10 and 12 years were tested in terms of their motor ability (t1: cardiovascular endurance, muscular strength, motor coordination, core executive functions (t2: updating, inhibition, shifting, and academic achievement (t3: mathematics, reading, spelling. Structural equation modelling revealed executive function to be a mediator in the relation between motor ability and academic achievement, represented by a significant indirect effect. In separate analyses, each of the three motor abilities were positively related to children's academic achievement. However, only in the case of children's motor coordination, the mediation by executive function accounted for a significance percentage of variance of academic achievement data. The results provide evidence in support of models that conceive executive function as a mechanism explaining the relationship that links children's physical activity-related outcomes to academic achievement and strengthen the advocacy for quality physical activity not merely focused on health-related physical fitness outcomes, but also on motor skill development and learning.

  17. Research and Practice on Basic Composition and Cultivation Pattern of College Students' Innovative Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhenhui; Chen, Hanlin

    2010-01-01

    Facing the increasingly fierce international competition, it has been the core of higher education to explore how to cultivate college students with innovative ability. College students' innovative ability is mainly composed of basic ability, innovative thinking and innovative actions. In conformity to the above composition, the cultivation…

  18. Development and Validation of a Survey Instrument for Detecting Basic Motor Competencies in Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuer, Claude; Bund, Andreas; Becker, Werner; Herrmann, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Basic motor competencies (in German: Motorische Basiskompetenzen; MOBAK) are motor performance dispositions formulated as minimum standards that empower children to participate in the culture of human movement. In opposition to movement-specific and process-oriented fundamental movement skills assessing the quality of movement execution, basic…

  19. Relationship between anthropometry and motor abilities at pre-school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Toia, Daniela; Klein, Daniel; Weber, Sarah; Wessely, Nicolas; Koch, Benjamin; Tokarski, Walter; Dordel, Sigrid; Struder, Heiko; Graf, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Little is known to date about the relationship between poor motor abilities and overweight or obese pre-school children. Thus, this study examined the association between motor abilities and weight status in 1,228 kindergarten children (45.8% female). Anthropometric data were assessed; age 4.7 + or - 1.0 years; height 108.6 + or - 8.0 cm; weight 19.1 + or - 3.6 kg; BMI 16.1 + or - 1.5 kg/m(2). The modified Karlsruher Motor Ability Screening Test was carried out to determine the motor abilities of speed strength, muscular endurance, coordination, flexibility, and speed. Based on the German BMI reference values, 3.5% of the children were obese, 9.6% overweight, 83.4% normal weight, and 3.5% underweight. During various test tasks, below-average motor abilities were discovered in 44.0-47.3%. In all age groups, overweight and obese children did not differ from their normal and underweight counterparts; except for underweight children which fared worse in flexibility. In contrast to former studies with first graders, overweight or obese pre-school children did not possess worse motor abilities than normal weight children. However, the high number of overweight children and motor deficits suggests that preventive measures should start at this early age. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. WHICH MOTOR ABILITIES HAVE THE HIGHEST IMPACT ON WORKING PERFORMANCE OF SLOVENIAN SOLDIERS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Pori

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to find a correlation between motor abilities and working efficiency of soldiers in a battle unit of Slovenia Armed Forces (SAF. The subject consisted of 115 soldiers (age = 27,1 ± 3,7 years who were serving in the first brigade of the SAF. Motor abilities were measured with 11 motor tests, assessing the level of flexibility, speed, strength and coordination. To evaluate working efficiency of soldiers a special questionnaire was used, which consisted of 19 statements. Superior officer was asked to fill a questionnaire for each inferior soldier with values from 1 to 5. The correlation between motor abilities and working efficiency was assessed with the Pearson’s correlation coefficient. We have found 5 statistically significant correlations. Motor tests correlating most with working performance were tests of arm strength.

  1. Relationship between motor and cognitive learning abilities among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osama Abdelkarim

    2017-01-11

    Jan 11, 2017 ... the cognitive learning abilities (i.e. mathematical thinking, r = 0.62 and ...... exercise was efficient both in the promotion of learning English .... Ishigawara K, Ishizuka H. Effects of Brain Activation through Physical Exercise.

  2. LATENT STRUCTURE OF MOTOR ABILITIES AND SKILLS OF DEAF CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husnija Hasanbegović

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work surveys of latent motility abilities and skills of school children are shown. The sample for this survey was consisted of two subsamples. First one has consisted of deaf children N=29, and the second one has consisted hearing children of same age N=69. Subsamples of deaf is chosen according to model of applied sample, and subsample is chosen randomly, so two stages group sample N=90 has been created. After quantitative differences have been discovered between subsamples, hearing pupils have shown statistically better results at motility skills and techniques than deaf children and cumulative results have been subjected to inter correlation of variables. The target of using this method was determination of saturation of common variability through saturation of variables and their correlation by Ortoblique rotation for determination of latent information that are going to serve as practical guides at education and deaf children treatment, because of improvement of their motility abilities and skills according to hearing children. Three factors have been singled out as main preview of measurement on manifest variables. According to first review of measuring it has been established that at deaf children is needed to work on improving of physical abilities and mobility and then developed motility abilities and skills. Their information has been gained most probably by non system fluctuations as information about ability of balance maintaining which is most probably non dependable of motility abilities and skills as at deaf and hearing children too. According to this survey by entering the structure of measuring instrument it is possible to create programs for improving motility abilities and skills at deaf children.

  3. COMPARISON OF MOTOR ABILITIES OF YOUTH FOOTBALL PLAYERS AND PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPILS

    OpenAIRE

    Miroslav Smajić; Dejan Javorac; Slavko Molnar; Aleksandar Huba Barašić; Bogdan Tomić

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Football as a complete sport that is rich in a wide variety of possible movements classified in polistructural, sports complex. To be a football player was able to perform tasks football has, among other things, and have the necessary level of motor abilities that can be achieved only through systematic implementation of training physical training. The aim of this research was to determine the differences in some of the motor abilities between the two researched groups. Methods:...

  4. Activities of daily living in children with hemiparesis: influence of cognitive abilities and motor competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Caroline; Rauchenzauner, Markus; Staudt, Martin; Berweck, Steffen

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the article is to investigate whether motor competence and cognitive abilities influence the quality of performance of activities of daily living (ADL) in children with hemiparesis. Patients and A total of 20 children with hemiparesis (age, 6-12 years; 11 congenital, 9 acquired during childhood) were studied. Motor competence was assessed with the Assisting Hand Assessment, cognitive abilities with the German version of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children IV, and the quality of ADL performance with the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS). The motor skills scale of the AMPS correlated with motor competence, and the process skills scale of the AMPS correlated with cognitive abilities. The quality of ADL performance is influenced not only by motor competence but also by the cognitive abilities of a hemiparetic child. This suggests that, in addition to motor-oriented training programs, an optimal therapy for hemiparetic children should also consider cognitive approaches. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Profile of mathematical reasoning ability of 8th grade students seen from communicational ability, basic skills, connection, and logical thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumarsih; Budiyono; Indriati, D.

    2018-04-01

    This research aims to understand the students’ weaknesses in mathematical reasoning ability in junior secondary school. A set of multiple choice tests were used to measure this ability involve components mathematical communication, basic skills, connection, and logical thinking. A total of 259 respondents were determined by stratified cluster random sampling. Data were analyzed using one-way Anova test with Fobs = 109.5760 and F = 3.0000. The results show that students’ ability from schools with high National Exam in mathematics category was the best and followed by medium and low category. Mathematical connection is the most difficult component performed by students. In addition, most students also have difficulty in expressing ideas and developing logical arguments.

  6. [Tracking study to improve basic academic ability in chemistry for freshmen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Atsuko; Morone, Mieko; Azuma, Yutaka

    2010-08-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the basic academic ability of freshmen with regard to chemistry and implement suitable educational guidance measures. At Tohoku Pharmaceutical University, basic academic ability examinations are conducted in chemistry for freshmen immediately after entrance into the college. From 2003 to 2009, the examination was conducted using the same questions, and the secular changes in the mean percentage of correct response were statistically analyzed. An experience survey was also conducted on 2007 and 2009 freshmen regarding chemical experiments at senior high school. Analysis of the basic academic ability examinations revealed a significant decrease in the mean percentage of correct responses after 2007. With regard to the answers for each question, there was a significant decrease in the percentage of correct answers for approximately 80% of questions. In particular, a marked decrease was observed for calculation questions involving percentages. A significant decrease was also observed in the number of students who had experiences with chemical experiments in high school. However, notable results have been achieved through the implementation of practice incorporating calculation problems in order to improve calculation ability. Learning of chemistry and a lack of experimental experience in high school may be contributory factors in the decrease in chemistry academic ability. In consideration of the professional ability demanded of pharmacists, the decrease in calculation ability should be regarded as a serious issue and suitable measures for improving calculation ability are urgently required.

  7. Profile of Scientific Ability of Chemistry Education Students in Basic Physics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suastika, K. G.; Sudyana, I. N.; Lasiani, L.; Pebriyanto, Y.; Kurniawati, N.

    2017-09-01

    The weakness of scientific ability of students in college has been being a concern in this case, especially in terms of laboratory activities to support Laboratory Based Education. Scientific ability is a basic ability that must be dominated by students in basic physics lecturing process as a part of scientific method. This research aims to explore the indicators emergence of the scientific ability of students in Chemistry Education of Study Program, Faculty of Teaching and Education University of Palangka Raya through Inquiry Based Learning in basic physics courses. This research is a quantitative research by using descriptive method (descriptive-quantitative). Students are divided into three categories of group those are excellent group, low group, and heterogeneous group. The result shows that the excellent group and low group have same case that were occured decreasing in the percentage of achievement of scientific ability, while in heterogeneous group was increased. The differentiation of these results are caused by enthusiastic level of students in every group that can be seen in tables of scientific ability achievement aspects. By the results of this research, hoping in the future can be a references for further research about innovative learning strategies and models that can improve scientific ability and scientific reasoning especially for science teacher candidates.

  8. Differences in Motor Abilities of Younger School Children based on their Sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Smajic

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to determine whether there is any statistically signifi cant diff erence in motor abilities of boys and girls of younger school age. The sample includes 76 examinees with 37 males and 39 females. All are 5th and 6 th graders of primary school. The evaluation of motor abilitied is based on 5 tests. Multivariant analysis of variance is applied for determination of diff erences within the whole system of motor tests, whereas univariant analysis of variance is used for determining diff erences in each motor test. According to the fi ndings, statistically signifi cant diff erences in motor abilities between boys and girls at the studied age can be noticed in the test 20 m running from fl ying start, which is in favour of boys and in the test sit and reach, in favour of girls, while the diff erences in other tests are not statistically signifi cant. Considering the evaluation of motor abilities, boys have statistically much better results in the speed of alternative movements and explosive strenth, whereas girls have achieved much better results in the test for fl exibility. It has also been concluded that 5th and 6th graders have statistically better results in the space of coordination and explosive strenght, whereas girls are much better in the fi eld of fl exibility and suppleness.

  9. Rancang Bangun Graphical User Interface Untuk Pergerakan Motor Servo menggunakan Microsoft Visual Basic 2010 Express

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anggoro S Pramudyo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Zaman sekarang ini teknologi sedang berkembang pesat dan robot-robot dirancang untuk dapat membantu pekerjaan dan tugas-tugas manusia. Motor servo merupakan salah satu jenis dari motor DC dan banyak diaplikasikan pada dunia robotik maupun peralatan lain, contohnya motor servo yang digunakan untuk robot berkaki. Dalam penggunaannya motor servo dapat bergerak karena ada sinyal yang dibangkitkan melalui sinyal PWM. Sinyal yang dihasilkan akan membentuk sudut sesuai nilai yang diberikan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membuat perangkat lunak GUI untuk membuat pergerakan motor servo menggunakan Microsoft Visual Basic dengan bantuan database menggunakan Microsoft Access. Pergerakan motor servo dapat bergerak secara sekuen dan real time menggunakan GUI yang dihubungkan dengan Arduino mega 2560. Parameter yang terdapat di dalam database juga bisa langsung di-export menjadi file Arduino. Hasil penelitian ini GUI yang telah dibuat dapat menggerakkan motor servo secara lancar melalui komunikasi serial ketika baudrate diatur pada kecepatan 9600 bps. GUI yang dibuat juga menghasilkan sudut untuk motor servo yaitu dari 00 sampai 1800 secara tepat dan akurat, sehingga mempercepat waktu dalam  menentukan sudut untuk pergerakan motor servo yang akan digunakan.

  10. Principle and Basic Characteristics of a Hybrid Variable-Magnetic-Force Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Kazuto; Kuramochi, Satoru

    Reduction in the power consumed by motors is important for energy saving in the case of electrical appliances and electric vehicles (EVs). The motors used for operating these devices operate at variable speeds. Further, the motors operate with a small load in the stationary mode and a large load in the starting mode. A permanent magnet motor can be operated at the rated power with a high efficiency. However, the efficiency is low at a small load or at a high speed because the large constant magnetic force results in substantial core loss. Furthermore, the flux-weakening current that decreases the voltage at a high speed leads to significant copper loss and core loss. Therefore, we have developed a new technique for controlling the magnetic force of a permanent magnet on the basis of the load or speed of the motor. In this paper, we propose a novel motor that can vary the magnetic flux of a permanent magnet and clarify the principle and basic characteristics of the motor. The new motor has a permanent magnet that is magnetized by the magnetizing coil of the stator. The analysis results show that the magnetic flux linkage of the motor can be changed from 37% to 100% that a high torque can be produced.

  11. Is generic physical activity or specific exercise associated with motor abilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinne, Marjo; Pasanen, Matti; Miilunpalo, Seppo; Mälkiä, Esko

    2010-09-01

    Evidence of the effect of leisure time physical activity (LTPA) modes on the motor abilities of a mature population is scarce. The purpose of this study was to compare the motor abilities of physically active and inactive men and women and to examine the associations of different exercise modes and former and recent LTPA (R-LTPA) with motor ability and various physical tests. The LTPA of the participants (men n = 69, women n = 79; aged 41-47 yr) was ascertained by a modified Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire, including questions on the frequency, duration, and intensity of R-LTPA and former LTPA and on exercise modes. Motor abilities in terms of balance, agility, and coordination were assessed with a battery of nine tests supplemented with five physical fitness tests. Multiple statistical methods were used in analyses that were conducted separately for men and women. The MET-hours per week of R-LTPA correlated statistically significantly with the tests of agility and static balance (rs = -0.28, P = 0.022; rs = -0.25, P = 0.043, respectively) among men and with the static balance (rs = 0.41), 2-km walking (rs = 0.36), step squat (rs = 0.36) (P women. In the stepwise regression among men, the most frequent statistically significant predictor was the playing of several games. For women, a history of LTPA for more than 3 yr was the strongest predictor for good results in almost all tests. Participants with long-term and regular LTPA had better motor performance, and especially a variety of games improve components of motor ability. Diverse, regular, and long-term exercise including both specific training and general activity develops both motor abilities and physical fitness.

  12. DIAGNOSING OF BASIC AND SPECIFIC MOTORIC CAPABILITIES AT THE YOUTH OF THE BASKETBALL SCHOOL

    OpenAIRE

    Florian Miftari; Hasim Rushiti; Bahri Gjinovci

    2015-01-01

    In general the problematic of diagnosing basic and specific motor movement information of the basketball game in found in the works of a considerable number of world authors. In this work a youth population of an age group between 13-14 years old will be treated. The total number of participants is defined to an amount of 100 of young basketball players, members of two different basketball academies. In this experiment, the subjects will conduct tests in 5 basic motor skills variables such as...

  13. The role of auditory abilities in basic mechanisms of cognition in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo eGrassi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess age-related differences between young and older adults in auditory abilities and to investigate the relationship between auditory abilities and basic mechanisms of cognition in older adults. Although there is a certain consensus that the participant’s sensitivity to the absolute intensity of sounds (such as that measured via pure tone audiometry explains his/her cognitive performance, there is not yet much evidence that the participant’s auditory ability (i.e., the whole supra-threshold processing of sounds explains his/her cognitive performance. Twenty-eight young adults (age < 35, 26 young-old adults (65 ≤ age ≤75 and 28 old-old adults (age > 75 were presented with a set of tasks estimating several auditory abilities (i.e., frequency discrimination, intensity discrimination, duration discrimination, timbre discrimination, gap detection, amplitude modulation detection, and the absolute threshold for a 1 kHz pure tone and the participant’s working memory, cognitive inhibition, and processing speed. Results showed an age-related decline in both auditory and cognitive performance. Moreover, regression analyses showed that a subset of the auditory abilities (i.e., the ability to discriminate frequency, duration, timbre, and the ability to detect amplitude modulation explained a significant part of the variance observed in processing speed in older adults. Overall, the present results highlight the relationship between auditory abilities and basic mechanisms of cognition.

  14. Motor Skill Abilities in Toddlers with Autistic Disorder, Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified, and Atypical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Mahan, Sara; Fodstad, Jill C.; Hess, Julie A.; Neal, Daniene

    2010-01-01

    Motor skills were assessed in 397 toddlers, and it was demonstrated that atypically developing toddlers exhibited significantly greater motor skill abilities than toddlers with autistic disorder. No significant difference on gross or fine motor skill abilities were found between atypically developing toddlers and toddlers with pervasive…

  15. Anthropometric characteristics and motor abilities in 13-15 year old female volleyball players

    OpenAIRE

    Nešić, Goran; Majstorović, Nikola; Sikimić, Milan; Marković, Srđan; Ilić, Dejan; Grbić, Vladimir; Osmankač, Nedžad; Savić, Zoran

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this research was to determine whether there is a difference in the manifestation of measured anthropometric characteristics and tested motor abilities of female volleyball players that are 13-15 years old. The sample of participants consists of 62 female volleyball players divided into three groups according to their age. The sample of variables has two sub-samples: 18 variables belonging to anthropometric space and 14 variables belonging to the space of motor skills. A variance ...

  16. Fine motor deficiencies in children diagnosed as DCD based on poor grapho-motor ability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits-Engelsman, BCM; Niemeijer, AS; van Galen, GP

    A sample of 125 children from grades 4 and 5 of two normal Dutch primary schools were investigated regarding the incidence of handwriting problems and other fine motor disabilities. Handwriting quality was assessed with the concise assessment method for children's handwriting (BHK) and the school

  17. Two New Empirically Derived Reasons To Use the Assessment of Basic Learning Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, David F.; Williams, W. Larry; Follette, William C.

    2002-01-01

    Scores on the Assessment of Basic Learning Abilities (ABLA), Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, and the Wechsler Intelligences Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) were obtained for 30 adults with mental retardation. Correlations between the Vineland domains and ABLA were all significant. No participants performing below ABLA Level 6 were testable on the…

  18. COMPARISON OF SOME ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASURES AND MOTOR ABILITIES BETWEEN ALPINE AND SPORT CLIMBERS

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    Stojan Burnik

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our study was to establish the differences in some anthropometric measures and motor abilities between mountaineers and sport climbers. Our sample consisted of 11 top mountaineers and 12 members of A and B national teams in sport climbing. The survey was carried out by means of a standard battery of tests. Anthropo- metric measures were represented by 5 variables, while motor abilities were represented by 14 variables. Motor ability tests were divided into two groups due to a large number of variables. Mobility was surveyed with 6 tests and strength with 8 tests. The data we- re processed with statistical programme package SPSS with the method of discriminant analysis. Discriminant analysis was made separately of anthropometry, mobility and strength. Discriminant function statistically significantly divides mountaineers from sport climbers in anthropometric measures as well as mobility. In the field of strength, stati- stically significant differences between mountaineers and sport climbers were not indi- cated.

  19. [Physical fitness and motor ability in obese boys 12 through 14 years of age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H K; Matsuura, Y; Tanaka, K; Inagaki, A

    1993-01-01

    Excess body fat has generally been considered to be an influential factor to physical fitness and motor ability in obese boys. However, little information is available on the physical fitness and motor ability in obese boys. The purpose of this study was to clarify characteristics of physical fitness and motor ability in obese boys. The subjects were three hundreds and five boys aged 12-14 years. Nineteen physical fitness and motor ability items were tested and skinfold thickness was measured at six sites. Bioelectrical impedance was measured using a tetrapolar impedance plethysmograph (Selco SIF-891). Body density was calculated from the formula of Kim et al. The results of comparison clearly indicated that the obese group was significantly poorer in 1,500-m run, 5-min run, 50-m run, running long jump and many other variables, but was superior only in back strength. To analyze the factorial structure in boys, principal factor analysis was applied to the correlation matrix which was calculated with 19 variables, and then five factors were extracted. The obese group was significantly poorer in total body endurance and muscular endurance than the non-obese group. From these results, it was confirmed that the excess body fat could be one of the most important factors that affects the state of many physical fitness and motor ability elements in obese boys. However, the relationships between physical fitness, motor ability and the degree of fatness seem to be rather complicated. A great deal of data should be accumulated for more detailed analysis on the influence of the excess body fat in obese boys.

  20. The Effects of Coordination and Movement Education on Pre School Children's Basic Motor Skills Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altinkök, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    This research was conducted for the purpose of analyzing the effect of the movement education program through a 12-week-coordination on the development of basic motor movements of pre-school children. A total of 78 students of pre-school period, 38 of whom were in the experimental group and 40 of whom were in the control group, were incorporated…

  1. Motor recovery in post-stroke patients with aphasia: the role of specific linguistic abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginex, Valeria; Veronelli, Laura; Vanacore, Nicola; Lacorte, Eleonora; Monti, Alessia; Corbo, Massimo

    2017-09-01

    Aphasia is a serious consequence of stroke but aphasics patients have been routinely excluded from participation in some areas of stroke research. To assess the role of specific linguistic and non-verbal cognitive abilities on the short-term motor recovery of patients with aphasia due to first-ever stroke to the left hemisphere after an intensive rehabilitation treatment. 48 post-acute aphasic patients, who underwent physiotherapy and speech language therapy, were enrolled for this retrospective cohort-study. Four types of possible predictive factors were taken into account: clinical variables, functional status, language and non-verbal cognitive abilities. The motor FIM at discharge was used as the main dependent variable. Patients were classified as follows: 6 amnestic, 9 Broca's, 7 Wernicke's, and 26 global aphasics. Motor FIM at admission (p = 0.003) and at discharge (p = 0.042), all linguistic subtests of Aachener AphasieTest (p = 0.001), and non-verbal reasoning abilities (Raven's CPM, p = 0.006) resulted significantly different across different types of aphasia. Post-hoc analyses showed differences only between global aphasia and the other groups. A Multiple Linear Regression shows that admission motor FIM (p = 0.001) and Token test (p = 0.040), adjusted for clinical, language, and non-verbal reasoning variables, resulted as independent predictors of motor FIM scores at discharge, while Raven's CPM resulted close to statistical significance. Motor function at admission resulted as the variable that most affects the motor recovery of post-stroke patients with aphasia after rehabilitation. A linguistic test requiring also non-linguistic abilities, including attention and working memory (i.e. Token test) is an independent predictor as well.

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF SOME OF STUDENTS` MOTORIC ABILITIES AFTER TEN-DAY-SKIING COURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubiša Lilić

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering the fact that one of the most fundamental tasks of training is developing motoric dimensions of sportsmen, the common goal of this work was to achieve relevant knowledge on the infl uence of ten-day-skiing course on students`* development and to establish their level. The special aim of this work was diagnosing the amount of some of the students` motoric abilities. According to the subjects, problems and goal of the research, there was a hypothesis put: motoric and morphological dimensions of students are coherent with their chrono logical growth and development ten-day-skiing course has signifi cant infl uence on developing some of the students` motoric abilities Besides remaining, the choice of examined samples was put under limits of organizational capacities for realizing researching procedure.It was necessary to insure required devices and standardized conditions under which planned research was supposed to be realized. The sample is taken from students` population implied in regular skiing course. Examined sample consists of thirty male students, each of which is twenty years old. Because of technical and organizational reasons it was not possible to diagnose the whole motoric range of tested students. Due to that a specifi c selection of tests was done and only six variables (that reliably predict levels of motoric abilities on which the training affects were taken: foot tapping, medicine ball throwing, pull-ups with undertaking, trunk lifting in 60 seconds and deep forward band. The level of students` motoric abilities after ten-day-skiing course is on a higher level then initial measuring, and we can certainly claim that it is the result of programmed training process during skiing course. According to the data gained from control and fi nal measuring you can fi nd out the effects of applied resources towards initial measuring.

  3. Motor ability and adaptive function in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Yi Wang

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a common neuropsychiatric disorder. Previous studies have reported that children with ADHD exhibit deficits of adaptive function and insufficient motor ability. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between adaptive function and motor ability in children with ADHD compared with a group of normal children. The study group included 25 children with ADHD (19 boys and 6 girls, aged from 4.6 years to 8.6 years (mean±standard deviation, 6.5±1.2. A group of 24 children without ADHD (normal children were selected to match the children with ADHD on age and gender. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children, which includes three subtests, was used to assess the motor ability of the children of both groups. The Chinese version of Adaptive Behavior Scales, which consists of 12 life domains, was used to assess adaptive function of the children with ADHD. Compared with the normal children, children with ADHD exhibited poorer motor ability on all the three subtests of motor assessment. In the ADHD group, nine (36% children had significant motor impairments and seven (28% were borderline cases. A total of 10 (40% children with ADHD had definite adaptive problems in one or more adaptive domains. With statistically controlling of IQ for the ADHD group, those children with impaired motor ability had significantly poorer behaviors in the adaptive domain of home living (p=0.035. Moreover, children with ADHD who had severely impaired manual dexterity performed worse than the control group in the adaptive domains of home living (r=−0.47, p=0.018, socialization (r=−0.49, p=0.013, and self-direction (r=−0.41, p=0.040. In addition, children with poorer ball skills had worse home living behavior (r=−0.56, p=0.003. Children who had more impaired balance exhibited poorer performance in social behavior (r=−0.41, p=0.040. This study found significant correlation between motor ability and

  4. THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN "IDEAL TEAMS" TWO GENERATION OF FOOTBALLERS IN MOTOR ABILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Tomić

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Good knowledge of athletes and their abilities, that achieve superior results may be a landmark and milestone in what direction should be focused on selection and training process. The various disciplines determine the development of various motor abilities, and be for each sport to define their standards. Motor abilities are subject to weather changes, due to which standards have limited time. "Ideal team" is a set of best individuals in the starting lineup in a given season competition. The aim of this research was to perform the difference between "ideal teams" two generation of footballers in motor abilities. The sample comprised 54 players age 23.74 years, who are members of FK Vojvodina Novi Sad divided into two groups. The first group consists of 26 players aged 24.57±2,55 years from the season 2004/2005, while the second group of 28 players aged 22.96±2,86 years from the season 2010/2011. Sample measures for the evaluation of motor abilities are: deep forward bend, Abalakov test, push-ups and raising troops. To determine the difference between the two groups of players applied the t-test. Based on the conducted this study show that the two groups of respondents players statistically significantly different only in the test deep forward bend on the bench and better overall results achieved less more successful generation of footballers.

  5. Cognitive ability predicts motor learning on a virtual reality game in patients with TBI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Rochelle L; Skeel, Reid L; Ustinova, Ksenia I

    2013-01-01

    Virtual reality games and simulations have been utilized successfully for motor rehabilitation of individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Little is known, however, how TBI-related cognitive decline affects learning of motor tasks in virtual environments. To fill this gap, we examined learning within a virtual reality game involving various reaching motions in 14 patients with TBI and 15 healthy individuals with different cognitive abilities. All participants practiced ten 90-second gaming trials to assess various aspects of motor learning. Cognitive abilities were assessed with a battery of tests including measures of memory, executive functioning, and visuospatial ability. Overall, participants with TBI showed both reduced performance and a slower learning rate in the virtual reality game compared to healthy individuals. Numerous correlations between overall performance and several of the cognitive ability domains were revealed for both the patient and control groups, with the best predictor being overall cognitive ability. The results may provide a starting point for rehabilitation programs regarding which cognitive domains interact with motor learning.

  6. Autism Severity and Motor Abilities Correlates of Imitation Situations in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachor, Ditza A.; Ilanit, Tzaig; Itzchak, Esther Ben

    2010-01-01

    Impaired performance in a range of imitation tasks has been described in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and several underlying mechanism have been suggested. This study examined whether imitation abilities are related to autism severity and to motor skills. Furthermore, the performance of children with ASD in four imitation…

  7. Improvement of gross motor and cognitive abilities by an exercise training program: three case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alesi M

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Marianna Alesi,1 Giuseppe Battaglia,2 Michele Roccella,1 Davide Testa,1 Antonio Palma,2 Annamaria Pepi1 1Department of Psychology, 2Department of Law, Social and Sport Science, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy Background: This work examined the efficacy of an integrated exercise training program (coach and family in three children with Down syndrome to improve their motor and cognitive abilities, in particular reaction time and working memory. Methods: The integrated exercise training program was used in three children with Down syndrome, comprising two boys (M1, with a chronological age of 10.3 years and a mental age of 4.7 years; M2, with a chronological age of 14.6 years and a mental age of less than 4 years and one girl (F1, chronological age 14.0 years and a mental age of less than 4 years. Results: Improvements in gross motor ability scores were seen after the training period. Greater improvements in task reaction time were noted for both evaluation parameters, ie, time and omissions. Conclusion: There is a close interrelationship between motor and cognitive domains in individuals with atypical development. There is a need to plan intervention programs based on the simultaneous involvement of child and parents and aimed at promoting an active lifestyle in individuals with Down syndrome. Keywords: disability, Down syndrome, gross motor abilities, cognitive abilities, physical activity

  8. Patterned-string tasks: relation between fine motor skills and visual-spatial abilities in parrots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Krasheninnikova

    Full Text Available String-pulling and patterned-string tasks are often used to analyse perceptual and cognitive abilities in animals. In addition, the paradigm can be used to test the interrelation between visual-spatial and motor performance. Two Australian parrot species, the galah (Eolophus roseicapilla and the cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus, forage on the ground, but only the galah uses its feet to manipulate food. I used a set of string pulling and patterned-string tasks to test whether usage of the feet during foraging is a prerequisite for solving the vertical string pulling problem. Indeed, the two species used techniques that clearly differed in the extent of beak-foot coordination but did not differ in terms of their success in solving the string pulling task. However, when the visual-spatial skills of the subjects were tested, the galahs outperformed the cockatiels. This supports the hypothesis that the fine motor skills needed for advanced beak-foot coordination may be interrelated with certain visual-spatial abilities needed for solving patterned-string tasks. This pattern was also found within each of the two species on the individual level: higher motor abilities positively correlated with performance in patterned-string tasks. This is the first evidence of an interrelation between visual-spatial and motor abilities in non-mammalian animals.

  9. Obesity and Motor Coordination Ability in Taiwanese Children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yi-Ching; Wu, Sheng K.; Cairney, John

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations between obesity and motor coordination ability in Taiwanese children with and without developmental coordination disorder (DCD). 2029 children (1078 boys, 951 girls) aged nine to ten years were chosen randomly from 14 elementary schools across Taiwan. We used bioelectrical impedance…

  10. TRANSFORMATION OF MOTORICAL ABILITIES CHILDREN STRATURE FROM 10 TO 12 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branimir Mikić

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available because of solving some specifical tasks which areappeared in all phases of game. Player must be able, that on max. level distinguish his motorical abilities (speed, explosive power, coordination….If we want quality respond to request of game, the player must be motoricaly build up and condicionaly ready, that we can achieve with one sistematical way of planning and programming of training process. Conditional preparation of young groups need to be very good structured process of evolved and maintenance conditional abilities with contents, methods, and strain which will stimulate dynamic progress football players , with all development of sensibile phases for progrsss comditional abilities( Bompa,T.,2005. In this exoloration, it was target to establish how much and how application trenage technology affect on progess of motorical abilities football players (children strature from 10 to 12 years, which training small football.For analise and processing informations applicate is :T-test with target to establish quantitative changes in motorical space , like as factory analise with target to establish qualitative changes in structure of motorical space of explorated pattern with influence of training technology characteristical for small football.

  11. Gender Differences in Musical Aptitude, Rhythmic Ability and Motor Performance in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollatou, Elisana; Karadimou, Konstantina; Gerodimos, Vasilios

    2005-01-01

    Most of the preschool curricula involve integrated movement activities that combine music, rhythm and locomotor skills. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether there are any differences between boys and girls at the age of five concerning their musical aptitude, rhythmic ability and performance in gross motor skills. Ninety-five…

  12. Effect of the Level of Coordinated Motor Abilities on Performance in Junior Judokas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Grzegorz; Jaworski, Janusz; Lyakh, Vladimir; Krawczyk, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The main focus of this study was to identify coordinated motor abilities that affect fighting methods and performance in junior judokas. Subjects were selected for the study in consideration of their age, competition experience, body mass and prior sports level. Subjects’ competition history was taken into consideration when analysing the effectiveness of current fight actions, and individual sports level was determined with consideration to rank in the analysed competitions. The study sought to determine the level of coordinated motor abilities of competitors. The scope of this analysis covered the following aspects: kinaesthetic differentiation, movement frequency, simple and selective reaction time (evoked by a visual or auditory stimulus), spatial orientation, visual-motor coordination, rhythmization, speed, accuracy and precision of movements and the ability to adapt movements and balance. A set of computer tests was employed for the analysis of all of the coordination abilities, while balance examinations were based on the Flamingo Balance Test. Finally, all relationships were determined based on the Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient. It was observed that the activity of the contestants during the fight correlated with the ability to differentiate movements and speed, accuracy and precision of movement, whereas the achievement level during competition was connected with reaction time. PMID:23486723

  13. Chinese EFL teachers' knowledge of basic language constructs and their self-perceived teaching abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Joshi, R Malatesha; Dixon, L Quentin; Huang, Liyan

    2016-04-01

    The present study examined the knowledge and skills of basic language constructs among elementary school teachers who were teaching English as a Foreign Language (EFL) in China. Six hundred and thirty in-service teachers completed the adapted Reading Teacher Knowledge Survey. Survey results showed that English teachers' self-perceived ability to teach vocabulary was the highest and self-perceived ability to teach reading to struggling readers was the lowest. Morphological knowledge was positively correlated with teachers' self-perceived teaching abilities, and it contributed unique variance even after controlling for the effects of ultimate educational attainment and years of teaching. Findings suggest that elementary school EFL teachers in China, on average, were able to display implicit skills related to certain basic language constructs, but less able to demonstrate explicit knowledge of other skills, especially sub-lexical units (e.g., phonemic awareness and morphemes). The high self-perceived ability of teaching vocabulary and high scores on syllable counting reflected the focus on larger units in the English reading curriculum.

  14. EFFECTS OF THE SCHOOL SUBJECT – SPORT FOR ATHLETES ON MOTORIC ABILITIES OF 8TH GRADE BOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milovan Ljubojević

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available School curriculums in physical education are conceptualised that students are expected to overcome many motoric assignments and vast area of disciplines (athletics, gymnastics, sports games, rhythmic gymnastics, ethnic dances, etc. Drawbacks of this kind of curriculum are: students superficially adopt only basic elements of motions; there is no automatization and complete control of motoric motions. Teaching practice is mainly focused on development of technical elements in contrast to development of motoric and functional abilities of students. Physical education efficiency can be improved by realistic, expertly and economical planning and monitoring of the effects of the teaching, as well as by increase in weekly number of classes. Sports games are, among others, by nature of comprising motions, important factors and tools in teaching of physical education of students. It seems that all of this has been considered when school reform has been done in Montenegro. By this very kind of work the effects of the increment in weekly class number are meant to be checked out. Our sample consisted of 73 8th grade boys, 42 in experimental group involved in additional basketball programme, and 31 boys in control group without additional classes of physical education. Level of motoric abilities has been followed by 14 test battery which measured levels of speed, coordination, precision, balance, flexibility and explosive strength. We concluded that subjects in experimental group had shown improved levels of abilities in each test at final measurement, except at the test of vertical aiming – darts. However, keep in mind that boys in control group had also show certain improvements in results of the t test for dependent samples at initial and final measurement of the horizontal wall bouncing for 15 seconds test and hand and foot tapping test, by using ANOVA we compared measured results at final measurement of the each group. We concluded that there are

  15. Effects of a trampoline exercise intervention on motor performance and balance ability of children with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giagazoglou, Paraskevi; Kokaridas, Dimitrios; Sidiropoulou, Maria; Patsiaouras, Asterios; Karra, Chrisanthi; Neofotistou, Konstantina

    2013-09-01

    Balance and motor impairments are most evident among inactive individuals with ID that might be particularly susceptible to a loss of basic functioning and further limit the person's autonomy in activities of daily living. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of a 12-week trampoline exercise intervention program on motor and balance ability of school aged children with intellectual disability (ID). Eighteen healthy schools aged children (mean age=10.3 ± 1.6 years) with moderate ID were assigned either to an experimental group (n=9) or a control group (n=9). The experiment group attended a 12 weeks trampoline training intervention program consisting of daily individualized 20-min sessions, while the control group followed the regular school schedule. Balance was assessed using three tasks of increased difficulty (double-leg stance with eyes opened or closed, and one-leg stance with eyes opened) performed while standing on an electronic pressure platform (EPS). Motor performance of all participants was tested using sit and reach test and long and vertical jump tests all derived from the Eurofit Test Battery of physical fitness. Trampoline intervention resulted in significant improvements of participants' performance in all motor and balance tests. In conclusion, trampoline training can be an effective intervention for improving functional outcomes and can be recommended as an alternative mode of physical activity programming for improving balance and motor performance. Furthermore, it also supports the idea that individuals with ID require enjoyable and interesting intervention programs such as the trampoline program used in this study so as to remain active and consequently to facilitate their overall development and promote a more active and healthier way of life. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Mapping the structure of perceptual and visual-motor abilities in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingling; Krasich, Kristina; Bel-Bahar, Tarik; Hughes, Lauren; Mitroff, Stephen R; Appelbaum, L Gregory

    2015-05-01

    The ability to quickly detect and respond to visual stimuli in the environment is critical to many human activities. While such perceptual and visual-motor skills are important in a myriad of contexts, considerable variability exists between individuals in these abilities. To better understand the sources of this variability, we assessed perceptual and visual-motor skills in a large sample of 230 healthy individuals via the Nike SPARQ Sensory Station, and compared variability in their behavioral performance to demographic, state, sleep and consumption characteristics. Dimension reduction and regression analyses indicated three underlying factors: Visual-Motor Control, Visual Sensitivity, and Eye Quickness, which accounted for roughly half of the overall population variance in performance on this battery. Inter-individual variability in Visual-Motor Control was correlated with gender and circadian patters such that performance on this factor was better for males and for those who had been awake for a longer period of time before assessment. The current findings indicate that abilities involving coordinated hand movements in response to stimuli are subject to greater individual variability, while visual sensitivity and occulomotor control are largely stable across individuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TWO VOLLEYBALL TEAMS IN SOME ANTHROPOMETERIC AND MOTOR ABILITIS

    OpenAIRE

    Bahri Gjinovci; Valon Nikqi; Florian Miftari

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In this research we are deal with two teams of the super league of Kosovo in volleyball. The goal of this study is to verify the differences between the two teams in volleyball in some anthropometric characteristics, basic motor skills and situational tests. Methods: For the realization of this research, there were included 12 volleyball player from the team KV “Prishtina" and 12 from the team KV "Universiteti AAB". There are applied 4 anthropometric variables (body weight, body...

  18. Temporal prediction abilities are mediated by motor effector and rhythmic expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Fiona C; Harris, Jennifer; Schutz, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Motor synchronization is a critical part of musical performance and listening. Recently, motor control research has described how movements that contain more available degrees of freedom are more accurately timed. Previously, we demonstrated that stick tapping improves perception in a timing detection task, where percussionists greatly outperformed non-percussionists only when tapping along. Since most synchronization studies implement finger tapping to examine simple motor synchronization, here we completed a similar task where percussionists and non-percussionists synchronized using finger tapping; movement with fewer degrees of freedom than stick tapping. Percussionists and non-percussionists listened to an isochronous beat sequence and identified the timing of a probe tone. On half of the trials, they tapped along with their index finger, and on the other half of the trials, they listened without moving prior to making timing judgments. We found that both groups benefited from tapping overall. Interestingly, percussionists performed only marginally better than did non-percussionists when finger tapping and no different when listening alone, differing from past studies reporting highly superior timing abilities in percussionists. Additionally, we found that percussionist finger tapping was less variable and less asynchronous than was non-percussionist tapping. Moreover, in both groups finger tapping was more variable and more asynchronous than stick tapping in our previous study. This study demonstrates that the motor effector implemented in tapping studies affects not only synchronization abilities, but also subsequent prediction abilities. We discuss these findings in light of effector-specific training and degrees of freedom in motor timing, both of which impact timing abilities to different extents.

  19. CONNECTION OF TURN AHEAD AND TURN BACK WITH MOTORIC ABILITIES OF THE FOURTH GRADE OF HIGH SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovica Petković

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The research is done for the purpose of determination and defining of the level of connection between some motoric abilities with success in realization of programmed contents from the area of gymnastics (turn ahead and turn back. The research is done on the sample of fifty students from the fourth grade of High School, on ten motoric tests and on two specific motoric assignments – turn ahead and turn back. The results of this research clearly point that there exist the multitude of statistically important coefficients of correlation between treated motoric abilities and applied motoric assignments.

  20. Singing ability is rooted in vocal-motor control of pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Sean; Larrouy-Maestri, Pauline; Peretz, Isabelle

    2014-11-01

    The inability to vocally match a pitch can be caused by poor pitch perception or by poor vocal-motor control. Although previous studies have tried to examine the relationship between pitch perception and vocal production, they have failed to control for the timbre of the target to be matched. In the present study, we compare pitch-matching accuracy with an unfamiliar instrument (the slider) and with the voice, designed such that the slider plays back recordings of the participant's own voice. We also measured pitch accuracy in singing a familiar melody ("Happy Birthday") to assess the relationship between single-pitch-matching tasks and melodic singing. Our results showed that participants (all nonmusicians) were significantly better at matching recordings of their own voices with the slider than with their voice, indicating that vocal-motor control is an important limiting factor on singing ability. We also found significant correlations between the ability to sing a melody in tune and vocal pitch matching, but not pitch matching on the slider. Better melodic singers also tended to have higher quality voices (as measured by acoustic variables). These results provide important evidence about the role of vocal-motor control in poor singing ability and demonstrate that single-pitch-matching tasks can be useful in measuring general singing abilities.

  1. Morphological features of the neonatal brain support development of subsequent cognitive, language, and motor abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, Marisa N; Bansal, Ravi; Rosen, Tove S; Peterson, Bradley S

    2014-09-01

    Knowledge of the role of brain maturation in the development of cognitive abilities derives primarily from studies of school-age children to adults. Little is known about the morphological features of the neonatal brain that support the subsequent development of abilities in early childhood, when maturation of the brain and these abilities are the most dynamic. The goal of our study was to determine whether brain morphology during the neonatal period supports early cognitive development through 2 years of age. We correlated morphological features of the cerebral surface assessed using deformation-based measures (surface distances) of high-resolution MRI scans for 33 healthy neonates, scanned between the first to sixth week of postmenstrual life, with subsequent measures of their motor, language, and cognitive abilities at ages 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. We found that morphological features of the cerebral surface of the frontal, mesial prefrontal, temporal, and occipital regions correlated with subsequent motor scores, posterior parietal regions correlated with subsequent language scores, and temporal and occipital regions correlated with subsequent cognitive scores. Measures of the anterior and middle portions of the cingulate gyrus correlated with scores across all three domains of ability. Most of the significant findings were inverse correlations located bilaterally in the brain. The inverse correlations may suggest either that a more protracted morphological maturation or smaller local volumes of neonatal brain tissue supports better performance on measures of subsequent motor, language, and cognitive abilities throughout the first 2 years of postnatal life. The correlations of morphological measures of the cingulate with measures of performance across all domains of ability suggest that the cingulate supports a broad range of skills in infancy and early childhood, similar to its functions in older children and adults. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. CANONICAL CORRELATION OF MORPHOLOGIC CHARACTERISTIC AND MOTORIC ABILITIES OF YOUNG JUDO ATHLETES

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    Lulzim Ibri

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In sample from 80 young judo athletes aged from 16-17 year, was applied the system a total of 18 variables, of which 10 are morphologic characteristic and 8 motoric abilities variables, with a purpose to determinate mutual report between each other, while the information were analyzed by using canonical correlation analysis. With case of authentication statistically important relation was achieve one pair of canonical correlations statistically important. In morphologic variables field the canonical factor is interpreted in first canonical structure is the consists of variables: adipose tissue under skin of stomach (ATST, adipose tissue under skin of triceps (ATTR, adipose tissue under skin of biceps (ATBI, adipose tissue under skin of sub scapulars (ATSS, adipose tissue under skin of sub iliac a (ATSI and adipose tissue under skin of list (ATSL, so that is interpreted as a canonical factor of adipose tissue: And second structure of canonical factors of anthropometric characteristics is the consists of variables: body length: body length (LEBO, length of the leg (LELE and length of the arm (LEAR, so that is interpreted as a canonical factor of longitudinal dimensionality. The first structure of canonical factors in motoric variables is can not be interpreted because of low values of motor variables, while second structure of canonical factors of motoric abilities is the consists of variables: squeeze palm (SQPA, so that is interpreted as a canonical factor of strong factor in palm. Based on structure analysis of matrix results of canonical factors results were shown that to young judo athletes of this age exist statistically valid correlations between canonical factor of anthropometric variables and canonical factor of variables to motoric abilities which is (Rc=77 that is statistically valid in level (P=00.

  3. The role of rotational hand movements and general motor ability in children’s mental rotation performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra eJansen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Mental rotation of visual images of body parts and abstract shapes can be influenced by simultaneous motor activity. Children in particular seem to have a strong coupling between motor and cognitive processes. We investigated the influence of a rotational hand movement performed by rotating a knob on mental rotation performance in primary school-age children (N= 83; Age range: 7.0-8.3 and 9.0-10.11 years. In addition, we assessed the role of motor ability in this relationship. Boys in the 7-8-year-old group were faster when mentally and manually rotating in the same direction than in the opposite direction. For girls and older children this effect was not found. A positive relationship was found between motor ability and accuracy on the mental rotation task: stronger motor ability related to improved mental rotation performance. In both age groups, children with more advanced motor abilities were more likely to adopt motor processes to solve mental rotation tasks if the mental rotation task was primed by a motor task. Our evidence supports the idea that an overlap between motor and visual cognitive processes in children is influenced by motor ability.

  4. DIAGNOSING OF BASIC AND SPECIFIC MOTORIC CAPABILITIES AT THE YOUTH OF THE BASKETBALL SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Miftari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In general the problematic of diagnosing basic and specific motor movement information of the basketball game in found in the works of a considerable number of world authors. In this work a youth population of an age group between 13-14 years old will be treated. The total number of participants is defined to an amount of 100 of young basketball players, members of two different basketball academies. In this experiment, the subjects will conduct tests in 5 basic motor skills variables such as: 1. Steady Jump in length, 2 steady jump in height 3.20 meters run from a steady start, 4. Medicine Ball Throw and 5. Agility Test. While from specific motor movement skills are included: 1.20 Meters run with ball, 2. Basketball shooting for 30 seconds round-trip,3. Anaerobic durability with and without ball (kamikaze 4. Intensive Basketball shots-Change of direction and 5. Basketball shots from five positions. Subject to the number of subjects that will be treated in this study, their age and the amount of variables tested, the main objectives of this study, will be limited to achieving the goals. On the basis of test results, it can be concluded that there are no significant differences in the basic motor parameters between the two groups G1 and G2, mostly due to systematic practice effects rather than academy belonging itself.In the other hand, differences between the two groups in the specific basketball motor skills can be clearly identified, in typical basketball movement situations.In addition, comparing the test results of the individuals tested for the purpose if this diagnosis, a much more advanced level of motor skills compared to the normal population of the same group age that don’t engage in basketball activities can be identified. This experimental study carried out in the youth in the age group of 13(-+ 6 months years old that continuously in a systematic manner attend basketball academies in two different basketball schools, with

  5. THE RELATIONS OF MORPHOLOGIC CHARACTERISTICS AND MOTOR ABILITIES OF JOUNG WATER POLO PLAYERS

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    Dragan Toskić

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our research was to determine the connection between morphologic characteristics and motor abilities of young water polo players. The sample of participants for this research can be defined as the population of water polo swimmers (N=60 aged 16 to 18, who were only included in the study under the condition that they have taken part in the water polo training process for a period of at least four years. In order to evaluate morphological characteristics of the participants we used 20 anthro¬po¬me¬tric variables (IBP to evaluated longitudinal and transversal dimenions, mass and body voluminosity and subcutaneous fatty tissue. In this study, the measurings of the sig¬ni¬ficant motor dimensions were carried by means of the following measuring instruments which the authors (Gredelj, Hošek, Metikoš, Momirović, 1975 had previously evaluated with the help of physiological mechanisms: the integration factor, based on the me¬cha¬nism for movement structure (MSK, the synergistic automatism and tonus regulation factor (SRT; the factor for excitation intensity regulation (RIE; the excitation duration re¬gulation factor (RTE. The relations between morphological and motor dimensions we¬re determined using a canonical correlation analysis. A correlation analysis was carried out and it indicated a very high correlation between dimesions morphological cha¬ra¬cte¬ri¬stics and motor abilities of young water polo players.

  6. Impact of malnutrition on gastrointestinal disorders and gross motor abilities in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanozzi, Angelo; Capano, Guglielmo; Miele, Erasmo; Romano, Alfonso; Scuccimarra, Goffredo; Del Giudice, Ennio; Strisciuglio, Caterina; Militerni, Roberto; Staiano, Annamaria

    2007-01-01

    Children with cerebral palsy (CP) often demonstrate abnormal feeding behaviours, leading to reduced food consumption and malnutrition. Moreover, most of them present with gastrointestinal disorders, such as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and/or chronic constipation (CC), and poor motor function rehabilitation. The aim of our study was to assess the possible relationship between malnutrition and gastrointestinal problems and to evaluate the role of nutrition on their gross motor abilities in a population of children with CP and mental retardation. Twenty-one consecutive children (10 boys; mean age: 5.8+/-4.7 years; range: 1-14 years) with CP and severe mental retardation. Nutritional assessment included the measurement of body mass index (BMI=W/H2), fat body mass (FBM) and fat free mass (FFM). Children with symptoms suggesting GERD underwent prolonged 24h intraesophageal pH monitoring and/or upper GI endoscopy with biopsies before and after a 6 months of pharmaceutical (omeprazole) and nutritional (20% increment of daily caloric intake) treatments. The motor function was evaluated by "The Gross Motor Function Measure" (GMFM) before and after the 6 months on nutritional rehabilitation. BMI for age was or=25 degrees percentile, five of nine (55.5%) patients had persistent GERD when they were taken off the medication. Malnutrition and gastrointestinal disorders are very common in children with cerebral palsy. Improved nutritional status, particularly fat free mass gain, appears to have an impact on motor function in children with CP.

  7. Fine Motor Skills Predict Maths Ability Better than They Predict Reading Ability in the Early Primary School Years

    OpenAIRE

    Pitchford, Nicola J.; Papini, Chiara; Outhwaite, Laura A.; Gulliford, Anthea

    2016-01-01

    Fine motor skills have long been recognised as an important foundation for development in other domains. However, more precise insights into the role of fine motor skills, and their relationships to other skills in mediating early educational achievements, are needed to support the development of optimal educational interventions. We explored concurrent relationships between two components of fine motor skills, Fine Motor Precision and Fine Motor Integration, and early reading and maths devel...

  8. RELATION OF BODY MASS INDEX (BMI TO STUDENTS’ ACHIEVEMENTS AND PERFORMANCE REGARDING THEIR MOTOR ABILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Mitrevski

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The research has been conducted on 192 school boys, aged 15 (±3 months. All of them were regular attenders in the class of Physical Education and Sport at primary school. According to BMI (the coefficient of fat, there were determined three subsam¬ples of entities. The aim of the regressive analysis is to establish how the obtained index of fat is related to the students’ achievements and demonstration of their motor abilities.

  9. The effects of yoga practice in school physical education on children's motor abilities and social behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Folleto, J?lia C; Pereira, Keila RG; Valentini, Nadia Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Background: In recent years, yoga programs in childhood have been implemented in schools, to promote the development for children. Aim: To investigate the effects of yoga program in physical education classes on the motor abilities and social behavior parameters of 6–8-year-old children. Methods: The study included 16 children from the 1st grade of a public elementary school in the South of Brazil. The children participated in a 12-week intervention, twice weekly, with 45 min each sessi...

  10. TRANSFORMATION OF MOTORICAL ABILITIES CHILDREN STRATURE FROM 10 TO 12 YEARS

    OpenAIRE

    Branimir Mikić; Biljana Mikić

    2011-01-01

    because of solving some specifical tasks which areappeared in all phases of game. Player must be able, that on max. level distinguish his motorical abilities (speed, explosive power, coordination…).If we want quality respond to request of game, the player must be motoricaly build up and condicionaly ready, that we can achieve with one sistematical way of planning and programming of training process. Conditional preparation of young groups need to be very good structured process of evolved and...

  11. Selected Coordination Motor Abilities of Students of the University of Physical Education During Survival Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomczak Andrzej

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Taking up emergency actions when fighting various types of natural disasters requires appropriate psychophysical preparation. Thanks to the development of technique, coordination motor abilities have gained greater importance than physical strength and endurance in such activities. The purpose of the present work was to assess the impact of 36 hours of survival activities and sleep deprivation on selected coordination motor abilities in students of the University of Physical Education. Material and methods. The study involved 12 male students of the University of Physical Education in Warsaw, specialising in “Physical Education in Uniformed Services”. The age of the participants was 21.0 ± 0.74 years, their body height was 179.5 ± 5.6 cm, and their body mass was 74.6 ± 8.0 kg. The assessment was performed based on the following coordination motor ability tests: a test measuring the differentiation of the use of forearm muscle strength, a running motor adjustment test, and a measurement of divided attention. A test involving shooting from a pneumatic gun and a measurement of the maximal force of the forearm were also carried out. Tests and trials were conducted before training (P1, after 24 hours of training (P2, after completing the training - that is after 36 hours of training (P3, and after 12 hours of rest (P4. During the training, the participants completed 12 km on foot, paddled for approximately 6 hours, rowed kayaks for about 4 hours, and performed survival tasks. Results. The analysis of the results of the study of maximal force and the ability to differentiate forearm muscle strength showed that the forearm muscle strength remained at the same level during the entire training. The ability to differentiate forearm muscle strength deteriorated after night training. There were no statistically significant differences in the results of the running motor adjustment tests and in shooting performance between individual

  12. DIAGNOSTICS OF MOTOR ABILITY AS A BASE OF CORRECTION PLANNING OF TRANSFORMATION PROCESSES IN SPECIAL POPULATIONS

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    Kosta Goranović

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In the research, at sample of 80 tested, employees in the special police force, as representatives of police population age from 20 to 25, diagnostics of motor potential in transitive period of annual macrostructure was done. The aim of the research was doing potential correction in planning and programming of transformation process in the next cycles of sports preparation on the base of diagnosed quantitative value of motor abilities. Besides analyses of achieved values, the difference was established between two leading teams in the space of measuring potential. The research results indicated to statistically important differences between two groups of tested people, as well as to unacceptable level of development in some abilities. The achieved results are, from aspect of training process’ control, the indicator to instructors’ team on the need of correction of transformation process’ content, with aim of improving bad segments. Diagnostics of motor abilities with measuring instruments in terrain conditions is one of methods, which can be in function of valorising transformation process of the special police force, taking into account specifics of their professional manifestation.

  13. The level of selected coordinative motor abilities of basketball players aged 16-18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popowczak, M; Struzik, A; Rokita, A; Pietraszewski, B

    2015-10-01

    Coordinative abilities play a very important role in sport. Unfortunately, researchers do not confine appropriate attention to this issue. Therefore, the aim of this study was an attempt at analysing results of the selected coordinative motor abilities: kinesthetic differentiation, quick reaction and spatial orientation. It was intended to find out whether the results of trials determining manifestations of the particular coordinative abilities exhibit any mutual relationships. Forasmuch as a static torque is a parameter determining the level of force components of the ability of kinaesthetic differentiation, it would like to find out whether its maximum level influences the final result. Research was carried out on 20 young basketball players with the use of a torque meter and Fusion Smart Speed System. It was noticed a lack of statistically significant relationships between the results of trials assessing manifestations of the ability of kinaesthetic differentiation, quick reaction and spatial orientation. However, it was noted statistically significant correlation between the maximum static torque and the accuracy of releasing a particular value of a static torque. The accuracy of releasing a particular value of a static torque ought to be classified as a comprehensive ability that comprises manifestations of strength abilities and kinaesthetic differentiation. Presented trials to evaluation manifestations of the selected coordinative abilities could be used by coaches during a training process. Coaches should also focus on the development of muscle strength of the upper body and upper limbs of basketball players.

  14. Lewis basicity, adhesion thermodynamic work and coordinating ability on aminated silicon surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez, M. Alejandra; Paniagua, Sergio A.; Borge, Ignacio; Viales, Christian; Montero, Mavis L.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Silicon(1 0 0) surfaces with diamines followed by anchoring of copper complexes over the diamine layer, an approach that could be used for advanced functionalization of semiconducting surfaces. • Lewis basicity (using Fowkes–van Oss–Chaudhury–Good surface tension model) and adhesion thermodynamic work (using chemical force microscopy) were determined. • Higher basicity and thermodynamic work correlate with selective copper acetate monolayer grow. The cyclic voltammetry studies confirm the confined copper redox activity. - Abstract: Silicon(1 0 0) surfaces have been modified with three different amines (aniline, benzylamine and dodecylamine) and diamines (4-aminopyridine, 4-aminomethylpyridine, 1,12-dodecyldiamine). The surface energy was measured by contact angle technique. For Si-diamine surfaces, Lewis basicity (using Fowkes–van Oss–Chaudhury–Good surface tension model) and adhesion thermodynamic work (using chemical force microscopy) were determined. We related these data, the amine/diamine nature and their geometry on the surface (via DFT calculations) with the consequent ability to coordinate copper(II) acetate. Finally, copper(II) acetate monolayers behavior was studied by cyclic voltammetry

  15. Enhancement of motor-imagery ability via combined action observation and motor-imagery training with proprioceptive neurofeedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Yumie; Wada, Kenya; Kurata, Masaya; Seki, Naoto

    2018-04-23

    Varied individual ability to control the sensory-motor rhythms may limit the potential use of motor-imagery (MI) in neurorehabilitation and neuroprosthetics. We employed neurofeedback training of MI under action observation (AO: AOMI) with proprioceptive feedback and examined whether it could enhance MI-induced event-related desynchronization (ERD). Twenty-eight healthy young adults participated in the neurofeedback training. They performed MI while watching a video of hand-squeezing motion from a first-person perspective. Eleven participants received correct proprioceptive feedback of the same hand motion with the video, via an exoskeleton robot attached to their hand, upon their successful generation of ERD. Another nine participants received random feedback. The training lasted for approximately 20 min per day and continued for 6 days within an interval of 2 weeks. MI-ERD power was evaluated separately, without AO, on each experimental day. The MI-ERD power of the participants receiving correct feedback, as opposed to random feedback, was significantly increased after training. An additional experiment in which the remaining eight participants were trained with auditory instead of proprioceptive feedback failed to show statistically significant increase in MI-ERD power. The significant training effect obtained in shorter training time relative to previously proposed methods suggests the superiority of AOMI training and physiologically-congruent proprioceptive feedback to enhance the MI-ERD power. The proposed neurofeedback training could help patients with motor deficits to attain better use of brain-machine interfaces for rehabilitation and/or prosthesis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Basic Information Processing Abilities at 11 years Account for Deficits in IQ Associated with Preterm Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Susan A; Feldman, Judith F; Jankowski, Jeffery J; Van Rossem, Ronan

    2011-07-01

    Although it is well established that preterms as a group do poorly relative to their full-term peers on tests of global cognitive functioning, the basis for this relative deficiency is less understood. The present paper examines preterm deficits in core cognitive abilities and determines their role in mediating preterm/full-term differences in IQ. The performance of 11-year-old children born preterm (birth weight <1750g) and their full-term controls were compared on a large battery of 15 tasks, covering four basic cognitive domains -- memory, attention, speed of processing and representational competence. The validity of these four domains was established using latent variables and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Preterms showed pervasive deficits within and across domains. Additionally, preterm deficits in IQ were completely mediated by these four cognitive domains in a structural equation model involving a cascade from elementary abilities (attention and speed), to more complex abilities (memory and representational competence), to IQ. The similarity of findings to those obtained with this cohort in infancy and toddlerhood suggest that preterm deficits persist - across time, across task, and from the non-verbal to the verbal period.

  17. Differences in motor abilities between dancers in professional and amateur folklore ansambles

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    Kocić Jadranka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Differences in motor abilities between dancers in Serbinan professional folklore ansamble for dance and sing 'Kolo' in Belgrade and amateur folklore ansambles from coulture-arts society 'Vila' and 'Sonja Marinković' from Novi Sad had been tested on sample of 47 members. Motor area was examined by Provincial Governement Institute tests for Sport in Novi sad, and it was received 9 variables: single movement speed, explosivity below extremities (legs, endurance in jumping, absolutely strength backs' flexor muscule, relatively strength backs' flexor muscule, absolutely strength backs' extensor muscule, relatively strength backs' extensor muscule, absolutely strength backs' flexor muscule, relatively strength backs' flexor muscule. Relatively values obtained from absolutely values results using mathemathics. To determine differences between folklore dancers in whole variable system, it was used multivariante analysis variance (MANOVA. It was determined differences between sexes in motor abilities. Data was obtained by statistic packet SPSS 10.0. The aim was to find significant differences in nine mentioned variables between professional and amateur dancers and between sexes. Received results showed that there was not significant differences between professional and amateur dancers. Between sexes it was significant differences in man benefit, except one variable single movement speed. The conclusion is that for better, statisticaly significant results, professional dancers should enlarge contents and expend training intensity.

  18. The effects of yoga practice in school physical education on children's motor abilities and social behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folleto, Júlia C; Pereira, Keila Rg; Valentini, Nadia Cristina

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, yoga programs in childhood have been implemented in schools, to promote the development for children. To investigate the effects of yoga program in physical education classes on the motor abilities and social behavior parameters of 6-8-year-old children. The study included 16 children from the 1(st) grade of a public elementary school in the South of Brazil. The children participated in a 12-week intervention, twice weekly, with 45 min each session. To assess children's performance, we used the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency - Second Edition, the flexibility test (sit and reach - Eurofit, 1988), the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance for Young Children and semi-structured interviews with children, parents, and classroom' teacher. Data were analyzed with Wilcoxon test and level of significance was 5%. The yoga program was well accepted by children, children also demonstrated significant and positive changes in overall motor abilities scores (balance, strength, and flexibility). In addition, the interviews reported changing in social behavior and the use of the knowledge learned in the program in contexts outside of school. These findings suggest that the implementation of yoga practice in physical education lessons contributed to children's development.

  19. Does Physical Self-Concept Mediate the Relationship between Motor Abilities and Physical Activity in Adolescents and Young Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jekauc, Darko; Wagner, Matthias Oliver; Herrmann, Christian; Hegazy, Khaled; Woll, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the reciprocal relationship between motor abilities and physical activity and the mediation effects of physical self-concept in this relationship using longitudinal data. We expect that the effects of motor abilities on physical activity are rather indirect via physical self-concept and that the effects of physical activity on motor abilities are rather direct without involvement of the motor ability self-concept. Data was obtained from the Motorik-Modul (MoMo) Longitudinal Study in which 335 boys and 363 girls aged 11–17 years old at Baseline were examined twice in a period of six years. Physical activity was assessed by the MoMo Physical Activity Questionnaire for adolescents, physical self-concept by Physical Self-Description Questionnaire and motor abilities by MoMo Motor Test which comprised of the dimensions strength, endurance, coordination and flexibility. Multiple regression analyses were used to analyse the direct and indirect effects. The results of the multiple regression analyses show that the effects of motor abilities on physical activity were only indirect for the dimensions strength, coordination, and flexibility. For the dimension endurance, neither direct nor indirect effects were significant. In the opposite direction, the effects of physical activity on motor abilities were partially mediated by the self-concept of strength. For the dimensions endurance, coordination and flexibility, only indirect were significant. The results of this study support the assumption that the relationship between motor abilities and physical activity is mediated by physical self-concept in both directions. Physical self-concept seems to be an important determinant of adolescents´ physical activity. PMID:28045914

  20. Cognitive and motor abilities of young children and risk of injuries in the home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhardt, Jennifer; Xu, Yingying; Khoury, Jane; Yolton, Kimberly; Lanphear, Bruce; Phelan, Kieran

    2017-02-01

    Residential injury is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in US children. Rates and types of injury vary by child age but little is known about injury risk based on child cognitive and motor abilities. The objective of this study was to determine whether cognitive or motor development in young children is associated with residential injury. We employed data from Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment (HOME) Study. Parent report of medically attended injury was obtained at regular intervals from 0 to 42 months. Child development was assessed at 12, 24 and 36 months using Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, 2nd edition, which generates both mental developmental index (MDI) and a psychomotor developmental index (PDI). Injury risk was modelled using multivariable logistic regression as function of child's MDI or PDI. Effects of MDI and PDI on injury risk were examined separately and jointly, adjusting for important covariates. Children with cognitive delay (MDI cognitive delay (OR=3.7, 95% CI 1.4 to 10.5, p=0.012). There was no significant association of PDI with injury. There was, however, significant interaction of MDI and PDI (p=0.02); children with cognitive delay but normal motor development were at significantly higher risk of injury than children with normal cognitive and motor development (OR=9.6, 95% CI 2.6 to 35.8, p=0.001). Children with cognitive delays, especially those with normal motor development, are at elevated risk for residential injuries. Injury prevention efforts should target children with developmental delays. NCT00129324; post-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  1. [Comparing development with physical fitness, motor ability, and health of children among various living environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, A; Takimoto, M; Ishida, R

    1989-10-01

    This study had the purpose to compare with development of fitness, motor ability and health among various living environments of the sea-side, the urban, and the mountain districts, where were situated at Nadachi town on the suburbs of Niigata Prefecture. Five hundred thirty-five children (aged 4-15 yrs) were measured at the kindergarten, the fundamental school, and the junior high school. Measuring items of the physique were the height, the weight, the chest circumference, the sitting height, and the foot area. Physical fitness tests were the muscular grip-strength, the lung vital capacity, the closed-eye single-leg balance, the dipping time of the upper extremity, the vertical jump, the standing trunk flexibility, the endurance run, and pull-up. And, motor ability tests were the finger tapping, 5m shuttle run, 50m dash, and the ball throwing. As items of health inspection, the blood pressure (systolic and diasystolic) and the visual ability were adopted. As results of this study, following data were obtained; 1) At the sea-side environment, development of the muscle power, the respiratory function, and the physique were showed much faster rate of growth at the childhood than that of the other ones, significantly (P less than 0.01). 2) At the mountain environment, the arch-bend of the foot print only were appeared larger areas than that of the other ones, significantly (P less than 0.01).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Digital Trainer for the Development of the Fine Motor Ability in Children with Cerebral Palsy

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    Berrezueta-Guzmán Jonnathan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The leading cause of disability in Ecuadorian children is cerebral palsy, this disorder in most cases produces a deficiency of the ability to move fingers, hands and wrists at various levels, this happens too with the intellect of the patient. Many of the treatments and therapies are seeking that the patient can develop all of your motor ability and intellectual skills, using activities that involve the part Intellectual and practicality of their extremities. Today technology gives us the opportunity to manage devices of aid and assistance that not only complement the daily activities that are performed during the therapies in the help centers, they need to give results that show leaps and bounds in the progress that you want to get. The purpose of this project is to make a device that helps a patient to develop their fine motor ability to the patient can use their hands, fingers and wrists movements in various ways in coordination with their vision in conjunction with occipital lobe causing that brain activity in the patient, present alterations of amplitude in the beta waves in the hemispheres of the brain that allow move muscles, with only maneuver a fully digital device and low cost. These brain and muscles signals will be analyzed in this project, to test the efficiency of this project.

  3. Footedness is associated with self-reported sporting performance and motor abilities in the general population

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    Ulrich S Tran

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Left-handers may have strategic advantages over right-handers in interactive sports and innate superior abilities that are beneficial for sports. Previous studies relied on differing criteria for handedness classification and mostly did not investigate mixed preferences and footedness. Footedness appears to be less influenced by external and societal factors than handedness. Utilizing latent class analysis and structural equation modeling, we investigated in a series of studies (total N > 15300 associations of handedness and footedness with self-reported sporting performance and motor abilities in the general population. Using a discovery and a replication sample (ns = 7658 and 5062, Study 1 revealed replicable beneficial effects of mixed-footedness and left-footedness in team sports, martial arts and fencing, dancing, skiing, and swimming. Study 2 (n = 2592 showed that footedness for unskilled bipedal movement tasks, but not for skilled unipedal tasks, was beneficial for sporting performance. Mixed- and left-footedness had effects on motor abilities that were consistent with published results on better brain interhemispheric communication, but also akin to testosterone-induced effects regarding flexibility, strength, and endurance. Laterality effects were only small. Possible neural and hormonal bases of observed effects need to be examined in future studies.

  4. CANONIC RELATION BASICO-MOTORICAL ABILITIES ON SITUATION SUCCESSFUL CHILDREN IN SMALL FOOTBALL

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    Izudin Tanović

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Football appertain to group polystructual sports, which characterize very big number different not standardize motorical abilities and technics which footballplayers execute in variable situations, begin intention or accidently during the game( Elsner,B.1985..For the difference of the big football,small football or Futsall presents game which is condition with very considerable space and time-limitation which are manifestate with very fast transformation of game from the phase of attack to phase of defence.Dinamic of game, difference of not-standaardize abilities, and application situation individual technic for successful deduction of actions request from player and very big level of psychocondition readiness. The aim of this exploration was to realize the level of influence basico-motorical abilities on situation successful in small football (Futsall game. Exploration is done on the children from the 12-14 years,at the school of small football in SFC “OT of MOSTAR”(OLD TOWN OF MOSTAR from the Mostar. Take into consideration strature characteristics and magnitude choosen pattern of children, and the target of exploration,processing the results are done with metod canonic-coleration analise. Final results of this exploration are characteristic for exploring strature,but also the same confirmation that exist statisticly very important binded between exploration spaces

  5. THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TWO VOLLEYBALL TEAMS IN SOME ANTHROPOMETERIC AND MOTOR ABILITIS

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    Bahri Gjinovci

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In this research we are deal with two teams of the super league of Kosovo in volleyball. The goal of this study is to verify the differences between the two teams in volleyball in some anthropometric characteristics, basic motor skills and situational tests. Methods: For the realization of this research, there were included 12 volleyball player from the team KV “Prishtina" and 12 from the team KV "Universiteti AAB". There are applied 4 anthropometric variables (body weight, body height, arm length, forearm length, 5 basic motor variables (long jump from place, high jump from the place taping hand, taping feet, jogging with 20 meters with a fast start, and 7 situational tests (pass the ball with the fingers on target vertical expulsion of the ball with the forearm ("hammer" in vertical target, passing the ball with the fingers in a horizontal target, the expulsion of the ball with the forearm ("hammer" in horizontal target, pass the ball with fingers to jump in the horizontal target, tennis service in horizontal target, the target service with the horizontal jump. For processing the obtained results from the measurements and proving the difference between the teams in anthrop motored parameters, was used the discriminatory analysis using the t-test for independent variables. Results: The results obtained show that the players of the two volleyball teams, involved in research do not distinguish between them in anthropometric characteristics (p> 0:05. The team KV "Prishtina" has had better results in some explosive force motor variables and situational tests (p 1.97, at the statistical significance level of p < 0.05. Results from our sample showed that between VC. "Pristina" and VC. "AAB", important statistical changes were in those motoric tests. High jumping, foot taping, Passing the ball with hammer to the wall, Tactical accurate Service, Accuracy of service with jump and Standing long jump length. References: Strahonja A

  6. RELATIONS OF CONSTITUTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS AND MOTORIC ABILITIES OF SERBIA AND MONTENEFRO AND MONTENEGRO

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    Ivan Terzić

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Handball is the one of the most important sports in this region for many years. Althought being a host of European chamiponship 2010, Montenegro didn’t fulfill expectations, neither of fans, neither of professional comunity, only reaching 17th place. Couple of years before, male cadet handball selection Sebia and Montenegro had achieved great succes conquered the title of European (2004 and World champion (2005. Since representatives of Montenegro have consisted a significant part of that team, we tried to compare some of constitutional characteristics (weight, height and planimetry of hand and 10 motorical abilities of these two selections. Sample consisted of 20 representatives male cadet handball selection of Sebia and Montenegro and 16 male cadet handball selection Montenegro. We used t test for independent samples. Our results showed that there were statisticaly significant differences at planimetry of hand, agility test, speed test, long jump, triple jump, repetitive trunk flexor strength and hand taping. Representatives of Montenego had better results only on the test of hand taping. Also, we tried to find out, by use of Pearson correlation coefficient, which of anthropometic characteristics and motorical abilities could participate in succes of Serbia and Montenegro team and compare them with relationships obtained at the sample of Montenegro’s representatives. Results showed that there were some statisticaly significant correlations between anthropometrical characteristics and motorical abilities. Only one correlation was the common at both samples, the one between long jump and triple jump, and it was stronger at sample of Montenegro cadets. These results confirmed our assumption about usefulness of standards which were created by trophy cadet selection of Sebia and Montenegro for planing and creating work programmes for Montenegro handball team and also in process of selection of players for national team

  7. Chronic Stress Impairs Spatial Memory and Motivation for Reward Without Disrupting Motor Ability and Motivation to Explore

    OpenAIRE

    Kleen, Jonathan K.; Sitomer, Matthew T.; Killeen, Peter R.; Conrad, Cheryl D.

    2006-01-01

    This study uses an operant, behavioral model to assess the daily changes in the decay rate of short-term memory, motivation, and motor ability in rats exposed to chronic restraint. Restraint decreased reward-related motivation by 50% without altering memory decay rate or motor ability. Moreover, chronic restraint impaired hippocampal-dependent spatial memory on the Y maze (4-hr delay) and produced CA3 dendritic retraction without altering hippocampal-independent maze navigation (1-min delay) ...

  8. Clinical implications of using the arm motor ability test in stroke rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Michael W; Kim, Grace; Finnen, Lisa Rivera; Polistena, Caitlin

    2011-05-01

    To identify all published studies using the Arm Motor Ability Test (AMAT), a standardized, laboratory-based measure for selected upper extremity activities of daily living (ADLs); and to summarize its current uses and provide recommendations for its future use. An Ovid online search was performed using the terms "Arm Motor Ability Test" and "AMAT." The reference lists of all articles obtained were reviewed for additional studies not appearing in the literature search. In addition, the original manual for the use and administration of the AMAT was reviewed. All studies examining the psychometric properties of the AMAT or using the AMAT as an outcome measure were identified. Articles simply mentioning the AMAT without providing data and case reports or abstracts (other than those addressing a specific aspect of the scale of interest) were excluded. Studies were reviewed by the primary author. No formal system of quality review was used. The AMAT has been used as an outcome measure in stroke rehabilitation research examining upper extremity robotics, functional electrical stimulation, and cortical stimulation. The most recent version contains 10 ADL tasks, each of which is composed of 1 to 3 subtasks. Of the 3 domains originally proposed, only the "functional ability" domain is routinely assessed. Psychometric studies have demonstrated good reliability and at least reasonable construct validity. The instrument's sensitivity to change over time is less well established, and no recommendation can be made regarding a minimal clinically important difference. We recommend that the 10-item version of the AMAT and assessment of only the functional ability domain be adopted as standard going forward. Further research should include examination of sensitivity over time, minimal clinically important change, reliability and validity in the mid and lower range of scores, and in neurologic diagnoses other than stroke. Copyright © 2011 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine

  9. Impact of ambulatory physiotherapy on motor abilities of elderly subjects with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manckoundia, Patrick; Taroux, Michaël; Kubicki, Alexandre; Mourey, France

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the impact of ambulatory physiotherapy (AP) on motor abilities in elderly subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Subjects with mild to moderate AD were included and divided into "physiotherapy group" (PG) and "no physiotherapy group" (NPG) according to whether or not they received AP between inclusion (T0) and the second time of assessment, between 15 and 36 months after inclusion (T1). The follow-up duration, Mini-Mental State Examination, Tinetti and mini motor test (MMT) scores, Timed Up & Go test (TUG), gait speed (GS), one-leg balance (OLB), history of falls within the last 6 months (HF), ability to rise from the floor (RFF) and the use of a walking aid (UWA) were recorded at T0, and after at least 15 months of follow up (T1). A total of 50 subjects were included in the NPG and 20 in the PG. At baseline, these groups were not significantly different for all the parameters recorded. The anova showed a progression of cognitive disorders in the two groups between T0 and T1 (P Geriatrics Society.

  10. Transplantation of Xenopus laevis tissues to determine the ability of motor neurons to acquire a novel target.

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    Karen L Elliott

    Full Text Available The evolutionary origin of novelties is a central problem in biology. At a cellular level this requires, for example, molecularly resolving how brainstem motor neurons change their innervation target from muscle fibers (branchial motor neurons to neural crest-derived ganglia (visceral motor neurons or ear-derived hair cells (inner ear and lateral line efferent neurons. Transplantation of various tissues into the path of motor neuron axons could determine the ability of any motor neuron to innervate a novel target. Several tissues that receive direct, indirect, or no motor innervation were transplanted into the path of different motor neuron populations in Xenopus laevis embryos. Ears, somites, hearts, and lungs were transplanted to the orbit, replacing the eye. Jaw and eye muscle were transplanted to the trunk, replacing a somite. Applications of lipophilic dyes and immunohistochemistry to reveal motor neuron axon terminals were used. The ear, but not somite-derived muscle, heart, or liver, received motor neuron axons via the oculomotor or trochlear nerves. Somite-derived muscle tissue was innervated, likely by the hypoglossal nerve, when replacing the ear. In contrast to our previous report on ear innervation by spinal motor neurons, none of the tissues (eye or jaw muscle was innervated when transplanted to the trunk. Taken together, these results suggest that there is some plasticity inherent to motor innervation, but not every motor neuron can become an efferent to any target that normally receives motor input. The only tissue among our samples that can be innervated by all motor neurons tested is the ear. We suggest some possible, testable molecular suggestions for this apparent uniqueness.

  11. RATING CHANGES INTRODUCED IN SOME CHARACTERISTIC MORPHOLOGICAL AND BASIC-SPECIFIC MOTOR SKILLS TO YOUNG ACTIVE AND INACTIVE BASKETBALL PLAYERS

    OpenAIRE

    Qazim Elshani; Hazir Salihu

    2016-01-01

    The experiment deals with young people aged 13-14 years, male. Basketball team active and inactive, active group in addition to regular classes; they also practice basketball in clubs within the city. The experiment contains a total of eight morphological variables; five variables are the basic motor tests, while three tests of motor skills, situational. In this research, it applied test method T-group basketball between active and inactive, and morphological variables of specific movement sk...

  12. EFFECTS OF A SCHOOL-BASED INTERVENTION ON BMI AND MOTOR ABILITIES IN CHILDHOOD

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    Christine Graf

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Obesity in childhood is increasing worldwide. To combat overweight and obesity in childhood, the school-based Children's Health InterventionaL Trial (CHILT project combines health education and physical activity. This paper examines the effect of intervention on the body mass index (BMI and motor abilities after 20.8 ± 1.0 months in 12 randomly selected primary schools compared with 5 randomly selected control schools. The anthropometric data were assessed, BMI was calculated. Coordination was determined by lateral jumping and endurance performance by a 6-minute run. No difference in the prevalence of overweight and obesity was found between the intervention (IS and control schools (CS either at baseline or following intervention (each p > 0.05. The increase in the number of lateral jumps was significantly higher in the IS than in the CS (p < 0.001. For the 6-minute run the increase in distance run was significantly improved in IS (p = 0.020. All variables were controlled for gender and age. Overweight and obese children in both IS and CS produced significantly lower scores in coordination and endurance tasks than normal and underweight children during both examinations (each p < 0.001, adjusted for gender and age. Preventive intervention in primary schools offers an effective means to improve motor skills in childhood and to break through the vicious circle of physical inactivity - motor deficits - frustration - increasing inactivity possibly combined with an excess energy intake and weight gain. To prevent overweight and obesity these measures have to be intensified

  13. Identifying patterns of motor performance, executive functioning, and verbal ability in preschool children: A latent profile analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houwen, Suzanne; Kamphorst, Erica; van der Veer, Gerda; Cantell, Marja

    2018-04-30

    A relationship between motor performance and cognitive functioning is increasingly being recognized. Yet, little is known about the precise nature of the relationship between both domains, especially in early childhood. To identify distinct constellations of motor performance, executive functioning (EF), and verbal ability in preschool aged children; and to explore how individual and contextual variables are related to profile membership. The sample consisted of 119 3- to 4-year old children (62 boys; 52%). The home based assessments consisted of a standardized motor test (Movement Assessment Battery for Children - 2), five performance-based EF tasks measuring inhibition and working memory, and the Receptive Vocabulary subtest from the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence Third Edition. Parents filled out the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function - Preschool version. Latent profile analysis (LPA) was used to delineate profiles of motor performance, EF, and verbal ability. Chi-square statistics and multinomial logistic regression analysis were used to examine whether profile membership was predicted by age, gender, risk of motor coordination difficulties, ADHD symptomatology, language problems, and socioeconomic status (SES). LPA yielded three profiles with qualitatively distinct response patterns of motor performance, EF, and verbal ability. Quantitatively, the profiles showed most pronounced differences with regard to parent ratings and performance-based tests of EF, as well as verbal ability. Risk of motor coordination difficulties and ADHD symptomatology were associated with profile membership, whereas age, gender, language problems, and SES were not. Our results indicate that there are distinct subpopulations of children who show differential relations with regard to motor performance, EF, and verbal ability. The fact that we found both quantitative as well as qualitative differences between the three patterns of profiles underscores

  14. DIFFERENCES IN FUNCTIONAL AND MOTOR ABILITIES OFYOUNG FOOTBALL PLAYERS, BASKETBALL AND VOLLEYBALL PLAYERS

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    Franja Fratrić

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this research is to determine whether and what differences exist between the three groups of subjects (high-quality football, volleyball and basketball cadets and youth age, in the motoric and functional abilities, as well as to identify dif- ferences between subgroups within each sport. The sample consists of 61 volleyball, 31 basketball player and football player 31 (total n = 123 male, cadet and youth age are members of local clubs. Subjects were born between 01.01.1991 and 12.12.1994. The sample of variables are the values of 17 tests for the evaluation of functional and mobile status. The Motor-functional status on the basis of the results of secondary value of foot- ball, basketball and volleyball make a clear conclusion that the football players showed the best results in almost all the tests and that they had the smallest disbalance in the power of certain groups of muscles.The football players hve the highest homogeneity.

  15. QUANTITATIVE TRANSFORMATION CHANGES OF MORPHOLOGIC FEATURES AND MOTOR ABILITIES IN ADDITIONAL EDUCATION

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    Muhedin Hodžić

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Main goal of this experimental transformational project is in accordance with subject and with problems of this same as previous ones researches and it contents efforts to confirm transformations of morphological characteristics and morphological abilities of students by method of parallel analysis of results from experimental group’s examples and controlled group’s examples. At the same time aim is to confirm which one of available executive models brings more efficient transformational results in morphological and motor space. Quantitative changes were developing in five general directions. First and most important direction describes complete motor space. At the same time this valuable information directs us to the fact that systematic and organized work leads us to the optimization of managing complex movement in whole. The rest of quantitative changes described with four promax factors are morphological and here we notice that morphological mechanisms work in four directions; reduction of fat tissue, longitudinalism of skeleton, total body mass and body volume. Evidently it came to the optimization of the energy resources and incorporation of the resources into bio-morphological complex.

  16. Cognitive-motor dual-task ability of athletes with and without intellectual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Biesen, Debbie; Jacobs, Lore; McCulloch, Katina; Janssens, Luc; Vanlandewijck, Yves C

    2018-03-01

    Cognition is important in many sports, for example, making split-second-decisions under pressure, or memorising complex movement sequences. The dual-task (DT) paradigm is an ecologically valid approach for the assessment of cognitive function in conjunction with motor demands. This study aimed to determine the impact of impaired intelligence on DT performance. The motor task required balancing on one leg on a beam, and the cognitive task was a multiple-object-tracking (MOT) task assessing dynamic visual-search capacity. The sample included 206 well-trained athletes with and without intellectual impairment (II), matched for sport, age and training volume (140 males, 66 females, M age = 23.2 ± 4.1 years, M training experience = 12.3 ± 5.7 years). In the single-task condition, II-athletes showed reduced balance control (F = 55.9, P balance and the MOT task between both groups. The DT costs were significantly larger for the II-athletes (-8.28% versus -1.34% for MOT and -33.13% versus -12.89% for balance). The assessment of MOT in a DT paradigm provided insight in how impaired intelligence constrains the ability of II-athletes to successfully perform at the highest levels in the complex and dynamical sport-environment.

  17. Organization of Physical Activities as a Precondition of Quality Development of Motor Abilities of Pre-School and School Children

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    Marković Živorad

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In their work authors consider the significance of the organization of physical activities for the development of abilities of pre-school and school children. Led by theoretical basis that physical development of children represents the basis of their whole development, and that “fine motor skills” are determined by the development of its large motorics, the authors point to the significance of the content and structure of physical education programme in preschool institutions and younger age school classes. It is evident that the effects of cultivating of children development during preschool period can be seen in younger primary school classes. The goal of this research was to determine if and how much the different organization of preparatory part of physical education lesson for younger school children, determines the differences in the development of their motor abilities. By the use of experimental method, the effects of prolonged preparatory part of a lesson in younger school classes. This part was realized through complex of exercises which were supposed to have influence on transformation of motor abilities in relation to the structure with standard duration of certain parts of a lesson. It is determined that certain increase in body movement of students during physical activity can significantly contribute to better development of motor abilities. These abilities determine correct physical development and strengthening of health, which determines general aim of physical education.

  18. Does early communication mediate the relationship between motor ability and social function in children with cerebral palsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipscombe, Belinda; Boyd, Roslyn N; Coleman, Andrea; Fahey, Michael; Rawicki, Barry; Whittingham, Koa

    2016-01-01

    Children diagnosed with neurodevelopmental conditions such as cerebral palsy (CP) are at risk of experiencing restrictions in social activities negatively impacting their subsequent social functioning. Research has identified motor and communication ability as being unique determinants of social function capabilities in children with CP, to date, no research has investigated whether communication is a mediator of the relationship between motor ability and social functioning. To investigate whether early communication ability at 24 months corrected age (ca.) mediates the relationship between early motor ability at 24 months ca. and later social development at 60 months ca. in a cohort of children diagnosed with cerebral palsy (CP). A cohort of 71 children (43 male) diagnosed with CP (GMFCS I=24, 33.8%, II=9, 12.7%, III=12, 16.9%, IV=10, 14.1%, V=16, 22.5%) were assessed at 24 and 60 months ca. Assessments included the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM), the Communication and Symbolic Behaviour Scales-Developmental Profile (CSBS-DP) Infant-Toddler Checklist and the Paediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI). A mediation model was examined using bootstrapping. Early communication skills mediated the relationship between early motor abilities and later social functioning, b=0.24 (95% CI=0.08-0.43 and the mediation model was significant, F (2, 68)=32.77, pcommunication ability partially mediates the relationship between early motor ability and later social function in children with CP. This demonstrates the important role of early communication in ongoing social development. Early identification of communication delay and enriched language exposure is crucial in this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Associations among Motor Ability, Social-Communication Skills, and Participation in Daily Life Activities in Children with Low-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Limor; Moran, Adva; Bart, Orit

    2017-01-01

    Decreased motor ability is a common feature in autism, leading to the proposal of a motor-social link in autism. The purpose of the study was to assess the contribution of motor abilities and social-communication skills to children's participation in daily activities, among children with low-functioning autism spectrum disorder (LFASD).…

  20. QUALITY LEVEL-RELATED DIFFERENCES IN SELECTED MORPHOLOGICAL BODY CHARACTERISTICS AND MOTOR ABILITIES OF GOALKEEPERS IN TEAM HANDBALL

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    Marko Šibila

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to identify the quality level-related differences between two groups of team handball goalkeepers in selected morphological body characteristics and motor abilities. A group of 36 senior goalkeepers who were members of first and second Slovenian handball league clubs (age: 22,6 ± 5,4 yr, height: 185,8 ± 4,7 cm, body weight: 88,7 ± 9,1 kg, training experience: 11,8 ± 4,8 yr participated in the present study. The goalkeepers were divided in two groups, according to their competition level. The sample of variables consisted of age and competition experience data, four morphological body characteristics and of six motor ability tests. In order to determine differences between two groups of goalkeepers in selected morphologic and motor variables a one–way analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA was employed. Findings of the present study indicate existing of quality level-related differences between two groups of team handball goalkeepers in selected morphological body characteristics and motor abilities. Further individualization and careful planning of training process of the goalkeepers is essential if we want to improve for goalkeepers’ important motor abilities and morphological body characteristics.

  1. Professional Competence and Basic Ability-Oriented Game Theory Analysis of China's Higher Vocational College English Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian

    2012-01-01

    To strengthen the professional competence and basic ability is the objective requirements of the Chinese higher vocational college English teaching, while the positioning of the teaching objectives is partial to a "prisoner's dilemma" in game situations that any party will result in. To get rid of the "dilemma", we have to…

  2. DIFFERENCES IN THE LEVEL OF SITUATIONAL –MOTOR ABILITIES OF FOOTBALL PLAYERS OF DIFFERENT LEVEL COMPETITIONS

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    Omer Špirtović

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on 170 subjects, football players - senior citizens, aged 18-27 years from the territory of Montenegro.Utilizes a system of 16 variables, situational-motor abilities. Our aim was to determine the discriminatory ability of their rank according to the modalities of which belong to the players tested (second and third league competitions. Results of canonical discriminant analysis of the players in situational-motor variables that belong to different ranks of the competitions, significant at the .00 level. Therefore, we can speak of two quantitatively and qualitatively different groups of patients.

  3. AN INFLUENCE OF THE PROGRAM OF THE UNIVERSAL SPORTS SCHOOL DUBROVNIK ON THE MOTOR ABILITIES DEVELOPMENT OF SIXTH YEAR CHILDREN

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    Đivo Ban

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to establish the effects of the diverse kinesiology program on the motor abilities development on a random sample of an unselected population of six-year old boys and girls, i.e. 34 regular attendants of the Universal Sports School Dubrovnik, within the period of 8 months (initial and final state. The variable sample consisted of 8 motor ability evaluation tests. Seriously changes positively established of tests of explosive and repetitive strength, coordination and frequency of movement hand.

  4. Structure of Coordination Motor Abilities in Male Basketball Players at Different Levels of Competition

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    Jerzy Sadowski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the structure of coordination motor abilities (CMA in male basketball players at different levels of competition. Material and methods. The study included 183 male basketball players from 10 Polish sports clubs. The examined groups consisted of seniors (n=42 aged 24.5 (± 3.3, juniors (n=37 aged 16.8 (± 0.6, cadets (n=54 aged 14.5 (± 0.1 and children (n=50 aged 13.4 (± 0.2. A battery of motor tests was administered to assess the following CMA: kinesthetic differentiation of movements, spatio-temporal orientation, reaction time, movement coupling, sense of balance, sense of rhythm and adjustment of movements. The structure of CMA under investigation was determined based on the results of Hotelling's principal component analysis in Tucker's modification, completed with Kaiser's Varimax rotation [1, 2]. Results. The CMA structure of basketball players was composed of three or four factors. Most often these included rhythm, movement differentiation, movement coupling and adjustment of movements. Less frequently the structure consisted of spatio-temporal orientation, balance and reaction time. An in-depth analysis of the CMA structure revealed that factors ranged from heterogeneous (children and cadets to homogeneous ones (juniors and seniors. The distribution of identified factors in the common variance was the smallest in children and cadets (58.9% and 62.9%, respectively and the biggest in juniors and seniors (69.3% and 68.48%, respectively.

  5. Are there pre-existing neural, cognitive, or motoric markers for musical ability?

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    Norton, Andrea; Winner, Ellen; Cronin, Karl; Overy, Katie; Lee, Dennis J; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2005-11-01

    Adult musician's brains show structural enlargements, but it is not known whether these are inborn or a consequence of long-term training. In addition, music training in childhood has been shown to have positive effects on visual-spatial and verbal outcomes. However, it is not known whether pre-existing advantages in these skills are found in children who choose to study a musical instrument nor is it known whether there are pre-existing associations between music and any of these outcome measures that could help explain the training effects. To answer these questions, we compared 5- to 7-year-olds beginning piano or string lessons (n=39) with 5- to 7-year-olds not beginning instrumental training (n=31). All children received a series of tests (visual-spatial, non-verbal reasoning, verbal, motor, and musical) and underwent magnetic resonance imaging. We found no pre-existing neural, cognitive, motor, or musical differences between groups and no correlations (after correction for multiple analyses) between music perceptual skills and any brain or visual-spatial measures. However, correlations were found between music perceptual skills and both non-verbal reasoning and phonemic awareness. Such pre-existing correlations suggest similarities in auditory and visual pattern recognition as well a sharing of the neural substrates for language and music processing, most likely due to innate abilities or implicit learning during early development. This baseline study lays the groundwork for an ongoing longitudinal study addressing the effects of intensive musical training on brain and cognitive development, and making it possible to look retroactively at the brain and cognitive development of those children who emerge showing exceptional musical talent.

  6. EFFECTS OF PLYOMETRIC TRAINING ON THE MOTOR ABILITIES OF TENNIS PLAYERS

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    Miroslav Smajić

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Plyometrics is a training method that uses an overload (Chu, 1983, and the main purpose of plyometric training is the development of greater reactive force (Allerheiligen & Rogers, 1995. Sports physiologists agree that plyometrics includes specific exercises that cause significant stretching of muscles located below the eccentric contraction, and followed by a strong concentric contraction, which is used for the development of a strong movement in a short period of time (LaChance, 1995. The aim of the research is to identify and analyze the transformative effects of plyometric exercise program on the manifest dimension of strength, agility and speed running experimental group of players. Methods: The sample consisted of 50 players were aged 17.5 years (± 6 months, who were divided into two groups. One group consisted of 25 tennis players TK “Gemaks” from Belgrade who represented the experimental group, while the second group included 25 tennis players TK “AS” from Belgrade who represented the control group. For evaluation of motor abilities used 4 tests. In order to determine differences between groups of respondents in the initial and final measurement was applied univariate analysis of variance. In order to determine the effect of training programs between the two tests was applied univariate analysis of covariance. Results: This research has proven that plyometric training, which was applied to a group of tennis players from Belgrade for a period of three months, youth ages contributed to improving their motor abilities, primarily explosive strength and agility. Discussion: Practice plyometric program combined with regular training for the development and improvement of techniques tennis game showed excellent results in order to improve the explosive leg strength, agility tennis players eksperimenatlne groups, and proved to be positive in working with junior tennis players ages. Research have shown that the development of explosive

  7. Growth rates and specific motor abilities as a function to predict the selection of talents taekwondo sport (Egyptian national project

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    Mohammed Mustafa Bakr

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the contribution ratios of Growth rates and specific motor abilities as a function to predict the selection of talented taekwondo sport. The study was carried out on a sample of (755 individual Clubs and youth centers across the governorates of Egypt, and the average age (11.64 ± 0.48 years, height (144.06 ± 7.04 cm and weight (36.86 ± 7.51 kg. Tests were conducted in the period from 7/11/2011 to 29/12/2011 selected individuals underwent the following tests and measurements (Ability, Hinge flexibility basin, Agility, Kinetics speed in level trunk, Kinetics speed in level face, Endure Performance, Performance , the researcher used the descriptive survey method. The statistical analysis SPSS was used to apply formulas statistical by calculating: average, standard deviation, correlation, stepwise regression. The results showed that the growth rates and special motor abilities contribute to the selection of talented taekwondo. In addition, taekwondo players are characterized by flexibility, Endure performance and motor speed. The study concluded that there are five factors affect the selection of talented junior Taekwondo detailed flexibility contribute (28.8%, endure Performance contribute by (15.1%, ability contribute (7.8%, Growth rates (age, length, weight a contribution rate (5.2%, kinesthetic speed motor (in the level of the trunk - in the face level (1.1%. Predictable talented selection junior taekwondo through the following equation = 49.835 + Age (-0.389 + Length (0.157 + Weight (-0.188 + Flexibility (-0.359 + Ability (0.081 + Agility (-2.261 + Endure Performance (0.608 + Kinetics speed motor in the level of the trunk (0.586 + Kinetics speed motor in the face level (0.260. These results should be taken into account by the taekwondo Federation and trainers for use as an indicator for selecting talented taekwondo sport.

  8. Relationship between children's performance-based motor skills and child, parent, and teacher perceptions of children's motor abilities using self/informant-report questionnaires.

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    Lalor, Aislinn; Brown, Ted; Murdolo, Yuki

    2016-04-01

    Occupational therapists often assess the motor skill performance of children referred to them as part of the assessment process. This study investigated whether children's, parents' and teachers' perceptions of children's motor skills using valid and reliable self/informant-report questionnaires were associated with and predictive of children's actual motor performance, as measured by a standardised performance-based motor skill assessment. Fifty-five typically developing children (8-12 years of age), their parents and classroom teachers were recruited to participate in the study. The children completed the Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ) and the Self-Perception Profile for Children. The parents completed the Developmental Profile III (DP-III) and the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire, whereas the teachers completed the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire and the Teacher's Rating Scale of Child's Actual Behavior. Children's motor performance composite scores were determined using the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, Second Edition (BOT-2). Spearman's rho correlation coefficients were calculated to identify if significant correlations existed and multiple linear regression was used to identify whether self/informant report data were significant predictors of children's motor skill performance. The child self-report scores had the largest number of significant correlations with the BOT-2 composites. Regression analysis found that the parent report DP-III Physical subscale was a significant predictor of the BOT-2 Manual Coordination composite and the child-report questionnaire PSDQ. Endurance subscale was a significant predictor of the BOT-2 Strength and Agility composite. The findings support the use of top-down assessment methods from a variety of sources when evaluating children's motor abilities. © 2016 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  9. Effects of Plymetrics Training and Weight Training on selected Motor Ability Components among University Male Students

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    Shaikh, Alauddin; Mallick, Nazrul Islam

    2012-11-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to find out the effects of plyometrics training and weight training among university male students.Procedure: 60 male students from the different colleges of the Burdwan University were randomly selected as subjects and their age were 19-25 years served as Weight training Group (WTG), second group served as Plyometric Training Group (PTG) and the third group served as Control Group (CT). Eight weeks weight training and six weeks plyometric training were given for experiment accordingly. The control group was not given any training except of their routine. The selected subjects were measured of their motor ability components, speed, endurance, explosive power and agility. ANCOVA was calculation for statistical treatment.Finding: Plyometric training and weight training groups significantly increase speed, endurance, explosive power and agility.Conclusion: The plyometric training has significantly improved speed, explosive power, muscular endurance and agility. The weight training programme has significantly improved agility, muscular endurance, and explosive power. The plometric training is superior to weight training in improving explosive power, agility and muscular endurance.

  10. Relationships between Task-Oriented Postural Control and Motor Ability in Children and Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui-Yi; Long, I-Man; Liu, Mei-Fang

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) have been characterized by greater postural sway in quiet stance and insufficient motor ability. However, there is a lack of studies to explore the properties of dynamic postural sway, especially under conditions of task-oriented movement. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between…

  11. Organization of Physical Activities as a Precondition of Quality Development of Motor Abilities of Pre-School and School Children

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    Markovic, Živorad; Kopas-Vukašinovic, Emina

    2015-01-01

    In their work authors consider the significance of the organization of physical activities for the development of abilities of pre-school and school children. Led by theoretical basis that physical development of children represents the basis of their whole development, and that "fine motor skills" are determined by the development of…

  12. THE TRANSFORMATIONAL PROCESSES INVOLVING MOTOR SKILLS THAT OCCUR UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF BASIC PRELIMINARY TRAINING IN YOUNG HANDBALL PLAYERS

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    Markovic Sasa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The population from which we extracted a sample of 76 subjects consisted of elementary school students in Kursumlija, all male, aged 12-13, who were divided into a sub-sample consisting of 38 young handball players who took part in the training sessions of a school of handball and another sub-sample consisting of 38 non-athletes, who only took part in their regular physical education classes. The aim of the research was to determine the transformation processes involving motor skills, which occur under the influence of basic preliminary training in young handball players. The subject matter of the study was to examine whether a statistically significant increase in the level of motor skills would occur under the influence of physical exercise as part of basic preliminary training in the final as compared to the initial state. Six motor tests which define the dimensions of explosive and repetitive strength were used. The results of the research indicate that significant transformational processes involving the motor skills of young handball players occurred in the final as compared to the initial measuring, under the influence of basic preliminary training.

  13. Functional Communication Profiles in Children with Cerebral Palsy in Relation to Gross Motor Function and Manual and Intellectual Ability.

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    Choi, Ja Young; Park, Jieun; Choi, Yoon Seong; Goh, Yu Ra; Park, Eun Sook

    2018-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate communication function using classification systems and its association with other functional profiles, including gross motor function, manual ability, intellectual functioning, and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics in children with cerebral palsy (CP). This study recruited 117 individuals with CP aged from 4 to 16 years. The Communication Function Classification System (CFCS), Viking Speech Scale (VSS), Speech Language Profile Groups (SLPG), Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), Manual Ability Classification System (MACS), and intellectual functioning were assessed in the children along with brain MRI categorization. Very strong relationships were noted among the VSS, CFCS, and SLPG, although these three communication systems provide complementary information, especially for children with mid-range communication impairment. These three communication classification systems were strongly related with the MACS, but moderately related with the GMFCS. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that manual ability and intellectual functioning were significantly related with VSS and CFCS function, whereas only intellectual functioning was significantly related with SLPG functioning in children with CP. Communication function in children with a periventricular white matter lesion (PVWL) varied widely. In the cases with a PVWL, poor functioning was more common on the SLPG, compared to the VSS and CFCS. Very strong relationships were noted among three communication classification systems that are closely related with intellectual ability. Compared to gross motor function, manual ability seemed more closely related with communication function in these children. © Copyright: Yonsei University College of Medicine 2018.

  14. THE INFLUENCE OF EXPERIMENTAL MODEL OF SPRINT ON DEVELOPMENT OF MOTOR AND FUNCTIONAL ABILITIES OF YOUNG FOOTBALLERS

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    Niko Raičković

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available At the sample of 34 examinees, Elementary school students at the age of 14 and 15, involved in the training process in football clubs in Podgorica,was applied the experimental model for improving of sprint.The goal was to determine influence of experimental model on development of motor and functional abilities of examinees. Instruments for measuring of motor abilities were consisted of Segmental Speed dimensions,Explosive and Repetitive Strength dimensions,and of variables:Absolute Value of Maximal Consumption of Oxygen (FAV MCO, Maximal Aerobic Power (FMARP, Vital Capacity (FVI CA and Puls in Stationary Position (FPUSP, for measuring of functional abilities. Canonical Discriminative Analisis was used for testing differences between inicial and final measuring of examinees at the end of experimental period. The results of examination point at statistically significant increase in Explosive and Repetitive Strength, at Absolute Values of Maximal Oxygen Consumption and Maximal Anaerobic Power.

  15. Principle and Basic Characteristics of Variable-Magnetic-Force Memory Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Kazuto; Yuki, Kazuaki; Hashiba, Yutaka; Takahashi, Norio; Yasui, Kazuya; Kovudhikulrungsri, Lilit

    A reduction in the power consumed by motors is required for energy saving in the case of electrical appliances and electric vehicles (EV). The motors used for operating these apparatus operate at variable speeds. Further, the motors operate with small load in stationary mode and with large load in start-up mode. A permanent magnet motor can operate at the rated power with a high efficiency. However, the efficiency is lower at small load or high speed because the large constant magnetic force results in substantial core loss. Furthermore, the flux-weakening current that depresses voltage at high speed leads to significant copper loss. Therefore, we have developed a new technique for controlling the magnetic force of permanent magnet on the basis of the load or speed of the motor. In this paper, we propose the novel motor that can vary magnetic flux and we clarify the principle.

  16. Deficits in motor abilities and developmental fractionation of imitation performance in high-functioning autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biscaldi, Monica; Rauh, Reinhold; Irion, Lisa; Jung, Nikolai H; Mall, Volker; Fleischhaker, Christian; Klein, Christoph

    2014-07-01

    The co-occurrence of motor and imitation disabilities often characterises the spectrum of deficits seen in patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Whether these seemingly separate deficits are inter-related and whether, in particular, motor deficits contribute to the expression of imitation deficits is the topic of the present study and was investigated by comparing these deficits' cross-sectional developmental trajectories. To that end, different components of motor performance assessed in the Zurich Neuromotor Assessment and imitation abilities for facial movements and non-meaningful gestures were tested in 70 subjects (aged 6-29 years), including 36 patients with high-functioning ASD and 34 age-matched typically developed (TD) participants. The results show robust deficits in probands with ASD in timed motor performance and in the quality of movement, which are all independent of age, with one exception. Only diadochokinesis improves moderately with increasing age in ASD probands. Imitation of facial movements and of non-meaningful hand, finger, hand finger gestures not related to social context or tool use is also impaired in ASD subjects, but in contrast to motor performance this deficit overall improves with age. A general imitation factor, extracted from the highly inter-correlated imitation tests, is differentially correlated with components of neuromotor performance in ASD and TD participants. By developmentally fractionating developmentally stable motor deficits from developmentally dynamic imitation deficits, we infer that imitation deficits are primarily cognitive in nature.

  17. Generalized Motor Abilities and Timing Behavior in Children with Specific Language Impairment

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    Zelaznik, Howard N.; Goffman, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To examine whether children with specific language impairment (SLI) differ from normally developing peers in motor skills, especially those skills related to timing. Method: Standard measures of gross and fine motor development were obtained. Furthermore, finger and hand movements were recorded while children engaged in 4 different timing…

  18. How Fine Motor Skills Influence the Assessment of High Abilities and Underachievement in Math

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    Ziegler, Albert; Stoeger, Heidrun

    2010-01-01

    Previously, fine motor skills have been of little or no interest to giftedness research. New lines of thought have been advanced that imply that fine motor skills can be of significance in the identification of gifted persons as well as gifted underachievers. This would also have consequences for the diagnostic process underlying identification.…

  19. CANONICAL RELATIONS MORPHOLOGIC FEATURES, MOTOR ABILITIES AND TESTS WITH SITACIONI BASKETBALL PLAYERS AGED 12-14 YEARS

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    Zulfo Aruković

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this istraživanjua is identifying the canonical correlation between two multidimensional space, the space of morphological characteristics and basic mo¬tor skills room, basketball od12 to 14 years of success on the result of situ¬atio¬nal-motor tests of basketball games. The study was conducted on a sample of 70 players.

  20. JIGSAW PUZZLE IMPROVE FINE MOTOR ABILITIES OF UPPER EXTREMITIES IN POST-STROKE ISCHEMIC CLIENTS

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    Kusnanto Kusnanto

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ischemic stroke is a disease caused by focal cerebral ischemia, where is a decline in blood flow that needed for neuronal metabolism, leading to neurologic deficit include motor deficit such as fine motor skills impairment. Therapy of fine motor skills disorders is to improve motor function, prevent contractures and complications. These study aimed to identify the effect of playing Jigsaw Puzzle on muscle strength, extensive motion, and upper extremity fine motor skills in patients with ischemic stroke at Dr. Moewardi Hospital, Surakarta. Methods: Experimental Quasi pre-posttest one group control. The number of samples were 34 respondents selected using purposive sampling technique. The samples were divided into intervention and control groups. The intervention group was 17 respondents who were given standard treatment hospital and played Jigsaw Puzzle 2 times a day for six days. Control group is one respondent given by hospital standard therapy without given additional Jigsaw Puzzle game. Evaluation of these research is done on the first and seventh day for those groups. Result: The results showed that muscle strength, the range of joint motion and fine motor skills of upper extremities increased (p = 0.001 significantly after being given the Jigsaw Puzzle games. These means playing Jigsaw Puzzle increase muscle strength, the range of joint motion and upper extremity fine motor skill of ischemic stroke patients. Discussion and conclusion: Jigsaw puzzle game administration as additional rehabilitation therapy in upper extremity fine motor to minimize the occurrence of contractures and motor disorders in patients with ischemic stroke. Jigsaw puzzle game therapy capable of creating repetitive motion as a key of neurological rehabilitation in Ischemic Stroke. This study recommends using jigsaw puzzle game as one of intervention in the nursing care of Ischemic Stroke patients.

  1. Motor activation SPECT for the neurosurgical diseases. Examination protocol and basic study

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    Noguchi, Hiroshi; Kawaguchi, Shoichiro; Sakaki, Toshisuke; Imai, Teruhiko; Ohishi, Hajime [Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    We examined and analyzed the region activated by the unilateral finger opposition task using motor activation single photon emission computed tomography (M-SPECT). M-SPECT studies were carried out on 11 cases, all of whom were normal volunteers (mean age: 49.4 years), none of whom showed any abnormal findings on magnetic resonance images (MRIs) or any neurological abnormalities. The SPECT images for each case were superimposed on the MRIs using Image Fusion Software. The result of the M-SPECT study was expressed as positive or negative. The cases with a marked increase of blood flow in the sensori-motor cortex during the finger opposition task were categorized as positive, and those cases showing no marked increase of blood flow were categorized as negative. Among 11 patients, 10 cases (90.9%) showed positive M-SPECT findings, and the eleventh case showed negative M-SPECT findings. The asymmetry index (AI) was calculated on the sensorio-motor cortex in the SPECT images before and after motor activation, with the 10 cases with positive M-SPECT having an AI before motor activation of 0.99{+-}0.06 (mean{+-}standard deviation) and an AI after motor activation of 1.14{+-}0.07. This change was statistically significant (p<0.05). In the single case categorized as negative, the AI before motor activation was 1.04, and the AI after motor activation was 1.01. There was no significant difference of AI values between the resting and motor activation stages. The positive M-SPECT was seen in 90.9% of the normal volunteer series using a visual inspection method. In these cases, the blood flow in the sensorio-motor cortex significantly increased after application of the finger opposition task using the semi-quantitative method. (author)

  2. PERVALE-S: a new cognitive task to assess deaf people’s ability to perceive basic and social emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestre, José M.; Larrán, Cristina; Herrero, Joaquín; Guil, Rocío; de la Torre, Gabriel G.

    2015-01-01

    A poorly understood aspect of deaf people (DP) is how their emotional information is processed. Verbal ability is key to improve emotional knowledge in people. Nevertheless, DP are unable to distinguish intonation, intensity, and the rhythm of language due to lack of hearing. Some DP have acquired both lip-reading abilities and sign language, but others have developed only sign language. PERVALE-S was developed to assess the ability of DP to perceive both social and basic emotions. PERVALE-S presents different sets of visual images of a real deaf person expressing both basic and social emotions, according to the normative standard of emotional expressions in Spanish Sign Language. Emotional expression stimuli were presented at two different levels of intensity (1: low; and 2: high) because DP do not distinguish an object in the same way as hearing people (HP) do. Then, participants had to click on the more suitable emotional expression. PERVALE-S contains video instructions (given by a sign language interpreter) to improve DP’s understanding about how to use the software. DP had to watch the videos before answering the items. To test PERVALE-S, a sample of 56 individuals was recruited (18 signers, 8 lip-readers, and 30 HP). Participants also performed a personality test (High School Personality Questionnaire adapted) and a fluid intelligence (Gf) measure (RAPM). Moreover, all deaf participants were rated by four teachers for the deaf. Results: there were no significant differences between deaf and HP in performance in PERVALE-S. Confusion matrices revealed that embarrassment, envy, and jealousy were worse perceived. Age was just related to social-emotional tasks (but not in basic emotional tasks). Emotional perception ability was related mainly to warmth and consciousness, but negatively related to tension. Meanwhile, Gf was related to only social-emotional tasks. There were no gender differences. PMID:26300828

  3. Generalized motor abilities and timing behavior in children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelaznik, Howard N; Goffman, Lisa

    2010-04-01

    To examine whether children with specific language impairment (SLI) differ from normally developing peers in motor skills, especially those skills related to timing. Standard measures of gross and fine motor development were obtained. Furthermore, finger and hand movements were recorded while children engaged in 4 different timing tasks, including tapping and drawing circles in time with a metronome or a visual target. Fourteen children with SLI (age 6 to 8 years) and 14 age-matched peers who were typically developing participated. As expected, children with SLI showed poorer performance on a standardized test of gross and fine motor skill than did their normally developing peers. However, timing skill in the manual domain was equivalent to that seen in typically developing children. Consistent with earlier findings, relatively poor gross and fine motor performance is observed in children with SLI. Surprisingly, rhythmic timing is spared.

  4. Effects of 2-Year Cognitive⁻Motor Dual-Task Training on Cognitive Function and Motor Ability in Healthy Elderly People: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Emiko; Yokoyama, Hisayo; Imai, Daiki; Takeda, Ryosuke; Ota, Akemi; Kawai, Eriko; Suzuki, Yuta; Okazaki, Kazunobu

    2018-05-11

    We aimed to examine the effect of 2-year cognitive⁻motor dual-task (DT) training on cognitive functions and motor ability of healthy elderly people without marked cognitive impairment. From the 25 participants of our 12-week DT trial conducted in 2014, we recruited 8 subjects who voluntarily participated in a new DT training program once a week for 2 years (exercise (EX) group). Their cognitive functions were evaluated by the Modified Mini-Mental State (3MS) examination and the Trail Making Test, and results were compared with those of the 11 subjects who discontinued the training and did not perform any types of exercise for 2 years (non-exercise (NO) group). Subjects in the NO group showed deterioration in the 3MS examination results, especially in the cognitive domain of attention. Meanwhile, participation in DT training maintained the scores in almost all domains of cognitive function, as well as the total 3MS scores. However, both groups had impaired quadriceps muscle strength and motor ability after the 2-year observation period. These results suggest that participating in exercise program comprising DT training for 2 years may be beneficial for maintaining the broad domains of cognitive function in healthy elderly people, although further verification is needed.

  5. Effects of 2-Year Cognitive–Motor Dual-Task Training on Cognitive Function and Motor Ability in Healthy Elderly People: A Pilot Study

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    Emiko Morita

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to examine the effect of 2-year cognitive–motor dual-task (DT training on cognitive functions and motor ability of healthy elderly people without marked cognitive impairment. From the 25 participants of our 12-week DT trial conducted in 2014, we recruited 8 subjects who voluntarily participated in a new DT training program once a week for 2 years (exercise (EX group. Their cognitive functions were evaluated by the Modified Mini-Mental State (3MS examination and the Trail Making Test, and results were compared with those of the 11 subjects who discontinued the training and did not perform any types of exercise for 2 years (non-exercise (NO group. Subjects in the NO group showed deterioration in the 3MS examination results, especially in the cognitive domain of attention. Meanwhile, participation in DT training maintained the scores in almost all domains of cognitive function, as well as the total 3MS scores. However, both groups had impaired quadriceps muscle strength and motor ability after the 2-year observation period. These results suggest that participating in exercise program comprising DT training for 2 years may be beneficial for maintaining the broad domains of cognitive function in healthy elderly people, although further verification is needed.

  6. Peculiarities of Motor Abilities Development in 7th-8th-Graders

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    Ю. В. Мороз

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The pupose of the research is to define the peculiarities of motor abilities development in children of middle-school age. Research methods: theoretical analysis and collation of scientific and methodological literature; pedagogical testing; methods of mathematical statistics. To determine the effectiveness of realization of the developmental task of the physical education process at the beginning of the school year (in October 2014 and in March 2015, we tested the level of development of physical qualities in the 7th- and 8th-graders, 25 and 25 graders respectively, 13 of which in each class were boys and 12 — girls. Research results. The analysis of the materials shows that during the school year, the boys of the 7th grade showed reliably increased performance in standing long jumps (speed and strength qualities — 1.97%, raising the body from the lying position (strength — 26.46%, bent suspension (strength — 13.45%. The indicators have insignificantly (unreliably increased in the shuttle run 3×10 m (agility — 6.09%, and in body bending from the sitting position (flexibility — 6.25%. The girls showed reliably increased performance in the level of readiness: flexibility — 12%, strength — 12.09%, speed-strength qualities — 5.27%, agility — 7.77%. The analysis of the materials shows that during the school year the 8th-graders (boys reliably increased their physical readiness in speed-strength qualities — 0.8%, strength — 15.7%. The indicators of agility increased unreliably — 2.7%, as well as those of flexibility — 8%. The 8th‑graders (girls reliably improved their indicators in standing long jumps — 2.1%, in bent suspension — 18.8%, raising the body from the lying position in 30 seconds — 17.4%, body bending from the sitting position — 12 5%. The indicators agility improved unreliably — 3.4%. Conclusions. The data obtained are important in solving the pedagogical problems of schoolers’ physical education

  7. Chronic stress impairs spatial memory and motivation for reward without disrupting motor ability and motivation to explore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleen, Jonathan K; Sitomer, Matthew T; Killeen, Peter R; Conrad, Cheryl D

    2006-08-01

    This study uses an operant, behavioral model to assess the daily changes in the decay rate of short-term memory, motivation, and motor ability in rats exposed to chronic restraint. Restraint decreased reward-related motivation by 50% without altering memory decay rate or motor ability. Moreover, chronic restraint impaired hippocampal-dependent spatial memory on the Y maze (4-hr delay) and produced CA3 dendritic retraction without altering hippocampal-independent maze navigation (1-min delay) or locomotion. Thus, mechanisms underlying motivation for food reward differ from those underlying Y maze exploration, and neurobiological substrates of spatial memory, such as the hippocampus, differ from those that underlie short-term memory. Chronic restraint produces functional, neuromorphological, and physiological alterations that parallel symptoms of depression in humans. Copyright 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. BASIC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg; Schmidt, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    De sidste 10 år har vi været vidner til opkomsten af et nyt evidensbaseret policy paradigme, Behavioural Public Policy (BPP), der søger at integrere teoretiske og metodiske indsigter fra adfærdsvidenskaberne i offentlig politikudvikling. Arbejdet med BPP har dog båret præg af, at være usystematisk...... BPP. Tilgangen består dels af den overordnede proces-model BASIC og dels af et iboende framework, ABCD, der er en model for systematisk adfærdsanalyse, udvikling, test og implementering af adfærdsrettede løsningskoncepter. Den samlede model gør det muligt for forskere såvel som offentligt ansatte...

  9. Language and motor abilities of preschool children who stutter: Evidence from behavioral and kinematic indices of nonword repetition performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Anne; Goffman, Lisa; Sasisekaran, Jayanthi; Weber-Fox, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Stuttering is a disorder of speech production that typically arises in the preschool years, and many accounts of its onset and development implicate language and motor processes as critical underlying factors. There have, however, been very few studies of speech motor control processes in preschool children who stutter. Hearing novel nonwords and reproducing them engages multiple neural networks, including those involved in phonological analysis and storage and speech motor programming and execution. We used this task to explore speech motor and language abilities of 31 children aged 4–5 years who were diagnosed as stuttering. We also used sensitive and specific standardized tests of speech and language abilities to determine which of the children who stutter had concomitant language and/or phonological disorders. Approximately half of our sample of stuttering children had language and/or phonological disorders. As previous investigations would suggest, the stuttering children with concomitant language or speech sound disorders produced significantly more errors on the nonword repetition task compared to typically developing children. In contrast, the children who were diagnosed as stuttering, but who had normal speech sound and language abilities, performed the nonword repetition task with equal accuracy compared to their normally fluent peers. Analyses of interarticulator motions during accurate and fluent productions of the nonwords revealed that the children who stutter (without concomitant disorders) showed higher variability in oral motor coordination indices. These results provide new evidence that preschool children diagnosed as stuttering lag their typically developing peers in maturation of speech motor control processes. Educational objectives The reader will be able to: (a) discuss why performance on nonword repetition tasks has been investigated in children who stutter; (b) discuss why children who stutter in the current study had a higher incidence

  10. Language and motor abilities of preschool children who stutter: evidence from behavioral and kinematic indices of nonword repetition performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Anne; Goffman, Lisa; Sasisekaran, Jayanthi; Weber-Fox, Christine

    2012-12-01

    Stuttering is a disorder of speech production that typically arises in the preschool years, and many accounts of its onset and development implicate language and motor processes as critical underlying factors. There have, however, been very few studies of speech motor control processes in preschool children who stutter. Hearing novel nonwords and reproducing them engages multiple neural networks, including those involved in phonological analysis and storage and speech motor programming and execution. We used this task to explore speech motor and language abilities of 31 children aged 4-5 years who were diagnosed as stuttering. We also used sensitive and specific standardized tests of speech and language abilities to determine which of the children who stutter had concomitant language and/or phonological disorders. Approximately half of our sample of stuttering children had language and/or phonological disorders. As previous investigations would suggest, the stuttering children with concomitant language or speech sound disorders produced significantly more errors on the nonword repetition task compared to typically developing children. In contrast, the children who were diagnosed as stuttering, but who had normal speech sound and language abilities, performed the nonword repetition task with equal accuracy compared to their normally fluent peers. Analyses of interarticulator motions during accurate and fluent productions of the nonwords revealed that the children who stutter (without concomitant disorders) showed higher variability in oral motor coordination indices. These results provide new evidence that preschool children diagnosed as stuttering lag their typically developing peers in maturation of speech motor control processes. The reader will be able to: (a) discuss why performance on nonword repetition tasks has been investigated in children who stutter; (b) discuss why children who stutter in the current study had a higher incidence of concomitant language

  11. Resting-state Functional Connectivity is an Age-dependent Predictor of Motor Learning Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary, Alison; Wens, Vincent; Op de Beeck, Marc; Leproult, Rachel; De Tiège, Xavier; Peigneux, Philippe

    2017-10-01

    This magnetoencephalography study investigates how ageing modulates the relationship between pre-learning resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) and subsequent learning. Neuromagnetic resting-state activity was recorded 5 min before motor sequence learning in 14 young (19-30 years) and 14 old (66-70 years) participants. We used a seed-based beta-band power envelope correlation approach to estimate rsFC maps, with the seed located in the right primary sensorimotor cortex. In each age group, the relation between individual rsFC and learning performance was investigated using Pearson's correlation analyses. Our results show that rsFC is predictive of subsequent motor sequence learning but involves different cross-network interactions in the two age groups. In young adults, decreased coupling between the sensorimotor network and the cortico-striato-cerebellar network is associated with better motor learning, whereas a similar relation is found in old adults between the sensorimotor, the dorsal-attentional and the DMNs. Additionally, age-related correlational differences were found in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, known to subtend attentional and controlled processes. These findings suggest that motor skill learning depends-in an age-dependent manner-on subtle interactions between resting-state networks subtending motor activity on the one hand, and controlled and attentional processes on the other hand. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. A Software Tool to Visualize Verbal Protocols to Enhance Strategic and Metacognitive Abilities in Basic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Arévalo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Learning to program is difficult for many first year undergraduate students. Instructional strategies of traditional programming courses tend to focus on syntactic issues and assigning practice exercises using the presentation-examples-practice formula and by showing the verbal and visual explanation of a teacher during the “step by step” process of writing a computer program. Cognitive literature regarding the mental processes involved in programming suggests that the explicit teaching of certain aspects such as mental models, strategic knowledge and metacognitive abilities, are critical issues of how to write and assemble the pieces of a computer program. Verbal protocols are often used in software engineering as a technique to record the short term cognitive process of a user or expert in evaluation or problem solving scenarios. We argue that verbal protocols can be used as a mechanism to explicitly show the strategic and metacognitive process of an instructor when writing a program. In this paper we present an Information System Prototype developed to store and visualize worked examples derived from transcribed verbal protocols during the process of writing introductory level programs. Empirical data comparing the grades obtained by two groups of novice programming students, using ANOVA, indicates a statistically positive difference in performance in the group using the tool, even though these results still cannot be extrapolated to general population, given the reported limitations of this study.

  13. Designing Kinect games to train motor skills for mixed ability players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greef, de K.J.F.; Spek, van der E.D.; Bekker, M.M.; Fedtke, S.; Bekker, T.; Schijven, M.; Gekker, A.; Schouten, B.

    2013-01-01

    Children who have special needs when it comes to motor skill development, for instance as a result of developmental coordination disorder or cerebral palsy, need to undergo long bouts of physical therapy. This can often be considered boring, to the detriment of the efficacy of the therapy. One way

  14. Motor skills, haptic perception and social abilities in children with mild speech disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müürsepp, Iti; Aibast, Herje; Gapeyeva, Helena; Pääsuke, Mati

    2012-02-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate motor skills, haptic object recognition and social interaction in 5-year-old children with mild specific expressive language impairment (expressive-SLI) and articulation disorder (AD) in comparison of age- and gender matched healthy children. Twenty nine children (23 boys and 6 girls) with expressive-SLI, 27 children (20 boys and 7 girls) with AD and 30 children (23 boys and 7 girls) with typically developing language as controls participated in our study. The children were examined for manual dexterity, ball skills, static and dynamic balance by M-ABC test, haptic object recognition and for social interaction by questionnaire completed by teachers. Children with mild expressive-SLI demonstrated significantly poorer results in all subtests of motor skills (psocial interaction (p0.05) in measured parameters between children with AD and controls. Children with expressive-SLI performed considerably poorer compared to AD group in balance subtest (psocial interaction are considerably more affected than in children with AD. Although motor difficulties in speech production are prevalent in AD, it is localised and does not involve children's general motor skills, haptic perception or social interaction. Copyright © 2011 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. PERVALE-S: a new cognitive task to assess deaf people’s ability to perceive basic and social emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSE MIGUEL MESTRE

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available PERVALE-S was developed to assess the ability of DP to perceive both social and basic emotions. PERVALE-S presents different sets of visual images of a real deaf person expressing both basic and social emotions, according to the normative standard of emotional expressions in Spanish sign language. Emotional expression stimuli were presented at two different levels of intensity (1: low; and 2: high because DP do not distinguish the same range of frequency adverbs as hearing people (HP do. Then, participants had to click on the more suitable emotional expression. PERVALE-S contains video instructions of a sign language interpreter to improve DP’s understanding about how to use the software. DP had to watch the videos before answering the items. To test PERVALE-S, a sample of 56 individuals was recruited (18 signers, 8 lip-readers, and 30 hearing people. Participants also responded to a personality test (HSPQ adapted and a fluid intelligence measure (RAPM. Moreover, four teachers from deaf center rated all deaf participants. Results: there were no significant differences between DP and HP in performance in PERVALE-S. Confusion matrices revealed that embarrassment, envy, and jealousy were worse perceived by participants (DP and HP. There were not significant differences of emotional perception performance among lip-readings, signers, and hearings. Regarding emotional perception ability (EPA, basic emotion performance was positively related to consciousness, and negatively with tension. Social emotion performance was positively related to age and fluid intelligence, and negatively related to dominance. When an adapted instrument for assessing EPA is developed without language implications, the performance among DP and HP are closer. This instrument could have experimental interest in order of eliminating language influences in EPA.

  16. Visuo-motor coordination ability predicts performance with brain-computer interfaces controlled by modulation of sensorimotor rhythms (SMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Maria Hammer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Modulation of sensorimotor rhythms (SMR was suggested as a control signal for brain-computer interfaces (BCI. Yet, there is a population of users estimated between 10 to 50% not able to achieve reliable control and only about 20% of users achieve high (80-100% performance. Predicting performance prior to BCI use would facilitate selection of the most feasible system for an individual, thus constitute a practical benefit for the user, and increase our knowledge about the correlates of BCI control. In a recent study, we predicted SMR-BCI performance from psychological variables that were assessed prior to the BCI sessions and BCI control was supported with machine-learning techniques. We described two significant psychological predictors, namely the visuo-motor coordination ability and the ability to concentrate on the task. The purpose of the current study was to replicate these results thereby validating these predictors within a neurofeedback based SMR-BCI that involved no machine learning. Thirty-three healthy BCI novices participated in a calibration session and three further neurofeedback training sessions. Two variables were related with mean SMR-BCI performance: (1 A measure for the accuracy of fine motor skills, i.e. a trade for a person’s visuo-motor control ability and (2 subject’s attentional impulsivity. In a linear regression they accounted for almost 20% in variance of SMR-BCI performance, but predictor (1 failed significance. Nevertheless, on the basis of our prior regression model for sensorimotor control ability we could predict current SMR-BCI performance with an average prediction error of M = 12.07%. In more than 50% of the participants, the prediction error was smaller than 10%. Hence, psychological variables played a moderate role in predicting SMR-BCI performance in a neurofeedback approach that involved no machine learning. Future studies are needed to further consolidate (or reject the present predictors.

  17. EFFECTS OF THE SCHOOL SUBJECT – SPORT FOR ATHLETES ON MOTORIC ABILITIES OF 8TH GRADE GIRLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milovan Ljubojević

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The place and importance of physical education in educational system is well known. Many researches have been done with the goal to determine influence of physical education on students. However, keep in mind that many of those researches had shown that women are generally not so interested in sports and that they are less included in physical activities (especially some forms of it, we have focused our work at possibilities of improvement of motoric abilities of girls inside chosen subject – sport for athletes, which is being conveyed in 8th grade with two classes per week, and chosen sport was basketball. Our sample consisted of 67 girls (37 in experimental and 30 in control group. Level of motoric abilities has been tracked by 14 test battery which measured levels of speed, coordination, precision, balance, flexibility and explosive strength. We concluded that subjects in experimental group improved levels of abilities in each test at final measuring. However, keep in mind that girls in control group had also show certain improvements in results of the t test for dependent samples at initial and final measurement of the following tests: horizontal wall bouncing for 15 seconds, hand and foot tapping, horizontal aiming and standing on one leg with eyes closed, we have compared by ANOVA measured results at final measurement of the each group. We concluded that there are statistically significant differences between groups in left hand basketball dribbling test, pull-through and jump-over tests, horizontal wall bouncing for 15 seconds, hand and foot tapping, standing on one leg with eyes closed, vertical jump – Sargent test, basketball throwing from chest from sitting position. Therefore, we can finally conclude that conveyed basketball programme had completely positive impact at motoric abilities of girls, as we expected

  18. Visual processing in reading disorders and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and its contribution to basic reading ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibby, Michelle Y; Dyer, Sarah M; Vadnais, Sarah A; Jagger, Audreyana C; Casher, Gabriel A; Stacy, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Whether visual processing deficits are common in reading disorders (RD), and related to reading ability in general, has been debated for decades. The type of visual processing affected also is debated, although visual discrimination and short-term memory (STM) may be more commonly related to reading ability. Reading disorders are frequently comorbid with ADHD, and children with ADHD often have subclinical reading problems. Hence, children with ADHD were used as a comparison group in this study. ADHD and RD may be dissociated in terms of visual processing. Whereas RD may be associated with deficits in visual discrimination and STM for order, ADHD is associated with deficits in visual-spatial processing. Thus, we hypothesized that children with RD would perform worse than controls and children with ADHD only on a measure of visual discrimination and a measure of visual STM that requires memory for order. We expected all groups would perform comparably on the measure of visual STM that does not require sequential processing. We found children with RD or ADHD were commensurate to controls on measures of visual discrimination and visual STM that do not require sequential processing. In contrast, both RD groups (RD, RD/ADHD) performed worse than controls on the measure of visual STM that requires memory for order, and children with comorbid RD/ADHD performed worse than those with ADHD. In addition, of the three visual measures, only sequential visual STM predicted reading ability. Hence, our findings suggest there is a deficit in visual sequential STM that is specific to RD and is related to basic reading ability. The source of this deficit is worthy of further research, but it may include both reduced memory for order and poorer verbal mediation.

  19. Visual processing in reading disorders and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and its contribution to basic reading ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Y. Kibby

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Whether visual processing deficits are common in reading disorders (RD, and related to reading ability in general, has been debated for decades. The type of visual processing affected also is debated, although visual discrimination and short-term memory (STM may be more commonly related to reading ability. Reading disorders are frequently comorbid with ADHD, and children with ADHD often have subclinical reading problems. Hence, children with ADHD were used as a comparison group in this study. ADHD and RD may be dissociated in terms of visual processing. Whereas RD may be associated with deficits in visual discrimination and short-term memory for order, ADHD is associated with deficits in visual-spatial processing. Thus, we hypothesized that children with RD would perform worse than controls and children with ADHD only on a measure of visual discrimination and a measure of visual STM that requires memory for order. We expected all groups would perform comparably on the measure of visual STM that does not require sequential processing. We found children with RD or ADHD were commensurate to controls on measures of visual discrimination and visual STM that do not require sequential processing. In contrast, both RD groups (RD, RD/ADHD performed worse than controls on the measure of visual STM that requires memory for order, and children with comorbid RD/ADHD performed worse than those with ADHD. In addition, of the three visual measures, only sequential visual STM predicted reading ability. Hence, our findings suggest there is a deficit in visual sequential STM that is specific to RD and is related to basic reading ability. The source of this deficit is worthy of further research, but it may include both reduced memory for order and poorer verbal mediation.

  20. MOTOR ABILITIES OF FEMALE STUDENTS WITH REGARD TO THEIR WORK CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Mitrevski

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The research is conducted on a samples of 183 female entities at high school. The sample is divided into 3 sub-samples according to the work conditions at school. Eight (8 motor test are applied in order to establish the possible differences between the subsamples; and the conclusion is that, in four (4 out of the eight (8 tests within analysis of variance (ANOVA and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA, there is a statistically significant difference between the treated groups.

  1. COMPARISON OF SOME MOTOR ABILITIES OF MALE BASKETBALL AND HANDBALL PLAYERS

    OpenAIRE

    Hürmüz KOÇ; Atilla PULUR; Ebru Olcay KARABULUT

    2011-01-01

    In this study, some motoric characteristics of basketball and handball players with similar physical characteristics were compared. 24 handball players at the age of 12.5 ± 0.6 (mean ± sd) years old and 18 basketball players at the age of 12.8 ± 0.8 (mean ± sd) years old, all of whom have trained regularly for at least 3 years, participated in the study. Parameters such as, age, height, body weight, body fat percentage, flexibility, upper extremity velocity (arm movement velocity), equilibriu...

  2. Benefits of physical exercise on basic visuo-motor functions across age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marika eBerchicci

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Motor performance deficits of older adults are due to dysfunction at multiple levels. Age-related differences have been documented on executive functions; motor control becomes more reliant on cognitive control mechanisms, including the engagement of the prefrontal cortex (PFC, possibly compensating for age-related sensorimotor declines. Since at functional level the PFC showed the largest age-related differences during discriminative response task, we wonder whether those effects are mainly due to the cognitive difficulty in stimulus discrimination or they could be also detected in a much easier task. In the present study, we measured the association of physical exercise with the PFC activation and response times (RTs using a simple response task (SRT, in which the participants were asked to respond as quickly as possible by manual key-press to visual stimuli. Simultaneous behavioral (RTs and electroencephalographic (EEG recordings were performed on 84 healthy participants aged 19-86 years. The whole sample was divided into three cohorts (young, middle-aged and older; each cohort was further divided into two equal sub-cohorts (exercise and not-exercise based on a self-report questionnaire measuring physical exercise. The EEG signal was segmented in epochs starting 1100 prior to stimulus onset and lasting 2-s. Behavioral results showed age effects, indicating a slowing of RTs with increasing age. The EEG results showed a significant interaction between age and exercise on the activities recorded on the PFC. The results indicates that: a the brain of older adults needs the PFC engagement also to perform elementary task, such as the SRT, while this activity is not necessary in younger adults, b physical exercise could reduce this age-related reliance on extra cognitive control also during the performance of a SRT, and c the activity of the PFC is a sensitive index of the benefits of physical exercise on sensorimotor decline.

  3. The identification of high potential archers based on fitness and motor ability variables: A Support Vector Machine approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Zahari; Musa, Rabiu Muazu; P P Abdul Majeed, Anwar; Alim, Muhammad Muaz; Abdullah, Mohamad Razali

    2018-02-01

    Support Vector Machine (SVM) has been shown to be an effective learning algorithm for classification and prediction. However, the application of SVM for prediction and classification in specific sport has rarely been used to quantify/discriminate low and high-performance athletes. The present study classified and predicted high and low-potential archers from a set of fitness and motor ability variables trained on different SVMs kernel algorithms. 50 youth archers with the mean age and standard deviation of 17.0 ± 0.6 years drawn from various archery programmes completed a six arrows shooting score test. Standard fitness and ability measurements namely hand grip, vertical jump, standing broad jump, static balance, upper muscle strength and the core muscle strength were also recorded. Hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis (HACA) was used to cluster the archers based on the performance variables tested. SVM models with linear, quadratic, cubic, fine RBF, medium RBF, as well as the coarse RBF kernel functions, were trained based on the measured performance variables. The HACA clustered the archers into high-potential archers (HPA) and low-potential archers (LPA), respectively. The linear, quadratic, cubic, as well as the medium RBF kernel functions models, demonstrated reasonably excellent classification accuracy of 97.5% and 2.5% error rate for the prediction of the HPA and the LPA. The findings of this investigation can be valuable to coaches and sports managers to recognise high potential athletes from a combination of the selected few measured fitness and motor ability performance variables examined which would consequently save cost, time and effort during talent identification programme. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Hemispheric speech lateralisation in the developing brain is related to motor praxis ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica C. Hodgson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Commonly displayed functional asymmetries such as hand dominance and hemispheric speech lateralisation are well researched in adults. However there is debate about when such functions become lateralised in the typically developing brain. This study examined whether patterns of speech laterality and hand dominance were related and whether they varied with age in typically developing children. 148 children aged 3–10 years performed an electronic pegboard task to determine hand dominance; a subset of 38 of these children also underwent functional Transcranial Doppler (fTCD imaging to derive a lateralisation index (LI for hemispheric activation during speech production using an animation description paradigm. There was no main effect of age in the speech laterality scores, however, younger children showed a greater difference in performance between their hands on the motor task. Furthermore, this between-hand performance difference significantly interacted with direction of speech laterality, with a smaller between-hand difference relating to increased left hemisphere activation. This data shows that both handedness and speech lateralisation appear relatively determined by age 3, but that atypical cerebral lateralisation is linked to greater performance differences in hand skill, irrespective of age. Results are discussed in terms of the common neural systems underpinning handedness and speech lateralisation.

  5. Environmental constraints on motor abilities used in grooming, swimming, and eating by decorticate rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whishaw, I Q; Nonneman, A J; Kolb, B

    1981-10-01

    In a number of successive tests, grooming, swimming, and eating behaviors of decorticate rats were reexamined by evoking the behaviors in various circumstances (stimulus conditions). The rats showed normal-length grooming sequences during spontaneous home cage grooming; when grooming was elicited by removing the rats from their home cage and soaking their fur by a brief swim, grooming-sequence length was abbreviated. In cold (18 degrees C) water, they swam well and with exaggerated vigor and frequently inhibited forelimb movements; in warm (37 degrees C) water, they swam poorly and paddled with all four limbs. To eat small pieces of food, they sat up and used their forepaws as do normal rats, but they frequently dropped the food; they did not use their forepaws to eat large pieces of food. When given powdered food, they first tried to grasp it in their mouth while they scratched at the floor surface with their front limbs; thereafter, they became increasingly proficient in licking it up. Thus, in a narrow range of stimulus conditions, decorticate rats can make movements resembling those of normal rats. They also improve with practice in some (eating powdered food) but not other (forepaw immobility, eating large food pellets) tasks. The study shows that in order to elucidate the role of the cortex in control of motor behavior, it is necessary to obtain "behavior profiles" of each behavior by testing the animals repeatedly and under widely varying test conditions.

  6. Application of stepping motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-10-01

    This book is divided into three parts, which is about practical using of stepping motor. The first part has six chapters. The contents of the first part are about stepping motor, classification of stepping motor, basic theory og stepping motor, characteristic and basic words, types and characteristic of stepping motor in hybrid type and basic control of stepping motor. The second part deals with application of stepping motor with hardware of stepping motor control, stepping motor control by microcomputer and software of stepping motor control. The last part mentions choice of stepping motor system, examples of stepping motor, measurement of stepping motor and practical cases of application of stepping motor.

  7. ANTHROPOMETRICAL PROFILE AND BIO-MOTOR ABILITIES OF YOUNG ELITE WRESTLERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Jafari Rahmat

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study investigated the association between motor performance and somatic type, anthropometric, body composition, physiologic and physical fitness profile in young wrestlers. Material: 16 young wrestlers aging 16-19 with a 4-year-experience of taking part in national championships were selected for the study. Following the standard methods in the testing center of Alborz province some tests like aerobic power, muscular endurance, flexibility and agility speed tests and 1RM were taken to integrate the participants. Also, it should be noted that the participants’ height, weight, the girth of thigh, elbow, calf and arm and skin thickness were measured. Results: Somatotype, Somatotype Attitudinal Distance (SAD, Height Weight ratio (HWR were calculated according to Carter and Heath anthropometric method. Body Fat Percentage (%BF, HWR and SAD resulted in 10.90±1.64, 43.27±0.87 and 0.94±0.87 respectively. Somatotype Standard Deviation and mean regarding endomorphic, mesomorphic and ectomorphic components were 2.16±0.46, 5.20±0.77 and 2.88±0.64 respectively. Physiologically, wrestlers VO2MAX (kg/min were 49.31±4.22 and their Resting Heart Rate (bpm were 68.31±6.64. Conclusion: As the present study illustrates, Somatotype of the Endomorphs, Mesomorphs and Ectomorphs were the same. As a result, coaches can plan wrestlers’ training programs and review of techniques based on anthropometric and physiologic data driven from their sports performances.Besides, wrestlers could be well-informed about their performance. Moreover, aforesaid information could be beneficial to wrestling federations and all other organizations contributing the wrestling federation while holding talent identification programs and recognizing young wrestlers.

  8. Two-year changes in anthropometric and motor ability values as talent identification indexes in youth soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Norikazu; Seki, Taigo

    2016-02-01

    The present study examined 2-year changes in anthropometric variables and motor abilities in elite male youth soccer players to identify potential talent identification indexes. This was a cross-sequential study examining two different age groups at two time points. Height, weight, 40-m sprint speed, muscular power (5-step bounding), and change of direction (COD) ability (10 m×5 COD) were measured in 12- and 14-year-old soccer players and repeated after 2 years (at 14 and 16 years of age). Correlations and changes in ranking between the two measurements were determined. Both groups had small ranking changes in height (12-14-year-olds: r=0.80, 14-16-year-olds: r=0.89; ptalent identification index for youth soccer players. On the other hand, muscular power and COD ability is changeable during growth period suggests that these parameters is not useful for talent identification index. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Biomechanical Assessment of Motor Abilities in Male Handball Players During the Annual Training Macrocycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacewicz Tomasz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of the study was to determine the torque of the knee extensors and flexors of the lead lower limb, the torque of the shoulder extensors and flexors of the dominant upper limb, and the torque generated by the muscles of the kinematic chain going from the trail lower limb to the hand of the dominant limb in male handball players during the annual training macrocycle. Changes in jump height and throwing velocity were also investigated. Material and methods. The study involved 13 handball players from a Polish second-league team. The measurements were performed four times: at the beginning of the preparation period, at the beginning of the season, at the end of the first part of the season, and at the end of the second part of the season. Torque was measured in isokinetic and isometric conditions. Jumping ability was tested using a piezoelectric platform, and throwing velocity was measured with a speed radar gun. Results. The study found statistically significant differences between the relative torque values of the knee extensors (p < 0.002 and flexors (p < 0.003 of the lead leg measured in isokinetic conditions between the first three measurements and the final one. Isokinetic measurement of the torque of the muscles of the kinematic chain going from the trail leg to the hand of the dominant arm decreased in a statistically significant way at the end of the season. As for the results of the measurement of the torque of the shoulder extensors and flexors in static conditions, no statistically significant differences were observed between the four measurements. However, statistically significant differences were noted in jumping ability and throwing velocity in the annual training macrocycle. Conclusions. The results of the study indicate that there is a need to perform regular assessments of players’ strength and jumping ability during the competition period. There is a need to modify the training methods used during the

  10. Littermate presence enhances motor development, weight gain and competitive ability in newborn and juvenile domestic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolás, Leticia; Martínez-Gómez, Margarita; Hudson, Robyn; Bautista, Amando

    2011-01-01

    Interest has been growing in the influence siblings may have on individual development. While mammalian research has tended to emphasize competition among siblings for essential but often limited resources such as the mother's milk, there is also evidence of mutual benefits to be had from sibling presence, most notably for altricial young in enhanced thermoregulatory efficiency. In the present study we asked whether littermates of an altricial mammal, the domestic rabbit, might gain other developmental benefits from sibling presence. From postnatal days 1 to 25 we raised rabbit pups either together with their littermates or alone except for the brief, once daily nursing characteristic of this species, while controlling for litter size and ambient nest box temperature. At weaning on Day 25 the young were then transferred to individual cages. Before weaning, we found that pups raised separately from their littermates obtained less milk, and showed lower weight gain and slower development of the ability to maintain body equilibrium than their litter-raised sibs. This was the case even though the two groups did not differ in birth weight or in the ratio of converting milk into body mass in their temperature-controlled nest boxes. Postweaning, the isolation-raised animals were also less successful in competing for food and water when tested after deprivation than their litter-raised sibs. The present study adds to the growing evidence of the influence, in this case positive, that sibs (or half sibs) may have in shaping one another's development. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. CONNECTION BETWEEN SOME MOTORIC ABILITIES WITH SUCCESS IN REALIZATION OF PROGRAMMED CONTENTS FROM THE AREA OF GYMNASTICS OF THE FOURTH GRADE OF HIGH SCHOOL

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    Jovica Petković

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This research is undertaken for the purpose of defi ning and determinating of the le vel of connection between some motoric abilities with effi ciency in realization of some pro gramme issnes in the area of gymnastic (stretched – legged jump and folded – legged jump. On the sample of fi fty students from the fourth grade of High school, examined stu dents have been tested on ten motoric tests and on two specifi c motoric assignmentsstre tched – legged jump and folded – legged jump. The results of this research clearly point that there exist the multitude of statistically important coeffi cients of correlation between treated motoric abilities and applied assignments

  12. Relations between Anthropometric Characteristics and Motor Abilities of 14 – 15U Female Swimmers on 50m Result for each Technique

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    Goran Dimitrić

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In aim of correlation between antropometric characteristics, motor abilities and results of swimming 50m in all swimming techniques, a group of 22 swimmers (girls of Serbian national team, aged 14-15, underwent some anthropometric measurements as well as some motor abilities. Observed longitudinal dimensions were: body height, body mass, arm span and torax circumference and observed motor abilities were: body strength (arms, legs, stomach and flexibility (trunk and arms. Regression analisys showed that arm span corellated with 50m butterfly and free style score as well as strenght of body and legs corellated with 50m backstroke and free style score. Other measures didn΄t corelatted significantly on this sample. Study results confirms importance of arm span and some segments of body strenhgt of swimmers (girls for successful swimm on 50m in butterfly, backstroke and freestyle techniques in the age 14-15 years.

  13. The Impact of Therapeutic Recreational Gymnastic Exercise on Basic Motor Skills of Hearing-Impaired Children Aged between 6 and 9 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, Nurcan

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the current study is to investigate the impact of therapeutic recreational gymnastic exercises on basic motor skills of hearing-impaired children aged between 6-9 years. Material and Method: 18 students (12 boys; 6 girls) between the ages of 6-9 years participated in the study. 9 of these students were determined as…

  14. Dynamic Neuro-Cognitive Imagery Improves Mental Imagery Ability, Disease Severity, and Motor and Cognitive Functions in People with Parkinson’s Disease

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    Amit Abraham

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available People with Parkinson’s disease (PD experience kinesthetic deficits, which affect motor and nonmotor functions, including mental imagery. Imagery training is a recommended, yet underresearched, approach in PD rehabilitation. Dynamic Neuro-Cognitive Imagery (DNI™ is a codified method for imagery training. Twenty subjects with idiopathic PD (Hoehn and Yahr stages I–III were randomly allocated into DNI training (experimental; n=10 or in-home learning and exercise program (control; n=10. Both groups completed at least 16 hours of training within two weeks. DNI training focused on anatomical embodiment and kinesthetic awareness. Imagery abilities, disease severity, and motor and nonmotor functions were assessed pre- and postintervention. The DNI participants improved (p<.05 in mental imagery abilities, disease severity, and motor and spatial cognitive functions. Participants also reported improvements in balance, walking, mood, and coordination, and they were more physically active. Both groups strongly agreed they enjoyed their program and were more mentally active. DNI training is a promising rehabilitation method for improving imagery ability, disease severity, and motor and nonmotor functions in people with PD. This training might serve as a complementary PD therapeutic approach. Future studies should explore the effect of DNI on motor learning and control strategies.

  15. THE IMPACT OF SPORT CLIMBING ON SOME MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND MOTOR ABILITIES IN CLIMBERS OF 14 YEARS OF AGE

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    Blaž Jereb

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of our research was to identify the impact of sport climbing on some morphologic characteristics and motor abilities in climbers. The sample group consisted of 19 climbers, who trained climbing for one year beside their regular physical education after the initially survey was made, and 72 nonclimbers, who’s only sport activity was their regular physical education. At the time of the test, climbers as well as nonclimbers were 14 years of age. The measurement included all the variables from the Physical education chart. Data were processed with statistical programme package SPSS for Windows. The result of analysis of covariance show that after a year long period of sport climbing statistically significant differences were shown in the results of t he test Polygon backwards in favour of the experimental group. It is also possible to observe a trend towards better results of the experimental group in the tests Skin fold thickness of the upper arm and Bend and touch on bench. The nonclimbers achieved larger differences than climbers in torso lifting and 600 m run.

  16. The relative age effect in the German Football TID Programme: biases in motor performance diagnostics and effects on single motor abilities and skills in groups of selected players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votteler, Andreas; Höner, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the disturbing effects of relative age on the talent identification process in the talent development programme of the German Football Association. The bias in the selection rate was examined via the extent of relative age effects. The bias in motor performance diagnostics was analysed by comparing the motor performance of selected players with normal motor development. The mechanisms underlying the relative age biases in motor performance were examined by modelling the direct and indirect effects of relative age on single motor performance tests for sprint, running agility, dribbling and ball passing and control. Data from 10,130 selected football players from the U12 to U15 age groups were collected in autumn 2010. The birth distribution differed significantly from the reference population with approximately 61% of the players born in the first half of the year. The selection probability was approximately two times higher for players born in the first quarter of the year than for players born in the last quarter. Revised motor performance diagnostics showed better results on average for relatively younger players. Path analysis revealed significant direct and indirect relative age effects for physiologically demanding tests and almost no effects for technically demanding tests. Large sample sizes allowed high resolution in relative age with additional informational content and multivariate modelling of the complex relationships among relative age, physical development and motor performance. The results are discussed on how relative age affects the effectiveness and fairness of talent identification and development processes.

  17. Investigation of basic cognitive predictors of reading and spelling abilities in Tunisian third-grade primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batnini, Soulef; Uno, Akira

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated first the main cognitive abilities; phonological processing, visual cognition, automatization and receptive vocabulary in predicting reading and spelling abilities in Arabic. Second, we compared good/poor readers and spellers to detect the characteristics of cognitive predictors which contribute to identifying reading and spelling difficulties in Arabic speaking children. A sample of 116 Tunisian third-grade children was tested on their abilities to read and spell, phonological processing, visual cognition, automatization and receptive vocabulary. For reading, phonological processing and automatization uniquely predicted Arabic word reading and paragraph reading abilities. Automatization uniquely predicted Arabic non-word reading ability. For spelling, phonological processing was a unique predictor for Arabic word spelling ability. Furthermore, poor readers had significantly lower scores on the phonological processing test and slower reading times on the automatization test as compared with good readers. Additionally, poor spellers showed lower scores on the phonological processing test as compared with good spellers. Visual cognitive processing and receptive vocabulary were not significant cognitive predictors of Arabic reading and spelling abilities for Tunisian third grade children in this study. Our results are consistent with previous studies in alphabetic orthographies and demonstrate that phonological processing and automatization are the best cognitive predictors in detecting early literacy problems. We suggest including phonological processing and automatization tasks in screening tests and in intervention programs may help Tunisian children with poor literacy skills overcome reading and spelling difficulties in Arabic. Copyright © 2014 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Motor performance and functional ability in preschool- and early school-aged children with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: a cross-sectional study

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    Takken Tim

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To describe the level of motor performance and functional skills in young children with JIA. Methods In a cross-sectional study in 56 preschool-aged (PSA and early school- aged children (ESA with JIA according to ILAR classification, motor performance was measured with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II (BSID2 and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC. Functional skills were measured with the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI. Disease outcome was measured with a joint count on swelling/range of joint motion, functional ability and joint pain. Results Twenty two PSA children (mean age 2.1 years with a mean Developmental Index of the BSID2 of 77.9 indicating a delayed motor performance; 45% of PSA children showed a severe delayed motor performance. Mean PEDI scores were normal, 38% of PSA scored below -2 SD in one or more domains of the PEDI. Thirty four ESA children (mean age 5.2 years with a mean M-ABC 42.7, indicating a normal motor performance, 12% of ESA children had an abnormal score. Mean PEDI scores showed impaired mobility skills, 70% of ESA children scored below -2 SD in one or more domains of the PEDI. Disease outcome in both age groups demonstrated low to moderate scores. Significant correlations were found between age at disease onset, disease duration and BSID2 or M-ABC and between disease outcome and PEDI in both age cohorts. Conclusion More PSA children have more impaired motor performance than impaired functional skills, while ESA children have more impairment in functional skills. Disease onset and disease duration are correlated with motor performance in both groups. Impaired motor performance and delayed functional skills is primarily found in children with a polyarticular disease course. Clinical follow up and rehabilitation programs should also focus on motor performance and functional skills development in young children with JIA.

  19. THE INFLUENCE OF SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS ON THE LEVEL OF EARLY-SCHOOL-AGED CHILDREN’S MOTOR ABILITIES – BLURRING OF DIFFERENCES IN THE ECONOMICALLY UNDERDEVELOPED AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Podstawski

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to determine differences in the level of motor abilities of 7-9-year-old girls and boys in relation to the socioeconomic status of their families . Material and Methods: The research was conducted in 12 primary schools in two regions of Poland namely of Warmia & Mazury and Pomorskie voivodeship, on the total of 1205 pupils (584 boys and 621 girls aged 7-9. Selected economic factors such as the type of school (public or private, monthly income per household member, and the number of children in a given family were accepted as the independent variables. The factors behind social status included the place of residence and parents’ educational background. In order to determine the level of motor abilities, 13 motor tests were applied. Results: The research revealed that motor tests such as 1 and 3 min. Burpee test and medicine ball throws (forward and backward appeared to show the biggest differences in the level of motor abilities of the children whose social and economic status varied. The results of these tests as well as those of the shuttle run were significantly higher for the girls from the families of high social status than for the boys of low social status. Social status to a greater extent than economic one differentiated the tested motor abilities, especially in the case of the girls from families marked by high social status, who scored better than boys. The exception is the skipping with clapping of hands – 8 s trial, which differentiated only the tested categories of economic status, especially when referred to the girls. Conclusions: Owing to the small number of significant differences between high and low social and economic status in both sex groups in the motor tests applied, it can be assumed that in the less developed, agriculture and tourism-oriented areas there has occurred blurring of the differences in the level of children’s motor abilities depending on their social and economic status.

  20. Students' Confidence in the Ability to Transfer Basic Math Skills in Introductory Physics and Chemistry Courses at a Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Reginald

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the confidence levels that community college students have in transferring basic math skills to science classes, as well as any factors that influence their confidence levels. This study was conducted with 196 students at a community college in central Mississippi. The study was conducted during the month…

  1. Dual-task training effects on motor and cognitive functional abilities in individuals with stroke: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ying; Yang, Lei; Zhou, Jing; Yao, Liqing; Pang, Marco Yiu Chung

    2018-02-01

    This systematic review aimed to examine the effects of dual-task balance and mobility training in people with stroke. An extensive electronic databases literature search was conducted using MEDLINE, PubMed, EBSCO, The Cochrane Library, Web of Science, SCOPUS, and Wiley Online Library. Randomized controlled studies that assessed the effects of dual-task training in stroke patients were included for the review (last search in December 2017). The methodological quality was evaluated using the Cochrane Collaboration recommendation, and level of evidence was determined according to the criteria described by the Oxford Center for Evidence-Based Medicine. About 13 articles involving 457 participants were included in this systematic review. All had substantial risk of bias and thus provided level IIb evidence only. Dual-task mobility training was found to induce more improvement in single-task walking function (standardized effect size = 0.14-2.24), when compared with single-task mobility training. Its effect on dual-task walking function was not consistent. Cognitive-motor balance training was effective in improving single-task balance function (standardized effect size = 0.27-1.82), but its effect on dual-task balance ability was not studied. The beneficial effect of dual-task training on cognitive function was provided by one study only and thus inconclusive. There is some evidence that dual-task training can improve single-task walking and balance function in individuals with stroke. However, any firm recommendation cannot be made due to the weak methodology of the studies reviewed.

  2. Exploring the Basic Principles of Electric Motors and Generators with a Low-Cost Sophomore-Level Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, T. F.; Jacobitz, F. G.; Kim, E. M.

    2009-01-01

    In order to meet changing curricular needs, an electric motor and generator laboratory experience was designed, implemented, and assessed. The experiment is unusual in its early placement in the curriculum and in that it focuses on modeling electric motors, predicting their performance, and measuring efficiency of energy conversion. While…

  3. The influence of a real job on upper limb performance in motor skill tests: which abilities are transferred?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giangiardi, Vivian Farahte; Alouche, Sandra Regina; de Freitas, Sandra Maria Sbeghen Ferreira; Pires, Raquel Simoni; Padula, Rosimeire Simprini

    2018-06-01

    To investigate whether the specificities of real jobs create distinctions in the performance of workers in different motor tests for the upper limbs, 24 participants were divided into two groups according to their specific job: fine and repetitive tasks and general tasks. Both groups reproduced tasks related to aiming movements, handling and strength of the upper limbs. There were no significant differences between groups in the dexterity and performance of aiming movements. However, the general tasks group had higher grip strength than the repetitive tasks group, demonstrating differences according to job specificity. The results suggest that a particular motor skill in a specific job cannot improve performance in other tasks with the same motor requirements. The transfer of the fine and gross motor skills from previous experience in a job-specific task is the basis for allocating training and guidance to workers.

  4. Individual differences in the ability to identify, select and use appropriate frames of reference for perceptuo-motor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isableu, B; Ohlmann, T; Cremieux, J; Vuillerme, N; Amblard, B; Gresty, M A

    2010-09-01

    The causes of the interindividual differences (IDs) in how we perceive and control spatial orientation are poorly understood. Here, we propose that IDs partly reflect preferred modes of spatial referencing and that these preferences or "styles" are maintained from the level of spatial perception to that of motor control. Two groups of experimental subjects, one with high visual field dependency (FD) and one with marked visual field independency (FI) were identified by the Rod and Frame Test, which identifies relative dependency on a visual frame of reference (VFoR). FD and FI subjects were tasked with standing still in conditions of increasing postural difficulty while visual cues of self-orientation (a visual frame tilted in roll) and self-motion (in stroboscopic illumination) were varied and in darkness to assess visual dependency. Postural stability, overall body orientation and modes of segmental stabilization relative to either external (space) or egocentric (adjacent segments) frames of reference in the roll plane were analysed. We hypothesized that a moderate challenge to balance should enhance subjects' reliance on VFoR, particularly in FD subjects, whereas a substantial challenge should constrain subjects to use a somatic-vestibular based FoR to prevent falling in which case IDs would vanish. The results showed that with increasing difficulty, FD subjects became more unstable and more disoriented shown by larger effects of the tilted visual frame on posture. Furthermore, their preference to coalign body/VFoR coordinate systems lead to greater fixation of the head-trunk articulation and stabilization of the hip in space, whereas the head and trunk remained more stabilized in space with the hip fixed on the leg in FI subjects. These results show that FD subjects have difficulties at identifying and/or adopting a more appropriate FoR based on proprioceptive and vestibular cues to regulate the coalignment of posturo/exocentric FoRs. The FI subjects' resistance

  5. ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENCES BETWEEN BOYS ATTENDING A FOOTBALL SCHOOL AND THOS WHO DO NOT DO SPORT WITH SPECIFIC-MOTOR ABILITIES

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    Slavko Molnar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The subject sample of 240 boys aged 7-14 was divided to two subsamples of 120 boys each (active participants of “ЯMR Vojvodina” football school since the age of 7, and boys involved in sports, who regularly attended classes of physical education at school. The sample was subjected to 11 tests for evaluation of specific–motor abilities. The purpose of this research was to determine whether there are or there are not any differences in specific- motor abilities of subjects of the same age depending whether they play any sport or not. Analysis of results processed by discriminative analysis showed that the boys who attended football school achieved much better results in tests for evaluation of specific motor abilities than the boys who did not. At the age of 7-8, the differences can be attributed to efficient selection rather than the program contents due to the fact that they are beginners, whereas at older ages, these differences, being even higher in boys doing sports, can be attributed to the effects of program contents in the football school.

  6. Evaluating the integration of the sensory-motor abilities to facilitate teachinglearning processes: a comparison between Italian and Indian models of teaching through the use of VMI test

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    CLAUDIO MACCHI

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays a great number of evidences seems to prove that the movement plays a central role in the integrationof different mental processes. The visual-motor feedback may be considered the first sensorial integration of thedevelopment. The importance of an effective support to the pre-adolescent development of the sensory-motorintegration ability seems one of most important aim that every school system should follow. The aim of thisresearch is to investigate and monitor on international scale if the current Italian and Indian schools systems canadequately support the development of the student’s sensory-motor integration ability. According to the datashowed in this paper, it is clear that the scores obtained by the Italian and Indian students are lower than theinternational mean. However if a wider analysis based on a larger and more representative sample of the twoCountries should confirm the output of this research, it will be clear that the two school systems cannoteffectively support the development of the visual-motor integration abilities of the students. If the trend showedin this work should be confirmed by future and more precise researches, it will be necessary an accurate analysisaimed to identify the possible reasons of this phenomenon and the possible school support, since without them, awhole generation of students will risk to reduce the cultural level of the two nations and to be not competitive onan international level.

  7. A multigenerational family study of oral and hand motor sequencing ability provides evidence for a familial speech sound disorder subtype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Beate; Raskind, Wendy H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate phenotypic expressions of speech sound disorder (SSD) in multigenerational families with evidence of familial forms of SSD. Method Members of five multigenerational families (N = 36) produced rapid sequences of monosyllables and disyllables and tapped computer keys with repetitive and alternating movements. Results Measures of repetitive and alternating motor speed were correlated within and between the two motor systems. Repetitive and alternating motor speeds increased in children and decreased in adults as a function of age. In two families with children who had severe speech deficits consistent with disrupted praxis, slowed alternating, but not repetitive, oral movements characterized most of the affected children and adults with a history of SSD, and slowed alternating hand movements were seen in some of the biologically related participants as well. Conclusion Results are consistent with a familial motor-based SSD subtype with incomplete penetrance, motivating new clinical questions about motor-based intervention not only in the oral but also the limb system. PMID:21909176

  8. Development of Servo Motor Trainer for Basic Control System in Laboratory of Electrical Engineering Control System Faculty of Engineering Universitas Negeri Surabaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endryansyah; Wanarti Rusimamto, Puput; Ridianto, Adam; Sugiarto, Hariyadi

    2018-04-01

    In the Department of Electrical Engineering FT Unesa, there are 3 majors: S1 Electrical Engineering Education, S1 Electrical Engineering, and D3 Electrical Engineering. Courses the Basic System Settings go to in the curriculum of the three programs. Team lecturer college of basic system settings seek learning innovation, focused on the development of trainer to student practicum at the laboratory of systems control. Trainer developed is a servo motor along with the lab module that contains a wide variety of theories about the servo motor and guide the practicum. This research type is development research using methods Research & development (R & D). In which the steps are applied in this study is as follows: pay attention to the potential and existing problems, gather information and study the literature, design the product, validate the design, revise the design, a limited trial. The results of the validation of learning device in the form of modules and trainer obtained as follows: score validation of learning device is 3,64; score validation lab module Servo Motor is 3,47; and questionnaire responses of students is 3,73. The result of the whole validation value is located in the interval >of 3.25 s/d 4 with the category of “Very Valid”, so it can be concluded that all instruments have a level of validity “Very Valid” and worthy of use for further learning.

  9. Primary motor cortex changes after amputation correlate with phantom limb pain and the ability to move the phantom limb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffin, Estelle; Richard, Nathalie; Giraux, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    A substantial body of evidence documents massive reorganization of primary sensory and motor cortices following hand amputation, the extent of which is correlated with phantom limb pain. Many therapies for phantom limb pain are based upon the idea that plastic changes after amputation...... for the maladaptative plasticity model, we demonstrate for the first time that motor capacities of the phantom limb correlate with post-amputation reorganization, and that this reorganization is not limited to the face and hand representations but also includes the proximal upper-limb....

  10. Students' confidence in the ability to transfer basic math skills in introductory physics and chemistry courses at a community college

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Reginald

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the confidence levels that community college students have in transferring basic math skills to science classes, as well as any factors that influence their confidence levels. This study was conducted with 196 students at a community college in central Mississippi. The study was conducted during the month of November after all of the students had taken their midterm exams and received midterm grades. The instrument used in this survey was developed and validated by the researcher. The instrument asks the students to rate how confident they were in working out specific math problems and how confident they were in working problems using those specific math skills in physics and chemistry. The instrument also provided an example problem for every confidence item. Results revealed that students' demographics were significant predictors in confidence scores. Students in the 18-22 year old range were less confident in solving math problems than others. Students who had retaken a math course were less confident than those who had not. Chemistry students were less confident in solving math problems than those in physics courses. Chemistry II students were less confident than those in Chemistry I and Principals of Chemistry. Students were least confident in solving problems involving logarithms and the most confident in solving algebra problems. In general, students felt that their math courses did not prepare them for the math problems encountered in science courses. There was no significant difference in confidence between students who had completed their math homework online and those who had completed their homework on paper. The researcher recommends that chemistry educators find ways of incorporating more mathematics in their courses especially logarithms and slope. Furthermore, math educators should incorporate more chemistry related applications to math class. Results of hypotheses testing, conclusions, discussions, and

  11. Impacts of Sensation, Perception, and Motor Abilities of the Ipsilesional Upper Limb on Hand Functions in Unilateral Stroke: Quantifications From Biomechanical and Functional Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hsiu-Yun; Ke, Chia-Wen; Kuan, Ta-Shen; Yang, Hsiu-Ching; Tsai, Ching-Liang; Kuo, Li-Chieh

    2018-02-01

    The presence of subtle losses in hand dexterity after stroke affects the regaining of independence with regard to activities of daily living. Therefore, awareness of ipsilesional upper extremity (UE) function may be of importance when developing a comprehensive rehabilitation program. However, current hand function tests seem to be unable to identify asymptomatic UE impairments. To assess the motor coordination as well as the sensory perception of an ipsilesional UE using biomechanical analysis of performance-oriented tasks and conducting a Manual Tactile Test (MTT). Case-controlled study. A university hospital. A total of 21 patients with unilateral stroke, along with 21 matched healthy control subjects, were recruited. Each participant was requested to perform a pinch-holding-up activity (PHUA) test, object-transport task, and reach-to-grasp task via motion capture, as well as the MTT. The kinetic data of the PHUA test, kinematics analysis of functional movements, and time requirement of MTT were analyzed. Patients with ipsilesional UE had an inferior ability to scale and produce pinch force precisely when conducting the PHUA test compared to the healthy controls (P perception (P sensation-perception-motor system in the ipsilesional UE. Integration of sensorimotor training programs for ipsilesional UE in future neuro-rehabilitation strategies may provide more beneficial effects to regain patients' motor recovery and to promote daily living activity independence than focusing on paretic arm motor training alone. III. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Presentation of valid correlations in some morphological variables and basic and specific motor skills in young people aged 13-14 years engaged in basketball

    OpenAIRE

    Miftari, Florian; Salihu, Hazir; Selimi, Musa

    2018-01-01

    Miftari Florian, Salihu Hazir, Selimi Musa. Presentation of valid correlations in some morphological variables and basic and specific motor skills in young people aged 13-14 years engaged in basketball. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2018;8(5):95-101. eISNN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1242579 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/5250 The journal has had 7 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education pa...

  13. The Learning of Science Basic Concept by Using Scientifiq Inquiry to Improve Student’s Thinking, Working, and Scientific Attitude Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wachidatul Linda Yuhanna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This research was a classroom action research which was conducted intwo cycles, each cycle consists of planning, implementing, observing, and reflecting. The data used was quantitative data on student observation sheet instruments. The Results of the study which were obtained from the first cycle showed about the students’ thinking skills and scientific works. They were categorized as excellent 18.18%, good 22.73%, enough 52.27%, and sufficiently less 6.82%. As for the scientific attitude with a very active category of 11.36%, 43.18% and less active 45.45%. It has not reached indicators of success, so it was necessary to cycle II. Cycle II demonstrated the excellent category 38.63%, 36.36% good, good enough18.18% and less 6.81%. While the scientific attitude in the cycle II was an active attitude 29.54%, active 54.54%, inactive 15.91%. These results show an increase from the cycle I to cycle II. The conclusion of this study were: 1 learning the basic concepts of science with scientific inquiry in students can be conducible applied.2 Learning the basic concepts of science with scientific inquiry can improve thinking ability and scientific work and students’ scientific attitude. 3 Learning the basic concepts of science with scientific inquiry be able to explore and develop student creativity in designing simple experiments which can be applied in primary schools.

  14. Presentation of valid correlations in some morphological variables and basic and specific motor skills in young people aged 13-14 years engaged in basketball

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    Florian Miftari

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Study-research deals with younger students of both sexes aged 13-14, who, besides attending classes of physical education and sports, also practice in basketball schools in the city of Pristina. The experiment contains a total of 7 morphological variables, while four tests of basic motion skills and seven variables are from specific motion skills. In this study, the verification and analysis of the correlation of morphological characteristics and basic and situational motor skills in both groups of both sexes (boys and girls were treated. Based on the results obtained between several variables, valid correlations with high coefficients are presented, whereas among the variables are presented correlations with optimal values. The experimentation in question includes the number of 80 entities of both sexes; the group of 40 boys and the other group consisting of 40 girls who have undergone the tests for this study-experiment.

  15. PREDICTIVE CONTRIBUTION OF MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND MOTOR ABILITIES ON THE RESULT OF RUNNING THE 60m HURDLES IN BOYS AGED 12 - 13 YEARS

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    Zana Bujak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this study is to determine predictive contributions of morphological characteristics and motor abilities on the 60m hurdles, with an aim to form a group of easily applicable field tests so as to identify boys who are talented in hurdl e racing . The subject sample of this study was comprised of 60 boys aged 12 - 13. The variable sample consisted of a 60m hurdles criterion variable and a set of 13 p re dictor variables comprising of morphological characteristics, speed - strength abilities and the subjects' coordina tion qualities . Applying the regression analysis , the predictive contribution of a complete variable s et of morpholog ical characteristics and motor abilities was determined as an above average statistical significance, influencing 60m hurdle outcome. The greatest individual statistically significant predictive contribution was achieved by the variables of speed - strength quality assessment: 20m flying start r ace result with a standing long jump; and only one variable from the field of morphological characteristics: the shin length. The results support the following conclusion: the two specific variables of speed - strength quality, and 20m flying start race results along with standing long jump , can be relevant predictors of successful outcome in hurdle races .

  16. RELATIONS OF THE MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND MOTOR ABILITIES WITH JUMP FOWRARD AND TRIPLE JUMP OF STUDENTS AT THE FACULTY OF SCIENCE AND SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashiti Naser

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to examine the impact of anthropometrical characteristics and motor skills during the tests’ implementation of the jump forward and triple jump from place, the experimental research was carried out on a sample of 100 second year students from the Faculty of Physical Education and Sport in Prishtine. For the purposes of this study were measured eight anthropometrical characteristics and ten tests for assessing motor skills, which made the predictor system of variables. To assess the explosive force of the type of jumpiness, applied were tests long jump forward and triple jump from place. Data was processed with the basic descriptive statistical parameters and regression analysis. Based on the results of this research and the discussion ,can be concluded that the applied system of predictor motor tests, have significant influence on the manifestation of the explosive force of students at the Faculty of Physical Education and Sport in Prishtine, i.e., it is possible to predict (forecast the results of tests for explosive power based on the predictor system of respondents

  17. Can Quantitative Muscle Strength and Functional Motor Ability Differentiate the Influence of Age and Corticosteroids in Ambulatory Boys with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckon, Cathleen; Sienko, Susan; Bagley, Anita; Sison-Williamson, Mitell; Fowler, Eileen; Staudt, Loretta; Heberer, Kent; McDonald, Craig M; Sussman, Michael

    2016-07-08

    In the absence of a curative treatment for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD), corticosteroid therapy (prednisone, deflazacort) has been adopted as the standard of care, as it slows the progression of muscle weakness and enables longer retention of functional mobility. The ongoing development of novel pharmacological agents that target the genetic defect underlying DMD offer hope for a significant alteration in disease progression; however, substantiation of therapeutic efficacy has proved challenging. Identifying functional outcomes sensitive to the early, subtle changes in muscle function has confounded clinical trials. Additionally, the alterations in disease progression secondary to corticosteroid therapy are not well described making it difficult to ascertain the benefits of novel agents, often taken concurrently with corticosteroids. The purpose of this study was to examine outcome responsiveness to corticosteroid therapy and age at the onset of a natural history study of ambulatory boys with DMD. Eighty-five ambulatory boys with DMD (mean age 93 mo, range 49 to 180 mo) were recruited into this study. Fifty participants were on corticosteroid therapy, while 33 were corticosteroid naïve at the baseline assessment. Within each treatment group boys were divided in two age groups, 4 to 7 years and 8 and greater years of age. The Biodex System 3 Pro isokinetic dynamometer was used to assess muscle strength. Motor skills were assessed using the upper two dimensions (standing/walking, running & jumping) of the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM 88) and Timed Motor Tests (TMTs) (10-meter run, sit to stand, supine to stand, climb 4-stairs). Two way analysis of variance and Pearson correlations were used for analysis. A main effect for age was seen in select lower extremity muscle groups (hip flexors, knee extensors and ankle dorsiflexors), standing dimension skills, and all TMTs with significantly greater weakness and loss of motor skill ability seen in the older age

  18. Sex differences in motor and cognitive abilities predicted from human evolutionary history with some implications for models of the visual system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    This article expands the knowledge base available to sex researchers by reviewing recent evidence for sex differences in coincidence-anticipation timing (CAT), motor control with the hand and arm, and visual processing of stimuli in near and far space. In CAT, the differences are between sex and, therefore, typical of other widely reported sex differences. Men perform CAT tasks with greater accuracy and precision than women, who tend to underestimate time to arrival. Null findings arise because significant sex differences are found with easy but not with difficult tasks. The differences in motor control and visual processing are within sex, and they underlie reciprocal patterns of performance in women and men. Motor control is exerted better by women with the hand than the arm. In contrast, men showed the reverse pattern. Visual processing is performed better by women with stimuli within hand reach (near space) as opposed to beyond hand reach (far space); men showed the reverse pattern. The sex differences seen in each of these three abilities are consistent with the evolutionary selection of men for hunting-related skills and women for gathering-related skills. The implications of the sex differences in visual processing for two visual system models of human vision are discussed.

  19. THE IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL ABILITY AND TECHNICAL PREPARATION FOR THE GROWTH OF YOUNG FOOTBALLERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niko Raičković

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Physical preparation of young footballers significantly difers from that of adult footballers. Young footballers,while growing and maturing,go through sensitive phases,namely periods, when it is the most convenient to influence on the development of certain characteristics and abilities. Physical abilities include motor and functional abilities. Motor abilities are:strength, speed, endurance, elacticity and coordination. Functional abilities include aerobic and anaerobic organism capacity. Football technique is the basic instrument of organising the football game. Technique has individual character. Technical preparation mainly covers training and improvement of basic football game techniques, namely, moving with and without ball and bringing technique to perfection

  20. Are there cross-cultural differences of ADL ability in children measured with the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peny-Dahlstrand, Marie; Gosman-Hedström, Gunilla; Krumlinde-Sundholm, Lena

    2012-01-01

    In many studies of self-care assessments for children, cultural differences in age-norm values have been shown. No study has evaluated whether there are cross-cultural differences in ADL motor and/or process skills in children when measured with the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS). To investigate if there were systematic differences in ADL ability measured with the AMPS between children from the Nordic countries and North America and to evaluate the applicability of the existing international age-normative values for children from these two regions. Values from a total of 4 613 children, 3-15 years old, without known disabilities, from these geographical regions were compared with ANOVA. The difference in logits between each region and the mean values for each age group were calculated. No differences of relevance in age-related ADL ability measures between children from the two geographical regions were found, and the age-norm values are applicable to both regions. The AMPS may be considered free from cultural bias and useful in both clinical practice and research concerned with children in both the Nordic countries and North America.

  1. Reliability of a New Lower-Extremity Motor Coordination Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antosiak-Cyrak Katarzyna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Motor coordination is a basic motor ability necessary for daily life, which also allows athletes to win a sports rivalry and patients to assess their recovery progress after therapy and rehabilitation. The aim of the present study was to assess the reliability of a new lower-extremity rate of movements test and testing apparatus.

  2. Comparison of air-driven vs electric torque control motors on canal centering ability by ProTaper NiTi rotary instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Mina; Javidi, Maryam; Erfanian, Mahdi; Lomee, Mahdi; Afkhami, Farzaneh

    2013-01-01

    Cleaning and shaping is one of the most important phases in root canal therapy. Various rotary NiTi systems minimize accidents and facilitate the shaping process. Todays NiTi files are used with air-driven and electric handpieces. This study compared the canal centering after instrumentation using the ProTaper system using Endo IT, electric torque-control motor, and NSK air-driven handpiece. This ex vivo randomized controlled trial study involved 26 mesial mandibular root canals with 10 to 35° curvature. The roots were randomly divided into 2 groups of 13 canals each. The roots were mounted in an endodontic cube with acrylic resin, sectioned horizontally at 2, 6 and 10 mm from the apex and then reassembled. The canals were instrumented according to the manufacturer's instructions using ProTaper rotary files and electric torque-control motors (group 1) or air-driven handpieces (group 2). Photographs of the cross-sections included shots before and after instrumentation, and image analysis was performed using Photoshop software. The centering ability and canal transportation was also evaluated. Repeated measurement and independent t-test provided statistical analysis of canal transportation. The comparison of the rate of transportation toward internal or external walls between the two groups was not statistically significant (p = 0.62). Comparison of the rate of transportation of sections within one group was not significant (p = 0.28). Use of rotary NiTi file with either electric torquecontrol motor or air-driven handpiece had no effect on canal centering. NiTi rotary instruments can be used with air-driven motors without any considerable changes in root canal anatomy, however it needs the clinician to be expert.

  3. Influence of the ability to roll the tongue and tongue-training parameters on oral motor performance and learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kothari, Mohit; Svensson, Peter; Basic, Aida

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Training of tongue function is an important part of rehabilitation of patients with brain damage. A standardized tongue-training task has been shown to induce cortical plasticity. This study tested the possible influence of the natural ability to roll the tongue and modulations of tongue...

  4. Self-care and mobility skills in children with cerebral palsy, related to their manual ability and gross motor function classifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öhrvall, Ann-Marie; Eliasson, Ann-Christin; Löwing, Kristina; Ödman, Pia; Krumlinde-Sundholm, Lena

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the acquisition of self-care and mobility skills in children with cerebral palsy (CP) in relation to their manual ability and gross motor function. Data from the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) self-care and mobility functional skill scales, the Manual Ability Classification System (MACS), and the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) were collected from 195 children with CP (73 females, 122 males; mean age 8 y 1 mo; SD 3 y 11 mo; range 3-15 y); 51% had spastic bilateral CP, 36% spastic unilateral CP, 8% dyskinetic CP, and 3% ataxic CP. The percentage of children classified as MACS levels I to V was 28%, 34%, 17%, 7%, and 14% respectively, and classified as GMFCS levels I to V was 46%, 16%, 15%, 11%, and 12% respectively. Children classified as MACS and GMFCS levels I or II scored higher than children in MACS and GMFCS levels III to V on both the self-care and mobility domains of the PEDI, with significant differences between all classification levels (pskills (66%) and that GMFCS was the strongest predictor of mobility skills (76%). A strong correlation between age and self-care ability was found among children classified as MACS level I or II and between age and mobility among children classified as GMFCS level I. Many of these children achieved independence, but at a later age than typically developing children. Children at other MACS and GMFCS levels demonstrated minimal progress with age. Knowledge of a child's MACS and GMFCS level can be useful when discussing expectations of, and goals for, the development of functional skills. © The Authors. Journal compilation © Mac Keith Press 2010.

  5. Burke-Fahn-Marsden dystonia severity, Gross Motor, Manual Ability, and Communication Function Classification scales in childhood hyperkinetic movement disorders including cerebral palsy: a 'Rosetta Stone' study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elze, Markus C; Gimeno, Hortensia; Tustin, Kylee; Baker, Lesley; Lumsden, Daniel E; Hutton, Jane L; Lin, Jean-Pierre S-M

    2016-02-01

    Hyperkinetic movement disorders (HMDs) can be assessed using impairment-based scales or functional classifications. The Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale-movement (BFM-M) evaluates dystonia impairment, but may not reflect functional ability. The Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), Manual Ability Classification System (MACS), and Communication Function Classification System (CFCS) are widely used in the literature on cerebral palsy to classify functional ability, but not in childhood movement disorders. We explore the concordance of these three functional scales in a large sample of paediatric HMDs and the impact of dystonia severity on these scales. Children with HMDs (n=161; median age 10y 3mo, range 2y 6mo-21y) were assessed using the BFM-M, GMFCS, MACS, and CFCS from 2007 to 2013. This cross-sectional study contrasts the information provided by these scales. All four scales were strongly associated (all Spearman's rank correlation coefficient rs >0.72, pdisorders including cerebral palsy can be effectively evaluated using these scales. © 2015 Mac Keith Press.

  6. Effect of body-weight suspension training versus treadmill training on gross motor abilities of children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emara, Hatem A; El-Gohary, Tarek M; Al-Johany, Ahmed A

    2016-06-01

    Suspension training and treadmill training are commonly used for promoting functional gross motor skills in children with cerebral palsy. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of body-weight suspension training versus treadmill training on gross motor functional skills. Assessor-blinded, randomized, controlled intervention study. Outpatient rehabilitation facility. Twenty children with spastic diplegia (7 boys and 13 girls) in the age ranged from 6 to 8 years old were randomly allocated into two equal groups. All children were assessed at baseline, after 18-session and after 36-session. During the twelve-week outpatient rehabilitation program, both groups received traditional therapeutic exercises. Additionally, one group received locomotor training using the treadmill while the other group received locomotor training using body-weight suspension through the dynamic spider cage. Assessment included dimensions "D" standing and "E" walking of the gross motor function measure, in addition to the 10-m Walking Test and the five times sit to stand test. Training was applied three times per week for twelve consecutive weeks. No significant difference was found in standing or walking ability for measurements taken at baseline or after 18-session of therapy. Measurements taken at 36-session showed that suspension training achieved significantly (Ptraining for dimension D as well as for dimension E. No significant difference was found between suspension training and treadmill training regarding walking speed or sit to stand transitional skills. Body-weight suspension training is effective in improving walking and locomotor capabilities in children with spastic diplegia. After three month suspension training was superior to treadmill training. Body-weight suspension training promotes adequate postural stability, good balance control, and less exertion which facilitates efficient and safe gait.

  7. SOME OF THE ATHLETIC MOVEMENTS AS THE BASE FOR THE MOTORIC ABILITY OF THE TOP-CLASS FOOTBALLERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rade Stefanović

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available It is generally known that a footballer must have a certain developmental level of the physical abilities so he could more easily move in the fi eld. During a game, footballers actively possess the ball for about 60-65 minutes, and at the average they run over 6-30km of different sections with speeding up or without it, where around 3km drops off on the fast running and shorter sprints that is on the work of maximum and sub maximum intensity. If we have the series and activities in the different intervals then the break can last about 8-10 minutes of the slow running. If the break between series of the intensive changeable activities would last around 1-2minutes then the body of the footballer would start each series in the conditions of the incomplete “paying off” oxygen dept that is the incomplete resynthesis of the used energy sources: creatin-phosphate and glycogen. The success of task solving given to the trainer among other things, depend a lot on the knowing the problems in the athletic short, middle and long-distance running.

  8. Predicting Motor Skills from Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire Scores, Language Ability, and Other Features of New Zealand Children Entering Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargisson, Rebecca J.; Powell, Cheniel; Stanley, Peter; de Candole, Rosalind

    2014-01-01

    The motor and language skills, emotional and behavioural problems of 245 children were measured at school entry. Fine motor scores were significantly predicted by hyperactivity, phonetic awareness, prosocial behaviour, and the presence of medical problems. Gross motor scores were significantly predicted by the presence of medical problems. The…

  9. Handbook on linear motor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-10-01

    This book guides the application for Linear motor. It lists classification and speciality of Linear Motor, terms of linear-induction motor, principle of the Motor, types on one-side linear-induction motor, bilateral linear-induction motor, linear-DC Motor on basic of the motor, linear-DC Motor for moving-coil type, linear-DC motor for permanent-magnet moving type, linear-DC motor for electricity non-utility type, linear-pulse motor for variable motor, linear-pulse motor for permanent magneto type, linear-vibration actuator, linear-vibration actuator for moving-coil type, linear synchronous motor, linear electromagnetic motor, linear electromagnetic solenoid, technical organization and magnetic levitation and linear motor and sensor.

  10. Igualación equipercentil del Examen de Habilidades y Conocimientos Básicos (EXHCOBA. [Equipercentile equating of the Basic Ability and Knowledge Test (EXHCOBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Larrazolo

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Equipercentile equating method is a statistical procedure where student raw scores of two different versions of the same test are considered equated if they correspond to the same percentile range. A graphic curve is presented to describe the difficult differences from version to version of a test. This work was aimed to estimate the equipercentil equating values, by academic content area, of the Basic Ability and Knowledge Test (EXHCOBA, by its Spanish acronym that is used by the University of Baja California (UABC as a selection student test. This norm-referenced test has excellent quality standards, a high technological development, several reliability and validity support studies, and others good psychometric parameters. Estimation of equating parameters was done applying the analytic method described by Kolen and Brennan (1995, with the random group procedure utilized by UABC to collect data. Results shows that equating was effective to adjust four statistical moments (mean, standard deviation, bias, and kurtosis of the frequency distributions of EXHCOBA´s version 3 and 4 compared with version 2, by content area, producing equal score distributions. Nevertheless, irregularities appeared at the ends of the curves that suggests the need of a smoothing procedure. La igualación equipercentil es un método estadístico en el cual los puntajes crudos de dos versiones de una prueba se consideran igualados si ellos corresponden al mismo rango percentilar en un grupo de examinados. En la igualación equipercentil se presenta una curva para describir las diferencias de dificultad de versión a versión. Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo estimar la igualación equipercentil sin suavizado de las versiones 3 y 4, con la versión 2, por área temática del Examen de Habilidades y Conocimientos Básicos (EXHCOBA que utiliza la Universidad Autónoma de Baja California (UABC para la selección de aspirantes, examen que posee un nivel de calidad excelente

  11. THE BASIC SPECIFICITY OF THE ABILITY OF VARIED ENGLISH LANGUAGE CURRICULUMS TO ENHANCE ENGLISH LEARNERS' CAPACITY TO DEVELOP NECESSARY SKILLS TO COMMUNICATE USING THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Wayne Hendershot; Nutprapha K. Dennis; Suchada Chaiwiwattrakul; Ratirot Phiphitphakdee

    2017-01-01

    Inasmuch as the goal of teaching English to non-native English speakers should be focused on enhancing English learners’ ability to develop skills necessary for efficient and effective use of the English language in communication within their daily lives as well as within the context of educational, employment, governmental, and business related issues, the materials and resources used by the teacher to provide said English learners with enhanced ability to develop necessary skills for the us...

  12. Quantification of muscle strength and motor ability in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy on steroid therapy Quantificação da força muscular e habilidades motoras em pacientes com distrofia muscular de Duchenne em corticoterapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samara Lamounier Santana Parreira

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: An assessment protocol was applied to quantify and describe muscular strength and motor abilities of 32 patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD, aged between 5 and 12 years on steroid therapy. METHOD: Assessments were made monthly for the first six months and with intervals of two months thereafter until the 14-month end point. The tests employed included: the Medical Research Council (MRC scale; the Hammersmith motor ability score; maximum weight lift; timed rise from floor and nine-meter walk. RESULTS: The results showed that loss of muscular strength and motor abilities were slowed in comparison to that observed in the natural evolution of the disease according to the literature. CONCLUSION: We conclude that a swift and objective assessment may be performed using the MRC scale for lower limbs and trunk, the Hammersmith motor ability score, timed nine-meter walk and weight lifts.OBJETIVO: Um protocolo de avaliação foi aplicado com o objetivo de quantificar e descrever evolutivamente a força muscular e as habilidades motoras de 32 pacientes com distrofia muscular de Duchenne (DMD, com idades variando de 5 a 12 anos, em corticoterapia. MÉTODO: As avaliações foram aplicadas mensalmente durante os primeiros seis meses e bimensais até completar um período de 14 meses. Os testes empregados foram: escala da "Medical Research Council" (MRC; Hammersmith "motor ability score"; levantamento da carga máxima de peso; cronometragem do tempo para levantar-se do chão e percorrer nove metros. RESULTADOS: Os resultados demonstraram que a perda da força muscular e das habilidades motoras foi mais lenta do que a observada na evolução natural da doença, como descrito na literatura internacional. CONCLUSÃO: Concluímos que uma rápida e objetiva avaliação pode ser executada utilizando a escala MRC para membros inferiores e tronco, Hammersmith motor ability score, cronometragem do tempo para percorrer 9 metros.e o levantamento de

  13. Postural balance, its sensory-motor correlates and self-reported functional ability in 75-year-old men and women: A cross-national comparative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroll, Marianne; Pertti, Era; Avlund, Kirsten

    1999-01-01

    Social medicine, postural balance, functional ability, activities of daily living, physical activity, ageing......Social medicine, postural balance, functional ability, activities of daily living, physical activity, ageing...

  14. RELATIONS OF THE MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND MOTOR ABILITIES WITH JUMP FOWRARD AND TRIPLE JUMP OF STUDENTS AT THE FACULTY OF SCIENCE AND SPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Rashiti Naser; Ajvazi Vlora; Adem Nura; Fadil Nika

    2011-01-01

    In order to examine the impact of anthropometrical characteristics and motor skills during the tests’ implementation of the jump forward and triple jump from place, the experimental research was carried out on a sample of 100 second year students from the Faculty of Physical Education and Sport in Prishtine. For the purposes of this study were measured eight anthropometrical characteristics and ten tests for assessing motor skills, which made the predictor system of variables. To assess the e...

  15. The Correlation Study of Interest at Physics and Knowledge of Mathematics Basic Concepts towards the Ability to Solve Physics Problems of 7th Grade Students at Junior High School in Ambon Maluku Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izaak Hendrik Wenno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to determine the relation between interest at Physics and knowledge of Mathematics basic concepts with the ability to solve Physics problems. The populations are all students in the 7th grade at the junior high school in Ambon, Maluku, Indonesia. The used sample schools are Junior High Schools 8, 9, and 10 during 2013/2014 academic year with 44 students per school. Two independent variables and one dependent variable are studied. The independent variables are the interest at Physics (X1 and the knowledge of Mathematics basic concepts (X2, while the dependent variable is the ability to solve Physics problems (Y. Data collection technique for X1 is an interview with questionnaire instrument, while for the X2 and Y is using the test technique with test items instrument. The obtained data from the measurements were analyzed with descriptive analysis and inferential analysis. The results show that there is a positive relation between interest at Physics and knowledge of Mathematics basic concepts with students’ ability to solve Physics problems.

  16. Functional classifications for cerebral palsy: correlations between the gross motor function classification system (GMFCS), the manual ability classification system (MACS) and the communication function classification system (CFCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compagnone, Eliana; Maniglio, Jlenia; Camposeo, Serena; Vespino, Teresa; Losito, Luciana; De Rinaldis, Marta; Gennaro, Leonarda; Trabacca, Antonio

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate a possible correlation between the gross motor function classification system-expanded and revised (GMFCS-E&R), the manual abilities classification system (MACS) and the communication function classification system (CFCS) functional levels in children with cerebral palsy (CP) by CP subtype. It was also geared to verify whether there is a correlation between these classification systems and intellectual functioning (IF) and parental socio-economic status (SES). A total of 87 children (47 males and 40 females, age range 4-18 years, mean age 8.9±4.2) were included in the study. A strong correlation was found between the three classifications: Level V of the GMFCS-E&R corresponds to Level V of the MACS (rs=0.67, p=0.001); the same relationship was found for the CFCS and the MACS (rs=0.73, p<0.001) and for the GMFCS-E&R and the CFCS (rs=0.61, p=0.001). The correlations between the IQ and the global functional disability profile were strong or moderate (GMFCS and IQ: rs=0.66, p=0.001; MACS and IQ: rs=0.58, p=0.001; CFCS and MACS: rs=0.65, p=0.001). The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to determine if there were differences between the GMFCS-E&R, the CFCS and the MACS by CP type. CP types showed different scores for the IQ level (Chi-square=8.59, df=2, p=0.014), the GMFCS-E&R (Chi-square=36.46, df=2, p<0.001), the CFCS (Chi-square=12.87, df=2, p=0.002), and the MACS Level (Chi-square=13.96, df=2, p<0.001) but no significant differences emerged for the SES (Chi-square=1.19, df=2, p=0.554). This study shows how the three functional classifications (GMFCS-E&R, CFCS and MACS) complement each other to provide a better description of the functional profile of CP. The systematic evaluation of the IQ can provide useful information about a possible future outcome for every functional level. The SES does not appear to affect functional profiles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Aquisição de habilidades motoras até a marcha independente em prematuros de muito baixo peso Acquisition of motor abilities up to independent walking in very low birth weight preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra C. P. Volpi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar as idades cronológica e corrigida de aquisição das habilidades motoras até a marcha independente em prematuros de muito baixo peso e avaliar até quando é necessário o uso da idade corrigida. MÉTODOS: Estudo longitudinal de prematuros OBJECTIVE: To determine chronological and corrected ages at acquisition of motor abilities up to unaided walking in very low weight preterms and to determine up to what point it is necessary to use corrected age. METHODS: This was a longitudinal study of preterms with birth weight < 1,500 g and gestational age < 34 weeks, free from neurosensory sequelae, selected at the high-risk infants follow-up clinic at the Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP in Botucatu, Brazil, between 1998 to 2003, and assessed every 2 months until acquisition of unaided walking. RESULTS: Nine percent of the 155 preterms recruited were excluded from the study, leaving a total of 143 patients. The mean gestational age was 30±2 weeks, birth weight was 1,130±222 g, 59% were female and 44% were small for gestational age. Preterms achieved head control in their second month, could sit unaided at 7 months and walked at 12.8 months' corrected age, corresponding to the 4th, 9th and 15th months of chronological age. There were significant differences between chronological age and corrected age for all motor abilities. Preterms who were small for their gestational age acquired motor abilities later, but still within expected limits. CONCLUSIONS: Very low weight preterms, free from neurosensory disorders, acquired their motor abilities within the ranges expected for their corrected ages. Corrected age should be used until unaided walking is achieved.

  18. INTERRELATION OF ACIDITY-BASICITY, SOLUBILITY AND ABILITY TO INTERACTION OF HALIDES OF MX AND M'X2 (M - Li ÷ Cs, M' - Be ÷ Ba, X - Cl ÷ I TYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Zinchenko

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The size-charge factor of basicity for definition of the acid-base properties of alkaline both alkaline-earth metals and Be halides is offered. The certain interrelation of the specified factor, and also the magnitudes connected with energy of a crystal lattice (temperature of boiling and enthalpy of evaporation of salt with its solubility in water, and also with enthalpy of hydration is established. It is shown that the minimum solubility possess alkaline metals halides (KCl for chlorides, RbBr for Rubidium halides and CsI for alkaline metals halides as a whole at which value of the factor of basicity is equal to 0.83, i.e. it is slightly less than 1. Among alkaline-earth metals halides the lowest solubility has BaCl2 with the highest value of the factor of basicity (0.4. An absolute value of enthalpy of hydration for salts crystal-hydrates possesses tens kJ/mol H2O and increases with reduction of the factor of basicity at transition from metals chlorides to iodides, and also at cationic substitution by easier analogue. Qualitative correlation between a difference of basicity of binary halides and their ability to interaction with formation of complex compounds of various degree of durability is established. At an average difference of basicities 0.4 in halide systems are formed incongruently melting, and at 0.6-0.8 and more – congruently melting compounds. Forecasting of solubility of complex halide of CsSrCl3 composition on the basis of its value of equalized basicity is carried out.

  19. The antimalarial activity of Ru-chloroquine complexes against resistant Plasmodium falciparum is related to lipophilicity, basicity, and heme aggregation inhibition ability near water/n-octanol interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Alberto; Rajapakse, Chandima S K; Jalloh, Dalanda; Dautriche, Cula; Sánchez-Delgado, Roberto A

    2009-08-01

    We have measured water/n-octanol partition coefficients, pK(a) values, heme binding constants, and heme aggregation inhibition activity of a series of ruthenium-pi-arene-chloroquine (CQ) complexes recently reported to be active against CQ-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Measurements of heme aggregation inhibition activity of the metal complexes near water/n-octanol interfaces qualitatively predict their superior antiplasmodial action against resistant parasites, in relation to CQ; we conclude that this modified method may be a better predictor of antimalarial potency than standard tests in aqueous acidic buffer. Some interesting tendencies emerge from our data, indicating that the antiplasmodial activity is related to a balance of effects associated with the lipophilicity, basicity, and structural details of the compounds studied.

  20. The antimalarial activity of Ru–chloroquine complexes against resistant Plasmodium falciparum is related to lipophilicity, basicity, and heme aggregation inhibition ability near water/n-octanol interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Alberto; Rajapakse, Chandima S. K.; Jalloh, Dalanda; Dautriche, Cula

    2012-01-01

    We have measured water/n-octanol partition coefficients, pKa values, heme binding constants, and heme aggregation inhibition activity of a series of ruthenium–πarene–chloroquine (CQ) complexes recently reported to be active against CQ-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Measurements of heme aggregation inhibition activity of the metal complexes near water/n-octanol interfaces qualitatively predict their superior antiplasmodial action against resistant parasites, in relation to CQ; we conclude that this modified method may be a better predictor of antimalarial potency than standard tests in aqueous acidic buffer. Some interesting tendencies emerge from our data, indicating that the antiplasmodial activity is related to a balance of effects associated with the lipophilicity, basicity, and structural details of the compounds studied. PMID:19343380

  1. Morphological and motor characteristics of Croatian first league female football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelaska, Petra Mandić; Katić, Ratko; Jelaska, Igor

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the structure of morphological and motor characteristics of Croatian first league female football players and their impact on the estimated quality of the players. According to the goal of the research, a sample consisted of 70 Croatian first league female football players. Participants were measured in 18 tests for assessing morphological characteristics, a set of 12 basic motor abilities tests and a set of 7 tests for assessing football-specific motor abilities. Exploratory factor analysis strategy was applied separately to all measured tests: morphological, basic motor abilities and football specific motor abilities. Factor analysis of morphological tests has shown existence of 3 significant latent dimensions that explain 64% of the total variability. Factors are defined as transverse dimensionality of the skeleton and voluminosity (35%), subcutaneous fat tissue (16%) and longitudinal dimensionality of the skeleton (13%). In the area of basic motor abilities, four factors were extracted. The first factor is responsible for the integration of agility and explosive power of legs, i.e. a factor of movement regulation (agility/lower body explosiveness) (23%), the second one defines muscle tone regulation (15%), the third one defines the frequency of leg movements (12%), while the fourth one is recognized as responsible for the manifestation of basic strength, particularly of basic core strength (19%). Two factors were isolated in the space of football-specific motor abilities: football-specific efficiency (53%) and situational football coordination (27%). Furthermore, by use of factor analysis on extracted latent dimensions (morphological, basic and football specific motor abilities) two higher order factors (explaining 87% of common variability) were extracted. They were named morphological-motor factor (54%) and football-specific motor abilities factor (33%). It is assumed that two extracted higher-order factors fully

  2. The Influence of Matching and Motor-Imitation Abilities on Rapid Acquisition of Manual Signs and Exchange-Based Communicative Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Meagan K.; DeLeon, Iser G.; Richman, David M.

    2009-01-01

    Establishing a relation between existing skills and acquisition of communicative responses may be useful in guiding selection of alternative communication systems. Matching and motor-imitation skills were assessed for 6 children with developmental disabilities, followed by training to request the same set of preferred items using exchange-based…

  3. How the origin of fresh household waste affects its ability to be biodegraded: an assessment using basic tools and its application to the city of Kara in Togo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segbeaya, K N; Feuillade-Cathalifaud, G; Baba, G; Koledzi, E K; Pallier, V; Tchangbedji, G; Matejka, G

    2012-12-01

    Waste biodegradation has been largely investigated in the literature by using conventional tests like the BMP test and the respirometric test, whereas only few studies deal with the use of leaching tests in combination with biological activity measurements. Consequently, this study used an improved leaching test to evaluate the biodegradability of two deposits of fresh household waste from the city of Kara in Togo. The first deposit came from households in neighborhoods located in the outskirts of the city and the second consisted of fresh waste, mainly composed of business waste and household waste, collected in the urban center and aimed at being deposited in the landfill. A physicochemical characterization of the two deposits completed the leaching test. The biological activity was monitored by measuring O(2) consumption and CO(2) production. pH, DOC/OM, VFA/DOC ratios and the SUVA index was measured in the leaching juice to assess both the state of degradation of the waste in the deposits and the ability of the organic matter to be mobilized quickly and to be easily assimilated by microorganisms. The biodegradability of waste from the city of Kara correlated with their origin even though the physical characteristics of the two deposits studied differed greatly. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Experiments with a DC Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2010-01-01

    Experiments with an electric motor provide good opportunity to demonstrate some basic laws of electricity and magnetism. The aim of the experiments with a low-power dc motor is to show how the motor approaches its steady rotation and how its torque, mechanical power and efficiency depend on the rotation velocity. The tight relationship between the…

  5. IQ as moderator of terminal decline in perceptual and motor speed, spatial, and verbal ability: Testing the cognitive reserve hypothesis in a population-based sample followed from age 70 until death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorvaldsson, Valgeir; Skoog, Ingmar; Johansson, Boo

    2017-03-01

    Terminal decline (TD) refers to acceleration in within-person cognitive decline prior to death. The cognitive reserve hypothesis postulates that individuals with higher IQ are able to better tolerate age-related increase in brain pathologies. On average, they will exhibit a later onset of TD, but once they start to decline, their trajectory is steeper relative to those with lower IQ. We tested these predictions using data from initially nondemented individuals (n = 179) in the H70-study repeatedly measured at ages 70, 75, 79, 81, 85, 88, 90, 92, 95, 97, 99, and 100, or until death, on cognitive tests of perceptual-and-motor-speed and spatial and verbal ability. We quantified IQ using the Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (RCPM) test administrated at age 70. We fitted random change point TD models to the data, within a Bayesian framework, conditioned on IQ, age of death, education, and sex. In line with predictions, we found that 1 additional standard deviation on the IQ scale was associated with a delay in onset of TD by 1.87 (95% highest density interval [HDI; 0.20, 4.08]) years on speed, 1.96 (95% HDI [0.15, 3.54]) years on verbal ability, but only 0.88 (95% HDI [-0.93, 3.49]) year on spatial ability. Higher IQ was associated with steeper rate of decline within the TD phase on measures of speed and verbal ability, whereas results on spatial ability were nonconclusive. Our findings provide partial support for the cognitive reserve hypothesis and demonstrate that IQ can be a significant moderator of cognitive change trajectories in old age. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Evaluation of muscle strength and motor abilities in children with type II and III spinal muscle atrophy treated with valproic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanoteli Edmar

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA is an autosomal recessive disorder that affects the motoneurons of the spinal anterior horn, resulting in hypotonia and muscle weakness. The disease is caused by deletion or mutation in the telomeric copy of SMN gene (SMN1 and clinical severity is in part determined by the copy number of the centromeric copy of the SMN gene (SMN2. The SMN2 mRNA lacks exon 7, resulting in a production of lower amounts of the full-length SMN protein. Knowledge of the molecular mechanism of diseases has led to the discovery of drugs capable of increasing SMN protein level through activation of SMN2 gene. One of these drugs is the valproic acid (VPA, a histone deacetylase inhibitor. Methods Twenty-two patients with type II and III SMA, aged between 2 and 18 years, were treated with VPA and were evaluated five times during a one-year period using the Manual Muscle Test (Medical Research Council scale-MRC, the Hammersmith Functional Motor Scale (HFMS, and the Barthel Index. Results After 12 months of therapy, the patients did not gain muscle strength. The group of children with SMA type II presented a significant gain in HFMS scores during the treatment. This improvement was not observed in the group of type III patients. The analysis of the HFMS scores during the treatment period in the groups of patients younger and older than 6 years of age did not show any significant result. There was an improvement of the daily activities at the end of the VPA treatment period. Conclusion Treatment of SMA patients with VPA may be a potential alternative to alleviate the progression of the disease. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01033331

  7. Neuroplasticity & Motor Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Lundbye

    Practice of a new motor task is usually associated with an improvement in performance. Indeed, if we stop practicing and return the next day to the same task, we find that our performance has been maintained and may even be better than it was at the start of the first day. This improvement...... is a measure of our ability to form and store a motor memory of the task. However, the initial memory of the task is labile and may be subject to interference. During and following motor learning plastic changes occur within the central nervous system. On one hand these changes are driven by motor practice......, on the other hand the changes underlie the formation of motor memory and the retention of improved motor performance. During motor learning changes may occur at many different levels within the central nervous system dependent on the type of task and training. Here, we demonstrate different studies from our...

  8. Oral motor deficits in speech-impaired children with autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmonte, Matthew K.; Saxena-Chandhok, Tanushree; Cherian, Ruth; Muneer, Reema; George, Lisa; Karanth, Prathibha

    2013-01-01

    Absence of communicative speech in autism has been presumed to reflect a fundamental deficit in the use of language, but at least in a subpopulation may instead stem from motor and oral motor issues. Clinical reports of disparity between receptive vs. expressive speech/language abilities reinforce this hypothesis. Our early-intervention clinic develops skills prerequisite to learning and communication, including sitting, attending, and pointing or reference, in children below 6 years of age. In a cohort of 31 children, gross and fine motor skills and activities of daily living as well as receptive and expressive speech were assessed at intake and after 6 and 10 months of intervention. Oral motor skills were evaluated separately within the first 5 months of the child's enrolment in the intervention programme and again at 10 months of intervention. Assessment used a clinician-rated structured report, normed against samples of 360 (for motor and speech skills) and 90 (for oral motor skills) typically developing children matched for age, cultural environment and socio-economic status. In the full sample, oral and other motor skills correlated with receptive and expressive language both in terms of pre-intervention measures and in terms of learning rates during the intervention. A motor-impaired group comprising a third of the sample was discriminated by an uneven profile of skills with oral motor and expressive language deficits out of proportion to the receptive language deficit. This group learnt language more slowly, and ended intervention lagging in oral motor skills. In individuals incapable of the degree of motor sequencing and timing necessary for speech movements, receptive language may outstrip expressive speech. Our data suggest that autistic motor difficulties could range from more basic skills such as pointing to more refined skills such as articulation, and need to be assessed and addressed across this entire range in each individual. PMID:23847480

  9. Oral Motor Deficits in Speech-Impaired Children with Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew K Belmonte

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Absence of communicative speech in autism has been presumed to reflect a fundamental deficit in the use of language, but at least in a subpopulation may instead stem from motor and oral motor issues. Clinical reports of disparity between receptive versus expressive speech / language abilities reinforce this hypothesis. Our early-intervention clinic develops skills prerequisite to learning and communication, including sitting, attending, and pointing or reference, in children below 6 years of age. In a cohort of 31 children, gross and fine motor skills and activities of daily living as well as receptive and expressive speech were assessed at intake and after 6 and 10 months of intervention. Oral motor skills were evaluated separately within the first 5 months of the child's enrolment in the intervention programme and again at 10 months of intervention. Assessment used a clinician-rated structured report, normed against samples of 360 (for motor and speech skills and 90 (for oral motor skills typically developing children matched for age, cultural environment and socio-economic status. In the full sample, oral and other motor skills correlated with receptive and expressive language both in terms of pre-intervention measures and in terms of learning rates during the intervention. A motor-impaired group comprising a third of the sample was discriminated by an uneven profile of skills with oral motor and expressive language deficits out of proportion to the receptive language deficit. This group learnt language more slowly, and ended intervention lagging in oral motor skills. In individuals incapable of the degree of motor sequencing and timing necessary for speech movements, receptive language may outstrip expressive speech. Our data suggest that autistic motor difficulties could range from more basic skills such as pointing to more refined skills such as articulation, and need to be assessed and addressed across this entire range in each individual.

  10. A Diagnostic System for Speed-Varying Motor Rotary Faults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chwan-Lu Tseng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposed an intelligent rotary fault diagnostic system for motors. A sensorless rotational speed detection method and an improved dynamic structural neural network are used. Moreover, to increase the convergence speed of training, a terminal attractor method and a hybrid discriminant analysis are also adopted. The proposed method can be employed to detect the rotary frequencies of motors with varying speeds and can enhance the discrimination of motor faults. To conduct the experiments, this study used wireless sensor nodes to transmit vibration data and employed MATLAB to write codes for functional modules, including the signal processing, sensorless rotational speed estimation, neural network, and stochastic process control chart. Additionally, Visual Basic software was used to create an integrated human-machine interface. The experimental results regarding the test of equipment faults indicated that the proposed novel diagnostic system can effectively estimate rotational speeds and provide superior ability of motor fault discrimination with fast training convergence.

  11. Hygiene Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hygiene Basics KidsHealth / For Teens / Hygiene Basics What's in this article? Oily Hair Sweat ... smell, anyway? Read below for information on some hygiene basics — and learn how to deal with greasy ...

  12. Basic electricity

    CERN Document Server

    1967-01-01

    Originally a training course; best nontechnical coverage. Topics include batteries, circuits, conductors, AC and DC, inductance and capacitance, generators, motors, transformers, amplifiers, etc. Many questions with answers. 349 illustrations. 1969 edition.

  13. [The improvement of the abilities to maintain motor coordination and equilibrium in the students presenting with the functional disorders of the musculoskeletal system by introducing the elements of therapeutic physical training into the structure of academic schedule of physical education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapilevich, L V; Davlet'yarova, K V; Ovchinnikova, N A

    The problem of deterioration of the health status in the university students at present remains as topical as it was before being a major cause of impaired working capacity, disability and/or poor social adaptation of the large number of graduates. It has been proposed to introduce a class of therapeutic physical training (TPT) into the schedule of physical education for the students. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the formation of the skills needed to maintain motor coordination and equilibrium in the students presenting with the functional disorders of the musculoskeletal system (MSS) including scoliosis by the introduction of the elements of therapeutic physical training into their academic schedules. The main study group was comprised of 32 students (men) at the age of 18-19 years presenting with the disorders of the musculoskeletal system (type III scoliosis, osteochondropathy, and osteochondrosis). The students of this group received a curriculum aimed at improving their motor skills with the emphasis laid on the selected elements of therapeutic physical training. The control group was composed of 17 students without disorders of the musculoskeletal system who attended the physical education classes following the traditional program. The coordination abilities and balance skills were evaluated based on the analysis with the use of the Stabilan-1 stabilographic apparatus. In addition, the stability test and the Romberg test with open and closed eyes were performed. The results of the study give evidence that the introduction of the elements of therapeutic physical training into the structure of academic schedule of physical education for the students suffering from diseases of the musculoskeletal system has beneficial effect on the parameters of stability and the general ability to maintain the posture and balance. Specifically, in the beginning of the academic year, the students of the main study group presenting with

  14. Physical and motor ability, anthropometrical and growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to achieve a distinct profile of the current and future sporting potential of a boy in his rapid growing years, it is recommended that comparison to peers from a sport talent perspective will provide a more sensitive assessment when regional or national reference data, but also racial specific growth profiles, are used.

  15. Motor Neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Jorn

    2017-01-01

    Motor neurons translate synaptic input from widely distributed premotor networks into patterns of action potentials that orchestrate motor unit force and motor behavior. Intercalated between the CNS and muscles, motor neurons add to and adjust the final motor command. The identity and functional...... in in vitro preparations is far from complete. Nevertheless, a foundation has been provided for pursuing functional significance of intrinsic response properties in motoneurons in vivo during motor behavior at levels from molecules to systems....

  16. Basic electrotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Ashen, R A

    2013-01-01

    BASIC Electrotechnology discusses the applications of Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC) in engineering, particularly in solving electrotechnology-related problems. The book is comprised of six chapters that cover several topics relevant to BASIC and electrotechnology. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to BASIC, and Chapter 2 talks about the use of complex numbers in a.c. circuit analysis. Chapter 3 covers linear circuit analysis with d.c. and sinusoidal a.c. supplies. The book also discusses the elementary magnetic circuit theory. The theory and performance of two windi

  17. Anesthesia Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Anesthesia Basics KidsHealth / For Teens / Anesthesia Basics What's in ... español Conceptos básicos sobre la anestesia What Is Anesthesia? No doubt about it, getting an operation can ...

  18. BASIC Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Carol Ann

    Designed for use by both secondary- and postsecondary-level business teachers, this curriculum guide consists of 10 units of instructional materials dealing with Beginners All-Purpose Symbol Instruction Code (BASIC) programing. Topics of the individual lessons are numbering BASIC programs and using the PRINT, END, and REM statements; system…

  19. MOTORIC STIMULATION RELATED TO FINE MOTORIC DEVELOPMENT ON CHILD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Triharini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Motor developmental stimulation is an activity undertaken to stimulate the children basic skills and so they can grow and develop optimally. Children who obtain a direct stimulus will grow faster than who get less stimulus. Mother’s behavior of stimulation is very important for children, it is considering as the basic needs of children and it must be fulfilled. Providing good stimulation could optimize fine motor development in children. The purpose of this study was to analyze mother’s behavior about motor stimulation with fine motor development in toddler age 4-5 years old. Method: Design have been  used in this study was cross sectional. Population were mothers and their toddler in Group A of Dharma Wanita Persatuan Driyorejo Gresik Preschool. Sample were 51 respondents recruited by using purposive sampling technique according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. The independent variable was mother’s behavior about motor stimulation whereas dependent variable was fine motor development in toddler. The data were collected using questionnaire and conducting observation on fine motor development based on Denver Development Screening Test (DDST. Data then analyzed using Spearman Rho (r test to find relation between mother’s behaviors about stimulation motor on their toddler fine motor development. Result: Results  of this study showed that there were correlations between mother’s knowledge and fine motor development in toddler (p=0.000, between mother’s attitude and fine motor development in toddler (p=0.000, and between mother’s actions and fine motor development in toddler (p=0.000. Analysis: In sort study found that there were relation between fine motor development and mother’s behavior. Discussion: Therefore mother’s behavior needed to be improved. Further research about stimulation motor and fine motor development aspects in toddler is required.

  20. Basic hydraulics

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, P D

    1982-01-01

    BASIC Hydraulics aims to help students both to become proficient in the BASIC programming language by actually using the language in an important field of engineering and to use computing as a means of mastering the subject of hydraulics. The book begins with a summary of the technique of computing in BASIC together with comments and listing of the main commands and statements. Subsequent chapters introduce the fundamental concepts and appropriate governing equations. Topics covered include principles of fluid mechanics; flow in pipes, pipe networks and open channels; hydraulic machinery;

  1. Basic Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittek, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    A discussion of the basic measures of corporate financial strength, and the sources of the information is reported. Considered are: balance sheet, income statement, funds and cash flow, and financial ratios.

  2. Experiments with a dc motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2010-01-01

    Experiments with an electric motor provide good opportunity to demonstrate some basic laws of electricity and magnetism. The aim of the experiments with a low-power dc motor is to show how the motor approaches its steady rotation and how its torque, mechanical power and efficiency depend on the rotation velocity. The tight relationship between the mechanical and electrical parameters of the motor is clearly seen. The measurements are carried out with the ScienceWorkshop data-acquisition system and the DataStudio software from PASCO scientific. The experiments are well related to university courses of electricity and magnetism and can be used in undergraduate laboratories or for lecture demonstrations.

  3. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Holbrook, Harold D

    1971-01-01

    Basic Electronics is an elementary text designed for basic instruction in electricity and electronics. It gives emphasis on electronic emission and the vacuum tube and shows transistor circuits in parallel with electron tube circuits. This book also demonstrates how the transistor merely replaces the tube, with proper change of circuit constants as required. Many problems are presented at the end of each chapter. This book is comprised of 17 chapters and opens with an overview of electron theory, followed by a discussion on resistance, inductance, and capacitance, along with their effects on t

  4. Basic concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorner, B.

    1999-01-01

    The basic concepts of neutron scattering as a tool for studying the structure and the dynamics of condensed matter. Theoretical aspects are outlined, the two different cases of coherent and incoherent scattering are presented. The issue of resolution, coherence volume and the role of monochromators are also discussed. (K.A.)

  5. Body Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... learn more about how the body works, what basic human anatomy is, and what happens when parts of ... consult your doctor. © 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All rights reserved. Images provided by The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Veer, Shutterstock, and Clipart.com.

  6. Basic Thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duthil, P

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to present a general thermodynamic basis that is useable in the context of superconductivity and particle accelerators. The first part recalls the purpose of thermodynamics and summarizes its important concepts. Some applications, from cryogenics to magnetic systems, are covered. In the context of basic thermodynamics, only thermodynamic equilibrium is considered

  7. Basic Thermodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duthil, P [Orsay, IPN (France)

    2014-07-01

    The goal of this paper is to present a general thermodynamic basis that is useable in the context of superconductivity and particle accelerators. The first part recalls the purpose of thermodynamics and summarizes its important concepts. Some applications, from cryogenics to magnetic systems, are covered. In the context of basic thermodynamics, only thermodynamic equilibrium is considered.

  8. Ethanol Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-01-30

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  9. Biodiesel Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putzig, Mollie [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-04

    This fact sheet (updated for 2017) provides a brief introduction to biodiesel, including a discussion of biodiesel blends, which blends are best for which vehicles, where to buy biodiesel, how biodiesel compares to diesel fuel in terms of performance, the difference between biodiesel and renewable diesel, how biodiesel performs in cold weather, whether biodiesel use will plug vehicle filters, how long-term biodiesel use may affect engines, biodiesel fuel standards, and whether biodiesel burns cleaner than diesel fuel. The fact sheet also dismisses the use of vegetable oil as a motor fuel.

  10. Biodiesel Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-09-01

    This fact sheet (updated for 2017) provides a brief introduction to biodiesel, including a discussion of biodiesel blends, which blends are best for which vehicles, where to buy biodiesel, how biodiesel compares to diesel fuel in terms of performance, the difference between biodiesel and renewable diesel, how biodiesel performs in cold weather, whether biodiesel use will plug vehicle filters, how long-term biodiesel use may affect engines, biodiesel fuel standards, and whether biodiesel burns cleaner than diesel fuel. The fact sheet also dismisses the use of vegetable oil as a motor fuel.

  11. Balance ability and athletic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrysomallis, Con

    2011-03-01

    The relationship between balance ability and sport injury risk has been established in many cases, but the relationship between balance ability and athletic performance is less clear. This review compares the balance ability of athletes from different sports, determines if there is a difference in balance ability of athletes at different levels of competition within the same sport, determines the relationship of balance ability with performance measures and examines the influence of balance training on sport performance or motor skills. Based on the available data from cross-sectional studies, gymnasts tended to have the best balance ability, followed by soccer players, swimmers, active control subjects and then basketball players. Surprisingly, no studies were found that compared the balance ability of rifle shooters with other athletes. There were some sports, such as rifle shooting, soccer and golf, where elite athletes were found to have superior balance ability compared with their less proficient counterparts, but this was not found to be the case for alpine skiing, surfing and judo. Balance ability was shown to be significantly related to rifle shooting accuracy, archery shooting accuracy, ice hockey maximum skating speed and simulated luge start speed, but not for baseball pitching accuracy or snowboarding ranking points. Prospective studies have shown that the addition of a balance training component to the activities of recreationally active subjects or physical education students has resulted in improvements in vertical jump, agility, shuttle run and downhill slalom skiing. A proposed mechanism for the enhancement in motor skills from balance training is an increase in the rate of force development. There are limited data on the influence of balance training on motor skills of elite athletes. When the effectiveness of balance training was compared with resistance training, it was found that resistance training produced superior performance results for

  12. Wavelet basics

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, Y T

    1995-01-01

    Since the study of wavelets is a relatively new area, much of the research coming from mathematicians, most of the literature uses terminology, concepts and proofs that may, at times, be difficult and intimidating for the engineer. Wavelet Basics has therefore been written as an introductory book for scientists and engineers. The mathematical presentation has been kept simple, the concepts being presented in elaborate detail in a terminology that engineers will find familiar. Difficult ideas are illustrated with examples which will also aid in the development of an intuitive insight. Chapter 1 reviews the basics of signal transformation and discusses the concepts of duals and frames. Chapter 2 introduces the wavelet transform, contrasts it with the short-time Fourier transform and clarifies the names of the different types of wavelet transforms. Chapter 3 links multiresolution analysis, orthonormal wavelets and the design of digital filters. Chapter 4 gives a tour d'horizon of topics of current interest: wave...

  13. Education: The Basics. The Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Kay

    2011-01-01

    Everyone knows that education is important, we are confronted daily by discussion of it in the media and by politicians, but how much do we really know about education? "Education: The Basics" is a lively and engaging introduction to education as an academic subject, taking into account both theory and practice. Covering the schooling system, the…

  14. A crossover randomised and controlled trial of the impact of active video games on motor coordination and perceptions of physical ability in children at risk of Developmental Coordination Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straker, L; Howie, E; Smith, A; Jensen, L; Piek, J; Campbell, A

    2015-08-01

    Impaired motor development can significantly affect a child's life and may result in an increased risk of a range of physical and psychological disorders. Active video game (AVG) interventions have been demonstrated to enhance motor skills in children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD); however a home-based intervention has not been assessed. The primary aim of this study was to compare the changes in motor coordination between a 16 week period of AVG use, with 16 weeks of normal activities (NAG). The secondary aim was to compare the child and parent perceptions of their physical performance between the AVG and NAG conditions. Twenty-one 9-12 year olds (10 males) were confirmed to be at risk of DCD (⩽ 16th percentile Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2nd edition (MABC-2) and ⩽ 15th percentile Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (DCDQ)) and participated in this crossover randomised and controlled trial. Data was collected at study entry, after the first 16 week condition and following the final 16 week condition, including; (1) the MABC-2, (2) three-dimensional motion analysis of single leg balance and finger-nose tasks, and (3) parent perception of physical skills. Participant perception of physical skills was collected only after the first and second conditions. There was no significant difference between AVG and NAG for any of the primary variables including the MABC-2, balance centre-of-mass path distance and finger-nose path distance. There was no significant intervention effect for secondary measures of motor coordination; however the children perceived their motor skills to be significantly enhanced as a result of the AVG intervention in comparison to the period of no intervention. A 16 week home based AVG intervention did not enhance motor skills in children with DCD, although they perceived their physical skills to be significantly improved. Australia and New Zealand Clinical trials Registry (ACTRN 12611000400965

  15. Basic principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, P.D.

    1996-01-01

    Some basic explanations are given of the principles underlying the nuclear fuel cycle, starting with the physics of atomic and nuclear structure and continuing with nuclear energy and reactors, fuel and waste management and finally a discussion of economics and the future. An important aspect of the fuel cycle concerns the possibility of ''closing the back end'' i.e. reprocessing the waste or unused fuel in order to re-use it in reactors of various kinds. The alternative, the ''oncethrough'' cycle, discards the discharged fuel completely. An interim measure involves the prolonged storage of highly radioactive waste fuel. (UK)

  16. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Tayal, DC

    2010-01-01

    The second edition of this book incorporates the comments and suggestions of my friends and students who have critically studied the first edition. In this edition the changes and additions have been made and subject matter has been rearranged at some places. The purpose of this text is to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date study of the principles of operation of solid state devices, their basic circuits and application of these circuits to various electronic systems, so that it can serve as a standard text not only for universities and colleges but also for technical institutes. This book

  17. Advanced AC Motor Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazmierkowski, M.P. [Institute of Control and Industrial Electronics, Warsaw University of Technology, Warszawa (Poland)

    1997-12-31

    In this paper a review of control methods for high performance PWM inverter-fed induction motor drives is presented. Starting from the description of an induction motor by the help of the space vectors, three basic control strategic are discussed. As first, the most popular Field Oriented Control (FOC) is described. Secondly, the Direct Torque and Flux vector Control (DTFC) method, which - in contrast to FOC - depart from idea of coordinate transformation and analogy with DC motor, is briefly characterized. The last group is based on Feedback Linearization Control (FLC) and can be easy combined with sliding mode control. The simulation and experimental oscillograms that illustrate the performance of the discussed control strategies are shown. (orig.) 35 refs.

  18. ANTROPOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS AND MOTOR SKILLS OF YOUNG MONTENEGRO BASKETBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milovan Ljubojević

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Testing and measurement in basketball is basically supposed to help in the initial evaluation and interpretation of features and capabilities of players that are important for their activity. The main objective of testing is the possibility of obtaining information about the three general indicators in basketball practice, namely: the level of current results in certain ability, the pace of results improvement in the ability and stability of the results in tests of ability. For this purpose, testing and measurement of young basketball players, members of the Montenegro under-18 team, was carried out. The aim of this paper is to present the basic features and capabilities of young basketball players of Montenegro and their comparison with some other teams. Variables from anthropometry space were measured: body height, arm span, reach height, body mass. Motor skills were observed by variables: the last squat, thrust from a flat bench, rear thrust, lying-sitting for 30 seconds, sargent test, long jump, 20 yard test, kamikaze, špagat, sitting bow. Based on the processed results it can be concluded that the motor skills of our young players, tested in this study, are at the level of the young players of other representations. The results will be of great help to coaches who work with these players.

  19. The electric motor handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, R.W.; Feltham, P. (eds.)

    2004-05-01

    This handbook outlines the important role that electric motors play in modern society. It covers the field of motor applications from various motor types to their use and repair. It also presents practical applications of electric motors and methods on motor efficiency. More than half of all electricity generated, and 75 per cent of all industrial electricity consumption is consumed by electric motors. Electrical personnel must be aware of all factors involved in electric motors in order to choose and apply the appropriate size of electric motor. These factors include efficiency, sizing and proper application. The efficient use and maximum life expectancy of electric motors depends on proper motor protection, control and maintenance. This handbook includes articles from leading experts on electric motors in modern electrical systems. The content includes: design considerations; proper electric motor sizing techniques; optimal electric motor application; electric motor protection technology; electric motor control principles; electric motor maintenance and troubleshooting; induction electric motors; electric motor bearing currents; electric motor bearing lubrication; electromagnetism; electric motor enclosures; electric motor testing; electric motor repair; DC electric motor; electric motor starters; electric motor brushes; industrial electric motors; electric motor diagrams; AC electric motors; electric motor wiring; electric motor service; electric motor rewinding; electric motor winding; diagram of electric motor wiring; electric motor kit; and, troubleshooting electric motors. A directory of motor manufacturers and suppliers was also included. refs., tabs., figs.

  20. Features of development of coordination abilities features of athletes in sports aerobics in initial training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Bodrenkova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : to develop theoretically and experimentally justify the methodology of development of coordination abilities of athletes aged 7-9 years involved in sports aerobics. Material : the study involved 20 participants (7-9 years. 8 athletes performed the test tasks. The choice of tests carried out on the basis of the analysis of the dominant motor mode competition exercises. Results : It was found that the coordination abilities are necessary in the development of speed, density, and the number of running technical elements. With more than a significant increase in performance test tasks that characterize: musicality, coordination, dynamic balance. The basic tools, methods, techniques, and requirements for the exercises. The level of development of coordination abilities. Conclusions : the author's method of development of coordination abilities include: rational choice of means and methods of training impact on their similarities and differences with the target competitive activity.

  1. Longitudinal evaluation of fine motor skills in children with leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockenberry, Marilyn; Krull, Kevin; Moore, Ki; Gregurich, Mary Ann; Casey, Marissa E; Kaemingk, Kris

    2007-08-01

    Improved survival for children with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) has allowed investigators to focus on the adverse or side effects of treatment and to develop interventions that promote cure while decreasing the long-term effects of therapy. Although much attention has been given to the significant neurocognitive sequelae that can occur after ALL therapy, limited investigation is found addressing fine motor function in these children and motor function that may contribute to neurocognitive deficits in ALL survivors. Fine motor and sensory-perceptual performances were examined in 82 children with ALL within 6-months of diagnosis and annually for 2 years (year 1 and year 2, respectively) during therapy. Purdue Pegboard assessments indicated significant slowing of fine motor speed and dexterity for the dominant hand, nondominant hand, and both hands simultaneously for children in this study. Mean Visual-Motor Integration (VMI) scores for children with low-risk and high-risk ALL decreased from the first evaluation to year 1 and again at year 2. Mean VMI scores for children with standard risk ALL increased from the first evaluation to year 1 and then decreased at year 2. Significant positive correlations were found between the Purdue and the VMI at both year 1 and year 2, suggesting that the Pegboard performance consistently predicts the later decline in visual-motor integration. Significant correlations were found between the Purdue Pegboard at baseline and the Performance IQ during year 1, though less consistently during year 2. A similar pattern was also observed between the baseline Pegboard performance and performance on the Coding and Symbol Search subtests during year 1 and year 2. In this study, children with ALL experienced significant and persistent visual-motor problems throughout therapy. These problems continued during the first and second years of treatment. These basic processing skills are necessary to the development of higher-level cognitive

  2. Inflation Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Dan [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2014-03-01

    inflation since metrical fluctuations, both scalar and tensor, are also produced in inflationary models. Thus, the time appears to be appropriate for a very basic and simple exposition of the inflationary model written from a particle physics perspective. Only the simplest scalar model will be explored because it is easy to understand and contains all the basic elements of the inflationary model.

  3. Inflation Basics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Dan

    2014-01-01

    waves imprinted on the CMB. These would be a ''smoking gun'' for inflation since metrical fluctuations, both scalar and tensor, are also produced in inflationary models. Thus, the time appears to be appropriate for a very basic and simple exposition of the inflationary model written from a particle physics perspective. Only the simplest scalar model will be explored because it is easy to understand and contains all the basic elements of the inflationary model.

  4. Energy Optimal Control of Induction Motor Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Flemming

    This thesis deals with energy optimal control of small and medium-size variable speed induction motor drives for especially Heating, Ventilation and Air-Condition (HVAC) applications. Optimized efficiency is achieved by adapting the magnetization level in the motor to the load, and the basic...... demonstrated that energy optimal control will sometimes improve and sometimes deteriorate the stability. Comparison of small and medium-size induction motor drives with permanent magnet motor drives indicated why, and in which applications, PM motors are especially good. Calculations of economical aspects...... improvement by energy optimal control for any standard induction motor drive between 2.2 kW and 90 kW. A simple method to evaluate the robustness against load disturbances was developed and used to compare the robustness of different motor types and sizes. Calculation of the oscillatory behavior of a motor...

  5. Training aids: the motor operator valve trainer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCulloch, B.

    1987-01-01

    The spectrum of training aids used in the nuclear industry runs the gamut from the very basic (i.e., valve training aids - gate, globe, check) to the highly complex (i.e., nuclear full scope simulator). Designing and purchasing the best training aids take much time, detailed investigation, and good understanding of plant operations. The training aid that has given the New York Power Authority the best results has been the motor operator valve (MOV) trainer. Some of the items that make the MOV trainer a good choice are: (1) large number of MOVs in the plant, (2) importance of MOVs to safe plant operation, (3) detailed MOV procedures used by the plant, (4) history of MOV problems, and (5) ability to demonstrate important concepts and operation - hammer blow effect, torque and limit switch adjustment and functions, and actual sequence of operation of the limitorque valve operator

  6. Innovative Tools to Assess Systems Thinking Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    addition to the six cognitive ability constructs, there are two motivational attributes that are highly relevant to systems thinking performance...roles of the habenular complex, the reward system , and the cingulate motor area revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging. Journal of...Technical Report 1362 Innovative Tools to Assess Systems Thinking Ability Cory Adis Michelle Wisecarver Chelsey Raber Personnel

  7. Validating the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Downs, Jenny; Stahlhut, Michelle; Wong, Kingsley

    2016-01-01

    .93-0.98). The standard error of measurement for the total score was 2 points and we would be 95% confident that a change 4 points in the 45-point scale would be greater than within-subject measurement error. The Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale could be an appropriate measure of gross motor skills in clinical practice......Rett syndrome is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder associated with a pathogenic mutation on the MECP2 gene. Impaired movement is a fundamental component and the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale was developed to measure gross motor abilities in this population. The current study investigated...... the validity and reliability of the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale. Video data showing gross motor abilities supplemented with parent report data was collected for 255 girls and women registered with the Australian Rett Syndrome Database, and the factor structure and relationships between motor scores, age...

  8. Motor homopolar

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Muñoz, Agustín

    2007-01-01

    Mostramos la construcción de un modelo de motor homopolar, uno de los más antiguos tipos de motores eléctricos. Se caracterizan porque el campo magnético del imán mantiene siempre la misma polaridad (de ahí su nombre, del griego homos, igual), de modo que, cuando una corriente eléctrica atraviesa el campo magnético, aparece una fuerza que hace girar los elementos no fijados mecánicamente. En el sencillísimo motor homopolar colgado (Schlichting y Ucke 2004), el imán puede girar ...

  9. Optimal design of the rotor geometry of line-start permanent magnet synchronous motor using the bat algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knypiński, Łukasz

    2017-12-01

    In this paper an algorithm for the optimization of excitation system of line-start permanent magnet synchronous motors will be presented. For the basis of this algorithm, software was developed in the Borland Delphi environment. The software consists of two independent modules: an optimization solver, and a module including the mathematical model of a synchronous motor with a self-start ability. The optimization module contains the bat algorithm procedure. The mathematical model of the motor has been developed in an Ansys Maxwell environment. In order to determine the functional parameters of the motor, additional scripts in Visual Basic language were developed. Selected results of the optimization calculation are presented and compared with results for the particle swarm optimization algorithm.

  10. Motor performance of preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    Karina Słonka; Manuela Dyas; Tadeusz Słonka; Tomasz Szurmik

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Pre‑school age is a period of intensive development when children shape their posture, habits and motor memory. Movement is child's physiological need.  Motive activity supports not only physical development, but also psychical, intellectual and social.   Aim: The aim of the study is to assess motor ability in preschool children from the city of Opole and District Dobrzeń Wielki. Materials and methods: The research involved 228 children, aged 5 and 6. The method used in...

  11. Mirror neurons and motor intentionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzolatti, Giacomo; Sinigaglia, Corrado

    2007-01-01

    Our social life rests to a large extent on our ability to understand the intentions of others. What are the bases of this ability? A very influential view is that we understand the intentions of others because we are able to represent them as having mental states. Without this meta-representational (mind-reading) ability their behavior would be meaningless to us. Over the past few years this view has been challenged by neurophysiological findings and, in particular, by the discovery of mirror neurons. The functional properties of these neurons indicate that intentional understanding is based primarily on a mechanism that directly matches the sensory representation of the observed actions with one's own motor representation of those same actions. These findings reveal how deeply motor and intentional components of action are intertwined, suggesting that both can be fully comprehended only starting from a motor approach to intentionality.

  12. Motor Skill Competence and Perceived Motor Competence: Which Best Predicts Physical Activity among Girls?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaverdi, Zeinab; Bahram, Abbas; Khalaji, Hassan; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan

    2013-10-01

    The main purpose of this study was to determine which correlate, perceived motor competence or motor skill competence, best predicts girls' physical activity behavior. A sample of 352 girls (mean age=8.7, SD=0.3 yr) participated in this study. To assess motor skill competence and perceived motor competence, each child completed the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 and Physical Ability sub-scale of Marsh's Self-Description Questionnaire. Children's physical activity was assessed by the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children. Multiple linear regression model was used to determine whether perceived motor competence or motor skill competence best predicts moderate-to-vigorous self-report physical activity. Multiple regression analysis indicated that motor skill competence and perceived motor competence predicted 21% variance in physical activity (R(2)=0.21, F=48.9, P=0.001), and motor skill competence (R(2)=0.15, ᵝ=0.33, P= 0.001) resulted in more variance than perceived motor competence (R(2)=0.06, ᵝ=0.25, P=0.001) in physical activity. Results revealed motor skill competence had more influence in comparison with perceived motor competence on physical activity level. We suggest interventional programs based on motor skill competence and perceived motor competence should be administered or implemented to promote physical activity in young girls.

  13. Individual Differences in Language Development: Relationship with Motor Skill at 21 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcock, Katherine J.; Krawczyk, Kirsty

    2010-01-01

    Language development has long been associated with motor development, particularly manual gesture. We examined a variety of motor abilities--manual gesture including symbolic, meaningless and sequential memory, oral motor control, gross and fine motor control--in 129 children aged 21 months. Language abilities were assessed and cognitive and…

  14. DC motors and servo-motors controlled by Raspberry Pi 2B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šustek Michal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The expanding capabilities of today’s microcontrollers and other devices lead to an increased utilization of these technologies in diverse fields. The automation and issue of remote control of moving objects belong to these fields. In this project, a microcontroller Raspberry Pi 2B was chosen for controlling DC motors and servo-motors. This paper provides basic insight into issue of controlling DC motors and servo-motors, connection between Raspberry and other components on breadboard and programming syntaxes for controlling motors in Python programming language.

  15. Assessment of Object Permanence in Severely Handicapped Students as a Function of Motor and Prompting Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilmer, Steven; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The study assessed object permanence construct performance in 20 severely handicapped students (4 to 14 years old) who were differentiated by treatment (prompt) condition and motor ability level. Results revealed a trait (motor ability) x treatment interaction. (Author/SB)

  16. TRANSFORMED MOTORIC CHARACTERISTICS AFTER RECEIVED PROGRAMMED TRAINING PROCESS ON SUPERIOR KARATE ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žarko Kostovski

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The research is made on intentional sample of participants, members of Macedonian Karate Representation, in the period of preparing to qualify for the world championship in Tokyo 2008. Within the research, were used 19 (nineteen variables for evaluation the following motorics areas: tests for evaluate muscles strength, explosive strength, movement frequency of lower extremity, rhythmic and coordination. Basic purpose of the research was to establish difference within the variables to evaluate motorics abilities between male karate athletes on the age of 18 to 28 (seniors, after a nine-day programmed training in the period of preparing. Using comparative method the results from the both measures, whereby there were evident numerical improvement in the whole motorist abilities, but no difference in the levels of statistic significances.

  17. Brief Overview of Motor Learning and It's Application to Rehabilitation: Part Ⅰ: Motor Learning Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christopher A Zaino

    2003-01-01

    @@ 1 DEFINITION OF MOTOR LEARNING Motor learning is the study of how we acquire and modify movements.1 The acquisition of motor skills is the process of learning how to do a particular movement (performance), but the real key to therapeutic intervention is being able to affect permanent changes in motor skills via the process of motor learning. Therefore, motor learning is defined as the ability to retain the ability to perform a motor task at a later time. In rehabilitation, it is important to be cognizant of the concepts of acquisition and retention. We can facilitate acquisition,but do little to assist in the retention of the task (learning). Conversely, we can arrange practice such that acquisition is slowed, but we can actually be assisting learning the task. It is important to have a clear goal in mind and work towards the eventual learning of the task to allow full functional use of that skill.

  18. Workplace Basics: The Skills Employers Want.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Anthony P.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Identifies the basic skills needed by workers to function in today's high technology workplace. Examines ways of training employees in learning and communication skills, adaptability, personal management, group effectiveness, and organizational leadership. Describes the eight-step training approach used by Mazda Motor Manufacturing Corporation.…

  19. Effect of hyperbaric environment on fine motor skills

    OpenAIRE

    Les, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Title: Effect of hyperbaric environment on fine motor skills Objectives: The aim of study is to assess the changes fine motor skills due to hyperbaric environment in preparation for selected tests of fine motor skills. Methods: The first method was used empirically - research. Then the method chosen of compilation of the information obtained. The basic method to work was the experimental measurement method specially constructed tests on fine motor skills. All measured values were statisticall...

  20. Towards a Definition of Basic Numeracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girling, Michael

    1977-01-01

    The author redefines basic numeracy as the ability to use a four-function calculator sensibly. He then defines "sensibly" and considers the place of algorithms in the scheme of mathematical calculations. (MN)

  1. Motor Skill Competence and Perceived Motor Competence: Which Best Predicts Physical Activity among Girls?

    OpenAIRE

    Khodaverdi, Zeinab; Bahram, Abbas; Khalaji, Hassan; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background The main purpose of this study was to determine which correlate, perceived motor competence or motor skill competence, best predicts girls? physical activity behavior. Methods A sample of 352 girls (mean age=8.7, SD=0.3 yr) participated in this study. To assess motor skill competence and perceived motor competence, each child completed the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 and Physical Ability sub-scale of Marsh?s Self-Description Questionnaire. Children?s physical activit...

  2. Effects of gross motor function and manual function levels on performance-based ADL motor skills of children with spastic cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Myoung-Ok

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine effects of Gross Motor Function Classification System and Manual Ability Classification System levels on performance-based motor skills of children with spastic cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-three children with cerebral palsy were included. The Assessment of Motor and Process Skills was used to evaluate performance-based motor skills in daily life. Gross motor function was assessed using Gross Motor Function Classification S...

  3. Stem Cell Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tips Info Center Research Topics Federal Policy Glossary Stem Cell Information General Information Clinical Trials Funding Information Current ... Basics » Stem Cell Basics I. Back to top Stem Cell Basics I. Introduction: What are stem cells, and ...

  4. Jidosha's Motors

    OpenAIRE

    Shirakawa Okuma, Rosely; Calderón Orejuela, Javier

    2016-01-01

    La tesis narra la situación de una empresa concesionaria de vehículos nuevos, Jidosha's Motors, perteneciente a una corporación japonesa que cuenta con una cultura muy arraigada de ética y de cumplimiento. Se plantean respuestas, se identifican problemas y sus alternativas de solución para una toma adecuada de decisiones por parte de los directivos, siguiendo una estructura de análisis de situaciones de negocios (ASN). Tesis

  5. Structural and Molecular Basis for Coordination in a Viral DNA Packaging Motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Huzhang; Saha, Mitul; Reyes-Aldrete, Emilio; Sherman, Michael B; Woodson, Michael; Atz, Rockney; Grimes, Shelley; Jardine, Paul J; Morais, Marc C

    2016-03-01

    Ring NTPases are a class of ubiquitous molecular motors involved in basic biological partitioning processes. dsDNA viruses encode ring ATPases that translocate their genomes to near-crystalline densities within pre-assembled viral capsids. Here, X-ray crystallography, cryoEM, and biochemical analyses of the dsDNA packaging motor in bacteriophage phi29 show how individual subunits are arranged in a pentameric ATPase ring and suggest how their activities are coordinated to translocate dsDNA. The resulting pseudo-atomic structure of the motor and accompanying functional analyses show how ATP is bound in the ATPase active site; identify two DNA contacts, including a potential DNA translocating loop; demonstrate that a trans-acting arginine finger is involved in coordinating hydrolysis around the ring; and suggest a functional coupling between the arginine finger and the DNA translocating loop. The ability to visualize the motor in action illuminates how the different motor components interact with each other and with their DNA substrate. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Structural and Molecular Basis for Coordination in a Viral DNA Packaging Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huzhang Mao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ring NTPases are a class of ubiquitous molecular motors involved in basic biological partitioning processes. dsDNA viruses encode ring ATPases that translocate their genomes to near-crystalline densities within pre-assembled viral capsids. Here, X-ray crystallography, cryoEM, and biochemical analyses of the dsDNA packaging motor in bacteriophage phi29 show how individual subunits are arranged in a pentameric ATPase ring and suggest how their activities are coordinated to translocate dsDNA. The resulting pseudo-atomic structure of the motor and accompanying functional analyses show how ATP is bound in the ATPase active site; identify two DNA contacts, including a potential DNA translocating loop; demonstrate that a trans-acting arginine finger is involved in coordinating hydrolysis around the ring; and suggest a functional coupling between the arginine finger and the DNA translocating loop. The ability to visualize the motor in action illuminates how the different motor components interact with each other and with their DNA substrate.

  7. Genetics and genomics of musical abilities

    OpenAIRE

    Oikkonen, Jaana

    2016-01-01

    Most people have the capacity for music perception and production, but the degree of music competency varies between individuals. In this thesis, I studied abilities to identify pitch, tone duration and sound patterns with Karma s test for auditory structuring (KMT), and Seashore s tests for time (ST) and pitch (SP). These abilities can be considered as basic components of musicality. Additionally, I studied self-reported musical activities, especially composing and arranging. Musical ability...

  8. Functional abilities in aging women with Rett syndrome - the Danish cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schönewolf-Greulich, Bitten; Stahlhut, Michelle; Larsen, Jane Lunding

    2017-01-01

    though the syndrome causes severe psychomotor disability, women with RTT can live long into adulthood. PURPOSE: We aim to describe what to expect from aging women with RTT regarding some of the basic functional abilities that are used in daily activities and that could have an impact on quality of life...... that can be difficult to recognize. Implications for rehabilitation 3/4 of aging RTT women are household ambulators - daily training of motor functions and focus on assisting the initiation of movements are needed lifelong to maintain walking ability and participation in daily activities More than half...... in these women. METHODS: A team of two medical doctors, a physiotherapist and an educational psychological adviser, performed clinical evaluations of 27 women with RTT in Denmark above 30 years of age and confirmed MECP2 mutation. RESULTS: We found that 63% of the women were able to walk outside their homes...

  9. The Level of motor Skills of the First Grade Pupils

    OpenAIRE

    HEJLOVÁ, Kateřina

    2011-01-01

    The thesis focuses on motor abilities of children from birth to the age of eight years. It outlines the development of gross motor skills, fine motor skills and micromotor skills, and methods how to help children develop these particular areas. The level of motor skills is determined by method of testing in first graders from Stonařov, Pavlov, Třešť and České Budějovice.

  10. Numerical ability predicts mortgage default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardi, Kristopher; Goette, Lorenz; Meier, Stephan

    2013-07-09

    Unprecedented levels of US subprime mortgage defaults precipitated a severe global financial crisis in late 2008, plunging much of the industrialized world into a deep recession. However, the fundamental reasons for why US mortgages defaulted at such spectacular rates remain largely unknown. This paper presents empirical evidence showing that the ability to perform basic mathematical calculations is negatively associated with the propensity to default on one's mortgage. We measure several aspects of financial literacy and cognitive ability in a survey of subprime mortgage borrowers who took out loans in 2006 and 2007, and match them to objective, detailed administrative data on mortgage characteristics and payment histories. The relationship between numerical ability and mortgage default is robust to controlling for a broad set of sociodemographic variables, and is not driven by other aspects of cognitive ability. We find no support for the hypothesis that numerical ability impacts mortgage outcomes through the choice of the mortgage contract. Rather, our results suggest that individuals with limited numerical ability default on their mortgage due to behavior unrelated to the initial choice of their mortgage.

  11. Numerical ability predicts mortgage default

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardi, Kristopher; Goette, Lorenz; Meier, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    Unprecedented levels of US subprime mortgage defaults precipitated a severe global financial crisis in late 2008, plunging much of the industrialized world into a deep recession. However, the fundamental reasons for why US mortgages defaulted at such spectacular rates remain largely unknown. This paper presents empirical evidence showing that the ability to perform basic mathematical calculations is negatively associated with the propensity to default on one’s mortgage. We measure several aspects of financial literacy and cognitive ability in a survey of subprime mortgage borrowers who took out loans in 2006 and 2007, and match them to objective, detailed administrative data on mortgage characteristics and payment histories. The relationship between numerical ability and mortgage default is robust to controlling for a broad set of sociodemographic variables, and is not driven by other aspects of cognitive ability. We find no support for the hypothesis that numerical ability impacts mortgage outcomes through the choice of the mortgage contract. Rather, our results suggest that individuals with limited numerical ability default on their mortgage due to behavior unrelated to the initial choice of their mortgage. PMID:23798401

  12. DISTURBANCE OF NORMAL MOTOR DEVELOPMENT IN THE FIRST YEAR OF LIFE

    OpenAIRE

    Lidija Dimitrijević; Hristina Čolović

    2005-01-01

    The adoption of the basic motor skills in the first year of life (postural head control, lateral transfers into a lying position, sitting, standing, walking, crawling, grasping...) goes on quite spontaneously. A child learns all the motor actions by itself and that is why it is not necessary to “teach” a child to seat, grasp, stand, walk... Teaching a child the basic motor skills stands for a rough, unnecessary and undesirable involvement into spontaneous motor development, and, due to this, ...

  13. The concept of work ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tengland, Per-Anders

    2011-06-01

    The concept of "work ability" is central for many sciences, especially for those related to working life and to rehabilitation. It is one of the important concepts in legislation regulating sickness insurance. How the concept is defined therefore has important normative implications. The concept is, however, often not sufficiently well defined. AIM AND METHOD The objective of this paper is to clarify, through conceptual analysis, what the concept can and should mean, and to propose a useful definition for scientific and practical work. RESULTS Several of the defining characteristics found in the literature are critically scrutinized and discussed, namely health, basic standard competence, occupational competence, occupational virtues, and motivation. These characteristics are related to the work tasks and the work environment. One conclusion is that we need two definitions of work ability, one for specific jobs that require special training or education, and one for jobs that most people can manage given a short period of practice. Having work ability, in the first sense, means having the occupational competence, the health required for the competence, and the occupational virtues that are required for managing the work tasks, assuming that the tasks are reasonable and that the work environment is acceptable. In the second sense, having work ability is having the health, the basic standard competence and the relevant occupational virtues required for managing some kind of job, assuming that the work tasks are reasonable and that the work environment is acceptable. CONCLUSION These definitions give us tools for understanding and discussing the complex, holistic and dynamic aspects of work ability, and they can lay the foundations for the creation of instruments for evaluating work ability, as well as help formulate strategies for rehabilitation.

  14. 78 FR 62472 - Energy Conservation Program: Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods, Basic Model Definition...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... transformers, electric motors, and small electric motors to use AEDMs to rate their non-tested combinations... electric storage water heaters [cir] Commercial gas-fired and oil-fired storage water heaters [cir.... Electric Water Heaters 2 Basic Models. Heat Pump Water Heaters 2 Basic Models. Unfired Hot Water Storage...

  15. Motor Coordination and Body Mass Index in Primary School Children

    OpenAIRE

    Ingrid Ruzbarska; Martin Zvonar; Piotr Oleśniewicz; Julita Markiewicz-Patkowska; Krzysztof Widawski; Daniel Puciato

    2016-01-01

    Obese children will probably become obese adults, consequently exposed to an increased risk of comorbidity and premature mortality. Body weight may be indirectly determined by continuous development of coordination and motor skills. The level of motor skills and abilities is an important factor that promotes physical activity since early childhood. The aim of the study is to thoroughly understand the internal relations between motor coordination abilities and the somatic development of prepub...

  16. State Estimation of Induction Motor Drives Using the Unscented Kalman Filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lascu, Cristian; Jafarzadeh, Saeed; Fadali, M.Sami

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the application, design, and implementation of unscented Kalman filters (KFs) (UKFs) for induction motor (IM) sensorless drives. UKFs use nonlinear unscented transforms (UTs) in the prediction step in order to preserve the stochastic characteristics of a nonlinear system....... The advantage of using UTs is their ability to capture the nonlinear behavior of the system, unlike extended KFs (EKFs) that use linearized models. Four original variants of the UKF for IM state estimation, based on different UTs, are described, analyzed, and compared. The four transforms are basic, general...

  17. Redundancy for electric motors in spacecraft applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert J.; Flew, Alastair R.

    1986-01-01

    The parts of electric motors which should be duplicated in order to provide maximum reliability in spacecraft application are identified. Various common types of redundancy are described. The advantages and disadvantages of each are noted. The principal types are illustrated by reference to specific examples. For each example, constructional details, basic performance data and failure modes are described, together with a discussion of the suitability of particular redundancy techniques to motor types.

  18. Effects of gross motor function and manual function levels on performance-based ADL motor skills of children with spastic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myoung-Ok

    2017-02-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine effects of Gross Motor Function Classification System and Manual Ability Classification System levels on performance-based motor skills of children with spastic cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-three children with cerebral palsy were included. The Assessment of Motor and Process Skills was used to evaluate performance-based motor skills in daily life. Gross motor function was assessed using Gross Motor Function Classification Systems, and manual function was measured using the Manual Ability Classification System. [Results] Motor skills in daily activities were significantly different on Gross Motor Function Classification System level and Manual Ability Classification System level. According to the results of multiple regression analysis, children categorized as Gross Motor Function Classification System level III scored lower in terms of performance based motor skills than Gross Motor Function Classification System level I children. Also, when analyzed with respect to Manual Ability Classification System level, level II was lower than level I, and level III was lower than level II in terms of performance based motor skills. [Conclusion] The results of this study indicate that performance-based motor skills differ among children categorized based on Gross Motor Function Classification System and Manual Ability Classification System levels of cerebral palsy.

  19. Influence of inhibitory control on planning abilities in children with mild intellectual disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gligorović Milica

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With regard to the fact that the tendency toward unsophisticated strategies is often related to difficulties with basic components of executive functions, the aim of this research was to determine the relation between planning abilities and inhibitory control in children with mild intellectual disability (MID. The sample included 56 children with idiopathic MID (IQ 50-69, M=61.13, SD=7.14, of both genders (26/46.3% of girls, between 9.11 and 14.03 years of age (M=11.61; SD=1.29. Go no Go Task and Day/Night Stroop Task were used for the assessment of inhibitory control (delayed response to the agreed signal, conflict provoking motor responses, and inhibition of arrogant verbal responses, while Tower of London Test (ToL was used for the assessment of planning abilities. Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA, paired samples t-test, Pearson's correlation, and partial correlation coefficients were used in statistical analysis of the results. The results showed that the mistakes in Response delay set of Go-no-Go task were the only significant factor of primary Total move score variable (ToL. The influence of the ability to delay motor activity, assessed by Response delay set, on all ToL variables was statistically significant (p=0.003. The results lead to a conclusion that, during the processes of planning and executing activities, children with MID primarily rely on simple inhibitory mechanisms.

  20. Permanently split capacitor motor-study of the design parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarac, Vasilija; Stefanov, Goce

    2017-09-01

    Paper analyzes the influence of various design parameters on torque of permanently split capacitor motor. Motor analytical model is derived and it is used for calculating the performance characteristics of basic motor model. The acquired analytical model is applied in optimization software that uses genetic algorithms (GA) as an optimization method. Optimized motor model with increased torque is derived by varying three motor parameters in GA program: winding turns ratio, average air gap flux density and motor stack length. Increase of torque has been achieved for nominal operation but also at motor starting. Accuracy of the derived models is verified by Simulink. The acquired values of several motor parameters from transient characteristics of Simulink models are compared with the corresponding values obtained from analytical models of both motors, basic and optimized. Numerical analysis, based on finite element method (FEM), is also performed for both motor models. As a result of the FEM analysis, magnetic flux density in motor cross-section is calculated and adequate conclusions are derived in relation to core saturation and air gap flux density in both motor models.

  1. Electric motor predictive and preventive maintenance guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, J.A.

    1992-07-01

    Electric motor performance is vital to the reliable and efficient operation of power plants. The failure of one or more critical motors could cause lost capacity and excessive repair and maintenance cost. However, existing maintenance recommendations proposed by vendors for electric motors have sometimes encouraged many overly conservative maintenance practices. These practices have lead to excessive maintenance activities and costs which have provided no extra margin of operability. EPRI has sponsored RP2814-35 to develop a guide which provides power plants with information and guidance for establishing an effective maintenance program which will aid in preventing unexpected motor failures and assist in planning motor maintenance efforts. The guide includes a technical description which summarizes technical data relative to the four basic types of motors and their components in general use in power plants. The significant causes of motor failures are investigated and described in detail and methods to optimize service life and minimize maintenance cost through appropriate preventive maintenance and conditioning program are presented. This guide provides a foundation for an effective electric motor maintenance program and simplifies the selection of predictive and preventive maintenance tasks. Its use will enable maintenance personnel in nuclear and fossil plants to plan motor repairs during scheduled outages and avoid costly unexpected failures

  2. A dynamical systems approach to motor development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamm, K; Thelen, E; Jensen, J L

    1990-12-01

    The study of motor development has long influenced the clinical practice of physical therapy. We first review the contributions and deficiencies of two traditional maturational and reflex-based models of motor development. Second, we describe basic principles of kinematic and kinetic analyses of movement and show how we have applied these techniques to understand infant stepping and kicking. Third, we propose a theory of motor development based on a dynamical systems perspective that is consistent with our infant studies. Finally, we explore the implications of the model for physical therapists.

  3. Fine motor control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gross (large, general) motor control. An example of gross motor control is waving an arm in greeting. Problems ... out the child's developmental age. Children develop fine motor skills over time, by practicing and being taught. To ...

  4. Validating the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Downs

    Full Text Available Rett syndrome is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder associated with a pathogenic mutation on the MECP2 gene. Impaired movement is a fundamental component and the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale was developed to measure gross motor abilities in this population. The current study investigated the validity and reliability of the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale. Video data showing gross motor abilities supplemented with parent report data was collected for 255 girls and women registered with the Australian Rett Syndrome Database, and the factor structure and relationships between motor scores, age and genotype were investigated. Clinical assessment scores for 38 girls and women with Rett syndrome who attended the Danish Center for Rett Syndrome were used to assess consistency of measurement. Principal components analysis enabled the calculation of three factor scores: Sitting, Standing and Walking, and Challenge. Motor scores were poorer with increasing age and those with the p.Arg133Cys, p.Arg294* or p.Arg306Cys mutation achieved higher scores than those with a large deletion. The repeatability of clinical assessment was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient for total score 0.99, 95% CI 0.93-0.98. The standard error of measurement for the total score was 2 points and we would be 95% confident that a change 4 points in the 45-point scale would be greater than within-subject measurement error. The Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale could be an appropriate measure of gross motor skills in clinical practice and clinical trials.

  5. Validating the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Jenny; Stahlhut, Michelle; Wong, Kingsley; Syhler, Birgit; Bisgaard, Anne-Marie; Jacoby, Peter; Leonard, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Rett syndrome is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder associated with a pathogenic mutation on the MECP2 gene. Impaired movement is a fundamental component and the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale was developed to measure gross motor abilities in this population. The current study investigated the validity and reliability of the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale. Video data showing gross motor abilities supplemented with parent report data was collected for 255 girls and women registered with the Australian Rett Syndrome Database, and the factor structure and relationships between motor scores, age and genotype were investigated. Clinical assessment scores for 38 girls and women with Rett syndrome who attended the Danish Center for Rett Syndrome were used to assess consistency of measurement. Principal components analysis enabled the calculation of three factor scores: Sitting, Standing and Walking, and Challenge. Motor scores were poorer with increasing age and those with the p.Arg133Cys, p.Arg294* or p.Arg306Cys mutation achieved higher scores than those with a large deletion. The repeatability of clinical assessment was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient for total score 0.99, 95% CI 0.93-0.98). The standard error of measurement for the total score was 2 points and we would be 95% confident that a change 4 points in the 45-point scale would be greater than within-subject measurement error. The Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale could be an appropriate measure of gross motor skills in clinical practice and clinical trials.

  6. Basic Research Firing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Basic Research Firing Facility is an indoor ballistic test facility that has recently transitioned from a customer-based facility to a dedicated basic research...

  7. Basics of neuroanatomy and neurophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barha, C K; Nagamatsu, L S; Liu-Ambrose, T

    2016-01-01

    This chapter presents an overview of the anatomy and functioning of the central nervous system. We begin the discussion by first examining the cellular basis of neural transmission. Then we present a brief description of the brain's white and gray matter and associated diseases, including a discussion of white-matter lesions. Finally, we place this information into context by discussing how the central nervous system integrates complex information to guide key functional systems, including the visual, auditory, chemosensory, somatic, limbic, motor, and autonomic systems. Where appropriate, we have supplied information pertaining to pathologic and functional outcomes of damage to the central nervous system. Also included is a brief description of important tools and methods used in the study of neuroanatomy and neurophysiology. Overall, this chapter provides a basic review of the concepts required to understand and interpret the clinical disorders and related material presented in the subsequent chapters of this book. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Motor control for a brushless DC motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, William J. (Inventor); Faulkner, Dennis T. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    This invention relates to a motor control system for a brushless DC motor having an inverter responsively coupled to the motor control system and in power transmitting relationship to the motor. The motor control system includes a motor rotor speed detecting unit that provides a pulsed waveform signal proportional to rotor speed. This pulsed waveform signal is delivered to the inverter to thereby cause an inverter fundamental current waveform output to the motor to be switched at a rate proportional to said rotor speed. In addition, the fundamental current waveform is also pulse width modulated at a rate proportional to the rotor speed. A fundamental current waveform phase advance circuit is controllingly coupled to the inverter. The phase advance circuit is coupled to receive the pulsed waveform signal from the motor rotor speed detecting unit and phase advance the pulsed waveform signal as a predetermined function of motor speed to thereby cause the fundamental current waveform to be advanced and thereby compensate for fundamental current waveform lag due to motor winding reactance which allows the motor to operate at higher speeds than the motor is rated while providing optimal torque and therefore increased efficiency.

  9. Basic Cake Decorating Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdany, Mel

    Included in this student workbook for basic cake decorating are the following: (1) Drawings of steps in a basic way to ice a layer cake, how to make a paper cone, various sizes of flower nails, various sizes and types of tin pastry tubes, and special rose tubes; (2) recipes for basic decorating icings (buttercream, rose paste, and royal icing);…

  10. Biological Correlates of Cognitive, Sensory and Motor Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-04-01

    receptor organs are of great interest in a compre- hensive understanding of sensory systems (Harris, 1974). Taste buds disappear following...cold. The interoceptors include a variety of mechanoreceptors and chemoreceptors such as the skeletal muscle spindles, tendon end organs, end

  11. Anthropometric, motor ability and physiological profiles of Indian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Football is probably the most popular game worldwide but there is still limited scientific information available concerning the physique and performance qualities of elite Indian footballers. Team games are sports where size, shape, body composition and fitness all play an important part in providing distinct advantages for ...

  12. High efficiency motors; Motores de alta eficiencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uranga Favela, Ivan Jaime [Energia Controlada de Mexico, S. A. de C. V., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    This paper is a technical-financial study of the high efficiency and super-premium motors. As it is widely known, more than 60% of the electrical energy generated in the country is used for the operation of motors, in industry as well as in commerce. Therefore the importance that the motors have in the efficient energy use. [Espanol] El presente trabajo es un estudio tecnico-financiero de los motores de alta eficiencia y los motores super premium. Como es ampliamente conocido, mas del 60% de la energia electrica generada en el pais, es utilizada para accionar motores, dentro de la industria y el comercio. De alli la importancia que los motores tienen en el uso eficiente de la energia.

  13. High efficiency motors; Motores de alta eficiencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uranga Favela, Ivan Jaime [Energia Controlada de Mexico, S. A. de C. V., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    This paper is a technical-financial study of the high efficiency and super-premium motors. As it is widely known, more than 60% of the electrical energy generated in the country is used for the operation of motors, in industry as well as in commerce. Therefore the importance that the motors have in the efficient energy use. [Espanol] El presente trabajo es un estudio tecnico-financiero de los motores de alta eficiencia y los motores super premium. Como es ampliamente conocido, mas del 60% de la energia electrica generada en el pais, es utilizada para accionar motores, dentro de la industria y el comercio. De alli la importancia que los motores tienen en el uso eficiente de la energia.

  14. Auditory-motor learning influences auditory memory for music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rachel M; Palmer, Caroline

    2012-05-01

    In two experiments, we investigated how auditory-motor learning influences performers' memory for music. Skilled pianists learned novel melodies in four conditions: auditory only (listening), motor only (performing without sound), strongly coupled auditory-motor (normal performance), and weakly coupled auditory-motor (performing along with auditory recordings). Pianists' recognition of the learned melodies was better following auditory-only or auditory-motor (weakly coupled and strongly coupled) learning than following motor-only learning, and better following strongly coupled auditory-motor learning than following auditory-only learning. Auditory and motor imagery abilities modulated the learning effects: Pianists with high auditory imagery scores had better recognition following motor-only learning, suggesting that auditory imagery compensated for missing auditory feedback at the learning stage. Experiment 2 replicated the findings of Experiment 1 with melodies that contained greater variation in acoustic features. Melodies that were slower and less variable in tempo and intensity were remembered better following weakly coupled auditory-motor learning. These findings suggest that motor learning can aid performers' auditory recognition of music beyond auditory learning alone, and that motor learning is influenced by individual abilities in mental imagery and by variation in acoustic features.

  15. Comparative analysis of some brushless motors based on catalog data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Kalapish

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Brushless motors (polyphased AC induction, synchronous and brushless DC motors have no alternatives in modern electric drives. They possess highly efficient and very wide range of speeds. The objective of this paper is to represent some relation between the basic parameters and magnitudes of electrical machines. This allows to be made a comparative analysis and a choice of motor concerning each particular case based not only on catalogue data or price for sale.

  16. Fine motor skills development of children with autism sepctrum disorder.

    OpenAIRE

    Marešová, Petra

    2010-01-01

    My diploma thesis topic is Fine motor skills development of children with autism spectrum disorder. The objective of this document is to create a well arranged group of exercises and structured tasks aimed to develop fine motor skills of children at pre-school age with autism spectrum disorder. Theoretical part of this diploma thesis contains basic information related to autism and various details about motor skills. Practical section describes individual jobs and structured tasks used for fi...

  17. Design of permanent magnet synchronous motor within minimum cost

    OpenAIRE

    Півняк, Геннадій Григорович; Бешта, Олександр Степанович; Фурса, Сергій Григорійович; Neuberger, Nikolaus; Nolle, N.

    2010-01-01

    The article describes design and simulation experience of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM). The design goal is to develop PMSM of the least possible cost. For that purpose the standard induction motor stator was applied as a basic solution and permanent magnets were installed in rotor. Simulation results are presented, the dependence of efficiency and total loss on magnet material mass are obtained. The optimal value of permanent magnets is estimated for the given electric motor frame.

  18. Stepping motors a guide to theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Acarnely, Paul

    2002-01-01

    This book provides an introductory text which will enable the reader to both appreciate the essential characteristics of stepping motor systems and understand how these characteristics are being exploited in the continuing development of new motors, drives and controllers. A basic theoretical approach relating to the more significant aspects of performance is presented, although it is assumed throughout that the reader has no previous experience of electrical machines and is primarily interested in the applications of stepping motors.

  19. Group Innovation Ability of Agricultural Technological Innovation Strategic Alliance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chishun; MA; Jintian; YU

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural technological innovation strategic alliance, as an important form of strategic alliance, has steadily strengthened the collaborative management among organizations and raised competitive power with the backing of improved group innovation ability. This article studies innovation ability from individual innovation ability to the group innovation ability. Firstly, basic connotation of group innovation ability is to be concluded through the comparison of individual and group innovation ability. Secondly, evaluation index system is to be established based on the influencing factors of the group innovation ability of agricultural technological innovation strategic alliance and evaluation is based on three dimensions, namely organization technological innovation ability, alliance collaborative innovation ability as well as innovation environment. Furthermore, basic methods for promoting the group innovation ability of alliance are to be proposed.

  20. MODELING OF TRACTION SYNCHRONOUS PERMANENT MAGNET MOTOR MODES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.N. Vas’kovsky

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model of electromagnetic field for simulating operational modes of traction synchronous motors with permanent magnets intended for electric vehicles is developed. The mathematical model takes into account real-time rotor rotation and allows calculating and analyzing the motor basic running characteristics as time functions.

  1. Motor patterns during walking on a slippery walkway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cappellini, Germana; Ivanenko, Yuri P; Dominici, Nadia; Poppele, Richard E; Lacquaniti, Francesco

    Friction and gravity represent two basic physical constraints of terrestrial locomotion that affect both motor patterns and the biomechanics of bipedal gait. To provide insights into the spatiotemporal organization of the motor output in connection with ground contact forces, we studied adaptation

  2. Permanent-Magnet Motors and Generators for Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echolds, E. F.

    1983-01-01

    Electric motors and generators that use permarotating machinery, but aspects of control and power conditioning are also considered. The discussion is structured around three basic areas: rotating machine design considerations presents various configuration and material options, generator applications provides insight into utilization areas and shows actual hardware and test results, and motor applications provides the same type of information for drive systems.

  3. Readability and Reading Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Benjamin D.; Stenner, A. Jackson

    This document discusses the measurement of reading ability and the readability of books by application of the Lexile framework. It begins by stating the importance of uniform measures. It then discusses the history of reading ability testing, based on the assumption that no researcher has been able to measure more than one kind of reading ability.…

  4. The Effect of Regular Physical Education in the Transformation Motor Development of Children with Special Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Bojanić

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to determine the level of quantitative changes of motor abilities of pupils with special needs under the influence of kinetic activity regular physical education teaching. The survey was conducted on students of the Centre for children and youth with special needs in Mostar, the city of Los Rosales in Mostar and day care facilities for children with special needs in Niksic. The sample was composed of boys of 46 subjects, who were involved in regular physical education for a period of one school year. The level of quantitative and qualitative changes in motor skills, written under the influence of kinesiology operators within regular school physical education classes, was estimated by applying appropriate tests of motor skills, selected in accordance with the degree of mental ability and biological age. Manifest variables applied in this experiment were processed using standard descriptive methods in order to determine their distribution function and basic function parameters. Comparisons of results of measures of central dispersion parameters initial and final measurement, it is evident that the applied program of physical education and sport contribute to changing the distribution of central and dispersion parameters, and that the same distribution of the final measurement closer to the normal distribution of results.

  5. Functionality and basic capabilities of preschool children with Down syndrome and Autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Kazmin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We have examined and compared the status of functionality and basic capabilities (gross and fine motor, visual and auditory basic skills, basic capabilities to interaction, communication and education of preschoolers with Down syndrome (21 children, age 69 ± 20 months and Autism spectrum disorders (21 children, age 61 ± 14 months with the questionnaires F-07 and "Basic capabilities ". Have been revealed the expressed variability of the level of functionality and reduced patterns of the basic capabilities for both groups of children. Have been demonstrated a significant strong positive connections between the levels of functionality and basic capabilities, except for the motor capabilities, in both groups. The reduction structures of the basic capabilities of the children with Down syndrome and Autism spectrum disorders were found to be different: first were more successful in vision, hearing, the interaction and communication, and second in a fine motor skills.

  6. Basic digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Lockhart, Gordon B

    1985-01-01

    Basic Digital Signal Processing describes the principles of digital signal processing and experiments with BASIC programs involving the fast Fourier theorem (FFT). The book reviews the fundamentals of the BASIC program, continuous and discrete time signals including analog signals, Fourier analysis, discrete Fourier transform, signal energy, power. The text also explains digital signal processing involving digital filters, linear time-variant systems, discrete time unit impulse, discrete-time convolution, and the alternative structure for second order infinite impulse response (IIR) sections.

  7. Hydromechanics - basic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sung Tak; Lee, Je Geun

    1987-03-01

    This book tells of hydromechanics, which is about basic properties of hydromechanics such as conception, definition, mass, power and weight, and perfect fluid and perfect gas, hydrostatics with summary, basic equation of hydrostatics, relative balance of hydrostatics, and kinematics of hydromechanics, description method of floating, hydromechanics about basic knowledge, equation of moment, energy equation and application of Bernoulli equation, application of momentum theory, inviscid flow and fluid measuring.

  8. Basic molecular spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Gorry, PA

    1985-01-01

    BASIC Molecular Spectroscopy discusses the utilization of the Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC) programming language in molecular spectroscopy. The book is comprised of five chapters that provide an introduction to molecular spectroscopy through programs written in BASIC. The coverage of the text includes rotational spectra, vibrational spectra, and Raman and electronic spectra. The book will be of great use to students who are currently taking a course in molecular spectroscopy.

  9. The Relationship between Manual Ability and Ambulation in Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majnemer, Annette; Shikako-Thomas, Keiko; Shevell, Michael; Poulin, Chantal; Lach, Lucyna; Law, Mary; Schmitz, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between gross motor function and manual ability in 120 adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) (15.2, SD 2.1 years, 59.8% male). Adolescents were evaluated using the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) and the Manual Ability Classification System (MACS). A neurologist classified CP subtype. Most…

  10. Auditory and motor imagery modulate learning in music performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rachel M; Palmer, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Skilled performers such as athletes or musicians can improve their performance by imagining the actions or sensory outcomes associated with their skill. Performers vary widely in their auditory and motor imagery abilities, and these individual differences influence sensorimotor learning. It is unknown whether imagery abilities influence both memory encoding and retrieval. We examined how auditory and motor imagery abilities influence musicians' encoding (during Learning, as they practiced novel melodies), and retrieval (during Recall of those melodies). Pianists learned melodies by listening without performing (auditory learning) or performing without sound (motor learning); following Learning, pianists performed the melodies from memory with auditory feedback (Recall). During either Learning (Experiment 1) or Recall (Experiment 2), pianists experienced either auditory interference, motor interference, or no interference. Pitch accuracy (percentage of correct pitches produced) and temporal regularity (variability of quarter-note interonset intervals) were measured at Recall. Independent tests measured auditory and motor imagery skills. Pianists' pitch accuracy was higher following auditory learning than following motor learning and lower in motor interference conditions (Experiments 1 and 2). Both auditory and motor imagery skills improved pitch accuracy overall. Auditory imagery skills modulated pitch accuracy encoding (Experiment 1): Higher auditory imagery skill corresponded to higher pitch accuracy following auditory learning with auditory or motor interference, and following motor learning with motor or no interference. These findings suggest that auditory imagery abilities decrease vulnerability to interference and compensate for missing auditory feedback at encoding. Auditory imagery skills also influenced temporal regularity at retrieval (Experiment 2): Higher auditory imagery skill predicted greater temporal regularity during Recall in the presence of

  11. Auditory and motor imagery modulate learning in music performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rachel M.; Palmer, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Skilled performers such as athletes or musicians can improve their performance by imagining the actions or sensory outcomes associated with their skill. Performers vary widely in their auditory and motor imagery abilities, and these individual differences influence sensorimotor learning. It is unknown whether imagery abilities influence both memory encoding and retrieval. We examined how auditory and motor imagery abilities influence musicians' encoding (during Learning, as they practiced novel melodies), and retrieval (during Recall of those melodies). Pianists learned melodies by listening without performing (auditory learning) or performing without sound (motor learning); following Learning, pianists performed the melodies from memory with auditory feedback (Recall). During either Learning (Experiment 1) or Recall (Experiment 2), pianists experienced either auditory interference, motor interference, or no interference. Pitch accuracy (percentage of correct pitches produced) and temporal regularity (variability of quarter-note interonset intervals) were measured at Recall. Independent tests measured auditory and motor imagery skills. Pianists' pitch accuracy was higher following auditory learning than following motor learning and lower in motor interference conditions (Experiments 1 and 2). Both auditory and motor imagery skills improved pitch accuracy overall. Auditory imagery skills modulated pitch accuracy encoding (Experiment 1): Higher auditory imagery skill corresponded to higher pitch accuracy following auditory learning with auditory or motor interference, and following motor learning with motor or no interference. These findings suggest that auditory imagery abilities decrease vulnerability to interference and compensate for missing auditory feedback at encoding. Auditory imagery skills also influenced temporal regularity at retrieval (Experiment 2): Higher auditory imagery skill predicted greater temporal regularity during Recall in the presence of

  12. Methods for Evaluation of Some Psychomotor Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Krivokapić

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available For estimation of psychomotor and sensor abilities different kinds of tests are used in the form of devices representing different technical devices which help examining sensomotor and psychomotor functions in certain conditions, as well as more complex motor abilities and skills that depend on CNS characteristics, vegetative nervous system and other functional systems and body states. These devices can be used for examining some parameters of psychomotor functions-such as speed of reaction through reactiometer or devices for examining sensor abilities-such as audiometer, ortoriter, color tests etc. In the scope of examining psychomotor skills and abilities, frequently used are different kinds of tests in the forms of devices serving for measuring ocultomotor coordination-such as Omega and Sinusoida, then Tumer`s device for measuring coordination and dissociation of hands` movements with visible control, O-Conor`s dexterimeter and Medeo`s dexterimeter-used for examining dexterity of fingers, Tremometer for examining hand stability and preciseness of movements, Minesota test for examining dexterity of hands and taping tests like “paper-pen” for examining speed and accuracy of simple movements. For examining more complex sensomotor abilities or different motor skills, special tests are used in the form of simulator, simulator and different technical devices, adjusted to specific sports situation. This category of tests includes different kinds of simulators and simulators used for examining certain aspects of sports activity.

  13. Gross Motor Profile and Its Association with Socialization Skills in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Hardiono D. Pusponegoro; Pustika Efar; Soedjatmiko; Amanda Soebadi; Agus Firmansyah; Hui-Ju Chen; Kun-Long Hung

    2016-01-01

    While social impairment is considered to be the core deficit in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a large proportion of these children have poor gross motor ability, and gross motor deficits may influence socialization skills in children with ASD. The objectives of this study were to compare gross motor skills in children with ASD to typically developing children, to describe gross motor problems in children with ASD, and to investigate associations between gross motor and sociali...

  14. Evaluating the importance of social motor synchronization and motor skill for understanding autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Paula; Romero, Veronica; Amaral, Joseph L; Duncan, Amie; Barnard, Holly; Richardson, Michael J; Schmidt, R C

    2017-10-01

    Impairments in social interaction and communicating with others are core features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but the specific processes underlying such social competence impairments are not well understood. An important key for increasing our understanding of ASD-specific social deficits may lie with the social motor synchronization that takes place when we implicitly coordinate our bodies with others. Here, we tested whether dynamical measures of synchronization differentiate children with ASD from controls and further explored the relationships between synchronization ability and motor control problems. We found (a) that children with ASD exhibited different and less stable patterns of social synchronization ability than controls; (b) children with ASD performed motor movements that were slower and more variable in both spacing and timing; and (c) some social synchronization that involved motor timing was related to motor ability but less rhythmic synchronization was not. These findings raise the possibility that objective dynamical measures of synchronization ability and motor skill could provide new insights into understanding the social deficits in ASD that could ultimately aid clinical diagnosis and prognosis. Autism Res 2017, 10: 1687-1699. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Rotor design of a novel self-start type permanent magnet synchronous motor

    OpenAIRE

    Egawa, T; Higuchi, Tsuyoshi; Yokoi, Yuichi; Abe, T; Miyamoto, Yasuhiro; Ohto, M

    2012-01-01

    Recently, permanent magnet type synchronous motor has been used widely for industry application. In the paper, we propose a novel self-start type permanent magnet synchronous motor with squirrel-cage and analyze the basic characteristics of the motor. We try to increase the efficiency by the rotor design with the finite element analysis.

  16. Finding Basic Writing's Place.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan-Rabideau, Mary P.; Brossell, Gordon

    1995-01-01

    Posits that basic writing serves a vital function by providing writing support for at-risk students and serves the needs of a growing student population that universities accept yet feel needs additional writing instruction. Concludes that the basic writing classroom is the most effective educational support for at-risk students and their writing.…

  17. Biomass Energy Basics | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomass Energy Basics Biomass Energy Basics We have used biomass energy, or "bioenergy" keep warm. Wood is still the largest biomass energy resource today, but other sources of biomass can landfills (which are methane, the main component in natural gas) can be used as a biomass energy source. A

  18. Wind Energy Basics | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind Energy Basics Wind Energy Basics We have been harnessing the wind's energy for hundreds of grinding grain. Today, the windmill's modern equivalent-a wind turbine can use the wind's energy to most energy. At 100 feet (30 meters) or more aboveground, they can take advantage of the faster and

  19. Solar Energy Basics | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solar Energy Basics Solar Energy Basics Solar is the Latin word for sun-a powerful source of energy that can be used to heat, cool, and light our homes and businesses. That's because more energy from the technologies convert sunlight to usable energy for buildings. The most commonly used solar technologies for

  20. Learning Visual Basic NET

    CERN Document Server

    Liberty, Jesse

    2009-01-01

    Learning Visual Basic .NET is a complete introduction to VB.NET and object-oriented programming. By using hundreds of examples, this book demonstrates how to develop various kinds of applications--including those that work with databases--and web services. Learning Visual Basic .NET will help you build a solid foundation in .NET.

  1. Health Insurance Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Health Insurance Basics KidsHealth / For Teens / Health Insurance Basics What's ... thought advanced calculus was confusing. What Exactly Is Health Insurance? Health insurance is a plan that people buy ...

  2. Body Basics Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Body Basics articles explain just how each body system, part, and process works. Use this medical library to find out about basic human anatomy, how ... Teeth Skin, Hair, and Nails Spleen and Lymphatic System ... Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for ...

  3. Preservice Agricultural Education Teachers' Mathematics Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stripling, Christopher T.; Roberts, T. Grady

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the mathematics ability of the nation's preservice agricultural education teachers. Based on the results of this study, preservice teachers were not proficient in solving agricultural mathematics problems, and agricultural teacher education programs require basic and intermediate mathematics as their…

  4. Electric motor handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Chalmers, B J

    2013-01-01

    Electric Motor Handbook aims to give practical knowledge in a wide range of capacities such as plant design, equipment specification, commissioning, operation and maintenance. The book covers topics such as the modeling of steady-state motor performance; polyphase induction, synchronous, and a.c. commutator motors; ambient conditions, enclosures, cooling and loss dissipation; and electrical supply systems and motor drives. Also covered are topics such as variable-speed drives and motor control; materials and motor components; insulation types, systems, and techniques; and the installation, sit

  5. Retrospectively Assessed Early Motor and Current Pragmatic Language Skills in Autistic and Neurotypical Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Jennifer L; Lindley, Caitlin E; Murlo, Nicole

    2017-08-01

    Autistic individuals often struggle developmentally, even in areas that are not explicit diagnostic criteria, such as motor skills. This study explored the relation between early motor skills, assessed retrospectively, and current pragmatic language skills. Caregivers of neurotypical and autistic children, matched on gender and age, completed assessments of their child's early motor development and current language abilities. Early motor skills were correlated with later pragmatic language skills, and autistic children exhibited fewer motor skills than neurotypical children. In fact, motor skills were a better predictor of an autism spectrum diagnosis than were scores on a measure of current pragmatic language. These results highlight the important role of motor skills in autism spectrum disorders.

  6. The Basic Writer as Reluctant Oralist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Victor

    By identifying speculations concerning cognitive abilities and cognition's relation to culture, this paper outlines some of the work surrounding basic writers and speaking-writing relationships. Beginning with a discussion of the differences between speaking and writing popularized by Mina Shaughnessy, the paper goes on to examine studies that…

  7. From basic needs to basic rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facio, A

    1995-06-01

    After arriving at an understanding that basic rights refer to all human needs, it is clear that a recognition of the basic needs of female humans must precede the realization of their rights. The old Women in Development (WID) framework only understood women's needs from an androcentric perspective which was limited to practical interests. Instead, women's primary need is to be free from their subordination to men. Such an understanding places all of women's immediate needs in a new light. A human rights approach to development would see women not as beneficiaries but as people entitled to enjoy the benefits of development. Discussion of what equality before the law should mean to women began at the Third World Conference on Women in Nairobi where the issue of violence against women was first linked to development. While debate continues about the distinction between civil and political rights and economic, social, and cultural rights, the realities of women's lives do not permit such a distinction. The concept of the universality of human rights did not become codified until the UN proclaimed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948. The declaration has been criticized by feminists because the view of human rights it embodies has been too strongly influenced by a liberal Western philosophy which stresses individual rights and because it is ambiguous on the distinction between human rights and the rights of a citizen. The protection of rights afforded by the Declaration, however, should not be viewed as a final achievement but as an ongoing struggle. International conferences have led to an analysis of the human-rights approach to sustainable development which concludes that women continue to face the routine denial of their rights. Each human right must be redefined from the perspective of women's needs, which must also be redefined. Women must forego challenging the concept of the universality of human rights in order to overcome the argument of cultural

  8. Basic rocks in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piirainen, T.; Gehoer, S.; Iljina, M.; Kaerki, A.; Paakkola, J.; Vuollo, J.

    1992-10-01

    Basic igneous rocks, containing less than 52% SiO 2 , constitute an important part of the Finnish Archaean and Proterozoic crust. In the Archaean crust exist two units which contain the majority of the basic rocks. The Arcaean basic rocks are metavolcanics and situated in the Greenstone Belts of Eastern Finland. They are divided into two units. The greenstones of the lower one are tholeiites, komatiites and basaltic komatiites. The upper consists of bimodal series of volcanics and the basic rocks of which are Fe-tholeiites, basaltic komatiites and komatiites. Proterozoic basic rocks are divided into seven groups according to their ages. The Proterozoic igneous activity started by the volominous basic magmatism 2.44 Ga ago. During this stage formed the layered intrusions and related dykes in the Northern Finland. 2.2 Ga old basic rocks are situated at the margins of Karelian formations. 2.1 Ga aged Fe-tholeiitic magmatic activity is widespread in Eastern and Northern Finland. The basic rocks of 1.97 Ga age group are met within the Karelian Schist Belts as obducted ophiolite complexes but they occur also as tholeiitic diabase dykes cutting the Karelian schists and Archean basement. The intrusions and the volcanics of the 1.9 Ga old basic igneous activity are mostly encountered around the Granitoid Complex of Central Finland. Subjotnian, 1.6 Ga aged tholeiitic diabases are situated around the Rapakivi massifs of Southern Finland, and postjotnian, 1.2 Ga diabases in Western Finland where they form dykes cutting Svecofennian rocks

  9. Spinal Metaplasticity in Respiratory Motor Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon S Mitchell

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A hallmark feature of the neural system controlling breathing is its ability to exhibit plasticity. Less appreciated is the ability to exhibit metaplasticity, a change in the capacity to express plasticity (ie. plastic plasticity. Recent advances in our understanding of cellular mechanisms giving rise to respiratory motor plasticity lay the groundwork for (ongoing investigations of metaplasticity. This detailed understanding of respiratory metaplasticity will be essential as we harness metaplasticity to restore breathing capacity in clinical disorders that compromise breathing, such as cervical spinal injury, motor neuron disease and other neuromuscular diseases. In this brief review, we discuss key examples of metaplasticity in respiratory motor control, and our current understanding of mechanisms giving rise to spinal plasticity and metaplasticity in phrenic motor output; particularly after pre-conditioning with intermittent hypoxia. Progress in this area has led to the realization that similar mechanisms are operative in other spinal motor networks, including those governing limb movement. Further, these mechanisms can be harnessed to restore respiratory and non-respiratory motor function after spinal injury.

  10. Quantum electronics basic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Fain, V M; Sanders, J H

    1969-01-01

    Quantum Electronics, Volume 1: Basic Theory is a condensed and generalized description of the many research and rapid progress done on the subject. It is translated from the Russian language. The volume describes the basic theory of quantum electronics, and shows how the concepts and equations followed in quantum electronics arise from the basic principles of theoretical physics. The book then briefly discusses the interaction of an electromagnetic field with matter. The text also covers the quantum theory of relaxation process when a quantum system approaches an equilibrium state, and explai

  11. Basic stress analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Iremonger, M J

    1982-01-01

    BASIC Stress Analysis aims to help students to become proficient at BASIC programming by actually using it in an important engineering subject. It also enables the student to use computing as a means of learning stress analysis because writing a program is analogous to teaching-it is necessary to understand the subject matter. The book begins by introducing the BASIC approach and the concept of stress analysis at first- and second-year undergraduate level. Subsequent chapters contain a summary of relevant theory, worked examples containing computer programs, and a set of problems. Topics c

  12. Motor Learning as Young Gymnast's Talent Indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Cagno, Alessandra; Battaglia, Claudia; Fiorilli, Giovanni; Piazza, Marina; Giombini, Arrigo; Fagnani, Federica; Borrione, Paolo; Calcagno, Giuseppe; Pigozzi, Fabio

    2014-12-01

    Talent identification plans are designed to select young athletes with the ability to achieve future success in sports. The aim of the study was to verify the predictive value of coordination and precision in skill acquisition during motor learning, as indicators of talent. One hundred gymnasts, both cadets (aged 11.5 ± 0.5 yr.) and juniors (aged 13.3 ± 0.5 years), competing at the national level, were enrolled in the study. The assessment of motor coordination involved three tests of the validated Hirtz's battery (1985), and motor skill learning involved four technical tests, specific of rhythmic gymnastics. All the tests were correlated with ranking and performance scores reached by each gymnast in the 2011, 2012, and 2013 National Championships. Coordination tests were significantly correlated to 2013 Championships scores (p talent identification and selection procedures it is better to include the evaluation of coordination and motor learning ability.Motor learning assessment concerns performance improvement and the ability to develop it, rather than evaluating the athlete's current performance.In this manner talent identification processes should be focused on the future performance capabilities of athletes.

  13. Interacting adiabatic quantum motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruch, Anton; Kusminskiy, Silvia Viola; Refael, Gil; von Oppen, Felix

    2018-05-01

    We present a field-theoretic treatment of an adiabatic quantum motor. We explicitly discuss a motor called the Thouless motor which is based on a Thouless pump operating in reverse. When a sliding periodic potential is considered to be the motor degree of freedom, a bias voltage applied to the electron channel sets the motor in motion. We investigate a Thouless motor whose electron channel is modeled as a Luttinger liquid. Interactions increase the gap opened by the periodic potential. For an infinite Luttinger liquid the coupling-induced friction is enhanced by electron-electron interactions. When the Luttinger liquid is ultimately coupled to Fermi liquid reservoirs, the dissipation reduces to its value for a noninteracting electron system for a constant motor velocity. Our results can also be applied to a motor based on a nanomagnet coupled to a quantum spin Hall edge.

  14. Chronic motor tic disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic vocal tic disorder; Tic - chronic motor tic disorder ... Chronic motor tic disorder is more common than Tourette syndrome . Chronic tics may be forms of Tourette syndrome. Tics usually start ...

  15. Retrograde Neuroanatomical Tracing of Phrenic Motor Neurons in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandeweerd, Jean-Michel; Hontoir, Fanny; De Knoop, Alexis; De Swert, Kathleen; Nicaise, Charles

    2018-02-22

    Phrenic motor neurons are cervical motor neurons originating from C3 to C6 levels in most mammalian species. Axonal projections converge into phrenic nerves innervating the respiratory diaphragm. In spinal cord slices, phrenic motor neurons cannot be identified from other motor neurons on morphological or biochemical criteria. We provide the description of procedures for visualizing phrenic motor neuron cell bodies in mice, following intrapleural injections of cholera toxin subunit beta (CTB) conjugated to a fluorophore. This fluorescent neuroanatomical tracer has the ability to be caught up at the diaphragm neuromuscular junction, be carried retrogradely along the phrenic axons and reach the phrenic cell bodies. Two methodological approaches of intrapleural CTB delivery are compared: transdiaphragmatic versus transthoracic injections. Both approaches are successful and result in similar number of CTB-labeled phrenic motor neurons. In conclusion, these techniques can be applied to visualize or quantify the phrenic motor neurons in various experimental studies such as those focused on the diaphragm-phrenic circuitry.

  16. Motor abilities, movement skills and their relationship before and after eight weeks of martial arts training in people with intellectual disability [Motorické schopnosti, pohybové dovednosti a vztah mezi nimi u osob s mentálním postižením před osmitýdenním kurzem bojových umění a po jeho ukončení

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Karpljuk

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A part of the population of people with intellectual disability is historically inclined to obesity and in a poorer health condition. That is the reason why sport should play an important role in their lives. Designing scientifically and professionally valid training programmes, consisting of the necessary methodology and didactical instructions for sport engagement of people with intellectual disability, is not only a challenge but has become a necessity for the near future. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to establish a correlation between selected motor abilities and motor skills of martial arts as well as how and to what extent a group of people with intellectual disability (ID who regularly practice Gan (inclusive judo can achieve progress in their martial arts skills (judo, karate, boxing and fencing after an eight-week training programme. We were also interested in whether there were any changes in selected motor abilities. METHODS: Measurement of motor abilities and selected martial art skills was conducted twice: in March 2008, one week before the eight-week training started, and in May 2008, one week after it had been completed. The training programme lasted for two months, with two sessions per week. The sample of subjects comprised 5 women and 18 men aged between 16 and 36, with mild and moderate intellectual disability. The study was conducted using 8 tests to assess motor abilities and 9 tests to assess martial art skills. RESULTS: The results of a t-test for dependent samples showed statistically significant differences between the initial and final measurements in seven tests of motor abilities and eight tests of martial arts skills, while a significant correlation was found between the overall average score of martial arts and results of seven motor ability tests in the initial and five in the final measurement. CONCLUSSIONS: After the training process positive changes in motor abilities and motor skills of Gan

  17. Motor Skill Assessment in Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Breslin, Casey M.; ElGarhy, Sayed

    2017-01-01

    Without proper motor assessment, children with autism spectrum disorder may be placed in educational settings that are inappropriate for their motor abilities. However, many practitioners find it challenging to choose which assessment to use to assess these children, especially with the number of instruments available. The purpose of this study…

  18. Gross Motor Skill Acquisition in Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meegan, Sarah; Maraj, Brian K. V.; Weeks, Daniel; Chua, Romeo

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether verbal-motor performances deficits exhibited by individuals with Down syndrome limited their ability to acquire gross motor skills when given visual and verbal instruction together and then transferred to either a visual or verbal instructional mode to reproduce the movement. Nine individuals with…

  19. THE INFLUENCE OF CERTAIN TESTS FOR EVALUATING THE ANTROPOMETRIC, MOTOR AND SPECIFIC MOTOR DIMENSIONS ON THE ELEMENTS OF THE ATTACK IN SPORT KARATE FIGHTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žarko Kostovski

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The research involved 48 participants - top male karate competitors, juniors from karate clubs from Republic of Macedonia. The subject of this research are the defining elements of karate attack in sports karate fighting, and the basic aim is to establish the influence of anthropometric, motor and specific motor dimensions on the karate elements that use in sport karate fighting. In the research were used 36 variables: 4 antropomotorical variables, 4 variables for estimate on the explosive strength, 4 variables for estimate on the segmentary speed (movement frequency, 12 variables of the specific karate elements used in the sport karate fighting and 12 variables for estimate on the specifically karate abilities in 3 motor space: 4 variables for estimate on the specific karate coordination, 4 variables for estimate on the specific karate precision and 4 variables for estimate on the specific karate balance, which are predictive system of variables. The criterion set of variables of this research are represented by 4 karate elements which define the attack in sports karate fighting. From the received results was determined existing of groups in the different spaces of the treated variables and influence of the predictive system of variables on the criterion set of variables

  20. Piezoelectric Motors, an Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Karl Spanner; Burhanettin Koc

    2016-01-01

    Piezoelectric motors are used in many industrial and commercial applications. Various piezoelectric motors are available in the market. All of the piezoelectric motors use the inverse piezoelectric effect, where microscopically small oscillatory motions are converted into continuous or stepping rotary or linear motions. Methods of obtaining long moving distance have various drive and functional principles that make these motors categorized into three groups: resonance-drive (piezoelectric ult...

  1. Basic Financial Accounting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiborg, Karsten

    This textbook on Basic Financial Accounting is targeted students in the economics studies at universities and business colleges having an introductory subject in the external dimension of the company's economic reporting, including bookkeeping, etc. The book includes the following subjects...

  2. HIV Treatment: The Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS Drugs Clinical Trials Apps skip to content HIV Treatment Home Understanding HIV/AIDS Fact Sheets HIV ... 4 p.m. ET) Send us an email HIV Treatment: The Basics Last Reviewed: March 22, 2018 ...

  3. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... How Peer Counseling Works Julie Gassaway, MS, RN Pediatric Injuries Pediatric Spinal Cord Injury 101 Lawrence Vogel, MD The Basics of Pediatric SCI Rehabilitation Sara Klaas, MSW Transitions for Children ...

  4. Powassan (POW) Virus Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Professionals Related Topics For International Travelers Powassan Virus Disease Basics Download this fact sheet formatted for ... Virus Disease Fact Sheet (PDF) What is Powassan virus? Powassan virus is a tickborne flavivirus that is ...

  5. Brain Basics: Understanding Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You are here Home » Disorders » Patient & Caregiver Education Brain Basics: Understanding Sleep Anatomy of Sleep Sleep Stages ... t form or maintain the pathways in your brain that let you learn and create new memories, ...

  6. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics The Basics of ... injury? What is a Spinal Cord Injury? SCI Medical Experts People Living With SCI Personal Experiences By ...

  7. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David ...

  8. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... RN Pediatric Injuries Pediatric Spinal Cord Injury 101 Lawrence Vogel, MD The Basics of Pediatric SCI Rehabilitation ... Rogers, PT Recreational Therapy after Spinal Cord Injury Jennifer Piatt, PhD Kristine Cichowski, MS Read Bio Founding ...

  9. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 ...

  10. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Spinal Cord Injury 101 Lawrence Vogel, MD The Basics of Pediatric SCI Rehabilitation Sara Klaas, MSW Transitions for Children with Spinal Cord Injury Patricia Mucia, RN Family Life After Pediatric Spinal Injury Dawn Sheaffer, MSW Rehabilitation ...

  11. Physical Activity Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Physical Activity Basics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir How much physical activity do you need? Regular physical activity helps improve ...

  12. Radionuclide Basics: Iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Centers Radiation Protection Contact Us Share Radionuclide Basics: Iodine Iodine (chemical symbol I) is a chemical element. ... in the environment Iodine sources Iodine and health Iodine in the Environment All 37 isotopes of iodine ...

  13. Electric Motor Thermal Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennion, Kevin S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Thermal management enables more efficient and cost-effective motors. This Annual Merit Review presentation describes the technical accomplishments and progress in electric motor thermal management R&D over the last year. This project supports a broad industry demand for data, analysis methods, and experimental techniques to improve and better understand motor thermal management.

  14. Programmable dc motor controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, J. E.

    1982-11-01

    A portable programmable dc motor controller, with features not available on commercial instruments was developed for controlling fixtures during welding processes. The controller can be used to drive any dc motor having tachometer feedback and motor requirements not exceeding 30 volts, 3 amperes. Among the controller's features are delayed start time, upslope time, speed, and downslope time.

  15. Basic Finite Element Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byeong Hae

    1992-02-01

    This book gives descriptions of basic finite element method, which includes basic finite element method and data, black box, writing of data, definition of VECTOR, definition of matrix, matrix and multiplication of matrix, addition of matrix, and unit matrix, conception of hardness matrix like spring power and displacement, governed equation of an elastic body, finite element method, Fortran method and programming such as composition of computer, order of programming and data card and Fortran card, finite element program and application of nonelastic problem.

  16. Development NGOs: Basic Facts

    OpenAIRE

    Aldashev, Gani; Navarra, Cecilia

    2017-01-01

    This paper systematizes the results of the empirical literature on development non-governmental organizations (NGOs), drawing both from quantitative and qualitative analyses, and constructs a set of basic facts about these organizations. These basic facts concern the size of the development NGO sector and its evolution, the funding of NGOs, the allocation of NGO aid and projects across beneficiary countries, the relationship of NGOs with beneficiaries, and the phenomenon of globalization of d...

  17. ASPECTS OF MOTOR DEVELOPMENT IN CHILDREN WITH CEREBRAL PALSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erna Žgur

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Child’s motor development is not an isolated process but it rather involves numerous other developmental aspects, such as cognitive and conative. The research is focused on defining the developmental principles of motor abilities and skills in children with prominent motor deficits who were diagnosed with cerebral palsy (CP. The research compares the motor maturity between two groups of children with CP; the younger group (up to 10 years of age and the older group (10 – 16 years of age. The research included 78 primary school children with different forms of CP (diplegia, hemiplegia, mixed forms, aged between 6 and 16. The discriminant analysis used in the research showed that there is a statistically significant relationship between age and motor maturity in children with CP. The structural matrix confirmed the different hierarchical representation of the motor components (strength, coordination, precision and graphomotor skills for the selected motor model, in relation to children’s age. The function of explosive strength showed significant differences between younger and older children as regards their motor maturity. We can conclude that there is a significant developmental difference between the groups of younger and older children with CP, in relation to their motor maturity (different hierarchical representation, with the most obvious difference in motor ability of explosive strength.

  18. The Knockout of Secretin in Cerebellar Purkinje Cells Impairs Mouse Motor Coordination and Motor Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Chung, Sookja Kim; Chow, Billy Kwok Chong

    2014-01-01

    Secretin (SCT) was first considered to be a gut hormone regulating gastrointestinal functions when discovered. Recently, however, central actions of SCT have drawn intense research interest and are supported by the broad distribution of SCT in specific neuronal populations and by in vivo physiological studies regarding its role in water homeostasis and food intake. The direct action of SCT on a central neuron was first discovered in cerebellar Purkinje cells in which SCT from cerebellar Purkinje cells was found to potentiate GABAergic inhibitory transmission from presynaptic basket cells. Because Purkinje neurons have a major role in motor coordination and learning functions, we hypothesize a behavioral modulatory function for SCT. In this study, we successfully generated a mouse model in which the SCT gene was deleted specifically in Purkinje cells. This mouse line was tested together with SCT knockout and SCT receptor knockout mice in a full battery of behavioral tasks. We found that the knockout of SCT in Purkinje neurons did not affect general motor ability or the anxiety level in open field tests. However, knockout mice did exhibit impairments in neuromuscular strength, motor coordination, and motor learning abilities, as shown by wire hanging, vertical climbing, and rotarod tests. In addition, SCT knockout in Purkinje cells possibly led to the delayed development of motor neurons, as supported by the later occurrence of key neural reflexes. In summary, our data suggest a role in motor coordination and motor learning for SCT expressed in cerebellar Purkinje cells. PMID:24356714

  19. Improving Motor and Drive System Performance – A Sourcebook for Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-02-01

    This sourcebook outlines opportunities to improve motor and drive systems performance. The sourcebook is divided into four main sections: (1) Motor and Drive System Basics: Summarizes important terms, relationships, and system design considerations relating to motor and drive systems. (2) Performance Opportunity Road Map: Details the key components of well-functioning motor and drive systems and opportunities for energy performance opportunities. (3) Motor System Economics: Offers recommendations on how to propose improvement projects based on corporate priorities, efficiency gains, and financial payback periods. (4) Where to Find Help: Provides a directory of organizations associated with motors and drives, as well as resources for additional information, tools, software, videos, and training opportunities.

  20. Motor Gasoline Market Model documentation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Motor Gasoline Market Model (MGMM), describe its basic approach and to provide detail on model functions. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the general public. The MGMM performs a short-term (6- to 9-month) forecast of demand and price for motor gasoline in the US market; it also calculates end of month stock levels. The model is used to analyze certain market behavior assumptions or shocks and to determine the effect on market price, demand and stock level

  1. Parkinson’s disease motor disorganization and temporal processing

    OpenAIRE

    Florio, Tiziana M.

    2017-01-01

    Motor control is essential for everyday life and highly contributes to the development and organisation of higher cognitive functions. Embodied cognition endemically approaches cognitive activities, grounding on sensory-motor processes and the ability to switch from each other in response to specific context and situations. In this view, it is possible to deliberate higher functions such as “expertise” and “decision making” as the ability to reactivate, deconstruct and reconstruct different m...

  2. Measuring Creative Imagery Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota M. Jankowska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the decades, creativity and imagination research developed in parallel, but they surprisingly rarely intersected. This paper introduces a new theoretical model of creative imagination, which bridges creativity and imagination research, as well as presents a new psychometric instrument, called the Test of Creative Imagery Abilities (TCIA, developed to measure creative imagery abilities understood in accordance with this model. Creative imagination is understood as constituted by three interrelated components: vividness (the ability to create images characterized by a high level of complexity and detail, originality (the ability to produce unique imagery, and transformativeness (the ability to control imagery. TCIA enables valid and reliable measurement of these three groups of abilities, yielding the general score of imagery abilities and at the same time making profile analysis possible. We present the results of eight studies on a total sample of more than 1,700 participants, showing the factor structure of TCIA using confirmatory factor analysis, as well as provide data confirming this instrument’s validity and reliability. The availability of TCIA for interested researchers may result in new insights and possibilities of integrating the fields of creativity and imagination science.

  3. Motor/generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickam, Christopher Dale [Glasford, IL

    2008-05-13

    A motor/generator is provided for connecting between a transmission input shaft and an output shaft of a prime mover. The motor/generator may include a motor/generator housing, a stator mounted to the motor/generator housing, a rotor mounted at least partially within the motor/generator housing and rotatable about a rotor rotation axis, and a transmission-shaft coupler drivingly coupled to the rotor. The transmission-shaft coupler may include a clamp, which may include a base attached to the rotor and a plurality of adjustable jaws.

  4. Auditory and motor imagery modulate learning in music performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M. Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Skilled performers such as athletes or musicians can improve their performance by imagining the actions or sensory outcomes associated with their skill. Performers vary widely in their auditory and motor imagery abilities, and these individual differences influence sensorimotor learning. It is unknown whether imagery abilities influence both memory encoding and retrieval. We examined how auditory and motor imagery abilities influence musicians’ encoding (during Learning, as they practiced novel melodies, and retrieval (during Recall of those melodies. Pianists learned melodies by listening without performing (auditory learning or performing without sound (motor learning; following Learning, pianists performed the melodies from memory with auditory feedback (Recall. During either Learning (Experiment 1 or Recall (Experiment 2, pianists experienced either auditory interference, motor interference, or no interference. Pitch accuracy (percentage of correct pitches produced and temporal regularity (variability of quarter-note interonset intervals were measured at Recall. Independent tests measured auditory and motor imagery skills. Pianists’ pitch accuracy was higher following auditory learning than following motor learning and lower in motor interference conditions (Experiments 1 and 2. Both auditory and motor imagery skills improved pitch accuracy overall. Auditory imagery skills modulated pitch accuracy encoding (Experiment 1: Higher auditory imagery skill corresponded to higher pitch accuracy following auditory learning with auditory or motor interference, and following motor learning with motor or no interference. These findings suggest that auditory imagery abilities decrease vulnerability to interference and compensate for missing auditory feedback at encoding. Auditory imagery skills also influenced temporal regularity at retrieval (Experiment 2: Higher auditory imagery skill predicted greater temporal regularity during Recall in the

  5. Piezoelectric Motors, an Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Spanner

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric motors are used in many industrial and commercial applications. Various piezoelectric motors are available in the market. All of the piezoelectric motors use the inverse piezoelectric effect, where microscopically small oscillatory motions are converted into continuous or stepping rotary or linear motions. Methods of obtaining long moving distance have various drive and functional principles that make these motors categorized into three groups: resonance-drive (piezoelectric ultrasonic motors, inertia-drive, and piezo-walk-drive. In this review, a comprehensive summary of piezoelectric motors, with their classification from initial idea to recent progress, is presented. This review also includes some of the industrial and commercial applications of piezoelectric motors that are presently available in the market as actuators.

  6. Motor degradation prediction methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, J.R.; Kelly, J.F.; Delzingaro, M.J.

    1996-12-01

    Motor Operated Valve (MOV) squirrel cage AC motor rotors are susceptible to degradation under certain conditions. Premature failure can result due to high humidity/temperature environments, high running load conditions, extended periods at locked rotor conditions (i.e. > 15 seconds) or exceeding the motor`s duty cycle by frequent starts or multiple valve stroking. Exposure to high heat and moisture due to packing leaks, pressure seal ring leakage or other causes can significantly accelerate the degradation. ComEd and Liberty Technologies have worked together to provide and validate a non-intrusive method using motor power diagnostics to evaluate MOV rotor condition and predict failure. These techniques have provided a quick, low radiation dose method to evaluate inaccessible motors, identify degradation and allow scheduled replacement of motors prior to catastrophic failures.

  7. Girls underestimate maths ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    A study by psychologists in the US has found that high-school girls rate their competence in mathematics lower than boys, even for those with similar abilities (Front. Psychol. 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00386).

  8. Heat Transfer Basics and Practice

    CERN Document Server

    Böckh, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The book provides an easy way to understand the fundamentals of heat transfer. The reader will acquire the ability to design and analyze heat exchangers. Without extensive derivation of the fundamentals, the latest correlations for heat transfer coefficients and their application are discussed. The following topics are presented - Steady state and transient heat conduction - Free and forced convection - Finned surfaces - Condensation and boiling - Radiation - Heat exchanger design - Problem-solving After introducing the basic terminology, the reader is made familiar with the different mechanisms of heat transfer. Their practical application is demonstrated in examples, which are available in the Internet as MathCad files for further use. Tables of material properties and formulas for their use in programs are included in the appendix. This book will serve as a valuable resource for both students and engineers in the industry. The author’s experience indicates that students, after 40 lectures and exercises ...

  9. Motor learning in animal models of Parkinson's disease: Aberrant synaptic plasticity in the motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tonghui; Wang, Shaofang; Lalchandani, Rupa R; Ding, Jun B

    2017-04-01

    In Parkinson's disease (PD), dopamine depletion causes major changes in the brain, resulting in the typical cardinal motor features of the disease. PD neuropathology has been restricted to postmortem examinations, which are limited to only a single time of PD progression. Models of PD in which dopamine tone in the brain is chemically or physically disrupted are valuable tools in understanding the mechanisms of the disease. The basal ganglia have been well studied in the context of PD, and circuit changes in response to dopamine loss have been linked to the motor dysfunctions in PD. However, the etiology of the cognitive dysfunctions that are comorbid in PD patients has remained unclear until now. In this article, we review recent studies exploring how dopamine depletion affects the motor cortex at the synaptic level. In particular, we highlight our recent findings on abnormal spine dynamics in the motor cortex of PD mouse models through in vivo time-lapse imaging and motor skill behavior assays. In combination with previous studies, a role of the motor cortex in skill learning and the impairment of this ability with the loss of dopamine are becoming more apparent. Taken together, we conclude with a discussion on the potential role for the motor cortex in PD, with the possibility of targeting the motor cortex for future PD therapeutics. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  10. Biokinematic structure of techniques wrestlers during pre-basic training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Sinіgovets

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical aspects of freestyle wrestlers. Experimentally investigated the structural elements of techniques during pre-basic training. The study involved 28 young fighters. Held video computer analysis techniques. Identified biomechanical characteristics defined kinematic structure of the temporal and spatial-temporal characteristics of the basic techniques. Shown variability of the individual phases of the basic techniques. Structural dynamics of the resulting velocities of the individual body bioelement fighters showed characteristic changes depending on the mode and direction of the motor action. Found that the predominant contribution to the biokinematic structure of technical actions were resulting velocities torso of young fighters.

  11. Online maintenance of sensory and motor representations: effects on corticospinal excitability.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurk, P. van den; Mars, R.B.; Elswijk, G.A.F. van; Hegeman, J.; Pasman, J.W.; Bloem, B.R.; Toni, I.

    2007-01-01

    Flexible behavior requires the ability to delay a response until it is appropriate. This can be achieved by holding either a sensory or a motor representation online. Here we assess whether maintenance of sensory or motor material drives the motor system to different functional states, as indexed by

  12. Online maintenance of sensory and motor representations: Effects on corticospinal excitability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurk, P.A.M. van den; Mars, R.B.; Elswijk, G.A.F. van; Hegeman, J.; Pasman, J.W.; Bloem, B.R.; Toni, I.

    2007-01-01

    Flexible behavior requires the ability to delay a response until it is appropriate. This can be achieved by holding either a sensory or a motor representation online. Here we assess whether maintenance of sensory or motor material drives the motor system to different functional states, as indexed by

  13. eGFP expression under the Uchl1 promoter labels corticospinal motor neurons and a subpopulation of degeneration resistant spinal motor neurons in ALS mouse models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasvoina, Marina V.

    Current understanding of basic cellular and molecular mechanisms for motor neuron vulnerability during motor neuron disease initiation and progression is incomplete. The complex cytoarchitecture and cellular heterogeneity of the cortex and spinal cord greatly impedes our ability to visualize, isolate, and study specific neuron populations in both healthy and diseased states. We generated a novel reporter line, the Uchl1-eGFP mouse, in which cortical and spinal components of motor neuron circuitry are genetically labeled with eGFP under the Uchl1 promoter. A series of cellular and anatomical analyses combined with retrograde labeling, molecular marker expression, and electrophysiology were employed to determine identity of eGFP expressing cells in the motor cortex and the spinal cord of novel Uchl1-eGFP reporter mice. We conclude that eGFP is expressed in corticospinal motor neurons (CSMN) in the motor cortex and a subset of S-type alpha and gamma spinal motor neurons (SMN) in the spinal cord. hSOD1G93A and Alsin-/- mice, mouse models for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), were bred to Uchl1-eGFP reporter mouse line to investigate the pathophysiology and underlying mechanisms of CSMN degeneration in vivo. Evidence suggests early and progressive degeneration of CSMN and SMN in the hSOD1G93A transgenic mice. We show an early increase of autophagosome formation in the apical dendrites of vulnerable CSMN in hSOD1G93A-UeGFP mice, which is localized to the apical dendrites. In addition, labeling S-type alpha and gamma SMN in the hSOD1G93A-UeGFP mice provide a unique opportunity to study basis of their resistance to degeneration. Mice lacking alsin show moderate clinical phenotype and mild CSMN axon degeneration in the spinal cord, which suggests vulnerability of CSMN. Therefore, we investigated the CSMN cellular and axon defects in aged Alsin-/- mice bred to Uchl1-eGFP reporter mouse line. We show that while CSMN are preserved and lack signs of degeneration, CSMN axons

  14. The challenges of dysphagia in treating motor neurone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesey, Siobhan

    2017-07-01

    Motor neurone disease (MND) is a relatively rare degenerative disorder. Its impacts are manifested in progressive loss of motor function and often accompanied by wider non-motor changes. Swallowing and speech abilities are frequently severely impaired. Effective management of dysphagia (swallowing difficulty) symptoms and nutritional care requires a holistic multidisciplinary approach. Care must be patient focused, facilitate patient decision making, and support planning towards end of life care. This article discusses the challenges of providing effective nutritional care to people living with motor neurone disease who have dysphagia.

  15. Basic Electromagnetism and Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Moliton, André

    2007-01-01

    Basic Electromagnetism and Materials is the product of many years of teaching basic and applied electromagnetism. This textbook can be used to teach electromagnetism to a wide range of undergraduate science majors in physics, electrical engineering or materials science. However, by making lesser demands on mathematical knowledge than competing texts, and by emphasizing electromagnetic properties of materials and their applications, this textbook is uniquely suited to students of materials science. Many competing texts focus on the study of propagation waves either in the microwave or optical domain, whereas Basic Electromagnetism and Materials covers the entire electromagnetic domain and the physical response of materials to these waves. Professor André Moliton is Director of the Unité de Microélectronique, Optoélectronique et Polymères (Université de Limoges, France), which brings together three groups studying the optoelectronics of molecular and polymer layers, micro-optoelectronic systems for teleco...

  16. Basic properties of semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Landsberg, PT

    2013-01-01

    Since Volume 1 was published in 1982, the centres of interest in the basic physics of semiconductors have shifted. Volume 1 was called Band Theory and Transport Properties in the first edition, but the subject has broadened to such an extent that Basic Properties is now a more suitable title. Seven chapters have been rewritten by the original authors. However, twelve chapters are essentially new, with the bulk of this work being devoted to important current topics which give this volume an almost encyclopaedic form. The first three chapters discuss various aspects of modern band theory and the

  17. Basic set theory

    CERN Document Server

    Levy, Azriel

    2002-01-01

    An advanced-level treatment of the basics of set theory, this text offers students a firm foundation, stopping just short of the areas employing model-theoretic methods. Geared toward upper-level undergraduate and graduate students, it consists of two parts: the first covers pure set theory, including the basic motions, order and well-foundedness, cardinal numbers, the ordinals, and the axiom of choice and some of it consequences; the second deals with applications and advanced topics such as point set topology, real spaces, Boolean algebras, and infinite combinatorics and large cardinals. An

  18. Comprehensive basic mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Veena, GR

    2005-01-01

    Salient Features As per II PUC Basic Mathematics syllabus of Karnataka. Provides an introduction to various basic mathematical techniques and the situations where these could be usefully employed. The language is simple and the material is self-explanatory with a large number of illustrations. Assists the reader in gaining proficiency to solve diverse variety of problems. A special capsule containing a gist and list of formulae titled ''REMEMBER! Additional chapterwise arranged question bank and 3 model papers in a separate section---''EXAMINATION CORNER''.

  19. Ecology and basic laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer-Tasch, P.C.

    1980-01-01

    The author sketches the critical relation between ecology and basic law - critical in more than one sense. He points out the incompatibility of constitutional states and atomic states which is due to constitutional order being jeopardised by nuclear policy. He traces back the continuously rising awareness of pollution and the modern youth movement to their common root i.e. the awakening, the youth movement of the turn of the century. Eventually, he considers an economical, political, and social decentralization as a feasible alternative which would considerably relieve our basic living conditions from the threatening forms of civilization prevailing. (HSCH) [de

  20. Actual motor performance and self-perceived motor competence in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder compared with healthy siblings and peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliers, Ellen A; de Hoog, Marieke L A; Franke, Barbara; Faraone, Stephen V; Rommelse, Nanda N J; Buitelaar, Jan K; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W G

    2010-01-01

    : Children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently experience comorbid motor problems, developmental coordination disorder. Also, children with ADHD are said to overestimate their abilities in the cognitive and social domain, the so-called "Positive Illusory Bias." In this cross-sectional study, the relationship between actual motor performance and perceived motor competence was examined. Motor performance was assessed using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children in 100 children and adolescents (age 6-17 years), including 32 children with ADHD combined type, 18 unaffected siblings, and 50 healthy control children. ADHD was diagnosed using Parent and Teacher questionnaires and a clinical interview. Perceived motor competence and interest in the motor domain were rated with the Dutch supplement scale to Harters' Self-Perception Profile for Children, especially focusing on the motor domain (m-CBSK). Children with ADHD had poorer motor performance than unaffected siblings and control children, especially in the field of manual dexterity. However, no relationship was found between motor performance and perceived motor competence. Only children with the very lowest motor performance had a significantly lowered perception of their motor competence. Interest in the motor domain and motor self-perception was positively correlated. Children with ADHD performed poorer on the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, but generally overestimated their own motor competence.

  1. Anatomy, normal variants, and basic biomechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berquist, T.H.; Johnson, K.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on the anatomy and basic functions of the foot and ankle important to physicians involved in imaging procedures, clinical medicine, and surgery. New radiographic techniques especially magnetic resonance imaging, provide more diagnostic information owing to improved tissue contrast and the ability to obtain multiple image planes (axial, sagittal, coronal, oblique). Therefore, a thorough knowledge of skeletal and soft tissue anatomy is even more essential. Normal variants must also be understood in order to distinguish normal from pathologic changes in the foot and ankle. A basic understanding of biomechanics is also essential for selecting the proper diagnostic techniques

  2. Development of arithmetical abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Levstek

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Arithmetic (from the word 'arithmos' which means 'numbers' is an elementary branch of mathematics. Numeracy is essential for understanding mathematics, so the development of arithmetic abilities has been an area of scientific research for a long time. Recent research has shown that the development of arithmetic abilities is not based only on gaining experience and learning. Some arithmetic abilities, especially the sense of quantity, are innate. Even babies are able to distinguish between groups with different number of elements and they perceive numeracy amodally. Six-month-olds distinguish between two groups with the numeracy ratio of 1 : 2. With age this ratio improves rapidly. Five-year-old children already distinguish between groups with the number ratio 7 : 8. The ability to compare two quantities begins to develop after 15 months of age and children learn how to count spontaneously, together with the acquisition of language. Speech enables children to understand number in its abstract, symbolic sense, thus opening the way to symbolic arithmetic. During the preschool period children use intuition when doing calculations, but in school the arithmetic is based on the knowledge of arithmetical algorithms. So, in order to acquire mathematical knowledge, it is necessary to incorporate memory and automate arithmetical processes, without the use of intuition. However, research has shown that intuition is very important and is even a predictive factor for the development of mathematical abilities throughout the schooling process.

  3. Localization of Motor Neurons and Central Pattern Generators for Motor Patterns Underlying Feeding Behavior in Drosophila Larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Hückesfeld

    Full Text Available Motor systems can be functionally organized into effector organs (muscles and glands, the motor neurons, central pattern generators (CPG and higher control centers of the brain. Using genetic and electrophysiological methods, we have begun to deconstruct the motor system driving Drosophila larval feeding behavior into its component parts. In this paper, we identify distinct clusters of motor neurons that execute head tilting, mouth hook movements, and pharyngeal pumping during larval feeding. This basic anatomical scaffold enabled the use of calcium-imaging to monitor the neural activity of motor neurons within the central nervous system (CNS that drive food intake. Simultaneous nerve- and muscle-recordings demonstrate that the motor neurons innervate the cibarial dilator musculature (CDM ipsi- and contra-laterally. By classical lesion experiments we localize a set of CPGs generating the neuronal pattern underlying feeding movements to the subesophageal zone (SEZ. Lesioning of higher brain centers decelerated all feeding-related motor patterns, whereas lesioning of ventral nerve cord (VNC only affected the motor rhythm underlying pharyngeal pumping. These findings provide a basis for progressing upstream of the motor neurons to identify higher regulatory components of the feeding motor system.

  4. Precompound Reactions: Basic Concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidenmueller, H. A.

    2008-01-01

    Because of the non-zero nuclear equilibration time, the compound-nucleus scattering model fails when the incident energy exceeds 10 or 20 MeV, and precompound reactions become important. Basic ideas used in the quantum-statistical approaches to these reactions are described

  5. Basic Tuberculosis Facts

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-03-12

    In this podcast, Dr. Kenneth Castro, Director of the Division of Tuberculosis Elimination, discusses basic TB prevention, testing, and treatment information.  Created: 3/12/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 3/12/2012.

  6. Basic Exchange Rate Theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis four-chapter overview of basic exchange rate theories discusses (i) the elasticity and absorption approach, (ii) the (long-run) implications of the monetary approach, (iii) the short-run effects of monetary and fiscal policy under various economic conditions, and (iv) the transition

  7. Basic SPSS tutorial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grotenhuis, H.F. te; Matthijssen, A.C.B.

    2015-01-01

    This supplementary book for the social, behavioral, and health sciences helps readers with no prior knowledge of IBM® SPSS® Statistics, statistics, or mathematics learn the basics of SPSS. Designed to reduce fear and build confidence, the book guides readers through point-and-click sequences using

  8. Basic Skills Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Alexander C.; Volkwein, J. Fredericks

    2010-01-01

    After surveying 1,827 students in their final year at eighty randomly selected two-year and four-year public and private institutions, American Institutes for Research (2006) reported that approximately 30 percent of students in two-year institutions and nearly 20 percent of students in four-year institutions have only basic quantitative…

  9. Basic physics for all

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, B N

    2012-01-01

    This is a simple, concise book for both student and non-physics students, presenting basic facts in straightforward form and conveying fundamental principles and theories of physics. This book will be helpful as a supplement to class teaching and to aid those who have difficulty in mastering concepts and principles.

  10. Basic pharmaceutical technology

    OpenAIRE

    Angelovska, Bistra; Drakalska, Elena

    2017-01-01

    The lecture deals with basics of pharmaceutical technology as applied discipline of pharmaceutical science, whose main subject of study is formulation and manufacture of drugs. In a broad sense, pharmaceutical technology is science of formulation, preparation, stabilization and determination of the quality of medicines prepared in the pharmacy or in pharmaceutical industry

  11. Basic radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyzadeoglu, M. M.; Ebruli, C.

    2008-01-01

    Basic Radiation Oncology is an all-in-one book. It is an up-to-date bedside oriented book integrating the radiation physics, radiobiology and clinical radiation oncology. It includes the essentials of all aspects of radiation oncology with more than 300 practical illustrations, black and white and color figures. The layout and presentation is very practical and enriched with many pearl boxes. Key studies particularly randomized ones are also included at the end of each clinical chapter. Basic knowledge of all high-tech radiation teletherapy units such as tomotherapy, cyberknife, and proton therapy are also given. The first 2 sections review concepts that are crucial in radiation physics and radiobiology. The remaining 11 chapters describe treatment regimens for main cancer sites and tumor types. Basic Radiation Oncology will greatly help meeting the needs for a practical and bedside oriented oncology book for residents, fellows, and clinicians of Radiation, Medical and Surgical Oncology as well as medical students, physicians and medical physicists interested in Clinical Oncology. English Edition of the book Temel Radyasyon Onkolojisi is being published by Springer Heidelberg this year with updated 2009 AJCC Staging as Basic Radiation Oncology

  12. Bottled Water Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Table of Contents Bottled water basics ....................................... pg.2 Advice for people with severely compromised immune systems (Sidebar) ............................. pg2 Know what you’re buying .............................. pg.3 Taste considerations ........................................ pg.4 Bottled water terms (Sidebar) ..................... pg.4 Begin by reading the ...

  13. Monte Carlo: Basics

    OpenAIRE

    Murthy, K. P. N.

    2001-01-01

    An introduction to the basics of Monte Carlo is given. The topics covered include, sample space, events, probabilities, random variables, mean, variance, covariance, characteristic function, chebyshev inequality, law of large numbers, central limit theorem (stable distribution, Levy distribution), random numbers (generation and testing), random sampling techniques (inversion, rejection, sampling from a Gaussian, Metropolis sampling), analogue Monte Carlo and Importance sampling (exponential b...

  14. Ethanol Basics (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  15. Basic Soils. Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montana State Univ., Bozeman. Dept. of Agricultural and Industrial Education.

    This curriculum guide is designed for use in teaching a course in basic soils that is intended for college freshmen. Addressed in the individual lessons of the unit are the following topics: the way in which soil is formed, the physical properties of soil, the chemical properties of soil, the biotic properties of soil, plant-soil-water…

  16. 49 CFR 236.923 - Task analysis and basic requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... for Processor-Based Signal and Train Control Systems § 236.923 Task analysis and basic requirements... structured training designed to impart the knowledge, skills, and abilities identified as necessary to... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Task analysis and basic requirements. 236.923...

  17. Motor degradation prediction methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, J.R.; Kelly, J.F.; Delzingaro, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Motor Operated Valve (MOV) squirrel cage AC motor rotors are susceptible to degradation under certain conditions. Premature failure can result due to high humidity/temperature environments, high running load conditions, extended periods at locked rotor conditions (i.e. > 15 seconds) or exceeding the motor's duty cycle by frequent starts or multiple valve stroking. Exposure to high heat and moisture due to packing leaks, pressure seal ring leakage or other causes can significantly accelerate the degradation. ComEd and Liberty Technologies have worked together to provide and validate a non-intrusive method using motor power diagnostics to evaluate MOV rotor condition and predict failure. These techniques have provided a quick, low radiation dose method to evaluate inaccessible motors, identify degradation and allow scheduled replacement of motors prior to catastrophic failures

  18. Methodic of coordination’s perfection of junior taekwondo athletes at stage of pre-basic training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pashkov I.N.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: experimental substantiation of effectiveness of coordination training methodic of junior taekwondo athletes at stage of pre-basic training. Material: in the research 30 taekwondo athletes of 12-14 yrs age, who composed control and experimental groups, participated. Results: we determined means and methods of training of taekwondo athletes coordination abilities. Correlation of exercises for sense of space, muscular sense, sense of time took from 15 to 25% of total time of training. During 5 seconds’ work quantity of repetitions was from 8 to 12-15 times. Rest pauses between exercises were from 1 to 1-2 minutes. The offered methodic facilitated improvement of coordination fitness indicators of taekwondo athletes: keeping of static balance with open eyes - by 5.08 % and with closed eyes - by 5.63 %; Romberg’s test on left foot - by 11,4% and on tight - by 8.22%; response of choice - by 15.9%; high jump from the spot - by 11.39%; shuttle run - by 5.8%. Conclusions: in the process of perfection of taekwondo athletes coordination it is necessary to solve the following tasks: master more and more complex coordination structures of motor tasks; master quick re-switching of motor functioning, depending on change of situation; improve accuracy of required motor actions; develop stability of space orientation.

  19. Acute exercise improves motor memory consolidation in preadolescent children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Skriver, Kasper Christen; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2017-01-01

    protocols following motor skill practice in a school setting can also improve long-term retention of motor memory in preadolescent children. Methods: Seventy-seven pre-adolescent children (age 10.5 ± 0.75 (SD)) participated in the study. Prior to the main experiment age, BMI, fitness status and general...... immediately after motor skill acquisition facilitates long-term motor memory in pre-adolescent children, presumably by promoting memory consolidation. The results also demonstrate that the effects can be accomplished in a school setting. The positive effect of both a team game (i.e., FLB) and running......Objective: The ability to acquire new motor skills is essential both during childhood and later in life. Recent studies have demonstrated that an acute bout of exercise can improve motor memory consolidation in adults. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether acute exercise...

  20. Investigating AI with BASIC and Logo: Helping the Computer to Understand INPUTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandell, Alan; Lucking, Robert

    1988-01-01

    Investigates using the microcomputer to develop a sentence parser to simulate intelligent conversation used in artificial intelligence applications. Compares the ability of LOGO and BASIC for this use. Lists and critiques several LOGO and BASIC parser programs. (MVL)

  1. 175Hp contrarotating homopolar motor design report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannell, Michael J.; Drake, John L.; McConnell, Richard A.; Martino, William R.

    1994-06-01

    A normally conducting contrarotating homopolar motor has been designed and constructed. The reaction torque, in the outer rotor, from the inner rotor is utilized to produce true contrarotation. The machine utilizes liquid cooled conductors, high performance liquid metal current collectors, and ferrous conductors in the active region. The basic machine output is 175 hp at + or - 1,200 rpm with an input of 4 volts and 35,000 amps.

  2. Improving English Speaking Ability Through Classroom Discussion

    OpenAIRE

    Afrizal, M

    2015-01-01

    Speaking is one of important parts in teaching language because it includes one of four basic language skills. Nevertheless, in MA NU BANAT Kudus, the writer found that most of students there still get the difficulties in studying speaking. It may be caused by the method used in teaching English, especially speaking. Classroom Discussion is a method that can be applied in teaching English, especially to improve the ability of speaking. In this method, hopefully, the students get a big opportu...

  3. Non-motor and motor features in LRRK2 transgenic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoë Bichler

    Full Text Available Non-motor symptoms are increasingly recognized as important features of Parkinson's disease (PD. LRRK2 mutations are common causes of familial and sporadic PD. Non-motor features have not been yet comprehensively evaluated in LRRK2 transgenic mouse models.Using a transgenic mouse model overexpressing the R1441G mutation of the human LRRK2 gene, we have investigated the longitudinal correlation between motor and non-motor symptoms and determined if specific non-motor phenotypes precede motor symptoms.We investigated the onset of motor and non-motor phenotypes on the LRRK2(R1441G BAC transgenic mice and their littermate controls from 4 to 21 month-old using a battery of behavioral tests. The transgenic mutant mice displayed mild hypokinesia in the open field from 16 months old, with gastrointestinal dysfunctions beginning at 6 months old. Non-motor features such as depression and anxiety-like behaviors, sensorial functions (pain sensitivity and olfaction, and learning and memory abilities in the passive avoidance test were similar in the transgenic animals compared to littermate controls.LRRK2(R1441G BAC transgenic mice displayed gastrointestinal dysfunction at an early stage but did not have abnormalities in fine behaviors, olfaction, pain sensitivity, mood disorders and learning and memory compared to non-transgenic littermate controls. The observations on olfaction and gastrointestinal dysfunction in this model validate findings in human carriers. These mice did recapitulate mild Parkinsonian motor features at late stages but compensatory mechanisms modulating the progression of PD in these models should be further evaluated.

  4. Cryogenic Electric Motor Tested

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gerald V.

    2004-01-01

    Technology for pollution-free "electric flight" is being evaluated in a number of NASA Glenn Research Center programs. One approach is to drive propulsive fans or propellers with electric motors powered by fuel cells running on hydrogen. For large transport aircraft, conventional electric motors are far too heavy to be feasible. However, since hydrogen fuel would almost surely be carried as liquid, a propulsive electric motor could be cooled to near liquid hydrogen temperature (-423 F) by using the fuel for cooling before it goes to the fuel cells. Motor windings could be either superconducting or high purity normal copper or aluminum. The electrical resistance of pure metals can drop to 1/100th or less of their room-temperature resistance at liquid hydrogen temperature. In either case, super or normal, much higher current density is possible in motor windings. This leads to more compact motors that are projected to produce 20 hp/lb or more in large sizes, in comparison to on the order of 2 hp/lb for large conventional motors. High power density is the major goal. To support cryogenic motor development, we have designed and built in-house a small motor (7-in. outside diameter) for operation in liquid nitrogen.

  5. Hybrid vehicle motor alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Michael Benjamin

    2001-07-03

    A rotor of an electric motor for a motor vehicle is aligned to an axis of rotation for a crankshaft of an internal combustion engine having an internal combustion engine and an electric motor. A locator is provided on the crankshaft, a piloting tool is located radially by the first locator to the crankshaft. A stator of the electric motor is aligned to a second locator provided on the piloting tool. The stator is secured to the engine block. The rotor is aligned to the crankshaft and secured thereto.

  6. The Development of Fine Motor Skills and its Relation to Cognitive Development in Young Children

    OpenAIRE

    Geng, Da; Zhang, Xingli; Shi, Jiannong

    2015-01-01

    Fine motor skills refer to any movement where an individual uses the small muscles or muscle areas of the hands and fingers; these movements serve to development of muscle while also improving the cognitive recognition of the object. Automatic fine motor skills can save limited attention resources for advanced cognition tasks as required by an individual; in the development of fine motor skills and cognition, the two abilities interact, some motor skills are the prerequisite for some cognitio...

  7. Priming Ability Emotional Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Nicola S.; Malouff, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Two studies examined whether priming self-schemas relating to successful emotional competency results in better emotional intelligence performance. In the first study participants were randomly assigned to a successful emotional competency self-schema prime condition or a control condition and then completed an ability measure of emotional…

  8. Early Functional Abilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Jakob; Poulsen, Ingrid

    2005-01-01

    Early Functional Abilities (EFA), - en skala til evaluering af behandlingsforløb af svært hjerneskadede patienter i forbindelse med tidlig rehabilitering. Formål At monitorere og dokumentere rehabiliteringsforløbet for svært hjerneskadede patienter, hvor funktionsniveauet endnu ikke kan registreres...

  9. BIBLIOGRAPHY ON MENTAL ABILITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Graduate School of Education.

    THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY LISTS MATERIAL ON VARIOUS ASPECTS OF HUMAN INTELLECT. APPROXIMATELY 50 UNANNOTATED REFERENCES ARE PROVIDED TO DOCUMENTS DATING FROM 1955 TO 1966. BOOKS, REPORTS, JOURNAL MATERIALS, AND SOME UNPUBLISHED TITLES ARE LISTED. SUBJECT AREAS INCLUDED ARE (1) INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT, (2) ABILITY DIFFERENCES BETWEEN INDIVIDUALS, RACES,…

  10. Conservatism and Cognitive Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankov, Lazar

    2009-01-01

    Conservatism and cognitive ability are negatively correlated. The evidence is based on 1254 community college students and 1600 foreign students seeking entry to United States' universities. At the individual level of analysis, conservatism scores correlate negatively with SAT, Vocabulary, and Analogy test scores. At the national level of…

  11. Synchronization of Mental Abilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guney, A.

    2008-01-01

    I think it is better to summarize some cognitive issues in relation to this subject; how we learn, how we should organize learning (instructions), knowledge, etc. before treating creativity and rationality. Is it, really, possible to consider creativity without any kind of involvement of the ability

  12. AgrAbility Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cordless Ratchet Wrench ClampTite Wire Clamping Tool iBlue Smart Gate/Door Opener Full Toolbox AT Database Extranet ... in-person NTW - March 19-22, Portland, Maine House and Senate Appropriations Committees recommend restoring AgrAbility funding... ...

  13. Evaluation of freshmen coordination abilities on practical training in gymnastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Tereschenko

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Measured coordination abilities (baseline to the static and dynamic equilibrium of the body, the space-time orientation on the support and in unsupported position, proprioception sense, vestibular stability, vestibular sensitivity, coordination limbs symmetrical and asymmetrical. Coordination abilities were also measured under difficult conditions. The study involved 238 students aged 17 - 18 years. Registered a positive trend of improving performance motor tests, development of educational material. Students who specialize in difficult to coordinate sports had significantly better performance. Found that the content of the material work programs of sports and educational disciplines helps improve sensorimotor coordination tasks students. It is noted that the content of the training material is the basis for efficient formation of motor skills and motor skills development of gymnastic exercises. Recommended ways to increase sports and technical and professional skills of students.

  14. nutritional status, functional ability and food habits of institutionalised

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2004-05-05

    May 5, 2004 ... Objective: To determine nutritional status, food habits and functional abilities of the institutionalised ... with special family work such as caring for young children, food ... The ability to get around in one' s environment is a basic ...

  15. Selective effect of physical fatigue on motor imagery accuracy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck Di Rienzo

    Full Text Available While the use of motor imagery (the mental representation of an action without overt execution during actual training sessions is usually recommended, experimental studies examining the effect of physical fatigue on subsequent motor imagery performance are sparse and yielded divergent findings. Here, we investigated whether physical fatigue occurring during an intense sport training session affected motor imagery ability. Twelve swimmers (nine males, mean age 15.5 years conducted a 45 min physically-fatiguing protocol where they swam from 70% to 100% of their maximal aerobic speed. We tested motor imagery ability immediately before and after fatigue state. Participants randomly imagined performing a swim turn using internal and external visual imagery. Self-reports ratings, imagery times and electrodermal responses, an index of alertness from the autonomic nervous system, were the dependent variables. Self-reports ratings indicated that participants did not encounter difficulty when performing motor imagery after fatigue. However, motor imagery times were significantly shortened during posttest compared to both pretest and actual turn times, thus indicating reduced timing accuracy. Looking at the selective effect of physical fatigue on external visual imagery did not reveal any difference before and after fatigue, whereas significantly shorter imagined times and electrodermal responses (respectively 15% and 48% decrease, p<0.001 were observed during the posttest for internal visual imagery. A significant correlation (r=0.64; p<0.05 was observed between motor imagery vividness (estimated through imagery questionnaire and autonomic responses during motor imagery after fatigue. These data support that unlike local muscle fatigue, physical fatigue occurring during intense sport training sessions is likely to affect motor imagery accuracy. These results might be explained by the updating of the internal representation of the motor sequence, due to

  16. Aging increases the susceptibility to motor memory interference and reduces off-line gains in motor skill learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roig, Marc; Ritterband-Rosenbaum, Anina; Jensen, Jesper Lundbye

    2014-01-01

    Declines in the ability to learn motor skills in older adults are commonly attributed to deficits in the encoding of sensorimotor information during motor practice. We investigated whether aging also impairs motor memory consolidation by assessing the susceptibility to memory interference and off...... greater susceptibility to memory interference and no off-line gains in motor skill learning. Performing B produced memory interference and reduced off-line gains only in the older group. However, older adults also showed deficits in memory consolidation independent of the interfering effects of B. Age......-related declines in motor skill learning are not produced exclusively by deficits in the encoding of sensorimotor information during practice. Aging also increases the susceptibility to memory interference and reduces off-line gains in motor skill learning after practice....

  17. Transportation Emissions: some basics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontovas, Christos A.; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.

    2016-01-01

    transportation and especially carbon dioxide emissions are at the center stage of discussion by the world community through various international treaties, such as the Kyoto Protocol. The transportation sector also emits non-CO2 pollutants that have important effects on air quality, climate, and public health......Transportation is the backbone of international trade and a key engine driving globalization. However, there is growing concern that the Earth’s atmospheric composition is being altered by human activities, including transportation, which can lead to climate change. Air pollution from....... The main purpose of this chapter is to introduce some basic concepts that are relevant in the quest of green transportation logistics. First, we present the basics of estimating emissions from transportation activities, the current statistics and future trends, as well as the total impact of air emissions...

  18. Basic Emotions: A Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, William A.; Capitanio, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Emotionality is a basic feature of behavior. The argument over whether the expression of emotions is based primarily on culture (constructivism, nurture) or biology (natural forms, nature) will never be resolved because both alternatives are untenable. The evidence is overwhelming that at all ages and all levels of organization, the development of emotionality is epigenetic: The organism is an active participant in its own development. To ascribe these effects to “experience” was the best that could be done for many years. With the rapid acceleration of information on how changes in organization are actually brought about, it is a good time to review, update, and revitalize our views of experience in relation to the concept of basic emotion. PMID:27110280

  19. Basic electronic circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Buckley, P M

    1980-01-01

    In the past, the teaching of electricity and electronics has more often than not been carried out from a theoretical and often highly academic standpoint. Fundamentals and basic concepts have often been presented with no indication of their practical appli­ cations, and all too frequently they have been illustrated by artificially contrived laboratory experiments bearing little relationship to the outside world. The course comes in the form of fourteen fairly open-ended constructional experiments or projects. Each experiment has associated with it a construction exercise and an explanation. The basic idea behind this dual presentation is that the student can embark on each circuit following only the briefest possible instructions and that an open-ended approach is thereby not prejudiced by an initial lengthy encounter with the theory behind the project; this being a sure way to dampen enthusiasm at the outset. As the investigation progresses, questions inevitably arise. Descriptions of the phenomena encounte...

  20. Basic linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Blyth, T S

    2002-01-01

    Basic Linear Algebra is a text for first year students leading from concrete examples to abstract theorems, via tutorial-type exercises. More exercises (of the kind a student may expect in examination papers) are grouped at the end of each section. The book covers the most important basics of any first course on linear algebra, explaining the algebra of matrices with applications to analytic geometry, systems of linear equations, difference equations and complex numbers. Linear equations are treated via Hermite normal forms which provides a successful and concrete explanation of the notion of linear independence. Another important highlight is the connection between linear mappings and matrices leading to the change of basis theorem which opens the door to the notion of similarity. This new and revised edition features additional exercises and coverage of Cramer's rule (omitted from the first edition). However, it is the new, extra chapter on computer assistance that will be of particular interest to readers:...

  1. Basics of statistical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Müller-Kirsten, Harald J W

    2013-01-01

    Statistics links microscopic and macroscopic phenomena, and requires for this reason a large number of microscopic elements like atoms. The results are values of maximum probability or of averaging. This introduction to statistical physics concentrates on the basic principles, and attempts to explain these in simple terms supplemented by numerous examples. These basic principles include the difference between classical and quantum statistics, a priori probabilities as related to degeneracies, the vital aspect of indistinguishability as compared with distinguishability in classical physics, the differences between conserved and non-conserved elements, the different ways of counting arrangements in the three statistics (Maxwell-Boltzmann, Fermi-Dirac, Bose-Einstein), the difference between maximization of the number of arrangements of elements, and averaging in the Darwin-Fowler method. Significant applications to solids, radiation and electrons in metals are treated in separate chapters, as well as Bose-Eins...

  2. Emulsion Science Basic Principles

    CERN Document Server

    Leal-Calderon, Fernando; Schmitt, Véronique

    2007-01-01

    Emulsions are generally made out of two immiscible fluids like oil and water, one being dispersed in the second in the presence of surface-active compounds.They are used as intermediate or end products in a huge range of areas including the food, chemical, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, paint, and coating industries. Besides the broad domain of technological interest, emulsions are raising a variety of fundamental questions at the frontier between physics and chemistry. This book aims to give an overview of the most recent advances in emulsion science. The basic principles, covering aspects of emulsions from their preparation to their destruction, are presented in close relation to both the fundamental physics and the applications of these materials. The book is intended to help scientists and engineers in formulating new materials by giving them the basics of emulsion science.

  3. Basics of Computer Networking

    CERN Document Server

    Robertazzi, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Springer Brief Basics of Computer Networking provides a non-mathematical introduction to the world of networks. This book covers both technology for wired and wireless networks. Coverage includes transmission media, local area networks, wide area networks, and network security. Written in a very accessible style for the interested layman by the author of a widely used textbook with many years of experience explaining concepts to the beginner.

  4. Risk communication basics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrado, P.G.

    1995-01-01

    In low-trust, high-concern situations, 50% of your credibility comes from perceived empathy and caring, demonstrated in the first 30 s you come in contact with someone. There is no second chance for a first impression. These and other principles contained in this paper provide you with a basic level of understanding of risk communication. The principles identified are time-tested caveats and will assist you in effectively communicating technical information

  5. Risk communication basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corrado, P.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    In low-trust, high-concern situations, 50% of your credibility comes from perceived empathy and caring, demonstrated in the first 30 s you come in contact with someone. There is no second chance for a first impression. These and other principles contained in this paper provide you with a basic level of understanding of risk communication. The principles identified are time-tested caveats and will assist you in effectively communicating technical information.

  6. Basic nucleonics. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman, M.E.

    1989-01-01

    This book is oriented mainly towards professionals who are not physicists or experts in nuclear sciences, physicians planning to specialize in nuclear medicine or radiotherapy and technicians involved in nuclear applications. The book covers the fundamental concepts of nuclear science and technology in a simple and ordered fashion. Theory is illustrated with appropriate exercises and answers. With 17 chapters plus 3 appendices on mathematics, basic concepts are covered in: nuclear science, radioactivity, radiation and matter, nuclear reactions, X rays, shielding and radioprotection

  7. Basic of Neutron NDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trahan, Alexis Chanel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-15

    The objectives of this presentation are to introduce the basic physics of neutron production, interactions and detection; identify the processes that generate neutrons; explain the most common neutron mechanism, spontaneous and induced fission and (a,n) reactions; describe the properties of neutron from different sources; recognize advantages of neutron measurements techniques; recognize common neutrons interactions; explain neutron cross section measurements; describe the fundamental of 3He detector function and designs; and differentiate between passive and active assay techniques.

  8. Shoulder arthroscopy: the basics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Kevin W; Wright, Thomas W

    2015-04-01

    Shoulder arthroscopy is a commonly performed and accepted procedure for a wide variety of pathologies. Surgeon experience, patient positioning, knowledge of surgical anatomy, proper portal placement, and proper use of instrumentation can improve technical success and minimize complication risks. This article details the surgical anatomy, indications, patient positioning, portal placement, instrumentation, and complications for basic shoulder arthroscopy. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Basic accelerator optics

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit

    1985-01-01

    A complete derivation, from first principles, of the concepts and methods applied in linear accelerator and beamline optics will be presented. Particle motion and beam motion in systems composed of linear magnets, as well as weak and strong focusing and special insertions are treated in mathematically simple terms, and design examples for magnets and systems are given. This series of five lectures is intended to provide all the basic tools required for the design and operation of beam optical systems.

  10. Basic concepts in oceanography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small, L.F.

    1997-01-01

    Basic concepts in oceanography include major wind patterns that drive ocean currents, and the effects that the earth's rotation, positions of land masses, and temperature and salinity have on oceanic circulation and hence global distribution of radioactivity. Special attention is given to coastal and near-coastal processes such as upwelling, tidal effects, and small-scale processes, as radionuclide distributions are currently most associated with coastal regions. (author)

  11. Basic Financial Accounting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiborg, Karsten

    This textbook on Basic Financial Accounting is targeted students in the economics studies at universities and business colleges having an introductory subject in the external dimension of the company's economic reporting, including bookkeeping, etc. The book includes the following subjects......: business entities, the transformation process, types of businesses, stakeholders, legislation, the annual report, the VAT system, double-entry bookkeeping, inventories, and year-end cast flow analysis....

  12. Motor current signature analysis for determining operational readiness of motor-operated valves (MOVs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryter, R.C.; Haynes, H.D.

    1987-01-01

    Motor current signature analysis (MCSA) is a novel diagnostic process for condition monitoring of electric-motor-driven mechanical equipment (e.g., pumps, motor-operated valves, compressors, and processing machinery). The MCSA process identifies, characterizes, and trends over time the instantaneous load variations of mechanical equipment in order to diagnose changes in the condition of the equipment (e.g., due to degradation or service wear), which, if allowed to continue, may lead to failure. It monitors the instantaneous variations (noise content) in the electric current flowing through the power leads to the electric motor that drives the equipment. The motor itself thereby acts as a transducer, sensing both large and small, long-term and rapid, mechanical load variations and converting them to variations in the induced current generated in the motor windings. This motor current noise signature is detected, amplified, and further processed as needed to examine its time domain and frequency domain (spectral) characteristics. The operational principles of MCSA and the nonintrusive data collection apparatus and procedure used with MOVs will be described. Data collected from MOVs in both laboratory and in-plant environments will also be shown to illustrate the ability of MCSA to ''see'' the detailed inner workings of the valve and operator and thus to detect degraded performance at an incipient stage. (Set of 18 vugraphs)

  13. The Study of Object-Oriented Motor Imagery Based on EEG Suppression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Li

    Full Text Available Motor imagery is a conventional method for brain computer interface and motor learning. To avoid the great individual difference of the motor imagery ability, object-oriented motor imagery was applied, and the effects were studied. Kinesthetic motor imagery and visual observation were administered to 15 healthy volunteers. The EEG during cue-based simple imagery (SI, object-oriented motor imagery (OI, non-object-oriented motor imagery (NI and visual observation (VO was recorded. Study results showed that OI and NI presented significant contralateral suppression in mu rhythm (p 0.05. Compared with NI, OI showed significant difference (p < 0.05 in mu rhythm and weak significant difference (p = 0.0612 in beta rhythm over the contralateral hemisphere. The ability of motor imagery can be reflected by the suppression degree of mu and beta frequencies which are the motor related rhythms. Thus, greater enhancement of activation in mirror neuron system is involved in response to object-oriented motor imagery. The object-oriented motor imagery is favorable for improvement of motor imagery ability.

  14. Effect of the home environment on motor and cognitive behavior of infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquelote, Audrei F; Santos, Denise C C; Caçola, Priscila M; Montebelo, Maria Imaculada de L; Gabbard, Carl

    2012-06-01

    Although information is sparse, research suggests that affordances in the home provide essential resources that promote motor and cognitive skills in young children. The present study assessed over time, the association between motor affordances in the home and infant motor and cognitive behavior. Thirty-two (32) infants were assessed for characteristics of their home using the Affordances in the Home Environment for Motor Development--Infant Scale and motor and cognitive behavior with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development--III. Infant's home and motor behavior were assessed at age 9 months and 6 months later with the inclusion of cognitive ability. Results for motor ability indicated that there was an overall improvement in performance from the 1st to the 2nd assessment. We found significant positive correlations between the dimensions of the home (daily activities and play materials) and global motor performance (1st assessment) and fine-motor performance on the 2nd assessment. In regard to cognitive performance (2nd assessment), results indicated a positive association with fine-motor performance. Our results suggest that motor affordances can have a positive impact on future motor ability and speculatively, later cognitive behavior in infants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. EFFECT OF BASIC SKILLS IN ANY SITUATION TESTS ACCURACY YOUNG PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artan R. Kryeziu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to establish the impact of basic motor skills in some situational accuracy tests in youth basketball game. In a sample of 60 tested age of 17 year + / - 6 months. We have applied eigjt variables to the tested persons, five of which are predicting, while the other three are criterion tests. Connectivity between motor variables is handled through the correlation of Pearson. The impact of variables predicting in those criteria used in regression analysis. Also significant importance is given to the introduction of connectivity between basic motor skills in several accuracy tests typical for the basketball game situations. Regarding the basic motor skills variables have attained significant coherence, however situational space test throwing the ball in the basket in the same direction and shooting the ball in the basket in the corner 450 degres no coherence with any test has been shown from the space of the appility of basic motor skills. Through regression analysis procedure we’ve reviewed the impact of basic motor skills in some situational accuracy tests. Treat analysis of criterion variables in those predicting we can say that accuracy to situational variables impact junior league players had explosive force. Therefore we can conclude that explosive strength is a quite important factor in the game between young basketball players, with there moving actions the playes can achive their goal of scoring points.

  16. Incorporation of proficiency criteria for basic laparoscopic skills training: How does it work?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Verdaasdonk (Egg); J. Dankelman (Jenny); J.F. Lange (Johan); L.P. Stassen (Laurents)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground: It is desirable that surgical trainees are proficient in basic laparoscopic motor skills (eye-hand coordination). The present study evaluated the use of predefined proficiency criteria on a basic virtual reality (VR) simulator in preparation for a laparoscopic course on

  17. Modeling Induction Motor Imbalances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armah, Kabenla; Jouffroy, Jerome; Duggen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    This paper gives a study into the development of a generalized model for a three-phase induction motor that offers flexibility of simulating balanced and unbalanced parameter scenarios. By analyzing the interaction of forces within the motor, we achieve our main objective of deriving the system d...

  18. Artificial molecular motors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassem, Salma; van Leeuwen, Thomas; Lubbe, Anouk S.; Wilson, Miriam R.; Feringa, Ben L.; Leigh, David A.

    2017-01-01

    Motor proteins are nature's solution for directing movement at the molecular level. The field of artificial molecular motors takes inspiration from these tiny but powerful machines. Although directional motion on the nanoscale performed by synthetic molecular machines is a relatively new

  19. To What Extent Can Motor Imagery Replace Motor Execution While Learning a Fine Motor Skill?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobierajewicz, Jagna; Szarkiewicz, Sylwia; Prekoracka-Krawczyk, Anna; Jaskowski, Wojciech; van der Lubbe, Robert Henricus Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Motor imagery is generally thought to share common mechanisms with motor execution. In the present study, we examined to what extent learning a fine motor skill by motor imagery may substitute physical practice. Learning effects were assessed by manipulating the proportion of motor execution and

  20. Higher Efficiency HVAC Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, Charles Joseph [QM Power, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States)

    2018-02-13

    The objective of this project was to design and build a cost competitive, more efficient heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) motor than what is currently available on the market. Though different potential motor architectures among QMP’s primary technology platforms were investigated and evaluated, including through the building of numerous prototypes, the project ultimately focused on scaling up QM Power, Inc.’s (QMP) Q-Sync permanent magnet synchronous motors from available sub-fractional horsepower (HP) sizes for commercial refrigeration fan applications to larger fractional horsepower sizes appropriate for HVAC applications, and to add multi-speed functionality. The more specific goal became the research, design, development, and testing of a prototype 1/2 HP Q-Sync motor that has at least two operating speeds and 87% peak efficiency compared to incumbent electronically commutated motors (EC or ECM, also known as brushless direct current (DC) motors), the heretofore highest efficiency HVACR fan motor solution, at approximately 82% peak efficiency. The resulting motor prototype built achieved these goals, hitting 90% efficiency and .95 power factor at full load and speed, and 80% efficiency and .7 power factor at half speed. Q-Sync, developed in part through a DOE SBIR grant (Award # DE-SC0006311), is a novel, patented motor technology that improves on electronically commutated permanent magnet motors through an advanced electronic circuit technology. It allows a motor to “sync” with the alternating current (AC) power flow. It does so by eliminating the constant, wasteful power conversions from AC to DC and back to AC through the synthetic creation of a new AC wave on the primary circuit board (PCB) by a process called pulse width modulation (PWM; aka electronic commutation) that is incessantly required to sustain motor operation in an EC permanent magnet motor. The Q-Sync circuit improves the power factor of the motor by removing all

  1. Fine motor skills in children with prenatal alcohol exposure or fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doney, Robyn; Lucas, Barbara R; Jones, Taryn; Howat, Peter; Sauer, Kay; Elliott, Elizabeth J

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) can cause fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) and associated neurodevelopmental impairments. It is uncertain which types of fine motor skills are most likely to be affected after PAE or which assessment tools are most appropriate to use in FASD diagnostic assessments. This systematic review examined which types of fine motor skills are impaired in children with PAE or FASD; which fine motor assessments are appropriate for FASD diagnosis; and whether fine motor impairments are evident at both "low" and "high" PAE levels. A systematic review of relevant databases was undertaken using key terms. Relevant studies were extracted using a standardized form, and methodological quality was rated using a critical appraisal tool. Twenty-four studies met inclusion criteria. Complex fine motor skills, such as visual-motor integration, were more frequently impaired than basic fine motor skills, such as grip strength. Assessment tools that specifically assessed fine motor skills more consistently identified impairments than those which assessed fine motor skills as part of a generalized neurodevelopmental assessment. Fine motor impairments were associated with "moderate" to "high" PAE levels. Few studies reported fine motor skills of children with "low" PAE levels, so the effect of lower PAE levels on fine motor skills remains uncertain. Comprehensive assessment of a range of fine motor skills in children with PAE is important to ensure an accurate FASD diagnosis and develop appropriate therapeutic interventions for children with PAE-related fine motor impairments.

  2. Definition and classification of negative motor signs in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanger, Terence D; Chen, Daofen; Delgado, Mauricio R; Gaebler-Spira, Deborah; Hallett, Mark; Mink, Jonathan W

    2006-11-01

    In this report we describe the outcome of a consensus meeting that occurred at the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland, March 12 through 14, 2005. The meeting brought together 39 specialists from multiple clinical and research disciplines including developmental pediatrics, neurology, neurosurgery, orthopedic surgery, physical therapy, occupational therapy, physical medicine and rehabilitation, neurophysiology, muscle physiology, motor control, and biomechanics. The purpose of the meeting was to establish terminology and definitions for 4 aspects of motor disorders that occur in children: weakness, reduced selective motor control, ataxia, and deficits of praxis. The purpose of the definitions is to assist communication between clinicians, select homogeneous groups of children for clinical research trials, facilitate the development of rating scales to assess improvement or deterioration with time, and eventually to better match individual children with specific therapies. "Weakness" is defined as the inability to generate normal voluntary force in a muscle or normal voluntary torque about a joint. "Reduced selective motor control" is defined as the impaired ability to isolate the activation of muscles in a selected pattern in response to demands of a voluntary posture or movement. "Ataxia" is defined as an inability to generate a normal or expected voluntary movement trajectory that cannot be attributed to weakness or involuntary muscle activity about the affected joints. "Apraxia" is defined as an impairment in the ability to accomplish previously learned and performed complex motor actions that is not explained by ataxia, reduced selective motor control, weakness, or involuntary motor activity. "Developmental dyspraxia" is defined as a failure to have ever acquired the ability to perform age-appropriate complex motor actions that is not explained by the presence of inadequate demonstration or practice, ataxia, reduced selective motor control

  3. The validity of parental reports on motor skills performance level in preschool children: a comparison with a standardized motor test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zysset, Annina E; Kakebeeke, Tanja H; Messerli-Bürgy, Nadine; Meyer, Andrea H; Stülb, Kerstin; Leeger-Aschmann, Claudia S; Schmutz, Einat A; Arhab, Amar; Ferrazzini, Valentina; Kriemler, Susi; Munsch, Simone; Puder, Jardena J; Jenni, Oskar G

    2018-05-01

    Motor skills are interrelated with essential domains of childhood such as cognitive and social development. Thus, the evaluation of motor skills and the identification of atypical or delayed motor development is crucial in pediatric practice (e.g., during well-child visits). Parental reports on motor skills may serve as possible indicators to decide whether further assessment of a child is necessary or not. We compared parental reports on fundamental motor skills performance level (e.g., hopping, throwing), based on questions frequently asked in pediatric practice, with a standardized motor test in 389 children (46.5% girls/53.5% boys, M age = 3.8 years, SD = 0.5, range 3.0-5.0 years) from the Swiss Preschoolers' Health Study (SPLASHY). Motor skills were examined using the Zurich Neuromotor Assessment 3-5 (ZNA3-5), and parents filled in an online questionnaire on fundamental motor skills performance level. The results showed that the answers from the parental report correlated only weakly with the objectively assessed motor skills (r = .225, p skills would be desirable, the parent's report used in this study was not a valid indicator for children's fundamental motor skills. Thus, we may recommend to objectively examine motor skills in clinical practice and not to exclusively rely on parental report. What is Known: • Early assessment of motor skills in preschool children is important because motor skills are essential for the engagement in social activities and the development of cognitive abilities. Atypical or delayed motor development can be an indicator for different developmental needs or disorders. • Pediatricians frequently ask parents about the motor competences of their child during well-child visits. What is New: • The parental report on fundamental motor skills performance level used in this study was not a reliable indicator for describing motor development in the preschool age. • Standardized examinations of motor skills are

  4. Linear motor coil assembly and linear motor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    An ironless linear motor (5) comprising a magnet track (53) and a coil assembly (50) operating in cooperation with said magnet track (53) and having a plurality of concentrated multi-turn coils (31 a-f, 41 a-d, 51 a-k), wherein the end windings (31E) of the coils (31 a-f, 41 a-e) are substantially

  5. Spinal cord: motor neuron diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezania, Kourosh; Roos, Raymond P

    2013-02-01

    Spinal cord motor neuron diseases affect lower motor neurons in the ventral horn. This article focuses on the most common spinal cord motor neuron disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, which also affects upper motor neurons. Also discussed are other motor neuron diseases that only affect the lower motor neurons. Despite the identification of several genes associated with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, the pathogenesis of this complex disease remains elusive. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Catalyst in Basic Oleochemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Suyenty

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently Indonesia is the world largest palm oil producer with production volume reaching 16 million tones per annum. The high crude oil and ethylene prices in the last 3 – 4 years contribute to the healthy demand growth for basic oleochemicals: fatty acids and fatty alcohols. Oleochemicals are starting to replace crude oil derived products in various applications. As widely practiced in petrochemical industry, catalyst plays a very important role in the production of basic oleochemicals. Catalytic reactions are abound in the production of oleochemicals: Nickel based catalysts are used in the hydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids; sodium methylate catalyst in the transesterification of triglycerides; sulfonic based polystyrene resin catalyst in esterification of fatty acids; and copper chromite/copper zinc catalyst in the high pressure hydrogenation of methyl esters or fatty acids to produce fatty alcohols. To maintain long catalyst life, it is crucial to ensure the absence of catalyst poisons and inhibitors in the feed. The preparation methods of nickel and copper chromite catalysts are as follows: precipitation, filtration, drying, and calcinations. Sodium methylate is derived from direct reaction of sodium metal and methanol under inert gas. The sulfonic based polystyrene resin is derived from sulfonation of polystyrene crosslinked with di-vinyl-benzene. © 2007 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved.[Presented at Symposium and Congress of MKICS 2007, 18-19 April 2007, Semarang, Indonesia][How to Cite: E. Suyenty, H. Sentosa, M. Agustine, S. Anwar, A. Lie, E. Sutanto. (2007. Catalyst in Basic Oleochemicals. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 2 (2-3: 22-31.  doi:10.9767/bcrec.2.2-3.6.22-31][How to Link/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.2.2-3.6.22-31 || or local: http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/6

  7. NEW VECTORS OF THE MOTOR INSURANCE DEVELOPMENT IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Prikazyuk

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The essence and features of different forms of motor insurance are studied. As investigated, the motor insurance is one of the most popular types of insurance in many countries, and continues its further quality development. It is stated that the following new vectors of development has been recently observed in developed countries: Internet sales are getting significantly prevalent along with the traditional channels of insurance distribution; insurers’ websites provide a wide range of online features in motor insurance; innovations in motor insurance based on the use of telematics, particularly the usage-based insurance, are widely spread. Basic types of motor insurance, which represent the domestic market, are analyzed. It was found that the share of motor insurance in the insurance market of Ukraine is significant. As established, the proportion of net premiums of motor insurance is decreasing, because its development is significantly influenced by economic factors. Measures, applied by insurance companies in the domestic market of motor insurance to attract new customers and retain the existing ones, are defined. In particular, insurers are trying to develop the implementation of insurance services online, and use possibilities offered by mobile technologies. It was found that the domestic market of motor insurance is characterized by a high level of fraud, that is why some innovative measures in the domestic and international motor insurance agreements are taken to decrease it, such as the introduction of mandatory registration of insurance agents, who have the right to perform mediatory activity in compulsory civil liability insurance of owners of motor vehicles (CCLIOMV, and procedures for contracting the international insurance “Green Card” agreements with simultaneous entering the information on concluded agreement into a unified centralized database of Motor (transport insurance bureau of Ukraine using the “Green Card online

  8. Uranium: a basic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crull, A.W.

    1978-01-01

    All energy sources and technologies, including uranium and the nuclear industry, are needed to provide power. Public misunderstanding of the nature of uranium and how it works as a fuel may jeopardize nuclear energy as a major option. Basic chemical facts about uranium ore and uranium fuel technology are presented. Some of the major policy decisions that must be made include the enrichment, stockpiling, and pricing of uranium. Investigations and lawsuits pertaining to uranium markets are reviewed, and the point is made that oil companies will probably have to divest their non-oil energy activities. Recommendations for nuclear policies that have been made by the General Accounting Office are discussed briefly

  9. C# Database Basics

    CERN Document Server

    Schmalz, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Working with data and databases in C# certainly can be daunting if you're coming from VB6, VBA, or Access. With this hands-on guide, you'll shorten the learning curve considerably as you master accessing, adding, updating, and deleting data with C#-basic skills you need if you intend to program with this language. No previous knowledge of C# is necessary. By following the examples in this book, you'll learn how to tackle several database tasks in C#, such as working with SQL Server, building data entry forms, and using data in a web service. The book's code samples will help you get started

  10. Electrical installation calculations basic

    CERN Document Server

    Kitcher, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    All the essential calculations required for basic electrical installation workThe Electrical Installation Calculations series has proved an invaluable reference for over forty years, for both apprentices and professional electrical installation engineers alike. The book provides a step-by-step guide to the successful application of electrical installation calculations required in day-to-day electrical engineering practice. A step-by-step guide to everyday calculations used on the job An essential aid to the City & Guilds certificates at Levels 2 and 3Fo

  11. Basic structural dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, James C

    2012-01-01

    A concise introduction to structural dynamics and earthquake engineering Basic Structural Dynamics serves as a fundamental introduction to the topic of structural dynamics. Covering single and multiple-degree-of-freedom systems while providing an introduction to earthquake engineering, the book keeps the coverage succinct and on topic at a level that is appropriate for undergraduate and graduate students. Through dozens of worked examples based on actual structures, it also introduces readers to MATLAB, a powerful software for solving both simple and complex structural d

  12. Basic heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Bacon, D H

    2013-01-01

    Basic Heat Transfer aims to help readers use a computer to solve heat transfer problems and to promote greater understanding by changing data values and observing the effects, which are necessary in design and optimization calculations.The book is concerned with applications including insulation and heating in buildings and pipes, temperature distributions in solids for steady state and transient conditions, the determination of surface heat transfer coefficients for convection in various situations, radiation heat transfer in grey body problems, the use of finned surfaces, and simple heat exc

  13. Back to basics audio

    CERN Document Server

    Nathan, Julian

    1998-01-01

    Back to Basics Audio is a thorough, yet approachable handbook on audio electronics theory and equipment. The first part of the book discusses electrical and audio principles. Those principles form a basis for understanding the operation of equipment and systems, covered in the second section. Finally, the author addresses planning and installation of a home audio system.Julian Nathan joined the audio service and manufacturing industry in 1954 and moved into motion picture engineering and production in 1960. He installed and operated recording theaters in Sydney, Austra

  14. Machine shop basics

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Rex

    2004-01-01

    Use the right tool the right wayHere, fully updated to include new machines and electronic/digital controls, is the ultimate guide to basic machine shop equipment and how to use it. Whether you're a professional machinist, an apprentice, a trade student, or a handy homeowner, this fully illustrated volume helps you define tools and use them properly and safely. It's packed with review questions for students, and loaded with answers you need on the job.Mark Richard Miller is a Professor and Chairman of the Industrial Technology Department at Texas A&M University in Kingsville, T

  15. Basic bladder neurophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, J Quentin

    2010-11-01

    Maintenance of normal lower urinary tract function is a complex process that requires coordination between the central nervous system and the autonomic and somatic components of the peripheral nervous system. This article provides an overview of the basic principles that are recognized to regulate normal urine storage and micturition, including bladder biomechanics, relevant neuroanatomy, neural control of lower urinary tract function, and the pharmacologic processes that translate the neural signals into functional results. Finally, the emerging role of the urothelium as a sensory structure is discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Track A Basic Science

    OpenAIRE

    Sargeant, D.; Deverasetty, S.; Luo, Y.; Villahoz-Baleta, A.; Zobrist, S.; Rathnayake, V.; Russo, J.; Muesing, M.; Schiller, M.; Andrabi, R.; Kumar, R.; Bala, M.; Nair, A.; Biswas, A.; Wig, N.

    2012-01-01

    Background Many HIV databases and applications focus on a limited domain of HIV knowledge. Since even a “simple” organism like HIV represents a very complex system with many interacting elements, the fractured structure of existing databases and applications likely limits our ability to investigate and understand HIV. To facilitate research, therefore, we have built HIVToolbox, which integrates much of the knowledge about HIV proteins and presents the data in an interactive web application. H...

  17. Mechanosensation and Adaptive Motor Control in Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuthill, John C; Wilson, Rachel I

    2016-10-24

    The ability of animals to flexibly navigate through complex environments depends on the integration of sensory information with motor commands. The sensory modality most tightly linked to motor control is mechanosensation. Adaptive motor control depends critically on an animal's ability to respond to mechanical forces generated both within and outside the body. The compact neural circuits of insects provide appealing systems to investigate how mechanical cues guide locomotion in rugged environments. Here, we review our current understanding of mechanosensation in insects and its role in adaptive motor control. We first examine the detection and encoding of mechanical forces by primary mechanoreceptor neurons. We then discuss how central circuits integrate and transform mechanosensory information to guide locomotion. Because most studies in this field have been performed in locusts, cockroaches, crickets, and stick insects, the examples we cite here are drawn mainly from these 'big insects'. However, we also pay particular attention to the tiny fruit fly, Drosophila, where new tools are creating new opportunities, particularly for understanding central circuits. Our aim is to show how studies of big insects have yielded fundamental insights relevant to mechanosensation in all animals, and also to point out how the Drosophila toolkit can contribute to future progress in understanding mechanosensory processing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Kinesthetic motor imagery modulates body sway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, E C; Lemos, T; Gouvea, B; Volchan, E; Imbiriba, L A; Vargas, C D

    2010-08-25

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of imagining an action implicating the body axis in the kinesthetic and visual motor imagery modalities upon the balance control system. Body sway analysis (measurement of center of pressure, CoP) together with electromyography (EMG) recording and verbal evaluation of imagery abilities were obtained from subjects during four tasks, performed in the upright position: to execute bilateral plantar flexions; to imagine themselves executing bilateral plantar flexions (kinesthetic modality); to imagine someone else executing the same movement (visual modality), and to imagine themselves singing a song (as a control imagery task). Body sway analysis revealed that kinesthetic imagery leads to a general increase in CoP oscillation, as reflected by an enhanced area of displacement. This effect was also verified for the CoP standard deviation in the medial-lateral direction. An increase in the trembling displacement (equivalent to center of pressure minus center of gravity) restricted to the anterior-posterior direction was also observed to occur during kinesthetic imagery. The visual imagery task did not differ from the control (sing) task for any of the analyzed parameters. No difference in the subjects' ability to perform the imagery tasks was found. No modulation of EMG data were observed across imagery tasks, indicating that there was no actual execution during motor imagination. These results suggest that motor imagery performed in the kinesthetic modality evokes motor representations involved in balance control. Copyright (c)10 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Movement sonification: Effects on motor learning beyond rhythmic adjustments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Oliver Effenberg

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Motor learning is based on motor perception and emergent perceptual-motor representations. A lot of behavioral research is related to single perceptual modalities, but during last two decades the contribution of multimodal perception on motor behavior was discovered more and more. A growing number of studies indicate an enhanced impact of multimodal stimuli on motor perception, motor control and motor learning in terms of better precision and higher reliability of the related actions. Behavioral research is supported by neurophysiological data, revealing that multisensory integration supports motor control and learning. But the overwhelming part of both research lines is dedicated to basic research. Besides research in the domains of music, dance and motor rehabilitation there is nearly no evidence about enhanced effectiveness of multisensory information on learning of gross motor skills. To reduce this gap movement sonification is used here in applied research on motor learning in sports.Based on the current knowledge on the multimodal organization of the perceptual system we generate additional real-time movement information being suitable for integration with perceptual feedback streams of visual and proprioceptive modality. With ongoing training synchronously processed auditory information should be initially integrated into the emerging internal models, enhancing the efficacy of motor learning. This is achieved by a direct mapping of kinematic and dynamic motion parameters to electronic sounds, resulting in continuous auditory and convergent audiovisual or audio-proprioceptive stimulus arrays. In sharp contrast to other approaches using acoustic information as error feedback in motor learning settings we try to generate additional movement information suitable for acceleration and enhancement of adequate sensorimotor representations and processible below the level of consciousness. In the experimental setting participants were asked to

  20. Movement Sonification: Effects on Motor Learning beyond Rhythmic Adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effenberg, Alfred O; Fehse, Ursula; Schmitz, Gerd; Krueger, Bjoern; Mechling, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    Motor learning is based on motor perception and emergent perceptual-motor representations. A lot of behavioral research is related to single perceptual modalities but during last two decades the contribution of multimodal perception on motor behavior was discovered more and more. A growing number of studies indicates an enhanced impact of multimodal stimuli on motor perception, motor control and motor learning in terms of better precision and higher reliability of the related actions. Behavioral research is supported by neurophysiological data, revealing that multisensory integration supports motor control and learning. But the overwhelming part of both research lines is dedicated to basic research. Besides research in the domains of music, dance and motor rehabilitation, there is almost no evidence for enhanced effectiveness of multisensory information on learning of gross motor skills. To reduce this gap, movement sonification is used here in applied research on motor learning in sports. Based on the current knowledge on the multimodal organization of the perceptual system, we generate additional real-time movement information being suitable for integration with perceptual feedback streams of visual and proprioceptive modality. With ongoing training, synchronously processed auditory information should be initially integrated into the emerging internal models, enhancing the efficacy of motor learning. This is achieved by a direct mapping of kinematic and dynamic motion parameters to electronic sounds, resulting in continuous auditory and convergent audiovisual or audio-proprioceptive stimulus arrays. In sharp contrast to other approaches using acoustic information as error-feedback in motor learning settings, we try to generate additional movement information suitable for acceleration and enhancement of adequate sensorimotor representations and processible below the level of consciousness. In the experimental setting, participants were asked to learn a closed