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Sample records for basic life support

  1. [Basic life support in pediatrics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo Macías, A; Manrique Martínez, I; Rodríguez Núñez, A; López-Herce Cid, J

    2006-09-01

    Basic life support (BLS) is the combination of maneuvers that identifies the child in cardiopulmonary arrest and initiates the substitution of respiratory and circulatory function, without the use of technical adjuncts, until the child can receive more advanced treatment. BLS includes a sequence of steps or maneuvers that should be performed sequentially: ensuring the safety of rescuer and child, assessing unconsciousness, calling for help, positioning the victim, opening the airway, assessing breathing, ventilating, assessing signs of circulation and/or central arterial pulse, performing chest compressions, activating the emergency medical service system, and checking the results of resuscitation. The most important changes in the new guidelines are the compression: ventilation ratio and the algorithm for relieving foreign body airway obstruction. A compression/ ventilation ratio of 30:2 will be recommended for lay rescuers of infants, children and adults. Health professionals will use a compression: ventilation ratio of 15:2 for infants and children. If the health professional is alone, he/she may also use a ratio of 30:2 to avoid fatigue. In the algorithm for relieving foreign body airway obstruction, when the child becomes unconscious, the maneuvers will be similar to the BLS sequence with chest compressions (functioning as a deobstruction procedure) and ventilation, with reassessment of the mouth every 2 min to check for a foreign body, and evaluation of breathing and the presence of vital signs. BLS maneuvers are easy to learn and can be performed by anyone with adequate training. Therefore, BLS should be taught to all citizens.

  2. Rapid Deterioration of Basic Life Support Skills in Dentists With Basic Life Support Healthcare Provider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogami, Kentaro; Taniguchi, Shogo; Ichiyama, Tomoko

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between basic life support skills in dentists who had completed the American Heart Association's Basic Life Support (BLS) Healthcare Provider qualification and time since course completion. Thirty-six dentists who had completed the 2005 BLS Healthcare Provider course participated in the study. We asked participants to perform 2 cycles of cardiopulmonary resuscitation on a mannequin and evaluated basic life support skills. Dentists who had previously completed the BLS Healthcare Provider course displayed both prolonged reaction times, and the quality of their basic life support skills deteriorated rapidly. There were no correlations between basic life support skills and time since course completion. Our results suggest that basic life support skills deteriorate rapidly for dentists who have completed the BLS Healthcare Provider. Newer guidelines stressing chest compressions over ventilation may help improve performance over time, allowing better cardiopulmonary resuscitation in dental office emergencies. Moreover, it may be effective to provide a more specialized version of the life support course to train the dentists, stressing issues that may be more likely to occur in the dental office.

  3. [Knowledge about basic life support in European students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marton, József; Pandúr, Attila; Pék, Emese; Deutsch, Krisztina; Bánfai, Bálint; Radnai, Balázs; Betlehem, József

    2014-05-25

    Better knowledge and skills of basic life support can save millions of lives each year in Europe. The aim of this study was to measure the knowledge about basic life support in European students. From 13 European countries 1527 volunteer participated in the survey. The questionnaire consisted of socio-demographic questions and knowledge regarding basic life support. The maximum possible score was 18. Those participants who had basic life support training earned 11.91 points, while those who had not participated in lifesaving education had 9.6 points (pbasic life support between students from different European countries. Western European youth, and those who were trained had better performance.

  4. Improving basic life support training for medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Lami M; Nair P; Gadhvi K

    2016-01-01

    Mariam Lami, Pooja Nair, Karishma GadhviFaculty of Medicine, Imperial College, London, London, UKAbstract: Questions have been raised about basic life support (BLS) training in medical education. This article addresses the research evidence behind why BLS training is inadequate and suggests recommendations for improving BLS training for medical students.Keywords: medical education, basic life support

  5. Study of basic-life-support training for college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivilaithon, Winchana; Amnaumpatanapon, Kumpon; Limjindaporn, Chitlada; Imsuwan, Intanon; Daorattanachai, Kiattichai

    2015-03-01

    To study about attitude and knowledge regarding basic-life-support among college students outside medical system. The cross-sectional study in the emergency department of Thammasat Hospital. The authors included college students at least aged 18 years old and volunteers to be study subjects. The authors collected data about attitudes and knowledge in performing basic-life-support by using set of questionnaires. 250 college students participated in the two hours trainingprogram. Most ofparticipants (42.4%) were second-year college students, of which 50 of 250 participants (20%) had trained in basic-life-support program. Twenty-seven of 250 participants (10.8%) had experience in basic-life-support outside the hospital. Most of participants had good attitude for doing basic-life-support. Participants had a significant improved score following training (mean score 8.66 and 12.34, respectively, pbasic-life-support to cardiac arrest patient. The training program in basic-life-support has significant impact on knowledge after training.

  6. Improving basic life support training for medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lami, Mariam; Nair, Pooja; Gadhvi, Karishma

    2016-01-01

    Questions have been raised about basic life support (BLS) training in medical education. This article addresses the research evidence behind why BLS training is inadequate and suggests recommendations for improving BLS training for medical students.

  7. ADULT BASIC LIFE SUPPORT ON NEAR DROWNING AT THE SCENE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gd. Harry Kurnia Prawedana

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is a popular tourist destination which has potential for drowning cases. Therefore, required knowledge of adult basic life support to be able to deal with such cases in the field. Basic life support in an act to maintain airway and assist breathing and circulation without the use of tools other than simple breathing aids. The most important factor that determines the outcome of drowning event is the duration and severity of hypoxia induced. The management of near drowning at the scene include the rescue of victim from the water, rescue breathing, chest compression, cleaning the vomit substances which allowing blockage of the airway, prevent loss of body heat, and transport the victim to nearest emergency department for evaluation and monitoring.

  8. Methodological Challenges in Studies Comparing Prehospital Advanced Life Support with Basic Life Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Timmy; Jones, Courtney M C; Shah, Manish N; Cushman, Jeremy T; Jusko, Todd A

    2017-08-01

    Determining the most appropriate level of care for patients in the prehospital setting during medical emergencies is essential. A large body of literature suggests that, compared with Basic Life Support (BLS) care, Advanced Life Support (ALS) care is not associated with increased patient survival or decreased mortality. The purpose of this special report is to synthesize the literature to identify common study design and analytic challenges in research studies that examine the effect of ALS, compared to BLS, on patient outcomes. The challenges discussed in this report include: (1) choice of outcome measure; (2) logistic regression modeling of common outcomes; (3) baseline differences between study groups (confounding); (4) inappropriate statistical adjustment; and (5) inclusion of patients who are no longer at risk for the outcome. These challenges may affect the results of studies, and thus, conclusions of studies regarding the effect of level of prehospital care on patient outcomes should require cautious interpretation. Specific alternatives for avoiding these challenges are presented. Li T , Jones CMC , Shah MN , Cushman JT , Jusko TA . Methodological challenges in studies comparing prehospital Advanced Life Support with Basic Life Support. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(4):444-450.

  9. Effectiveness of Basic Life Support Training for Middle School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloush, Sami; Tubaishat, Ahmad; ALBashtawy, Mohammed; Suliman, Mohammad; Alrimawi, Intima; Al Sabah, Ashraf; Banikhaled, Yousef

    2018-01-01

    Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation improves survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of a basic life support (BLS) educational course given to 110 middle school children, using a pretest posttest design. In the pretest, students were asked to demonstrate BLS on a manikin to simulate a real-life scenario. After the pretest, a BLS training course of two sessions was provided, followed by posttest on the same manikin. Students were assessed using an observational sheet based on the American Heart Association's BLS guidelines. In the pretest, students showed significant weakness in the majority of guidelines. In the posttest, they demonstrated significant improvement in their BLS skills. BLS training in the middle school was effective, considering the lack of previous skills. It is recommended that BLS education be compulsory in the school setting.

  10. Certified Basic Life Support Instructors Assess Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Skills Poorly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Camilla; Rasmussen, Stinne E; Kristensen, Mette Amalie

    2016-01-01

    quality poorly. Currently no studies have evaluated CPR assessment among certified BLS instructors. The aim of this study was to investigate certified BLS instructors’ assessment of chest compressions and rescue breathing.Methods: Data were collected at BLS courses for medical students at Aarhus...... University, Denmark. In pairs, BLS instructors, certified by the European Resuscitation Council, evaluated each learner in an end-of-course cardiac arrest test. Instructors’ assessments were compared with CPR quality data collected from the resuscitation manikin. Correct chest compressions were defined as ≥2......Introduction: High-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) improves survival from cardiac arrest. During basic life support (BLS) training, instructors assess CPR skills to enhance learning outcome. Emergency department staff and senior residents have been shown to assess chest compression...

  11. Awareness of basic life support among dental practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baduni, Neha; Prakash, Prem; Srivastava, Dhirendra; Sanwal, Manoj Kumar; Singh, Bijender Pal

    2014-01-01

    It is important that every member of our community should be trained in effective BLS technique to save lives. At least doctors including dental practitioners, and medical and paramedical staff should be trained in high quality CPR, as it is a basic medical skill which can save many lives if implemented timely. Our aim was to study the awareness of Basic Life Support (BLS) among dental students and practitioners in New Delhi. This cross sectional study was conducted by assessing responses to 20 selected questions pertaining to BLS among dental students, resident doctors/tutors, faculty members and private practitioners in New Delhi. All participants were given a printed questionnaire where they had to mention their qualifications and clinical experience, apart from answering 20 questions. Data was collected and evaluated using commercially available statistical package for social sciences (SPSS version 12). One hundred and four responders were included. Sadly, none of our responders had complete knowledge about BLS. The maximum mean score (9.19 ± 1.23) was obtained by dentists with clinical experience between 1-5 years. To ensure better and safer healthcare, it is essential for all dental practitioners to be well versed with BLS.

  12. Comparison of Online and Traditional Basic Life Support Renewal Training Methods for Registered Professional Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serwetnyk, Tara M; Filmore, Kristi; VonBacho, Stephanie; Cole, Robert; Miterko, Cindy; Smith, Caitlin; Smith, Charlene M

    2015-01-01

    Basic Life Support certification for nursing staff is achieved through various training methods. This study compared three American Heart Association training methods for nurses seeking Basic Life Support renewal: a traditional classroom approach and two online options. Findings indicate that online methods for Basic Life Support renewal deliver cost and time savings, while maintaining positive learning outcomes, satisfaction, and confidence level of participants.

  13. Can basic life support personnel safely determine that advanced life support is not needed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cone, D C; Wydro, G C

    2001-01-01

    To determine whether firefighter/emergency medical technicians-basic (FF/EMT-Bs) staffing basic life support (BLS) ambulances in a two-tiered emergency medical services (EMS) system can safely determine when advanced life support (ALS) is not needed. This was a prospective, observational study conducted in two academic emergency departments (EDs) receiving patients from a large urban fire-based EMS system. Runs were studied to which ALS and BLS ambulances were simultaneously dispatched, with the patient transported by the BLS unit. Prospectively established criteria for potential need for ALS were used to determine whether the FF/EMT-B's decision to cancel the ALS unit was safe, and simple outcomes (admission rate, length of stay, mortality) were examined. In the system studied, BLS crews may cancel responding ALS units at their discretion; there are no protocols or medical criteria for cancellation. A convenience sample of 69 cases was collected. In 52 cases (75%), the BLS providers indicated that they cancelled the responding ALS unit because they did not feel ALS was needed. Of these, 40 (77%) met study criteria for ALS: 39 had potentially serious chief complaints, nine had abnormal vital signs, and ten had physical exam findings that warranted ALS. Forty-five (87%) received an intervention immediately upon ED arrival that could have been provided in the field by an ALS unit, and 16 (31%) were admitted, with a median length of stay of 3.3 days (range 1.1-73.4 days). One patient died. Firefighter/EMT-Bs, working without protocols or medical criteria, cannot always safely determine which patients may require ALS intervention.

  14. Use of Intranasal Naloxone by Basic Life Support Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Scott G; Mitchell, Patricia M; Temin, Elizabeth S; Langlois, Breanne K; Dyer, K Sophia

    2017-01-01

    Intranasal delivery of naloxone to reverse the effects of opioid overdose by Advanced Life Support (ALS) providers has been studied in several prehospital settings. In 2006, in response to the increase in opioid-related overdoses, a special waiver from the state allowed administration of intranasal naloxone by Basic Life Support (BLS) providers in our city. This study aimed to determine: 1) if patients who received a 2-mg dose of nasal naloxone administered by BLS required repeat dosing while in the emergency department (ED), and 2) the disposition of these patients. This was a retrospective review of patients transported by an inner-city municipal ambulance service to one of three academic medical centers. We included patients aged 18 and older that were transported by ambulance between 1/1/2006 and 12/12/2012 and who received intranasal naloxone by BLS providers as per a state approved protocol. Site investigators matched EMS run data to patients from each hospital's EMR and performed a chart review to confirm that the patient was correctly identified and to record the outcomes of interest. Descriptive statistics were then generated. A total of 793 patients received nasal naloxone by BLS and were transported to three hospitals. ALS intervened and transported 116 (14.6%) patients, and 11 (1.4%) were intubated in the field. There were 724 (91.3%) patients successfully matched to an ED chart. Hospital A received 336 (46.4%) patients, Hospital B received 210 (29.0%) patients, and Hospital C received 178 (24.6%) patients. Mean age was 36.2 (SD 10.5) years and 522 (72.1%) were male; 702 (97.1%) were reported to have abused heroin while 21 (2.9%) used other opioids. Nasal naloxone had an effect per the prehospital record in 689 (95.2%) patients. An additional naloxone dose was given in the ED to 64 (8.8%) patients. ED dispositions were: 507 (70.0%) discharged, 105 (14.5%) admitted, and 112 (15.5%) other (e.g., left against medical advice, left without being seen, or

  15. Teaching school children basic life support improves teaching and basic life support skills of medical students: A randomised, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Stefanie; Meier-Klages, Vivian; Michaelis, Maria; Sehner, Susanne; Harendza, Sigrid; Zöllner, Christian; Kubitz, Jens Christian

    2016-11-01

    The "kids save lives" joint-statement highlights the effectiveness of training all school children worldwide in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) to improve survival after cardiac arrest. The personnel requirement to implement this statement is high. Until now, no randomised controlled trial investigated if medical students benefit from their engagement in the BLS-education of school children regarding their later roles as physicians. The objective of the present study is to evaluate if medical students improve their teaching behaviour and CPR-skills by teaching school children in basic life support. The study is a randomised, single blind, controlled trial carried out with medical students during their final year. In total, 80 participants were allocated alternately to either the intervention or the control group. The intervention group participated in a CPR-instructor-course consisting of a 4h-preparatory seminar and a teaching-session in BLS for school children. The primary endpoints were effectiveness of teaching in an objective teaching examination and pass-rates in a simulated BLS-scenario. The 28 students who completed the CPR-instructor-course had significantly higher scores for effective teaching in five of eight dimensions and passed the BLS-assessment significantly more often than the 25 students of the control group (Odds Ratio (OR): 10.0; 95%-CI: 1.9-54.0; p=0.007). Active teaching of BLS improves teaching behaviour and resuscitation skills of students. Teaching school children in BLS may prepare medical students for their future role as a clinical teacher and support the implementation of the "kids save lives" statement on training all school children worldwide in BLS at the same time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [The level of first aid and basic life support for the next generation of physicians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Severien, I.; Tan, E.C.T.H.; Metz, J.C.; Biert, J.; Berden, H.J.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    According to Dutch medical-education guidelines junior doctors are expected to be able to carry out first aid and basic life support. We determined the level of first aid and basic life support of junior doctors at the Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, The Netherlands. Of the 300 junior

  17. First aid and basic life support of junior doctors: A prospective study in Nijmegen, the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, E.C.T.H.; Severien, I.; Metz, J.C.; Berden, H.J.J.M.; Biert, J.

    2006-01-01

    According to the Dutch medical education guidelines junior doctors are expected to be able to perform first aid and basic life support. A prospective study was undertaken to assess the level of first aid and basic life support (BLS) competence of junior doctors at the Radboud University Nijmegen

  18. Effect of chest compressions only during experimental basic life support on alveolar collapse and recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markstaller, Klaus; Rudolph, Annette; Karmrodt, Jens; Gervais, Hendrik W; Goetz, Rolf; Becher, Anja; David, Matthias; Kempski, Oliver S; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Dick, Wolfgang F; Eberle, Balthasar

    2008-10-01

    The importance of ventilatory support during cardiac arrest and basic life support is controversial. This experimental study used dynamic computed tomography (CT) to assess the effects of chest compressions only during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CCO-CPR) on alveolar recruitment and haemodynamic parameters in porcine model of ventricular fibrillation. Twelve anaesthetized pigs (26+/-1 kg) were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: (1) intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) both during basic life support and advanced cardiac life support, or (2) CCO during basic life support and IPPV during advanced cardiac life support. Measurements were acquired at baseline prior to cardiac arrest, during basic life support, during advanced life support, and after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), as follows: dynamic CT series, arterial and central venous pressures, blood gases, and regional organ blood flow. The ventilated and atelectatic lung area was quantified from dynamic CT images. Differences between groups were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test, and a pbasic life support in the CCO-CPR group remained clinically relevant throughout the subsequent advanced cardiac life support period and following ROSC, and was associated with prolonged impaired haemodynamics. No inter-group differences in myocardial and cerebral blood flow were observed. A lack of ventilation during basic life support is associated with excessive atelectasis, arterial hypoxaemia and compromised CPR haemodynamics. Moreover, these detrimental effects remain evident even after restoration of IPPV.

  19. The Incorporation of Basic Life-Support Training in the Pharmacy Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoud, Asaad N.

    1976-01-01

    Pharmacists have a unique role to play in providing basic life-support since they are the health professionals who are most available and who enjoy the greatest contact with the public. Training procedures are described. (LBH)

  20. Basic life support: evaluation of learning using simulation and immediate feedback devices

    OpenAIRE

    Tobase, Lucia; Peres, Heloisa Helena Ciqueto; Tomazini, Edenir Aparecida Sartorelli; Teodoro, Simone Valentim; Ramos, Meire Bruna; Polastri, Thatiane Facholi

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to evaluate students’ learning in an online course on basic life support with immediate feedback devices, during a simulation of care during cardiorespiratory arrest. Method: a quasi-experimental study, using a before-and-after design. An online course on basic life support was developed and administered to participants, as an educational intervention. Theoretical learning was evaluated by means of a pre- and post-test and, to verify the practice, simulation with immedia...

  1. [Current recommendations for basic/advanced life support : Addressing unanswered questions and future prospects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, K; Schmid, B; Busch, H-J

    2016-11-01

    The revised guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation were implemented by the European Resuscitation Council (ERC) in October 2015. There were few changes concerning basic and advanced life support; however, some issues were clarified compared to the ERC recommendations from 2010. The present paper summarizes the procedures of basic and advanced life support according to the current guidelines and highlights the updates of 2015. Furthermore, the article depicts future prospects of cardiopulmonary resuscitation that may improve outcome of patients after cardiac arrest in the future.

  2. Design of an Instructional Module on Basic Life Support for Homeschooled Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awang, Sakinah; Ahmad, Shamsuria; Alias, Norlidah; DeWitt, Dorothy

    2016-01-01

    Basic Life Support (BLS) can increase a victim's chances of survival when administered promptly and correctly. Cardiac and respiratory arrests occur more frequently when the victim is at home far from clinical support. Hence, prompt action by family members trained in BLS can save the victim's life. In this study, the requirements for the design…

  3. Pediatric Basic Life Support Self-training is Comparable to Instructor-led Training: A randomized manikin study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, L. D.; Løfgren, Bo; Jessen, C.

    2011-01-01

    Pediatric Basic Life Support Self-training is comparable to Instructor-led Training: A randomized manikin study.......Pediatric Basic Life Support Self-training is comparable to Instructor-led Training: A randomized manikin study....

  4. Basic life support and children with profound and multiple learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash, Stefan; Shinnick-Page, Andrea

    2008-10-01

    Nurses and other carers of people with learning disabilities must be able to manage choking events and perform basic life support effectively. UK guidelines for assessment of airway obstruction and for resuscitation do not take account of the specific needs of people with profound multiple learning disability. For example, they fail to account for inhibited gag and coughing reflexes, limited body movements or chest deformity. There are no national guidelines to assist in clinical decisions and training for nurses and carers. Basic life support training for students of learning disability nursing at Birmingham City University is supplemented to address these issues. The authors ask whether such training should be provided for all nurses including those caring for children and young people. They also invite comment and discussion on questions related to chest compression and training in basic life support for a person in a seated position.

  5. First aid and basic life support: a questionnaire survey of medical schools in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, E.C.T.H.; Hekkert, K.D.; Vugt, A.B. van; Biert, J.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: Adequate education in first aid and basic life support (BLS) should be considered as an essential aspect of the medical curriculum. The objective of this study was to investigate the current medical training in first aid and BLS at all 8 medical schools in the Netherlands. SUMMARY: An

  6. Comparison of Two Modes of Delivery of First Aid Training Including Basic Life Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippmann, John; Livingston, Patricia; Craike, Melinda J.

    2011-01-01

    Aims: Flexible-learning first aid courses are increasingly common due to reduced classroom contact time. This study compared retention of first aid knowledge and basic life support (BLS) skills three months after a two-day, classroom-based first aid course (STD) to one utilizing on-line theory learning at home followed by one day of classroom…

  7. Retention of first aid and basic life support skills in undergraduate medical students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijter, P.A. de; Biersteker, H.A.; Biert, J.; Goor, H. van; Tan, E.C.T.H.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Undergraduate medical students follow a compulsory first aid (FA) and basic life support (BLS) course. Retention of BLS seems poor and only little information is provided on the retention of FA skills. This study aims at evaluating 1- and 2-year retention of FA and BLS training in

  8. Distributing personal resuscitation manikins in an untrained population: how well are basic life support skills acquired?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Møller; Isbye, Dan Lou; Lippert, Freddy

    2012-01-01

    Background Self-instruction with a DVD and a simple personal manikin is an effective alternative to traditional basic life support (BLS) courses. Objective To evaluate the effect of distributing DVD training kits to untrained laypersons. BLS skills were compared according to 2005 guidelines...

  9. Effects of Game Design Patterns on Basic Life Support Training Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelle, Sebastian; Klemke, Roland; Specht, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Based on a previous analysis of game design patterns and related effects in an educational scenario, the following paper presents an experimental study. In the study a course for Basic Life Support training has been evaluated and two game design patterns have been applied to the course. The hypotheses evaluated in this paper relate to game design…

  10. Effects of perceived autonomy support and basic need satisfaction on quality of life in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-Fang; Chang, Ray-E; Tsai, Hung-Bin; Hou, Ying-Hui

    2018-03-01

    Despite a growing understanding of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and its determinants in hemodialysis (HD) patients, little is known about the effects and interrelationships concerning the perception of autonomy support and basic need satisfaction of HD patients on their HRQOL. Based on self-determination theory (SDT), this study examines whether HD patients' perceived autonomy support from health care practitioners (physicians and nurses) relates to the satisfaction of HD patients' basic needs and in turn influences their HRQOL. A questionnaire was administered to 250 Taiwanese HD patients recruited from multiclinical centers and regional hospitals in northern Taiwan. Structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis was conducted to examine the causal relationships between patient perceptions of autonomy support and HRQOL through basic need satisfaction. The empirical results of SEM indicated that the HD patients' perceived autonomy support increased the satisfaction of their basic needs (autonomy, competency, and relatedness), as expected. The higher degree of basic need satisfaction led to higher HRQOL, as measured by physical and mental component scores. Autonomy support from physicians and nurses contributes to improving HD patients' HRQOL through basic need satisfaction. This indicates that staff caring for patients with severe chronic diseases should offer considerable support for patient autonomy.

  11. Students′ satisfaction to hybrid problem-based learning format for basic life support/advanced cardiac life support teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetanjali Chilkoti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Students are exposed to basic life support (BLS and advanced cardiac life support (ACLS training in the first semester in some medical colleges. The aim of this study was to compare students′ satisfaction between lecture-based traditional method and hybrid problem-based learning (PBL in BLS/ACLS teaching to undergraduate medical students. Methods: We conducted a questionnaire-based, cross-sectional survey among 118 1 st -year medical students from a university medical college in the city of New Delhi, India. We aimed to assess the students′ satisfaction between lecture-based and hybrid-PBL method in BLS/ACLS teaching. Likert 5-point scale was used to assess students′ satisfaction levels between the two teaching methods. Data were collected and scores regarding the students′ satisfaction levels between these two teaching methods were analysed using a two-sided paired t-test. Results: Most students preferred hybrid-PBL format over traditional lecture-based method in the following four aspects; learning and understanding, interest and motivation, training of personal abilities and being confident and satisfied with the teaching method (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Implementation of hybrid-PBL format along with the lecture-based method in BLS/ACLS teaching provided high satisfaction among undergraduate medical students.

  12. Students' satisfaction to hybrid problem-based learning format for basic life support/advanced cardiac life support teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilkoti, Geetanjali; Mohta, Medha; Wadhwa, Rachna; Saxena, Ashok Kumar; Sharma, Chhavi Sarabpreet; Shankar, Neelima

    2016-11-01

    Students are exposed to basic life support (BLS) and advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) training in the first semester in some medical colleges. The aim of this study was to compare students' satisfaction between lecture-based traditional method and hybrid problem-based learning (PBL) in BLS/ACLS teaching to undergraduate medical students. We conducted a questionnaire-based, cross-sectional survey among 118 1 st -year medical students from a university medical college in the city of New Delhi, India. We aimed to assess the students' satisfaction between lecture-based and hybrid-PBL method in BLS/ACLS teaching. Likert 5-point scale was used to assess students' satisfaction levels between the two teaching methods. Data were collected and scores regarding the students' satisfaction levels between these two teaching methods were analysed using a two-sided paired t -test. Most students preferred hybrid-PBL format over traditional lecture-based method in the following four aspects; learning and understanding, interest and motivation, training of personal abilities and being confident and satisfied with the teaching method ( P < 0.05). Implementation of hybrid-PBL format along with the lecture-based method in BLS/ACLS teaching provided high satisfaction among undergraduate medical students.

  13. Prehospital interventions for penetrating trauma victims: a prospective comparison between Advanced Life Support and Basic Life Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seamon, Mark J; Doane, Stephen M; Gaughan, John P; Kulp, Heather; D'Andrea, Anthony P; Pathak, Abhijit S; Santora, Thomas A; Goldberg, Amy J; Wydro, Gerald C

    2013-05-01

    Advanced Life Support (ALS) providers may perform more invasive prehospital procedures, while Basic Life Support (BLS) providers offer stabilisation care and often "scoop and run". We hypothesised that prehospital interventions by urban ALS providers prolong prehospital time and decrease survival in penetrating trauma victims. We prospectively analysed 236 consecutive ambulance-transported, penetrating trauma patients an our urban Level-1 trauma centre (6/2008-12/2009). Inclusion criteria included ICU admission, length of stay >/=2 days, or in-hospital death. Demographics, clinical characteristics, and outcomes were compared between ALS and BLS patients. Single and multiple variable logistic regression analysis determined predictors of hospital survival. Of 236 patients, 71% were transported by ALS and 29% by BLS. When ALS and BLS patients were compared, no differences in age, penetrating mechanism, scene GCS score, Injury Severity Score, or need for emergency surgery were detected (p>0.05). Patients transported by ALS units more often underwent prehospital interventions (97% vs. 17%; p<0.01), including endotracheal intubation, needle thoracostomy, cervical collar, IV placement, and crystalloid resuscitation. While ALS ambulance on-scene time was significantly longer than that of BLS (p<0.01), total prehospital time was not (p=0.98) despite these prehospital interventions (1.8 ± 1.0 per ALS patient vs. 0.2 ± 0.5 per BLS patient; p<0.01). Overall, 69.5% ALS patients and 88.4% of BLS patients (p<0.01) survived to hospital discharge. Prehospital resuscitative interventions by ALS units performed on penetrating trauma patients may lengthen on-scene time but do not significantly increase total prehospital time. Regardless, these interventions did not appear to benefit our rapidly transported, urban penetrating trauma patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Retention of Knowledge following training of students in Basic Trauma Life Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, K G; Lum, S K; Burud, I A S

    2016-12-01

    In the course of their undergraduate training at the International Medical University, students receive a Basic Trauma Life Support course. We wanted to test the long-term retention of knowledge (after 16 months) of third year medical students who had received training in Basic Trauma Life Support Method: To assess the retention of knowledge one cohort of students who received the training course were tested again 16 months later using the same 30 question One Best Answer quiz. Seventy-three students who underwent the course sat for the Retention test. The number of students who passed the Retention test was not significantly different from the test taken immediately after the course. The mean scores, 62.5% and 59.5% respectively, were however significantly different. Our study involves a relatively long interval between the course and retention of knowledge test shows encouraging results.

  15. Retention of first aid and basic life support skills in undergraduate medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Ruijter, P.A. de; Biersteker, H.A.; Biert, J.; Goor, H. van; Tan, E.C.T.H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Undergraduate medical students follow a compulsory first aid (FA) and basic life support (BLS) course. Retention of BLS seems poor and only little information is provided on the retention of FA skills. This study aims at evaluating 1- and 2-year retention of FA and BLS training in undergraduate medical students.Methods: One hundred and twenty students were randomly selected from first year (n=349) medical students who successfully followed a compulsory FA and BLS course. From thes...

  16. Epidemiology of Pediatric Prehospital Basic Life Support Care in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diggs, Leigh Ann; Sheth-Chandra, Manasi; De Leo, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    Children have unique medical needs compared to adults. Emergency medical services personnel need proper equipment and training to care for children. The purpose of this study is to characterize emergency medical services pediatric basic life support to help better understand the needs of children transported by ambulance. Pediatric basic life support patients were identified in this retrospective descriptive study. Descriptive statistics were used to examine incident location, possible injury, cardiac arrest, resuscitation attempted, chief complaint, primary symptom, provider's primary impression, cause of injury, and procedures performed during pediatric basic life support calls using the largest aggregate of emergency medical services data available, the 2013 National Emergency Medical Services Information System (NEMSIS) Public Release Research Data Set. Pediatric calls represented 7.4% of emergency medical services activations. Most pediatric patients were male (49.8%), White (40.0%), and of non-Hispanic origin (56.5%). Most incidents occurred in the home. Injury, cardiac arrest, and resuscitation attempts were highest in the 15 to 19 year old age group. Global complaints (37.1%) predominated by anatomic location and musculoskeletal complaints (26.9%) by organ system. The most common primary symptom was pain (30.3%) followed by mental/psychiatric (13.4%). Provider's top primary impression was traumatic injury (35.7%). The most common cause of injury was motor vehicle accident (32.3%). The most common procedure performed was patient assessment (27.4%). Median EMS system response time was 7 minutes (IQR: 5-12). Median EMS scene time was 12 minutes (IQR: 8-19). Median transport time was 14 minutes (IQR: 8-24). Median EMS total call time was 51 minutes (IQR: 33-77). The epidemiology of pediatric basic life support can help to guide efforts in both emergency medical services operations and training.

  17. Knowledge of the Portuguese population on Basic Life Support and availability to attend training

    OpenAIRE

    Dixe, Maria dos Anjos Coelho Rodrigues; Gomes, José Carlos Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVETo evaluate the level of knowledge and the availability of the Portuguese population to attend training in Basic Life Support (BLS) and identify factors related to their level of knowledge about BLS.METHODObservational study including 1,700 people who responded to a questionnaire containing data on demography, profession, training, interest in training and knowledge about BLS.RESULTSAmong 754 men and 943 women, only 17.8% (303) attended a course on BLS, but 95.6% expressed willingnes...

  18. A comparison of pediatric basic life support self-led and instructor-led training among nurses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Lone D; Løfgren, Bo; Jessen, Casper L

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Pediatric cardiac arrest carries a poor prognosis. Basic life support improves survival. Studies on pediatric basic life support (PBLS) training are sparse. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of self-training in PBLS. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective...

  19. Basic life support: evaluation of learning using simulation and immediate feedback devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Tobase

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to evaluate students’ learning in an online course on basic life support with immediate feedback devices, during a simulation of care during cardiorespiratory arrest. Method: a quasi-experimental study, using a before-and-after design. An online course on basic life support was developed and administered to participants, as an educational intervention. Theoretical learning was evaluated by means of a pre- and post-test and, to verify the practice, simulation with immediate feedback devices was used. Results: there were 62 participants, 87% female, 90% in the first and second year of college, with a mean age of 21.47 (standard deviation 2.39. With a 95% confidence level, the mean scores in the pre-test were 6.4 (standard deviation 1.61, and 9.3 in the post-test (standard deviation 0.82, p <0.001; in practice, 9.1 (standard deviation 0.95 with performance equivalent to basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation, according to the feedback device; 43.7 (standard deviation 26.86 mean duration of the compression cycle by second of 20.5 (standard deviation 9.47; number of compressions 167.2 (standard deviation 57.06; depth of compressions of 48.1 millimeter (standard deviation 10.49; volume of ventilation 742.7 (standard deviation 301.12; flow fraction percentage of 40.3 (standard deviation 10.03. Conclusion: the online course contributed to learning of basic life support. In view of the need for technological innovations in teaching and systematization of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, simulation and feedback devices are resources that favor learning and performance awareness in performing the maneuvers.

  20. Quality of Basic Life Support - A Comparison between Medical Students and Paramedics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körber, Maria Isabel; Köhler, Thomas; Weiss, Verena; Pfister, Roman; Michels, Guido

    2016-07-01

    Poor survival rates after cardiac arrest can partly be explained by poor basic life support skills in medical professionals. This study aimed to assess quality of basic life support in medical students and paramedics. We conducted a prospective observational study with 100 early medical students (group A), 100 late medical students (group B) and 100 paramedics (group C), performing a 20-minute basic life support simulation in teams of two. Average frequency and absolute number of chest compressions per minute (mean (±SD)), chest decompression (millimetres of compression remaining, mean (±SD)), hands-off-time (seconds/minute, mean (±SD)), frequency of switching positions between ventilation and chest compression (per 20 minutes) and rate of sufficient compressions (depth ≥50mm) were assessed as quality parameters of CPR. In groups A, B and C the rates of sufficiently deep chest compressions were 56%, 42% and 52%, respectively, without significant differences. Male gender and real-life CPR experience were significantly associated with deeper chest compression. Frequency and number of chest compressions were within recommended goals in at least 96% of all groups. Remaining chest compressions were 6 mm (±2), 6 mm (±2) and 5 mm (±2) with a significant difference between group A and C (p=0.017). Hands-off times were 6s/min (±1), 5s/min (±1) and 4s/min (±1), which was significantly different across all three groups. Overall, paramedics tended to show better quality of CPR compared to medical students. Though, chest compression depth as an important quality characteristic of CPR was insufficient in almost 50% of participants, even in well trained paramedics. Therefore, we suggest that an effort should be made to find better ways to educate health care professionals in BLS.

  1. Basic life support: evaluation of learning using simulation and immediate feedback devices1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobase, Lucia; Peres, Heloisa Helena Ciqueto; Tomazini, Edenir Aparecida Sartorelli; Teodoro, Simone Valentim; Ramos, Meire Bruna; Polastri, Thatiane Facholi

    2017-10-30

    to evaluate students' learning in an online course on basic life support with immediate feedback devices, during a simulation of care during cardiorespiratory arrest. a quasi-experimental study, using a before-and-after design. An online course on basic life support was developed and administered to participants, as an educational intervention. Theoretical learning was evaluated by means of a pre- and post-test and, to verify the practice, simulation with immediate feedback devices was used. there were 62 participants, 87% female, 90% in the first and second year of college, with a mean age of 21.47 (standard deviation 2.39). With a 95% confidence level, the mean scores in the pre-test were 6.4 (standard deviation 1.61), and 9.3 in the post-test (standard deviation 0.82, p feedback device; 43.7 (standard deviation 26.86) mean duration of the compression cycle by second of 20.5 (standard deviation 9.47); number of compressions 167.2 (standard deviation 57.06); depth of compressions of 48.1 millimeter (standard deviation 10.49); volume of ventilation 742.7 (standard deviation 301.12); flow fraction percentage of 40.3 (standard deviation 10.03). the online course contributed to learning of basic life support. In view of the need for technological innovations in teaching and systematization of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, simulation and feedback devices are resources that favor learning and performance awareness in performing the maneuvers.

  2. Basics in advanced life support: a role for download audit and metronomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, David; Galloway, Robert; Chamberlain, Douglas; Pateman, Jane; Bryant, Geoffrey; Newcombe, Robert G

    2008-08-01

    An intention in 2003 to undertake a multicentre trial in the United Kingdom of compressions before and after defibrillation could not be realized because of concerns at the time in relation to informed consent. Instead, the new protocol was introduced in one ambulance service, ahead of the 2005 Guidelines, with greater emphasis on compressions. The results were monitored by analysis of electronic ECG downloads. Deficiencies in the standard of basic life support were identified but were not unique to our service. The introduction of metronomes and the provision of feedback to crews led to major improvements in performance. Our experience has implications for the emergency pre-hospital care of cardiac arrest.

  3. Effects of obligatory training and prior training experience on attitudes towards performing basic life support: a questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Hiroki; Enami, Miki; Hirose, Keiko; Kamikura, Takahisa; Nishi, Taiki; Takei, Yutaka; Inaba, Hideo

    2015-04-01

    To determine the effect of Japanese obligatory basic life support training for new driver's license applicants on their willingness to carry out basic life support. We distributed a questionnaire to 9,807 participants of basic life support courses in authorized driving schools from May 2007 to April 2008 after the release of the 2006 Japanese guidelines. The questionnaire explored the participants' willingness to perform basic life support in four hypothetical scenarios: cardiopulmonary resuscitation on one's own initiative; compression-only cardiopulmonary resuscitation following telephone cardiopulmonary resuscitation; early emergency call; and use of an automated external defibrillator. The questionnaire was given at the beginning of the basic life support course in the first 6-month term and at the end in the second 6-month term. The 9,011 fully completed answer sheets were analyzed. The training significantly increased the proportion of respondents willing to use an automated external defibrillator and to perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation on their own initiative in those with and without prior basic life support training experience. It significantly increased the proportion of respondents willing to carry out favorable actions in all four scenarios. In multiple logistic regression analysis, basic life support training and prior training experiences within 3 years were associated with the attitude. The analysis of reasons for unwillingness suggested that the training reduced the lack of confidence in their skill but did not attenuate the lack of confidence in detection of arrest or clinical judgment to initiate a basic life support action. Obligatory basic life support training should be carried out periodically and modified to ensure that participants gain confidence in judging and detecting cardiac arrest.

  4. Basic life support: knowledge and attitude of medical/paramedical professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshana, Shrestha; Kh, Batajoo; Rm, Piryani; Mw, Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Basic life support (BLS), a key component of the chain of survival decreases the arrest - cardiopulmonary resuscitation interval and increases the rate of hospital discharge. The study aimed to explore the knowledge of and attitude towards basic life support (BLS) among medical/paramedical professionals. An observational study was conducted by assessing response to self prepared questionnaire consisting of the demographic information of the medical/paramedical staff, their personnel experience/attitude and knowledge of BLS based on the 2005 BLS Guidelines of European Resuscitation Council. After excluding incomplete questionnaires, the data from 121 responders (27 clinical faculty members, 21 dental and basic sciences faculty members, 29 house officers and 44 nurses and health assistants) were analyzed. Only 9 (7.4%) of the 121 responders answered ≥11, 53 (43%) answered 7-10, and 58 (48%) answered basic sciences faculty members attained a least mean score of 4.52 ±2.13 (P<0.001). Those who had received cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training within 5 years obtained a highest mean score of 8.62±2.49, whereas those who had the training more than 5 years back or no training obtained a mean score of 5.54±2.38 and 6.1±2.29 respectively (P=0.001). Those who were involved in resuscitation frequently had a higher median score of 8 in comparison to those who were seldom involved or not involved at all (P<0.001). The average health personnel in our hospital lack adequate knowledge in CPR/BLS. Training and experience can enhance knowledge of CPR of these personnel. Thus standard of CPR/BLS training and assessment are recommended at our hospital.

  5. Outcomes after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest treated by basic vs advanced life support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanghavi, Prachi; Jena, Anupam B; Newhouse, Joseph P; Zaslavsky, Alan M

    2015-02-01

    Most out-of-hospital cardiac arrests receiving emergency medical services in the United States are treated by ambulance service providers trained in advanced life support (ALS), but supporting evidence for the use of ALS over basic life support (BLS) is limited. To compare the effects of BLS and ALS on outcomes after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Observational cohort study of a nationally representative sample of traditional Medicare beneficiaries from nonrural counties who experienced out-of-hospital cardiac arrest between January 1, 2009, and October 2, 2011, and for whom ALS or BLS ambulance services were billed to Medicare (31,292 ALS cases and 1643 BLS cases). Propensity score methods were used to compare the effects of ALS and BLS on patient survival, neurological performance, and medical spending after cardiac arrest. Survival to hospital discharge, to 30 days, and to 90 days; neurological performance; and incremental medical spending per additional survivor to 1 year. Survival to hospital discharge was greater among patients receiving BLS (13.1% vs 9.2% for ALS; 4.0 [95% CI, 2.3-5.7] percentage point difference), as was survival to 90 days (8.0% vs 5.4% for ALS; 2.6 [95% CI, 1.2-4.0] percentage point difference). Basic life support was associated with better neurological functioning among hospitalized patients (21.8% vs 44.8% with poor neurological functioning for ALS; 23.0 [95% CI, 18.6-27.4] percentage point difference). Incremental medical spending per additional survivor to 1 year for BLS relative to ALS was $154,333. Patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest who received BLS had higher survival at hospital discharge and at 90 days compared with those who received ALS and were less likely to experience poor neurological functioning.

  6. Analysis of the YouTube videos on basic life support and cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourinho, Francis Solange Vieira; de Medeiros, Kleyton Santos; Salvador, Pétala Tuani Candido De Oliveira; Castro, Grayce Loyse Tinoco; Santos, Viviane Euzébia Pereira

    2012-01-01

    To analyze the videos on the YouTube video sharing site, noting which points addressed in the videos related to CPR and BLS, based on the 2010 Guidelines for the American Heart Association (AHA). This was an exploratory, quantitative and qualitative research performed in the YouTube sharing site, using as keywords the expressions in Portuguese equivalent to the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) "Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation" and "Basic Life Support" for videos that focused on the basic life support. The research totaled 260 videos over the two searches. Following the exclusion criteria, 61 videos remained. These mostly are posted by individuals and belong to the category Education. Moreover, most of the videos, despite being added to the site after the publication of the 2010 AHA Guidelines, were under the older 2005 guidelines. Although the video-sharing site YouTube is widely used today, it lacks videos about CPR and BLS that comply to the most recent AHA recommendations, which may negatively influence the population that uses it.

  7. Instructional design in the development of an online course on Basic Life Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobase, Lucia; Peres, Heloisa Helena Ciqueto; Almeida, Denise Maria de; Tomazini, Edenir Aparecida Sartorelli; Ramos, Meire Bruna; Polastri, Thatiane Facholi

    2018-03-26

    To develop and evaluate an online course on Basic Life Support. Technological production research of online course guided by the ADDIE (Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, Evaluation) instructional design model based on Andragogy and the Meaningful Learning Theory. The online course was constructed in the platform Moodle, previously assessed by a group of experts, and then presented to the students of the Nursing School of the University of São Paulo, who assessed it at the end of the course. The course was evaluated by the experts and obtained a mean score of 0.92 (SD 0.15), considered as good quality (between 0.90-0.94), and by the students, with a mean score of 0.95 (SD 0.03), considered as high quality (0.95-1.00). The instructional design used was found to be appropriate to the development of the online course. As an active educational strategy, it contributed to the learning on Basic Life Support during cardiac arrest-related procedures in adults. In view of the need for technological innovations in education and systematization of care in cardiopulmonary resuscitation, the online course allows the establishment of continuous improvement processes in the quality of resuscitation in the care provided by students and professionals.

  8. Awareness of basic life support among medical, dental, nursing students and doctors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanta Chandrasekaran

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the awareness of Basic Life Support (BLS among students, doctors and nurses of medical, dental, homeopathy and nursing colleges. A cross-sectional study was conducted by assessing responses to 20 selected basic questions regarding BLS among students, doctors and nurses of medical, dental, homeopathy and nursing colleges. After excluding the incomplete response forms the data was analysed on 1,054 responders. The results were analysed using an answer key prepared with the use of the Advanced Cardiac Life Support manual. Out of 1,054 responders 345 were medical students, 75 were medical interns, 19 were dental students, 59 were dental interns, 105 were homeopathy interns, 319 were nursing students, 72 were doctors, 29 were dentists, 25 were nursing faculty and six were homeopathy doctors. No one among them had complete knowledge of BLS. Only two out of 1054 (0.19% had secured 80 - 89% marks, 10 out of 1054 (0.95% had secured 70 - 79% marks, 40 of 1054 (4.08% had secured 60 - 69% marks and 105 of 1054 (9.96% had secured 50 - 59% marks. A majority of them, that is, 894 (84.82% had secured less than 50% marks. Awareness of BLS among students, doctors and nurses of medical, dental, homeopathy and nursing colleges is very poor.

  9. Evaluation of Retention of Knowledge and Skills Imparted to First-Year Medical Students through Basic Life Support Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pande, Sushma; Pande, Santosh; Parate, Vrushali; Pande, Sanket; Sukhsohale, Neelam

    2014-01-01

    Poor awareness among medical graduates about basic life support (BLS) is a matter of great concern. The presence of a trained rescuer is the key determinant of ultimate survival from life-threatening emergencies. To achieve this goal, early exposure to such life-saving skills is the right decision to foster these skills for medical students, which…

  10. The Reliability of Turkish "Basic Life Support" and "Cardiac Massage" Videos Uploaded to Websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elicabuk, Hayri; Yaylacı, Serpil; Yilmaz, Atakan; Hatipoglu, Celile; Kaya, F Gokhan; Serinken, Mustafa

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the reliability of Turkish cardiac massage and Basic Life Support (BLS) videos, which have already been downloaded from three website such as YouTube, Google, Yahoo following the publication of 2010 cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) guideline and their suitability to the same guideline were researched. The videos uploaded to the three web-site to search videos on internet were queried by using the keywords "cardiac massage" and "basic life support". Videos that had been uploaded between January 2011 and July 2014 were analyzed and scored by two experienced emergency specialists. A total of 1126 videos were obtained. 1029 of the videos (91.4%) were excluded by researchers. 97 videos were detected to accord with study criteria. Despite most of the videos were found on Google website by keywords, the enormous part of videos proper to criteria were sourced from YouTube website (n=65, 67.0%). One fourth of the videos (24.7%) were observed to not be suitable for 2010 CPR guideline. AED usage was mentioned slightly in the videos (14.4%). Median score of the videos is 5 (IQR: 4-6). The rate and scores of the videos uploaded by official institution or association were significantly higher than others (p=0.007 and 0.006, respectively). Moreover, scores of the videos compatible with guidelines uploaded by official institution or association and medical personal were also found higher (p=0.001). Eventually, all the data obtained in this study support that Turkish videos were not reliable on the subject of BLS and cardiac massage. It is promising that videos with high follow-up rates also have been scored higher.

  11. Outcomes of Basic Versus Advanced Life Support for Out-of-Hospital Medical Emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanghavi, Prachi; Jena, Anupam B; Newhouse, Joseph P; Zaslavsky, Alan M

    2015-11-03

    Most Medicare patients seeking emergency medical transport are treated by ambulance providers trained in advanced life support (ALS). Evidence supporting the superiority of ALS over basic life support (BLS) is limited, but some studies suggest ALS may harm patients. To compare outcomes after ALS and BLS in out-of-hospital medical emergencies. Observational study with adjustment for propensity score weights and instrumental variable analyses based on county-level variations in ALS use. Traditional Medicare. 20% random sample of Medicare beneficiaries from nonrural counties between 2006 and 2011 with major trauma, stroke, acute myocardial infarction (AMI), or respiratory failure. Neurologic functioning and survival to 30 days, 90 days, 1 year, and 2 years. Except in cases of AMI, patients showed superior unadjusted outcomes with BLS despite being older and having more comorbidities. In propensity score analyses, survival to 90 days among patients with trauma, stroke, and respiratory failure was higher with BLS than ALS (6.1 percentage points [95% CI, 5.4 to 6.8 percentage points] for trauma; 7.0 percentage points [CI, 6.2 to 7.7 percentage points] for stroke; and 3.7 percentage points [CI, 2.5 to 4.8 percentage points] for respiratory failure). Patients with AMI did not exhibit differences in survival at 30 days but had better survival at 90 days with ALS (1.0 percentage point [CI, 0.1 to 1.9 percentage points]). Neurologic functioning favored BLS for all diagnoses. Results from instrumental variable analyses were broadly consistent with propensity score analyses for trauma and stroke, showed no survival differences between BLS and ALS for respiratory failure, and showed better survival at all time points with BLS than ALS for patients with AMI. Only Medicare beneficiaries from nonrural counties were studied. Advanced life support is associated with substantially higher mortality for several acute medical emergencies than BLS. National Science Foundation, Agency for

  12. Evidences About The Skills Of Nursing Professionals Regarding The Protocol In Basic Life Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Chaves da Cruz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the available scientific evidence about the skills of nursing professionals regarding the protocols of care in Basic Life Support. Method: An integrative review performed in the databases LILACS, PUBMED, COCHRANE LIBRARY and other sources of literature, in March and April 2016, using the controlled descriptors "Emergency Nursing", "Knowledge", "Cardiac Arrest", "Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation". There were selected 27 articles based on the inclusion criteria. Results: The main researches identified about the main challenges and knowledge experienced by nursing in the urgency and the emergency services facing cardiorespiratory arrest. It was noticed that the years 2010, 2012 and 2013 corresponded to the period with the greatest number of scientific articles published about the subject researched, being 2012 as the major year in publications. Conclusion: Nursing qualification programs for care are a way to approach their practical reality, standardizing care.

  13. The 2015 Resuscitation Council of Asia (RCA) guidelines on adult basic life support for lay rescuers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sung Phil; Sakamoto, Tetsuya; Lim, Swee Han; Ma, Mathew Huei-Ming; Wang, Tzong-Luen; Lavapie, Francis; Krisanarungson, Sopon; Nonogi, Hiroshi; Hwang, Sung Oh

    2016-08-01

    This paper introduces adult basic life support (BLS) guidelines for lay rescuers of the resuscitation council of Asia (RCA) developed for the first time. The RCA BLS guidelines for lay rescuers have been established by expert consensus among BLS Guidelines Taskforce of the RCA on the basis of the 2015 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science with Treatment Recommendations. The RCA recommends compression-only CPR for lay rescuers and emphasizes high-quality CPR with chest compression depth of approximately 5cm and chest compression rate of 100-120min(-1). Role of emergency medical dispatchers in helping lay rescuers recognize cardiac arrest and perform CPR is also emphasized. The RCA guidelines will contribute to help Asian countries establish and implement their own CPR guidelines in the context of their domestic circumstances. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. What should be included in the assessment of laypersons' paediatric basic life support skills?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselager, Asbjørn Børch; Lauritsen, Torsten; Kristensen, Tim

    2018-01-01

    body airway obstruction management (FBAOM) skills. We aimed to establish international consensus on how to assess laypersons' PBLS and FBAOM skills. METHODS: A Delphi consensus survey was conducted. Out of a total of 84 invited experts, 28 agreed to participate. During the first Delphi round experts...... resulted in nine and eight essential assessment items for PBLS and FBAOM skills, respectively. The PBLS items included: "Responsiveness"," Call for help", "Open airway"," Check breathing", "Rescue breaths", "Compressions", "Ventilations", "Time factor" and "Use of AED". The FBAOM items included: "Identify......' paediatric basic life support and foreign body airway obstruction management skills was established. The assessment of these skills may help to determine when laypersons have acquired competencies. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Not relevant....

  15. Basic Life Support Access to Injectable Epinephrine across the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasted, Ian D; Dailey, Michael W

    2017-01-01

     Aggressive epinephrine administration has growing support in the treatment of anaphylaxis, a life-threatening allergic reaction. Emergency Medical Services (EMS) providers are frequently in a position to provide the first care to someone experiencing an anaphylactic reaction. Intramuscular injection of epinephrine is the definitive pharmacologic treatment for many associated symptoms. While easy to use, epinephrine autoinjectors (EAI) are prohibitively expensive, having increased in price ten-fold in ten years. Some states and EMS departments have begun expanding the scope of practice to allow Basic Life Support (BLS) providers, previously restricted to noninvasive therapies, to administer epinephrine by syringe. To compile a current and comprehensive list of how epinephrine is carried and used by EMS across the USA. An online survey focusing on anaphylaxis protocols and epinephrine administration was sent to state EMS medical directors and officials in all 50 states. Follow-up telephone calls were made to ensure compliance. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics. Forty-nine of the 50 states in the USA provided a survey response. Texas responded but declined to participate in the survey because of practice variability across the state. In the other states, the form of epinephrine allowed or required on BLS ambulances was consistent with the scope of practice of their Basic Emergency Medical Technician (EMT). Thirteen states had training programs to allow BLS providers to inject epinephrine; 7 were considering it; 29 were not. Twenty-seven states specified EAI as the only form of epinephrine required or allowed on their BLS ambulances. No states reported allowing any level of EMS provider below EMT to use alternatives to EAI. This study confirms that many states have expanded the training of BLS providers to include the use of syringe injectable epinephrine. Even so, the majority of states relied on EAI in BLS ambulances.

  16. Are YouTube videos accurate and reliable on basic life support and cardiopulmonary resuscitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaylaci, Serpil; Serinken, Mustafa; Eken, Cenker; Karcioglu, Ozgur; Yilmaz, Atakan; Elicabuk, Hayri; Dal, Onur

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate reliability and accuracy of the information on YouTube videos related to CPR and BLS in accord with 2010 CPR guidelines. YouTube was queried using four search terms 'CPR', 'cardiopulmonary resuscitation', 'BLS' and 'basic life support' between 2011 and 2013. Sources that uploaded the videos, the record time, the number of viewers in the study period, inclusion of human or manikins were recorded. The videos were rated if they displayed the correct order of resuscitative efforts in full accord with 2010 CPR guidelines or not. Two hundred and nine videos meeting the inclusion criteria after the search in YouTube with four search terms ('CPR', 'cardiopulmonary resuscitation', 'BLS' and 'basic life support') comprised the study sample subjected to the analysis. Median score of the videos is 5 (IQR: 3.5-6). Only 11.5% (n = 24) of the videos were found to be compatible with 2010 CPR guidelines with regard to sequence of interventions. Videos uploaded by 'Guideline bodies' had significantly higher rates of download when compared with the videos uploaded by other sources. Sources of the videos and date of upload (year) were not shown to have any significant effect on the scores received (P = 0.615 and 0.513, respectively). The videos' number of downloads did not differ according to the videos compatible with the guidelines (P = 0.832). The videos downloaded more than 10,000 times had a higher score than the others (P = 0.001). The majority of You-Tube video clips purporting to be about CPR are not relevant educational material. Of those that are focused on teaching CPR, only a small minority optimally meet the 2010 Resucitation Guidelines. © 2014 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  17. Basic life support knowledge of secondary school students in cardiopulmonary resuscitation training using a song.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca Del Pozo, Francisco Javier; Valle Alonso, Joaquin; Canales Velis, Nancy Beatriz; Andrade Barahona, Mario Miguel; Siggers, Aidan; Lopera, Elisa

    2016-07-20

    To examine the effectiveness of a "cardiopulmonary resuscitation song" in improving the basic life support skills of secondary school students. This pre-test/post-test control design study enrolled secondary school students from two middle schools randomly chosen in Córdoba, Andalucia, Spain. The study included 608 teenagers. A random sample of 87 students in the intervention group and 35 in the control group, aged 12-14 years were selected. The intervention included a cardiopulmonary resuscitation song and video. A questionnaire was conducted at three-time points: pre-intervention, one month and eight months post-intervention. On global knowledge of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, there were no significant differences between the intervention group and the control group in the trial pre-intervention and at the month post-intervention. However, at 8 months there were significant differences with a p-value = 0.000 (intervention group, 95% CI: 6.39 to 7.13 vs. control group, 95% CI: 4.75 to 5.92), F(1,120)=16.644, p=0.000). In addition, significant differences about students' basic life support knowledge about chest compressions at eight months post-intervention (F(1,120)=15.561, p=0.000) were found. Our study showed that incorporating the song component in the cardiopulmonary resuscitation teaching increased its effectiveness and the ability to remember the cardiopulmonary resuscitation algorithm. Our study highlights the need for different methods in the cardiopulmonary resuscitation teaching to facilitate knowledge retention and increase the number of positive outcomes after sudden cardiac arrest.

  18. Perceptions of basic, advanced, and pediatric life support training in a United States medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillow, Malford Tyson; Stader, Donald; Nguyen, Matthew; Cao, Dazhe; McArthur, Robert; Hoxhaj, Shkelzen

    2014-05-01

    Basic Life Support (BLS), Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS), and Pediatric Advanced Life Support (PALS) are integral parts of emergency resuscitative care. Although this training is usually reserved for residents, introducing the training in the medical student curriculum may enhance acquisition and retention of these skills. We developed a survey to characterize the perceptions and needs of graduating medical students regarding BLS, ACLS, and PALS training. This was a study of graduating 4th-year medical students at a U.S. medical school. The students were surveyed prior to participating in an ACLS course in March of their final year. Of 152 students, 109 (71.7%) completed the survey; 48.6% of students entered medical school without any prior training and 47.7% started clinics without training; 83.4% of students reported witnessing an average of 3.0 in-hospital cardiac arrests during training (range of 0-20). Overall, students rated their preparedness 2.0 (SD 1.0) for adult resuscitations and 1.7 (SD 0.9) for pediatric resuscitations on a 1-5 Likert scale, with 1 being unprepared. A total of 36.8% of students avoided participating in resuscitations due to lack of training; 98.2%, 91.7%, and 64.2% of students believe that BLS, ACLS, and PALS, respectively, should be included in the medical student curriculum. As per previous studies that have examined this topic, students feel unprepared to respond to cardiac arrests and resuscitations. They feel that training is needed in their curriculum and would possibly enhance perceived comfort levels and willingness to participate in resuscitations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Knowledge and Attitudes Towards Basic Life Support Among Health Students at a Saudi Women's University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mohaissen, Maha A

    2017-02-01

    Awareness of basic life support (BLS) is paramount to ensure the provision of essential life-saving medical care in emergency situations. This study aimed to measure knowledge of BLS and attitudes towards BLS training among female health students at a women's university in Saudi Arabia. This prospective cross-sectional study took place between January and April 2016 at five health colleges of the Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. All 2,955 students attending the health colleges were invited to participate in the study. Participants were subsequently asked to complete a validated English-language questionnaire which included 21 items assessing knowledge of BLS and six items gauging attitudes to BLS. A total of 1,349 students completed the questionnaire (response rate: 45.7%). The mean overall knowledge score was very low (32.7 ± 13.9) and 87.9% of the participants had very poor knowledge scores. A total of 32.5% of the participants had never received any BLS training. Students who had previously received BLS training had significantly higher knowledge scores ( P supported mandatory BLS training. Overall knowledge about BLS among the students was very poor; however, attitudes towards BLS training were positive. These findings call for an improvement in BLS education among Saudi female health students so as to ensure appropriate responses in cardiac arrest or other emergency situations.

  20. Basic life support training into cardiac rehabilitation programs: A chance to give back. A community intervention controlled manikin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Salvado, Violeta; Abelairas-Gómez, Cristian; Peña-Gil, Carlos; Neiro-Rey, Carmen; Barcala-Furelos, Roberto; González-Juanatey, José Ramón; Rodríguez-Núñez, Antonio

    2018-03-12

    Early basic life support is crucial to enhance survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest but rates remain low, especially in households. High-risk groups' training has been advocated, but the optimal method is unclear. The CArdiac REhabilitation and BAsic life Support (CAREBAS) project aims to compare the effectiveness of two basic life support educational strategies implemented in a cardiac rehabilitation program. A community intervention study including consecutive patients enrolled on an exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation program after acute coronary syndrome or revascularization was conducted. A standard basic life support training (G-Stan) and a novel approach integrating cardiopulmonary resuscitation hands-on rolling refreshers (G-CPR) were randomly assigned to each group and compared. Basic life support performance was assessed by means of simulation at baseline, following brief instruction and after the 2-month program. 114 participants were included and 108 completed the final evaluation (G-Stan:58, G-CPR:50). Basic life support performance was equally poor at baseline and significantly improved following a brief instruction. A better skill retention was found after the 2-month program in G-CPR, significantly superior for safety and sending for an automated external defibrillator. Confidence and self-perceived preparation were also significantly greater in G-CPR after the program. Integrating cardiopulmonary resuscitation hands-on rolling refreshers in the training of an exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation program is feasible and improves patients' skill retention and confidence to perform a basic life support sequence, compared to conventional training. Exporting this formula to other programs may result in increased numbers of trained citizens, enhanced social awareness and bystander resuscitation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Retention of basic life support knowledge, self-efficacy and chest compression performance in Thai undergraduate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partiprajak, Suphamas; Thongpo, Pichaya

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the retention of basic life support knowledge, self-efficacy, and chest compression performance among Thai nursing students at a university in Thailand. A one-group, pre-test and post-test design time series was used. Participants were 30 nursing students undertaking basic life support training as a care provider. Repeated measure analysis of variance was used to test the retention of knowledge and self-efficacy between pre-test, immediate post-test, and re-test after 3 months. A Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare the difference in chest compression performance two times. Basic life support knowledge was measured using the Basic Life Support Standard Test for Cognitive Knowledge. Self-efficacy was measured using the Basic Life Support Self-Efficacy Questionnaire. Chest compression performance was evaluated using a data printout from Resusci Anne and Laerdal skillmeter within two cycles. The training had an immediate significant effect on the knowledge, self-efficacy, and skill of chest compression; however, the knowledge and self-efficacy significantly declined after post-training for 3 months. Chest compression performance after training for 3 months was positively retaining compared to the first post-test but was not significant. Therefore, a retraining program to maintain knowledge and self-efficacy for a longer period of time should be established after post-training for 3 months. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Basic life support knowledge of first-year university students from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, S V; Margarido, M R R A; Caires, I S; Santos, R A N; Souza, S G; Souza, J M A; Martimiano, R R; Dutra, C S K; Palha, P; Zanetti, A C G; Pazin-Filho, A

    2015-12-01

    We aimed to evaluate knowledge of first aid among new undergraduates and whether it is affected by their chosen course. A questionnaire was developed to assess knowledge of how to activate the Mobile Emergency Attendance Service - MEAS (Serviço de Atendimento Móvel de Urgência; SAMU), recognize a pre-hospital emergency situation and the first aid required for cardiac arrest. The students were also asked about enrolling in a first aid course. Responses were received from 1038 of 1365 (76.04%) new undergraduates. The questionnaires were completed in a 2-week period 1 month after the beginning of classes. Of the 1038 respondents (59.5% studying biological sciences, 11.6% physical sciences, and 28.6% humanities), 58.5% knew how to activate the MEAS/SAMU (54.3% non-biological vs 61.4% biological, P=0.02), with an odds ratio (OR)=1.39 (95%CI=1.07-1.81) regardless of age, sex, origin, having a previous degree or having a relative with cardiac disease. The majority could distinguish emergency from non-emergency situations. When faced with a possible cardiac arrest, 17.7% of the students would perform chest compressions (15.5% non-biological vs 19.1% biological first-year university students, P=0.16) and 65.2% would enroll in a first aid course (51.1% non-biological vs 74.7% biological, Pbasic life support skills to help with cardiac arrest. A significant proportion would not enroll in a first aid course. Biological first-year university students were more prone to enroll in a basic life support course.

  3. [Teaching basic life support to the general population. Alumni intervention analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Castellanos, M A; Fernández-Carmona, A; Díaz-Redondo, A; Cárdenas-Cruz, A; García-del Moral, R; Martín-Lopez, J; Díaz-Redondo, T

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the rate at which the alumni of basic life support courses witnessed and intervened in out-of-hospital emergency situations, and to identify the variables characterizing those alumni associated with a greater number of witnessing events and interventions. An analysis of the efficiency of the courses was also carried out. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was made. A district in the province of Almería (Spain). Alumni of a mass basic life support training program targeted to the general population «Plan Salvavidas» conducted between 2003-2009. In 2010 the alumni were administered a telephone survey asking whether they had witnessed an emergency situation since attending the program, with the collection of information related to this emergency situation. Rate of out-of-hospital emergencies witnessed by the alumni. Rate of intervention of the alumni in emergency situations. Variables characterizing alumni with a greater likelihood of witnessing an emergency situation. A total of 3,864 trained alumni were contacted by telephone. Of 1,098 respondents, 63.9% were women, and the mean age was 26.61±10.6 years. Of these alumni, 11.75% had witnessed emergency situations, an average of three years after completing the course. Of these emergencies, 23.3% were identified as cardiac arrest. The alumni intervened in 98% of the possible cases. In 63% of the cases, there was no connection between the alumni and the victim. The majority of the emergency situations occurred in the street and in public spaces. A greater likelihood of witnessing an emergency situation was associated with being a healthcare worker and with being over 18 years of age. The rate of out-of-hospital emergencies witnessed by these alumni after the course was 11.75%. The level of intervention among the alumni was high. The most efficient target population consisted of healthcare workers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  4. Basic life support knowledge of first-year university students from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to evaluate knowledge of first aid among new undergraduates and whether it is affected by their chosen course. A questionnaire was developed to assess knowledge of how to activate the Mobile Emergency Attendance Service - MEAS (Serviço de Atendimento Móvel de Urgência; SAMU, recognize a pre-hospital emergency situation and the first aid required for cardiac arrest. The students were also asked about enrolling in a first aid course. Responses were received from 1038 of 1365 (76.04% new undergraduates. The questionnaires were completed in a 2-week period 1 month after the beginning of classes. Of the 1038 respondents (59.5% studying biological sciences, 11.6% physical sciences, and 28.6% humanities, 58.5% knew how to activate the MEAS/SAMU (54.3% non-biological vs 61.4% biological, P=0.02, with an odds ratio (OR=1.39 (95%CI=1.07-1.81 regardless of age, sex, origin, having a previous degree or having a relative with cardiac disease. The majority could distinguish emergency from non-emergency situations. When faced with a possible cardiac arrest, 17.7% of the students would perform chest compressions (15.5% non-biological vs 19.1% biological first-year university students, P=0.16 and 65.2% would enroll in a first aid course (51.1% non-biological vs 74.7% biological, P<0.01, with an OR=2.61 (95%CI=1.98-3.44 adjusted for the same confounders. Even though a high percentage of the students recognized emergency situations, a significant proportion did not know the MEAS/SAMU number and only a minority had sufficient basic life support skills to help with cardiac arrest. A significant proportion would not enroll in a first aid course. Biological first-year university students were more prone to enroll in a basic life support course.

  5. Quality of basic life support when using different commercially available public access defibrillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Michael P; Poenicke, Cynthia; Kurth, Maxi; Richter, Torsten; Koch, Thea; Eisold, Carolin; Pfältzer, Adrian; Heller, Axel R

    2015-06-21

    Basic life support (BLS) guidelines focus on chest compressions with a minimal no-flow fraction (NFF), early defibrillation, and a short perishock pause. By using an automated external defibrillator (AED) lay persons are guided through the process of attaching electrodes and initiating defibrillation. It is unclear, however, to what extent the voice instructions given by the AED might influence the quality of initial resuscitation. Using a patient simulator, 8 different commercially available AEDs were evaluated within two different BLS scenarios (ventricular fibrillation vs. asystole). A BLS certified instructor acted according to the current European Resuscitation Council 2010 Guidelines and followed all of the AED voice prompts. In a second set of scenarios, the rescuer anticipated the appropriate actions and started already before the AED stopped speaking. A BLS scenario without AED served as the control. All scenarios were run three times. The time until the first chest compression was 25 ± 2 seconds without the AED and ranged from 50 ± 3 to 148 ± 13 seconds with the AED depending on the model used. The NFF was .26 ± .01 without the AED and between .37 ± .01 and .72 ± .01 when an AED was used. The perishock pause ranged from 12 ± 0 to 46 ± 0 seconds. The optimized sequence of actions reduced the NFF, which ranged now from .32 ± .01 to .41 ± .01, and the perishock pause ranging from 1 ± 1 to 19 ± 1 seconds. Voice prompts given by commercially available AED merely meet the requirements of current evidence in basic life support. Furthermore, there is a significant difference between devices with regard to time until the first chest compression, perishock pause, no-flow fraction and other objective measures of the quality of BLS. However, the BLS quality may be improved with optimized handling of the AED. Thus, rescuers should be trained on the respective AED devices, and manufacturers should expend more

  6. The Effect of Instructional Method on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Skill Performance: A Comparison Between Instructor-Led Basic Life Support and Computer-Based Basic Life Support With Voice-Activated Manikin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Sands, Cathy; Brahn, Pamela; Graves, Kristal

    2015-01-01

    Validating participants' ability to correctly perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) skills during basic life support courses can be a challenge for nursing professional development specialists. This study compares two methods of basic life support training, instructor-led and computer-based learning with voice-activated manikins, to identify if one method is more effective for performance of CPR skills. The findings suggest that a computer-based learning course with voice-activated manikins is a more effective method of training for improved CPR performance.

  7. [A first step to teaching basic life support in schools: Training the teachers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichel López, María; Martínez-Isasi, Santiago; Barcala-Furelos, Roberto; Fernández-Méndez, Felipe; Vázquez Santamariña, David; Sánchez-Santos, Luis; Rodríguez-Nuñez, Antonio

    2017-12-07

    Teachers may have an essential role in basic life support (BLS) training in schoolchildren. However, few data are available about their BLS learning abilities. To quantitatively assess the quality of BLS when performed by school teachers after a brief and simple training program. A quasi-experimental study with no control group, and involving primary and secondary education teachers from four privately managed and public funded schools was conducted in 3 stages: 1st. A knowledge test, 2nd: BLS training, and 3rd: Performance test. Training included a 40minutes lecture and 80minutes hands-on session with the help feedback on the quality of the chest compressions. A total of 81 teachers were included, of which 60.5% were women. After training, the percentage of subjects able to perform the BLS sequence rose from 1.2% to 46% (Ptraining program, teachers of privately managed public funded schools were able to perform the BLS sequence and to produce chest compressions with a quality similar to that obtained by staff with a duty to assist cardiac arrest victims. The ability of schoolteachers to deliver good-quality BLS is a pre-requisite to be engaged in BLS training for schoolchildren. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  8. The evaluation of first aid and basic life support training for the first year university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altintaş, Kerim Hakan; Aslan, Dilek; Yildiz, Ali Naci; Subaşi, Nüket; Elçin, Melih; Odabaşi, Orhan; Bilir, Nazmi; Sayek, Iskender

    2005-02-01

    In Turkey, the first aiders are few in quantity and yet they are required in many settings, such as earthquakes. It was thought that training first year university students in first aid and basic life support (FA-BLS) techniques would serve to increase the number of first aiders. It was also thought that another problem, the lack of first aid trainers, might be addressed by training medical students to perform this function. A project aimed at training first year university students in FA-BLS was conducted at Hacettepe University. In the first phase, medical student first aid trainers (MeSFAT) were trained in FA-BLS training techniques by academic trainers and in the second phase, first year university students were trained in FA-BLS techniques by these peer trainers under the academic trainers' supervision. The purpose of this study was to assess the participants' evaluation of this project and to propose a new program to increase the number of first aiders in the country. In total, 31 medical students were certified as MeSFATs and 12 of these trained 40 first year university students in FA-BLS. Various questionnaires were applied to the participants to determine their evaluation of the training program. Most of the participants and the authors considered the program to be successful and effective. This method may be used to increase the number of first aid trainers and first aiders in the community.

  9. First aid and basic life support training for first year medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altintaş, Kerim Hakan; Yildiz, Ali Naci; Aslan, Dilek; Ozvariş, Sevkat Bahar; Bilir, Nazmi

    2009-12-01

    We developed 24 and 12-h programs for first aid and basic life support (FA-BLS) training for first-year medical students and evaluated the opinions of both the trainers and trainees on the effectiveness of the programs. The trainees were the first-year students of academic years 2000-2001 (316 students) and 2001-2002 (366 students). The evaluations of the participants were collected from short questionnaires created specifically for the study. For the 24-h training program, most of the students stated that FA-BLS sessions met their expectations (85.9%) and they were satisfied with the training (91.1%). Of the participants, 75.6% stated that they could apply FA confidently in real situations simulating the topics they learned in the FA-BLS sessions. For the 12-h training program, 84.4% of the students felt themselves competent in FA-BLS applications. The trainers considered both of the programs as effective.

  10. Retention of first aid and basic life support skills in undergraduate medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pim A. de Ruijter

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Undergraduate medical students follow a compulsory first aid (FA and basic life support (BLS course. Retention of BLS seems poor and only little information is provided on the retention of FA skills. This study aims at evaluating 1- and 2-year retention of FA and BLS training in undergraduate medical students. Methods: One hundred and twenty students were randomly selected from first year (n=349 medical students who successfully followed a compulsory FA and BLS course. From these 120 students, 94 (78% and 69 (58% participated in retention tests of FA and BLS skills after 1 and 2 years, respectively. The assessment consisted of two FA stations and one BLS station. Results: After 1 year, only 2% passed both FA and BLS stations and 68% failed both FA and BLS stations. After 2 years, 5% passed and 50% failed both FA and BLS stations. Despite the high failure rate at the stations, 90% adequately checked vital signs and started cardiopulmonary resuscitation appropriately. Conclusions: The long-term retention of FA and BLS skills after a compulsory course in the first year is poor. Adequate check of vital signs and commencing cardiopulmonary resuscitation retained longer.

  11. Retention of first aid and basic life support skills in undergraduate medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruijter, Pim A; Biersteker, Heleen A; Biert, Jan; van Goor, Harry; Tan, Edward C

    2014-01-01

    Undergraduate medical students follow a compulsory first aid (FA) and basic life support (BLS) course. Retention of BLS seems poor and only little information is provided on the retention of FA skills. This study aims at evaluating 1- and 2-year retention of FA and BLS training in undergraduate medical students. One hundred and twenty students were randomly selected from first year (n=349) medical students who successfully followed a compulsory FA and BLS course. From these 120 students, 94 (78%) and 69 (58%) participated in retention tests of FA and BLS skills after 1 and 2 years, respectively. The assessment consisted of two FA stations and one BLS station. After 1 year, only 2% passed both FA and BLS stations and 68% failed both FA and BLS stations. After 2 years, 5% passed and 50% failed both FA and BLS stations. Despite the high failure rate at the stations, 90% adequately checked vital signs and started cardiopulmonary resuscitation appropriately. The long-term retention of FA and BLS skills after a compulsory course in the first year is poor. Adequate check of vital signs and commencing cardiopulmonary resuscitation retained longer.

  12. Effectiveness of basic life support instruction in physical education students--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielec, Grzegorz; Klajman, Paweł; Pęczak-Graczyk, Alicja

    2014-01-01

    According to the literature, 40% of injuries affecting school-age children are sports related. The role of physical education students, as future teachers, seems to be of high importance in terms of protecting children's safety during sports classes. The aim is to evaluate the level of basic life support (BLS) knowledge and skills in physical education students instructed with the use of different methods. Second-year physical education students (n=104, M age=20±0.6 years) were randomly assigned to three groups: experimental 1 (E1), experimental 2 (E2), and control (C). Group E1 students participated in a 2-hour BLS course based on computer-assisted presentations. Group E2 trainees practiced BLS algorithm in pairs during a 2-hour course. No manikins were used in both intervention groups. Students of Group C were asked to learn BLS algorithm on their own. All groups fulfilled a 10-question multiple-choice test on BLS at the beginning and the end of the experiment. After completing the course participants performed BLS on a manikin. The results of knowledge test were not significant before an experiment but differed essentially among the groups afterward (analysis of variance contrast analysis, ptraining. Teaching methods used in the current study seemed to be ineffective in terms of practical CPR skills. Access to greater number of modern manikins should improve the BLS training in physical education students. Moreover, permanent consultation on instructional methods with emergency medicine experts is recommended for university teachers.

  13. Quality of basic life support education and automated external defibrillator setting in schools in Ishikawa, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamura, Akiteru; Ito, Sayori; Maruyama, Kaori; Ryo, Yusuke; Saito, Manami; Fujimura, Shuhei; Ishiura, Yuna; Hori, Ariyuki

    2017-03-01

    Automated external defibrillators (AED) have been installed in schools in Japan since 2004, and the government strongly recommends teaching basic life support (BLS). We therefore examined the quality of BLS education and AED installation in schools. We conducted a prefecture-wide questionnaire survey of all primary and junior high schools in 2016, to assess BLS education and AED installation against the recommendations of the Japan Circulation Society. The results were analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi-squared test. In total, 195 schools out of 315 (62%) responded, of which 38% have introduced BLS education for children. BLS training was held in a smaller proportion of primary schools (18%) than junior high schools (86%). More than 90% of primary school staff had undergone BLS training in the previous 2 years. The most common locations of AED were the gymnasium (32%) followed by entrance hall (28%), staffroom (25%), and infirmary (12%). The reasons given for location were that it was obvious (34%), convenient for staff (32%), could be used out of hours (17%), and the most likely location for a heart attack (15%). Approximately 18% of schools reported that it takes >5 min to reach the AED from the furthest point. BLS training, AED location, and understanding of both are not sufficient to save children's lives efficiently. Authorities should make recommendations about the correct number of AED, and their location, and provide more information to improve the quality of BLS training in schools. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  14. Basic cardiopulmonary life support (BCLS) for cardiopulmonary resuscitation by trained paramedics and medics outside the hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Rakesh; Ahmed, Syed Moied; Kapoor, Mukul Chandra; Mishra, Bibhuti Bhusan; Rao, SSC Chakra; Kalandoor, M Venkatagiri; Divatia, Jigeeshu Vasishtha; Singh, Baljit

    2017-01-01

    The cardiopulmonary resuscitation guideline of Basic Cardiopulmonary Life Support (BCLS) for management of adult victims with cardiopulmonary arrest outside the hospital provides an algorithmic stepwise approach for optimal outcome of the victims by trained medics and paramedics. This guideline has been developed considering the need to have a universally acceptable practice guideline for India and keeping in mind the infrastructural limitations of some areas of the country. This guideline is based on evidence elicited in the international and national literature. In the absence of data from Indian population, the excerpts have been taken from international data, discussed with Indian experts and thereafter modified to make them practically applicable across India. The optimal outcome for a victim with cardiopulmonary arrest would depend on core links of early recognition and activation; early high-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation, early defibrillation and early transfer to medical facility. These links are elaborated in a stepwise manner in the BCLS algorithm. The BCLS also emphasise on quality check for various steps of resuscitation. PMID:29217852

  15. Awareness of basic life support among Saudi dental students and interns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shamiri, Hashem Motahir; Al-Maweri, Sadeq Ali; Shugaa-Addin, Bassam; Alaizari, Nader Ahmed; Hunaish, Abdulrahman

    2017-01-01

    Fatal medical emergencies may occur at any time in the dental clinic. The present study assessed the level of awareness and attitudes toward basic life support (BLS) among Saudi dental students and interns. A self-administered questionnaire comprising 23 closed-ended questions was used in this survey. The first part of the questionnaire assessed the demographical profile of the students such as age, gender, and educational level. The second part investigated their knowledge and awareness about BLS. Data from 203 respondents were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Studies version 22.0. The response rate was 81.2%. Overall, the respondents showed a low level of knowledge with significant differences between males and females (<0.001). Surprisingly, final-year dental students showed relatively better knowledge than interns though the differences were not statistically significant. The present study demonstrates poor knowledge among dental students regarding BLS and showed the urgent need for continuous refreshing courses for this critical topic.

  16. Peer-assisted learning to train high-school students to perform basic life-support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyung Soo; Lee, Dong Hoon; Kim, Chan Woong; Kim, Sung Eun; Oh, Je Hyeok

    2015-01-01

    The inclusion of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in formal education has been a useful approach to providing basic life support (BLS) services. However, because not all students have been able to learn directly from certified instructors, we studied the educational efficacy of the use of peer-assisted learning (PAL) to train high-school students to perform BLS services. This study consisted of 187 high-school students: 68 participants served as a control group and received a 1-hour BLS training from a school nurse, and 119 were included in a PAL group and received a 1-hour CPR training from a PAL leader. Participants' BLS training was preceded by the completion of questionnaires regarding their background. Three months after the training, the participants were asked to respond to questionnaires about their willingness to perform CPR on bystander CPR and their retention of knowledge of BLS. We found no statistically significant difference between the control and PAL groups in their willingness to perform CPR on bystanders (control: 55.2%, PAL: 64.7%, P=0.202). The PAL group was not significantly different from the control group (control: 60.78±39.77, PAL: 61.76±17.80, P=0.848) in retention of knowledge about BLS services. In educating high school students about BLS, there was no significant difference between PAL and traditional education in increasing the willingness to provide CPR to bystanders or the ability to retain knowledge about BLS.

  17. Basic cardiopulmonary life support (BCLS for cardiopulmonary resuscitation by trained paramedics and medics outside the hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Garg

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The cardiopulmonary resuscitation guideline of Basic Cardiopulmonary Life Support (BCLS for management of adult victims with cardiopulmonary arrest outside the hospital provides an algorithmic stepwise approach for optimal outcome of the victims by trained medics and paramedics. This guideline has been developed considering the need to have a universally acceptable practice guideline for India and keeping in mind the infrastructural limitations of some areas of the country. This guideline is based on evidence elicited in the international and national literature. In the absence of data from Indian population, the excerpts have been taken from international data, discussed with Indian experts and thereafter modified to make them practically applicable across India. The optimal outcome for a victim with cardiopulmonary arrest would depend on core links of early recognition and activation; early high-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation, early defibrillation and early transfer to medical facility. These links are elaborated in a stepwise manner in the BCLS algorithm. The BCLS also emphasise on quality check for various steps of resuscitation.

  18. Students’ and parents’ attitudes toward basic life support training in primary schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrić, Jasna; Malički, Mario; Marković, Domagoj; Meštrović, Julije

    2013-01-01

    Aim To assess attitudes of students and their parents toward basic life support (BLS) training in primary schools, along with their perceptions of students’ fears toward applying and training BLS. Methods In October 2011, a specifically designed, voluntary and anonymous questionnaire was distributed to 7th and 8th grade students and to their parents in two primary schools in Split, Croatia. Completed questionnaires were analyzed to determine the validity of the scale, and to determine sex and group differences in individual items and the whole scale. Results The questionnaires were completed by 301 school children and 361 parents. Cronbach’s alpha of the whole scale was 0.83, indicating good internal consistency. The students’ score for the whole attitude scale was 73.7 ± 11.1 out of maximum 95, while the parents’ score was 68.0 ± 11.9. Students’ attitude was significantly more positive than that of the parents (U = 29.7, P school and their parents had a positive attitude toward BLS training in primary schools. Implementing compulsory BLS training in Croatia’s primary schools could help increase students’ confidence, quell their fears toward applying BLS, and possibly even increase the survival of bystander-witnessed cardiac arrests. PMID:23986279

  19. Students' and parents' attitudes toward basic life support training in primary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrić, Jasna; Malički, Mario; Marković, Domagoj; Meštrović, Julije

    2013-08-01

    To assess attitudes of students and their parents toward basic life support (BLS) training in primary schools, along with their perceptions of students' fears toward applying and training BLS. In October 2011, a specifically designed, voluntary and anonymous questionnaire was distributed to 7th and 8th grade students and to their parents in two primary schools in Split, Croatia. Completed questionnaires were analyzed to determine the validity of the scale, and to determine sex and group differences in individual items and the whole scale. The questionnaires were completed by 301 school children and 361 parents. Cronbach's alpha of the whole scale was 0.83, indicating good internal consistency. The students' score for the whole attitude scale was 73.7 ∓ 11.1 out of maximum 95, while the parents' score was 68.0 ∓ 11.9. Students' attitude was significantly more positive than that of the parents (U=29.7, Pschool and their parents had a positive attitude toward BLS training in primary schools. Implementing compulsory BLS training in Croatia's primary schools could help increase students' confidence, quell their fears toward applying BLS, and possibly even increase the survival of bystander-witnessed cardiac arrests.

  20. Skill retention in adults and in children 3 months after basic life support training using a simple personal resuscitation manikin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isbye, Dan L; Meyhoff, Christian S; Lippert, Freddy K

    2007-01-01

    As 70-80% of cardiac arrests occur at home, widespread training is needed to increase the likelihood of basic life support (BLS) being performed before the arrival of Emergency Medical Services personnel. Teaching BLS in public schools has been recommended to achieve this.......As 70-80% of cardiac arrests occur at home, widespread training is needed to increase the likelihood of basic life support (BLS) being performed before the arrival of Emergency Medical Services personnel. Teaching BLS in public schools has been recommended to achieve this....

  1. Teaching Basic Life Support to Students of Public and Private High Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Maria Gonçalves Fernandes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background:Despite being recommended as a compulsory part of the school curriculum, the teaching of basic life support (BLS has yet to be implemented in high schools in most countries.Objectives:To compare prior knowledge and degree of immediate and delayed learning between students of one public and one private high school after these students received BLS training.Methods:Thirty students from each school initially answered a questionnaire on cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR and use of the automated external defibrillator (AED. They then received theoretical-practical BLS training, after which they were given two theory assessments: one immediately after the course and the other six months later.Results:The overall success rates in the prior, immediate, and delayed assessments were significantly different between groups, with better performance shown overall by private school students than by public school students: 42% ± 14% vs. 30.2% ± 12.2%, p = 0.001; 86% ± 7.8% vs. 62.4% ± 19.6%, p < 0.001; and 65% ± 12.4% vs. 45.6% ± 16%, p < 0.001, respectively. The total odds ratio of the questions showed that the private school students performed the best on all three assessments, respectively: 1.66 (CI95% 1.26-2.18, p < 0.001; 3.56 (CI95% 2.57-4.93, p < 0.001; and 2.21 (CI95% 1.69-2.89, p < 0.001.Conclusions:Before training, most students had insufficient knowledge about CPR and AED; after BLS training a significant immediate and delayed improvement in learning was observed in students, especially in private school students.

  2. Fire fighters as basic life support responders: A study of successful implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christensen Erika

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background First responders are recommended as a supplement to the Emergency Medical Services (EMS in order to achieve early defibrillation. Practical and organisational aspects are essential when trying to implement new parts in the "Chain of Survival"; areas to address include minimizing dispatch time, ensuring efficient and quick communication, and choosing areas with appropriate driving distances. The aim of this study was to implement a system using Basic Life Support (BLS responders equipped with an automatic external defibrillator in an area with relatively short emergency medical services' response times. Success criteria for implementation was defined as arrival of the BLS responders before the EMS, attachment (and use of the AED, and successful defibrillation. Methods This was a prospective observational study from September 1, 2005 to December 31, 2007 (28 months in the city of Aarhus, Denmark. The BLS responder system was implemented in an area up to three kilometres (driving distance from the central fire station, encompassing approximately 81,500 inhabitants. The team trained on each shift and response times were reduced by choice of area and by sending the alarm directly to the fire brigade dispatcher. Results The BLS responders had 1076 patient contacts. The median response time was 3.5 minutes (25th percentile 2.75, 75th percentile 4.25. The BLS responders arrived before EMS in 789 of the 1076 patient contacts (73%. Cardiac arrest was diagnosed in 53 cases, the AED was attached in 29 cases, and a shockable rhythm was detected in nine cases. Eight were defibrillated using an AED. Seven of the eight obtained return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC. Six of the seven obtaining ROSC survived more than 30 days. Conclusion In this study, the implementation of BLS responders may have resulted in successful resuscitations. On basis of the close corporation between all participants in the chain of survival this project

  3. Neither Basic Life Support knowledge nor self-efficacy are predictive of skills among dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Giolla Phadraig, C; Ho, J D; Guerin, S; Yeoh, Y L; Mohamed Medhat, M; Doody, K; Hwang, S; Hania, M; Boggs, S; Nolan, A; Nunn, J

    2017-08-01

    Basic life support (BLS) is considered a core competence for the graduating dentist. This study aimed to measure BLS knowledge, self-efficacy and skills of undergraduate dental students in Dublin. This study consisted of a cross-sectional survey measuring BLS knowledge and self-efficacy, accompanied by a directly observed BLS skills assessment in a subsample of respondents. Data were collected in January 2014. Bivariate correlations between descriptive and outcome variables (knowledge, self-efficacy and skills) were tested using Pearson's chi-square. We included knowledge and self-efficacy as predictor variables, along with other variables showing association, into a binary logistic regression model with BLS skills as the outcome measure. One hundred and thirty-five students participated. Almost all (n = 133, 98.5%) participants had BLS training within the last 2 years. One hundred and four (77%) felt that they were capable of providing effective BLS (self-efficacy), whilst only 46 (34.1%) scored >80% of knowledge items correct. Amongst the skills (n = 85) subsample, 38.8% (n = 33) were found to pass the BLS skills assessment. Controlling for gender, age and skills assessor, the regression model did not identify a predictive relationship between knowledge or self-efficacy and BLS skills. Neither knowledge nor self-efficacy was predictive of BLS skills. Dental students had low levels of knowledge and skills in BLS. Despite this, their confidence in their ability to perform BLS was high and did not predict actual competence. There is a need for additional hands-on training, focusing on self-efficacy and BLS skills, particularly the use of AED. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Teaching basic life support to students of public and private high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, José Maria Gonçalves; Leite, Amanda Lira dos Santos; Auto, Bruna de Sá Duarte; Lima, José Elson Gama de; Rivera, Ivan Romero; Mendonça, Maria Alayde

    2014-06-01

    Despite being recommended as a compulsory part of the school curriculum, the teaching of basic life support (BLS) has yet to be implemented in high schools in most countries. To compare prior knowledge and degree of immediate and delayed learning between students of one public and one private high school after these students received BLS training. Thirty students from each school initially answered a questionnaire on cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and use of the automated external defibrillator (AED). They then received theoretical-practical BLS training, after which they were given two theory assessments: one immediately after the course and the other six months later. The overall success rates in the prior, immediate, and delayed assessments were significantly different between groups, with better performance shown overall by private school students than by public school students: 42% ± 14% vs. 30.2% ± 12.2%, p = 0.001; 86% ± 7.8% vs. 62.4% ± 19.6%, p < 0.001; and 65% ± 12.4% vs. 45.6% ± 16%, p < 0.001, respectively. The total odds ratio of the questions showed that the private school students performed the best on all three assessments, respectively: 1.66 (CI95% 1.26-2.18), p < 0.001; 3.56 (CI95% 2.57-4.93), p < 0.001; and 2.21 (CI95% 1.69-2.89), p < 0.001. Before training, most students had insufficient knowledge about CPR and AED; after BLS training a significant immediate and delayed improvement in learning was observed in students, especially in private school students.

  5. Fire fighters as basic life support responders: a study of successful implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høyer, Christian Bjerre; Christensen, Erika Frischknecht

    2009-04-02

    First responders are recommended as a supplement to the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) in order to achieve early defibrillation. Practical and organisational aspects are essential when trying to implement new parts in the "Chain of Survival"; areas to address include minimizing dispatch time, ensuring efficient and quick communication, and choosing areas with appropriate driving distances. The aim of this study was to implement a system using Basic Life Support (BLS) responders equipped with an automatic external defibrillator in an area with relatively short emergency medical services' response times. Success criteria for implementation was defined as arrival of the BLS responders before the EMS, attachment (and use) of the AED, and successful defibrillation. This was a prospective observational study from September 1, 2005 to December 31, 2007 (28 months) in the city of Aarhus, Denmark. The BLS responder system was implemented in an area up to three kilometres (driving distance) from the central fire station, encompassing approximately 81,500 inhabitants. The team trained on each shift and response times were reduced by choice of area and by sending the alarm directly to the fire brigade dispatcher. The BLS responders had 1076 patient contacts. The median response time was 3.5 minutes (25th percentile 2.75, 75th percentile 4.25). The BLS responders arrived before EMS in 789 of the 1076 patient contacts (73%). Cardiac arrest was diagnosed in 53 cases, the AED was attached in 29 cases, and a shockable rhythm was detected in nine cases. Eight were defibrillated using an AED. Seven of the eight obtained return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Six of the seven obtaining ROSC survived more than 30 days. In this study, the implementation of BLS responders may have resulted in successful resuscitations. On basis of the close corporation between all participants in the chain of survival this project contributed to the first link: short response time and trained

  6. Impact of simulation training on Jordanian nurses' performance of basic life support skills: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toubasi, Samar; Alosta, Mohammed R; Darawad, Muhammad W; Demeh, Waddah

    2015-09-01

    Providing efficient basic life support (BLS) training is crucial for practicing nurses who provide direct patient care. Nevertheless, data addressing the impact of BLS courses on the skills and performance of Jordanian nurses are scarce. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of a BLS simulation training on Jordanian nurses' skill improvement in cardiopulmonary resuscitation. A prospective quasi-experimental, single group pretest-posttest design was used to study the effect of BLS simulation; using a 9-item checklist; on the spot training; American Heart Association, on a group of Jordanian nurses. A pre-test was conducted following a CPR scenario to test the skills using 9-item checklist extrapolated from the American Heart Association guidelines. After debriefing, an interactive on spot training was provided. Later, participants undertook an unscheduled post-test after four weeks that included the same nine items. Thirty registered nurses with a mean clinical experience of 6.1years participated in the study. Comparing pre-test (M=4.6, SD=2.9, range=0 to 9) with post-test results (M=7.5, SD=1.7, range=4 to 9) showed an overall improvement in skills and BLS scores after the simulation training program (t=7.4, df=29, p<0.0001). BLS simulation training sessions are associated with significant improvement in skills and performance among Jordanian nurses. A refreshment BLS training session for nurses is highly recommended to guarantee nurses' preparedness in actual CPR scenarios. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. E-learning in pediatric basic life support: a randomized controlled non-inferiority study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogh, Lise Qvirin; Bjørnshave, Katrine; Vestergaard, Lone Due; Sharma, Maja Bendtsen; Rasmussen, Stinne Eika; Nielsen, Henrik Vendelbo; Thim, Troels; Løfgren, Bo

    2015-05-01

    Dissemination of pediatric basic life support (PBLS) skills is recommended. E-learning is accessible and cost-effective, but it is currently unknown whether laypersons can learn PBLS through e-learning. The hypothesis of this study was to investigate whether e-learning PBLS is non-inferior to instructor-led training. Participants were recruited among child-minders and parents of children aged 0-6 years. Participants were randomized to either 2-h instructor-led training or e-learning using an e-learning program (duration 17 min) including an inflatable manikin. After training, participants were assessed in a simulated pediatric cardiac arrest scenario. Tests were video recorded and PBLS skills were assessed independently by two assessors blinded to training method. Primary outcome was the pass rate of the PBLS test (≥8 of 15 skills adequately performed) with a pre-specified non-inferiority margin of 20%. In total 160 participants were randomized 1:1. E-learning was non-inferior to instructor-led training (difference in pass rate -4%; 95% CI -9:0.5). Pass rates were 100% among instructor-led trained (n=67) and 96% among e-learned (n=71). E-learners median time spent on the e-learning program was 30 min (range: 15-120 min) and the median number of log-ons was 2 (range: 1-5). After the study, all participants felt that their skills had improved. E-learning PBLS is non-inferior to instructor-led training among child-minders and parents with children aged 0-6 years, although the pass rate was 4% (95% CI -9:0.5) lower with e-learning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Pre-training evaluation and feedback improved skills retention of basic life support in medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Zhou, Rong-hua; Liu, Jin; Lin, Jing; Ma, Er-Li; Liang, Peng; Shi, Ting-wei; Fang, Li-qun; Xiao, Hong

    2013-09-01

    Pre-training evaluation and feedback have been shown to improve medical students' skills acquisition of basic life support (BLS) immediately following training. The impact of such training on BLS skills retention is unknown. This study was conducted to investigate effects of pre-training evaluation and feedback on BLS skills retention in medical students. Three hundred and thirty 3rd year medical students were randomized to two groups, the control group (C group) and pre-training evaluation and feedback group (EF group). Each group was subdivided into four subgroups according to the time of retention-test (at 1-, 3-, 6-, 12-month following the initial training). After a 45-min BLS lecture, BLS skills were assessed (pre-training evaluation) in both groups before training. Following this, the C group received 45 min training. 15 min of group feedback corresponding to students' performance in pre-training evaluation was given only in the EF group that was followed by 30 min of BLS training. BLS skills were assessed immediately after training (post-test) and at follow up (retention-test). No skills difference was observed between the two groups in pre-training evaluation. Better skills acquisition was observed in the EF group (85.3 ± 7.3 vs. 68.1 ± 12.2 in C group) at post-test (p<0.001). In all retention-test, better skills retention was observed in each EF subgroup, compared with its paired C subgroup. Pre-training evaluation and feedback improved skills retention in the EF group for 12 months after the initial training, compared with the control group. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The effects of an online basic life support course on undergraduate nursing students' learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobase, Lucia; Peres, Heloisa H C; Gianotto-Oliveira, Renan; Smith, Nicole; Polastri, Thatiane F; Timerman, Sergio

    2017-08-25

    To describe learning outcomes of undergraduate nursing students following an online basic life support course (BLS). An online BLS course was developed and administered to 94 nursing students. Pre- and post-tests were used to assess theoretical learning. Checklist simulations and feedback devices were used to assess the cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) skills of the 62 students who completed the course. A paired t-test revealed a significant increase in learning [pre-test (6.4 ± 1.61), post-test (9.3 ± 0.82), p online course was significant (plearning differences (p=0.475) had been observed between 1st and 2nd year (9.20 ± 1.60), and between 3rd and 4th year (9.67 ± 0.61) students. A CPR simulation was performed after completing the course: students checked for a response (90%), exposed the chest (98%), checked for breathing (97%), called emergency services (76%), requested for a defibrillator (92%), checked for a pulse (77%), positioned their hands properly (87%), performed 30 compressions/cycle (95%), performed compressions of at least 5 cm depth (89%), released the chest (90%), applied two breaths (97%), used the automated external defibrillator (97%), and positioned the pads (100%). The online course was an effective method for teaching and learning key BLS skills wherein students were able to accurately apply BLS procedures during the CPR simulation. This short-term online training, which likely improves learning and self-efficacy in BLS providers, can be used for the continuing education of health professionals.

  10. Knowledge, attitude and anxiety pertaining to basic life support and medical emergencies among dental interns in Mangalore City, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somaraj, Vinej; Shenoy, Rekha P; Panchmal, Ganesh Shenoy; Jodalli, Praveen S; Sonde, Laxminarayan; Karkal, Ravichandra

    2017-01-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude and anxiety pertaining to basic life support (BLS) and medical emergencies among interns in dental colleges of Mangalore city, Karnataka, India. The study subjects comprised of interns who volunteered from the four dental colleges. The knowledge and attitude of interns were assessed using a 30-item questionnaire prepared based on the Basic Life Support Manual from American Heart Association and the anxiety of interns pertaining to BLS and medical emergencies were assessed using a State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) Questionnaire. Chi-square test was performed on SPSS 21.0 (IBM Statistics, 2012) to determine statistically significant differences ( P basic life support procedures. Assessment of stress showed a total of 27.1% participants to be above high-stress level. Comparison of assessed knowledge and stress was found to be insignificant ( P =0.983). There was an evident lack of knowledge pertaining to the management of medical emergencies among the interns. As oral health care providers moving out to the society, a focus should be placed on the training of dental interns with respect to Basic Life Support procedures.

  11. Prevention of deterioration of ventricular fibrillation by basic life support during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waalewijn, Reinier A.; Nijpels, Marië A.; Tijssen, Jan G.; Koster, Rudolph W.

    2002-01-01

    Survival of cardiac arrest is improved by basic life support (BLS). This study investigated the relationship between ventricular fibrillation (VF) characteristics and survival. In a 2-year prospective study out-of-hospital witnessed non-traumatic cardiac arrests were observed. The probabilities of

  12. Skill retention in adults and in children 3 months after basic life support training using a simple personal resuscitation manikin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isbye, Dan L; Meyhoff, Christian S; Lippert, Freddy K

    2007-01-01

    As 70-80% of cardiac arrests occur at home, widespread training is needed to increase the likelihood of basic life support (BLS) being performed before the arrival of Emergency Medical Services personnel. Teaching BLS in public schools has been recommended to achieve this....

  13. Assessing basic life support skills without an instructor: is it possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mpotos Nicolas

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current methods to assess Basic Life Support skills (BLS; chest compressions and ventilations require the presence of an instructor. This is time-consuming and comports instructor bias. Since BLS skills testing is a routine activity, it is potentially suitable for automation. We developed a fully automated BLS testing station without instructor by using innovative software linked to a training manikin. The goal of our study was to investigate the feasibility of adequate testing (effectiveness within the shortest period of time (efficiency. Methods As part of a randomised controlled trial investigating different compression depth training strategies, 184 medicine students received an individual appointment for a retention test six months after training. An interactive FlashTM (Adobe Systems Inc., USA user interface was developed, to guide the students through the testing procedure after login, while Skills StationTM software (Laerdal Medical, Norway automatically recorded compressions and ventilations and their duration (“time on task”. In a subgroup of 29 students the room entrance and exit time was registered to assess efficiency. To obtain a qualitative insight of the effectiveness, student’s perceptions about the instructional organisation and about the usability of the fully automated testing station were surveyed. Results During testing there was incomplete data registration in two students and one student performed compressions only. The average time on task for the remaining 181 students was three minutes (SD 0.5. In the subgroup, the average overall time spent in the testing station was 7.5 minutes (SD 1.4. Mean scores were 5.3/6 (SD 0.5, range 4.0-6.0 for instructional organisation and 5.0/6 (SD 0.61, range 3.1-6.0 for usability. Students highly appreciated the automated testing procedure. Conclusions Our automated testing station was an effective and efficient method to assess BLS skills in medicine students

  14. Innovations in basic life support education for healthcare providers: improving competence in cardiopulmonary resuscitation through self-directed learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cason, Carolyn L; Kardong-Edgren, Suzan; Cazzell, Mary; Behan, Deborah; Mancini, Mary Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Providing cardiopulmonary resuscitation is an essential competency for nurses. Nurse educators involved in staff development and continuing education spend numerous hours offering basic life support courses and conducting performance improvement activities such as mock codes. This study provides evidence that cardiopulmonary resuscitation performance skills using self-directed learning methods are as good as or, on a number of parameters, better than those achieved with a more resource- and time-intensive traditional approach.

  15. Basic Disaster Life Support (BDLS) Training Improves First Responder Confidence to Face Mass-Casualty Incidents in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhls, Deborah A; Chestovich, Paul J; Coule, Phillip; Carrison, Dale M; Chua, Charleston M; Wora-Urai, Nopadol; Kanchanarin, Tavatchai

    2017-10-01

    Medical response to mass-casualty incidents (MCIs) requires specialized training and preparation. Basic Disaster Life Support (BDLS) is a course designed to prepare health care workers for a MCI. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the confidence of health care professionals in Thailand to face a MCI after participating in a BDLS course. Basic Disaster Life Support was taught to health care professionals in Thailand in July 2008. Demographics and medical experience were recorded, and participants rated their confidence before and after the course using a five-point Likert scale in 11 pertinent MCI categories. Survey results were compiled and compared with Pconfidence increased among all participants (2.1 to 3.8; +1.7; Pconfidence increases in each measured area (Pconfidence but greater confidence increase, while physicians had higher pre-course confidence but lower confidence increase. Active duty military also had lower pre-course confidence with significantly greater confidence increases, while previous disaster courses or experience increased pre-course confidence but lower increase in confidence. Age and work experience did not influence confidence. Basic Disaster Life Support significantly improves confidence to respond to MCI situations, but nurses and active duty military benefit the most from the course. Future courses should focus on these groups to prepare for MCIs. Kuhls DA , Chestovich PJ , Coule P , Carrison DM , Chua CM , Wora-Urai N , Kanchanarin T . Basic Disaster Life Support (BDLS) training improves first responder confidence to face mass-casualty incidents in Thailand. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(5):492-500 .

  16. Life After the Event: A Review of Basic Life Support Training for Parents Following Apparent Life-Threatening Events and Their Experience and Practices Following Discharge

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2017-05-01

    Apparent Life-Threatening Events (ALTEs) are a common presentation to paediatric hospitals and represent a significant cause of parental anxiety. Basic Life Support (BLS) training is recommended for all caregivers following ALTEs. This study aimed to assess the rate of caregiver BLS training and reviewed parents experience following discharge. Parents were interviewed by phone following discharge. Over the study period 25 children attended the Emergency Department with ALTE, 17\\/25 (68%) were trained and 13\\/17 (76%) were contactable for interview. All parents found training decreased their anxiety level and were interested in attending for re-training. BLS resuscitation was subsequently required by 2\\/13 (15%) of children. Non-medical grade monitors were in use by 10\\/13 (77%) of caregivers following discharge. Caregivers are eager to engage in BLS training and it effectively reduces their caregiver anxiety. We recommend an increase in instructor staff and use of group re-training post discharge

  17. Life After the Event: A Review of Basic Life Support Training for Parents Following Apparent Life-Threatening Events and Their Experience and Practices Following Discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macken, W L; Clarke, N; Nadeem, M; Coghlan, D

    2017-05-10

    Apparent Life-Threatening Events (ALTEs) are a common presentation to paediatric hospitals and represent a significant cause of parental anxiety. Basic Life Support (BLS) training is recommended for all caregivers following ALTEs. This study aimed to assess the rate of caregiver BLS training and reviewed parents experience following discharge. Parents were interviewed by phone following discharge. Over the study period 25 children attended the Emergency Department with ALTE, 17/25 (68%) were trained and 13/17 (76%) were contactable for interview. All parents found training decreased their anxiety level and were interested in attending for re-training. BLS resuscitation was subsequently required by 2/13 (15%) of children. Non-medical grade monitors were in use by 10/13 (77%) of caregivers following discharge. Caregivers are eager to engage in BLS training and it effectively reduces their caregiver anxiety. We recommend an increase in instructor staff and use of group re-training post discharge.

  18. Teaching basic life support to school children using medical students and teachers in a 'peer-training' model--results of the 'ABC for life' programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toner, P; Connolly, M; Laverty, L; McGrath, P; Connolly, D; McCluskey, D R

    2007-10-01

    The 'ABC for life' programme was designed to facilitate the wider dissemination of basic life support (BLS) skills and knowledge in the population. A previous study demonstrated that using this programme 10-12-year olds are capable of performing and retaining these vital skills when taught by medical students. There are approximately 25,000 year 7 school children in 900 primary schools in Northern Ireland. By using a pyramidal teaching approach involving medical students and teachers, there is the potential to train BLS to all of these children each year. To assess the effectiveness of a programme of CPR instruction using a three-tier training model in which medical students instruct primary school teachers who then teach school children. School children and teachers in the Western Education and Library Board in Northern Ireland. A course of instruction in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)--the 'ABC for life' programme--specifically designed to teach 10-12-year-old children basic life support skills. Medical students taught teachers from the Western Education and Library Board area of Northern Ireland how to teach basic life support skills to year 7 pupils in their schools. Pupils were given a 22-point questionnaire to assess knowledge of basic life support immediately before and after a teacher led training session. Children instructed in cardiopulmonary resuscitation using this three-tier training had a significantly improved score following training (57.2% and 77.7%, respectively, p<0.001). This study demonstrates that primary school teachers, previously trained by medical students, can teach BLS effectively to 10-12-year-old children using the 'ABC for life' programme.

  19. Basic life support skills: assessment and education of spouse and first degree relatives of patients with coronary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Javaid Arif; Shafquat, Azam; Kundi, Asadullah

    2010-05-01

    To assess the knowledge of basic cardiac life support (BCLS) before and after the institution of training among first degree relatives and spouses of patients with coronary disease. Quasi-experimental study. National Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, Karachi, from April 2007 to May 2008. A total of 300 relatives of patients with coronary heart disease undertook a one day CPR course. Questionnaire assessing knowledge of CPR was administered before and after the course. Patients were studied in groups of 10-20 at a time. Proportion of correct knowledge was compared using chi-square test with significance at p educational levels (p educational groups showed equal learning abilities.

  20. Opioid overdose prevention training with naloxone, an adjunct to basic life support training for first-year medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berland, Noah; Fox, Aaron; Tofighi, Babak; Hanley, Kathleen

    2017-01-01

    Opioid overdose deaths have reached epidemic proportions in the United States. This problem stems from both licit and illicit opioid use. Prescribing opioids, recognizing risky use, and initiating prevention, including opioid overdose prevention training (OOPT), are key roles physicians play. The American Heart Association (AHA) modified their basic life support (BLS) algorithms to consider naloxone in high-risk populations and when a pulse is appreciated; however, the AHA did not provide OOPT. The authors' intervention filled this training deficiency by teaching medical students opioid overdose resuscitation with a Train-the-Trainer model as part of mandatory BLS training. The authors introduced OOPT, following a Train-the-Trainer model, into the required basic life support (BLS) training for first-year medical students at a single medical school in a large urban area. The authors administered pre- and post-evaluations to assess the effects of the training on opioid overdose knowledge, self-reported preparedness to respond to opioid overdoses, and attitudes towards patients with substance use disorders (SUDs). In the fall 2014, 120 first-year medical students received OOPT. Seventy-three students completed both pre- and posttraining evaluations. Improvements in knowledge about and preparedness to respond to opioid overdoses were statistically significant (P support dissemination of OOPT as a part of BLS training for all medical students, and potentially all BLS providers.

  1. [Chest compression without ventilation during basic life support? Confirmation of the validity of the European Resuscitation Council (ERC) guidelines 2005].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreimeier, U; Dirks, B; Arntz, R; Bahr, J; Goldschmidt, P; Roessler, M; Sasse, M; Toursarkissian, M

    2008-08-01

    Basic life support (BLS) refers to maintaining airway patency and supporting breathing and the circulation, without the use of equipment other than infection protection measures. The scientific advisory committee of the American Heart Association (AHA) published recommendations (online-first) on March 31 2008, which promote a call to action for bystanders who are not or not sufficiently trained in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and witness an adult out-of-hospital sudden collapse probably of cardiac origin. These bystanders should provide chest compression without ventilation (so-called compression-only CPR). If bystanders were previously trained and thus confident with CPR, they should decide between conventional CPR (chest compression plus ventilation at a ratio of 30:2) and chest compression alone. However, considering current evidence-based medicine and latest scientific data both the European Resuscitation Council (ERC) and the German Resuscitation Council (GRC) do not at present intend to change or supplement the current resuscitation guidelines "Basic life support for adults". Both organisations do not see any need for change or amendments in central European practice and continue to recommend that only those lay rescuers that are not willing or unable to give mouth-to-mouth ventilation should provide CPR solely by uninterrupted chest compressions until professional help arrives. It is also stressed that the training of young people especially teenagers as lay rescuers should be promoted and the establishment of training programs through emergency medical organizations and in schools should be encouraged.

  2. Evaluation of a novel basic life support method in simulated microgravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehnberg, Lucas; Russomano, Thaws; Falcão, Felipe; Campos, Fabio; Everts, Simon N

    2011-02-01

    If a cardiac arrest occurs in microgravity, current emergency protocols aim to treat patients via a medical restraint system within 2-4 min. It is vital that crewmembers have the ability to perform single-person cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) during this period, allowing time for advanced life support to be deployed. The efficacy of the Evetts-Russomano (ER) method has been tested in 22 s of microgravity in a parabolic flight and has shown that external chest compressions (ECC) and mouth-to-mouth ventilation are possible. There were 21 male subjects who performed both the ER method in simulated microgravity via full body suspension and at +1 Gz. The CPR mannequin was modified to provide accurate readings for ECC depth and a metronome to set the rate at 100 bpm. Heart rate, rate of perceived exertion, and angle of arm flexion were measured with an ECG, elbow electrogoniometers, and Borg scale, respectively. The mean (+/- SD) depth of ECC in simulated microgravity was lower in each of the 3 min compared to +1 G2. The ECC depth (45.7 +/- 2.7 mm, 42.3 +/- 5.5 mm, and 41.4 +/- 5.9 mm) and rate (104.5 +/- 5.2, 105.2 +/- 4.5, and 102.4 +/- 6.6 compressions/min), however, remained within CPR guidelines during simulated microgravity over the 3-min period. Heart rate, perceived exertion, and elbow flexion of both arms increased using the ER method. The ER method can provide adequate depth and rate of ECC in simulated microgravity for 3 min to allow time to deploy a medical restraint system. There is, however, a physiological cost associated with it and a need to use the flexion of the arms to compensate for the lack of weight.

  3. Awareness, Attitude, and Knowledge of Basic Life Support among Medical, Dental, and Nursing Faculties and Students in the University Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangamesh, N C; Vidya, K C; Pathi, Jugajyoti; Singh, Arpita

    2017-01-01

    To assess the awareness, attitude, and knowledge about basic life support (BLS) among medical, dental, and nursing students and faculties and the proposal of BLS skills in the academic curriculum of undergraduate (UG) course. Recognition, prevention, and effective management of life-threatening emergencies are the responsibility of health-care professionals. These situations can be successfully managed by proper knowledge and training of the BLS skills. These life-saving maneuvers can be given through the structured resuscitation programs, which are lacking in the academic curriculum. A questionnaire study consisting of 20 questions was conducted among 659 participants in the Kalinga Institute of Dental Sciences, Kalinga Institute of Medical Sciences, KIIT University. Medical junior residents, BDS faculties, interns, nursing faculties, and 3 rd -year and final-year UG students from both medical and dental colleges were chosen. The statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS software version 20.0 (Armonk, NY:IBM Corp). After collecting the data, the values were statistically analyzed and tabulated. Statistical analysis was performed using Mann-Whitney U-test. The results with P < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Our participants were aware of BLS, showed positive attitude toward it, whereas the knowledge about BLS was lacking, with the statistically significant P value. By introducing BLS regularly in the academic curriculum and by routine hands on workshops, all the health-care providers should be well versed with the BLS skills for effectively managing the life-threatening emergencies.

  4. In-Hospital Basic Life Support: Major Differences in Duration, Retraining Intervals, and Training Methods - A Danish Nationwide Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Ditte K; Glerup Lauridsen, Kasper; Staerk, Mathilde

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: High-quality chest compressions and early defibrillation is essential to improve survival following in-hospital cardiac arrest. Efficient training in basic life support (BLS) for clinical staff is therefore important. This study aimed to investigate duration, training methods...... and retraining intervals for BLS training of clinical staff in Danish hospitals.Methods: We included all public, somatic hospitals in Denmark with a cardiac arrest team. Online questionnaires were distributed to resuscitation officers in each hospital. Questionnaires inquired information on: A) Course duration...... and retraining interval, and B) Training methods and setting.Results: In total, 44 hospitals replied (response rate: 96%). BLS training for clinical staff was conducted in 41 hospitals (93%). Median (Q1;Q3) course duration was 1.5 (1;2.5) hours. Retraining was conducted every year (17%), every second year (56...

  5. A comparison of pediatric basic life support self-led and instructor-led training among nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestergaard, Lone D; Løfgren, Bo; Jessen, Casper L; Petersen, Christina B; Wolff, Anne; Nielsen, Henrik V; Krarup, Niels H V

    2017-02-01

    Pediatric cardiac arrest carries a poor prognosis. Basic life support improves survival. Studies on pediatric basic life support (PBLS) training are sparse. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of self-training in PBLS. We conducted a prospective controlled trial enrolling nurses from pediatric and maternity wards (n=29 in each group). Self-training, including a manikin and access to a web-based video on PBLS, was compared with a 2-h instructor-led course. Two weeks after training, all participants were tested in a mock scenario of pediatric cardiac arrest. Fifteen parameters equivalent to the steps in the PBLS algorithm - for example, effective ventilations, effective chest compressions, calling for help, and correct sequence of actions, were evaluated and rated dichotomously (1=approved or 0=not approved). No difference was observed in the baseline demographics between the self-training group and the instructor-led group. The participants in the self-training group accessed the website 2±1.5 times (mean±SD) and spent 41±25 min on the site. There was no significant difference between the two groups in the overall average score (10.5 in the self-training group vs. 10.0 in the instructor-led group, P=0.51) or in any of the 15 parameters. After the study, all participants felt that they had improved their skills and felt capable of performing PBLS. Self-training is not statistically different to instructor-led training in teaching PBLS. Self-evaluated confidence improved, but showed no difference between groups. PBLS may be disseminated through self-training.

  6. Self-learning basic life support: A randomised controlled trial on learning conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Tina Heidi; Kasper, Nina; Roman, Hari; Egloff, Mike; Marx, David; Abegglen, Sandra; Greif, Robert

    2018-03-06

    To investigate whether pure self-learning without instructor support, resulted in the same BLS-competencies as facilitator-led learning, when using the same commercially available video BLS teaching kit. First-year medical students were randomised to either BLS self-learning without supervision or facilitator-led BLS-teaching. Both groups used the MiniAnne kit (Laerdal Medical, Stavanger, Norway) in the students' local language. Directly after the teaching and three months later, all participants were tested on their BLS-competencies in a simulated scenario, using the Resusci Anne SkillReporter™ (Laerdal Medical, Stavanger, Norway). The primary outcome was percentage of correct cardiac compressions three months after the teaching. Secondary outcomes were all other BLS parameters recorded by the SkillReporter and parameters from a BLS-competence rating form. 240 students were assessed at baseline and 152 students participated in the 3-month follow-up. For our primary outcome, the percentage of correct compressions, we found a median of 48% (interquartile range (IQR) 10-83) for facilitator-led learning vs. 42% (IQR 14-81) for self-learning (p = 0.770) directly after the teaching. In the 3-month follow-up, the rate of correct compressions dropped to 28% (IQR 6-59) for facilitator-led learning (p = 0.043) and did not change significantly in the self-learning group (47% (IQR 12-78), p = 0.729). Self-learning is not inferior to facilitator-led learning in the short term. Self-learning resulted in a better retention of BLS-skills three months after training compared to facilitator-led training. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessment of knowledge and attitude about basic life support among dental interns and postgraduate students in Bangalore city, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Dhage Pundalika Rao; Biradar, Suvarna V; Reddy, Mayurnath T; Bk, Sujatha

    2015-01-01

    Life-threatening emergencies can occur at anytime, at anywhere and in anyone. Effective management of an emergency situation in the dental office is ultimately the dentist's responsibility. The lack of training and inability to cope with medical emergencies can lead to tragic consequences and sometimes legal complications. Therefore, health professionals including dentists must be well prepared to deal with medical emergencies. This study was undertaken to assess the knowledge about and attitude towards basic life support (BLS) among dental interns and postgraduate students in Bangalore city, India. A cross sectional survey was conducted among dental interns and postgraduate students from May 2014 to June 2014 since few studies have been conducted in Bangalore city. A questionnaire with 17 questions regarding the knowledge about and attitude towards BLS was distributed to 202 study participants. The data analyzed using the Chi-square test showed that dental interns and postgraduate students had average knowledge about BLS. In the 201 participants, 121 (59.9%) had a positive attitude and 81 (40.1%) had a negative attitude towards BLS. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation should be considered as part of the dental curriculum. Workshops on a regular basis should be focused on skills of cardiopulmonary resuscitation for dental students.

  8. What should be included in the assessment of laypersons' paediatric basic life support skills? Results from a Delphi consensus study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselager, Asbjørn Børch; Lauritsen, Torsten; Kristensen, Tim; Bohnstedt, Cathrine; Sønderskov, Claus; Østergaard, Doris; Tolsgaard, Martin Grønnebæk

    2018-01-18

    Assessment of laypersons' Paediatric Basic Life Support (PBLS) skills is important to ensure acquisition of effective PBLS competencies. However limited evidence exists on which PBLS skills are essential for laypersons. The same challenges exist with respect to the assessment of foreign body airway obstruction management (FBAOM) skills. We aimed to establish international consensus on how to assess laypersons' PBLS and FBAOM skills. A Delphi consensus survey was conducted. Out of a total of 84 invited experts, 28 agreed to participate. During the first Delphi round experts suggested items to assess laypersons' PBLS and FBAOM skills. In the second round, the suggested items received comments from and were rated by 26 experts (93%) on a 5-point scale (1 = not relevant to 5 = essential). Revised items were anonymously presented in a third round for comments and 23 (82%) experts completed a re-rating. Items with a score above 3 by more than 80% of the experts in the third round were included in an assessment instrument. In the first round, 19 and 15 items were identified to assess PBLS and FBAOM skills, respectively. The ratings and comments from the last two rounds resulted in nine and eight essential assessment items for PBLS and FBAOM skills, respectively. The PBLS items included: "Responsiveness"," Call for help", "Open airway"," Check breathing", "Rescue breaths", "Compressions", "Ventilations", "Time factor" and "Use of AED". The FBAOM items included: "Identify different stages of foreign body airway obstruction", "Identify consciousness", "Call for help", "Back blows", "Chest thrusts/abdominal thrusts according to age", "Identify loss of consciousness and change to CPR", "Assessment of breathing" and "Ventilation". For assessment of laypersons some PBLS and FBAOM skills described in guidelines are more important than others. Four out of nine of PBLS skills focus on airway and breathing skills, supporting the major importance of these skills for

  9. Interprofessional education and social interaction: The use of automated external defibrillators in team-based basic life support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onan, Arif; Simsek, Nurettin

    2017-04-01

    Automated external defibrillators are pervasive computing devices designed for the treatment and management of acute sudden cardiac arrest. This study aims to explain users' actual use behavior in teams formed by different professions taken after a short time span of interaction with automated external defibrillator. Before the intervention, all the participants were certified with the American Heart Association Basic Life Support for healthcare providers. A statistically significant difference was revealed in mean individual automated external defibrillator technical skills between uniprofessional and interprofessional groups. The technical automated external defibrillator team scores were greater for groups with interprofessional than for those with uniprofessional education. The nontechnical automated external defibrillator skills of interprofessional and uniprofessional teams revealed differences in advantage of interprofessional teams. Students positively accept automated external defibrillators if well-defined and validated training opportunities to use them expertly are available. Uniprofessional teams were successfully supported by their members and, thereby, used automated external defibrillator effectively. Furthermore, the interprofessional approach resulted in as much effective teamwork as the uniprofessional approach.

  10. A Path Analysis of Basic Need Support, Self-Efficacy, Achievement Goals, Life Satisfaction and Academic Achievement Level among Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseth, Age; Danielsen, Anne G.; Samdal, Oddrun

    2012-01-01

    Teachers' support of basic psychological needs, self-efficacy, achievement goals, life satisfaction and academic achievement level was measured in a sample of 240 secondary school students (8th and 10th grades). Correlation analysis showed significant positive relations between all of the variables, except for the relation between need support of…

  11. Comparison of basic life support (BLS video self-instructional system and traditional BLS training in first year nursing students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Nikandish

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: For several years, educators have criticized the lecture-based  approach  to teaching and learning. Experts have rightly stressed on acquisition  of a number of critical  skills rather than focusing on lectures. Purpose. To compare students'  pe1jormance after self-education  with VCD and manikin,  with thei performance after standard BLS training.Methods: In this randomized controlled study, twenty first-year nursing students were divided into two groups randomly, and were provided with basic life support (BLS instruction either in the traditional format of lecturing or with VCD and manikin without tutor. The students’ Performance was evaluated on a manikin with a checklist including all steps in BLS.Results: With traditional  instruction,  students'  mean score was 42.2±3.91, while it was 46.3±3.86 with self-education,  showing no significant  difference.Conclusion: In nursing students with no previous BLS training, access to VCD and manikin facilitates immediate achievement of educational objectives similar to those  of a standard  BLS course.  Self­ learning BLS with VCD should be enhanced with a short period of hands-on practice.Keywords: cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR, nursing students, cpr skills, education

  12. The Effect of the Duration of Basic Life Support Training on the Learners’ Cardiopulmonary and Automated External Defibrillator Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Hyuck Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Basic life support (BLS training with hands-on practice can improve performance during simulated cardiac arrest, although the optimal duration for BLS training is unknown. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of various BLS training durations for acquiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR and automated external defibrillator (AED skills. Methods. We randomised 485 South Korean nonmedical college students into four levels of BLS training: level 1 (40 min, level 2 (80 min, level 3 (120 min, and level 4 (180 min. Before and after each level, the participants completed questionnaires regarding their willingness to perform CPR and use AEDs, and their psychomotor skills for CPR and AED use were assessed using a manikin with Skill-Reporter™ software. Results. There were no significant differences between levels 1 and 2, although levels 3 and 4 exhibited significant differences in the proportion of overall adequate chest compressions (p<0.001 and average chest compression depth (p=0.003. All levels exhibited a greater posttest willingness to perform CPR and use AEDs (all, p<0.001. Conclusions. Brief BLS training provided a moderate level of skill for performing CPR and using AEDs. However, high-quality skills for CPR required longer and hands-on training, particularly hands-on training with AEDs.

  13. Comparison of the quality of basic life support provided by rescuers trained using the 2005 or 2010 ERC guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Christopher M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Effective delivery of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR and prompt defibrillation following sudden cardiac arrest (SCA is vital. Updated guidelines for adult basic life support (BLS were published in 2010 by the European Resuscitation Council (ERC in an effort to improve survival following SCA. There has been little assessment of the ability of rescuers to meet the standards outlined within these new guidelines. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of the performance of first year healthcare students trained and assessed using either the new 2010 ERC guidelines or their 2005 predecessor, within the University of Birmingham, United Kingdom. All students were trained as lay rescuers during a standardised eight hour ERC-accredited adult BLS course. Results We analysed the examination records of 1091 students. Of these, 561 were trained and assessed using the old 2005 ERC guidelines and 530 using the new 2010 guidelines. A significantly greater proportion of candidates failed in the new guideline group (16.04% vs. 11.05%; p  Conclusions The new ERC guidelines lead to a greater proportion of lay rescuers performing chest compressions at an erroneously fast rate and may therefore worsen BLS efficacy. Additional study is required in order to define the clinical impact of compressions performed to a greater depth and at too fast a rate.

  14. Comparison of the errors in basic life support performance after training using the 2000 and 2005 ERC guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Andrew; Kocierz, Laura; Aggarwal, Naresh; Hulme, Jonathan

    2010-06-01

    The importance of immediate cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and defibrillation after cardiac arrest is established. The 2005 European Resuscitation Council (ERC) guidelines were altered to try to improve survival after cardiac arrest. This observational study compares the errors in basic life support (BLS) performance after training using the 2000 or 2005 guidelines. First-year healthcare students at the University of Birmingham, United Kingdom, were taught adult BLS in a standardised 8-h course: an historical group with previous ERC guidelines (Old), the other with 2005 ERC guidelines (New). 2537 (Old 1773; New 764) students were trained and assessed in BLS. There was no difference in overall error rate between Old and New (5.53% vs. 6.70% (p>0.05)) or adherence to the sequence of the respective BLS algorithm. The New group ("hands in centre of the chest") had significantly more erroneous hand positions compared to the Old group (5.23% vs. 1.64%, pERC guidelines do not significantly improve correct BLS performance. Removal of hand placement measurement results in a significant increase in hand position errors. The clinical benefit of an increased number of compressions impaired by worsened hand positioning is unknown and requires further study. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The voice advisory manikin (VAM): an innovative approach to pediatric lay provider basic life support skill education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Robert Michael; Donoghue, Aaron; Myklebust, Helge; Srikantan, Shoba; Byrne, Amy; Priest, Marc; Zoltani, Zombor; Helfaer, Mark A; Nadkarni, Vinay

    2007-10-01

    To determine the efficacy of immediate, standardized, corrective audio feedback training as supplied by the voice advisory manikin (VAM) compared to high quality standardized instructor feedback training for the initial acquisition of 1-rescuer lay provider pediatric BLS skills. Lay care providers of hospitalized children 8-18 years were randomized to VAM (n=23) or standardized human instruction (SHI, n=27) training in one-rescuer pediatric BLS. After an identical video/instructor introduction to CPR and 20 min of training in their respective group, quantitative CPR psychomotor skill data was recorded during 3-min CPR testing epochs. All manikins used in training and testing sessions were identical in outside appearance and feel of doing CPR. The primary outcome measure was CPR psychomotor skill success defined prospectively as 70% correct chest compressions (CC) and ventilations (V). Subjects not attaining these success goals retrained for 5 min in their respective training group and were retested. Data analysis using student t-test and chi2-tests as appropriate. VAM trainees delivered more total CC/min (58.7+/-7.9 versus 47.6+/-10.5, pvoice advisory manikin (VAM) can improve initial pediatric basic life support skill acquisition for lay providers even when compared to one-on-one, standardized instructor-led training.

  16. Comparison of an interactive CD-based and traditional instructor-led Basic Life Support skills training for nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardegan, Karen J; Schofield, Margot J; Murphy, Gregory C

    2015-08-01

    Basic Life Support (BLS) is a life-saving and fundamental skill in resuscitation. However, studies have reported limitations in BLS training outcomes for both health professional and lay populations, and noted the resource and time-intensive nature of traditional training approaches. This exploratory study evaluated the effectiveness of an interactive CD-based BLS training programme that included unsupervised manikin practice compared with a traditional instructor-led BLS training programme involving demonstration and supervised practice. A quasi-experimental post-test with follow-up design was used. The sample was comprised of two cohorts: Novice second-year undergraduate Nursing students (n=187) and Practising Nurses (n=107) in their first year of hospital employment. BLS skill outcomes were assessed at one week and again at eight weeks post training. No statistically significant differences were found between the CD and traditional instructor-led BLS training methods in BLS skills of Novice and Practising Nurses at one week and eight weeks post training. However, there was a decrement in skill between one week and eight weeks post-training across both groups and an overall low level of competence. The failure to find a difference between the CD-based BLS programme with unsupervised manikin practice and a resource-intensive traditional instructor-led BLS training programme may indicate equivalence of the programmes or, even study design limitations. It is concerning that competence displayed by trainees from both groups was less than optimal and suggests the need for renewed efforts to develop and evaluate BLS training programmes which can achieve high rates of competence with acceptable skill retention over time. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Basic life support with four different compression/ventilation ratios in a pig model: the need for ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kill, Clemens; Torossian, Alexander; Freisburger, Christian; Dworok, Sebastian; Massmann, Martin; Nohl, Thorsten; Henning, Ronald; Wallot, Pascal; Gockel, Andreas; Steinfeldt, Thorsten; Graf, Jürgen; Eberhart, Leopold; Wulf, Hinnerk

    2009-09-01

    During cardiac arrest the paramount goal of basic life support (BLS) is the oxygenation of vital organs. Current recommendations are to combine chest compressions with ventilation in a fixed ratio of 30:2; however the optimum compression/ventilation ratio is still debatable. In our study we compared four different compression/ventilation ratios and documented their effects on the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), gas exchange, cerebral tissue oxygenation and haemodynamics in a pig model. Study was performed on 32 pigs under general anaesthesia with endotracheal intubation. Arterial and central venous lines were inserted. For continuous cerebral tissue oxygenation a Licox PtiO(2) probe was implanted. After 3 min of cardiac arrest (ventricular fibrillation) animals were randomized to a compression/ventilation-ratio 30:2, 100:5, 100:2 or compressions-only. Subsequently 10 min BLS, Advanced Life Support (ALS) was performed (100%O(2), 3 defibrillations, 1mg adrenaline i.v.). Data were analyzed with 2-factorial ANOVA. ROSC was achieved in 4/8 (30:2), 5/8 (100:5), 2/8 (100:2) and 0/8 (compr-only) pigs. During BLS, PaCO(2) increased to 55 mm Hg (30:2), 68 mm Hg (100:5; p=0.0001), 66 mm Hg (100:2; p=0.002) and 72 mm Hg (compr-only; p<0.0001). PaO(2) decreased to 58 mmg (30:2), 40 mm Hg (100:5; p=0.15), 43 mm Hg (100:2; p=0.04) and 26 mm Hg (compr-only; p<0.0001). PtiO(2) baseline values were 12.7, 12.0, 11.1 and 10.0 mm Hg and decreased to 8.1 mm Hg (30:2), 4.1 mm Hg (100:5; p=0.08), 4.3 mm Hg (100:2; p=0.04), and 4.5 mm Hg (compr-only; p=0.69). During BLS, a compression/ventilation-ratio of 100:5 seems to be equivalent to 30:2, while ratios of 100:2 or compressions-only detoriate peripheral arterial oxygenation and reduce the chance for ROSC.

  18. Impact of basic life-support training on the attitudes of health-care workers toward cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolfotouh, Mostafa A; Alnasser, Manal A; Berhanu, Alamin N; Al-Turaif, Deema A; Alfayez, Abdulrhman I

    2017-09-22

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) increases the probability of survival of a person with cardiac arrest. Repeating training helps staff retain knowledge in CPR and in use of automated external defibrillators (AEDs). Retention of knowledge and skills during and after training in CPR is difficult and requires systematic training with appropriate methodology. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of basic life-support (BLS) training on the attitudes of health-care providers toward initiating CPR and on use of AEDs, and to investigate the factors that influence these attitudes. A quasi-experimental study was conducted in two groups: health-care providers who had just attended a BLS-AED course (post-BLS group, n = 321), and those who had not (pre-BLS group, n = 421). All participants had previously received BLS training. Both groups were given a validated questionnaire to evaluate the status of life-support education and certification, attitudes toward use of CPR and AED and concerns regarding use of CPR and AED. Multiple linear regression analyses were applied to identify significant predictors of the attitude and concern scores. Overall positive attitudes were seen in 53.4% of pre-BLS respondents and 64.8% of post-BLS respondents (χ 2  = 9.66, p = 0.002). Positive attitude was significantly predicted by the recent completion of BLS training (β = 5.15, p < 0.001), the number of previous BLS training courses (β = 2.10, p = 0.008) and previous exposure to cardiac-arrest cases (β = 3.44, p = 0.018), as well as by low concern scores, (β = -0.09, p < 0.001). Physicians had significantly lower concern scores than nurses (β = -10.45, p = 0.001). Concern scores decreased as the duration of work experience increased (t = 2.19, p = 0.029). Repeated educational programs can improve attitudes toward CPR performance and the use of AEDs. Training that addressed the concerns of health-care workers could further improve these

  19. Effect of 3basic life support training programs in future primary school teachers. A quasi-experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Patón, R; Freire-Tellado, M; Basanta-Camiño, S; Barcala-Furelos, R; Arufe-Giraldez, V; Rodriguez-Fernández, J E

    2017-07-17

    To evaluate the learning of basic life support (BLS) measures on the part of laypersons after 3different teaching programs. A quasi-experimental before-after study involving a non-probabilistic sample without a control group was carried out. Primary school teacher students from the University of Santiago (Spain). A total of 124 students (68.8% women and 31.2% men) aged 20-39 years (M=22.23; SD=3.79), with no previous knowledge of BLS, were studied. Three teaching programs were used: a traditional course, an audio-visual approach and feedback devices. Chest compressions as sole cardiopulmonary resuscitation skill evaluation: average compression depth, compression rate, chest recoil percentage and percentage of correct compressions. Automated external defibrillator: time needed to apply a shock before and after the course. There were significant differences in the results obtained after 2minutes of chest compressions, depending on the training program received, with feedback devices having a clear advantage referred to average compression depth (p<0.001), compression rate (p<0.001), chest recoil percentage (p<0.001) and percentage of correct compressions (p<0.001). Regarding automated external defibrillator, statistically significant differences were found in T after (p=0.025). The teaching course using feedback devices obtained the best results in terms of the quality of chest compressions, followed by the traditional course and audio-visual approach. These favorable results were present in both men and women. All 3teaching methods reached the goal of reducing defibrillation time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of the quality of basic life support provided by rescuers trained using the 2005 or 2010 ERC guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher M; Owen, Andrew; Thorne, Christopher J; Hulme, Jonathan

    2012-08-09

    Effective delivery of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and prompt defibrillation following sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) is vital. Updated guidelines for adult basic life support (BLS) were published in 2010 by the European Resuscitation Council (ERC) in an effort to improve survival following SCA. There has been little assessment of the ability of rescuers to meet the standards outlined within these new guidelines. We conducted a retrospective analysis of the performance of first year healthcare students trained and assessed using either the new 2010 ERC guidelines or their 2005 predecessor, within the University of Birmingham, United Kingdom. All students were trained as lay rescuers during a standardised eight hour ERC-accredited adult BLS course. We analysed the examination records of 1091 students. Of these, 561 were trained and assessed using the old 2005 ERC guidelines and 530 using the new 2010 guidelines. A significantly greater proportion of candidates failed in the new guideline group (16.04% vs. 11.05%; p < 0.05), reflecting a significantly greater proportion of lay-rescuers performing chest compressions at too fast a rate when trained and assessed with the 2010 rather than 2005 guidelines (6.04% vs. 2.67%; p < 0.05). Error rates for other skills did not differ between guideline groups. The new ERC guidelines lead to a greater proportion of lay rescuers performing chest compressions at an erroneously fast rate and may therefore worsen BLS efficacy. Additional study is required in order to define the clinical impact of compressions performed to a greater depth and at too fast a rate.

  1. A systematic review of basic life support training targeted to family members of high-risk cardiac patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartledge, Susie; Bray, Janet E; Leary, Marion; Stub, Dion; Finn, Judith

    2016-08-01

    Targeting basic life support (BLS) training to bystanders who are most likely to witness an out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is an important public health intervention. We performed a systematic review examining the evidence of the effectiveness of providing BLS training to family members of high-risk cardiac patients. A search of Ovid MEDLINE, CINAL, EMBASE, Informit, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Scopus, ERIC and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global was conducted. We included all studies training adult family members of high-risk cardiac patients regardless of methods used for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) or BLS training. Two reviewers independently extracted data and evaluated the quality of evidence using GRADE (Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation). We included 26 of the 1172 studies identified. The majority of studies were non-randomised controlled trials (n=18), of very low to moderate quality. Currently, there is insufficient evidence to indicate a benefit of this intervention for patients; largely because of low numbers of OHCA events and high loss to follow-up. However, the majority of trained individuals were able to competently perform BLS skills, reported a willingness to use these skills and experienced lower anxiety. Whilst there is no current evidence for improvement in patient outcomes from targeted BLS training for family members, this group are willing and capable to learn these skills. Future research may need to examine longer periods of follow-up using alternate methods (e.g. cardiac arrest registries), and examine the effectiveness of training in the modern era. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Basic life support skills training in a first year medical curriculum: six years' experience with two cognitive-constructivist designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durak, Halil Ibrahim; Certuğ, Agah; Calişkan, Ayhan; van Dalen, Jan

    2006-03-01

    Although the Basic Life Support (BLS) ability of a medical student is a crucial competence, poor BLS training programs have been documented worldwide. Better training designs are needed. This study aims to share detailed descriptions and the test results of two cognitive-constructivist training models for the BLS skills in the first year of medical curriculum. A BLS skills training module was implemented in the first year curriculum in the course of 6 years (1997-2003). The content was derived from the European Resuscitation Council Guidelines. Initially, a competence-based model was used and was upgraded to a cognitive apprenticeship model in 2000. The main performance-content type that was expected at the end of the course was: competent application of BLS procedures on manikins and peers at an OSCE as well as 60% achievement in a test consisting of 25 MCQ items. A retrospective cohort survey design using exam results and a self-completed anonymous student ratings' questionnaire were used in order to test models. Training time for individual students varied from 21 to 29 hours. One thousand seven hundred and sixty students were trained. Fail rates were very low (1.0-2.2%). The students were highly satisfied with the module during the 6 years. In the first year of the medical curriculum, a competence-based or cognitive apprenticeship model using cognitive-constructivist designs of skills training with 9 hours theoretical and 12-20 hours long practical sessions took place in groups of 12-17 students; medical students reached a degree of competence to sufficiently perform BLS skills on the manikins and their peers. The cognitive-constructivist designs for skills training are associated with high student satisfaction. However, the lack of controls limits the extrapolation of this conclusion.

  3. Performance of cardiopulmonary resuscitation during prolonged basic life support in military medical university students: A manikin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Zhuo, Chao-Nan; Zhang, Lei; Gong, Yu-Shun; Yin, Chang-Lin; Li, Yong-Qin

    2015-01-01

    The quality of chest compressions can be significantly improved after training of rescuers according to the latest national guidelines of China. However, rescuers may be unable to maintain adequate compression or ventilation throughout a response of average emergency medical services because of increased rescuer fatigue. In the present study, we evaluated the performance of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in training of military medical university students during a prolonged basic life support (BLS). A 3-hour BLS training was given to 120 military medical university students. Six months after the training, 115 students performed single rescuer BLS on a manikin for 8 minutes. The qualities of chest compressions as well as ventilations were assessed. The average compression depth and rate were 53.7±5.3 mm and 135.1±15.7 compressions per minute respectively. The proportion of chest compressions with appropriate depth was 71.7%±28.4%. The average ventilation volume was 847.2±260.4 mL and the proportion of students with adequate ventilation was 63.5%. Compared with male students, significantly lower compression depth (46.7±4.8 vs. 54.6±4.8 mm, P<0.001) and adequate compression rate (35.5%±26.5% vs. 76.1%±25.1%, P<0.001) were observed in female students. CPR was found to be related to gender, body weight, and body mass index of students in this study. The quality of chest compressions was well maintained in male students during 8 minutes of conventional CPR but declined rapidly in female students after 2 minutes according to the latest national guidelines. Physical fitness and rescuer fatigue did not affect the quality of ventilation.

  4. Efficacy and retention of Basic Life Support education including Automated External Defibrillator usage during a physical education period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kae Watanabe

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The American Heart Association (AHA advocates for CPR education as a requirement of secondary school curriculum. Unfortunately, many states have not adopted CPR education. Our aim was to investigate a low-cost, time effective method to educate students on Basic Life Support (BLS, including reeducation. This is a prospective, randomized study. Retention was assessed at 4 months post-initial education. Education was performed by AHA-certified providers during a 45-minute physical education class in a middle school in Florida. This age provides opportunities for reinforcement through high school, with ability for efficient learning. The study included 41 Eighth grade students. Students were randomized into two groups; one group received repeat education 2 months after the first education, the second group did not. All students received BLS education limited to chest compressions and usage of an Automated External Defibrillator. Students had skills and knowledge tests administered pre- and post-education after initial education, and repeated 2 and 4 months later to assess retention. There was a significant increase in CPR skills and knowledge when comparing pre- and post-education results for all time-points (p < 0.001. When assessing reeducation, a significant improvement was noted in total knowledge scores but not during the actual steps of CPR. Our study indicates significant increase in CPR knowledge and skills following a one-time 45-minute session. Reeducation may be useful, but the interval needs further investigation. If schools across the United States invested one 45–60-minute period every school year, this would ensure widespread CPR knowledge with minimal cost and loss of school time.

  5. Improving Pediatric Basic Life Support Performance Through Blended Learning With Web-Based Virtual Patients: Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Ronny; Thiessen, Christiane; Frick, Barbara; Bosse, Hans Martin; Nikendei, Christoph; Hoffmann, Georg Friedrich; Tönshoff, Burkhard; Huwendiek, Sören

    2015-07-02

    E-learning and blended learning approaches gain more and more popularity in emergency medicine curricula. So far, little data is available on the impact of such approaches on procedural learning and skill acquisition and their comparison with traditional approaches. This study investigated the impact of a blended learning approach, including Web-based virtual patients (VPs) and standard pediatric basic life support (PBLS) training, on procedural knowledge, objective performance, and self-assessment. A total of 57 medical students were randomly assigned to an intervention group (n=30) and a control group (n=27). Both groups received paper handouts in preparation of simulation-based PBLS training. The intervention group additionally completed two Web-based VPs with embedded video clips. Measurements were taken at randomization (t0), after the preparation period (t1), and after hands-on training (t2). Clinical decision-making skills and procedural knowledge were assessed at t0 and t1. PBLS performance was scored regarding adherence to the correct algorithm, conformance to temporal demands, and the quality of procedural steps at t1 and t2. Participants' self-assessments were recorded in all three measurements. Procedural knowledge of the intervention group was significantly superior to that of the control group at t1. At t2, the intervention group showed significantly better adherence to the algorithm and temporal demands, and better procedural quality of PBLS in objective measures than did the control group. These aspects differed between the groups even at t1 (after VPs, prior to practical training). Self-assessments differed significantly only at t1 in favor of the intervention group. Training with VPs combined with hands-on training improves PBLS performance as judged by objective measures.

  6. Multimedia Design Principles in the Psychomotor Domain: The Effect of Multimedia and Spatial Contiguity on Students' Learning of Basic Life Support with Task Cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iserbyt, Peter; Mols, Liesbet; Elen, Jan; Behets, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This study adds to the literature by introducing multimedia research in the psychomotor area. In this study, 87 freshman students in pedagogy used task cards to learn Basic Life Support (BLS), a psychomotor skill consisting of nine lifesaving actions to be performed in a specific order. Task cards are printed materials and are often implemented…

  7. Acquisition and retention of basic life support skills in an untrained population using a personal resuscitation manikin and video self-instruction (VSI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Møller; Henriksen, Mikael Johannes Vuokko; Isbye, Dan Lou

    2010-01-01

    Video-based self-instruction (VSI) with a 24-min DVD and a personal resuscitation manikin solves some of the barriers associated with traditional basic life support (BLS) courses. No accurate assessment of the actual improvement in skills after attending a VSI course has been determined...

  8. The Impact of Learning Style on Healthcare Providers' Preference for Voice Advisory Manikins versus Live Instructors in Basic Life Support Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGiovanni, Lisa Marie

    2013-01-01

    The American Heart Association's HeartCode[TM] Healthcare Provider (HCP) Basic Life Support (BLS) e-learning program with voice-advisory manikins was implemented in an acute care hospital as the only teaching method offered for BLS certification. On course evaluations, healthcare provider staff commented that the VAM technology for skills practice…

  9. Reperfusion injury protection during Basic Life Support improves circulation and survival outcomes in a porcine model of prolonged cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debaty, Guillaume; Lurie, Keith; Metzger, Anja; Lick, Michael; Bartos, Jason A; Rees, Jennifer N; McKnite, Scott; Puertas, Laura; Pepe, Paul; Fowler, Raymond; Yannopoulos, Demetris

    2016-08-01

    Ischemic postconditioning (PC) using three intentional pauses at the start of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) improves outcomes after cardiac arrest in pigs when epinephrine (epi) is used before defibrillation. We hypothesized PC, performed during basic life support (BLS) in the absence of epinephrine, would reduce reperfusion injury and enhance 24h functional recovery. Prospective animal investigation. Animal laboratory Female farm pigs (n=46, 39±1kg). Protocol A: After 12min of ventricular fibrillation (VF), 28 pigs were randomized to four groups: (A) Standard CPR (SCPR), (B) active compression-decompression CPR with an impedance threshold device (ACD-ITD), (C) SCPR+PC (SCPR+PC) and (D) ACD-ITD CPR+PC. Protocol B: After 15min of VF, 18 pigs were randomized to ACD-ITD CPR or ACD-ITD+PC. The BLS duration was 2.75min in Protocol A and 5min in Protocol B. Following BLS, up to three shocks were delivered. Without return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), CPR was resumed and epi (0.5mg) and defibrillation delivered. The primary end point was survival without major adverse events. Hemodynamic parameters and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were also measured. Data are presented as mean±SEM. Protocol A: ACD-ITD+PC (group D) improved coronary perfusion pressure after 3min of BLS versus the three other groups (28±6, 35±7, 23±5 and 47±7 for groups A, B, C, D respectively, p=0.05). There were no significant differences in 24h survival between groups. LVEF 4h post ROSC was significantly higher with ACD-ITD+PC vs ACD-ITD alone (52.5±3% vs. 37.5±6.6%, p=0.045). Survival rates were significantly higher with ACD-ITD+PC vs. ACD-ITD alone (p=0.027). BLS using ACD-ITD+PC reduced post resuscitation cardiac dysfunction and improved functional recovery after prolonged untreated VF in pigs. 12-11. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Bystander basic life support: an important link in the chain of survival for children suffering a drowning or near-drowning episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, Jeanette; Cheng, Nicholas G; Lam, Lawrence T; Fahy, Fiona E; Soundappan, S V; Sounndapound, S V; Cass, Danny T; Browne, Gary J

    2008-04-21

    Eight children suffered drowning or near-drowning in Sydney pools over an 11-day period in January 2007. Four received basic life support (BLS) within 5 minutes of immersion and survived with good functional neurological outcomes. The other four were not discovered for >or= 5 minutes and all died. This cluster serves as a reminder that timely effective bystander BLS is crucial to survival and good clinical outcomes in near-drowning episodes.

  11. College students identify university support for basic needs and life skills as key ingredient in addressing food insecurity on campus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler D. Watson

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A recent University of California (UC systemwide survey showed that 42% of UC college students experience food insecurity, consistent with other studies among U.S. college students. As part of UC's efforts to understand and address student food insecurity, we conducted 11 focus group interviews across four student subpopulations at UC Los Angeles (n = 82. We explored student experiences, perceptions and concerns related to both food insecurity and food literacy, which may help protect students against food insecurity. Themes around food insecurity included student awareness about food insecurity, cost of university attendance, food insecurity consequences, and coping strategies. Themes around food literacy included existing knowledge and skills, enjoyment and social cohesion, and learning in the dining halls. Unifying themes included the campus food environment not meeting student needs, a desire for practical financial and food literacy “life skills” training, and skepticism about the university's commitment to adequately address student basic needs. The results of this study broadly suggest there is opportunity for the university to address student food insecurity through providing food literacy training, among other strategies.

  12. Efficacy of chest compressions directed by end-tidal CO2 feedback in a pediatric resuscitation model of basic life support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamrick, Jennifer L; Hamrick, Justin T; Lee, Jennifer K; Lee, Benjamin H; Koehler, Raymond C; Shaffner, Donald H

    2014-04-14

    End-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) correlates with systemic blood flow and resuscitation rate during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and may potentially direct chest compression performance. We compared ETCO2-directed chest compressions with chest compressions optimized to pediatric basic life support guidelines in an infant swine model to determine the effect on rate of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Forty 2-kg piglets underwent general anesthesia, tracheostomy, placement of vascular catheters, ventricular fibrillation, and 90 seconds of no-flow before receiving 10 or 12 minutes of pediatric basic life support. In the optimized group, chest compressions were optimized by marker, video, and verbal feedback to obtain American Heart Association-recommended depth and rate. In the ETCO2-directed group, compression depth, rate, and hand position were modified to obtain a maximal ETCO2 without video or verbal feedback. After the interval of pediatric basic life support, external defibrillation and intravenous epinephrine were administered for another 10 minutes of CPR or until ROSC. Mean ETCO2 at 10 minutes of CPR was 22.7±7.8 mm Hg in the optimized group (n=20) and 28.5±7.0 mm Hg in the ETCO2-directed group (n=20; P=0.02). Despite higher ETCO2 and mean arterial pressure in the latter group, ROSC rates were similar: 13 of 20 (65%; optimized) and 14 of 20 (70%; ETCO2 directed). The best predictor of ROSC was systemic perfusion pressure. Defibrillation attempts, epinephrine doses required, and CPR-related injuries were similar between groups. The use of ETCO2-directed chest compressions is a novel guided approach to resuscitation that can be as effective as standard CPR optimized with marker, video, and verbal feedback.

  13. Sensemaking in the formation of basic life support teams - a proof-of-concept, qualitative study of simulated in-hospital cardiac arrests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallas, Peter; Lauridsen, Johnny; Brabrand, Mikkel

    2018-01-01

    -orientation", "re-presentation" and/or "subordination" (among others). We sought to establish if elements of "sensemaking" occur in the formation of in-hospital cardiac arrest teams. METHODS: Videos of ten simulations of unannounced in-hospital cardiac arrests treated by basic life support (BLS) providers. We......-presentation and Sub-ordination. RESULTS: Sensemaking elements could be identified in seven of ten scenarios as part of team formation. Co-orientation was the element that was used most consistently, occurring in all of the eight scenarios that included sensemaking efforts. CONCLUSIONS: Sensemaking is an element...

  14. Simba Study: Undergraduate module in simulation training and basic life support to improve undergraduate confidence in paediatrics

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bruell, H

    2013-08-20

    There are significant differences in resuscitation algorithms for children versus adults. We aimed to enhance confidence of our students in the assessment and management of sick children by developing a simple program with emphasis on Basic Airway management, CPR, and clinical assessment and treatment of children using the A\\/B\\/C\\/D\\/E system. \\r\

  15. The Tulip GT® airway versus the facemask and Guedel airway: a randomised, controlled, cross-over study by Basic Life Support-trained airway providers in anaesthetised patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, A; Robinson, P N; Hasan, M

    2016-03-01

    We performed a randomised, controlled, cross-over study of lung ventilation by Basic Life Support-trained providers using either the Tulip GT® airway or a facemask with a Guedel airway in 60 anaesthetised patients. Successful ventilation was achieved if the provider produced an end-tidal CO2 > 3.5 kPa and a tidal volume > 250 ml in two of the first three breaths, within 60 sec and within two attempts. Fifty-seven (95%) providers achieved successful ventilation using the Tulip GT compared with 35 (58%) using the facemask (p Tulip GT and facemask, the mean (SD) end-tidal CO2 was 5.0 (0.7) kPa vs 2.5 (1.5) kPa, tidal volume was 494 (175) ml vs 286 (186) ml and peak inspiratory pressure was 18.3 (3.4) cmH2 O vs 13.6 (7) cmH2 O respectively (all p Tulip GT airway. These results are similar to a previous manikin study using the same protocol, suggesting a close correlation between human and manikin studies for this airway device. We conclude that the Tulip GT should be considered as an adjunct to airway management both within and outside hospitals when ventilation is being undertaken by Basic Life Support-trained airway providers. © 2015 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  16. 2017 American Heart Association Focused Update on Adult Basic Life Support and Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Quality: An Update to the American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, Monica E; Goldberger, Zachary D; Rea, Thomas; Swor, Robert A; Bobrow, Bentley J; Brennan, Erin E; Terry, Mark; Hemphill, Robin; Gazmuri, Raúl J; Hazinski, Mary Fran; Travers, Andrew H

    2018-01-02

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation is a lifesaving technique for victims of sudden cardiac arrest. Despite advances in resuscitation science, basic life support remains a critical factor in determining outcomes. The American Heart Association recommendations for adult basic life support incorporate the most recently published evidence and serve as the basis for education and training for laypeople and healthcare providers who perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Basic life support trained nurses ventilate more efficiently with laryngeal mask supreme than with facemask or laryngeal tube suction-disposable--a prospective, randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Elisabeth; Oberhammer, Rosmarie; Balkenhol, Karla; Strapazzon, Giacomo; Procter, Emily; Brugger, Hermann; Falk, Markus; Paal, Peter

    2014-04-01

    In some emergency situations resuscitation and ventilation may have to be performed by basic life support trained personnel, especially in rural areas where arrival of advanced life support teams can be delayed. The use of advanced airway devices such as endotracheal intubation has been deemphasized for basically-trained personnel, but it is unclear whether supraglottic airway devices are advisable over traditional mask-ventilation. In this prospective, randomized clinical single-centre trial we compared airway management and ventilation performed by nurses using facemask, laryngeal mask Supreme (LMA-S) and laryngeal tube suction-disposable (LTS-D). Basic life support trained nurses (n=20) received one-hour practical training with each device. ASA 1-2 patients scheduled for elective surgery were included (n=150). After induction of anaesthesia and neuromuscular block nurses had two 90-second attempts to manage the airway and ventilate the patient with volume-controlled ventilation. Ventilation failed in 34% of patients with facemask, 2% with LMA-S and 22% with LTS-D (P<0.001). In patients who could be ventilated successfully mean tidal volume was 240±210 ml with facemask, 470±120 ml with LMA-S and 470±140 ml with LTS-D (P<0.001). Leak pressure was lower with LMA-S (23.3±10.8 cm H2O, 95% CI 20.2-26.4) than with LTS-D (28.9±13.9 cm·H2O, 95% CI 24.4-33.4; P=0.047). After one hour of introductory training, nurses were able to use LMA-S more effectively than facemask and LTS-D. High ventilation failure rates with facemask and LTS-D may indicate that additional training is required to perform airway management adequately with these devices. High-level trials are needed to confirm these results in cardiac arrest patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Teaching basic life support: a prospective randomized study on low-cost training strategies in secondary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Raemdonck, Veerle; Monsieurs, Koenraad G; Aerenhouts, Dirk; De Martelaer, Kristine

    2014-08-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training at school is recommended. Limited school resources prevent implementation. The learning efficacy of low-cost training strategies is unknown. To evaluate the efficacy of different CPR learning strategies using low-cost didactic tools. Children (n=593, 15-16 years) were randomized to four training conditions: (1) manikin+teacher instruction (control group), (2) manikin+video instruction, (3) foam dice+plastic bag+peer training+teacher instruction, and (4) foam dice+plastic bag+peer training+video instruction. After a 50 min training, a 3 min CPR test on a manikin was performed using SkillReporting Software (Laerdal, Norway), and repeated after 6 months. The data of children without previous CPR training were analysed. Analysis of variance and the χ-test assessed differences between groups. Complete data sets were available for 165 pupils. Initially, group 3 scored lower on the mean ventilation volume (Pstrategies was suboptimal. The basics of CPR can be taught with alternative equipment if manikins are not available.

  19. Effects of advanced life support versus basic life support on the mortality rates of patients with trauma in prehospital settings: a study protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Yutaka; Fukuda, Tatsuma; Uchimido, Ryo; Hifumi, Toru; Hayashida, Kei

    2017-10-22

    Advanced life support (ALS) is thought to be associated with improved survival in prehospital trauma care when compared with basic life support (BLS). However, evidence on the benefits of prehospital ALS for patients with trauma is controversial. Therefore, we aim to clarify if ALS improves mortality in patients with trauma when compared with BLS by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis of the recent literature. We will perform searches in PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for published observational studies, controlled before-and-after studies, randomised controlled trials and other controlled trials conducted in humans and published until March 2017. We will screen search results, assess study selection, extract data and assess the risk of bias in duplicate; disagreements will be resolved through discussions. Data from clinically homogeneous studies will be pooled using a random-effects meta-analysis, heterogeneity of effects will be assessed using the χ 2 test of homogeneity, and any observed heterogeneity will be quantified using the I 2 statistic. Last, the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach will be used to rate the quality of the evidence. Our study does not require ethical approval as it is based on findings of previously published articles. Results will be disseminated through publication in a peer-reviewed journal, presentations at relevant conferences and publications for patient information. PROSPERO (International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews) registration number CRD42017054389. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Effect of using a laryngeal tube on the no-flow time in a simulated, single-rescuer, basic life support setting with inexperienced users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, O; Bucher, M; Schröder, J

    2016-03-01

    The laryngeal tube (LT) is a recommended alternative to endotracheal intubation during advanced life support (ALS). Its insertion is relatively simple; therefore, it may also serve as an alternative to bag mask ventilation (BMV) for untrained personnel performing basic life support (BLS). Data support the influence of LT on the no-flow time (NFT) compared with BMV during ALS in manikin studies. We performed a manikin study to investigate the effect of using the LT for ventilation instead of BMV on the NFT during BLS in a prospective, randomized, single-rescuer study. All 209 participants were trained in BMV, but were inexperienced in using LT; each participant performed BLS during a 4-min time period. No significant difference in total NFT (LT: mean 81.1 ± 22.7 s; BMV: mean 83.2 ± 13.1 s, p = 0.414) was found; however, significant differences in the later periods of the scenario were identified. While ventilating with the LT, the proportion of chest compressions increased significantly from 67.2 to 73.2%, whereas the proportion of chest compressions increased only marginally when performing BMV. The quality of the chest compressions and the associated ventilation rate did not differ significantly. The mean tidal volume and mean minute volume were significantly lower when performing BMV. The NFT was significantly shorter in the later periods in a single-rescuer, cardiac arrest scenario when using an LT without previous training compared with BMV with previous training. A possible explanation for this result may be the complexity and workload of alternating tasks (e.g., time loss when reclining the head and positioning the mask for each ventilation during BMV).

  1. Effect of the laryngeal tube on the no-flow-time in a simulated two rescuer basic life support setting with inexperienced users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, J; Bucher, M; Meyer, O

    2016-09-01

    Intubation with a laryngeal tube (LT) is a recommended alternative to endotracheal intubation during advanced life support (ALS). LT insertion is easy; therefore, it may also be an alternative to bag-mask ventilation (BMV) for untrained personnel performing basic life support (BLS). Data from manikin studies support the influence of LT on no-flow-time (NFT) during ALS. We performed a prospective, randomized manikin study using a two-rescuer model to compare the effects of ventilation using a LT and BMV on NFT during BLS. Participants were trained in BMV and were inexperienced in the use of a LT. There was no significant difference in total NFT with the use of a LT and BMV (LT: mean 83.1 ± 37.3 s; BMV: mean 78.7 ± 24.5 s; p = 0.313), but we found significant differences in the progression of the scenario: in the BLS-scenario, the proportion of time spent performing chest compressions was higher when BMV was used compared to when a LT was used. The quality of chest compressions and the ventilation rate did not differ significantly between the two groups. The mean tidal volume and mean minute volume were significantly larger with the use of a LT compared with the use of BMV. In conclusion, in a two-rescuer BLS scenario, NFT is longer with the use of a LT (without prior training) than with the use of BMV (with prior training). The probable reasons for this result are higher tidal volumes with the use of a LT leading to longer interruptions without chest compressions.

  2. Awareness about basic life support and emergency medical services and its associated factors among students in a tertiary care hospital in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroor, Akshatha Rao; Saya, Rama Prakash; Attar, Nazir Rahim; Saya, Ganesh Kumar; Ravinanthanan, Manikandan

    2014-07-01

    The knowledge and skills about the basic life support (BLS) and the advanced life support are the most important determining factors of the cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) success rates. To determine the level of awareness on BLS and skills among undergraduate and postgraduate students of medical and dental profession, as well as nursing students and interns in a tertiary care hospital. This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital in South India. The awareness level on BLS and factors associated which include age, sex, level of training (undergraduate, internship, and postgraduate groups), course of study (nursing, dental, and medical groups), and previous exposure to BLS were assessed by using a structured questionnaire. The association of these variables with awareness level was assessed by independent t test, analysis of variance, and linear regression analysis. Among 520 study subjects, 229 were students, 171 were interns, and 120 were postgraduate students. The overall mean score of awareness was 4.16 ± 1.40 (score range: 0-10). Age, sex, level of training, course of study, and previous exposure to BLS were significantly associated with awareness level in univariate analysis (P < 0.05). Linear regression model also showed that all the above variables were significantly associated with awareness level (P < 0.05). About 322 (61.9%) subjects attributed lack of awareness about BLS to lack of available professional training. About 479 (92.1%) responded that BLS training should be a part of medical curriculum. Awareness level on BLS is below average indicating the importance of professional training at all levels in a tertiary care health institution.

  3. Influence of learning styles on the practical performance after the four-step basic life support training approach – An observational cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henke, Alexandra; Stieger, Lina; Beckers, Stefan; Biermann, Henning; Rossaint, Rolf; Sopka, Saša

    2017-01-01

    Background Learning and training basic life support (BLS)—especially external chest compressions (ECC) within the BLS-algorithm—are essential resuscitation training for laypersons as well as for health care professionals. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of learning styles on the performance of BLS and to identify whether all types of learners are sufficiently addressed by Peyton’s four-step approach for BLS training. Methods A study group of first-year medical students (n = 334) without previous medical knowledge was categorized according to learning styles using the German Lernstilinventar questionnaire based on Kolb’s Learning Styles Inventory. Students’ BLS performances were assessed before and after a four-step BLS training approach lasting 4 hours. Standardized BLS training was provided by an educational staff consisting of European Resuscitation Council-certified advanced life support providers and instructors. Pre- and post-intervention BLS performance was evaluated using a single-rescuer-scenario and standardized questionnaires (6-point-Likert-scales: 1 = completely agree, 6 = completely disagree). The recorded points of measurement were the time to start, depth, and frequency of ECC. Results The study population was categorized according to learning styles: diverging (5%, n = 16), assimilating (36%, n = 121), converging (41%, n = 138), and accommodating (18%, n = 59). Independent of learning styles, both male and female participants showed significant improvement in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) performance. Based on the Kolb learning styles, no significant differences between the four groups were observed in compression depth, frequency, time to start CPR, or the checklist-based assessment within the baseline assessment. A significant sex effect on the difference between pre- and post-interventional assessment points was observed for mean compression depth and mean compression frequency. Conclusions The findings

  4. Influence of learning styles on the practical performance after the four-step basic life support training approach - An observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Hanna; Henke, Alexandra; Stieger, Lina; Beckers, Stefan; Biermann, Henning; Rossaint, Rolf; Sopka, Saša

    2017-01-01

    Learning and training basic life support (BLS)-especially external chest compressions (ECC) within the BLS-algorithm-are essential resuscitation training for laypersons as well as for health care professionals. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of learning styles on the performance of BLS and to identify whether all types of learners are sufficiently addressed by Peyton's four-step approach for BLS training. A study group of first-year medical students (n = 334) without previous medical knowledge was categorized according to learning styles using the German Lernstilinventar questionnaire based on Kolb's Learning Styles Inventory. Students' BLS performances were assessed before and after a four-step BLS training approach lasting 4 hours. Standardized BLS training was provided by an educational staff consisting of European Resuscitation Council-certified advanced life support providers and instructors. Pre- and post-intervention BLS performance was evaluated using a single-rescuer-scenario and standardized questionnaires (6-point-Likert-scales: 1 = completely agree, 6 = completely disagree). The recorded points of measurement were the time to start, depth, and frequency of ECC. The study population was categorized according to learning styles: diverging (5%, n = 16), assimilating (36%, n = 121), converging (41%, n = 138), and accommodating (18%, n = 59). Independent of learning styles, both male and female participants showed significant improvement in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) performance. Based on the Kolb learning styles, no significant differences between the four groups were observed in compression depth, frequency, time to start CPR, or the checklist-based assessment within the baseline assessment. A significant sex effect on the difference between pre- and post-interventional assessment points was observed for mean compression depth and mean compression frequency. The findings of this work show that the four-step-approach for

  5. The evil of good is better: Making the case for basic life support transport for penetrating trauma victims in an urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappold, Joseph F; Hollenbach, Kathryn A; Santora, Thomas A; Beadle, Dania; Dauer, Elizabeth D; Sjoholm, Lars O; Pathak, Abhijit; Goldberg, Amy J

    2015-09-01

    Controversy remains over the ideal way to transport penetrating trauma victims in an urban environment. Both advance life support (ALS) and basic life support (BLS) transports are used in most urban centers. A retrospective cohort study was conducted at an urban Level I trauma center. Victims of penetrating trauma transported by ALS, BLS, or police from January 1, 2008, to November 31, 2013, were identified. Patient survival by mode of transport and by level of care received was analyzed using logistic regression. During the study period, 1,490 penetrating trauma patients were transported by ALS (44.8%), BLS (15.6%), or police (39.6%) personnel. The majority of injuries were gunshot wounds (72.9% for ALS, 66.8% for BLS, 90% for police). Median transport minutes were significantly longer for ALS (16 minutes) than for BLS (14.5 minutes) transports (p = 0.012). After adjusting for transport time and Injury Severity Score (ISS), among victims with an ISS of 0 to 30, there was a 2.4-fold increased odds of death (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-4.4) if transported by ALS as compared with BLS. With an ISS of greater than 30, this relationship did not exist (odds ratio, 0.9; 95% CI, 0.3-2.7). When examined by type of care provided, patients with an ISS of 0 to 30 given ALS support were 3.7 times more likely to die than those who received BLS support (95% CI, 2.0-6.8). Among those with an ISS of greater than 30, no relationship was evident (odds ratio, 0.9; 95% CI, 0.3-2.7). Among penetrating trauma victims with an ISS of 30 or lower, an increased odds of death was identified for those treated and/or transported by ALS personnel. For those with an ISS of greater than 30, no survival advantage was identified with ALS transport or care. Results suggest that rapid transport may be more important than increased interventions. Therapeutic study, level IV.

  6. Basic life support providers' assessment of centre of the chest and inter-nipple line for hand position and their underlying anatomical structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Joyce; Butler, Thomas; Digby, James W; Hughes, John; Higgie, David; Minshall, Mark; Miller, Ben; Gao, Fang; Perkins, Gavin D

    2011-02-01

    Effective chest compression is an integral part of good quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation. There remains uncertainty over the optimal method for identifying the correct hand position for chest compression. The aim of this study was to identify the relationship between basic life support (BLS) providers assessment of the inter-nipple line (INL) versus the centre of the chest (CoC) and to identify the anatomical structures underneath these landmarks. Thirty consecutive patients having elective CT scans of the thorax were recruited and photographs of the patient fully clothed were taken in the supine position. 30 healthcare students trained in BLS were asked to mark the 'point between the nipples' and the 'centre of the chest' on each photograph in a random sequence. Corresponding points were marked on the CT images and the underlying anatomical structures were identified. Hand positions using CoC landmark were significantly higher and were more variable than INL landmark (measurement represented as ratio of sternal length: mean CoC 0.709, 95% CI 0.677, 0.740 versus mean INL 0.803 95% CI 0.772, 0.835; pcompressing predominantly the aortic arch and ascending aorta and INL compressing the left ventricle and left ventricular outflow (pvariable than the inter-nipple line. Structures compressed under both landmarks were different although the implications of this are unknown. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of effectiveness of class lecture versus workshop-based teaching of basic life support on acquiring practice skills among the health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Habib Md Reazaul; Yunus, Md; Bhattacharyya, Prithwis; Ahmed, Ghazal

    2016-01-01

    Basic life support (BLS) is an integral part of emergency medical care. Studies have shown poor knowledge of it among health care providers who are usually taught BLS by lecture-based teachings in classes. This study is designed to assess the effectiveness of class lecture versus workshop-based teaching of BLS on acquiring the practice skills on mannequin. After ethical approval and informed consent from the participants, the present study was conducted among the health care providers. Participants were grouped in lecture-based class teaching and workshop-based teaching. They were then asked to practice BLS on mannequin (Resusci Anne with QCPR) and evaluated as per performance parameters based on American Heart Association BLS. Statistical analyses are done by Fisher's exact t-test using GraphPad INSTAT software and P 0.05). Though more than 83% of lecture-based teaching group has started chest compression as compared 96% of workshop group; only 49% of the participants of lecture-based group performed quality chest compression as compared to 82% of other group (P = 0.0005). The workshop group also performed better bag mask ventilation and defibrillation (P < 0.0001). Workshop-based BLS teaching is more effective and lecture-based class teaching better is replaced in medical education curriculum.

  8. Impacts of extreme heat on emergency medical service calls in King County, Washington, 2007-2012: relative risk and time series analyses of basic and advanced life support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkins, Miriam M; Isaksen, Tania Busch; Stubbs, Benjamin A; Yost, Michael G; Fenske, Richard A

    2016-01-28

    Exposure to excessive heat kills more people than any other weather-related phenomenon, aggravates chronic diseases, and causes direct heat illness. Strong associations between extreme heat and health have been identified through increased mortality and hospitalizations and there is growing evidence demonstrating increased emergency department visits and demand for emergency medical services (EMS). The purpose of this study is to build on an existing regional assessment of mortality and hospitalizations by analyzing EMS demand associated with extreme heat, using calls as a health metric, in King County, Washington (WA), for a 6-year period. Relative-risk and time series analyses were used to characterize the association between heat and EMS calls for May 1 through September 30 of each year for 2007-2012. Two EMS categories, basic life support (BLS) and advanced life support (ALS), were analyzed for the effects of heat on health outcomes and transportation volume, stratified by age. Extreme heat was model-derived as the 95th (29.7 °C) and 99th (36.7 °C) percentile of average county-wide maximum daily humidex for BLS and ALS calls respectively. Relative-risk analyses revealed an 8 % (95 % CI: 6-9 %) increase in BLS calls, and a 14 % (95 % CI: 9-20 %) increase in ALS calls, on a heat day (29.7 and 36.7 °C humidex, respectively) versus a non-heat day for all ages, all causes. Time series analyses found a 6.6 % increase in BLS calls, and a 3.8 % increase in ALS calls, per unit-humidex increase above the optimum threshold, 40.7 and 39.7 °C humidex respectively. Increases in "no" and "any" transportation were found in both relative risk and time series analyses. Analysis by age category identified significant results for all age groups, with the 15-44 and 45-64 year old age groups showing some of the highest and most frequent increases across health conditions. Multiple specific health conditions were associated with increased risk of an EMS call including abdominal

  9. Is current training in basic and advanced cardiac life support (BLS & ACLS) effective? A study of BLS & ACLS knowledge amongst healthcare professionals of North-Kerala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambiar, Madavan; Nedungalaparambil, Nisanth Menon; Aslesh, Ottapura Prabhakaran

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare professionals are expected to have knowledge of current basic and advanced cardiac life support (BLS/ACLS) guidelines to revive unresponsive patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the current practices and knowledge of BLS/ACLS principles among healthcare professionals of North-Kerala using pretested self-administered structured questionnaire. Answers were validated in accordance with American Heart Association's BLS/ACLS teaching manual and the results were analysed. Among 461 healthcare professionals, 141 (30.6%) were practicing physicians, 268 (58.1%) were nurses and 52 (11.3%) supporting staff. The maximum achievable score was 20 (BLS 15/ACLS 5). The mean score amongst all healthcare professionals was 8.9±4.7. The mean score among physicians, nurses and support staff were 8.6±3.4, 9±3.6 and 9±3.3 respectively. The majority of healthcare professionals scored ≤50% (237, 51.4%); 204 (44.3%) scored 51%-80% and 20 (4.34%) scored >80%. Mean scores decreased with age, male sex and across occupation. Nurses who underwent BLS/ACLS training previously had significantly higher mean scores (10.2±3.4) than untrained (8.2±3.6, P =0.001). Physicians with <5 years experience ( P =0.002) and nurses in the private sector ( P =0.003) had significantly higher scores. One hundred and sixty three (35.3%) healthcare professionals knew the correct airway opening manoeuvres like head tilt, chin lift and jaw thrust. Only 54 (11.7%) respondents were aware that atropine is not used in ACLS for cardiac arrest resuscitation and 79 (17.1%) correctly opted ventricular fibrillation and pulseless ventricular tachycardia as shockable rhythms. The majority of healthcare professionals (356, 77.2%) suggested that BLS/ACLS be included in academic curriculum. Inadequate knowledge of BLS/ACLS principles amongst healthcare professionals, especially physicians, illuminate lacunae in existing training systems and merit urgent redressal.

  10. A multiple linear regression analysis of factors affecting the simulated Basic Life Support (BLS) performance with Automated External Defibrillator (AED) in Flemish lifeguards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iserbyt, Peter; Schouppe, Gilles; Charlier, Nathalie

    2015-04-01

    Research investigating lifeguards' performance of Basic Life Support (BLS) with Automated External Defibrillator (AED) is limited. Assessing simulated BLS/AED performance in Flemish lifeguards and identifying factors affecting this performance. Six hundred and sixteen (217 female and 399 male) certified Flemish lifeguards (aged 16-71 years) performed BLS with an AED on a Laerdal ResusciAnne manikin simulating an adult victim of drowning. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was conducted with BLS/AED performance as outcome variable and demographic data as explanatory variables. Mean BLS/AED performance for all lifeguards was 66.5%. Compression rate and depth adhered closely to ERC 2010 guidelines. Ventilation volume and flow rate exceeded the guidelines. A significant regression model, F(6, 415)=25.61, p<.001, ES=.38, explained 27% of the variance in BLS performance (R2=.27). Significant predictors were age (beta=-.31, p<.001), years of certification (beta=-.41, p<.001), time on duty per year (beta=-.25, p<.001), practising BLS skills (beta=.11, p=.011), and being a professional lifeguard (beta=-.13, p=.029). 71% of lifeguards reported not practising BLS/AED. Being young, recently certified, few days of employment per year, practising BLS skills and not being a professional lifeguard are factors associated with higher BLS/AED performance. Measures should be taken to prevent BLS/AED performances from decaying with age and longer certification. Refresher courses could include a formal skills test and lifeguards should be encouraged to practise their BLS/AED skills. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of introducing a voluntary virtual patient module to a basic life support with an automated external defibrillator course: a randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kononowicz Andrzej A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The concept of virtual patients (VPs encompasses a great variety of predominantly case-based e-learning modules with different complexity and fidelity levels. Methods for effective placement of VPs in the process of medical education are sought. The aim of this study was to determine whether the introduction of a voluntary virtual patients module into a basic life support with an automated external defibrillator (BLS-AED course improved the knowledge and skills of students taking the course. Methods Half of the students were randomly assigned to an experimental group and given voluntary access to a virtual patient module consisting of six cases presenting BLS-AED knowledge and skills. Pre- and post-course knowledge tests and skills assessments were performed, as well as a survey of students' satisfaction with the VP usage. In addition, time spent using the virtual patient system, percentage of screen cards viewed and scores in the formative questions in the VP system throughout the course were traced and recorded. Results The study was conducted over a six week period and involved 226 first year medical students. The voluntary module was used by 61 (54% of the 114 entitled study participants. The group that used VPs demonstrated better results in knowledge acquisition and in some key BLS-AED action skills than the group without access, or those students from the experimental group deliberately not using virtual patients. Most of the students rated the combination of VPs and corresponding teaching events positively. Conclusions The overall positive reaction of students and encouraging results in knowledge and skills acquisition suggest that the usage of virtual patients in a BLS-AED course on a voluntary basis is feasible and should be further investigated.

  12. Basic life support and external defibrillation competences after instruction and at 6 months comparing face-to-face and blended training. Randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Jordi; Gallart, Aberto; Rodríguez, Encarnación; Castillo, Jorge; Gomar, Carmen

    2018-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the immediate and 6-month efficacy of basic life support (BLS) and automatic external defibrillation (AED) training using standard or blended methods. First-year students of medicine and nursing (n = 129) were randomly assigned to a control group (face-to-face training based on the European Resuscitation Council [ERC] Guidelines) or to an experimental group that trained with a self-training video, a new website, a Moodle platform, an intelligent manikin, and 45 min of instructor presence. Both groups were homogeneous and were evaluated identically. Theoretical knowledge was evaluated using a multi-choice questionnaire (MCQ). Skill performance was evaluated by the instructor's rubric and on a high-fidelity Resusci Anne QCPR manikin. Immediately after the course, there were no statistically significant differences in knowledge between the two groups. The median score of practical evaluation assessed by the instructor was significantly better in the experimental group (8.15, SD 0.93 vs 7.7, SD 1.18; P = 0.02). No differences between groups were found when using a high-fidelity manikin to evaluate chest compressions and lung inflations. At six months, the scores in knowledge and skill performance were significantly lower compared to the evaluations at the end of the instruction, but they remained still higher compared to baseline. The experimental group had higher scores in practical skills evaluated by the instructor than the control group (7.44, SD 1.85 vs 6.10, SD 2.6; P = 0.01). The blended method provides the same or even higher levels of knowledge and skills than standard instruction both immediately after the course and six months later. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The effect of peer-group size on the delivery of feedback in basic life support refresher training: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Youngsuk; Je, Sangmo; Yoon, Yoo Sang; Roh, Hye Rin; Chang, Chulho; Kang, Hyunggoo; Lim, Taeho

    2016-07-04

    Students are largely providing feedback to one another when instructor facilitates peer feedback rather than teaching in group training. The number of students in a group affect the learning of students in the group training. We aimed to investigate whether a larger group size increases students' test scores on a post-training test with peer feedback facilitated by instructor after video-guided basic life support (BLS) refresher training. Students' one-rescuer adult BLS skills were assessed by a 2-min checklist-based test 1 year after the initial training. A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of student number in a group on BLS refresher training. Participants included 115 final-year medical students undergoing their emergency medicine clerkship. The median number of students was 8 in the large groups and 4 in the standard group. The primary outcome was to examine group differences in post-training test scores after video-guided BLS training. Secondary outcomes included the feedback time, number of feedback topics, and results of end-of-training evaluation questionnaires. Scores on the post-training test increased over three consecutive tests with instructor-led peer feedback, but not differ between large and standard groups. The feedback time was longer and number of feedback topics generated by students were higher in standard groups compared to large groups on the first and second tests. The end-of-training questionnaire revealed that the students in large groups preferred the smaller group size compared to their actual group size. In this BLS refresher training, the instructor-led group feedback increased the test score after tutorial video-guided BLS learning, irrespective of the group size. A smaller group size allowed more participations in peer feedback.

  14. Analyses of inter-rater reliability between professionals, medical students and trained school children as assessors of basic life support skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Stefanie; Ruhnke, Bjarne; Issleib, Malte; Daubmann, Anne; Harendza, Sigrid; Zöllner, Christian

    2016-10-07

    Training of lay-rescuers is essential to improve survival-rates after cardiac arrest. Multiple campaigns emphasise the importance of basic life support (BLS) training for school children. Trainings require a valid assessment to give feedback to school children and to compare the outcomes of different training formats. Considering these requirements, we developed an assessment of BLS skills using MiniAnne and tested the inter-rater reliability between professionals, medical students and trained school children as assessors. Fifteen professional assessors, 10 medical students and 111-trained school children (peers) assessed 1087 school children at the end of a CPR-training event using the new assessment format. Analyses of inter-rater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient; ICC) were performed. Overall inter-rater reliability of the summative assessment was high (ICC = 0.84, 95 %-CI: 0.84 to 0.86, n = 889). The number of comparisons between peer-peer assessors (n = 303), peer-professional assessors (n = 339), and peer-student assessors (n = 191) was adequate to demonstrate high inter-rater reliability between peer- and professional-assessors (ICC: 0.76), peer- and student-assessors (ICC: 0.88) and peer- and other peer-assessors (ICC: 0.91). Systematic variation in rating of specific items was observed for three items between professional- and peer-assessors. Using this assessment and integrating peers and medical students as assessors gives the opportunity to assess hands-on skills of school children with high reliability.

  15. Reciprocal learning with task cards for teaching Basic Life Support (BLS): investigating effectiveness and the effect of instructor expertise on learning outcomes. A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iserbyt, Peter; Mols, Liesbet; Charlier, Nathalie; De Meester, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    Basic Life Support (BLS) education in secondary schools and universities is often neglected or outsourced because teachers indicate not feeling competent to teach this content. Investigate reciprocal learning with task cards as instructional model for teaching BLS and the effect of instructor expertise in BLS on learning outcomes. There were 175 students (mean age = 18.9 years) randomized across a reciprocal/BLS instructor (RBI) group, a reciprocal/non-BLS instructor (RNI) group, and a traditional/BLS instructor group (TBI). In the RBI and RNI group, students were taught BLS through reciprocal learning with task cards. The instructor in the RBI group was certified in BLS by the European Resuscitation Council. In the TBI, students were taught BLS by a certified instructor according to the Belgian Red Cross instructional model. Student performance was assessed 1 day (intervention) and 3 weeks after intervention (retention). At retention, significantly higher BLS performances were found in the RBI group (M = 78%), p = 0.007, ES = 0.25, and the RNI group (M = 80%), p < 0.001, Effect Size (ES) = .36, compared to the TBI (M = 73%). Significantly more students remembered and performed all BLS skills in the experimental groups at intervention and retention. No differences in BLS performance were found between the reciprocal groups. Ventilation volumes and flow rates were significantly better in the TBI at intervention and retention. Reciprocal learning with task cards is a valuable model for teaching BLS when instructors are not experienced or skilled in BLS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Sensemaking in the formation of basic life support teams - a proof-of-concept, qualitative study of simulated in-hospital cardiac arrests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallas, Peter; Lauridsen, Johnny; Brabrand, Mikkel

    2018-01-29

    The formation of critical care teams is a complex process where team members need to get a shared understanding of a serious situation. No previous studies have focused on how this shared understanding is achieved during the formation of cardiac arrest teams. "Sensemaking" is a concept well known in organizational studies. It refers to the collaborative effort among members in a dialogue to create meaning in an ambiguous situation, often by using subtle variations in the sentences in the dialogue. Sentences with high degrees of "sensemaking" activity can be thematized as "co-orientation", "re-presentation" and/or "subordination" (among others). We sought to establish if elements of "sensemaking" occur in the formation of in-hospital cardiac arrest teams. Videos of ten simulations of unannounced in-hospital cardiac arrests treated by basic life support (BLS) providers. We transcribed all verbal communication from the moment the first responder stepped into the room until the moment external chest compression were initiated (verbatim transcription). Transcriptions were then analyzed with a focus on identifying three elements of sensemaking: Co-orientation, Re-presentation and Sub-ordination. Sensemaking elements could be identified in seven of ten scenarios as part of team formation. Co-orientation was the element that was used most consistently, occurring in all of the eight scenarios that included sensemaking efforts. Sensemaking is an element in the communication in some cardiac arrest teams. It is possible that the active moderation of sensemaking should be considered a non-technical skill in cardiac arrest teams.

  17. Comparison of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Quality Between Standard Versus Telephone-Basic Life Support Training Program in Middle-Aged and Elderly Housewives: A Randomized Simulation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Han; Lee, Yu Jin; Lee, Eui Jung; Ro, Young Sun; Lee, KyungWon; Lee, Hyeona; Jang, Dayea Beatrice; Song, Kyoung Jun; Shin, Sang Do; Myklebust, Helge; Birkenes, Tonje Søraas

    2018-02-01

    For cardiac arrests witnessed at home, the witness is usually a middle-aged or older housewife. We compared the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) performance of bystanders trained with the newly developed telephone-basic life support (T-BLS) program and those trained with standard BLS (S-BLS) training programs. Twenty-four middle-aged and older housewives without previous CPR education were enrolled and randomized into two groups of BLS training programs. The T-BLS training program included concepts and current instruction protocols for telephone-assisted CPR, whereas the S-BLS training program provided training for BLS. After each training course, the participants simulated CPR and were assisted by a dispatcher via telephone. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation quality was measured and recorded using a mannequin simulator. The primary outcome was total no-flow time (>1.5 seconds without chest compression) during simulation. Among 24 participants, two (8.3%) who experienced mechanical failure of simulation mannequin and one (4.2%) who violated simulation protocols were excluded at initial simulation, and two (8.3%) refused follow-up after 6 months. The median (interquartile range) total no-flow time during initial simulation was 79.6 (66.4-96.9) seconds for the T-BLS training group and 147.6 (122.5-184.0) seconds for the S-BLS training group (P < 0.01). Median cumulative interruption time and median number of interruption events during BLS at initial simulation and 6-month follow-up simulation were significantly shorter in the T-BLS than in the S-BLS group (1.0 vs. 9.5, P < 0.01, and 1.0 vs. 10.5, P = 0.02, respectively). Participants trained with the T-BLS training program showed shorter no-flow time and fewer interruptions during bystander CPR simulation assisted by a dispatcher.

  18. Teaching basic life support with an automated external defibrillator using the two-stage or the four-stage teaching technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørnshave, Katrine; Krogh, Lise Q; Hansen, Svend B; Nebsbjerg, Mette A; Thim, Troels; Løfgren, Bo

    2018-02-01

    Laypersons often hesitate to perform basic life support (BLS) and use an automated external defibrillator (AED) because of self-perceived lack of knowledge and skills. Training may reduce the barrier to intervene. Reduced training time and costs may allow training of more laypersons. The aim of this study was to compare BLS/AED skills' acquisition and self-evaluated BLS/AED skills after instructor-led training with a two-stage versus a four-stage teaching technique. Laypersons were randomized to either two-stage or four-stage teaching technique courses. Immediately after training, the participants were tested in a simulated cardiac arrest scenario to assess their BLS/AED skills. Skills were assessed using the European Resuscitation Council BLS/AED assessment form. The primary endpoint was passing the test (17 of 17 skills adequately performed). A prespecified noninferiority margin of 20% was used. The two-stage teaching technique (n=72, pass rate 57%) was noninferior to the four-stage technique (n=70, pass rate 59%), with a difference in pass rates of -2%; 95% confidence interval: -18 to 15%. Neither were there significant differences between the two-stage and four-stage groups in the chest compression rate (114±12 vs. 115±14/min), chest compression depth (47±9 vs. 48±9 mm) and number of sufficient rescue breaths between compression cycles (1.7±0.5 vs. 1.6±0.7). In both groups, all participants believed that their training had improved their skills. Teaching laypersons BLS/AED using the two-stage teaching technique was noninferior to the four-stage teaching technique, although the pass rate was -2% (95% confidence interval: -18 to 15%) lower with the two-stage teaching technique.

  19. Effects of a mandatory basic life support training programme on the no-flow fraction during in-hospital cardiac resuscitation: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Michael P; Richter, Torsten; Papkalla, Norbert; Poenicke, Cynthia; Herkner, Carsten; Osmers, Anne; Brenner, Sigrid; Koch, Thea; Schwanebeck, Uta; Heller, Axel R

    2014-07-01

    Many hospitals have basic life support (BLS) training programmes, but the effects on the quality of chest compressions are unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the no-flow fraction (NFF) during BLS provided by standard care nursing teams over a five-year observation period during which annual participation in the BLS training was mandatory. All healthcare professionals working at Dresden University Hospital were instructed in BLS and automated external defibrillator (AED) use according to the current European Resuscitation Council guidelines on an annual basis. After each cardiac arrest occurring on a standard care ward, AED data were analyzed. The time without chest compressions during the period without spontaneous circulation (i.e., the no-flow fraction) was calculated using thoracic impedance data. For each year of the study period (2008-2012), a total of 1454, 1466, 1487, 1432, and 1388 health care professionals, respectively, participated in the training. The median no-flow fraction decreased significantly from 0.55 [0.42; 0.57] (median [25‰; 75‰]) in 2008 to 0.3 [0.28; 0.35] in 2012. Following revision of the BLS curriculum after publication of the 2010 guidelines, cardiac arrest was associated with a higher proportion of patients achieving ROSC (72% vs. 48%, P=0.025) but not a higher survival rate to hospital discharge (35% vs. 19%, P=0.073). The NFF during in-hospital cardiac resuscitation decreased after establishment of a mandatory annual BLS training for healthcare professionals. Following publication of the 2010 guidelines, more patients achieved ROSC after in-hospital cardiac arrest. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Peer-led training and assessment in basic life support for healthcare students: synthesis of literature review and fifteen years practical experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, P R; Higenbottam, C V; Owen, A; Hulme, J; Bion, J F

    2012-07-01

    In 1995, the University of Birmingham, UK, School of Medicine and Dentistry replaced lecture-based basic life support (BLS) teaching with a peer-led, practical programme. We present our 15-yr experience of peer-led healthcare undergraduate training and examination with a literature review. A literature review of healthcare undergraduate peer-led practical skills teaching was performed though Pubmed. The development of the Birmingham course is described, from its inception in 1995-2011. Training methods include peer-led training and assessment by senior students who complete an European Resuscitation Council-endorsed instructor course. Student assessors additionally undergo training in assessment and communication skills. The course has been developed by parallel research evaluation and peer-reviewed publication. Course administration is by an experienced student committee with senior clinician support. Anonymous feedback from the most recent courses and the current annual pass rates are reported. The literature review identified 369 publications of which 28 met our criteria for inclusion. Largely descriptive, these are highly positive about peer involvement in practical skills teaching using similar, albeit smaller, courses to that described below. Currently approximately 600 first year healthcare undergraduates complete the Birmingham course; participant numbers increase annually. Successful completion is mandatory for students to proceed to the second year of studies. First attempt pass rate is 86%, and close to 100% (565/566 students, 99.8%) following re-assessment the same day. 97% of participants enjoyed the course, 99% preferred peer-tutors to clinicians, 99% perceived teaching quality as "good" or "excellent", and felt they had sufficient practice. Course organisation was rated "good" or "excellent" by 91%. Each year 3-4 student projects have been published or presented internationally. The annual cost of providing the course is currently £15,594.70 (Eur 18

  1. Life Cycle assessment of basic chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Stig Irving

    The present report results as part of a ph.d. project aiming at developing general rules for LCA of basic chemicals. Part 1 reviews the state of the art framework for life-cycle assessment and part 2 relates that framework to the chemical industry and gives some proposals for LCAs of basic...... chemicals. A survey of the use of LCA in the European chemical industry has been conducted and is reported in appendix 1. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a tool/process to evaluate the potential environmental impacts of a system (most often a product) through its whole life cycle by collecting input...... from a variety of sources and will constitute a mix of actual measurements, literature data and estimates. Actually, during the case studies and from other studies, data availability was identified as a major problem. Therefore, data sources for process data from the chemical industry were investigated...

  2. Basic Education and Policy Support (BEPS) Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creative Associates International, Inc., Washington, DC.

    The Basic Education and Policy Support (BEPS) Activity is a multi-year, worldwide, indefinite quantity contract by which the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) Global Bureau Center for Human Capacity (G/HCD) can work to achieve four objectives: (1) improve the quality, efficiency, access, and equity of education, particularly basic…

  3. Calls for Canada to support basic research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2017-08-01

    Canada’s decade-long shift of financial support from fundamental studies towards applied research is dismantling the nation’s funding of basic science, according to a report by the Global Young Academy (GYA) - an international society of young scientists.

  4. O leigo e o suporte básico de vida El lego y el soporte básico de vida Laypeople and basic life support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Maino Pergola

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A capacitação do leigo para o atendimento precoce em situações de emergência e instituição do suporte básico de vida (SBV é fundamental para salvar vidas e prevenir seqüelas. O objetivo foi identificar o conhecimento dos leigos sobre SBV. Utililizou-se entrevista estruturada em linguagem não-técnica. A amostra compreendeu 385 sujeitos, a maioria (57,1% do sexo feminino com ensino médio completo e superior incompleto (53,7%. Verificou-se apenas 9,9% conhecem a manobra de respiração boca-a-boca; 84,2% conhecem a técnica de compressão torácica externa (CTE, e destes, 79,9% sabem sua finalidade. Apenas 14,5% sabem posicionar a vítima para realizar a CTE; 82,4% referem uma freqüência menor que 60 CTE/minuto. Por não apresentarem adequada informação e fundamentação das etapas do SBV, os leigos podem prestar atendimento incorreto à vítima de emergência, acarretando prejuízos à reanimação.La capacitación del lego para la atención precoz en situaciones de emergencia e aplicación del soporte básico de vida (SBV es fundamental para salvar vidas y prevenir secuelas. El objetivo fue identificar el conocimiento de los legos sobre SBV. Se utililizó la entrevista estructurada en un lenguague no técnico. La muestra comprendió 385 sujetos, la mayoría (57,1% del sexo femenino con enseñanza media completa y superior incompleta (53,7%; Los que conocen la maniobra de respiración boca a boca son apenas 9,9%; 84,2% conocen la técnica de compresión toráxica externa (CTE y de estos, 79,9% saben su finalidad. Apenas 14,5% saben posicionar a la víctima para realizar la CTE, 82,4% refieren una frecuencia menor que 60 CTE/minuto. Por no presentar adecuada información y fundamentos de las etapas del SBV, los legos pueden prestar una atención incorrecta a la víctima de emergencia, ocasionando perjuicios en la reanimación.Training laypeople to give first aid in emergency situations and offer basic life support (BLS is crucial

  5. 2005 American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and emergency cardiovascular care (ECC) of pediatric and neonatal patients: pediatric basic life support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    This publication presents the 2005 American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and emergency cardiovascular care (ECC) of the pediatric patient and the 2005 American Academy of Pediatrics/AHA guidelines for CPR and ECC of the neonate. The guidelines are based on the evidence evaluation from the 2005 International Consensus Conference on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations, hosted by the American Heart Association in Dallas, Texas, January 23-30, 2005. The "2005 AHA Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care" contain recommendations designed to improve survival from sudden cardiac arrest and acute life-threatening cardiopulmonary problems. The evidence evaluation process that was the basis for these guidelines was accomplished in collaboration with the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR). The ILCOR process is described in more detail in the "International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations." The recommendations in the "2005 AHA Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care" confirm the safety and effectiveness of many approaches, acknowledge that other approaches may not be optimal, and recommend new treatments that have undergone evidence evaluation. These new recommendations do not imply that care involving the use of earlier guidelines is unsafe. In addition, it is important to note that these guidelines will not apply to all rescuers and all victims in all situations. The leader of a resuscitation attempt may need to adapt application of the guidelines to unique circumstances. The following are the major pediatric advanced life support changes in the 2005 guidelines: There is further caution about the use of endotracheal tubes. Laryngeal mask airways are acceptable when used by experienced

  6. Pediatric advanced life support and sedation of pediatric dental patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jongbin

    2016-01-01

    Programs provided by the Korea Association of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation include Basic Life Support (BLS), Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS), Pediatric Advanced Life Support (PALS), and Korean Advanced Life Support (KALS). However, programs pertinent to dental care are lacking. Since 2015, related organizations have been attempting to develop a Dental Advanced Life Support (DALS) program, which can meet the needs of the dental environment. Generally, for initial management of emergency ...

  7. Informatics Support for Basic Research in Biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindflesch, Thomas C; Blake, Catherine L; Fiszman, Marcelo; Kilicoglu, Halil; Rosemblat, Graciela; Schneider, Jodi; Zeiss, Caroline J

    2017-07-01

    Informatics methodologies exploit computer-assisted techniques to help biomedical researchers manage large amounts of information. In this paper, we focus on the biomedical research literature (MEDLINE). We first provide an overview of some text mining techniques that offer assistance in research by identifying biomedical entities (e.g., genes, substances, and diseases) and relations between them in text.We then discuss Semantic MEDLINE, an application that integrates PubMed document retrieval, concept and relation identification, and visualization, thus enabling a user to explore concepts and relations from within a set of retrieved citations. Semantic MEDLINE provides a roadmap through content and helps users discern patterns in large numbers of retrieved citations. We illustrate its use with an informatics method we call "discovery browsing," which provides a principled way of navigating through selected aspects of some biomedical research area. The method supports an iterative process that accommodates learning and hypothesis formation in which a user is provided with high level connections before delving into details.As a use case, we examine current developments in basic research on mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease. Out of the nearly 90 000 citations returned by the PubMed query "Alzheimer's disease," discovery browsing led us to 73 citations on sortilin and that disorder. We provide a synopsis of the basic research reported in 15 of these. There is wide-spread consensus among researchers working with a range of animal models and human cells that increased sortilin expression and decreased receptor expression are associated with amyloid beta and/or amyloid precursor protein. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  8. Life Insurance Basics: A Self-Help Workbook for Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saskatchewan Consumer and Commercial Affairs, Regina.

    This booklet provides consumers with an overview of information about life insurance. Chapter 1, "Why Life Insurance?" outlines the primary purposes of life insurance coverage and presents basic facts about the Canadian life insurance industry. Chapter 2, "Do I Need Life Insurance?" discusses life insurance coverage at specific…

  9. Extended mission life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrone, P. D.

    1985-01-01

    Extended manned space missions which include interplanetary missions require regenerative life support systems. Manned mission life support considerations are placed in perspective and previous manned space life support system technology, activities and accomplishments in current supporting research and technology (SR&T) programs are reviewed. The life support subsystem/system technologies required for an enhanced duration orbiter (EDO) and a space operations center (SOC), regenerative life support functions and technology required for manned interplanetary flight vehicles, and future development requirements are outlined. The Space Shuttle Orbiters (space transportation system) is space cabin atmosphere is maintained at Earth ambient pressure of 14.7 psia (20% O2 and 80% N2). The early Shuttle flights will be seven-day flights, and the life support system flight hardware will still utilize expendables.

  10. The association between manual mode defibrillation, pre-shock pause duration and appropriate shock delivery when employed by basic life support paramedics during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheskes, Sheldon; Hillier, Morgan; Byers, Adam; Verbeek, P Richard; Drennan, Ian R; Zhan, Cathy; Morrison, Laurie J

    2015-05-01

    Pre-shock pause duration of defibrillation has been associated with the shortest duration of pre-shock pause but is largely practiced by advanced life support paramedics (ALS) whereas defibrillator only paramedics (basic life support or BLS) routinely use the defibrillator in automatic mode. We sought to explore the relationship between manual mode defibrillation, pre-shock pause duration and rate of inappropriate shocks when defibrillation is provided by ALS vs. BLS trained in manual mode defibrillation. We performed a retrospective review of all treated non-traumatic adult out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) presenting in a shockable rhythm over a one year period beginning January 1, 2012. Our primary outcome measure was the proportion of manual mode shocks delivered by BLS with pre-shock pause duration of defibrillation was performed in 155 (46%) of these cases (196 shocks by ALS, 143 shocks by BLS). There were no differences in the proportion of shocks delivered with pre-shock pause duration defibrillation by BLS paramedics produced similar measures of pre-shock pause duration when compared to ALS paramedics without increasing the incidence of inappropriate shocks. Further study is required to determine the potential impact of BLS manual mode defibrillation on clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. 29 CFR 780.6 - Basic support for interpretations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Basic support for interpretations. 780.6 Section 780.6... Introductory § 780.6 Basic support for interpretations. The ultimate decisions on interpretations of the Act... decisions supporting interpretations contained in this bulletin are cited where it is believed they may be...

  12. 29 CFR 779.8 - Basic support for interpretations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Basic support for interpretations. 779.8 Section 779.8... AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES General Interpretations of the Law § 779.8 Basic support... (Mitchell v. Zachry, 362 U.S. 310; Kirschbaum v. Walling, 316 U.S. 517). Court decisions supporting...

  13. 29 CFR 783.4 - Basic support for interpretations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Basic support for interpretations. 783.4 Section 783.4... STANDARDS ACT TO EMPLOYEES EMPLOYED AS SEAMEN Introductory § 783.4 Basic support for interpretations. The...; Kirschbaum v. Walling, 316 U.S. 517). Court decisions supporting interpretations contained in this part are...

  14. 29 CFR 794.5 - Basic support for interpretations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Basic support for interpretations. 794.5 Section 794.5... STANDARDS ACT General § 794.5 Basic support for interpretations. The ultimate decisions on interpretations.... 517). Court decisions supporting interpretations contained in this part are cited where it is believed...

  15. Current practice in paediatric basic life support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heczková Jana

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Although the incidence of cardiac arrest in children is much lower than in adults, the condition is still considered a major health problem with a very low chance for survival. As in adults, the timely provision of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR in children is crucial. Current guidelines for CPR in children were published along with the guidelines for CPR in adults in 2015. As in previous years, they are based on consensus provided by International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR. Guidelines of particular ILCOR member councils may vary and reflect regional characteristic such as different access to health care, education methods or willingness of population to provide emergency assistance. Moreover, the conditions requiring CPR in children are characterized not only by different incidence, but also by aetiology or techniques used for different age groups. Therefore, emphasis is put on simplicity and feasibility as well as on consistency with adult guidelines to improve retention of the paediatric sequences. Nurses may be first rescuers not only in health care facilities. Better understanding of CPR guidelines might help them to improve their ability to detect conditions requiring CRP and also initiate and provide effective emergency care.

  16. Life Support Systems: Environmental Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support Systems project Environmental Monitoring (EM) systems task objectives are to develop and demonstrate onboard...

  17. Introduction to Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Jay

    2017-01-01

    This course provides an introduction to the design and development of life support systems to sustain humankind in the harsh environment of space. The life support technologies necessary to provide a respirable atmosphere and clean drinking water are emphasized in the course. A historical perspective, beginning with open loop systems employed aboard the earliest crewed spacecraft through the state-of-the-art life support technology utilized aboard the International Space Station today, will provide a framework for students to consider applications to possible future exploration missions and destinations which may vary greatly in duration and scope. Development of future technologies as well as guiding requirements for designing life support systems for crewed exploration missions beyond low-Earth orbit are also considered in the course.

  18. 29 CFR 784.5 - Basic support for interpretations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Basic support for interpretations. 784.5 Section 784.5... STANDARDS ACT APPLICABLE TO FISHING AND OPERATIONS ON AQUATIC PRODUCTS General Introductory § 784.5 Basic support for interpretations. The ultimate decisions on interpretations of the Act are made by the courts...

  19. Autonomy support, basic psychological needs and well-being in Mexican athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Walle, Jeanette; Balaguer, Isabel; Castillo, Isabel; Tristán, José

    2012-11-01

    Based on Basic Needs Theory, one of the mini-theories of Self-determination Theory (Ryan & Deci, 2002), the present study had two objectives: (a) to test a model in the Mexican sport context based on the following sequence: perceived coach autonomy support, basic psychological needs satisfaction, and psychological well-being, and b) to analyze the mediational effect of the satisfaction of perceived coach autonomy support on indicators of psychological well-being (satisfaction with life and subjective vitality). Six hundred and sixty-nine young Mexican athletes (Boys = 339; Girls = 330; M(age) = 13.95) filled out a questionnaire assessing the study variables. Structural equations analyses revealed that perceived coach autonomy support predicted satisfaction of the basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Furthermore, basic need satisfaction predicted subjective vitality and satisfaction with life. Autonomy, competence and relatedness partially mediated the path from perceived coach autonomy support to psychological well-being in young Mexican athletes.

  20. Basic Education and Policy Support Activity: Tools and Publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creative Associates International, Inc., Washington, DC.

    The Basic Education and Policy Support (BEPS) Activity is a United States Agency for International Development (USAID)-sponsored, multi-year initiative designed to further improve the quality of, effectiveness of, and access to formal and nonformal basic education. This catalog is one element of the BEPS information dissemination process. The…

  1. RDM Support. Basic training course for information specialists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Selm, M.

    2015-01-01

    RDM Support is a basic training course in research data management (support) for information specialists. The training course was developed by Mariëtte van Selm for the information specialists of the Library of the University of Amsterdam (UvA), within the framework of the RDM Support project

  2. Basic principles of parliamentary psychological support of deputies

    OpenAIRE

    Kibak, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the basic principles of recruitment of the deputies for parliamentary psychological support. It suggests the author's approach to recruitment of the deputies for parliamentary psychological support, which is built according to the basic principles and norms of parliamentary ethics: the principle of awareness, principle of voluntariness, the principle of psychological optimism, the principle of impartiality, the principle of friendly, correct and non-evolutional attitude...

  3. Ten Years of Support for Basic Scientific Research by CONACYT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Humberto Fabila Castillo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the results of ten years of support for basic scientific research by the CONACYT. The paper identifies the strongest areas of knowledge in basic science in Mexico and concludes that the institutions where basic science is done are mainly public higher education institutions, followed by also public research centers, while private institutions of higher education and companies carry out almost no research in basic science. Findings show that research on basic science in state universities has grown impressively in recent years, reaching the level of the institutions of higher education of the Federal District. Finally, the implications of these findings as well as the public policies through which support has been granted are discussed.

  4. Photobioreactors in Life Support Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Ines; Braun, Markus; Slenzka, Klaus; Posten, Clemens

    2016-01-01

    Life support systems for long-term space missions or extraterrestrial installations have to fulfill major functions such as purification of water and regeneration of atmosphere as well as the generation of food and energy. For almost 60 years ideas for biological life support systems have been collected and various concepts have been developed and tested. Microalgae as photosynthetic organisms have played a major role in most of these concepts. This review deals with the potentials of using eukaryotic microalgae for life support systems and highlights special requirements and frame conditions for designing space photobioreactors especially regarding illumination and aeration. Mono- and dichromatic illumination based on LEDs is a promising alternative for conventional systems and preliminary results yielded higher photoconversion efficiencies (PCE) for dichromatic red/blue illumination than white illumination. Aeration for microgravity conditions should be realized in a bubble-free manner, for example, via membranes. Finally, a novel photobioreactor concept for space application is introduced being parameterized and tested with the microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. This system has already been tested during two parabolic flight campaigns.

  5. Basic support for cooperative work on the World Wide Web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentley, R.; Appelt, W.; Busbach, U.; Hinrichs, E.; Kerr, D.; Sikkel, Nicolaas; Trevor, J.; Woetzel, G.

    The emergence and widespread adoption of the World Wide Web offers a great deal of potential in supporting cross-platform cooperative work within widely dispersed working groups. The Basic Support for Cooperative Work (BSCW) project at GMD is attempting to realize this potential through development

  6. Typical School Personnel Developing and Implementing Basic Behavior Support Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland-Cohen, M. Kathleen; Horner, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the ability of typical school personnel with basic behavioral training to develop and implement function-based supports for students with mild to moderate problem behaviors. Descriptive results indicated that following four 1-hr training sessions, 13 participants were able to (a) identify interventions that were and were not…

  7. Controlled Ecological Life Support System. Life Support Systems in Space Travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macelroy, R. D. (Editor); Smernoff, D. T. (Editor); Klein, H. P. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    Life support systems in space travel, in closed ecological systems were studied. Topics discussed include: (1) problems of life support and the fundamental concepts of bioregeneration; (2) technology associated with physical/chemical regenerative life support; (3) projection of the break even points for various life support techniques; (4) problems of controlling a bioregenerative life support system; (5) data on the operation of an experimental algal/mouse life support system; (6) industrial concepts of bioregenerative life support; and (7) Japanese concepts of bioregenerative life support and associated biological experiments to be conducted in the space station.

  8. The relationship between negative life events and suicidal behavior: moderating role of basic psychological needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Catherine A; Walker, Kristin L; Britton, Peter C; Hirsch, Jameson K

    2013-01-01

    Individuals who experience negative life events may be at increased risk for suicidal behavior. Intrapersonal characteristics, such as basic psychological needs, however, may buffer this association. To assess the potential moderating role of overall basic psychological needs, and the separate components of autonomy, competence, and relatedness, on the association between negative life events and suicidal behavior. Our sample of 439 college students (311 females, 71%) completed the following self-report surveys: Life Events Scale, Basic Psychological Needs Scale, Beck Depression Inventory - II, and the Suicide Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised. In support of our hypotheses, negative life events were associated with greater levels of suicidal ideation and attempts, and satisfaction of basic psychological needs, including autonomy, relatedness, and competence, significantly moderated this relationship, over and above the effects of the covariates of age, sex, and depressive symptoms. Suicidal behavior associated with the experience of negative life events is not inevitable. Therapeutically bolstering competence, autonomy, and relatedness may be an important suicide prevention strategy for individuals experiencing life stressors.

  9. Developing Sustainable Life Support System Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Evan A.

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable spacecraft life support concepts may allow the development of more reliable technologies for long duration space missions. Currently, life support technologies at different levels of development are not well evaluated against each other, and evaluation methods do not account for long term reliability and sustainability of the hardware. This paper presents point-of-departure sustainability evaluation criteria for life support systems, that may allow more robust technology development, testing and comparison. An example sustainable water recovery system concept is presented.

  10. Basic vital cardiac support. Training to relatives of patients with acute miocardial infarction

    OpenAIRE

    Brandy Viera Valdés; Paula Aguila Solis; Francisco Valladares Carvajal; Marcos D. Iraola Ferrer; Pablo. A. Rodríguez

    2006-01-01

    Background: Title: Basic vital cardiac support. Training to relatives of patients with acute miocardial infarction. The cardiorespiratory reanimation is a proved procedure that can save a human life in case of a cardiorespiratory stop. For three years it is imparted in the University Hospital of Cienfuegos, a training for this procedure, to the family of patients with sharp myocardic infarction. Objective: To evaluate the knowledge acquired by the relatives of the patients during the training...

  11. Hospital Costs Of Extracorporeal Life Support Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Lansink-Hartgring, Annemieke; van den Hengel, Berber; van der Bij, Wim; Erasmus, Michiel E.; Mariani, Massimo A.; Rienstra, Michiel; Cernak, Vladimir; Vermeulen, Karin M.; van den Bergh, Walter M.

    Objectives: To conduct an exploration of the hospital costs of extracorporeal life support therapy. Extracorporeal life support seems an efficient therapy for acute, potentially reversible cardiac or respiratory failure, when conventional therapy has been inadequate, or as bridge to transplant, but

  12. Psychiatry: life events and social support in late life depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clóvis Alexandrino-Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To examine the association of life events and social support in the broadly defined category of depression in late life. INTRODUCTION: Negative life events and lack of social support are associated with depression in the elderly. Currently, there are limited studies examining the association between life events, social support and late-life depression in Brazil. METHODS: We estimated the frequency of late-life depression within a household community sample of 367 subjects aged 60 years or greater with associated factors. ''Old age symptomatic depression'' was defined using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 1.1 tool. This diagnostic category included only late-life symptoms and consisted of the diagnoses of depression and dysthymia as well as a subsyndromal definition of depression, termed ''late subthreshold depression''. Social support and life events were assessed using the Comprehensive Assessment and Referral Evaluation (SHORT-CARE inventory. RESULTS: ''Old age symptomatic depression'' occurred in 18.8% of the patients in the tested sample. In univariate analyses, this condition was associated with female gender, lifetime anxiety disorder and living alone. In multivariate models, ''old age symptomatic depression'' was associated with a perceived lack of social support in men and life events in women. DISCUSSION: Social support and life events were determined to be associated with late-life depression, but it is important to keep in mind the differences between genders. Also, further exploration of the role of lifetime anxiety disorder in late-life depression may be of future importance. CONCLUSIONS: We believe that this study helps to provide insight into the role of psychosocial factors in late-life depression.

  13. IT for advanced Life Support in English

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejerø Pedersen, Birgitte; Jeberg, Kirsten Ann; Koerner, Christian

    2009-01-01

    In this study we analyzed how IT support can be established for the treatment and documentation of advanced life support (ALS) in a hospital. In close collaboration with clinical researchers, a running prototype of an IT solution to support the clinical decisions in ALS was developed and tried out...

  14. Life Support Baseline Values and Assumptions Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Molly S.; Ewert, Michael K.; Keener, John F.

    2018-01-01

    The Baseline Values and Assumptions Document (BVAD) provides analysts, modelers, and other life support researchers with a common set of values and assumptions which can be used as a baseline in their studies. This baseline, in turn, provides a common point of origin from which many studies in the community may depart, making research results easier to compare and providing researchers with reasonable values to assume for areas outside their experience. This document identifies many specific physical quantities that define life support systems, serving as a general reference for spacecraft life support system technology developers.

  15. Life Support Systems: Oxygen Generation and Recovery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support Systems project Oxygen Generation and Recovery technology development area encompasses several sub-tasks in an...

  16. Hybrid Life Support System Technology Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, R. C.; Wetzel, J. P.; Richter, R. C.

    2018-02-01

    Demonstration of plant-based hybrid life support technologies in deep space will validate the function of these technologies for long duration missions, such as Mars transit, while providing dietary variety to improve habitability.

  17. NextSTEP Hybrid Life Support

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NextSTEP Phase I Hybrid Life Support Systems (HLSS) effort assessed options, performance, and reliability for various mission scenarios using contractor-developed...

  18. Life Support Systems: Carbon Dioxide Removal

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support Systems project Carbon Dioxide Removal and Management task includes development of systems that remove CO2 from a...

  19. Life Support for Deep Space and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.; Hodgson, Edward W.; Kliss, Mark H.

    2014-01-01

    How should life support for deep space be developed? The International Space Station (ISS) life support system is the operational result of many decades of research and development. Long duration deep space missions such as Mars have been expected to use matured and upgraded versions of ISS life support. Deep space life support must use the knowledge base incorporated in ISS but it must also meet much more difficult requirements. The primary new requirement is that life support in deep space must be considerably more reliable than on ISS or anywhere in the Earth-Moon system, where emergency resupply and a quick return are possible. Due to the great distance from Earth and the long duration of deep space missions, if life support systems fail, the traditional approaches for emergency supply of oxygen and water, emergency supply of parts, and crew return to Earth or escape to a safe haven are likely infeasible. The Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU) maintenance approach used by ISS is unsuitable for deep space with ORU's as large and complex as those originally provided in ISS designs because it minimizes opportunities for commonality of spares, requires replacement of many functional parts with each failure, and results in substantial launch mass and volume penalties. It has become impractical even for ISS after the shuttle era, resulting in the need for ad hoc repair activity at lower assembly levels with consequent crew time penalties and extended repair timelines. Less complex, more robust technical approaches may be needed to meet the difficult deep space requirements for reliability, maintainability, and reparability. Developing an entirely new life support system would neglect what has been achieved. The suggested approach is use the ISS life support technologies as a platform to build on and to continue to improve ISS subsystems while also developing new subsystems where needed to meet deep space requirements.

  20. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 272 - Principles for the Conduct and Support of Basic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Principles for the Conduct and Support of Basic... SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS ADMINISTRATION AND SUPPORT OF BASIC RESEARCH BY THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Pt. 272, App. A Appendix A to Part 272—Principles for the Conduct and Support of Basic...

  1. Life Events, Social Support and Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-07

    Bowlby , J. Attachment and loss: (vol. 3) Loss: Sadness and depression. N.Y.: Basic Books, 1980. Cooley, E.J., & Keesey, J.C. Moderator variables in life...School ATTN: Professor John Senger Operations Research and Administrative Science Monterey, CA 93940 Superintendent Naval Postgraduate School Code 1424...University Columbus, O 43210 Dr. Joseph V. Brady The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine Division of Behavioral Biology Baltimore, MD 21205

  2. Mathematical Modeling Of Life-Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshan, Panchalam K.; Ganapathi, Balasubramanian; Jan, Darrell L.; Ferrall, Joseph F.; Rohatgi, Naresh K.

    1994-01-01

    Generic hierarchical model of life-support system developed to facilitate comparisons of options in design of system. Model represents combinations of interdependent subsystems supporting microbes, plants, fish, and land animals (including humans). Generic model enables rapid configuration of variety of specific life support component models for tradeoff studies culminating in single system design. Enables rapid evaluation of effects of substituting alternate technologies and even entire groups of technologies and subsystems. Used to synthesize and analyze life-support systems ranging from relatively simple, nonregenerative units like aquariums to complex closed-loop systems aboard submarines or spacecraft. Model, called Generic Modular Flow Schematic (GMFS), coded in such chemical-process-simulation languages as Aspen Plus and expressed as three-dimensional spreadsheet.

  3. Monitoring and life-support devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noback, C.R.; Murphy, C.H.

    1987-01-01

    The radiographic and physical principles involved in interpreting films, and some of the altered anatomy and pathology that may be seen on such films, are discussed. This chapter considers the radiographic appearances of monitoring and life-support devices. Appropriate positioning and function are shown, as are some of the complications associated with their placement and/or function

  4. Supporting the Basic Psychological Needs of Athletes with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shangraw, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    A subtheory of self-determination theory, basic needs theory (BNT), examines the ways in which social-environmental factors interact with athletes' physical and psychological wellness. When the three psychological needs (autonomy, competence and relatedness) identified in BNT are met in a sport setting, athletes' perceptions of well-being and…

  5. Using Assessment to Support Basic Instruction Programs in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Thomas; Evans, Tom; Ormond, Frank

    2006-01-01

    College/University administrators have, for various reasons, scrutinized Physical Education basic instruction program (BIP) requirements for possible reduction. In an effort to defend these requirements, assessment should be undertaken to obtain objective and subjective data that measure a program's effectiveness. This study was conducted at a…

  6. Life Support Systems: Wastewater Processing and Water Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support Systems project Wastewater Processing and Water Management task: Within an integrated life support system, water...

  7. Potential Habitats for Exotic Life Within the Life Supporting Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, Johannes J.; Firneis, Maria G.; Hitzenberger, Regina

    2010-05-01

    Questions like "Are we alone in the universe?", "How unique is Earth as a planet?" or "How unique is water-based life in the universe?" still are nowhere near of being answered. In recent years, discussions on these topics are more and more influenced by questions whether water is really the only possible solvent, or which conditions are necessary for life to evolve in planetary habitats. A change in our present geocentric mindset on the existence of life is required, in order to address these new questions [see also 1]. In May 2009 a new research platform at the University of Vienna was initiated in order to contribute to the solution of these questions. One task is to find essential biomarkers relevant to the problem of the detection of exotic life. In this context exotic life means: life, which is not necessarily based on a double bond between carbon and oxygen (C=O) and not on water as the only possible solvent. At present little is known about metabolistic systems, which are not based on C=O or on metabolisms which are operative in alternative solvents and a high effort of future laboratory work is necessary to open this window for looking for exotic life. To address the whole spectrum of life the concept of a general life supporting zone is introduced in order to extend the classical habitable zone (which is based on liquid water on a planetary surface, [2]). The life supporting zone of a planetary system is composed of different single "habitable zones" for the liquid phases of specific solvents and composites between water and other solvents. Besides exoplanetary systems which seem to be the most promising place for exotic life in our present understanding, some potential places could also exist within our Solar System and habitats like the subsurface of Enceladus, liquid ethane/methane lakes on Titan or habitable niches in the Venus atmosphere will also be taken into account. A preliminary list of appropriate solvents and their abundances in the Solar

  8. Axiomatic Design of Space Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2017-01-01

    Systems engineering is an organized way to design and develop systems, but the initial system design concepts are usually seen as the products of unexplained but highly creative intuition. Axiomatic design is a mathematical approach to produce and compare system architectures. The two axioms are:- Maintain the independence of the functional requirements.- Minimize the information content (or complexity) of the design. The first axiom generates good system design structures and the second axiom ranks them. The closed system human life support architecture now implemented in the International Space Station has been essentially unchanged for fifty years. In contrast, brief missions such as Apollo and Shuttle have used open loop life support. As mission length increases, greater system closure and increased recycling become more cost-effective.Closure can be gradually increased, first recycling humidity condensate, then hygiene wastewater, urine, carbon dioxide, and water recovery brine. A long term space station or planetary base could implement nearly full closure, including food production. Dynamic systems theory supports the axioms by showing that fewer requirements, fewer subsystems, and fewer interconnections all increase system stability. If systems are too complex and interconnected, reliability is reduced and operations and maintenance become more difficult. Using axiomatic design shows how the mission duration and other requirements determine the best life support system design including the degree of closure.

  9. Bioregenerative life support system for a lunar base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H.; Wang, J.; Manukovsky, N. S.; Kovalev, V. S.; Gurevich, Yu. L.

    We have studied a modular approach to construction of bioregenerative life support system BLSS for a lunar base using soil-like substrate SLS for plant cultivation Calculations of massflow rates in BLSS were based mostly on a vegetarian diet and biological conversion of plant residues in SLS Plant candidate list for lunar BLSS includes the following basic species rice Oryza sativa soy Glycine max sweet potato Ipomoea batatas and wheat Triticum aestivum To reduce the time necessary for transition of the system to steady state we suggest that the first seeding and sprouting could be made on Earth

  10. Developing Reliable Life Support for Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2017-01-01

    A human mission to Mars will require highly reliable life support systems. Mars life support systems may recycle water and oxygen using systems similar to those on the International Space Station (ISS). However, achieving sufficient reliability is less difficult for ISS than it will be for Mars. If an ISS system has a serious failure, it is possible to provide spare parts, or directly supply water or oxygen, or if necessary bring the crew back to Earth. Life support for Mars must be designed, tested, and improved as needed to achieve high demonstrated reliability. A quantitative reliability goal should be established and used to guide development t. The designers should select reliable components and minimize interface and integration problems. In theory a system can achieve the component-limited reliability, but testing often reveal unexpected failures due to design mistakes or flawed components. Testing should extend long enough to detect any unexpected failure modes and to verify the expected reliability. Iterated redesign and retest may be required to achieve the reliability goal. If the reliability is less than required, it may be improved by providing spare components or redundant systems. The number of spares required to achieve a given reliability goal depends on the component failure rate. If the failure rate is under estimated, the number of spares will be insufficient and the system may fail. If the design is likely to have undiscovered design or component problems, it is advisable to use dissimilar redundancy, even though this multiplies the design and development cost. In the ideal case, a human tended closed system operational test should be conducted to gain confidence in operations, maintenance, and repair. The difficulty in achieving high reliability in unproven complex systems may require the use of simpler, more mature, intrinsically higher reliability systems. The limitations of budget, schedule, and technology may suggest accepting lower and

  11. Emergency Neurological Life Support: Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauch, Edward C; Pineda, Jose A; Hemphill, J Claude

    2015-12-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a subset of stroke due to bleeding within the parenchyma of the brain. It is potentially lethal, and survival depends on ensuring an adequate airway, reversal of coagulopathy, and proper diagnosis. ICH was chosen as an Emergency Neurological Life Support protocol because intervention within the first critical hour may improve outcome, and it is critical to have site-specific protocols to drive care quickly and efficiently.

  12. Space Life-Support Engineering Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seagrave, Richard C. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    This report covers the seventeen months of work performed under an extended one year NASA University Grant awarded to Iowa State University to perform research on topics relating to the development of closed-loop long-term life support systems with the initial principal focus on space water management. In the first phase of the program, investigators from chemistry and chemical engineering with demonstrated expertise in systems analysis, thermodynamics, analytical chemistry and instrumentation, performed research and development in two major related areas; the development of low-cost, accurate, and durable sensors for trace chemical and biological species, and the development of unsteady-state simulation packages for use in the development and optimization of control systems for life support systems. In the second year of the program, emphasis was redirected towards concentrating on the development of dynamic simulation techniques and software and on performing a thermodynamic systems analysis, centered on availability or energy analysis, in an effort to begin optimizing the systems needed for water purification. The third year of the program, the subject of this report, was devoted to the analysis of the water balance for the interaction between humans and the life support system during space flight and exercise, to analysis of the cardiopulmonary systems of humans during space flight, and to analysis of entropy production during operation of the air recovery system during space flight.

  13. BASIC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg; Schmidt, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    BPP. Tilgangen består dels af den overordnede proces-model BASIC og dels af et iboende framework, ABCD, der er en model for systematisk adfærdsanalyse, udvikling, test og implementering af adfærdsrettede løsningskoncepter. Den samlede model gør det muligt for forskere såvel som offentligt ansatte...

  14. Basic and applied life science extended by neutron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Kataoka, Mikio

    2017-01-01

    Life science is expected to be one of the major subjects of neutron research. The quantum beam properties of neutron, isotope effect and inelastic/quasi-elastic scattering are useful for studying crystal structures, solution structures and dynamic structures of biomolecules. Research on physical properties of biological materials by inelastic scattering is promising as applied research such as food science. The high-intensity pulse neutrons realized by the accelerator not only has developed the life science research so far, but also is opening a gate to the academic field which has never been used before. (author)

  15. Sensemaking in the formation of basic life support teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallas, Peter; Lauridsen, Johnny; Brabrand, Mikkel

    2018-01-01

    transcribed all verbal communication from the moment the first responder stepped into the room until the moment external chest compression were initiated (verbatim transcription). Transcriptions were then analyzed with a focus on identifying three elements of sensemaking: Co-orientation, Re...... in the communication in some cardiac arrest teams. It is possible that the active moderation of sensemaking should be considered a non-technical skill in cardiac arrest teams....

  16. Basic life support through early clinical exposure: Students’ perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varshini Athipathy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an attempt is made to analyse the students’ perspective on ECE. The effectiveness of this program and the extent to which the students are benefitted is being evaluated.

  17. Revisiting the Link between Job Satisfaction and Life Satisfaction: The Role of Basic Psychological Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unanue, Wenceslao; Gómez, Marcos E.; Cortez, Diego; Oyanedel, Juan C.; Mendiburo-Seguel, Andrés

    2017-01-01

    The link between job satisfaction and life satisfaction has been extensively explored in the relevant literature. However, the great majority of past research has been carried out using cross-sectional analyses, and almost exclusively in the Western world. Moreover, the underlying psychological mechanisms explaining the link are not yet completely understood. Thus, we report the first research to date which uses both cross-sectional and longitudinal data among workers in Chile—a fast-developing Latin American economy—and which aims to tackle previous limitations. Three studies consistently support a positive link between the constructs. Study 1 (N = 636) found that higher job satisfaction predicted higher life satisfaction both contemporaneously and longitudinally, and vice versa, above and beyond several key control variables. Study 2 (N = 725) and Study 3 (N = 703) replicated Study 1 results, but tested for the first time the role of satisfaction of basic psychological needs (as stated by self-determination theory) in the job–life satisfaction link. This is the most novel contribution of our paper. Key implications not only for individual quality of life, but also for companies' human resource practices emerge from our findings. PMID:28536541

  18. The Impact of Donor Support to Basic Education in Ghana since the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the impact of donor support to Ghana's Basic Education sector since the 1987 Education Sector Reforms. It explores the extents to which donor support had contributed to the mitigating the challenges of basic education in Ghana in order to determine what remains. The paper draws on extensive ...

  19. Decision support for sustainable forestry: enhancing the basic rational model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    H.R. Ekbia; K.M. Reynolds

    2007-01-01

    Decision-support systems (DSS) have been extensively used in the management of natural resources for nearly two decades. However, practical difficulties with the application of DSS in real-world situations have become increasingly apparent. Complexities of decisionmaking, encountered in the context of ecosystem management, are equally present in sustainable forestry....

  20. Development and Validation of the Life Sciences Assessment: A Measure of Preschool Children's Conceptions of Basic Life Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maherally, Uzma Nooreen

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a science assessment tool termed the Life Sciences Assessment (LSA) in order to assess preschool children's conceptions of basic life sciences. The hypothesis was that the four sub-constructs, each of which can be measured through a series of questions on the LSA, will make a significant…

  1. NASA's Interests in Bioregenerative Life Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2018-01-01

    NASA and other space agencies and around the world have had long-standing interest in using plants and biological approaches for regenerative life support. In particular, NASA's Kennedy Space Center, has conducted research in this area for over 30 years. One unique aspect to this testing was NASA's Biomass Production Chamber, which had four vertically stacked growing shelves inside a large, 113 cubic meter chamber. This was perhaps one of the first working examples of a vertical agriculture system in the world. A review of some of this research along with some of the more salient findings will be presented.

  2. Basic science research to support the nuclear material focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boak, J. M. (Jeremy M.); Eller, P. Gary; Chipman, N. A.; Castle, P. M.

    2002-01-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE'S) Office of Environmental Management (EM) is responsible for managing more than 760,000 metric tons of nuclear material that is excess to the current DOE weapons program, as a result of shutdown of elements of the weapons program, mainly during the 1990s. EMowned excess nuclear material comprises a variety of material types, including uranium, plutonium, other actinides and other radioactive elements in numerous forms, all of which must be stabilized for storage and ultimate disposition. Much of this quantity has been in storage for many years. Shutdown of DOE sites and facilities requires removal of nuclear material and consolidation at other sites, and may be delayed by the lack of available technology. Within EM, the Office of Science and Technology (OST) is dedicated to providing timely, relevant technology to accelerate completion and reduce cleanup cost of the DOE environmental legacy. OST is organized around five focus areas, addressing crucial areas of end-user-defined technology need. The Focus Areas regularly identify potential technical solutions for which basic scientific research is needed to determine if the technical solution can be developed and deployed. To achieve a portfolio of projects that is balanced between near-term priorities driven by programmatic risks (such as site closure milestones) and long-term, high-consequence needs that depend on extensive research and development, OST has established the Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) to develop the scientific basis for solutions to long-term site needs. The EMSP directs calls for proposals to address scientific needs of the focus areas. Needs are identified and validated annually by individual sites in workshops conducted across the complex. The process captures scope and schedule requirements of the sites, so that focus areas can identify technology that can be delivered to sites in time to complete site cleanup. The Nuclear Material

  3. Basic Science Research to Support the Nuclear Materials Focus Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chipman, N. A.; Castle, P. M.; Boak, J. M.; Eller, P. G.

    2002-02-26

    The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Environmental Management (EM) is responsible for managing more than 760,000 metric tons of nuclear material that is excess to the current DOE weapons program, as a result of shutdown of elements of the weapons program, mainly during the 1990s. EMowned excess nuclear material comprises a variety of material types, including uranium, plutonium, other actinides and other radioactive elements in numerous forms, all of which must be stabilized for storage and ultimate disposition. Much of this quantity has been in storage for many years. Shutdown of DOE sites and facilities requires removal of nuclear material and consolidation at other sites, and may be delayed by the lack of available technology. Within EM, the Office of Science and Technology (OST) is dedicated to providing timely, relevant technology to accelerate completion and reduce cleanup cost of the DOE environmental legacy. OST is organized around five focus areas, addressing crucial areas of end-user-defined technology need. The Focus Areas regularly identify potential technical solutions for which basic scientific research is needed to determine if the technical solution can be developed and deployed. To achieve a portfolio of projects that is balanced between near-term priorities driven by programmatic risks (such as site closure milestones) and long-term, high-consequence needs that depend on extensive research and development, OST has established the Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) to develop the scientific basis for solutions to long-term site needs. The EMSP directs calls for proposals to address scientific needs of the focus areas. Needs are identified and validated annually by individual sites in workshops conducted across the complex. The process captures scope and schedule requirements of the sites, so that focus areas can identify technology that can be delivered to sites in time to complete site cleanup. The Nuclear Material

  4. Factores asociados al desgaste profesional en los trabajadores del soporte vital básico del País Vasco: Un estudio cualitativo Factors associated with professional burnout among basic life support caregivers in the Basque Country: A qualitative research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sendoa Ballesteros Peña

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Identificar factores de riesgo de desgaste profesional percibidos por los técnicos en emergencias sanitarias de las unidades de soporte vital básico del País Vasco. Metodología: Investigación cualitativa realizada mediante análisis de discurso en ocho entrevistas individuales a trabajadores del soporte vital básico con puntuaciones compatibles con afectación por desgaste profesional en el Inventario de Burnout de Maslach. Las variables estructurales tenidas en cuenta para la elección de los participantes fueron la antigüedad profesional (superior o inferior a 10 años y el centro de trabajo. Resultados: Los trabajadores presentan disconformidad con la actual estructura organizacional del sistema de emergencias y falta de proyección y reconocimiento de su rol profesional. Además manifiestan un progresivo distanciamiento afectivo para con los pacientes, con quienes ha aumentado el número de enfrentamientos debidos a dificultades de entendimiento causadas por situaciones de inadecuación del uso de los recursos asistenciales. Conclusiones: La estructura de organización del sistema de emergencias, el trato con el paciente y su familia y la situación profesional del técnico en emergencias son percibidos como elementos clave predisponentes de desgaste profesional.Objective: To identify possible factors associated with professional burnout among basic life support caregivers in the Basque Country. Method: A qualitative research was performed. We conducted an analysis of the discus of eight interpretive individual interviews with caregivers in basic life support units who presented scores compatible with burnout on the Maslach Burnout Inventory. The selection of participants was intentional. Results: The data analysis found that ambulance personnel have disagreed with emergency system organizational structure and recognition of their professional role. They show a progressive emotional detachment to patients. An inadequate use

  5. [Extracorporeal life support in calcium antagonist intoxication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groot, M W; Grewal, S; Meeder, H J; van Thiel, R J; den Uil, C A

    2017-01-01

    Intoxication with calcium antagonists is associated with poor outcome. Even mild calcium antagonist overdose may be fatal. A 51-year-old woman and a 51-year-old man came to the Accident and Emergency Department in severe shock after they had taken a calcium antagonist overdose. After extensive medicinal therapy had failed, they both needed extracorporeal life support (ECLS) as a bridge to recovery. In severe calcium antagonist overdose, the combination of vasoplegia and cardiac failure leads to refractory shock. ECLS temporarily supports the circulation and maintains organ perfusion. In this way ECLS functions as a bridge to recovery and may possibly save lives. Timely consultation with and referral to an ECLS centre is recommended in patients with calcium antagonist overdose.

  6. 21 CFR 860.93 - Classification of implants, life-supporting or life-sustaining devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Classification of implants, life-supporting or... Classification § 860.93 Classification of implants, life-supporting or life-sustaining devices. (a) The classification panel will recommend classification into class III of any implant or life-supporting or life...

  7. Computational Support for Alternative Confinement Concepts Basic Plasma Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalton D. Schnack

    2002-12-09

    This is the final report for contract DE-FG03-99ER54528, ''Computational Support for Alternative Confinement Concepts''. Progress was made in the following areas of investigation: (1) Extensive studies of the confinement properties of conventional Reversed-field Pinch (RFP) configurations (i.e., without current profile control) were performed in collaboration with the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) in Stockholm, Sweden. These studies were carried out using the full 3-dimensional, finite-{beta}, resistive MHD model in the DEBS code, including ohmic heating and anisotropic heat conduction, and thus for the first time included the self-consistent effects of the dynamo magnetic fluctuations on the confinement properties of the RFP. By using multi-variant regression analysis of these results, scaling laws for various properties characterizing the conventional RFP were obtained. In particular, it was found that the, for constant ratio of I/N (where I is the current and N = na{sup 2} is the line density), and over a range of Lundquist numbers S that approaches 10{sup 6}, the fluctuations scale as {delta}B/B {approx} S{sup -0.14}, the temperature scales as T {approx} I{sup 0.56}, the poloidal beta scales as {beta}{sub {theta}} {approx} I{sup -0.4}, and the energy confinement time scales as {tau}{sub E} {approx} I{sup 0.34}. The degradation of poloidal beta with current is a result of the weak scaling of the fluctuation level with the Lundquist number, and leads to the unfavorable scaling laws for temperature and energy confinement time. These results compare reasonably well with experimental data, and emphasize the need for external control of the dynamo fluctuations in the RFP. (2) Studies of feedback stabilization of resistive wall modes in the RFP were performed with the DEBS code in collaboration with the CNR/RFX group in Padua, Italy. The ideal growth rates are ''passively'' reduced by the presence of a resistive wall

  8. Building the Framework: The Development of Basic Skills Support in Further Education Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basic Skills Agency, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This summary sets out the main findings of an eighteen month research project into the development of basic skills support in colleges of further education in England and Wales. The research was commissioned by the Basic Skills Agency and undertaken by the University of Central England and Bilston Community College. The research was based on…

  9. Emergency Neurologic Life Support: Meningitis and Encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaieski, David F; Nathan, Barnett R; O'Brien, Nicole F

    2015-12-01

    Bacterial meningitis and viral encephalitis, particularly herpes simplex encephalitis, are severe neurological infections that, if not treated promptly and effectively, lead to poor neurological outcome or death. Because treatment is more effective if given early, the topic of meningitis and encephalitis was chosen as an Emergency Neurological Life Support protocol. This protocol provides a practical approach to recognition and urgent treatment of bacterial meningitis and encephalitis. Appropriate imaging, spinal fluid analysis, and early empiric treatment is discussed. Though uncommon in its full form, the typical clinical triad of headache, fever, and neck stiffness should alert the clinical practitioner to the possibility of a central nervous system infection. Early attention to the airway and maintaining normotension is crucial in treatment of these patients, as is rapid treatment with anti-infectives and, in some cases, corticosteroids.

  10. Extracorporeal life support in pediatric cardiac patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Di NARDO

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Extracorporeal Life Support (ECLS is a valuable tool in the management of neonates and older children with severe cardiac or respiratory failure. In this review, we focus on ECLS when used for neonatal and pediatric cardiac disease. Strict selection of patients and timely deployment are necessary to optimize outcomes. Although every attempt should be made to deploy ECLS urgently rather than emergently, extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR is being increasingly used and reasonable survival rates have been achieved after initiation of ECLS during active compressions of the chest following in-hospital cardiac arrest. Contraindications to ECLS are falling over time, although lethal chromosomal abnormalities, severe irreversible brain injury, and extremely low gestational age and weight (<32 weeks gestation or <1.5 kg remain firm contraindications.

  11. Social support, self-care, and quality of life in cancer patients receiving radiotherapy in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanucharurnkul, S.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of the study was two-fold: (1) to examine the relationships among self-care, social support, and quality of life in adult cancer patients receiving radiotherapy while the selected basic conditioning factors of age, marital and socio-economic status, living arrangement, stage and site of cancer were statistically controlled; and (2) to test a theoretical model which postulated that (a) quality of life was predicted jointly by the selected basic conditioning factors, social support and self-care, and (b) self-care was predicted jointly by the selected basic conditioning factors and social support. A convenience sample of 112 adult cervical and head/neck cancer patients receiving radiotherapy was obtained from radiotherapy outpatient clinic in three hospitals located in Bangkok, Thailand. Results of the study indicated positive relationships among self-care, social support, and quality of life. Socio-economic status, site of cancer, and self-care were significant predictors for reported quality of life. Social support appeared to be a significant predictor of quality of life indirectly through self-care. Socio-economic status and social support were also significant predictors of self-care, whereas, stage and site of cancer seemed to predict self-care indirectly through social support

  12. Data organisation & description - presentation. RDM Support basic training course for information specialists session 4

    OpenAIRE

    Selm, Mariette van

    2015-01-01

    Presentation for session 4 of RDM Support. RDM Support is a basic training course in research data management (support) for information specialists. The training course was developed by Mariëtte van Selm for the information specialists of the Library of the University of Amsterdam (UvA), within the framework of the RDM Support project (2013-2015). The training course was held from January to April 2014.

  13. Creation of closed life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitelson, I.

    The 40-year-long experience in devising ecological systems with a significantly closed material cycling (CES), which are intended for human life support outside the Earth's biosphere, allows us to state that this problem has been largely solved technically. To test the terrestrial prototypes of these systems: Bios in Krasnoyarsk, the Terrestrial Ecological System (TES) in Moscow, and Bioplex in Houston, crews of humans stayed inside them over long periods of time. In Bios-3 humans could be fully (100%) provided with regenerated air and water and with a vegetable part (80%) of their diet. One human requires 4.5 kW of light energy, which is equal to the light energy incident on an 8-m2 surface perpendicular to solar rays in the Earth's orbit. The regeneration of air and water can be alternatively performed by a 17-L2 microalgal cultivator with a light-receiving surface of 8 m at 2 kW of light energy or by a conveyer culture of agricultural plants. To regenerate the vegetable part of2 the diet to the full, the area must increase to 31.5 m per person. Similar values have been obtained in the TES and in Bioplex. It can be concluded that the system is ready to be implemented in the engineering-technical designs of specific versions: for orbital flights, for missions to Mars and other planets, and for stations on the Moon and Mars. To improve the CES further, a number of new key problems should be resolved. The first of them are: to robotize the technological processes and to establish an optimized system of the internal control of the CES by the crew working in it; to develop a hybrid physicochemical-biological technology for returning the dead-end products of biosynthesis into the system's cycling; to solve the fundamental problem of regenerating the human ration completely inside the CES by the autotrophic chemo - and photosynthesis. Once this problem is solved, the energy requirements for life support in space will be significantly reduced. This will also considerably

  14. Melissa: The European project of a closed life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasseur, Christophe

    The MELISSA (Micro-Ecological Life Support Alternative) project was initiated in 1989. It is intended as a tool to gain understanding of closed life support, as well as the development of the technology for a future life support system for long term manned space missions, e.g. a lunar base or a mission to Mars. The collaboration was established through a Memorandum of Understanding and is managed by ESA. It involves several independent organisations: Ghent University, EPAS, SCK, VITO (B), University of Clermont-Ferrand, SHERPA (F), University Autonoma of Barcelona (E), University of Guelph (CND). It is co-funded by ESA, the MELISSA partners, the Belgian, the Spanish and the Canadian authorities. The driving element of MELISSA is the production of food, water and oxygen from organic waste (inedible biomass, CO2, faeces, urea). Inspired by the principle of an "aquatic" ecosystem, MELISSA process comprises several sub-processes, called compartments, from the anoxygenic fermentor up to the photosynthetic units (i.e. algae and higher plants). The choice of this compartmentalised structure is required by the very high level of safety requirements and justified by the need of an engineering approach and to build deterministic control strategy. During the past 19 years of research and development, a very progressive approach has been developed to understand and control the MELISSA loop. This approach starts from the selection of processes, their characterisation and mathematical modelling, the validation of the control strategy, up to the demonstration on Earth, at pilot scale. The project is organised in 5 phases: Basic Research and Development, Preliminary flight experiment, Ground and space demonstration, Terrestrial transfer, Education and communication.

  15. [Extracorporeal life support for treating cardiac arrest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehot, Jean-Jacques; Long-Him-Nam, Nelly; Bastien, Olivier

    2011-12-01

    Percutaneous extracorporeal life support (ECLS) is now widespread for treating acute cardiac failure. ECLS has been used for treating in-hospital and out of hospital cardiac arrests. A systematic review of literature was performed in order to assess the results. Nine studies of in-hospital cardiac arrests were published between 2003 and January 31, 2011. They included 724 patients, 208 of which survived without significant neurological sequelae (28.7 %). In the other patients, the initial disease and the consequences of low flow brought multiorgan failure, or ECLS resulted in haemorrhage and ischaemia. Low flow lasted between 42 and 105 min (mean 54min). ECLS was used after out of hospital cardiac arrests in 3 studies published between 2008 and January 31, 2011. They included 110 patients of which only 6 survived (4.4 %) despite strict inclusion criteria. Low flow lasted between 60 and 120 min (mean 98 min.) According to these results the use of ECLS should be encouraged after in-hospital cardiac arrest and training in cardiorespiratory resuscitation should be improved in global population and health professionals.

  16. 34 CFR 222.38 - What is the maximum basic support payment that a local educational agency may receive under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the maximum basic support payment that a local... Act § 222.38 What is the maximum basic support payment that a local educational agency may receive under section 8003(b)? The maximum basic support payment that an LEA may receive under section 8003(b...

  17. NASA Advanced Explorations Systems: Advancements in Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shull, Sarah A.; Schneider, Walter F.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support Systems (LSS) project strives to develop reliable, energy-efficient, and low-mass spacecraft systems to provide environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) critical to enabling long duration human missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). Highly reliable, closed-loop life support systems are among the capabilities required for the longer duration human space exploration missions assessed by NASA's Habitability Architecture Team (HAT). The LSS project is focused on four areas: architecture and systems engineering for life support systems, environmental monitoring, air revitalization, and wastewater processing and water management. Starting with the international space station (ISS) LSS systems as a point of departure (where applicable), the mission of the LSS project is three-fold: 1. Address discrete LSS technology gaps 2. Improve the reliability of LSS systems 3. Advance LSS systems towards integrated testing on the ISS. This paper summarized the work being done in the four areas listed above to meet these objectives. Details will be given on the following focus areas: Systems Engineering and Architecture- With so many complex systems comprising life support in space, it is important to understand the overall system requirements to define life support system architectures for different space mission classes, ensure that all the components integrate well together and verify that testing is as representative of destination environments as possible. Environmental Monitoring- In an enclosed spacecraft that is constantly operating complex machinery for its own basic functionality as well as science experiments and technology demonstrations, it's possible for the environment to become compromised. While current environmental monitors aboard the ISS will alert crew members and mission control if there is an emergency, long-duration environmental monitoring cannot be done in-orbit as current methodologies

  18. Suporte básico de vida e suporte avançado de vida em cardiologia: proposta de uma nova estratégia para abordagem e prevenção das intercorrências clínicas em cirurgia dermatológica Basic life support and advanced cardiac life support: proposal of a new strategy to approach and prevent clinical events in dermatologic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Roismann Timoner

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Com o aumento da complexidade cirúrgica e comorbidades da população, o risco de intercorrências clínicas em cirurgia dermatológica aumentou nas últimas décadas. Para sua abordagem foi criado um fluxograma baseado na tríade decisória formada pelo estado físico do paciente, grau de sedação e porte do procedimento, indicando o tipo de suporte cardiovascular em cada procedimento. Pacientes submetidos a cirurgias de "porte pequeno" e ASA 2, a cirurgias de "porte médio" ou a sedação profunda devem receber suporte avançado de vida em cardiologia.Since complexity of surgical procedures has increased, and patients' co-morbidities have become more frequent, the risk of clinical complications in dermatologic surgery has also increased in the past decades. In order to better assess these risks, a flowchart based on a ruling triad consisting of the patient's health status, sedation level, and procedure complexity was developed to establish the type of cardiovascular support adequate to each procedure. Patients undergoing small surgeries with ASA 2, and those undergoing medium-sized surgeries or deep sedation should be assigned to advanced cardiac life support (ACLS.

  19. Domains of quality of life of people with profound multiple disabilities : The perspective of parents and direct support staff

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petry, K; Maes, B; Vlaskamp, C

    Background This study considered the general validity of the basic domains of quality of life that appear in theoretical models, in relation to people with profound multiple disabilities. The authors examined how parents and direct support staff operationalized these basic domains for people with

  20. Estratégias tecnológicas de ensino associadas ao treinamento em Suporte Básico de Vida Estrategias tecnológicas de enseñanza asociadas al entrenamiento en Soporte Básico de Vida Technological strategies associated with training in Basic Life Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satomi Mori

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo objetivou-se analisar a eficácia e as vantagens do uso dos recursos tecnológicos para o ensino em Suporte Básico de Vida (SBV por meio de revisão narrativa. Foram analisados 29 artigos publicados e indexados nas bases de dados MedLine, PubMed e LILACS que utilizaram vídeo, CD-ROM, DVD, websites e programas computacionais para o ensino em SBV. Observou-se que a utilização desses recursos pode favorecer a aquisição de conhecimento em níveis similares ou superiores aos métodos tardicionais de ensino. Dentre as vantagens observadas citam-se a redução dos custos de treinamento, a facilidade de acesso e padronização das informações.En este estudio se tuvo como objetivo analizar la eficacia y las ventajas del uso de los recursos tecnológicos para la enseñanza del Soporte Básico de Vida (SBV por medio de revisión narrativa. Se analizaron 29 artículos publicados e indexados en las bases de datos MedLine, PubMed y LILACS que utilizaron video, CD-ROM, DVD, websites y programas de informática para la enseñanza en SBV. Se observó que la utilización de esos recursos puede favorecer en la adquisición de conocimientos en niveles similares o superiores a los métodos tradicionales de enseñanza. Entre las ventajas observadas se citan la reducción de los costos de entrenamiento, la facilidad de acceso y patronización de las informaciones.This study aimed to analyze the effectiveness and advantages of the use of technological resources for teaching Basic Life Support (SBV through a narrative review. We analyzed 29 articles published and indexed in these sources: Medline, PubMed and LILACS that used video, CD-ROM, DVD, websites and computer programs for teaching SBV. It was observed that the use of these resources may favor the acquisition of knowledge at levels similar or superior to methods of traditional teaching. Among the observed advantages cited were the reduction in training costs, ease of access and standardization

  1. The Impact of Donor Support to Basic Education in Ghana since the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the impact of donor support to Ghana's Basic Education sector since the. 1987 Education Sector ... political and the economic downturns on Ghana's education system as follows: “Over the past decade, there has ..... Source: Ministry of Education, Science and Sports 2005 and 2007. Note: GPI – Gender ...

  2. Parental Support for Basic Psychological Needs and Happiness: The Importance of Sense of Uniqueness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Omer Faruk; Demir, Meliksah

    2013-01-01

    Past empirical research relying on self-determination theory (SDT) has consistently shown that parental support of basic psychological needs (BPN) is associated with adolescent happiness. Yet, the specific mechanisms accounting for this link are still undetermined. The present study aimed to address this gap in the literature by testing a…

  3. Longitudinal Relations between Perceived Autonomy Support and Basic Need Satisfaction in Two Student Cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseth, Åge; Breidablik, Hans Johan; Meland, Eivind

    2018-01-01

    The relation between autonomy support and basic need satisfaction was investigated by applying a longitudinal design at a time interval of two years, and by comparing two different grade level cohorts of students. Participants comprised 1.225 Norwegian students divided by two subsamples (6th and 8th grade level/8th and 10th grade level). The…

  4. Coach Autonomy Support, Basic Need Satisfaction, and Intrinsic Motivation of Paralympic Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banack, Hailey R.; Sabiston, Catherine M.; Bloom, Gordon A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study, grounded in self-determination theory, was to explore the relationship between Paralympic athletes' perceptions of autonomy-supportive coach behavior, basic psychological needs, and intrinsic motivation to know, accomplish, and experience stimulation. One hundred thirteen Canadian Paralympic athletes completed an…

  5. Expanding Public/Private Partnerships For Improving Basic Education through School Sponsorship in the Dominican Republic. Final Report. Basic Education and Policy Support Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Patricia; Kane, Michael

    The Basic Education and Policy Support Activity (BEPS), a new five-year initiative sponsored by United States Agency for International Development's (USAID) Center for Human Capacity Development, is designed to improve the quality, effectiveness, and access to formal and nonformal basic education. BEPS operates through both core funds and buy-ins…

  6. Basic traits predict the prevalence of personality disorder across the life span: the example of psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachon, David D; Lynam, Donald R; Widiger, Thomas A; Miller, Joshua D; McCrae, Robert R; Costa, Paul T

    2013-05-01

    Personality disorders (PDs) may be better understood in terms of dimensions of general personality functioning rather than as discrete categorical conditions. Personality-trait descriptions of PDs are robust across methods and settings, and PD assessments based on trait measures show good construct validity. The study reported here extends research showing that basic traits (e.g., impulsiveness, warmth, straightforwardness, modesty, and deliberation) can re-create the epidemiological characteristics associated with PDs. Specifically, we used normative changes in absolute trait levels to simulate age-related differences in the prevalence of psychopathy in a forensic setting. Results demonstrated that trait information predicts the rate of decline for psychopathy over the life span; discriminates the decline of psychopathy from that of a similar disorder, antisocial PD; and accurately predicts the differential decline of subfactors of psychopathy. These findings suggest that basic traits provide a parsimonious account of PD prevalence across the life span.

  7. A Symbiosis of Islamic Principles and Basic Human Values on Work and Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokis Rohaiza

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses some basic issues on work and life based on Islamic and non-religious principles. Work and life are inseparable facets of and for human existence. Work derives from the demands of life, and thus it becomes a responsibility for every individual person. The article attempts to relate some highlighted Qur’anic verses and Hadith with basic occupational values such as honesty, modesty and innovativeness, among others, at workplaces. In the end, it makes an effort to understand the working of the subconscious mind on work to make life worthwhile. The plan for this article is to lay emphasis that the presence of human beings, which includes their mind, energy and whatever they can offer in the forms of work, benefits all. In such a case, not only those humans may be seen as successful in fulfilling the work-needs, but also victorious in completing the life-demands as human beings. “Virtuous workplace” is the most ideal platform for such purpose.

  8. Subjective Quality of Life and Perceived Adequacy of Social Support ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One such major concern pertains to the very general experiences of life of the elderly and associated factors. The purpose of this study was then to specifically assess the subjective quality of life and perceived adequacy of social support and the possible socio-demographic factors making differences in quality of life.

  9. Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems: Natural and Artificial Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macelroy, Robert D. (Editor); Thompson, Brad G. (Editor); Tibbitts, Theodore W. (Editor); Volk, Tyler (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The scientists supported by the NASA sponsored Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) program have played a major role in creating a Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) section devoted to the development of bioregenerative life support for use in space. The series of 22 papers were sponsored by Subcommission F.4. The papers deal with many of the diverse aspects of life support, and with outgrowth technologies that may have commercial applications in fields such as biotechnology and bioengineering. Papers from researchers in France, Canada, Japan and the USSR are also presented.

  10. Closure of Regenerative Life Support Systems: Results of the Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Daniel; Henninger, D.; Edeen, M.; Lewis, J.; Smth, F.; Verostko, C.

    2006-01-01

    Future long duration human exploration missions away from Earth will require closed-loop regenerative life support systems to reduce launch mass, reduce dependency on resupply and increase the level of mission self sufficiency. Such systems may be based on the integration of biological and physiocochemical processes to produce potable water, breathable atmosphere and nutritious food from metabolic and other mission wastes. Over the period 1995 to 1998 a series of ground-based tests were conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Johnson Space Center, to evaluate the performance of advanced closed-loop life support technologies with real human metabolic and hygiene loads. Named the Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project (LMLSTP), four integrated human tests were conducted with increasing duration, complexity and closure. The first test, LMLSTP Phase I, was designed to demonstrate the ability of higher plants to revitalize cabin atmosphere. A single crew member spent 15 days within an atmospherically closed chamber containing 11.2 square meters of actively growing wheat. Atmospheric carbon dioxide and oxygen levels were maintained by control of the rate of photosynthesis through manipulation of light intensity or the availability of carbon dioxide and included integrated physicochemical systems. During the second and third tests, LMLSTP Phases II & IIa, four crew members spent 30 days and 60 days, respectively, in a larger sealed chamber. Advanced physicochemical life support hardware was used to regenerate the atmosphere and produce potable water from wastewater. Air revitalization was accomplished by using a molecular sieve and a Sabatier processor for carbon dioxide absorption and reduction, respectively, with oxygen generation performed by water hydrolysis. Production of potable water from wastewater included urine treatment (vapor compression distillation), primary treatment (ultrafiltration/reverse osmosis and multi-filtration) and post

  11. The assessment and measurement of adult life stress: Basic premises, operational principles, and design requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, Kate L; Monroe, Scott M

    2016-07-01

    Life stress is a central factor in the onset and course of a wide range of medical and psychiatric conditions. Determining the precise etiological and pathological consequences of stress, though, has been hindered by weaknesses in prevailing definitional and measurement practices. The purpose of the current paper is to evaluate the primary strategies for defining and measuring major and minor acute life events, chronic stressors, and daily hassles as informed by 3 basic scientific premises. The first premise concerns the manner in which stress is conceptualized and operationally defined, and specifically we assert that stress measures must not conflate the stress exposure with the stress response. The second premise concerns how stress exposures are measured, and we provide guidelines for optimizing standardized and sensitive indicators of life stress. The third premise addresses the consequences of variations in the procedures for life event measurement with regard to the validity of the research designs employed. We show that life stress measures are susceptible to several sources of bias, and if these potential sources of bias are not controlled in the design of the research, spurious findings may result. Our goal is to provide a useful guide for researchers who consider life stress to be an important factor in their theoretical models of disease, wish to incorporate measures of life stress in their research, and seek to avoid the common pitfalls of past measurement practices. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Midwives' Experiences, Education, and Support Needs Regarding Basic Newborn Resuscitation in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassab, Manal; Alnuaimi, Karimeh; Mohammad, Khitam; Creedy, Debra; Hamadneh, Shereen

    2016-06-01

    Newborns who are compromised at birth require rapid attention to stabilize their respiration attempts. Lack of knowledge regarding basic newborn resuscitation is a contributing factor to poor newborn health outcomes and increased mortality. The purpose of this study was to explore Jordanian midwives' experiences, education, and support needs to competently perform basic newborn resuscitation. Qualitative descriptive methodology was used to analyze a convenience sample of 20 midwives. A thematic approach was used to analyze the data. Participants discussed their experiences of basic newborn resuscitation including knowledge, skills, and barriers and suggested solutions to improve practice. Four themes were revealed: lack of knowledge and skills in newborn resuscitation, organizational constraints, inadequate teamwork, and educational needs. The midwives perceived that their ability to perform newborn resuscitation was hindered by lack of knowledge and skills in newborn resuscitation, organizational constraints (such as lack of equipment), and poor co-ordination and communication among team members. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Reliability Growth in Space Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2014-01-01

    A hardware system's failure rate often increases over time due to wear and aging, but not always. Some systems instead show reliability growth, a decreasing failure rate with time, due to effective failure analysis and remedial hardware upgrades. Reliability grows when failure causes are removed by improved design. A mathematical reliability growth model allows the reliability growth rate to be computed from the failure data. The space shuttle was extensively maintained, refurbished, and upgraded after each flight and it experienced significant reliability growth during its operational life. In contrast, the International Space Station (ISS) is much more difficult to maintain and upgrade and its failure rate has been constant over time. The ISS Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) reliability has slightly decreased. Failures on ISS and with the ISS CDRA continue to be a challenge.

  14. Social support moderates caregiver life satisfaction following traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergh, Tanya C; Hanks, Robin A; Rapport, Lisa J; Coleman, Renee D

    2003-12-01

    Social support is an important determinant of adjustment following traumatic brain injury (TBI) sustained by a family member. The present study examined the extent to which social support moderates the influence of characteristics of the person with injury on caregiver subjective well-being. Sixty pairs of individuals who had sustained a moderate to severe TBI and their caregivers (N=120) participated. Years postinjury ranged from 0.3 to 9.9 ( M=4.8, SD=2.6). Cognitive, functional, and neurobehavioral functioning of participants with TBI were assessed using neuropsychological tests and rating scales. Caregiver life satisfaction and perceived social support were assessed using self-report questionnaires. Results indicated that time since injury was unrelated to life satisfaction. Neurobehavioral disturbances showed an inverse relation with life satisfaction. Social support emerged as an important moderator of life satisfaction. Only among caregivers with low social support was cognitive dysfunction adversely related to life satisfaction. Similarly, a trend suggested that patient unawareness of deficit was associated with caregiver life dissatisfaction only among caregivers with low social support. In contrast, these characteristics were unrelated to life satisfaction among caregivers with adequate social support.

  15. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain Brain ... called the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Brain Basics in Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life— ...

  16. Risco ocupacional em unidades de Suporte Básico e Avançado de Vida em Emergências Riesgo laboral en las Unidades de Soporte Básico y Avanzado de Vida en Emergencia Occupational risk in Basic and Advanced Emergency Life Support Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda dos Santos Zapparoli

    2006-02-01

    automovilísticos (90% de los trabajadores, agresiones física y moral (90% de los trabajadores y accidentes con material punzante o cortante (72,5% de los trabajadores. 75% de los trabajadores describieron la violencia como factor de riesgo más preocupante en el trabajo efectuado. La mayoría de los trabajadores identificó los riesgos laborales. Sin embargo, una minoría de los trabajadores utiliza medidas adecuadas de seguridad, manifestando la necesidad de intervenciones.This study aimed to identify occupational risk factors the professionals of Basic and Advanced Emergency Life Support are exposed. Semi-structured interview was used. The study subjects were 40 workers who are part of two Emergency Healthcare System teams in a city of São Paulo State-Brazil. Most workers identified the following risk factors: physical (high temperature and environmental noise levels; chemical (manipulating chemical substances; biological (exposure to microorganisms and lack of material available. Typical risks of emergency activities were: risk of car accidents (90% of the workers, physical and moral aggression (90% of the workers and accidents with piercing and cutting material (72,5% of the workers. 75% of the workers described violence as the most worrying risk factor at work. Most of the workers identified the occupational risks. However only a minority of them uses adequate safety measures, which reveals the need for interventions.

  17. Support of a Problem-Based Learning Curriculum by Basic Science Faculty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William L. Anderson

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Although published reports describe benefits to students of learning in a problem-based, student-centered environment, questions have persisted about the excessive faculty time commitments associated with the implementation of PBL pedagogy. The argument has been put forward that the excessive faculty costs of such a curriculum cannot be justified based upon the potential benefits to students. However, the magnitude of the faculty time commitment to a PBL curriculum to support the aforementioned argument is not clear to us and we suspect that it is also equally unclear to individuals charged with making resource decisions supporting the educational efforts of the institution. Therefore, to evaluate this cost - benefit question, we analyzed the actual basic science faculty time commitment in a hybrid PBL curriculum during the first phase 18 months of undergraduate medical education. The results of this analysis do demonstrate an increase in faculty time commitments but do not support the argument that PBL pedagogy is excessively costly in terms of faculty time. For the year analyzed in this report, basic science faculty members contributed on average of 27.4 hours to the instruction of medical students. The results of the analysis did show significant contributions (57% of instructional time by the clinical faculty during the initial 18 months of medical school. In addition, the data revealed a four-fold difference between time commitments of the four basic science departments. We conclude that a PBL curriculum does not place unreasonable demands on the time of basic science faculty. The demands on clinical faculty, in the context of their other commitments, could not be evaluated. Moreover, this type of analysis provides a tool that can be used to make faculty resource allocation decisions fairly.

  18. Social Support as Mediator and Moderator of the Relationship Between Parenting Stress and Life Satisfaction Among the Chinese Parents of Children with ASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ming-Hui; Wang, Guang-Hai; Lei, Hao; Shi, Meng-Liang; Zhu, Rui; Jiang, Fan

    2018-04-01

    Although numerous studies have demonstrated that social support affects a range of life experiences, few have examined its moderating and mediating effects. In the current study, 479 Chinese parents of children with ASD (aged 3-18 years) completed the surveys assessing parenting stress, social support and life satisfaction. Results indicated that parenting stress, social support and life satisfaction were significantly related. Moreover, social support both mediated and moderated the influence of parenting stress on life satisfaction. These findings imply that parenting stress and social support are critical indicators of life satisfaction and can serve as basic intervention strategies that promote life satisfaction among Chinese parents of children with ASD.

  19. Ionic Liquids Enabling Revolutionary Closed-Loop Life Support

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation is to utilize ionic liquids with the Bosch process to achieve closed-loop life support. Specific tasks are to: 1) Advance the technology readiness of...

  20. Life Support Systems: Trace Contaminant and Particulate Control

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support Systems project Trace Contaminant and Particulate Control task: Work in the area of trace contamination and...

  1. Novel Composite Membrane for Space Life Supporting System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space life-supporting systems require effective removal of metabolic CO2 from the cabin atmosphere with minimal loss of O2. Conventional techniques, using either...

  2. Novel Composite Membrane for Space Life Supporting System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space life-supporting systems require effective removal of metabolic CO2 from the cabin atmosphere with minimal loss of O2. Conventional techniques, using either...

  3. Water Walls: Highly Reliable and Massively Redundant Life Support Architecture

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — WATER WALLS (WW) takes an approach to providing a life support system, Forward Osmosis (FO), that is biologically and chemically passive, using mechanical systems...

  4. Study of space shuttle environmental control and life support problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibble, K. P.; Riley, F. E.

    1971-01-01

    Four problem areas were treated: (1) cargo module environmental control and life support systems; (2) space shuttle/space station interfaces; (3) thermal control considerations for payloads; and (4) feasibility of improving system reusability.

  5. Perceived Social Support and Students' Life Satisfaction among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    their academic performance and total wellbeing. However, Tumkaya (2008) noted that students usually feel unsatisfied with their expectations about the university life or new environment where they find themselves. To understand the influence of perceived social support on students'satisfaction with life, the study adopted ...

  6. Effective work-life balance support for various household structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brummelhuis, L.L. ten; Lippe, T. van der

    2010-01-01

    Today’s workforce encompasses a wide variety of employees with specifi c needs and resources when it comes to balancing work and life roles. Our study explores whether various types of work-life balance support measures improve employee helping behavior and performance among single employees,

  7. Overview of NASA's Environmental Control and Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Monserrate

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA's Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) on the International Space Station. A look inside of the International Space Station detailing ECLSS processes of controlling atmospheric pressure, conditioning the atmosphere, responding to emergency conditions, controlling internal carbon dioxide and contaminants and providing water are described. A detailed description of ISS Regenerative Environmental Control and Life Support System is also presented.

  8. 34 CFR 222.31 - To which local educational agencies does the Secretary make basic support payments under section...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false To which local educational agencies does the Secretary make basic support payments under section 8003(b) of the Act? 222.31 Section 222.31 Education...) and (e) of the Act § 222.31 To which local educational agencies does the Secretary make basic support...

  9. 34 CFR 222.32 - Upon what information is a local educational agency's basic support payment based?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Upon what information is a local educational agency's basic support payment based? 222.32 Section 222.32 Education Regulations of the Offices of the... what information is a local educational agency's basic support payment based? (a) The Secretary...

  10. Exploration Life Support Critical Questions for Future Human Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwert, Michael K.; Barta, Daniel J.; McQuillan, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    Exploration Life Support (ELS) is a current project under NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate. The ELS Project plans, coordinates and implements the development of advanced life support technologies for human exploration missions in space. Recent work has focused on closed loop atmosphere and water systems for long duration missions, including habitats and pressurized rovers. But, what are the critical questions facing life support system developers for these and other future human missions? This paper explores those questions and how progress in the development of ELS technologies can help answer them. The ELS Project includes the following Elements: Atmosphere Revitalization Systems, Water Recovery Systems, Waste Management Systems, Habitation Engineering, Systems Integration, Modeling and Analysis, and Validation and Testing, which includes the Sub-Elements Flight Experiments and Integrated Testing. Systems engineering analysis by ELS seeks to optimize overall mission architectures by considering all the internal and external interfaces of the life support system and the potential for reduction or reuse of commodities. In particular, various sources and sinks of water and oxygen are considered along with the implications on loop closure and the resulting launch mass requirements. Systems analysis will be validated through the data gathered from integrated testing, which will demonstrate the interfaces of a closed loop life support system. By applying a systematic process for defining, sorting and answering critical life support questions, the ELS project is preparing for a variety of future human space missions

  11. Particulate Matter Filtration Design Considerations for Crewed Spacecraft Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agui, Juan H.; Vijayakumar, R.; Perry, Jay L.

    2016-01-01

    Particulate matter filtration is a key component of crewed spacecraft cabin ventilation and life support system (LSS) architectures. The basic particulate matter filtration functional requirements as they relate to an exploration vehicle LSS architecture are presented. Particulate matter filtration concepts are reviewed and design considerations are discussed. A concept for a particulate matter filtration architecture suitable for exploration missions is presented. The conceptual architecture considers the results from developmental work and incorporates best practice design considerations.

  12. Strategies for fostering basic psychological needs support in high quality youth leadership programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Corliss; Harlow, Meghan; Kendellen, Kelsey

    2017-04-01

    Youth leadership programming has become an increasingly common context to foster basic psychological needs and promote youth development. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore strategies involved in fostering youth needs support within six leadership programs. Two leaders and 30 youth participated in semi-structured interviews to better understand the strategies used to foster needs support. Findings revealed that leaders were able to foster a sense of relatedness among youth through building trusting adult-youth relationships and nurturing an inclusive environment. Maximizing choice and negotiating youth voice helped to foster youth's autonomy. Finally, creating a task-oriented climate and providing intentional opportunities for skill-building helped to foster youth's competence. Findings suggest that training for leaders is critical in understanding what, and how strategies should be employed to help foster youth needs support in leadership programming. Limitations and future directions are outlined. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A3byComp: A Support tool for Basic Implementation of Competency Management Systems in Social Entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel CLAVERO HERRERO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of managing processes related to people working in institutions within the scope of FEAPS evidenced by the increasing incorporation into the strategy of the organizations policies aimed at improving the working conditions of workers and in the development of competence management systems aimed at promoting professional development, which aims greater effectiveness and efficiency in providing support for improving the quality of life of people with disabilities and their families. At the same time, banks have highlighted the need for specific instruments and tools that facilitate the implementation of these systems. In Extremadura, it has been developed a software tool for the implementation of basic competence management systems called A3byComp that has been freely available to the entire network promoting industry collaboration aimed mutual learning.

  14. Robotics in a controlled, ecological life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Gaines E.; Krom, Kimberly J.

    1993-01-01

    Controlled, Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) that utilize plants to provide food, water and oxygen could consume considerable amounts of labor unless crop production, recovery and processing are automated. Robotic manipulators equipped with special end-effectors and programmed to perform the sensing and materials handling tasks would minimize the amount of astronaut labor required. The Human Rated Test Facility (HRTF) planned for Johnson Space Center could discover and demonstrate techniques of crop production which can be reliably integrated with machinery to minimize labor requirements. Before the physical components (shelves, lighting fixtures, etc.) can be selected, a systems analysis must be performed to determine which alternative processes should be followed and how the materials handling tasks should be automated. Given that the current procedures used to grow crops in a CELSS may not be the best methods to automate, then what are the alternatives? How may plants be grown, harvested, processed for food, and the inedible components recycled? What commercial technologies current exist? What research efforts are underway to develop new technologies which might satisfy the need for automation in a CELSS? The answers to these questions should prove enlightening and provide some of the information necessary to perform the systems analysis. The planting, culturing, gathering, threshing and separation, food processing, and recovery of inedible portions of wheat were studied. The basic biological and materials handling processes of each task are defined and discussed. Current practices at Johnson Space Center and other NASA centers are described and compared to common production practices in the plant production industry. Technologies currently being researched which might be applicable are identified and illustrated. Finally, based on this knowledge, several scenarios are proposed for automating the tasks for wheat.

  15. Professional Support for Families in Difficult Life Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakirova, Venera G.; Gaysina, Guzel I.; Raykova, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Relevance of the problem stated in the article is determined by the presence of a significant number of families in difficult life situations who need in professional support and socio-psychological assistance. The article aims to substantiate the effectiveness of the structural-functional model of professional supporting for families in difficult…

  16. Severe Neonatal Legionella Pneumonia: Full Recovery After Extracorporeal Life Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscatelli, Andrea; Buratti, Silvia; Castagnola, Elio; Mesini, Alessio; Tuo, Pietro

    2015-10-01

    Legionella pneumophila is responsible for hospital or community-acquired pneumonia. Neonatal legionellosis is associated with rapidly severe clinical course and high mortality rates. We describe a case of hospital-acquired Legionella pneumonia in a newborn with undiagnosed tracheoesophageal fistula and acute respiratory failure requiring venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support before fistula repair. Standardized multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay allowed early diagnosis. Extracorporeal life support associated with appropriate antibiotic therapy, surfactant, and steroid therapy was effective in achieving complete recovery. This is the first report of successful neonatal extracorporeal life support for respiratory failure secondary to L pneumophila. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. Extracorporeal life support in preoperative and postoperative heart transplant management

    OpenAIRE

    Bermudez, Christian A.; McMullan, D. Michael

    2017-01-01

    Increased experience with extracorporeal life support (ECLS) as a mode of cardiac support has expanded its use to diverse patient populations including patients requiring a bridge to heart transplantation and patients requiring posttransplant support for primary graft dysfunction (PGD). The use of ECLS is associated with acceptable outcomes in well-selected patients. While outcomes with the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) as a bridge to heart transplant have been variable, s...

  18. Space Life Support Technology Applications to Terrestrial Environmental Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartzkopf, Steven H.; Sleeper, Howard L.

    1993-01-01

    Many of the problems now facing the human race on Earth are, in fact, life support issues. Decline of air Quality as a result of industrial and automotive emissions, pollution of ground water by organic pesticides or solvents, and the disposal of solid wastes are all examples of environmental problems that we must solve to sustain human life. The technologies currently under development to solve the problems of supporting human life for advanced space missions are extraordinarily synergistic with these environmental problems. The development of these technologies (including both physicochemical and bioregenerative types) is increasingly focused on closing the life support loop by removing and recycling contaminants and wastes to produce the materials necessary to sustain human life. By so doing, this technology development effort also focuses automatically on reducing resupply logistics requirements and increasing crew safety through increased self-sufficiency. This paper describes several technologies that have been developed to support human life in space and illustrates the applicability of the technologies to environmental problems including environmental remediation and pollution prevention.

  19. The Nexus between the Rights to Life and to a Basic Education in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika (EM Serfontein

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at exploring the nexus between the fundamental rights to life and to a basic education within the ambit of the legal framework created by both the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 and the South African Schools Act 84 of 1996. Attention is drawn to the role of the law to order the living world humans live in an thus creating an emancipated framework allowing individuals a moral and self-sufficient life.The overarching goal of the supreme Constitution is to improve the quality of life of all citizens and ultimately to free everyone’s potential. In order to reach this goal and allow everyone to live a dignified life that it is worth living, the importance of education is highlighted. As important source of education law, the objectives of the Schools Act, namely to (a provide education of a progressively high quality, (b lay a strong foundation for the development of humans’ talents and capabilities, (c advance democratic transformation, (d combat discrimination and intolerance, (e assist the eradication of poverty and the well-being of society, (f uphold learner rights and (g promote the acceptance of responsibility are discussed and their practical realisation scrutinised. This lead to the author to establish the nexus between the two fundamental rights and to delineate the prominence of the delivering of a progressively high quality of education is provided to all South Africans to enhance their quality of life. By taking regard of the role of the law in the sphere of education, the duties placed on all educational role-players to take responsibility for the delivery of educational services and be accountable therefore, are highlighted. The value of education was in this regard stressed in order to enable humans to take responsibility for their own lives, the conditions under which they live, the choices they make and the changes they bring about to better their lives.

  20. An investigation of perceptions of programme quality support of adult basic education programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udouj, Gary; Grover, Kenda; Belcher, Greg; Kacirek, Kit

    2017-04-01

    This study was designed to identify the degree to which the directors of adult basic education programs perceive they have program quality support, as evidenced by a well-defined mission and role in the community, a management system, human resources management, and a suitable learning environment. NSCALL's Evidence-based program self-assessment (2006) was modified and administered electronically to administrators of adult education programs in a mid-southern state. Findings indicated that most directors perceive they are implementing the indicators of program quality support in all of the areas surveyed. A research-based annual self-study that considers the quality indicators is recommended, leaving a need for an update to the NCSALL assessment for use as a program assessment instrument. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Death talk: Basic linguistic rules and communication in perinatal and paediatric end-of-life discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xafis, Vicki; Watkins, Andrew; Wilkinson, Dominic

    2016-04-01

    This paper considers clinician/parent communication difficulties noted by parents involved in end-of-life decision-making in the light of linguistic theory. Grice's Cooperative Principle and associated maxims, which enable effective communication, are examined in relation to communication deficiencies that parents have identified when making end-of-life decisions for the child. Examples from the literature are provided to clarify the impact of failing to observe the maxims on parents and on clinician/parent communication. Linguistic theory applied to the literature on parental concerns about clinician/parent communication shows that the violation of the maxims of quantity, quality, relation, and manner as well as the stance that some clinicians adopt during discussions with parents impact on clinician/parent communication and lead to distrust, anger, sadness, and long-term difficulties coping with the experience of losing one's child. Parents have identified communication deficiencies in end-of-life discussions. Relating these communication deficiencies to linguistic theory provides insight into communication difficulties but also solutions. Gaining an understanding of basic linguistic theory that underlies human interactions, gaining insight into the communication deficiencies that parents have identified, and modifying some communication behaviours in light of these with the suggestions made in this article may lead to improved clinician/parent communication. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Good validity of the international spinal cord injury quality of life basic data set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Post, M W M; Adriaansen, J J E; Charlifue, S

    2016-01-01

    and 35 years of age, were at least 10 years post SCI and were wheelchair users in daily life.Measure(s):The International SCI QoL Basic Data Set consists of three single items on satisfaction with life as a whole, physical health and psychological health (0=complete dissatisfaction; 10=complete...... satisfaction). Reference measures were the Mental Health Inventory-5 and three items of the World Health Organization Quality of Life measure. RESULTS: Data of 261 participants were available. Mean time after SCI was 24.1 years (s.d. 9.1); 90.4% had a traumatic SCI, 81.5% a motor complete SCI and 40% had......, and Cronbach's alpha of the scale was good (0.81). Correlations with the reference measures showed the strongest correlations between the WHOQOL general satisfaction item and general QoL (0.64), the WHOQOL health and daily activities items and physical health (0.69 and 0.60) and the Mental Health Inventory-5...

  3. Reliability Impacts in Life Support Architecture and Technology Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange Kevin E.; Anderson, Molly S.

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative assessments of system reliability and equivalent system mass (ESM) were made for different life support architectures based primarily on International Space Station technologies. The analysis was applied to a one-year deep-space mission. System reliability was increased by adding redundancy and spares, which added to the ESM. Results were thus obtained allowing a comparison of the ESM for each architecture at equivalent levels of reliability. Although the analysis contains numerous simplifications and uncertainties, the results suggest that achieving necessary reliabilities for deep-space missions will add substantially to the life support ESM and could influence the optimal degree of life support closure. Approaches for reducing reliability impacts were investigated and are discussed.

  4. Quality of Life in a Vitiligo Support Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabetian, Saba; Jacobson, Gordon; Lim, Henry W; Eide, Melody J; Huggins, Richard H

    2017-04-01

    BACKGROUND: No study has examined the impact of vitiligo support group membership on vitiligo patient quality of life (QoL). OBJECTIVE: We sought to examine the QoL impact of vitiligo support groups by comparing QoL and associated patient characteristics between vitiligo patients who are and are not members of a vitiligo support group. METHODS: Members of a Henry Ford Hospital-sponsored, Southeast Michigan Vitiligo Support Group were compared to non-member vitiligo patients recruited from a previous study cohort.17 Eligible patients were asked to complete the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) and a study-specific questionnaire designed to collect relevant patient characteristics. RESULTS: The mean DLQI scores for the support group members and non-members were similar (7.1 ± 5.4 and 6.0 ± 6.5, respectively; P-value 0.2), despite the support group members reporting more severe overall disease and increased disease severity in exposed portions of the body. The African-American: Caucasian ratio and the prevalence of unemployment were both significantly higher among the support group participants. Small sample size may have limited the study's ability to demonstrate the differences between the support group participants and the controls. CONCLUSIONS: The similar QoL despite an increased prevalence of poorer QoL indicators among the support group participants suggests a protective effect of support group membership. J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(4):344-350..

  5. Basic investigation for life assessment technology of modified 9CR-1Mo steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamura, Hiroyuki [Science Univ. of Tokyo (Japan); Ohtani, Ryuichi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan); Fujii, Kazuya [Japan Power Engineering and Inspection Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Kimura, Kazushige; Ishii, Ryuichi; Fujiyama, Kazunari; Hongo, Shigetada; Iseki, Takashi; Uchida, Hiroshi [Toshiba Corp., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1998-11-01

    For the basic study of life assessment technologies for aged components made of mod.9Cr-1Mo steel, specimens were artificially deteriorated by aging, creep and fatigue tests at elevated temperatures. And metallurgical and mechanical properties were examined. The change in the precipitates caused the decrease in toughness. The creep damage in base metal corresponded to the decrease in hardness. The fatigue damage in base metal correlated to the maximum length of a crack among micro-cracks initiated during fatigue cycle. In the welded joint, the creep fracture occurred by the formation and growth of voids in the fine grained region of HAZ near base metal. The creep damage was associated with the increase in both number and area fraction of voids. (orig.)

  6. Integrating the dimensions of sex and gender into basic life sciences research: methodologic and ethical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdcroft, Anita

    2007-01-01

    The research process -- from study design and selecting a species and its husbandry, through the experiment, analysis, peer review, and publication -- is rarely subject to questions about sex or gender differences in mainstream life sciences research. However, the impact of sex and gender on these processes is important in explaining biological variations and presentation of symptoms and diseases. This review aims to challenge assumptions and to develop opportunities to mainstream sex and gender in basic scientific research. Questions about the mechanisms of sex and gender effects were reviewed in relation to biological, environmental, social, and psychological interactions. Gender variations, in respect to aging, socializing, and reproduction, that are present in human populations but are rarely featured in laboratory research were considered to more effectively translate animal research into clinical health care. Methodologic approaches to address the present lack of a gender dimension in research include actively reducing variations through attention to physical factors, biological rhythms, and experimental design. In addition, through genomic and acute nongenomic activity, hormones may compound effects through multiple small sex differences that occur during the course of an acute pathologic event. Furthermore, the many exogenous sex steroid hormones and their congeners used in medicine (eg, in contraception and cancer therapies) may add to these effects. The studies reviewed provide evidence that sex and gender are determinants of many outcomes in life science research. To embed the gender dimension into basic scientific research, a broad approach -- gender mainstreaming -- is warranted. One example is the use of review boards (eg, animal ethical review boards and journal peer-review boards) in which gender-related standardized questions can be asked about study design and analysis. A more fundamental approach is to question the relevance of present

  7. Canadian advanced life support capacities and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamsey, M.; Graham, T.; Stasiak, M.; Berinstain, A.; Scott, A.; Vuk, T. Rondeau; Dixon, M.

    2009-07-01

    Canada began research on space-relevant biological life support systems in the early 1990s. Since that time Canadian capabilities have grown tremendously, placing Canada among the emerging leaders in biological life support systems. The rapid growth of Canadian expertise has been the result of several factors including a large and technically sophisticated greenhouse sector which successfully operates under challenging climatic conditions, well planned technology transfer strategies between the academic and industrial sectors, and a strong emphasis on international research collaborations. Recent activities such as Canada's contribution of the Higher Plant Compartment of the European Space Agency's MELiSSA Pilot Plant and the remote operation of the Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse in the Canadian High Arctic continue to demonstrate Canadian capabilities with direct applicability to advanced life support systems. There is also a significant latent potential within Canadian institutions and organizations with respect to directly applicable advanced life support technologies. These directly applicable research interests include such areas as horticultural management strategies (for candidate crops), growth media, food processing, water management, atmosphere management, energy management, waste management, imaging, environment sensors, thermal control, lighting systems, robotics, command and data handling, communications systems, structures, in-situ resource utilization, space analogues and mission operations. With this background and in collaboration with the Canadian aerospace industry sector, a roadmap for future life support contributions is presented here. This roadmap targets an objective of at least 50% food closure by 2050 (providing greater closure in oxygen, water recycling and carbon dioxide uptake). The Canadian advanced life support community has chosen to focus on lunar surface infrastructure and not low Earth orbit or transit systems (i.e. microgravity

  8. Thai nursing students' experiences when attending real life situations involving cardiac life support: A Phenomenological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matchim, Yaowarat; Kongsuwan, Waraporn

    2015-12-01

    During the last few years, manikin simulations have been used for cardiac life support training procedures in medical and nursing education. However, some nursing students have experienced attending real events involving cardiac life support during their clinical practice. This study aims to describe the meaning of experience of Thai nursing students when attending real situations of cardiac life support. A hermeneutic phenomenological study was used. Third and fourth year bachelor of nursing students at a university in the southern region of Thailand who had the experience of attending real situation of cardiac life support were purposely selected as the informants. The data were generated from individual in-depth interviews with eighteen nursing students. Van Manen's approach was used to analyze the data. Trustworthiness was established using the criteria set out by Lincoln and Guba. Essential themes situated in the context of the four existential grounds of body, time, space, and relation emerged. These were: being worried and fearful while desiring to participate in cardiac life support procedures; enhancing self value; knowing each moment is meaningful for one's life; having time to understand the reality of life; being in a small corner; appreciating such opportunities and the encouragement given by nurses and the healthcare team; and feeling empathy. Besides learning in classrooms and practicing in labs, experiencing real situations is beneficial for nursing students in learning cardiac life support. This study provides information that can be used for clinical teaching management in the topics relating to cardiac life support. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... at NIMH News & Events About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain Brain Basics in Real Life Brain Research Glossary Brain Basics (PDF, 10 pages) Introduction Watch the Brain Basics video ...

  10. Older marijuana users: Life stressors and perceived social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Namkee G; DiNitto, Diana M; Marti, C Nathan

    2016-12-01

    Given increasing numbers of older-adult marijuana users, this study examined the association of marijuana use and marijuana use disorder with life stressors and perceived social support in the 50+ age group. Data came from the 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (N=14,715 respondents aged 50+). Life stressors were measured with 12 items related to interpersonal, legal, and financial problems and being a crime victim. Perceived social support was measured with the 12-item Interpersonal Support Evaluation List. Using principal component analysis (PCA), we identified four components of life stressors. Linear regression analyses was used to test associations of past-year marijuana use and use disorder with PCA scores of each component and perceived social support. Of the 50+ age group, 3.89% were past-year marijuana users and 0.68% had marijuana use disorder. Marijuana users, especially those with marijuana use disorder (17.54% of past-year users), had high rates of mental and other substance use disorders. Controlling for other potential risk factors for stress, including health status and mental and other substance use disorders, marijuana use and use disorder were still significantly associated with more life stressors and lower perceived social support, possibly from low levels of social integration. A substantial proportion of older-adult marijuana users need help with mental health and substance use problems. Further examination of older marijuana users' life stressors and social support networks may aid in developing more systematic intervention strategies to address needs and reduce marijuana use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Exploration Life Support Technology Development for Lunar Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, Michael K.; Barta, Daniel J.; McQuillan, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Exploration Life Support (ELS) is one of NASA's Exploration Technology Development Projects. ELS plans, coordinates and implements the development of new life support technologies for human exploration missions as outlined in NASA's Vision for Space Exploration. ELS technology development currently supports three major projects of the Constellation Program - the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), the Altair Lunar Lander and Lunar Surface Systems. ELS content includes Air Revitalization Systems (ARS), Water Recovery Systems (WRS), Waste Management Systems (WMS), Habitation Engineering, Systems Integration, Modeling and Analysis (SIMA), and Validation and Testing. The primary goal of the ELS project is to provide different technology options to Constellation which fill gaps or provide substantial improvements over the state-of-the-art in life support systems. Since the Constellation missions are so challenging, mass, power, and volume must be reduced from Space Shuttle and Space Station technologies. Systems engineering analysis also optimizes the overall architecture by considering all interfaces with the life support system and potential for reduction or reuse of resources. For long duration missions, technologies which aid in closure of air and water loops with increased reliability are essential as well as techniques to minimize or deal with waste. The ELS project utilizes in-house efforts at five NASA centers, aerospace industry contracts, Small Business Innovative Research contracts and other means to develop advanced life support technologies. Testing, analysis and reduced gravity flight experiments are also conducted at the NASA field centers. This paper gives a current status of technologies under development by ELS and relates them to the Constellation customers who will eventually use them.

  12. Religiosity, Social Support, and Life Satisfaction among Elderly Korean Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jisung; Roh, Soonhee; Yeo, Younsook

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The present study tested Smith's (2003. Theorizing religious effects among American adolescents. "Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 42", 17-30. doi:10.1111/1468-5906.t01-1-00158) theory of religious effects to explore the relationship of religiosity, social support, and life satisfaction among elderly Korean…

  13. Abstract: Training of Advanced Cardiac Life Support Skills to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The purpose of this innovation was threefold, to: 1.Improve outcomes of patients requiring resuscitation through the education of nurses; 2. Meet the hospital accreditation standards in critical areas. 3. Build a sustainable program by educating instructors about local BLS and Advanced Cardiac Life Support ...

  14. Exploration Life Support Critical Questions for Future Human Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, Michael K.; Barta, Daniel J.; McQuillan, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    Exploration Life Support (ELS) is a project under NASA s Exploration Technology Development Program. The ELS Project plans, coordinates and implements the development of advanced life support technologies for human exploration missions in space. Recent work has focused on closed loop atmosphere and water systems for a lunar outpost, including habitats and pressurized rovers. But, what are the critical questions facing life support system developers for these and other future human missions? This paper explores those questions and discusses how progress in the development of ELS technologies can help answer them. The ELS Project includes Atmosphere Revitalization Systems (ARS), Water Recovery Systems (WRS), Waste Management Systems (WMS), Habitation Engineering, Systems Integration, Modeling and Analysis (SIMA), and Validation and Testing, which includes the sub-elements Flight Experiments and Integrated Testing. Systems engineering analysis by ELS seeks to optimize the overall mission architecture by considering all the internal and external interfaces of the life support system and the potential for reduction or reuse of commodities. In particular, various sources and sinks of water and oxygen are considered along with the implications on loop closure and the resulting launch mass requirements.

  15. Life Events, Social Support, and Immune Response in Elderly Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, William Alex; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Investigated effects of recent life events, psychological adjustment, and social support on lymphocyte count among 192 older adults. For males, recent sexual dysfunction lowered lymphocyte count, whereas psychological adjustment and percentage kin in intimate network elevated it. For females, family or legal problems elevated count as did frequent…

  16. European top managers’ support for work-life arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Been, Wike M.; van der Lippe, Tanja; den Dulk, Laura; Das Dores Horta Guerreiro, Maria; Kanjuo Mrčela, Aleksandra; Niemistö, Charlotta

    2017-01-01

    Top managers—defined as CEOs, CFOs and members of boards of directors—decide to what degree their organization offers employees work-life arrangements. This study focuses on the conditions under which they support such arrangements. A factorial survey of 202 top managers in five European countries

  17. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in Real Life Brain Research Glossary Brain Basics (PDF, 10 pages) Introduction Watch the Brain Basics video ... and epigenetic changes can be passed on to future generations. Further understanding of genes and epigenetics may ...

  18. Considering Intermittent Dormancy in an Advanced Life Support Systems Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargusingh, Miriam J.; Perry, Jay L.

    2017-01-01

    Many advanced human space exploration missions being considered by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) include concepts in which in-space systems cycle between inhabited and uninhabited states. Managing the life support system (LSS) may be particularly challenged during these periods of intermittent dormancy. A study to identify LSS management challenges and considerations relating to dormancy is described. The study seeks to define concepts suitable for addressing intermittent dormancy states and to evaluate whether the reference LSS architectures being considered by the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support Systems Project (LSSP) are sufficient to support this operational state. The primary focus of the study is the mission concept considered to be the most challenging-a crewed Mars mission with an extensive surface stay. Results from this study are presented and discussed.

  19. Mixed-method tutoring support improves learning outcomes of veterinary students in basic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Iglesias, María J; Pérez-Martínez, Claudia; Gutiérrez-Martín, César B; Díez-Laiz, Raquel; Sahagún-Prieto, Ana M

    2018-02-01

    Tutoring is a useful tool in the university teaching-learning binomial, although its development is impaired in large classes. Recent improvements in information and communication technologies have made tutoring possible via the Internet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of mixed-method academic tutoring in two basic subjects in Veterinary Science studies at the University of León (Spain) to optimize the usefulness of tutoring support in the college environment. This quasi-experimental study was firstly carried out as a pilot study in a small group of tutored students of "Cytology and Histology" (CH) (47/186; 25.3%) and "Veterinary Pharmacology" (VP) (33/141; 23.4%) subjects, and was implemented in a large class of CH the next academic year (150 students) while comparing the results with those obtained in a previous tutorless course (162 students). Tutored students were given access to online questionnaires with electronic feedback on each subject. In addition to traditional tutoring carried out in both tutored and tutorless students, the pilot study included three sessions of face-to-face tutoring in order to monitor the progress of students. Its efficacy was assessed by monitoring students' examination scores and attendance as well as a satisfaction survey. Although the examination attendance rate in the pilot study was not significantly different between tutored and tutorless groups in both subjects, an increase for numerical scores in tutored groups was observed, with a significant higher final score in VP (p = 0.001) and in the CH practice exams (first term, p = 0.009; final, p = 0.023). Good and merit scores were also better in tutored students with significant differences in VP (p = 0.005). Students felt comfortable with the tutoring service (100% in CH; 91.7% in VP). Implementation of this additional support in CH also resulted in a significant increase of attendance at the final exam in tutored courses (87.3% versus 77

  20. Pacemaker deactivation: withdrawal of support or active ending of life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddle, Thomas S; Amos Bailey, F

    2012-12-01

    In spite of ethical analyses assimilating the palliative deactivation of pacemakers to commonly accepted withdrawings of life-sustaining therapy, many clinicians remain ethically uncomfortable with pacemaker deactivation at the end of life. Various reasons have been posited for this discomfort. Some cardiologists have suggested that reluctance to deactivate pacemakers may stem from a sense that the pacemaker has become part of the patient's "self." The authors suggest that Daniel Sulmasy is correct to contend that any such identification of the pacemaker is misguided. The authors argue that clinicians uncomfortable with pacemaker deactivation are nevertheless correct to see it as incompatible with the traditional medical ethics of withdrawal of support. Traditional medical ethics is presently taken by many to sanction pacemaker deactivation when such deactivation honors the patient's right to refuse treatment. The authors suggest that the right to refuse treatment applies to treatments involving ongoing physician agency. This right cannot underwrite patient demands that physicians reverse the effects of treatments previously administered, in which ongoing physician agency is no longer implicated. The permanently indwelling pacemaker is best seen as such a treatment. As such, its deactivation in the pacemaker-dependent patient is best seen not as withdrawal of support but as active ending of life. That being the case, clinicians adhering to the usual ethical analysis of withdrawal of support are correct to be uncomfortable with pacemaker deactivation at the end of life.

  1. The Effect of Providing Life Support on Nurses' Decision Making Regarding Life Support for Themselves and Family Members in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaku, Fumio; Tsutsumi, Madoka

    2016-12-01

    Decision making in terminal illness has recently received increased attention. In Japan, patients and their families typically make decisions without understanding either the severity of illness or the efficacy of life-supporting treatments at the end of life. Japanese culture traditionally directs the family to make decisions for the patient. This descriptive study examined the influence of the experiences of 391 Japanese nurses caring for dying patients and family members and how that experience changed their decision making for themselves and their family members. The results were mixed but generally supported the idea that the more experience nurses have in caring for the dying, the less likely they would choose to institute lifesupport measures for themselves and family members. The results have implications for discussions on end-of-life care. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Individuals' quality of life linked to major life events, perceived social support, and personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocnet, Cornelia; Antonietti, Jean-Philippe; Strippoli, Marie-Pierre F; Glaus, Jennifer; Preisig, Martin; Rossier, Jérôme

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between major recent life events that occurred during the last 5 years, social and personal resources, and subjective quality of life (QoL). A total of 1801 participants from the general population (CoLaus/PsyCoLaus study) completed the Life Events Questionnaire, the Social Support Questionnaire, the NEO Five-Factor Inventory Revised, and the Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life. Major life events were modestly associated with the QoL (about 5 % of the explained variance). However, QoL was significantly related to perceived social support and personality traits (about 37 % of the explained variance). Particularly, perceived social support, extraversion and conscientiousness personality dimensions were positively linked to life satisfaction, whereas a high level of neuroticism was negatively associated with QoL. This study highlights the negative but temporary association between critical events and QoL. However, a combination of high conscientiousness and extraversion, and positive social support may explain better variances for a high-perceived QoL.

  3. Visual Simulation of Microalgae Growth in Bioregenerative Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ming

    Bioregenerative life support system is one of the key technologies for future human deep space exploration and long-term space missions. BLSS use biological system as its core unit in combination with other physical and chemical equipments, under the proper control and manipulation by crew to complete a specific task to support life. Food production, waste treatment, oxygen and water regeneration are all conducted by higher plants or microalgae in BLSS, which is the most import characteristic different from other kinds of life support systems. Microalgae is light autotrophic micro-organisms, light undoubtedly is the most import factor which limits its growth and reproduction. Increasing or decreasing the light intensity changes the growth rate of microalgae, and then regulates the concentration of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the system. In this paper, based on the mathematical model of microalgae which grew under the different light intensity, three-dimensional visualization model was built and realized through using 3ds max, Virtools and some other three dimensional software, in order to display its change and impacting on oxygen and carbon dioxide intuitively. We changed its model structure and parameters, such as establishing closed-loop control system, light intensity, temperature and Nutrient fluid’s velocity and so on, carried out computer virtual simulation, and observed dynamic change of system with the aim of providing visualization support for system research.

  4. Effect of ionizing radiation on advanced life support medications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, D.J.; Hubbard, L.B.; Broadbent, M.V.; Stewart, P.; Jaeger, M.

    1987-01-01

    Advanced life support medications stored in emergency department stretcher areas, diagnostic radiology rooms, and radiotherapy suites are exposed to ionizing radiation. We hypothesized that radiation may decrease the potency and thus the shelf life of medications stored in these areas. Atropine, dopamine, epinephrine, and isoproterenol were exposed to a wide range of ionizing radiation. The potency of the four drugs was unaffected by levels of radiation found in ED stretcher areas and high-volume diagnostic radiograph rooms (eg, chest radiograph, computed tomography, fluoroscopy). The potency of atropine may be reduced by gamma radiation in high-use radiotherapy suites. However, dopamine, epinephrine, and isoproterenol were unaffected by high doses of gamma radiation. Atropine, dopamine, epinephrine, and isoproterenol may be safely kept in ED stretcher areas and diagnostic radiology rooms without loss of potency over the shelf life of the drugs

  5. Extracorporeal life support in preoperative and postoperative heart transplant management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez, Christian A; McMullan, D Michael

    2017-10-01

    Increased experience with extracorporeal life support (ECLS) as a mode of cardiac support has expanded its use to diverse patient populations including patients requiring a bridge to heart transplantation and patients requiring posttransplant support for primary graft dysfunction (PGD). The use of ECLS is associated with acceptable outcomes in well-selected patients. While outcomes with the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) as a bridge to heart transplant have been variable, several series have confirmed the safe use of ECLS to stabilize patients prior to left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation. These patients are then considered later, when in stable condition, for heart transplant. When ECLS is used prior to heart transplant, mortality is greatest during the first 6 months posttransplant. Patients who are alive 6 months after transplant appear to have similar survival rates as patients who were not supported with ECLS prior to transplant. ECLS support is a reliable therapeutic option for severe PGD and early graft failure after heart transplantation. In patients who require support for severe PGD, venoarterial-ECMO appears to result in better clinical outcomes than LVAD support. ECLS use for PGD after heart transplant continues to be the first line of support. Further studies are necessary to understand the optimal role of ECLS in heart transplantation.

  6. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a ... brain. DNA —The "recipe of life," containing inherited genetic information that helps to define physical and some ...

  7. Analysis of plant harvest indices for bioregenerative life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velayudhan, A.; Kohlmann, K. L.; Westgate, P. J.; Ladisch, M. R.; Mitchell, C. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    Harvest indices, which are measures of the ratio of edible to total plant weight, are redefined to include edible sugars derived from enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulose content of inedible plant components. Compositional analysis and carbohydrate contents of rapeseed, rice, soybeans, cowpea, wheat, sweet potato, white potato, and lettuce were analyzed to develop such generalized harvest indices. Cellulose conversion is shown to extend considerably the food available from plants otherwise grown for their oil and protein content in a bioregenerative life support system.

  8. Scaling Impacts in Life Support Architecture and Technology Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    For long-duration space missions outside of Earth orbit, reliability considerations will drive higher levels of redundancy and/or on-board spares for life support equipment. Component scaling will be a critical element in minimizing overall launch mass while maintaining an acceptable level of system reliability. Building on an earlier reliability study (AIAA 2012-3491), this paper considers the impact of alternative scaling approaches, including the design of technology assemblies and their individual components to maximum, nominal, survival, or other fractional requirements. The optimal level of life support system closure is evaluated for deep-space missions of varying duration using equivalent system mass (ESM) as the comparative basis. Reliability impacts are included in ESM by estimating the number of component spares required to meet a target system reliability. Common cause failures are included in the analysis. ISS and ISS-derived life support technologies are considered along with selected alternatives. This study focusses on minimizing launch mass, which may be enabling for deep-space missions.

  9. COMPUTERIZATION OF EDUCATION AS A TOOL OF UNIVERSITY TEACHER’S BASIC FUNCTIONS SUPPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Denysenko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The intensive process of education computerization confronts modern educators a number of economic, technical, social, psychological and educational problems that need to be solved. The use of computer technology in educational process opens enormous opportunities for the development of cognitive abilities – from sensory and perceptual to speech and mental forms. In broad dissemination and use of technical aids, optical and acoustic techniques, programmed education, cinema, television, computer, the modern scientists and researchers see one of the main factors to enhance education and upbringing level both at regular and higher education institutions. Unfortunately, the process of the organic combination of technical and pedagogical sciences in terms of theory and practice introducing computer (multimedia teaching aids is not as powerful as expected; and as it has been dictated by the needs of the modern society. The slow pace of computerization’s implementation of the learning process at high school has been caused by the reasons of different nature and scale. The main objective of the article is to highlight the problems of computer teaching aids using in teaching process at higher education institutions. The conducted analysis of studying computerization allowed us determining the impact and role in providing the university teacher’s basic functions. It has been established that the teacher is one of the management leading objects of educational and cognitive students’ activity and all its functions practically may have computer support.

  10. Using Video Games to Support Pre-Service Elementary Teachers Learning of Basic Physics Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Janice; Barnett, Michael

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this work is to share our findings in using video gaming technology to facilitate the understanding of basic electromagnetism with pre-service elementary teachers. To this end we explored the impact of using a game called Supercharged! on pre-service teachers' understanding of electromagnetic concepts compared to students who conducted a more traditional inquiry oriented investigation of the same concepts. This study was a part of a larger design experiment examining the pedagogical potential of Supercharged! the control group learned through a series of guided inquiry methods while the experimental group played Supercharged! during the laboratory sections of the science course. There was significant difference F(2,134) = 4.8, p video games can lead to positive learning outcomes, as demonstrated by the increase in test scores from pre- to post-assessment. Additionally, this study also suggests that a complementary approach, in which video games and hands-on activities are integrated, with each activity informing the other, could be a very powerful technique for supporting student scientific understanding. Further, our findings suggest that video game designers should embed meta-cognitive activities such as reflective opportunities into educational video games to provide scaffolds for students and to reinforce that they are engaged in an educational learning experience.

  11. Multivoxel Pattern Analysis Does Not Provide Evidence to Support the Existence of Basic Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark-Polner, Elizabeth; Johnson, Timothy D; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2017-03-01

    Saarimaki et al. (2015) published a paper claiming to find the neural "fingerprints" for anger, fear, disgust, happiness, sadness, and surprise using multivariate pattern analysis. There are 2 ways in which Saarimaki et al.'s interpretation mischaracterizes their actual findings. The first is statistical: a pattern that successfully distinguishes the members of one category from the members of another (with an accuracy greater than that which might be expected by chance) is not a "fingerprint" (i.e., an essence); it is an abstract, statistical summary of a variable population of instances. The second way in which Saarimaki et al.'s interpretation mischaracterizes their results is conceptual: their findings do not actually meet the specific criteria for basic emotion theory. Instead, their findings are more consistent with a theory of constructed emotion. In our view, Saarimaki et al. is elegant in method and important in that it demonstrates empirical support for a theory of emotion that relies on population thinking; it is also an example of how essentialism-the belief that all instances of a category possesses necessary features that define what is, and what is not, a category member-contributes to a fundamental misunderstanding of the neural basis of emotion. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Material balance and diets in biological life support systems: a relationship with a coefficient of closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manukovsky, N. S.; Kovalev, V. S.; Somova, L. A.

    Biological life support systems (BLSS) of various coefficients of closure were considered The basic coefficient of closure was accepted equal to 66%. With increase in coefficient of closure food requirements for the greater degree should be satisfied due to the manufacture of food inside the BLSS. In this connection food values were estimated both in the basic variant, and in those with increased coefficients of closure. Metabolic massflow rates were estimated at the input and output of the BLSS as well as inside it. Human massflow rates were submitted on the basis of characteristics of the 'reference man'. Stoichiometric synthesis - degradation equations of organic substances in the BLSS were obtained. A problem of nitrogen imbalance was shown to occur under an incomplete BLSS closure. To compensate losses of nitrogen with urine and feces, food and nitrogen-containing additives should be introduced into the BLSS.

  13. Closed ecological life-support systems and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitelson, Josef I.

    The advent of man-made closed ecosystems (CES) is a solution of the fundamental problem-egress of humans beyond the Earth's biosphere, providing biological basis for exploitation of Space and celestial bodies. Yet, before proceeding to these ambitious project elements of closed life-support biotechnologies, there can be found diverse applications on Earth in human settlements providing for high quality of life under extreme environment conditions: high latitudes, deserts, mountains and industrially polluted areas. This presentation considers these variations of terrestrial applications of CELSS technologies. The version of CES under development is based on making direct use of the light energy in plant photosynthesis. In this case life support of one man on the Earth orbit requires solar light collected from 5-10m2. Among terrestrial applications of prime importance is the development of an ecohome designed to provide people with a high quality of life in Arctic and Antarctic territories. The developed technology of cascade employment of energy makes possible (expending 10-15 kw of installed power per a house-3-5 member family) to provide for: permanent supply of fresh vitamin-full vegetables, absorption and processing oaf excreta, purification of water and air in the living quarters, habitual colour and light conditions in the premises in winter making up to sensorial deprivation and, finally, psychological comfort of close contact with the plants during the long polar night. Ecohabitat based on the technology described in realistic today and depends only on the energy available and the resolution and readiness (sagacity) of the decision-makers to be committed with ecohome assigning. The ecological and economical significance of construction of ecohabitats for the northern territories of Canada, Alaska and Russia is apparent. This principle can be used (with considerable economy of energy and construction costs) to maintain normal partial pressure of oxygen inside

  14. Confronting Uncertainty in Life Cycle Assessment Used for Decision Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Ivan Tengbjerg; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Sohn, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to help confront uncertainty in life cycle assessments (LCAs) used for decision support. LCAs offer a quantitative approach to assess environmental effects of products, technologies, and services and are conducted by an LCA practitioner or analyst (AN) to support...... the decision maker (DM) in making the best possible choice for the environment. At present, some DMs do not trust the LCA to be a reliable decisionsupport tool—often because DMs consider the uncertainty of an LCA to be too large. The standard evaluation of uncertainty in LCAs is an ex-post approach that can...... types of LCA on an expected inherent uncertainty scale that can be used to confront and address potential uncertainty. However, this article does not attempt to offer a quantitative approach for assessing uncertainty in LCAs used for decision support....

  15. Neuroimaging support for discrete neural correlates of basic emotions: a voxel-based meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vytal, Katherine; Hamann, Stephan

    2010-12-01

    What is the basic structure of emotional experience and how is it represented in the human brain? One highly influential theory, discrete basic emotions, proposes a limited set of basic emotions such as happiness and fear, which are characterized by unique physiological and neural profiles. Although many studies using diverse methods have linked particular brain structures with specific basic emotions, evidence from individual neuroimaging studies and from neuroimaging meta-analyses has been inconclusive regarding whether basic emotions are associated with both consistent and discriminable regional brain activations. We revisited this question, using activation likelihood estimation (ALE), which allows spatially sensitive, voxelwise statistical comparison of results from multiple studies. In addition, we examined substantially more studies than previous meta-analyses. The ALE meta-analysis yielded results consistent with basic emotion theory. Each of the emotions examined (fear, anger, disgust, sadness, and happiness) was characterized by consistent neural correlates across studies, as defined by reliable correlations with regional brain activations. In addition, the activation patterns associated with each emotion were discrete (discriminable from the other emotions in pairwise contrasts) and overlapped substantially with structure-function correspondences identified using other approaches, providing converging evidence that discrete basic emotions have consistent and discriminable neural correlates. Complementing prior studies that have demonstrated neural correlates for the affective dimensions of arousal and valence, the current meta-analysis results indicate that the key elements of basic emotion views are reflected in neural correlates identified by neuroimaging studies.

  16. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Brain Basics in Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah ... having trouble coping with the stresses in her life. She began to think of suicide because she ...

  17. Development of Life Support System Technologies for Human Lunar Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Ewert, Michael K.

    2009-01-01

    With the Preliminary Design Review (PDR) for the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle planned to be completed in 2009, Exploration Life Support (ELS), a technology development project under the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Exploration Technology Development Program, is focusing its efforts on needs for human lunar missions. The ELS Project s goal is to develop and mature a suite of Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) technologies for potential use on human spacecraft under development in support of U.S. Space Exploration Policy. ELS technology development is directed at three major vehicle projects within NASA s Constellation Program (CxP): the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), the Altair Lunar Lander and Lunar Surface Systems, including habitats and pressurized rovers. The ELS Project includes four technical elements: Atmosphere Revitalization Systems, Water Recovery Systems, Waste Management Systems and Habitation Engineering, and two cross cutting elements, Systems Integration, Modeling and Analysis, and Validation and Testing. This paper will provide an overview of the ELS Project, connectivity with its customers and an update to content within its technology development portfolio with focus on human lunar missions.

  18. Crop growth and associated life support for a lunar farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Tyler; Cullingford, Hatice

    1992-01-01

    Supporting human life on a lunar base will require growing many different food crops. This paper investigates the growth dynamics of four crops (wheat, soybeans, potatoes, and lettuce) for general similarities and differences, along with associated material flows of the gases, liquids, and solids in a lunar farm. The human dietary requirements are compared with the protein, carbohydrate, and lipid contents of these hydroponically grown, high-productivity crops to derive a lunar farm diet. A simple and general analytical model is used to calculate the mass fluxes of CO2, H2O, HNO3, and O2 during the life cycle of each of the four crops. The resulting farm crop areas and corresponding biomass production rates are given. One significant conclusion of this study is that there is a 'lipid problem' associated with the incorporation of these four crops into a viable diet.

  19. Advanced Hazmat Life Support (AHLS): A Feasibility Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borron, S. W.; Walter, F. G.

    2007-01-01

    A prospective, descriptive, feasibility study aimed to determine whether an interdisciplinary group of health care experts could design and successfully deliver an international, life support, continuing education program that teaches the medical management of hazardous materials (hazmat) patients. The American Academy of Clinical Toxicology and the University of Arizona College of Medicine, Arizona Emergency Medicine Research Center partnered on July 1, 1998 to develop a two-day Advanced Hazmat Life Support (AHLS) Provider Course. Interdisciplinary expert clinicians designed and then delivered the first AHLS Provider Course in 1999. Prior to this, other courses focused on the management of hazmat incidents and almost exclusively on the prehospital care of hazmat victims by firefighters, hazardous materials technicians, and emergency medical technicians (EMTs), not on the medical management of patients from these incidents. Therefore, AHLS was developed for a broader interdisciplinary group of health care professionals, including both prehospital health care professionals and hospital-based, poison center-based, clinic-based, public health care-based, and other health care professionals. From 1999 through 2006, the AHLS Provider Course has trained 7,142 health care professionals from 48 countries. Of the 7,142 health care professionals worldwide, 43% are paramedics, 24% are physicians, 21% are nurses, 2% are pharmacists, 1% are physician assistants, and 9% are other professionals. Of the professionals trained, 88% are from the United States, 5% from Hong Kong, 2% from Canada, 2% from Australia, 1% from Mexico, and the remainder come from 43 other countries. The Advanced Hazmat Life Support Program is feasible and meets the continuing education needs of health care professionals around the world.(author)

  20. Developing Ultra Reliable Life Support for the Moon and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2009-01-01

    Recycling life support systems can achieve ultra reliability by using spares to replace failed components. The added mass for spares is approximately equal to the original system mass, provided the original system reliability is not very low. Acceptable reliability can be achieved for the space shuttle and space station by preventive maintenance and by replacing failed units, However, this maintenance and repair depends on a logistics supply chain that provides the needed spares. The Mars mission must take all the needed spares at launch. The Mars mission also must achieve ultra reliability, a very low failure rate per hour, since it requires years rather than weeks and cannot be cut short if a failure occurs. Also, the Mars mission has a much higher mass launch cost per kilogram than shuttle or station. Achieving ultra reliable space life support with acceptable mass will require a well-planned and extensive development effort. Analysis must define the reliability requirement and allocate it to subsystems and components. Technologies, components, and materials must be designed and selected for high reliability. Extensive testing is needed to ascertain very low failure rates. Systems design should segregate the failure causes in the smallest, most easily replaceable parts. The systems must be designed, produced, integrated, and tested without impairing system reliability. Maintenance and failed unit replacement should not introduce any additional probability of failure. The overall system must be tested sufficiently to identify any design errors. A program to develop ultra reliable space life support systems with acceptable mass must start soon if it is to produce timely results for the moon and Mars.

  1. Ultra Reliable Closed Loop Life Support for Long Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.; Ewert, Michael K.

    2010-01-01

    Spacecraft human life support systems can achieve ultra reliability by providing sufficient spares to replace all failed components. The additional mass of spares for ultra reliability is approximately equal to the original system mass, provided that the original system reliability is not too low. Acceptable reliability can be achieved for the Space Shuttle and Space Station by preventive maintenance and by replacing failed units. However, on-demand maintenance and repair requires a logistics supply chain in place to provide the needed spares. In contrast, a Mars or other long space mission must take along all the needed spares, since resupply is not possible. Long missions must achieve ultra reliability, a very low failure rate per hour, since they will take years rather than weeks and cannot be cut short if a failure occurs. Also, distant missions have a much higher mass launch cost per kilogram than near-Earth missions. Achieving ultra reliable spacecraft life support systems with acceptable mass will require a well-planned and extensive development effort. Analysis must determine the reliability requirement and allocate it to subsystems and components. Ultra reliability requires reducing the intrinsic failure causes, providing spares to replace failed components and having "graceful" failure modes. Technologies, components, and materials must be selected and designed for high reliability. Long duration testing is needed to confirm very low failure rates. Systems design should segregate the failure causes in the smallest, most easily replaceable parts. The system must be designed, developed, integrated, and tested with system reliability in mind. Maintenance and reparability of failed units must not add to the probability of failure. The overall system must be tested sufficiently to identify any design errors. A program to develop ultra reliable space life support systems with acceptable mass should start soon since it must be a long term effort.

  2. Functional Interface Considerations within an Exploration Life Support System Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Jay L.; Sargusingh, Miriam J.; Toomarian, Nikzad

    2016-01-01

    As notional life support system (LSS) architectures are developed and evaluated, myriad options must be considered pertaining to process technologies, components, and equipment assemblies. Each option must be evaluated relative to its impact on key functional interfaces within the LSS architecture. A leading notional architecture has been developed to guide the path toward realizing future crewed space exploration goals. This architecture includes atmosphere revitalization, water recovery and management, and environmental monitoring subsystems. Guiding requirements for developing this architecture are summarized and important interfaces within the architecture are discussed. The role of environmental monitoring within the architecture is described.

  3. Architecture and life support systems for a rotating space habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Gaurav

    Life Support Systems are critical to sustain human habitation of space over long time periods. As orbiting space habitats become operational in the future, support systems such as atmo-sphere, food, water etc. will play a very pivotal role in sustaining life. To design a long-duration space habitat, it's important to consider the full gamut of human experience of the environment. Long-term viability depends on much more than just the structural or life support efficiency. A space habitat isn't just a machine; it's a life experience. To be viable, it needs to keep the inhabitants satisfied with their condition. This paper provides conceptual research on several key factors that influence the growth and sustainability of humans in a space habitat. Apart from the main life support system parameters, the architecture (both interior and exterior) of the habitat will play a crucial role in influencing the liveability in the space habitat. In order to ensure the best possible liveability for the inhabitants, a truncated (half cut) torus is proposed as the shape of the habitat. This structure rotating at an optimum rpm will en-sure 1g pseudo gravity to the inhabitants. The truncated torus design has several advantages over other proposed shapes such as a cylinder or a sphere. The design provides minimal grav-ity variation (delta g) in the living area, since its flat outer pole ensures a constant gravity. The design is superior in economy of structural and atmospheric mass. Interior architecture of the habitat addresses the total built environment, drawing from diverse disciplines includ-ing physiology, psychology, and sociology. Furthermore, factors such as line of sight, natural sunlight and overhead clearance have been discussed in the interior architecture. Substantial radiation shielding is also required in order to prevent harmful cosmic radiations and solar flares from causing damage to inhabitants. Regolith shielding of 10 tons per meter square is proposed for the

  4. Extracorporeal life support for adults with severe acute respiratory failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Sorbo, Lorenzo; Cypel, Marcelo; Fan, Eddy

    2014-02-01

    Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) is an artificial means of maintaining adequate oxygenation and carbon dioxide elimination to enable injured lungs to recover from underlying disease. Technological advances have made ECLS devices smaller, less invasive, and easier to use. ECLS might, therefore, represent an important step towards improved management and outcomes of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Nevertheless, rigorous evidence of the ability of ECLS to improve short-term and long-term outcomes is needed before it can be widely implemented. Moreover, how to select patients and the timing and indications for ECLS in severe acute respiratory distress syndrome remain unclear. We describe the physiological principles, the putative risks and benefits, and the clinical evidence supporting the use of ECLS in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Additionally, we discuss controversies and future directions, such as novel technologies and indications, mechanical ventilation of the native lung during ECLS, and ethics considerations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Advanced Life Support Project: Crop Experiments at Kennedy Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sager, John C.; Stutte, Gary W.; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Yorio, Neil

    2004-01-01

    Crop production systems provide bioregenerative technologies to complement human crew life support requirements on long duration space missions. Kennedy Space Center has lead NASA's research on crop production systems that produce high value fresh foods, provide atmospheric regeneration, and perform water processing. As the emphasis on early missions to Mars has developed, our research focused on modular, scalable systems for transit missions, which can be developed into larger autonomous, bioregenerative systems for subsequent surface missions. Components of these scalable systems will include development of efficient light generating or collecting technologies, low mass plant growth chambers, and capability to operate in the high energy background radiation and reduced atmospheric pressures of space. These systems will be integrated with air, water, and thermal subsystems in an operational system. Extensive crop testing has been done for both staple and salad crops, but limited data is available on specific cultivar selection and breadboard testing to meet nominal Mars mission profiles of a 500-600 day surface mission. The recent research emphasis at Kennedy Space Center has shifted from staple crops, such as wheat, soybean and rice, toward short cycle salad crops such as lettuce, onion, radish, tomato, pepper, and strawberry. This paper will review the results of crop experiments to support the Exploration Initiative and the ongoing development of supporting technologies, and give an overview of capabilities of the newly opened Space Life Science (SLS) Lab at Kennedy Space Center. The 9662 square m (104,000 square ft) SLS Lab was built by the State of Florida and supports all NASA research that had been performed in Hanger-L. In addition to NASA research, the SLS Lab houses the Florida Space Research Institute (FSRI), responsible for co-managing the facility, and the University of Florida (UF) has established the Space Agriculture and Biotechnology Research and

  6. Evolution of the Pediatric Advanced Life Support course: enhanced learning with a new debriefing tool and Web-based module for Pediatric Advanced Life Support instructors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Adam; Rodgers, David L; van der Jagt, Élise; Eppich, Walter; O'Donnell, John

    2012-09-01

    To describe the history of the Pediatric Advanced Life Support course and outline the new developments in instructor training that will impact the way debriefing is conducted during Pediatric Advanced Life Support courses. The Pediatric Advanced Life Support course, first released by the American Heart Association in 1988, has seen substantial growth and change over the past few decades. Over that time, Pediatric Advanced Life Support has become the standard for resuscitation training for pediatric healthcare providers in North America. The incorporation of high-fidelity simulation-based learning into the most recent version of Pediatric Advanced Life Support has helped to enhance the realism of scenarios and cases, but has also placed more emphasis on the importance of post scenario debriefing. We developed two new resources: an online debriefing module designed to introduce a new model of debriefing and a debriefing tool for real-time use during Pediatric Advanced Life Support courses, to enhance and standardize the quality of debriefing by Pediatric Advanced Life Support instructors. In this article, we review the history of Pediatric Advanced Life Support and Pediatric Advanced Life Support instructor training and discuss the development and implementation of the new debriefing module and debriefing tool for Pediatric Advanced Life Support instructors. The incorporation of the debriefing module and debriefing tool into the 2011 Pediatric Advanced Life Support instructor materials will help both new and existing Pediatric Advanced Life Support instructors develop and enhance their debriefing skills with the intention of improving the acquisition of knowledge and skills for Pediatric Advanced Life Support students.

  7. Planner-Based Control of Advanced Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscettola, Nicola; Kortenkamp, David; Fry, Chuck; Bell, Scott

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes an approach to the integration of qualitative and quantitative modeling techniques for advanced life support (ALS) systems. Developing reliable control strategies that scale up to fully integrated life support systems requires augmenting quantitative models and control algorithms with the abstractions provided by qualitative, symbolic models and their associated high-level control strategies. This will allow for effective management of the combinatorics due to the integration of a large number of ALS subsystems. By focusing control actions at different levels of detail and reactivity we can use faster: simpler responses at the lowest level and predictive but complex responses at the higher levels of abstraction. In particular, methods from model-based planning and scheduling can provide effective resource management over long time periods. We describe reference implementation of an advanced control system using the IDEA control architecture developed at NASA Ames Research Center. IDEA uses planning/scheduling as the sole reasoning method for predictive and reactive closed loop control. We describe preliminary experiments in planner-based control of ALS carried out on an integrated ALS simulation developed at NASA Johnson Space Center.

  8. Life Support Filtration System Trade Study for Deep Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agui, Juan H.; Perry, Jay L.

    2017-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administrations (NASA) technical developments for highly reliable life support systems aim to maximize the viability of long duration deep space missions. Among the life support system functions, airborne particulate matter filtration is a significant driver of launch mass because of the large geometry required to provide adequate filtration performance and because of the number of replacement filters needed to a sustain a mission. A trade analysis incorporating various launch, operational and maintenance parameters was conducted to investigate the trade-offs between the various particulate matter filtration configurations. In addition to typical launch parameters such as mass, volume and power, the amount of crew time dedicated to system maintenance becomes an increasingly crucial factor for long duration missions. The trade analysis evaluated these parameters for conventional particulate matter filtration technologies and a new multi-stage particulate matter filtration system under development by NASAs Glenn Research Center. The multi-stage filtration system features modular components that allow for physical configuration flexibility. Specifically, the filtration system components can be configured in distributed, centralized, and hybrid physical layouts that can result in considerable mass savings compared to conventional particulate matter filtration technologies. The trade analysis results are presented and implications for future transit and surface missions are discussed.

  9. Sustainable life support on Mars - the potential roles of cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verseux, Cyprien; Baqué, Mickael; Lehto, Kirsi; de Vera, Jean-Pierre P.; Rothschild, Lynn J.; Billi, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Even though technological advances could allow humans to reach Mars in the coming decades, launch costs prohibit the establishment of permanent manned outposts for which most consumables would be sent from Earth. This issue can be addressed by in situ resource utilization: producing part or all of these consumables on Mars, from local resources. Biological components are needed, among other reasons because various resources could be efficiently produced only by the use of biological systems. But most plants and microorganisms are unable to exploit Martian resources, and sending substrates from Earth to support their metabolism would strongly limit the cost-effectiveness and sustainability of their cultivation. However, resources needed to grow specific cyanobacteria are available on Mars due to their photosynthetic abilities, nitrogen-fixing activities and lithotrophic lifestyles. They could be used directly for various applications, including the production of food, fuel and oxygen, but also indirectly: products from their culture could support the growth of other organisms, opening the way to a wide range of life-support biological processes based on Martian resources. Here we give insights into how and why cyanobacteria could play a role in the development of self-sustainable manned outposts on Mars.

  10. Using Video Games to Support Pre-Service Elementary Teachers Learning of Basic Physics Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Janice; Barnett, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to share our findings in using video gaming technology to facilitate the understanding of basic electromagnetism with pre-service elementary teachers. To this end we explored the impact of using a game called "Supercharged!" on pre-service teachers' understanding of electromagnetic concepts compared to students who…

  11. Supporting Children with Special Needs in Learning Basic Computation Skills: The Case of Mia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottmann, Thomas; Peter-Koop, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a revised model for the development of basic computation skills. The model draws on four key phases, which have proven to be important for the development of calculation strategies and stresses the use of gestures and the verbalisation of concrete and mental images. This seems to be of crucial importance for children with…

  12. The Impact of Donor Support to Basic Education in Ghana since the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rates yet others such as management inefficiency, poor motivation and teacher commitment, within sector ... political and the economic downturns on Ghana's education system as follows: “Over the past decade, there ..... Mettle-Nunoo and Hilditch (2000) indicate that one of DfID's interests in public sector basic education ...

  13. Electromembrane extraction of polar basic drugs from plasma with pure bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphite as supported liquid membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Chuixiu; Seip, Knut Fredrik; Gjelstad, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    Electromembrane extraction (EME) of polar basic drugs from human plasma was investigated for the first time using pure bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphite (DEHPi) as the supported liquid membrane (SLM). The polar basic drugs metaraminol, benzamidine, sotalol, phenylpropanolamine, ephedrine...... were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV). In contrast to other SLMs reported for polar basic drugs in the literature, the SLM of DEHPi was highly stable in contact with plasma, and the system-current across the SLM was easily kept below 50 μA. Thus......, electrolysis in the sample and acceptor solution was kept at an acceptable level with no detrimental consequences. For the polar model analytes, representing a log P range from -0.40 to 1.32, recoveries in the range 25-91% were obtained from human plasma. Strong hydrogen bonding and dipole interactions were...

  14. Support Policies in Clusters: Prioritization of Support Needs by Cluster Members According to Cluster Life Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulcin Salıngan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Economic development has always been a moving target. Both the national and local governments have been facing the challenge of implementing the effective and efficient economic policy and program in order to best utilize their limited resources. One of the recent approaches in this area is called cluster-based economic analysis and strategy development. This study reviews key literature and some of the cluster based economic policies adopted by different governments. Based on this review, it proposes “the cluster life cycle” as a determining factor to identify the support requirements of clusters. A survey, designed based on literature review of International Cluster support programs, was conducted with 30 participants from 3 clusters with different maturity stage. This paper discusses the results of this study conducted among the cluster members in Eskişehir- Bilecik-Kütahya Region in Turkey on the requirement of the support to foster the development of related clusters.

  15. Reproducible analyses of microbial food for advanced life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Gene R.

    1988-01-01

    The use of yeasts in controlled ecological life support systems (CELSS) for microbial food regeneration in space required the accurate and reproducible analysis of intracellular carbohydrate and protein levels. The reproducible analysis of glycogen was a key element in estimating overall content of edibles in candidate yeast strains. Typical analytical methods for estimating glycogen in Saccharomyces were not found to be entirely aplicable to other candidate strains. Rigorous cell lysis coupled with acid/base fractionation followed by specific enzymatic glycogen analyses were required to obtain accurate results in two strains of Candida. A profile of edible fractions of these strains was then determined. The suitability of yeasts as food sources in CELSS food production processes is discussed.

  16. Reputation Life Cycle of The SM Foundation and Customers’ Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Alishahdani Ibrahim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Reputation is a key construct in organizational sciences since reputation signals its past behavior and its prospect in the future. The purpose of this paper is to explore the development and influence of both personal and organizational reputation and its impact to customer support. The organiza-tion life cycle theory is applied to the “SM” foundation, one of Indonesian largest Islamic social enterprise which experienced fast growth and decline due to the decline of its leader reputation. The case shows that personal reputation of leader is very important in the start-up and early development phase of the organization but it may threaten the organizational sustainability at a later stage when the leader’s personal reputation is conveyed into the organization reputation.

  17. The use of extracorporeal life support in adolescent amlodipine overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persad, Elizabeth A.; Raman, Lakshmi; Thompson, Marita T.; Sheeran, Paul W.

    2012-01-01

    Calcium channel blocker (CCB) toxicity is associated with refractory hypotension and can be fatal. A 13 year old young woman presented to the emergency department(ED) six hours after an intentional overdose of amlodipine, barbiturates, and alcohol. She remained extremely hypotensive despite the administration of normal saline and calcium chloride and despite infusions of norepinephrine, epinephrine, insulin, and dextrose. Due to increasing evidence of end organ dysfunction, Extracorporeal Life Support (ECLS) was initiated 9 hours after presentation to the ED. The patient's blood pressure and end organ function immediately improved after cannulation. She was successfully decannulated after 57 hours of ECLS and was neurologically intact. Patients with calcium channel blocker overdose who are resistant to medical interventions may respond favorably to early ECLS. PMID:23559727

  18. Mass balances for a biological life support system simulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Tyler; Rummel, John D.

    1987-01-01

    Design decisions to aid the development of future space based biological life support systems (BLSS) can be made with simulation models. The biochemistry stoichiometry was developed for: (1) protein, carbohydrate, fat, fiber, and lignin production in the edible and inedible parts of plants; (2) food consumption and production of organic solids in urine, feces, and wash water by the humans; and (3) operation of the waste processor. Flux values for all components are derived for a steady state system with wheat as the sole food source. The large scale dynamics of a materially closed (BLSS) computer model is described in a companion paper. An extension of this methodology can explore multifood systems and more complex biochemical dynamics while maintaining whole system closure as a focus.

  19. [Advanced life support: care provided to motor vehicle crash victims].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malvestio, Marisa Aparecida Amaro; de Sousa, Regina Márcia Cardoso

    2002-10-01

    To analyze the performance of Advanced Life Support care mode (ALS) applied to car crash victims using indicators by means of the Revised Trauma Score (RTS) in prehospital phase. It were analyzed 643 reports of car crash victims cared by public ALS services that occurred in highways of the city of São Paulo, from April 1999 to April 2000. Time intervals assessed were: response time, on-scene time, transport time, and total time. Correct screening decision analysis considered RTStransport time were higher in RTS transported to tertiary hospitals. Screening decision misjudgments were identified. Maintenance or improvement of RTS values occurred in 98.8% of the cases. Respiratory rate was the parameter that showed better improvement followed by systolic blood pressure.

  20. The nexus between the rights to life and a basic education in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The overarching goal of the supreme Constitution is to improve the quality of life of all citizens and ultimately to free everyone's potential. In order to reach this goal and allow everyone to live a dignified life that it is worth living, the importance of education is highlighted. As important source of education law, the objectives of ...

  1. Support for life-cycle product reuse in NASA's SSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shotton, Charles

    1989-01-01

    The Software Support Environment (SSE) is a software factory for the production of Space Station Freedom Program operational software. The SSE is to be centrally developed and maintained and used to configure software production facilities in the field. The PRC product TTCQF provides for an automated qualification process and analysis of existing code that can be used for software reuse. The interrogation subsystem permits user queries of the reusable data and components which have been identified by an analyzer and qualified with associated metrics. The concept includes reuse of non-code life-cycle components such as requirements and designs. Possible types of reusable life-cycle components include templates, generics, and as-is items. Qualification of reusable elements requires analysis (separation of candidate components into primitives), qualification (evaluation of primitives for reusability according to reusability criteria) and loading (placing qualified elements into appropriate libraries). There can be different qualifications for different installations, methodologies, applications and components. Identifying reusable software and related components is labor-intensive and is best carried out as an integrated function of an SSE.

  2. Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) conceptual design option study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleson, Melvin; Olson, Richard L.

    1986-01-01

    Results are given of a study to explore options for the development of a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) for a future Space Station. In addition, study results will benefit the design of other facilities such as the Life Sciences Research Facility, a ground-based CELSS demonstrator, and will be useful in planning longer range missions such as a lunar base or manned Mars mission. The objectives were to develop weight and cost estimates for one CELSS module selected from a set of preliminary plant growth unit (PGU) design options. Eleven Space Station CELSS module conceptual PGU designs were reviewed, components and subsystems identified and a sensitivity analysis performed. Areas where insufficient data is available were identified and divided into the categories of biological research, engineering research, and technology development. Topics which receive significant attention are lighting systems for the PGU, the use of automation within the CELSS system, and electric power requirements. Other areas examined include plant harvesting and processing, crop mix analysis, air circulation and atmosphere contaminant flow subsystems, thermal control considerations, utility routing including accessibility and maintenance, and nutrient subsystem design.

  3. Can primary health care staff be trained in basic life-saving surgery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The following article by Leet et al advocates training rural PHC staff in basic emergency surgery in those areas of South Sudan where there is no access to secondary or tertiary level facilities (i.e. surgical task-shifting). Based on their experience, the authors describe and recommend the type of on-the-job training that they ...

  4. Kidney transplantation does not increase the level of basic hope or life satisfaction compared with hemodialysis in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegarow, P; Jankowska, M; Sańko-Resmer, J; Durlik, M; Grzeszczyk, M; Pączek, L

    2014-10-01

    selected biochemical parameters are worthy of particular attention. Among hemodialysis patients, there was an additional correlation between SWLS and hematocrit; whereas for postkidney transplant patients, there was an additional correlation of PIL and eGFR. Our data show that satisfaction with life and basic hope do not increase in patients after renal replacement therapy. The form of renal replacement therapy (hemodialysis or kidney transplantation) does not change the above variables. Patients treated via renal replacement require specialized psychological support to improve the efficacy of renal replacement therapy.

  5. Teacher Support as a Moderator of Behavioral Outcomes for Youth Exposed to Stressful Life Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebekah S. Huber

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the relationship between teacher support, life stress, and behavioral outcomes in 103 youth. Participants completed questionnaires regarding life events, social support, personality, and behavior. Moderated regression analyses were conducted using youth perceptions of teacher support and negative life events to predict externalizing and internalizing problems. Results revealed a significant interaction between teacher support and life stress, indicating teacher support successfully moderated the effect of stress on externalizing problems. Main effects for life stress were consistent with previous literature suggesting that higher amounts of stress predict greater externalizing and internalizing problems. Implications for teacher support are discussed.

  6. Biospheric Life Support - integrating biological regeneration into protection of humans in space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Mauricio; Iha, Koshun

    2016-07-01

    retirement (2016). The extension will allow partner agencies to deploy new experiments there, resuming basic research focusing more forward-looking goals. For deep-space, since consumables logistics becomes more difficult- and habitability an issue, with diminishing Earth's view, further research has been recommended. Four major areas have been identified for human protection: (1) radiation mitigation; (2) highly recyclable bio-regenerative (BR) LSS; (3) micro-gravity countermeasures- including artificial gravity (AG), and (4) psychological safety. To contribute to the efforts to address these issues, a basic lab/virtual iterative research has been proposed, assuming (in a worst case scenario) that: I) It won't be possible to send people to long deep space missions, safely, with the current (low quality of life) support technology (ISS micro-gravity 'up-gradings'); II) The alternative to implant a Mars surface human supportive biosphere would also not be possible, due to environmental/ evolutionary restraints (life could adapt and survive, but not necessarily to favor humans). From the above considerations arises the question: Would an average approach be possible where, by applying the artificial gravity concept to S/Cs, a fragment of Earth bio-regenerative environment could be integrated inside reusable manned vehicles- thus enhancing its habitability/autonomy in long deep space missions? For this research question a provisory answer/hypothesis has been provided. And to test it, a small AG+BR bench simulator (plus computer methods) has been devised.

  7. Control and modeling of a CELSS (Controlled Ecological Life Support System)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auslander, D. M.; Spear, R. C.; Babcock, P. S.; Nadel, M.

    1983-01-01

    Research topics that arise from the conceptualization of control for closed life support systems which are life support systems in which all or most of the mass is recycled are discussed. Modeling and control of uncertain and poorly defined systems, resource allocation in closed life support systems, and control structures or systems with delay and closure are emphasized.

  8. The effects of Operation Rescue on pro-life support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansuini, C G; Fiddler-woite, J; Woitaszek, R S

    1994-12-01

    Operation Rescue is a militant anti-abortion group. The organization conveys its position against abortion by targeting a city in which it will mount speeches, rallies, pickets, and media barrages. Operation Rescue held activities in Greater Buffalo, New York, in 1992. The authors investigated the effect of the anti-abortion campaign upon a sample of non-activist university undergraduate students and the anti-abortion cause in general. 114 male and 195 female students of the State University of New York College at Buffalo participated. 60% were younger than age 22 years and 17% were 46 years of age or older. 87% were sexually active, but only 18% were married. 11% reported having an abortion themselves or dating someone who had. 150 subjects were surveyed each spring for three years with regard to their abortion-related attitudes and behaviors. 18% of the participants identified themselves as pro-life in 1991, 22% in 1992, and 12% in 1993, the year after the Operation Rescue campaign. 70% identified themselves as pro-choice in 1991, 60% in 1992, and 57% in 1993. The percentage of respondents reporting that they would not have an abortion themselves, but support a woman's right to free choice with regard to abortion steadily increased from 11% in 1991 to 19% in 1992 and 30% in 1993. In general, support for the anti-abortion camp increased during protest activities, but decreased overall over the long term. The campaign had a particularly negative effect upon males.

  9. Advanced Space Suit Portable Life Support Subsystem Packaging Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Robert; Diep, Chuong; Barnett, Bob; Thomas, Gretchen; Rouen, Michael; Kobus, Jack

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS) packaging design work done by the NASA and Hamilton Sundstrand in support of the 3 future space missions; Lunar, Mars and zero-g. The goal is to seek ways to reduce the weight of PLSS packaging, and at the same time, develop a packaging scheme that would make PLSS technology changes less costly than the current packaging methods. This study builds on the results of NASA s in-house 1998 study, which resulted in the "Flex PLSS" concept. For this study the present EMU schematic (low earth orbit) was used so that the work team could concentrate on the packaging. The Flex PLSS packaging is required to: protect, connect, and hold the PLSS and its components together internally and externally while providing access to PLSS components internally for maintenance and for technology change without extensive redesign impact. The goal of this study was two fold: 1. Bring the advanced space suit integrated Flex PLSS concept from its current state of development to a preliminary design level and build a proof of concept mockup of the proposed design, and; 2. "Design" a Design Process, which accommodates both the initial Flex PLSS design and the package modifications, required to accommodate new technology.

  10. The Effect of Social Support and Meaning of Life on the Quality-of-Life Care for Terminally Ill Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobríková, Patricia; Pčolková, Dušana; AlTurabi, Layla Khalil; West, Daniel J

    2015-11-01

    This study examines the effect of 2 indicators on quality of life (QOL): social support and meaning of life for terminally ill patients. These 2 indicators are very important from a psychological and spiritual point of view. The findings suggest that there is a statistically significant correlation between meaning of life and QOL (r = .610, P life fulfillment for dying patients. A significant relationship exists in survival of life meaningfulness and satisfaction with social support. In conclusion, experiencing one's life as meaningful is positively related to the well-being for dying patients. Social support provided by a close relative had a positive influence on the patient's meaning of life and overall life satisfaction. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Life events, social support, coping strategies, and quality of life in attempted suicide: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P N Suresh; George, Biju

    2013-01-01

    Though deliberate self-harm encompasses a wide variety of medical and social disciplines some of the important psychosocial variable such as life events, social support, coping strategies, and quality of life have not yet been explored in depth in India. The aim was to analyze and compare the type and severity of life events, coping strategies, social support, and quality of life of suicide attempters versus matched normal controls, and to identify the risk factors leading to suicide. A total of 50 consecutive suicide attempters were compared with same number of age, sex, and martial status matched healthy controls using Presumptive Stressful Life Events Scale, Social Support Questionnaire, AECOM Coping Style Scale, and WHO QOL-Bref. Attempters experienced significantly more life events especially untoward events whereas the control group experienced more desirable and impersonal life events. Social support, positive coping, and of QOL were significantly lower in attempters. Among all risk factors desirable life events, good education, and good social support were protective against suicide. Suicide attempters were differentiated from healthy controls based on more stressful life events, lower social support, less healthy coping, and poor QOL. Positive life events, good education, and good social support were protective factors against suicide. However, it is difficult to pinpoint a single factor responsible for suicidal behavior. It is the complex interplay of various interrelated factors and the resultant buffering effect, which is protecting the individual against deliberate self-harm.

  12. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a ... in controlling movement, managing the release of various hormones, and aiding the flow of information to the ...

  13. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... effectively coordinate the billions of cells in the body, the results can affect many aspects of life. ... messages. A neuron has three basic parts: Cell body which includes the nucleus, cytoplasm, and cell organelles. ...

  14. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a ... blues" from time to time. In contrast, major depression is a serious disorder that lasts for weeks. ...

  15. Implementation of workflow engine technology to deliver basic clinical decision support functionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Workflow engine technology represents a new class of software with the ability to graphically model step-based knowledge. We present application of this novel technology to the domain of clinical decision support. Successful implementation of decision support within an electronic health record (EHR) remains an unsolved research challenge. Previous research efforts were mostly based on healthcare-specific representation standards and execution engines and did not reach wide adoption. We focus on two challenges in decision support systems: the ability to test decision logic on retrospective data prior prospective deployment and the challenge of user-friendly representation of clinical logic. Results We present our implementation of a workflow engine technology that addresses the two above-described challenges in delivering clinical decision support. Our system is based on a cross-industry standard of XML (extensible markup language) process definition language (XPDL). The core components of the system are a workflow editor for modeling clinical scenarios and a workflow engine for execution of those scenarios. We demonstrate, with an open-source and publicly available workflow suite, that clinical decision support logic can be executed on retrospective data. The same flowchart-based representation can also function in a prospective mode where the system can be integrated with an EHR system and respond to real-time clinical events. We limit the scope of our implementation to decision support content generation (which can be EHR system vendor independent). We do not focus on supporting complex decision support content delivery mechanisms due to lack of standardization of EHR systems in this area. We present results of our evaluation of the flowchart-based graphical notation as well as architectural evaluation of our implementation using an established evaluation framework for clinical decision support architecture. Conclusions We describe an implementation of

  16. Implementation of workflow engine technology to deliver basic clinical decision support functionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oberg Ryan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Workflow engine technology represents a new class of software with the ability to graphically model step-based knowledge. We present application of this novel technology to the domain of clinical decision support. Successful implementation of decision support within an electronic health record (EHR remains an unsolved research challenge. Previous research efforts were mostly based on healthcare-specific representation standards and execution engines and did not reach wide adoption. We focus on two challenges in decision support systems: the ability to test decision logic on retrospective data prior prospective deployment and the challenge of user-friendly representation of clinical logic. Results We present our implementation of a workflow engine technology that addresses the two above-described challenges in delivering clinical decision support. Our system is based on a cross-industry standard of XML (extensible markup language process definition language (XPDL. The core components of the system are a workflow editor for modeling clinical scenarios and a workflow engine for execution of those scenarios. We demonstrate, with an open-source and publicly available workflow suite, that clinical decision support logic can be executed on retrospective data. The same flowchart-based representation can also function in a prospective mode where the system can be integrated with an EHR system and respond to real-time clinical events. We limit the scope of our implementation to decision support content generation (which can be EHR system vendor independent. We do not focus on supporting complex decision support content delivery mechanisms due to lack of standardization of EHR systems in this area. We present results of our evaluation of the flowchart-based graphical notation as well as architectural evaluation of our implementation using an established evaluation framework for clinical decision support architecture. Conclusions We

  17. Closed bioregenerative life support systems: Applicability to hot deserts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakov, Yuriy S.; Musaev, Ibrahim; Polyakov, Sergey V.

    2010-09-01

    Water scarcity in hot deserts, which cover about one-fifth of the Earth's land area, along with rapid expansion of hot deserts into arable lands is one of the key global environmental problems. As hot deserts are extreme habitats characterized by the availability of solar energy with a nearly complete absence of organic life and water, space technology achievements in designing closed ecological systems may be applicable to the design of sustainable settlements in the deserts. This review discusses the key space technology findings for closed biogenerative life support systems (CBLSS), which can simultaneously produce food, water, nutrients, fertilizers, process wastes, and revitalize air, that can be applied to hot deserts. Among them are the closed cycle of water and the acceleration of the cycling times of carbon, biogenic compounds, and nutrients by adjusting the levels of light intensity, temperature, carbon dioxide, and air velocity over plant canopies. Enhanced growth of algae and duckweed at higher levels of carbon dioxide and light intensity can be important to provide complete water recycling and augment biomass production. The production of fertilizers and nutrients can be enhanced by applying the subsurface flow wetland technology and hyper-thermophilic aerobic bacteria for treating liquid and solid wastes. The mathematical models, optimization techniques, and non-invasive measuring techniques developed for CBLSS make it possible to monitor and optimize the performance of such closed ecological systems. The results of long-duration experiments performed in BIOS-3, Biosphere 2, Laboratory Biosphere, and other ground-based closed test facilities suggest that closed water cycle can be achieved in hot-desert bioregenerative systems using the pathways of evapotranspiration, condensation, and biological wastewater treatment technologies. We suggest that the state of the art in the CBLSS design along with the possibility of using direct sunlight for

  18. Application of NASA's Advanced Life Support Technologies in Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David L.

    1997-01-01

    The problems of obtaining adequate pure drinking water and disposing of liquid and solid waste in the U.S Arctic, a region where virtually all water is frozen solid for much of the year, has led to unsanitary solutions. Sanitation and a safe water supply are particularly problems in rural villages. These villages are without running water and use plastic buckets for toilets. The outbreak of diseases is believed to be partially attributable to exposure to human waste and lack of sanitation. Villages with the most frequent outbreaks of disease are those in which running water is difficult to obtain. Waste is emptied into open lagoons, rivers, or onto the sea coast. It does not degrade rapidly and in addition to affecting human health, can be harmful to the fragile ecology of the Arctic and the indigenous wildlife and fish populations. Current practices for waste management and sanitation pose serious human hazards as well as threaten the environment. NASA's unique knowledge of water/wastewater treatment systems for extreme environments, identified in the Congressional Office of Technology Assessment report entitled An Alaskan Challenge: Native Villagt Sanitation, may offer practical solutions addressing the issues of safe drinking water and effective sanitation practices in rural villages. NASA's advanced life support technologies are being combined with Arctic science and engineering knowledge to address the unique needs of the remote communities of Alaska through the Advanced Life Systems for Extreme Environments (ALSEE) project. ALSEE is a collaborative effort involving the NASA, the State of Alaska, the University of Alaska, the North Slope Borough of Alaska, Ilisagvik College in Barrow and the National Science Foundation (NSF). The focus is a major issue in the State of Alaska and other areas of the Circumpolar North; the health and welfare of its people, their lives and the subsistence lifestyle in remote communities, economic opportunity, and care for the

  19. Availability of Life Support Equipment and its Utilization by Ambulance Drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Rija; Badhu, Angur; Shah, Tara; Shrestha, Sharmila

    2017-09-08

    An effective ambulance is a vital requirement for providing an emergency medical service. Well-equipped ambulances with trained paramedics can save many lives during the golden hours of trauma care. The objective was to document the availability and utilization of basic life support equipment in the ambulances and to assess knowledge on first aid among the drivers. Descriptive design was used. Total of 109 ambulances linked to B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences were enrolled using purposive sampling method. Self- constructed observation checklist and semi structured interview schedule was used for data collection. More than half of the respondents had less than five years of experience and were not trained in first aid. About two-third of the respondents had adequate knowledge on first aid. About 90% of the ambulance had oxygen cylinder and adult oxygen mask which was 'usually' used equipment. More than half of ambulance had equipment less than 23% as compared to that of national guidelines. There was significant association of knowledge with the experience (p = 0.004) and training (p = 0.001). Availability of equipment was associated with training received (p = 0.007),organization (p= 0.032)and district (p = 0.023) in which the ambulance is registered. The study concludes that maximum ambulance linked to BPKIHS, Nepal did not have even one fourth of the equipment for basic life support. Equipment usually used was oxygen cylinder and oxygen mask. Majority of driver had adequate knowledge on first aid and it was associated with training and experience.

  20. Disability but not social support predicts cognitive deterioration in late-life depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, Meghan; McQuoid, Douglas R; Potter, Guy G; Steffens, David C; Taylor, Warren D

    2015-05-01

    Depression in late life is a risk factor for cognitive decline. Depression is also associated with increased disability and social support deficits; these may precede conversion to dementia and inform risk. In this study, we examined if baseline or one-year change in disability and social support predicted later cognitive deterioration. 299 cognitively intact depressed older adults were followed for an average of approximately seven years. Participants received antidepressant treatment according to a standardized algorithm. Neuropsychological testing and assessment of disability and social support were assessed annually. Cognitive diagnosis was reviewed annually at a consensus conference to determine if participants remained cognitively normal, or if they progressed to either dementia or cognitively impaired, no dementia (CIND). During study participation, 167 individuals remained cognitively normal (56%), 83 progressed to CIND (28%), and 49 progressed to dementia (16%). Greater baseline instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) deficits predicted subsequent conversion to a cognitive diagnosis (CIND or dementia). However, neither baseline measures nor one-year change in basic ADLs (BADLs) and social support predicted cognitive conversion. In post hoc analyses, two IADL measures (managing finances, preparing meals) significantly increased the odds of cognitive conversion. Greater IADL deficits predicted increased risk of cognitive conversion. Assessment of IADL deficits may provide clues about risk of later cognitive decline.

  1. The impact of mechanical ventilation time before initiation of extracorporeal life support on survival in pediatric respiratory failure: a review of the Extracorporeal Life Support Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domico, Michele B; Ridout, Deborah A; Bronicki, Ronald; Anas, Nick G; Cleary, John Patrick; Cappon, James; Goldman, Allan P; Brown, Katherine L

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between duration of mechanical ventilation before the initiation of extracorporeal life support and the survival rate in children with respiratory failure. Extracorporeal life support has been used as a rescue therapy for >30 yrs in children with severe respiratory failure. Previous studies suggest patients who received >7-10 days of mechanical ventilation were not acceptable extracorporeal life support candidates as a result of irreversible lung damage. A retrospective review encompassing the past 10 yrs of the International Extracorporeal Life Support Organization Registry (January 1, 1999, to December 31, 2008). Extracorporeal Life Support Organization Registry database. A total of 1325 children (≥ 30 days and ≤ 18 yrs) met inclusion criteria. None. The following pre-extracorporeal life support variables were identified as independently and significantly related to the chance of survival: 1) >14 days of ventilation vs. 0-7 days was adverse (odds ratio, 0.32; p 7-10 or >10-14 days of pre-extracorporeal life support ventilation did not have a statistically significant decrease in survival as compared with patients who received 0-7 days. There was a clear relationship between the number of mechanical ventilation days before the initiation of extracorporeal life support and survival. However; there was no statistically significant decrease in survival until >14 days of pre-extracorporeal life support ventilation was reached regardless of underlying diagnosis. We found no evidence to suggest that prolonged mechanical ventilation should be considered as a contraindication to extracorporeal life support in children with respiratory failure before 14 days.

  2. Conceptual design of a bioregenerative life support system containing crops and silkworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Enzhu; Bartsev, Sergey I.; Liu, Hong

    2010-04-01

    This article summarizes a conceptual design of a bioregenerative life support system for permanent lunar base or planetary exploration. The system consists of seven compartments - higher plants cultivation, animal rearing, human habitation, water recovery, waste treatment, atmosphere management, and storages. Fifteen kinds of crops, such as wheat, rice, soybean, lettuce, and mulberry, were selected as main life support contributors to provide the crew with air, water, and vegetable food. Silkworms fed by crop leaves were designated to produce partial animal nutrition for the crew. Various physical-chemical and biological methods were combined to reclaim wastewater and solid waste. Condensate collected from atmosphere was recycled into potable water through granular activated carbon adsorption, iodine sterilization, and trace element supplementation. All grey water was also purified though multifiltration and ultraviolet sterilization. Plant residue, human excrement, silkworm feces, etc. were decomposed into inorganic substances which were finally absorbed by higher plants. Some meat, ingredients, as well as nitrogen fertilizer were prestored and resupplied periodically. Meanwhile, the same amount and chemical composition of organic waste was dumped to maintain the steady state of the system. A nutritional balanced diet was developed by means of the linear programming method. It could provide 2721 kcal of energy, 375.5 g of carbohydrate, 99.47 g of protein, and 91.19 g of fat per capita per day. Silkworm powder covered 12.54% of total animal protein intakes. The balance of material flows between compartments was described by the system of stoichiometric equations. Basic life support requirements for crews including oxygen, food, potable and hygiene water summed up to 29.68 kg per capita per day. The coefficient of system material closure reached 99.40%.

  3. A novel sequential vegetable production facility for life support system in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Berkovich, Yuliy A.; Liu, Hong; Fu, Yuming; Shao, Lingzhi; Erokhin, A. N.; Wang, Minjuan

    2012-07-01

    Vegetable cultivation plays a crucial role for dietary supplements and psychosocial benefits of the crew during manned space flight. The idea of onboard vegetables cultivation was generally proposed as the first step of food regeneration in life support system of space. Here a novel sequential vegetable production facility was developed, which was able to simulate microgravity conditions and carry out modularized-cultivation of leaf-vegetables. Its growth chamber (GC) had conic form and volume of 0.12 m ^{3}. Its planting surface of 0.154 m ^{2} was comprised of six ring-shaped root modules with a fibrous ion-exchange resin substrate. Root modules were fastened to a central porous tube supplying water, and moved on along with plant growth. The total illuminated crop area of 0.567 m ^{2} was provided by a combination of both red and white light emitting diodes distributed on the GC cone internal surface. In tests with a 24-hr photoperiod, the productivity of the facility at 0.3 kW for lettuce achieved 254.3 g eatable biomass per week. Compared to lettuce from market, the quality of lettuce of the facility did not change significantly during long-term cultivation. Our results demonstrate that the facility is high efficiency in vegetable production, and basically meets the application requirements of space microgravity environment. Keywords:, vegetable; modularized-cultivation; sequential production; life support system

  4. STUDENT ACADEMIC SUPPORT AS A PREDICTOR OF LIFE SATISFACTION IN UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet Akýn; Serhat Arslan; Eyüp Çelik; Çýnar Kaya; Nihan Arslan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between Academic Support and Life Satisfaction. Participants were 458 university students who voluntarily filled out a package of self-report instruments. Student Academic Support Scale and Satisfaction with Life Scale were used as measures. The relationships between student academic support and life satisfaction were examined using correlation analysis and stepwise regression analysis. Life satisfaction was predicted positively by info...

  5. Life Changes and Social Support: Stress and Its Moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-17

    dissatisfaction and a lowered sense of emotional wellbeing . Petrich and Holmes (1977) have suggested that patients should be advised to pace the...his or her developmental state. Life changes are important milestones in life span development (Brim & Ryff , 1980). An inspection of both the SRE and...0. G., Jr., & Ryff , C. D. On the properties of life events. In P. B. Baltes & 0. G. Brim, Jr. (Eds.), Life-span development and behavior, Vol. 3. New

  6. The Life Cycle Cost (LCC) of Life Support Recycling and Resupply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2015-01-01

    Brief human space missions supply all the crew's water and oxygen from Earth. The multiyear International Space Station (ISS) program instead uses physicochemical life support systems to recycle water and oxygen. This paper compares the Life Cycle Cost (LCC) of recycling to the LCC of resupply for potential future long duration human space missions. Recycling systems have high initial development costs but relatively low durationdependent support costs. This means that recycling is more cost effective for longer missions. Resupplying all the water and oxygen requires little initial development cost but has a much higher launch mass and launch cost. The cost of resupply increases as the mission duration increases. Resupply is therefore more cost effective than recycling for shorter missions. A recycling system pays for itself when the resupply LCC grows greater over time than the recycling LCC. The time when this occurs is called the recycling breakeven date. Recycling will cost very much less than resupply for long duration missions within the Earth-Moon system, such as a future space station or Moon base. But recycling would cost about the same as resupply for long duration deep space missions, such as a Mars trip. Because it is not possible to provide emergency supplies or quick return options on the way to Mars, more expensive redundant recycling systems will be needed.

  7. Basic psychological need satisfaction in leisure activities and adolescents' life satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leversen, Ingrid; Danielsen, Anne G; Birkeland, Marianne S; Samdal, Oddrun

    2012-12-01

    Participation in leisure activities is an important arena for the positive psychological development of adolescents. The present study set out to examine the relationship between adolescents' satisfaction of the psychological needs for competence, relatedness, and autonomy in their participation in leisure activities and their perceived life satisfaction. The aim was to identify the extent to which satisfaction of the three needs explained the relationship between participation in leisure activities and life satisfaction. These proposed mechanisms were based on previous empirical work and the theoretical frameworks of self-determination theory, and were tested in a nationally representative sample of Norwegian adolescents (N = 3,273) aged 15 and 16 years (51.8 % boys). The structural equation analysis showed that competence and relatedness satisfaction fully mediated the association between participation in activities and life satisfaction. Autonomy satisfaction had a direct positive effect on life satisfaction but did not show any mediation effect. The positive processes of psychological need satisfaction, and especially the need for competence and relatedness, experienced in the leisure activity domain thus seem to be beneficial for adolescents' well-being. These findings add to previous research investigating the positive impact of need satisfaction in other important domains in the lives of children and adolescents.

  8. A basic period approach to the economic lot scheduling problem with shelf life considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soman, C.A.; van Donk, D.P.; Gaalman, G.J.C.

    2004-01-01

    Almost all the research on the economic lot scheduling problem (ELSP) considering limited shelf life of products has assumed a common cycle approach and an unrealistic assumption of possibility of deliberately reducing the production rate. In many cases, like in food processing industry where

  9. Plants for Human Life Support and Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2017-01-01

    The concept of using plants and algae for human life support in space goes back to testing in the 1950s and 1960. The basis for this is harnessing photosynthesis to generate oxygen, remove and fix carbon dioxide, and produce food. For several decades, NASA conducted studies with crops in controlled environments to assess their requirements for optimum growth. This includes tests with wheat, soybeans, potatoes, lettuce, tomatoes, and other crops. In many ways, these studies have paralleled growing interests in controlled environment agriculture on Earth. For example, NASA operated perhaps the first working example of a vertical agriculture facility in the late 1980s. The facility used recirculating hydroponic systems to conserve water and nutrients, with multiple growing shelves and light banks. NASA also pioneered the use LED lighting for growing plants. Findings from these tests suggest that an area of 20-25 sq m of crops could provide all the O2 for one human, and about 40-50 sq m could provide all the O2 and food. But this is dependent on the amount of light provided. Most of these studies targeted surface settings like habitats on Mars or the Moon. Growing plants in weightless settings, like the International Space Station (ISS) requires different approaches to contain and deliver water to plants, but lettuce, mizuna, pea, and other crops have been grown in small chambers aboard the ISS to provide supplemental fresh food for the astronauts.

  10. Reversible Ammonia Sorption for the Primary Life Support System (PLSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtowicz, Marek A.; Cosgrove, Joseph E.; Serio, Michael A.; Jennings, Mallory A.

    2012-01-01

    Results are presented on the development of regenerable trace-contaminant (TC) sorbent for use in Extravehicular Activities (EVAs), and more specifically in the Primary Life Support System (PLSS). Since ammonia is the most important TC to be captured, data presented in this paper are limited to ammonia sorption, with results relevant to other TCs to be reported at a later time. The currently available TC-control technology involves the use of a packed bed of acid-impregnated granular charcoal. The sorbent is non-regenerable, and its use is associated with appreciable pressure drop, i.e. power consumption. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility of using vacuum-regenerable sorbents for PLSS application. In this study, several carbon sorbent monoliths were fabricated and tested. Multiple adsorption/vacuum-regeneration cycles were demonstrated at room temperature, as well as carbon surface conditioning that enhances ammonia sorption without impairing sorbent regeneration. Depending on sorbent monolith geometry, the reduction in pressure drop with respect to granular sorbent was found to be between 50% and two orders of magnitude. Resistive heating of the carbon sorbent monolith was demonstrated by applying voltage to the opposite ends of the monolith.

  11. Instructor support and malfunction handling in the WWER-440 Basic Principles Simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gacs, A.; Szabo, G.; Vegh, E.

    1988-09-01

    This research is part of the coordinated research program on 'Development of common modelling approaches for nuclear power plant training simulators' of the International Atomic Energy Agency. A Basic Principles Simulator for WWER-440 nuclear power reactors has been completed in the Central Research Institute for Physics, Budapest. The instructor plays a significant role when a training simulator is used for educating a complex technological process. The Instructor System of the simulator is described. A screen driven system was developed for providing a simple yet powerful tool to control the running of this simulator. One of the most complex problems is malfunction control of a reactor, therefore this case is treated in the Instructor System description. (R.P.) 5 figs

  12. Life cycle assessment in support of sustainable transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckelman, Matthew J.

    2013-06-01

    In our rapidly urbanizing world, sustainable transportation presents a major challenge. Transportation decisions have considerable direct impacts on urban society, both positive and negative, for example through changes in transit times and economic productivity, urban connectivity, tailpipe emissions and attendant air quality concerns, traffic accidents, and noise pollution. Much research has been dedicated to quantifying these direct impacts for various transportation modes. Transportation planning decisions also result in a variety of indirect environmental and human health impacts, a portion of which can accrue outside of the transit service area and so outside of the local decision-making process. Integrated modeling of direct and indirect impacts over the life cycle of different transportation modes provides decision support that is more comprehensive and less prone to triggering unintended consequences than a sole focus on direct tailpipe emissions. The recent work of Chester et al (2013) in this journal makes important contributions to this research by examining the environmental implications of introducing bus rapid transit and light rail in Los Angeles using life cycle assessment (LCA). Transport in the LA region is dominated by automobile trips, and the authors show that potential shifts to either bus or train modes would reduce energy use and emissions of criteria air pollutants, on an average passenger mile travelled basis. This work compares not just the use of each vehicle, but also upstream impacts from its manufacturing and maintenance, as well as the construction and maintenance of the entire infrastructure required for each mode. Previous work by the lead author (Chester and Horvath 2009), has shown that these non-operational sources and largely non-local can dominate life cycle impacts from transportation, again on an average (or attributional) basis, for example increasing rail-related GHG emissions by >150% over just operational emissions

  13. Basic Psychological Need Satisfaction in Leisure Activities and Adolescents’ Life Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Leversen, Ingrid; Danielsen, Anne G.; Birkeland, Marianne Skogbrott; Samdal, Oddrun

    2012-01-01

    Participation in leisure activities is an important arena for the positive psychological development of adolescents. The present study set out to examine the relationship between adolescents’ satisfaction of the psychological needs for competence, relatedness, and autonomy in their participation in leisure activities and their perceived life satisfaction. The aim was to identify the extent to which satisfaction of the three needs explained the relationship between participation in leisure act...

  14. A Basic Hybrid Library Support Model to Distance Learners in Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrahman, Omer Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Distance learning has flourished in Sudan during the last two decades; more and more higher education institutions offer distance learning programmes to off-campus students. Like on-campus students, distance learners should have access to appropriate library and information support services. They also have specific needs for library and…

  15. Laypersons may learn basic life support in 24min using a personal resuscitation manikin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isbye, Dan Lou; Rasmussen, Lars Simon; Lippert, Freddy Knudsen

    2006-01-01

    -55 years) without previous BLS-training were allocated into two groups: one group received 24 min of instruction using a DVD-based instruction tool on a big screen combined with a BLS self-training device, Laerdal MiniAnne manikin (MAM), before taking home the instruction material for subsequent self...... the total score. Assessment of breathing was performed significantly more often in the 6 HR-group (91% versus 72%, P=0.03). In the MAM-group, average inflation volume and chest compression depth were significantly higher (844 mL versus 524 mL, P=0.006, and 45 mm versus 39 mm, P=0.005). CONCLUSIONS: When...

  16. Short lessons in basic life support improve self-assurance in performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobras, Mario; Langewand, Sascha; Murr, Christina; Neu, Christiane; Schmid, Jeannette

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are several reasons why resuscitation measures may lead to inferior results: difficulties in team building, delayed realization of the emergency and interruption of chest compression. This study investigated the outcome of a new form of in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training with special focus on changes in self-assurance of potential helpers when faced with emergency situations. METHODS: Following a 12-month period of CPR training, questionnaires were distributed to participants and non-participants. Those non-participants who intended to undergo the training at a later date served as control group. RESULTS: The study showed that participants experienced a significant improvement in self-assurance, compared with their remembered self-assurance before the training. Their self-assurance also was significantly greater than that of the control group of non-participants. CONCLUSION: Short lessons in CPR have an impact on the self-assurance of medical and non-medical personnel. PMID:27942341

  17. Peer-led training in basic life support and resuscitation using an automatic external defibrillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løfgren, Bo; Petersen, Christina Børlum; Mikkelsen, Ronni

    2009-01-01

    Peer-led training has been identified as a useful tool for delivering undergraduate healthcare training. In this paper we describe the implementation of the European Resuscitation Council BLS/AED Course as a peer-led training program for medical students....

  18. Direct mail improves knowledge of basic life support guidelines in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, Niels; Mikkelsen, Mette Marie; Adelborg, Kasper

    2012-01-01

    Dette studie viste, at ved at fremsende vejledning i basal genoplivning direkte til alment praktiserende læger var det muligt at øge lægernes viden om dette område samt implementere de nye guidelines på området. Enhver praktiserende læge er til stadighed i kontakt med personer, der potentielt kan...

  19. Basic life support and automated external defibrillator skills among ambulance personnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Møller; Isbye, Dan Lou; Lippert, Freddy Knudsen

    2012-01-01

    Ambulance personnel play an essential role in the 'Chain of Survival'. The prognosis after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest was dismal on a rural Danish island and in this study we assessed the cardiopulmonary resuscitation performance of ambulance personnel on that island....

  20. A survey of nurses' basic life support knowledge and training at a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Survival after cardiac arrest is related to time taken for resuscitation, and defibrillation, to commence. At many hospitals, the healthcare worker most likely to be present when a patient suffers a cardiac arrest is a nurse. This study was performed to assess BLS knowledge and training of nurses, and thus to ...

  1. Retention of Basic Life Support in Laypeople: Mastery Learning vs. Time-based Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boet, Sylvain; Bould, M Dylan; Pigford, Ashlee-Ann; Rössler, Bernhard; Nambyiah, Pratheeban; Li, Qi; Bunting, Alexandra; Schebesta, Karl

    2017-01-01

    To compare the effectiveness of a mastery learning (ML) versus a time-based (TB) BLS course for the acquisition and retention of BLS knowledge and skills in laypeople. After ethics approval, laypeople were randomized to a ML or TB BLS course based on the American Heart Association (AHA) Heartsaver course. In the ML group, subjects practiced and received feedback at six BLS stations until they reached a pre-determined level of performance. The TB group received a standard AHA six-station BLS course. All participants took the standard in-course BLS skills test at the end of their course. BLS skills and knowledge were tested using a high-fidelity scenario and knowledge questionnaire upon course completion (immediate post-test) and after four months (retention test). Video recorded scenarios were assessed by two blinded, independent raters using the AHA skills checklist. Forty-three subjects were included in analysis (23ML;20TB). For primary outcome, subjects' performance did not change after four months, regardless of the teaching modality (TB from (median[IQR]) 8.0[6.125;8.375] to 8.5[5.625;9.0] vs. ML from 8.0[7.0;9.0] to 7.0[6.0;8.0], p = 0.12 for test phase, p = 0.21 for interaction between effect of teaching modality and test phase). For secondary outcomes, subjects acquired knowledge between pre- and immediate post-tests (p < 0.005), and partially retained the acquired knowledge up to four months (p < 0.005) despite a decrease between immediate post-test and retention test (p = 0.009), irrespectively of the group (p = 0.59) (TB from 63.3[48.3;73.3] to 93.3[81.7;100.0] and then 93.3[81.7;93.3] vs. ML from 60.0[46.7;66.7] to 93.3[80.0;100.0] and then 80.0[73.3;93.3]). Regardless of the group after 4 months, chest compression depth improved (TB from 39.0[35.0;46.0] to 48.5[40.25;58.0] vs. ML from 40.0[37.0;47.0] to 45.0[37.0;52.0]; p = 0.012), but not the rate (TB from 118.0[114.0;125.0] to 120.5[113.0;129.5] vs. ML from 119.0[113.0;130.0] to 123.0[102.0;132.0]; p = 0.70). All subjects passed the in-course BLS skills test. Pass/fail rates were poor in both groups at both the simulated immediate post-test (ML = 1/22;TB = 0/20; p = 0.35) and retention test (ML pass/fail = 1/22, TB pass/fail = 0/20; p = 0.35). The ML course was slightly longer than the TB course (108[94;117] min vs. 95[89;102] min; p = 0.003). There was no major benefit of a ML compared to a TB BLS course for the acquisition and four-month retention of knowledge or skills among laypeople.

  2. Compact Water Vapor Exchanger for Regenerative Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo; Anderson, Molly; Hodgson, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Thermal and environmental control systems for future exploration spacecraft must meet challenging requirements for efficient operation and conservation of resources. Regenerative CO2 removal systems are attractive for these missions because they do not use consumable CO2 absorbers. However, these systems also absorb and vent water to space along with carbon dioxide. This paper describes an innovative device designed to minimize water lost from regenerative CO2 control systems. Design studies and proof-of-concept testing have shown the feasibility of a compact, efficient membrane water vapor exchanger (WVX) that will conserve water while meeting challenging requirements for operation on future spacecraft. Compared to conventional WVX designs, the innovative membrane WVX described here has the potential for high water recovery efficiency, compact size, and very low pressure losses. The key innovation is a method for maintaining highly uniform flow channels in a WVX core built from water-permeable membranes. The proof-of-concept WVX incorporates all the key design features of a prototypical unit, except that it is relatively small scale (1/23 relative to a unit sized for a crew of six) and some components were fabricated using non-prototypical methods. The proof-of-concept WVX achieved over 90% water recovery efficiency in a compact core in good agreement with analysis models. Furthermore the overall pressure drop is very small (less than 0.5 in. H2O, total for both flow streams) and meets requirements for service in environmental control and life support systems on future spacecraft. These results show that the WVX provides very uniform flow through flow channels for both the humid and dry streams. Measurements also show that CO2 diffusion through the water-permeable membranes will have negligible effect on the CO2 partial pressure in the spacecraft atmosphere.

  3. Life-sustaining support: ethical, cultural, and spiritual conflicts part I: Family support--a neonatal case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutts, Amy; Schloemann, Johanna

    2002-04-01

    As medical knowledge and technology continue to increase, so will types of life-sustaining support as well as the public's expectations for use of this support with positive outcomes. Health care professionals will continue to be challenged by the issues surrounding the appropriate use of life-sustaining support and the issues it raises. This is especially apparent in the NICU. When parents' belief systems challenge the health care team's ethical commitment to beneficence and nonmaleficence, a shared decision-making model based on mutual understanding of and respect for different viewpoints can redirect the focus onto the baby's best interest. This article addresses three questions: 1. How do nonmaleficence, beneficence, and concern about quality of life guide the use of life-sustaining support? 2. To what extent should parental autonomy and spirituality influence treatment decisions? 3. What efforts can the health care team make to support the family?

  4. Development of Basic Adaptive Model of the Real Property Item as a Support System for the Development Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Politi Violetta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the method of the detailed description of the item, as a basic managed element of the real estate development project. A mathematical adaptive model of development, which can influence on right organizational-managerial decision-makings on the stage of pre-investment research, was proposed on the basis of consideration of the set of characteristics and diversified features of the item, as well as its ability to self-development. The result of the work can be used as the base model in the design of decision support system in the initiation of the development project.

  5. End of Life (Supporting a Terminally Ill Loved One)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... able to function for the rest of your life. Right now you need to grieve. Keep in mind ... question whether you did enough or said the right things. Guilt is a normal part of ... End of life care: Helping with comfort and care. National Institute ...

  6. Autonomy Support and Achievement Goals as Predictors of Perceived School Performance and Life Satisfaction in the Transition between Lower and Upper Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseth, Åge; Samdal, Oddrun

    2014-01-01

    A self-determination theory perspective on motivation assumes that basic need support is a prerequisite for motivation, achievement, and well-being in several domains of life. In the present cross-sectional study, a representative sample of 2.594 Norwegian students in their final year of lower secondary education and their first year of upper…

  7. Relationships among Social Support, Perceived Control, and Psychological Distress in Late Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeroff, Robin; Midlarsky, Elizabeth; Meyer, Joseph F.

    2010-01-01

    Social support has been shown to buffer the relationship between life stress and psychological distress in late life. However, little attention has been paid to personality variables that are associated with the capacity to effectively utilize social support. Although the buffering effects of social support were replicated in our sample of 134…

  8. Influences on Employee Perceptions of Organizational Work-Life Support: Signals and Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcour, Monique; Ollier-Malaterre, Ariane; Matz-Costa, Christina; Pitt-Catsouphes, Marcie; Brown, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    This study examined predictors of employee perceptions of organizational work-life support. Using organizational support theory and conservation of resources theory, we reasoned that workplace demands and resources shape employees' perceptions of work-life support through two mechanisms: signaling that the organization cares about their work-life…

  9. Grandmothers Raising Grandchildren with Disabilities: Sources of Support and Family Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresak, Karen E.; Gallagher, Peggy A.; Kelley, Susan J.

    2014-01-01

    Sources of support and quality of life of 50 grandmother-headed families raising grandchildren with and without disabilities were examined. Comparative analyses revealed significant differences between grandmothers raising grandchildren with and without disabilities in regard to sources of support and family quality of life. Informal support was…

  10. National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Partnered Development of Cryogenic Life Support Technologies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cryogenic life support technology, used by NASA to protect crews working around hazardous gases soon could be called on for a number of life-saving applications as...

  11. Breastfeeding Support in the Workplace: The Relationships Among Breastfeeding Support, Work-Life Balance, and Job Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantzer, Amanda M; Anderson, Jenn; Kuehl, Rebecca A

    2018-05-01

    Women are increasingly faced with decisions about how to combine breastfeeding with work, but few researchers have directly measured how breastfeeding relates to the work-life interface. Research aim: The authors examined how perceptions of work enhancement of personal life and work interference with personal life were influenced by workplace breastfeeding support, including organizational, manager, and coworker support, as well as adequate time to express human milk. Then, we examined how workplace breastfeeding support predicted work-life variables and job satisfaction. Using a self-report, survey design, the authors analyzed online surveys from 87 women in a rural, community sample who indicated that they had pumped at work or anticipated needing to pump in the future. According to regression results, provision of workplace breastfeeding support, particularly providing adequate time for human milk expression, predicted work enhancement of personal life. Conversely, we found that as workplace support diminished, employees perceived greater work interference with personal life. Results of path analysis further suggested that providing time for expressing milk improved job satisfaction via a partially mediated relationship where work enhancement of personal life acted as a mediator. These results suggest that employers can enhance the lives of their breastfeeding employees both at work and at home by providing workplace breastfeeding support, especially through providing time for expressing human milk in the workplace.

  12. Fine Tuning of Basic Forces through the Existence of Carbon-Based Life

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2001-01-01

    The bulk of the carbon in our universe is produced in the triple-alpha process in helium-burning red giant stars. We calculated the change of the triple-alpha reaction rate in a microscopic twelve-nucleon model of the 12C nucleus and looked for the effects of minimal variations of the strengths of the underlying strong and Coulomb interactions. Stellar model calculations are performed using the alternative reaction rates. We show that outside a narrow window of 0.5% of the strength or range of the strong interaction the stellar production of carbon or oxygen is reduced by factors of 130 to 1000. Therefore, outside this window the existence of carbon-based life in our universe would be strongly disfavored. These anthropically allowed strengths of the strong and electromagnetic forces also constrain the sum of the light quark masses and the Higgs vacuum expectation value.

  13. Basic research in support of innovative fuels design for the Generation IV systems (F-BRIDGE project)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valot, Carole; Bertolus, Marjorie; Konings, Rudy; Somers, Joe; Groot, Sander de

    2010-01-01

    F-BRIDGE (Basic Research in support of Innovative Fuels Design for the GEN IV systems) is a 4-year project which started in 2008. It seeks to bridge the gap between basic research and technological applications for generation IV nuclear reactor systems. One of the challenges for the next generation of reactors is to significantly increase the efficiency in designing innovative fuels. The object of the F-BRIDGE project is to complement the empirical approach by a physically-based description of fuel and cladding materials to enable a rationalization of the design process and a better selection of promising fuel systems. Advanced modelling and separate effects experiments are carried out in order to obtain more exact physical descriptions of ceramic fuels and cladding, at relevant scales from the atomic to the macroscopic scale. Research is also focused on assessing and improving 'sphere-pac' fuel, a composite-ceramics concept which has shown promise. The project activities can be broken down into four main areas: (i) Basic research investigations using a multi-scale approach in both experimentation and modelling to enable the generation of missing basic data, the identification of relevant mechanisms and the development of appropriate models; (ii) Transfer between technological issues and basic research by bringing together within the same project materials scientists, engineers and end-users; (iii) Assessment of the drawbacks and benefits of the sphere-pac fuel application to various Generation IV systems; (iv) Education and training to promote research in the field of fuel materials, to ensure the exchange of results and ideas among the participants and to link the project with other related European or international initiatives. The project relies on the complementary expertise of 19 partners: nuclear and non nuclear research organisations, universities, a nuclear engineering company, as well as technology and project management consultancy small and medium

  14. Basic concepts for designing renewable electricity support aiming at a full-scale transition by 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbruggen, Aviel; Lauber, Volkmar

    2009-01-01

    Renewable electricity supply is a crucial factor in the realization of a low-carbon energy economy. The understanding is growing that a full turn-over of the electricity sectors by 2050 is an elementary condition for avoiding global average temperature increase beyond 2 deg. C. This article adopts such full transition as Europe's target when designing renewable energy policy. An immediate corollary is that phasing-in unprecedented energy efficiency and renewable generation must be paralleled by phasing-out non-sustainable fossil fuel and nuclear power technologies. The double phasing programme assigns novel meaning to nearby target settings for renewable power as share of total power consumption. It requires organizing in the medium term EU-wide markets for green power, a highly demanding task in the present context of poorly functional markets in brown power. The EU Commission's 2007/2008 proposals of expanding tradable certificates markets were not based on solid analysis of past experiences and future necessities. The keystone of sound policies on renewable electricity development is a detailed scientific differentiation and qualification of renewable electricity sources and technologies, for measuring the huge diversity in the field. We provide but structuring concepts about such qualification, because implementation requires extensive research resources. Support for renewable electricity development is organized via feed-in prices or premiums, and via quota obligations connected to tradable green certificates. Green certificates are dependent on physical generated renewable power, but separable and no joint products. Contrary to conventional wisdom we argue their separation in cost analysis but firm linking during trade. A few graphs illustrate the importance of assigning qualities to different renewable power sources/technologies. Feed-in systems based on an acceptable qualification perform generally better than certificate markets imposing uniform approaches

  15. The perspective crops for the bioregenerative human life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonskiy, Vadim; Polonskaya, Janna

    The perspective crops for the bioregenerative human life support systems V.I. Polonskiy, J.E. Polonskaya aKrasnoyarsk State Agrarian University, 660049, Krasnoyarsk, Russia In the nearest future the space missions will be too long. In this case it is necessary to provide the crew by vitamins, antioxidants, and water-soluble dietary fibers. These compounds will be produced by higher plants. There was not enough attention at present to increasing content of micronutrients in edible parts of crops candidates for CELSS. We suggested to add the new crops to this list. 1. Barley -is the best crop for including to food crops (wheat, rice, soybean). Many of the health effects of barley are connected to dietary fibers beta-glucan of barley grains. Bar-ley is the only seed from cereals including wheat with content of all eight tocopherols (vitamin E, important antioxidant). Barley grains contain much greater amounts of phenolic compounds (potential antioxidant activities) than other cereal grains. Considerable focus is on supplement-ing wheat-based breads with barley to introduce the inherent nutritional advantages of barley flour, currently only 20We have selected and tested during 5 generations two high productive barley lines -1-K-O and 25-K-O. Our investigations (special breeding program for improving grain quality of barley) are in progress. 2. Volatile crops. Young leaves and shoots of these crops are edible and have a piquant taste. A lot of organic volatile compounds, oils, vitamins, antioxidants are in their biomass. These micronutrients are useful for good appetite and health of the crew. We have investigated 11 species: basil (Ocimum basilicum), hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis), marjoram (Origanum majorana), sweet-Mary (Melissa officinalis), common thyme (Thymus vulgaris), creeping thyme (Thymus serpyllum), summer savory (Satureja hortensis), catnip (Nepeta cataria), rue (Ruta graveolens), coriander (Coriandrum Ativum), sulfurwort (Levisticum officinale). These

  16. Is Vitamin E Life Supporter for Gamma Irradiated Galleria Mollenella?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, H.F.

    2012-01-01

    This study conducted to determine the effect of vitamin E separate or combined with gamma ray in semi artificial diets on some biological aspects of the Greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella L. (Pyralidae : Lepidoptera). The increase in the average number of eggs per mated female for more than 70 % of the control in both treated male and female. Also, through the F1 generation (descendant of P1 progeny fed on artificial diet plus vitamin E) in either irradiated male or female at 100 and 300 Gy dose levels. The life supporter of vitamin E clearly demonstrates throughout F1 whose offspring fed on artificial diet plus Vitamin E, also more pronounced during the first generation treated with gamma irradiation (100 and 300 Gray) which descendant from the offspring were fed on the artificial diet containing Vitamin E (0.02%) than that treatments which treated with gamma irradiation only. The average weight of larvae and pupae significantly increase by using petroleum ether only or this may be abnormal. The average weight of larvae and pupae at the concentration 0.02% was 105.07 and 121.87 % from the control treatment, respectively then decreased to 67.86 and 75.12%, respectively from the control treatment at the concentration 0.04% and then increase at the two concentrations 0.06 and 0.08 %. The increase in weight gain in the case combined ( 100 Gy or 300 Gy with Vitamin E) more than in case using a single dose of gamma irradiation , the increase in case 300 Gy only or combined with Vitamin E more than the control treatment. The best result in case of Vitamin (E) only then when treated the pest with gamma radiation after Vitamin (E) and the effect at 100 Gy better than in case 300 Gy. The combined effect of sub sterilizing dose (300 Gy) and sterilizing doses (400 and 500 Gy) of gamma radiation and vitamin E on the mating competitiveness of F1 males G. Mellenella shows that the competitiveness values more than 1.0 at the combined VE and the two dose levels 400 and 500 Gy

  17. Life Support and Environmental Monitoring International System Maturation Team Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Molly; Gatens, Robyn; Ikeda, Toshitami; Ito, Tsuyoshi; Hovland, Scott; Witt, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Human exploration of the solar system is an ambitious goal. Future human missions to Mars or other planets will require the cooperation of many nations to be feasible. Exploration goals and concepts have been gathered by the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) at a very high level, representing the overall goals and strategies of each participating space agency. The Global Exploration Roadmap published by ISECG states that international partnerships are part of what drives the mission scenarios. It states "Collaborations will be established at all levels (missions, capabilities, technologies), with various levels of interdependency among the partners." To make missions with interdependency successful, technologists and system experts need to share information early, before agencies have made concrete plans and binding agreements. This paper provides an overview of possible ways of integrating NASA, ESA, and JAXA work into a conceptual roadmap of life support and environmental monitoring capabilities for future exploration missions. Agencies may have immediate plans as well as long term goals or new ideas that are not part of official policy. But relationships between plans and capabilities may influence the strategies for the best ways to achieve partner goals. Without commitments and an organized program like the International Space Station, requirements for future missions are unclear. Experience from ISS has shown that standards and an early understanding of requirements are an important part of international partnerships. Attempting to integrate systems that were not designed together can create many problems. Several areas have been identified that could be important to discuss and understand early: units of measure, cabin CO2 levels, and the definition and description of fluids like high purity oxygen, potable water and residual biocide, and crew urine and urine pretreat. Each of the partners is exploring different kinds of technologies

  18. Preparation of Zirconia Supported Basic Nanocatalyst: A Physicochemical and Kinetic Study of Biodiesel Production from Soybean Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Pramod; Pratap, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Zirconia supported cadmium oxide basic nanocatalyst was prepared by simple co-precipitation method using aq. ammonia as precipitating reagent. The catalyst was characterised by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy technique (TEM), Brunauer-Emmet-Teller surface area measurement (BET), temperature program desorption (TPD-CO2) etc. The transesterificaton of soybean oil with methanol into biodiesel was catalysed by employing zirconia supported nanocatalyst. Kinetics of transesterificaton of oil was studied and obeyed the pseudo first order equation. While, the activation energy (Ea) for the transesterification of oil was found to be 41.18 kJ mol(-1). The 97% yield of biodiesel was observed using 7% catalyst loading (with respect of oil), 1:40 molar ratio of oil to methanol at 135°C.

  19. STRATEGIES SUPPORTING THE HEALTH PROCESS AS EXPERIENCED BY WOMEN WITH A LIFE THREATENING DISEASE AND EXCELLENT NURSES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kirsten Pryds

    1999-01-01

    process, it was found imperative that the patient worked actively, created something to live for, and achieved a harmonious relationship with supportive significant others and nature. In the process the patient experienced awareness and avoidance and gained insights about life itself (paper I......Development of basic knowledge about patients’ own health strategies and the impact of professional caring/nursing on the health process are considered essential in order to improve nursing care to people in need of that service. The aim of this licentiate thesis is to explore and describe patients......). The patients perceived the supportive health strategies performed by the excellent nurse as, being able to "catch their wavelength” and in a positive, genuine, supportive connectedness, transfer knowledge and courage to them (paper II). The nurses perceived the supportive health strategies performed...

  20. Supporting family carers in home-based end-of-life care: using participatory action research to develop a training programme for support workers and volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caswell, Glenys; Hardy, Beth; Ewing, Gail; Kennedy, Sheila; Seymour, Jane

    2017-08-02

    Family carers are crucial in enabling dying people to stay at home, but are often not prepared for their caring role, receiving little support from formal health and social care services. It is increasingly likely that any help or support family carers receive will be provided by a third sector organisation on either a voluntary basis or by untrained carer support workers. To produce a training programme designed to equip carer support workers and volunteers with the basic skills and knowledge needed to support family carers. Participatory action research, a collaborative form of working in which those who are affected by an issue take a lead role in the research, was used. Bereaved carers acting as research partners, support workers and representatives of third sector organisations took an active part in designing, developing, piloting and refining the programme in a number of interlinked stages. During development, the programme was piloted on four occasions and evaluated by 36 trainees and 3 trainers. The outcome of the project is an innovative, 1-day training programme, offering an introduction to supporting family carers who are looking after someone approaching the end of life. The use of participatory action research methods enabled the development of a programme that addresses support needs identified by bereaved carers and training needs identified by carer support workers.The finished programme includes all the materials necessary to run a training day for support workers and volunteers: facilitator's notes, trainee workbook, slides, promotional poster and pre-course reading for trainees. Knowledge of issues involved in end-of-life and palliative care is not required, although some experience in delivering training is advisable. The programme evaluated well during development, but further research is required to examine the transfer of learning into the workplace. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the

  1. Technical assessment of Mir-1 life support hardware for the international space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, K. L.; Bagdigian, R. M.; Carrasquillo, R. L.; Carter, D. L.; Franks, G. D.; Holder, D. W., Jr.; Hutchens, C. F.; Ogle, K. Y.; Perry, J. L.; Ray, C. D.

    1994-01-01

    NASA has been progressively learning the design and performance of the Russian life support systems utilized in their Mir space station. In 1992, a plan was implemented to assess the benefits of the Mir-1 life support systems to the Freedom program. Three primary tasks focused on: evaluating the operational Mir-1 support technologies and understanding if specific Russian systems could be directly utilized on the American space station and if Russian technology design information could prove useful in improving the current design of the planned American life support equipment; evaluating the ongoing Russian life support technology development activities to determine areas of potential long-term application to the U.S. space station; and utilizing the expertise of their space station life support systems to evaluate the benefits to the current U.S. space station program which included the integration of the Russian Mir-1 designs with the U.S. designs to support a crew of six.

  2. Nanostructured Humidity Sensor for Spacecraft Life Support Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Humidity is a critical variable for monitoring and control on extended duration missions because it can affect the operation and efficiency of closed loop life...

  3. Phase Change Permeation Technology for Environmental Control & Life Support Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA is evaluating Dutyion™, a phase change permeation membrane technology developed by Design Technology and Irrigation (DTI), for use in future advanced life...

  4. Radiation chemistry from basics to applications in material and life sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belloni, J.; Mostafavi, M. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France); Douki, Th. [CEA Grenoble, 38 (France); Spotheim-Maurizot, M. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 45 - Orleans-la-Source (France)

    2008-07-01

    This book gives a progress report on the many and original contributions of radiation chemistry to the fundamental knowledge of the vast domain of chemical reactions and its applications. Radiation chemistry techniques indeed make it possible to elucidate detailed physicochemical mechanisms in inorganic and organic chemistry (including in space) and in biochemistry. Moreover, this comprehension is applied in materials science to precisely control syntheses by radiation, such as radiopolymerization, radio-grafting, specific treatment of surfaces (textiles, paintings, inks,..), synthesis of complex nano-materials, degradation of environmental pollutants and radioresistance of materials for nuclear reactors. In life sciences, the study of the effects of radiation on bio-macromolecules (DNA, proteins, lipids) not only permits the comprehension of normal or pathological biological mechanisms, but also the improvement of our health. In particular, many advances in cancer radiotherapy, in the radioprotection of nuclear workers and the general population, as well as in the treatment of diseases and the radiosterilization of drugs, could be obtained thanks to this research. Abundantly illustrated and written in English by top international specialists who have taken care to render the subjects accessible, this work will greatly interest those curious about a scientific field that is new to them and students attracted by the original and multidisciplinary aspects of the field. At a time when radiation chemistry research is experiencing spectacular development in numerous countries, this book will attract newcomers to the field. (authors)

  5. Radiation chemistry from basics to applications in material and life sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belloni, J.; Mostafavi, M.; Douki, Th.; Spotheim-Maurizot, M.

    2008-01-01

    This book gives a progress report on the many and original contributions of radiation chemistry to the fundamental knowledge of the vast domain of chemical reactions and its applications. Radiation chemistry techniques indeed make it possible to elucidate detailed physicochemical mechanisms in inorganic and organic chemistry (including in space) and in biochemistry. Moreover, this comprehension is applied in materials science to precisely control syntheses by radiation, such as radiopolymerization, radio-grafting, specific treatment of surfaces (textiles, paintings, inks,..), synthesis of complex nano-materials, degradation of environmental pollutants and radioresistance of materials for nuclear reactors. In life sciences, the study of the effects of radiation on bio-macromolecules (DNA, proteins, lipids) not only permits the comprehension of normal or pathological biological mechanisms, but also the improvement of our health. In particular, many advances in cancer radiotherapy, in the radioprotection of nuclear workers and the general population, as well as in the treatment of diseases and the radiosterilization of drugs, could be obtained thanks to this research. Abundantly illustrated and written in English by top international specialists who have taken care to render the subjects accessible, this work will greatly interest those curious about a scientific field that is new to them and students attracted by the original and multidisciplinary aspects of the field. At a time when radiation chemistry research is experiencing spectacular development in numerous countries, this book will attract newcomers to the field. (authors)

  6. Effects of acido-basic support properties on the catalytic hydrogenation of acetylene on gold nano-particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manda, Abdullah Ahmed

    Metallic gold nanoparticles supported on gamma-Al2O 3 and magnesia-alumina mixed oxide, with different magnesia content have been prepared by sol-gel method and characterized by different techniques (inductive coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS), XRD, BET surface area analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), CO2 and NH 3 temperature programmed desorption (TPD), H2 temperature programmed reduction (TPR) and FTIR of adsorbed CO2). Such systems were found to produce catalysts with controllable acidity, varying from catalyst possessing large density of acidic and low density of basic sites, others with acidic and basic sites of equal strength and density, and others with large basic and low acid sites densities, respectively. The catalytic assessment of the generated acidity was carried out using 2-propanol decomposition as a test reaction. The results obtained indicate that the presence of magnesia and reduced gold nanopartilces has imparted the catalysts, 1%Au/4%Mg-Al 2O3 and 1%Au/8%Mg-Al2O3, with significant base-catalytic properties. Acetylene hydrogenation and formation of coke deposits were investigated on a gold catalyst supported on gamma-Al2O3 and gold supported on alumina-magnisia mixed oxide with different gold content; 1%Au/gamma-Al 2O3, 1%Au/15%Mg-Al2O3, 2%Au/15%Mg-Al 2O3 and 4%Au/15%Mg-Al2O3. The effect of the H2/C2H2 ratio was studied over a range of values. The catalytic activity and selectivity towards ethylene and other products were investigated at different reaction temperatures. Acetylene hydrogenation was investigated in the presence and absence of ethylene in stream. It is investigated that the adsorption of the triple bond is preferred over the double bond and during selective catalytic (SCR) of C2H2 the two hydrocarbons do not compete for the same adsorption sites. The deactivation of catalysts was studied by temperature programmed oxidation (TPO). Higher content of coke over 1%Au/Al2O3 catalyst was investigated in contrast to

  7. BIOREGENERATIVE LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEMS IN THE SPACE (BLSS: THE EFFECTS OF RADIATION ON PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Arena

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The growth of plants in Space is a fundamental issue for Space exploration. Plants play an important role in the Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSS to sustain human permanence in extraterrestrial environments. Under this perspective, plants are basic elements for oxygen and fresh food production as well as air regeneration and psychological support to the crew. The potentiality of plant survival and reproduction in space is limited by the same factors that act on the earth (e.g. light, temperature and relative humidity and by additional factors such as altered gravity and ionizing radiation. This paper analyzes plant responses to space radiation which is recognized as a powerful mutagen for photosynthetic organisms thus being responsible for morpho-structural, physiological and genetic alterations. Until now, many studies have evidenced how the response to ionizing radiation is influenced by several factors associated both to plant characteristics (e.g. cultivar, species, developmental stage, tissue structure and/or radiation features (e.g. dose, quality and exposure time. The photosynthetic machinery is particularly sensitive to ionizing radiation. The severity of the damages induced by ionizing radiation on plant cell and tissues may depend on the capability of plants to adopt protection mechanisms and/or repair strategies. In this paper a selection of results from studies on the effect of ionizing radiations on plants at anatomical and eco-physiological level is reported and some aspects related to radioresistance are explored.

  8. Depression partially mediated the relationship between basic psychological needs and quality of life among people living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed, Zahraa; van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Dolan, James G; Shah, Krupa N

    2017-11-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between basic psychological needs (BPN), depression and quality of life (QOL) in people living with HIV (PLWH). This cross-sectional study (N = 65; 37% females, 37% Caucasian, mean age = 55 ± 6 years, mean CD4 count = 668 ± 368 cells/mm 3 , average duration of HIV = 18 ± 4 years) found that BPN frustration was related with lower QOL. The strength of this relationship was reduced after controlling for depression. This suggests that depression partially mediated the relationship between BPN and QOL. BPN and depression may be specific targets for psychosocial interventions aimed at improving QOL in PLWH to promote successful aging.

  9. Gender Differences in Perceived Social Support and Stressful Life Events in Depressed Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soman, S; Bhat, S M; Latha, K S; Praharaj, S K

    2016-03-01

    To study the gender differences in perceived social support and life events in patients with depression. A total of 118 patients aged 18 to 60 years, with depressive disorder according to the DSM-IV-TR, were evaluated using the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support and Presumptive Stressful Life Events Scale. The perceived social support score was significantly higher in males than females (p social support from friends than females (p life events as well as specific type of life events in males that became apparent after controlling for education (p life event in both males and females. Work-related problems were more commonly reported by males, whereas family and marital conflict were more frequently reported by females. Perceived social support and stressful life events were higher in males with depression than females.

  10. Relationship between basic protective health behaviours and health related quality of life in Greek urban hospital employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tountas, Yannis; Manios, Yannis; Dimitrakaki, Christine; Tzavara, Chara

    2007-01-01

    The study aimed to explore the association between the presence of several protective health behaviors and physical and mental wellbeing/functioning among healthy hospital employees in Greece. A randomly selected representative sample of 395 employees working in seven hospitals, both public and private, within the wider region of Athens participated in the study. Participants were assigned to the following professional categories: administrative, auxiliary and technical personnel, medical doctors and nurses. Four basic protective health behaviors were examined: following the Mediterranean diet, exercising, no smoking and moderate alcohol drinking. Employees' health related quality of life was assessed with the self-administered SF-36 generic health status measure. Technical and administrative hospital personnel reported more healthy behaviors than medical and auxiliary personnel. There was an increased likelihood of scoring higher in almost all SF-36 Physical health subscales in the accumulation of the above four protective heath behaviors. In terms of mental health, even the presence of two or more protective health behaviors significantly increase the score on most SF-36 Mental health subscales. Results indicate that the protective role of basic health behaviors extends beyond physical health to mental wellbeing.

  11. The relationship between family social support and quality of life in diabetic female patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mousavi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Life quality of diabetic patients is always affected by psychosocial problems, physical disorders, and life style changes. It seems that the perceived social support could intervene in improving the life quality of these patients. The present study was carried out aiming to examine the relation between family social support and life quality of female patients with diabetes. This was a cross-sectional study. The statistical population included 173 diabetic females who were randomly selected from patients referred to Kermanshah diabetes research center. Data were collected using life quality questionnaire (Short Form-36 as well as perceived social support scale. The data analysis indicated that there is a significant correlation between family support and life quality of patients. Furthermore, concerning the components of life quality, there is a significant correlation between family social support and physical performance, physical limitation, tiredness, emotional health, social performance, pain, and general health of patients. However, no significant relation was found between family support and limitation of patients. Results showed that there is a direct relation between family support and the life quality in females with diabetes. Hence, it can be concluded that giving the family support to the female diabetic patients can increase their quality of life.

  12. Modeling snail breeding in Bioregenerative Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, Vladimir; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Nickolay Manukovsky, D..

    It is known that snail meat is a high quality food that is rich in protein. Hence, heliciculture or land snail farming spreads worldwide because it is a profitable business. The possibility to use the snails of Helix pomatia in Biological Life Support System (BLSS) was studied by Japanese Researches. In that study land snails were considered to be producers of animal protein. Also, snail breeding was an important part of waste processing, because snails were capable to eat the inedible plant biomass. As opposed to the agricultural snail farming, heliciculture in BLSS should be more carefully planned. The purpose of our work was to develop a model for snail breeding in BLSS that can predict mass flow rates in and out of snail facility. There are three linked parts in the model called “Stoichiometry”, “Population” and “Mass balance”, which are used in turn. Snail population is divided into 12 age groups from oviposition to one year. In the submodel “Stoichiometry” the individual snail growth and metabolism in each of 12 age groups are described with stoichiometry equations. Reactants are written on the left side of the equations, while products are written on the right side. Stoichiometry formulas of reactants and products consist of four chemical elements: C, H, O, N. The reactants are feed and oxygen, products are carbon dioxide, metabolic water, snail meat, shell, feces, slime and eggs. If formulas of substances in the stoichiometry equations are substituted with their molar masses, then stoichiometry equations are transformed to the equations of molar mass balance. To get the real mass balance of individual snail growth and metabolism one should multiply the value of each molar mass in the equations on the scale parameter, which is the ratio between mass of monthly consumed feed and molar mass of feed. Mass of monthly consumed feed and stoichiometry coefficients of formulas of meat, shell, feces, slime and eggs should be determined experimentally

  13. Developing Anticipatory Life Cycle Assessment Tools to Support Responsible Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wender, Benjamin

    Several prominent research strategy organizations recommend applying life cycle assessment (LCA) early in the development of emerging technologies. For example, the US Environmental Protection Agency, the National Research Council, the Department of Energy, and the National Nanotechnology Initiative identify the potential for LCA to inform research and development (R&D) of photovoltaics and products containing engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). In this capacity, application of LCA to emerging technologies may contribute to the growing movement for responsible research and innovation (RRI). However, existing LCA practices are largely retrospective and ill-suited to support the objectives of RRI. For example, barriers related to data availability, rapid technology change, and isolation of environmental from technical research inhibit application of LCA to developing technologies. This dissertation focuses on development of anticipatory LCA tools that incorporate elements of technology forecasting, provide robust explorations of uncertainty, and engage diverse innovation actors in overcoming retrospective approaches to environmental assessment and improvement of emerging technologies. Chapter one contextualizes current LCA practices within the growing literature articulating RRI and identifies the optimal place in the stage gate innovation model to apply LCA. Chapter one concludes with a call to develop anticipatory LCA---building on the theory of anticipatory governance---as a series of methodological improvements that seek to align LCA practices with the objectives of RRI. Chapter two provides a framework for anticipatory LCA, identifies where research from multiple disciplines informs LCA practice, and builds off the recommendations presented in the preceding chapter. Chapter two focuses on crystalline and thin film photovoltaics (PV) to illustrate the novel framework, in part because PV is an environmentally motivated technology undergoing extensive R&D efforts and

  14. Hydroponic cultivation of soybean for Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSSs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pascale, Stefania; De Micco, Veronica; Aronne, Giovanna; Paradiso, Roberta

    For long time our research group has been involved in experiments aiming to evaluate the possibility to cultivate plants in Space to regenerate resources and produce food. Apart from investigating the response of specific growth processes (at morpho-functional levels) to space factors (namely microgravity and ionising radiation), wide attention has been dedicated to agro-technologies applied to ecologically closed systems. Based on technical and human dietary requirements, soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is studied as one of the candidate species for hydroponic (soilless) cultivation in the research program MELiSSA (Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative) of the European Space Agency (ESA). Soybean seeds show high nutritional value, due to the relevant content of protein, lipids, dietary fiber and biologically active substances such as isoflavones. They can produce fresh sprouts or be transformed in several edible products (soymilk and okara or soy pulp). Soybean is traditionally grown in open field where specific interactions with soil microrganisms occur. Most available information on plant growth, seed productivity and nutrient composition relate to cultivated varieties (cultivars) selected for soil cultivation. However, in a space outpost, plant cultivation would rely on soilless systems. Given that plant growth, seed yield and quality strictly depend on the environmental conditions, to make successful the cultivation of soybean in space, it was necessary to screen all agronomic information according to space constraints. Indeed, selected cultivars have to comply with the space growth environment while providing a suitable nutritional quality to fulfill the astronauts needs. We proposed an objective criterion for the preliminary theoretical selection of the most suitable cultivars for seed production, which were subsequently evaluated in bench tests in hydroponics. Several Space-oriented experiments were carried out in a closed growth chamber to

  15. Time, Interaction, and Design in Support of a Good Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froes, Isabel Cristina G.; Laaksolahti, Jarmo Matti; Witzner Hansen, Dan

    This position paper outlines a research program for the IxD Research Group at the IT University of Copenhagen. As such, it presents a range of questions addressing different corners of the question of time in IxD from the point of view of HCI, social interaction, material expressions, and software...... development. Our ongoing investigation of Interaction Design for a Good Life (http://itu.dk/IxDLab/) has uncovered a broad diversity of perspectives on how to unpack ‘a good life’ through research and design, and indeed what constitutes a good life to begin with. Through our investigations, time has surfaced...... as pivotal to our budding understanding of elements of a good life and a useful framing for future investigations. Time is also an important topic for interaction design, because it is at the core of interaction, the practice of design, and, in many ways, our use and relationships with technological...

  16. The Summary, Conclusions, and Recommendations of the 309 Special Demonstration Project to Determine the Changes in Life Styles of Adult Basic Education Students Attributable to Participation in the Adult Basic Education Program. Executive Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipp, Travis; And Others

    Interview questionnaires were used in a study to ascertain what benefits or positive changes in life styles, if any, are attributed to participation in the Adult Basic Education (ABE) program by ABE students, and to determine whether specific factors influence participation in ABE. The sample of 510 individuals was drawn from those individuals (in…

  17. Bioregenerative Life Support Experiment for 90-days in a Closed Integrative Experimental Facility LUNAR PALACE 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong

    A 90-day bioregenerative life support experiment with three-member crew was carried out in the closed integrative experimental facility, LUNAR PALACE 1 regenerating basic living necessities and disposing wastes to provide life support for crew. It was composed of higher plant module, animal module, and waste treatment module. The higher plant module included wheat, chufa, pea, carrot and green leafy vegetables, with aim to satisfy requirement of 60% plant food and 100% O2 and water for crew. The yellow mealworm was selected as animal module to provide partial animal protein for crew, and reared on plant inedible biomass. The higher plant and yellow mealworm were both cultivated and harvested in the conveyor-type manner. The partial plant inedible biomass and human feces were mixed and co- fermented in the waste treatment module for preparation of soil-like substrate by bioconversion, maintaining gas balance and increasing closure degree. Meanwhile, in the waste treatment module, the water and partial nitrogen from human urine were recovered by physical-chemical means. Circulation of O2 and water as well as food supply from crops cultivated in the LUNAR PALACE 1 were investigated and calculated, and simultaneously gas exchange, mass flow among different components and system closure degree were also analyzed, respectively. Furthermore, the system robustness with respect to internal variation was tested and evaluated by sensitivity analysis of the aggregative index consisting of key performance indicators like crop yield, gaseous equilibrium concentration, microbial community composition, biogenic elements dynamics, etc., and comprehensively evaluating the operating state, to number change of crew from 2 to 4 during the 90-day closed experiment period.

  18. using explanatory models to derive simple tools for Avanced Life Support system studies - Crop Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavazzoni, J.

    System-level analyses for Advanced Life Support (ALS) require mathematical models for various processes, such as biomass production and waste management, which would ideally be integrated into overall system models. Explanatory models (also referred to as mechanistic or process models) would provide the basis for a more robust system model, as these would be based on an understanding of processes specific to ALS studies. However, integrating such models may not always be practicable because of their complexity, especially for initial system-level analyses where simple sub-models may be satisfactory. One way to address this is to capture important features of explanatory models in simple models that may be readily integrated for system-level analyses. In this paper, explanatory crop models were used to generate parameters and multi-variable polynomial equations for basic models that are suitable for estimating the direction and magnitude of daily changes in canopy gas-exchange, harvest index, and production scheduling due to off- nominal conditions for ALS system studies. The simplest variant of these models consists of only a few equations, and has been integrated into a top-level SIMULINK model for the Bioregenerative Planetary Life Support Systems Test Complex (BIO-Plex), a large-scale human-rated test facility under development at NASA Johnson Space Center. When included in systems studies, the simple crop models may help identify issues that need to be addressed using more detailed modeling studies and specific experiments. Similar modeling simplifications may also prove useful for other ALS sub-systems, as well as for Earth system applications.

  19. Successful outsourcing: improving quality of life through integrated support services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Jason; Sharratt, Martin; King, John

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the way that non-clinical support services are provided in healthcare settings through outsourcing partnerships. The integrated support services model and benefits to patient experience and safety as well as organizational efficiency and effectiveness are explored through an examination of services at a busy urban community hospital.

  20. Perceived social support and life satisfaction in persons with somatization disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Ali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Life satisfaction and perceived social support been shown to improve the well-being of a person and also affect the outcome of treatment in somatization disorder. The phenomenon of somatization was explored in relation to the perceived social support and life satisfaction. Aim: This study aimed at investigating perceived social support and life satisfaction in people with somatization disorder. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on persons having somatization disorder attending the outpatient unit of LGB Regional Institute of Mental Health, Tezpur, Assam. Satisfaction with life scale and multidimensional scale of perceived social support were used to assess life satisfaction and perceived social support respectively. Results: Women reported more somatic symptoms than men. Family perceived social support was high in the patient in comparison to significant others′ perceived social support and friends′ perceived social support. Perceived social support showed that a significant positive correlation was found with life satisfaction. Conclusion: Poor social support and low life satisfaction might be a stress response with regard to increased distress severity and psychosocial stressors rather than a cultural response to express psychological problems in somatic terms.

  1. Perceived psychosocial needs, social support and quality of life in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subjects with extrovert personality perceived significantly more lifestyle changes, reported a higher fear of rejection and a lower degree of adjustment to the disease than subjects with introvert personality. Subjects with late-stage HIV infection reported a lower social adjustment to the disease, a lower quality of life and more ...

  2. European top managers' support for work-life arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Been, W.M.

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, work-life arrangements increasingly became an integral part of the organization of work. Arrangements such as telecommuting, flextime, part-time hours, and various types of leave arrangements are available to employees in many organizations. Top managers, such as CEOs, CFOs and

  3. Source apportionment of social support and quality of life index ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study intends to show the effectiveness of Factor Analysis (FA) and Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) for the assessing quality of life indicator sources. The data from 12 prisons selected in Peninsular Malaysia was collected during the period April and June 2015. The 1753 respondents were selected using simple ...

  4. Social support in later life: family, friends and community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Josefina Arias

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to carry out an analysis of the importance of social support and participation in old age. Contributions are presented first that various international agencies concerned with old age and aging have been made to strengthen this support and increased participation of older people. Different sources of social support are described: formal and informal interventions that can be made with varied promotion and preventive-wellness-care objectives and action at various levels-individual, group, family, organizational and community-and is made an analysis of the impact on the well-being have the resources of social support available to older people. Finally we reflect on Certain negative assumptions about the availability of support and social participation of older people in relation to recent research findings on the subject. Problematize the importance of these negative stereotypes about aging in general and on the participation and the availability of social support in particular in order to achieve more supportive environments that promote the development of the potential of older persons is concluded.

  5. THE EFFECT OF PERCEIVED SOCIAL SUPPORT ON HEMODIALYSIS PATIENTS' QUALITY OF LIFE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexopoulou, Margarita; Giannakopoulou, Natalia; Komna, Eleni; Alikari, Victoria; Toulia, Georgia; Polikandrioti, Maria

    2016-10-01

    Association between perceived social support and quality of life in hemodialysis patients represents a new area of interest. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of social support on the quality of life of hemodialysis patients. In this study 258 hemodialysis patients were enrolled. Data was collected using a questionnaire which consisted of three parts: a) the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) to assess perceived social support, b) the Missoula-VITAS Quality of Life Index (MVQOLI-15) to assess quality of patients' life and c) the socio-demographic, clinical and other variables of patients. To test the existence of association between quality of life and social support the correlation coefficient of Spearman was used. Multiple linear regression was performed to estimate the effect of social support on quality of life (dependent variable), adjusted for potential confounders. The analysis was performed on SPSS v20. Patients felt high support from significant others and family and less from friends (median 6, 6 and 4.5 respectively). Patients evaluated their quality of life in its entirety as moderate in the total and "overall quality of life" score (median 17.2 and 3 respectively). Regarding the association between social support and quality of life, results showed that the more support patients had from their significant others, family and friends, the better quality of life they had. (rho =0,395, rho =0,399 and rho=0,359, respectively). Understanding the relation between social support and quality of life should prompt health professionals to provide beneficial care to hemodialysis patients.

  6. Arab Youth in Canada: Acculturation, Enculturation, Social Support, and Life Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Ashley D.; Hakim-Larson, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Results from 98 Arab youth in Canada showed that having a positive Arab culture orientation was related to greater family life satisfaction with family social support as a mediator. A positive European Canadian orientation was related to greater school life satisfaction, but this relation was not mediated by friend social support. Implications for…

  7. Student Academic Support as a Predictor of Life Satisfaction in University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Ahmet; Arslan, Serhat; Çelik, Eyüp; Kaya, Çinar; Arslan, Nihan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between Academic Support and Life Satisfaction. Participants were 458 university students who voluntarily filled out a package of self-report instruments. Student Academic Support Scale and Satisfaction with Life Scale were used as measures. The relationships between student academic support…

  8. Social Support and Optimism as Predictors of Life Satisfaction of College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, Ilhan

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the predictive value of optimism, perceived support from family and perceived support from faculty in determining life satisfaction of college students in Turkey. One hundred and thirty three students completed the Satisfaction with Life Scale (Diener et al., Journal of Personality Assessment…

  9. Training of Advanced Cardiac Life Support Skills to Nursing Staff in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Training of Advanced Cardiac Life Support Skills to Nursing Staff in Critical. Areas of Care. Joseph Mpambara1, Jean Claude Musengimana1, Vianney Ruhumuliza1, Katie Carlson1. 1King Faisal Hospital, Rwanda. Background. This advanced cardiac life support skills (ACLS) program was free of charge and the program ...

  10. Quality of Life of Workers with an Intellectual Disability in Supported Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdugo, M. A.; Jordan de Urries, F. B.; Jenaro, C.; Caballo, C.; Crespo, M.

    2006-01-01

    Aim: This study investigate what characteristics of supported employment increase quality of life and whether quality of life is higher in supported employment workers or the sheltered ones in Spain. Typicalness, the degree to which the characteristics of a job are the same as those of co-workers without a disability in the same company, was…

  11. Quality of Life and Quality of Support for People with Severe Intellectual Disability and Complex Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beadle-Brown, J.; Leigh, J.; Whelton, B.; Richardson, L.; Beecham, J.; Baumker, T.; Bradshaw, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: People with severe and profound intellectual disabilities often spend substantial time isolated and disengaged. The nature and quality of the support appears to be important in determining quality of life. Methods: Structured observations and staff questionnaires were used to explore the quality of life and quality of support for 110…

  12. First-Generation Undergraduate Students' Social Support, Depression, and Life Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Sharon Rae; Belanger, Aimee; Connally, Melissa Londono; Boals, Adriel; Duron, Kelly M.

    2013-01-01

    First-generation undergraduate students face challenging cross-socioeconomic cultural transitions into college life. The authors compared first- and non-first-generation undergraduate students' social support, posttraumatic stress, depression symptoms, and life satisfaction. First-generation participants reported less social support from family…

  13. R and D in support of CANDU plant life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapping, R.L.; Holt, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    One of the keys to the long-term success of CANDUs is a high capacity factor over the station design life. Considerable R and D in underway at AECL to develop technologies for assessing, monitoring and mitigating the effect of plant ageing and for improving plant performance and extending plant life. To achieve longer service life and to realize high capacity factor from CANDU stations, AECL is developing new technologies to enhance fuel channel and steam generator inspection capabilities, to monitor system health, and to allow preventive maintenance and cleaning (e.g., on-line chemical cleaning processes that produce small volumes of wastes). The life management strategy for fuel channels and steam generators requires a program to inspect components on a routine basis to identify mechanisms that could potentially affect fitness-for-service. In the case of fuel channels, the strategy includes inspections for dimensional changes, flaw detection, and deuterium concentration. New techniques are been developed to enhance these inspection capabilities; examples include accurate measurement of the gap between a pressure tube and its calandria tube and rapid full-length inspections of steam generator tubes for all known flaw types. Central to life management of components are Fitness-for-Service Guidelines (FFSG) that have been developed with the CANDU Owners Group (COG) that provide a standardized method to assess the potential for propagation of flaws detected during in-service inspections, and assessment of any change in fracture characteristics of the material. FFSG continue to be improved with the development of new technologies such as the capability to credit relaxation of stresses due to creep and non-rejectable flaws in pressure tubes. Effective management of plant systems throughout their lifetime requires much more than data acquisition and display - it requires that system health is continually monitored and managed. AECL has developed a system Health Monitor

  14. THE EFFECT OF PERCEIVED SOCIAL SUPPORT ON HEMODIALYSIS PATIENTS’ QUALITY OF LIFE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexopoulou, Margarita; Giannakopoulou, Natalia; Komna, Eleni; Alikari, Victoria; Toulia, Georgia; Polikandrioti, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background: Association between perceived social support and quality of life in hemodialysis patients represents a new area of interest. Aim: The aim of this study was to explore the effect of social support on the quality of life of hemodialysis patients. Material and Methods: In this study 258 hemodialysis patients were enrolled. Data was collected using a questionnaire which consisted of three parts: a) the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) to assess perceived social support, b) the Missoula-VITAS Quality of Life Index (MVQOLI–15) to assess quality of patients’ life and c) the socio-demographic, clinical and other variables of patients. To test the existence of association between quality of life and social support the correlation coefficient of Spearman was used. Multiple linear regression was performed to estimate the effect of social support on quality of life (dependent variable), adjusted for potential confounders. The analysis was performed on SPSS v20. Results: Patients felt high support from significant others and family and less from friends (median 6, 6 and 4.5 respectively). Patients evaluated their quality of life in its entirety as moderate in the total and “overall quality of life” score (median 17.2 and 3 respectively). Regarding the association between social support and quality of life, results showed that the more support patients had from their significant others, family and friends, the better quality of life they had. (rho =0,395, rho =0,399 and rho=0,359, respectively). Conclusions: Understanding the relation between social support and quality of life should prompt health professionals to provide beneficial care to hemodialysis patients. PMID:27999480

  15. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a ... MSC 9663 Bethesda, MD 20892-9663 Follow Us Facebook Twitter YouTube Google Plus NIMH Newsletter NIMH RSS ...

  16. Perceived health status and life satisfaction in old age, and the moderating role of social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrache, Cristina G; Rubio, Laura; Rubio-Herrera, Ramona

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was on one hand to examine the associations between health impairment and life satisfaction, as well as social support and life satisfaction, and on the other, to analyze the moderating effect of social support with regard to health impairment and life satisfaction in a sample of community-dwelling older adults from urban areas of Granada, southern Spain. This was a cross-sectional survey in which a sample of 406 older adults with ages between 65 and 99 years old (M age = 74.88, SD = 6.75) was selected. Multiple stepwise regression analysis was used to assess the impact of health impairment and perceived social support on life satisfaction. Moderation analysis was performed using the bias-corrected and accelerated bootstrapping approach. Significant differences in life satisfaction scores were found by number and type of disease, restrictions in daily life activities and subjective health. Perceived health and perceived social support predicted life satisfaction. Besides global social support, emotional and affectionate support moderated the link between perceived health and life satisfaction. Older people who do not rate their health status positively and indicate low levels of social support have a higher risk of being dissatisfied with their lives and due to this they should receive special attention from gerontologists.

  17. Predicting adolescent problematic online game use from teacher autonomy support, basic psychological needs satisfaction, and school engagement: a 2-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chengfu; Li, Xian; Zhang, Wei

    2015-04-01

    Problematic online game use (POGU) has become a serious global public health concern among adolescents. However, its influencing factors and mediating mechanisms remain largely unknown. This study provides the first longitudinal design to test stage-environment fit theory empirically in POGU. A total of 356 Chinese students reported on teacher autonomy support, basic psychological needs satisfaction, school engagement, and POGU in the autumn of their 7th-9th grade years. Path analyses supported the proposed pathway: 7th grade teacher autonomy support increased 8th grade basic psychological needs satisfaction, which in turn increased 9th grade school engagement, which ultimately decreased 9th grade POGU. Furthermore, 7th grade teacher autonomy support directly increased 9th grade school engagement, which in turn decreased 9th grade POGU. These findings suggest that teacher autonomy support is an important protective predictor of adolescent POGU, and basic psychological needs satisfaction and school engagement are the primary mediators in this association.

  18. Comprehensive cardiopulmonary life support (CCLS for cardiopulmonary resuscitation by trained paramedics and medics inside the hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Garg

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR guideline of comprehensive cardiopulmonary life support (CCLS for management of the patient with cardiopulmonary arrest in adults provides an algorithmic step-wise approach for optimal outcome of the patient inside the hospital by trained medics and paramedics. This guideline has been developed considering the infrastructure of healthcare delivery system in India. This is based on evidence in the international and national literature. In the absence of data from the Indian population, the extrapolation has been made from international data, discussed with Indian experts and modified accordingly to ensure their applicability in India. The CCLS guideline emphasise the need to recognise patients at risk for cardiac arrest and their timely management before a cardiac arrest occurs. The basic components of CPR include chest compressions for blood circulation; airway maintenance to ensure airway patency; lung ventilation to enable oxygenation and defibrillation to convert a pathologic 'shockable' cardiac rhythm to one capable to maintaining effective blood circulation. CCLS emphasises incorporation of airway management, drugs, and identification of the cause of arrest and its correction, while chest compression and ventilation are ongoing. It also emphasises the value of organised team approach and optimal post-resuscitation care.

  19. Collaborative diagramming during problem based learning in medical education: Do computerized diagrams support basic science knowledge construction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leng, Bas; Gijlers, Hannie

    2015-05-01

    To examine how collaborative diagramming affects discussion and knowledge construction when learning complex basic science topics in medical education, including its effectiveness in the reformulation phase of problem-based learning. Opinions and perceptions of students (n = 70) and tutors (n = 4) who used collaborative diagramming in tutorial groups were collected with a questionnaire and focus group discussions. A framework derived from the analysis of discourse in computer-supported collaborative leaning was used to construct the questionnaire. Video observations were used during the focus group discussions. Both students and tutors felt that collaborative diagramming positively affected discussion and knowledge construction. Students particularly appreciated that diagrams helped them to structure knowledge, to develop an overview of topics, and stimulated them to find relationships between topics. Tutors emphasized that diagramming increased interaction and enhanced the focus and detail of the discussion. Favourable conditions were the following: working with a shared whiteboard, using a diagram format that facilitated distribution, and applying half filled-in diagrams for non-content expert tutors and\\or for heterogeneous groups with low achieving students. The empirical findings in this study support the findings of earlier more descriptive studies that diagramming in a collaborative setting is valuable for learning complex knowledge in medicine.

  20. The relationship between quality of life and social support among adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumcağız Hatice

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Social support plays an important role in quality of life. The social support given to adolescents is thought to positively affect identity development and life quality as well as physical and psychosocial health. In this context, this study aims to examine the relationship between adolescents’ quality of life and social support levels. Designed as a relational screening model, the study was conducted at 5 secondary schools with 436 voluntarily participating students in Dulkadiroğlu, Kahraman Maraş during the 2016-2017 academic year. Within the study, the “Life Quality Scale for Children” and the “Social Relationship Principles Scale for Adolescents” was implemented. In the data analysis process, descriptive statistics, multiple regression analysis and Pearson Product-Moment Correlation analysis tests were used. According to the study results, a positive relationship was found between friends and family support and physical health, psychosocial health and quality of life.

  1. [Supporting the end of life in a therapeutic coordination apartment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousineau, Jean-Luc; Thévenin, Laurent

    2016-02-01

    Therapeutic coordination apartments are medical-social structures which provide accommodation to desocilialized people. For the last 25 years, the association Cordia has been supporting people with debilitating chronic diseases in situations of precarity. The multi-disciplinary approach also ensures that terminally-ill residents are taken care of right up until their last moments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. [Redesign of the Spacesuit Long Life Battery and the Personal Life Support System Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    This fall I was working on two different projects that culminated into a redesign of the spacesuit LLB (long life battery). I also did some work on the PLSS (personal life support system) battery with EC. My first project was redlining the work instruction for completing DPAs (destructive physical analysis) on battery cells in the department. The purpose of this document is to create a standard process and ensure that the data in the same way no matter who carries out the analysis. I observed three DPAs, conducted one with help, and conducted two on my own all while taking notes on the procedure. These notes were used to write the final work instruction that will become is the department standard. My second project continued the work of the summer co-op before me. I was testing aluminum heat sinks for their ability to provide good thermal conduction and structural support during a thermal runaway event. The heat sinks were designed by the summer intern but there was not much time for testing before he left. We ran tests with a heater on the bottom of a trigger cell to try to drive thermal runaway and ensure that it will not propagate to adjacent cells. We also ran heat-to-vent tests in an oven to see if the assembly provided structural support and prevented sidewall rupture during thermal runaway. These tests were carried out at ESTA (energy systems test area) and are providing very promising results that safe, high performing (greater than 180 Wh/kg) designs are possible. My main project was a redesign of the LLB battery. Another summer intern did some testing and concluded that there was no simple fix to mitigate thermal runaway propagation hazards in the current design. The only option was a clean sheet redesign of the battery. I was given a volume and ideal energy density and the rest of the design was up to me. First, I created new heat sink banks in Creo using the information gathered in the metal heat sink tests from the summer intern. After this, I made

  3. From Falling through the Cracks to Pulling Through: Moving from a Traditional Remediation Model toward a Multi-Layered Support Model for Basic Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostergaard, Lori; Allan, Elizabeth G.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines two course redesigns undertaken to improve student support, learning, and retention in the basic writing program at Oakland University, a doctoral research university in southeast Michigan, where support for developmental writers has fluctuated dramatically between nurture and neglect over the past fifty years. However,…

  4. [Perspective of intensive care nursing staff on the limitation of life support treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallès-Fructuoso, O; Ruiz-de Pablo, B; Fernández-Plaza, M; Fuentes-Milà, V; Vallès-Fructuoso, O; Martínez-Estalella, G

    To determine the perspective of intensive care nursing staff on the limitation of life support treatment (LLST) in the Intensive Care Units. An exploratory qualitative study was carried out by applying the theory of Strauss and Corbin as the analysis tool. Constructivist paradigm. Nursing staff from three Intensive Care Units of Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge. Convenience sampling to reach theoretical saturation of data. Data collection through semi-structured interview recorded prior to informed consent. Rigor and quality criteria (reliability, credibility, transferability), and authenticity criteria: reflexivity. Demographic data was analysed using Excel. A total of 28 interviews were conducted. The mean age of the nurses was 35.6 years, with a mean seniority of 11.46 years of working in ICU. A minority of nurses (21.46%) had received basic training in bioethics. The large majority (85.7%) believe that LLST is not a common practice due to therapeutic cruelty and poor management with it. There is a correlation with the technical concepts; but among the main ethical problems is the decision to apply LLST. Nurses recognise that the decision on applying LLST depends on medical consensus with relatives, and they believe that their opinion is not considered. Their objective is trying to avoid suffering, and assist in providing a dignified death and support to relatives. There is still a paternalistic pattern between the doctor and patient relationship, where the doctor makes the decision and then agrees with the relatives to apply LLST. Organ failure and poor prognosis are the most important criteria for applying LLST. It is necessary to develop a guide for applying LLST, emphasising the involvement of nurses, patients, and their relatives. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEEIUC. All rights reserved.

  5. Affective temperament, social support and stressors at work as the predictors of life and job satisfaction among doctors and psychologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaredić Biljana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Affective temperament, social support and work-related stresors belong to the group of life and job satisfaction indicators. The aim of this research was to examine predictive roles of the basic affective temperament traits, social support and work-related stressors in the feeling of job and life satisfaction among doctors and psychologists. Methods. The sample consisted of 203 individuals out of whom there were 28% male and 72% female doctors (61% and psychologists (39%, 25–65 years old (39.08 ± 9.29, from the two university towns in Serbia. The set of questionnaires included Serbian version of the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego – autoquestionnaire version (TEMPS-A, Satisfaction with Life scale, Job Satisfaction Survey, short Interpersonal Support Evaluation List, and Source of Stress at Work Scale (IRSa for estimating the frequency of stressors at work. Results. According to the existing norms our examinees are satisfied with their life, but considerably less satisfied with their work, specially with pay and benefits, while they are most satisfied with nature of work itself and social relations with co-workers and supervisors. Our results show that depressive and hyperthymic, and to some extent cyclothymic temperament traits of the affective temperament significantly predict 21% of life satisfaction variance. Situational factors, such as stressors at work and social support, are important in predicting job satisfaction (58% of variance with no significant contribution of temperament traits. The analysis did not point out any significant relation of sex, occupation, and age with life and job satisfaction. Conclusions. Affective temperaments can be regarded as predictors of life satisfaction, but in order to better predict satisfaction the aspects of wider social surrounding and sources of stressors at work must be taken in consideration. Future studies should consider other indicators of life

  6. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Spanish ( Español ) ClinicalTrials.gov : Federally and privately supported research using human volunteers PubMed Central: An archive of life sciences journals NIH Research Fact Sheets NIH Office of Science Education : Resources ...

  7. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... history. Epigenetic changes from stress or early-life experiences may have made it harder for Sarah to ... has joined an online support group. Sharing her experiences with others also dealing with depression helps Sarah ...

  8. The correlation between quality of life and social support in female nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ning; Lv, Dong-Mei; Man, Jing; Wang, Xiao-Yu; Cheng, Qin; Fang, Hong-Li; Fu, Zhen; Liu, Shuang; Wu, Qun-Hong

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the relationship between quality of life and social support in female nurses. Nurses play an important role in providing care and managing patients' health in hospitals. However, limited studies have shown an association between quality of life and social support in female nurses in China. Questionnaire survey. To investigate 320 full-time female nurses in different departments at four comprehensive hospitals in Harbin with a cross-sectional correlational design using questionnaires. A demographic data questionnaire, menopause-specific quality of life questionnaire and social support scale were used. The scores on the physical (36·93 ± 17·65) and psychological (17·57 ± 9·45) subscales were higher than those of the vasomotor (4·88 ± 3·48) and sexual (4·53 ± 3·23) subscales of quality of life. The average score of objective support (25·12 ± 4·32) was higher than those of subjective support (9·80 ± 3·04) and utilisation of social support (7·80 ± 1·97). A significant association between quality of life and social support was found (p Social support influenced quality of life. Social support as a buffer for pressure can influence individual stress perception, help individuals cope with pressure and reduce the negative impact of stress on mental and physical health, thus improving different aspects of health. Enhancing social support in an active environment would allow female nurses to enjoy a better quality of life in their clinical practice. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Religion, Purpose in Life, Social Support, and Psychological Distress in Chinese University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhizhong; Koenig, Harold G; Ma, Hui; Al Shohaib, Saad

    2016-06-01

    We examined the relationship between religious involvement and psychological distress and explored the mediating effects of social support and purpose in life in university students in western, mid-western, and eastern China. Cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of 1812 university students was conducted. The Purpose in Life scale, Duke Social Support Index, and Religious Commitment Inventory-10 were administered, along with Kessler's Psychological Distress Scale. Structural equation modeling was used to test two models of the mediation hypothesis, examining direct, indirect, and total effects. Model 1 (with direction of effect hypothesized from religiosity to psychological distress) indicated that religious involvement had a direct effect on increasing psychological distress (β = 0.23, p purpose in life and social support (β = -.40, p purpose in life and social support that then lead to lower psychological distress.

  10. Next Generation Life Support (NGLS): Continuous Electrochemical Gas Separator (CEGS) Element

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Life support systems on human spacecraft are designed to provide a safe, habitable environment for the astronauts, and one of the most significant challenges is...

  11. Space Evaporator Absorber Radiator for Life Support and Thermal Control Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future human space exploration missions will require advanced life support technology that can operate across a wide range of applications and environments. Thermal...

  12. Water Walls: Highly Reliable and Massively Redundant Life Support Architecture Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — WATER WALLS (WW) takes an approach to providing a life support system that is biologically and chemically passive, using mechanical systems only for plumbing to...

  13. Regenerable Trace-Contaminant Sorbent for the Primary Life Support System (PLSS), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA objective of expanding the human experience into the far reaches of space requires the development of regenerable life support systems. This proposal...

  14. Bio-Electrochemical Carbon Dioxide Removal for Air Revitalization in Exploration Life Support Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An important aspect of the ISS air revitalization system for life support is the removal of carbon dioxide from cabin air and retrieves oxygen from CO2. The current...

  15. Duchenne muscular dystrophy: life prolongation by noninvasive ventilatory support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanova, Marcello; Brancalion, Beatrice; Mehta, Anokhi D

    2014-07-01

    American, Japanese, and Canadian centers have demonstrated that noninvasive intermittent positive pressure ventilatory support (NVS) can be used continuously and in the long-term by people with Duchenne muscular dystrophy as a definitive alternative to tracheostomy mechanical ventilation. The aim of this study was to report this for the first time in Europe. In this study, more than 300 patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy were followed. End-tidal carbon dioxide, oxyhemoglobin saturation, and vital capacity were measured at each visit. Of the 300 patients, 79 used NVS for 8 hrs or more per day and 20 of these became continuously dependent on NVS. A total of 20 patients have continuously depended on NVS for survival, for a total of 336 patient-years, up to 16 yrs in one case. Nocturnal NVS was begun for symptomatic hypoventilation when the vital capacity had decreased to a mean of 831 ± 173 ml, and continuous dependence on NVS was necessary when the vital capacity had decreased below 297 ± 113 ml. Noninvasive respiratory management can prolong survival without resorting to tracheotomy and without hospitalization.

  16. Developing Biological ISRU: Implications for Life Support and Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, I. I.; Allen, C. C.; Garrison, D. H.; Sarkisova, S. A.; Galindo, C.; Mckay, David S.

    2010-01-01

    Main findings: 1) supplementing very dilute media for cultivation of CB with analogs of lunar or Martian regolith effectively supported the proliferation of CB; 2) O2 evolution by siderophilic cyanobacteria cultivated in diluted media but supplemented with iron-rich rocks was higher than O2 evolution by same strain in undiluted medium; 3) preliminary data suggest that organic acids produced by CB are involved in iron-rich mineral dissolution; 4) the CB studied can accumulate iron on and in their cells; 4) sequencing of the cyanobacterium JSC-1 genome revealed that this strain possesses molecular features which make it applicable for the cultivation in special photoreactors on Moon and Mars. Conclusion: As a result of pilot studies, we propose, to develop a concept for semi-closed integrated system that uses CB to extract useful elements to revitalize air and produce valuable biomolecules. Such a system could be the foundation of a self-sustaining extraterrestrial outpost (Hendrickx, De Wever et al., 2005; Handford, 2006). A potential advantage of a cyanobacterial photoreactor placed between LSS and ISRU loops is the possibility of supplying these systems with extracted elements and compounds from the regolith. In addition, waste regolith may be transformed into additional products such as methane, biomass, and organic and inorganic soil enrichment for the cultivation of higher plants.

  17. The Divergent Thinking of Basic Skills of Sciences Process Skills of Life Aspects on Natural Sciences Subject in Indonesian Elementary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subali, Bambang; Paidi; Mariyam, Siti

    2016-01-01

    This research aims at measuring the divergent thinking of basic skills of science process skills (SPS) of life aspects in Natural Sciences subjects on Elementary School. The test instruments used in this research have been standardized through the development of instruments. In this case, the tests were tried out to 3070 students. The results of…

  18. Social support over Facebook as predictor of life satisfaction among Malaysian university students

    OpenAIRE

    SHOK HONG OOI

    2017-01-01

    Many young people interact and thus receive and communicate social support over the online world, particularly through Facebook. This paper focuses on how Malaysian university students perceived social support over Facebook. More specifically, this study focuses on how perceived social support influence university students’ life satisfaction. Participants were 800 university students from southern of Malaysia (178 male and 622 female). The finding showed that social support is related to univ...

  19. Relation between Emotion Adjustment and Perceived Social Support with Quality of Life of Athletes with Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Astaraki

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between emotional cognitive adjustment and perceived social support and determining the share of each one of these variable in quality of life for disabled athletes is an important factor to know. We selected 100 people among disabled athletes through convenience sampling and were asked to fill emotional cognitive adjustment strategies scale questionnaire, perceived social support questionnaire and quality of life scale. Results revealed that social support parameters have significant relation with parameters required for quality of life. Similarly, all the parameters regarding emotional cognitive adjustments (except perspective taking revealed positive and significant relation with all parameters of quality of life (including physical, psychological, interpersonal relation and environment. However, the perspective taking parameter has only positive and significant relation with psychological dimension of quality of life, and it has no significant relation with other dimensions. Meanwhile, negative parameters of emotional cognitive adjustment, self-blaming and catastrophic thinking has no significant relation with any parameters of quality of life. Rumination has only negative significant relation with interpersonal relation dimension of quality of life and blaming others parameter had negative and significant relation with the environment. Results of stepwise regression table show that among studies parameters, positive refocusing and important people are in the regression equation. In nutshell, positive refocusing and social support of influenced people impart to raise their quality of life.

  20. Process control integration requirements for advanced life support systems applicable to manned space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurlock, Paul; Spurlock, Jack M.; Evanich, Peggy L.

    1991-01-01

    An overview of recent developments in process-control technology which might have applications in future advanced life support systems for long-duration space operations is presented. Consideration is given to design criteria related to control system selection and optimization, and process-control interfacing methodology. Attention is also given to current life support system process control strategies, innovative sensors, instrumentation and control, and innovations in process supervision.

  1. FACTORS AFFECTING QUALITY OF LIFE AND LEVEL OF SOCIAL SUPPORT IN CANCER PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Berivan Bakan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: When people face health problems, their life satisfaction levels and social relations could be ruined. When it comes to an eerie, deadly and chronic disease like cancer, the individual is much more likely to be affected by it. Objective: This descriptive study aims to identify quality of life and level of social support and the affecting factors in cancer patients. Methods: The sample included 170 patients who applied to Internal Diseases, Radiation Oncology, Thorax diseases clinics and Chemotherapy polyclinic in a university hospital in Turkey between March and August, 2005, who met the research criteria, and who volunteered to participate in the study. The sample represented 20 % of the target population. Data were collected through SF-36 Quality of Life Scale and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Results: The patients’ Global Quality of Life mean score was found 38.67 ± 13.64, and mean score for the Perceived Social Support was found 59.19 ± 17.5. Global Quality of Life score was higher in those who underwent an operation and who received ambulatory health care. Although Global Quality of Life was not influenced by the gender variable, male patients’ level of well-being was found to be higher. Perceived Social Support total score was found to be higher in those who knew about their disease. Family support was found to be higher in those who were married and who lived in town; it was found to be low in those who had low socio-economic level and who received inpatient treatment. Friend support was found to be high in those who knew about their disease. Conclusion: There was a linear relationship between Perceived Social Support and Quality of Life. It is recommended that more studies with wider groups of participants would shed more light to the issue of identifying quality of life, social support level and the relationships between them in cancer patients.

  2. [Organising and supporting the end of life when faced with a refusal of care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautureau, Pascal

    2018-04-01

    Often ethically complex, end-of-life situations can mean nursing teams are confronted with a refusal of care. Through a representative clinical situation, a nurse describes the support provided by a multidisciplinary team, in the home, to comply with the wishes of a person at the end of life, support the family, anticipate possible difficulties and organise adapted care which respects all those concerned. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. A development of maintenance educational support method by using navigation method. Pt. 2. A basic design of RHR pump maintenance educational support prototype system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshino, Kenji; Hirotsu, Yuko; Fujimoto, Junzo

    2002-01-01

    The nuclear power plant has the human error produced from the disagreement of the difficulty of systematic error and maintenance work and the work execution capability, such as the persons concerned, which are produced from the fault of the command and the chain of command concerning organization. Then, this research establishes the new maintenance educational support prototype system for aiming at organization as Trinity (a supervision person, a construction person in charge, a work person in charge, and group length) , and improvement in human reliability for the purpose of aiming at before hand prevention of a systematic error, human error, and the accident and a trouble. Main results (I) In this research, as a result of investigating and analyzing about an exchange of the information which exists between the Trinity of concerning maintenance work execution, it became clear that the command and the chain of command for job execution exist among 3 persons. (Fig. 1) It will consider as the index for establishment of this command and chain of command of the maintenance educational support method from now on. (2) The basic design was performed on the educator's-ed position-and-rank level' about the 'prototype system' which enables suitable educational support. (Fig. 2) Its feature are as follows. (I) Presumption of the mismatch portion concerning the position-and-rank level / work execution capability before and behind the education by the initial educational scenario concerning an organization / on-site work, and education, (2) Implementation of reeducation by the 'reeducation scenario' concerning the organization / on-site work for complementing and canceling the mismatch portion. (3) Implementation of the comprehensive judgment (the educational effect) by analysis of the contents of a reply (conversation) of the educator-ed in reeducation scenario process. By this research, the possibility of the self-recognition of the problem of self or weak points (knowledge

  4. Quality of Life Is Related to Social Support in Elderly Osteoporosis Patients in a Chinese Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lina; Li, Yun; Wang, Jieyu; Zhu, Hong; Yang, Wei; Cao, Ruojin; Qian, Yuying; Feng, Ming

    2015-01-01

    To explore the association between quality of life and social support in elderly osteoporosis patients in a Chinese population. A total of 214 elderly patients who underwent bone mineral density screening were divided into two groups: elderly patients with primary osteoporosis (case group, n = 112) and normal elderly patients (control group, n = 102). Quality of life and social support were compared between the two groups. Quality of life and social support were significantly different between the case and control groups. The physical function, role-physical, bodily pain, general health, vitality, social-functioning, role-emotional and mental health scores in case group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P Quality of life and social support were positively correlated in the case group (r = 0.672, P Quality of life and social support in elderly patients with osteoporosis in China were poorer than in elderly patients without osteoporosis and were positively correlated. Our findings indicate that increased efforts to improve the social support and quality of life in elderly osteoporosis patients are urgently needed in China. Further longitudinal studies should be conducted to provide more clinical evidence to determine causative factors for the observed association between risk factors and outcomes.

  5. Process and Tool Support for Ontology-Aware Life Support System Development and Integration, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Recent advances in ontology development support a rich description of entities that are modeled within a domain and how these entities relate to each other. However,...

  6. Process and Tool Support for Ontology-Aware Life Support System Development and Integration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Recent advances in ontology development support a rich description of entities that are modeled within a domain and how these entities relate to each other. However,...

  7. MODERN RECOMMENDATIONS ON BASIC CARDIOPULMONARY RESUSCITATION FOR CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.F. Tepaev

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The major causes of death in children and adolescents in Russia are the external reasons, such as traumas, poisonings, drowning and transport incidents. Many injuries are preventable. Popularization of up to date methods of basic life support is one of methods of declining of a mortality of victims of out-of-hospital arrest. This article highlights the American Heart Association Guidelines for Pediatric Basic Life Support. Key words: basic life support, children, adolescents. (Pediatric Pharmacology. – 2010; 7(4:24-29

  8. Quality of life and depression following childbirth: impact of social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Joan; Nicholas, Catherine; Velacott, Catherine; Cridland, Noelle; Fawcett, Lisa

    2011-10-01

    to evaluate the impact of social support on postnatal depression and health-related quality of life. prospective cohort study. Data were collected at baseline and at six weeks post discharge using a postal survey. between August and December 2008, 320 women from a large tertiary hospital were recruited following the birth of their infant. Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), Maternity Social Support Scale and World Health Organization Quality of Life assessment questionnaire. of the 320 women recruited, 222 (69.4%) returned their six-week questionnaire. Women with low social support had significantly higher scores on the EPDS than women who reported adequate support (p = 0.007). There was also a significant effect of social support on health-related quality of life. Women with low family or partner support scored lower in all domains, with the greatest mean difference in the social health domain (p = 0.000). Of those scoring >10 on the EPDS, 75.5% had sought professional help. women with low social support are more likely to report postnatal depression and lower quality of life than well-supported women. Careful assessment of a woman's level of support following the birth, particularly from her partner and family, may provide useful information for possible interventions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Status of Perceived Social Support and Quality of Life among Hearing-Impaired Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayebeh Reyhani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Annual four to five thousand babies are born with hearing loss in the Iran. Hearing impairment is a disability that affects the quality of life of people with this problem. These individuals need to support from family and friends because of their specific conditions that this received support has impact on their quality of life. This study was conducted to assess the status of perceived social support and quality of life of hearing-impaired adolescent. Material and Methods A cross-correlation study was performed with cluster and multi stage random sampling method on 83 students with hearing impairment who met the inclusion criteria of the study in Mashhad. The data collection tools included Pediatric quality of life inventory (adolescent form and perceived social support inventory (from family and friends.The data obtained from the questionnaires were analyzed through SPSS software version 16. Results The results showed that the majority of the most of adolescents with hearing impairment were reported moderate total quality of life (%51.8. But the majority of them reported perceived social support from family was moderate (%61.5 and from friends was week (%45.8. Also there was a significant relationship between category of total quality of life of adolescent viewpoint with perceived social support from family (P=0.056. Conclusion Based on the obtained results, the majority of the most of adolescents with hearing impairment were reported moderate total quality of life. Disability and condition of these persons affects quality of life of them, so need for adequate support from family, friends and society. Nurses play an important role in identifying and introduce these needs and condition and how to deal with them.

  10. Life-sustaining support: ethical, cultural, and spiritual conflicts. Part II: Staff support--a neonatal case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutts, Amy; Schloemann, Johanna

    2002-06-01

    As medical knowledge and technology continue to increase, so will the ability to provide life-sustaining support to patients who otherwise would not survive. Along with these advances comes the responsibility of not only meeting the clinical needs of our patients, but also of understanding how the family's culture and spirituality will affect their perception of the situation and their decision-making process. As the U.S. continues to become a more culturally diverse society, health care professionals will need to make changes in their practice to meet the psychosocial needs of their patients and respect their treatment decisions. Part I of this series (April 2002) discussed how the cultural and spiritual belief systems of Baby S's family affected their decision-making processes and also their ability to cope with the impending death of their infant. The development of a culturally competent health care team can help bridge the gap between culturally diverse individuals. This article addresses the following questions: 1. What legal alternatives are available to the staff to protect the patient from suffering associated with the continuation of futile life-sustaining support? 2. What conflicts might the staff experience as a result of the continuation of futile life-sustaining support? 3. What efforts can be made to support members of the staff? 4. What can be done to prepare others in the health care professions to deal more effectively with ethical/cultural issues?

  11. Automated water analyser computer supported system (AWACSS) Part I: Project objectives, basic technology, immunoassay development, software design and networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschmelak, Jens; Proll, Guenther; Riedt, Johannes; Kaiser, Joachim; Kraemmer, Peter; Bárzaga, Luis; Wilkinson, James S; Hua, Ping; Hole, J Patrick; Nudd, Richard; Jackson, Michael; Abuknesha, Ram; Barceló, Damià; Rodriguez-Mozaz, Sara; de Alda, Maria J López; Sacher, Frank; Stien, Jan; Slobodník, Jaroslav; Oswald, Peter; Kozmenko, Helena; Korenková, Eva; Tóthová, Lívia; Krascsenits, Zoltan; Gauglitz, Guenter

    2005-02-15

    A novel analytical system AWACSS (automated water analyser computer-supported system) based on immunochemical technology has been developed that can measure several organic pollutants at low nanogram per litre level in a single few-minutes analysis without any prior sample pre-concentration nor pre-treatment steps. Having in mind actual needs of water-sector managers related to the implementation of the Drinking Water Directive (DWD) (98/83/EC, 1998) and Water Framework Directive WFD (2000/60/EC, 2000), drinking, ground, surface, and waste waters were major media used for the evaluation of the system performance. The instrument was equipped with remote control and surveillance facilities. The system's software allows for the internet-based networking between the measurement and control stations, global management, trend analysis, and early-warning applications. The experience of water laboratories has been utilised at the design of the instrument's hardware and software in order to make the system rugged and user-friendly. Several market surveys were conducted during the project to assess the applicability of the final system. A web-based AWACSS database was created for automated evaluation and storage of the obtained data in a format compatible with major databases of environmental organic pollutants in Europe. This first part article gives the reader an overview of the aims and scope of the AWACSS project as well as details about basic technology, immunoassays, software, and networking developed and utilised within the research project. The second part article reports on the system performance, first real sample measurements, and an international collaborative trial (inter-laboratory tests) to compare the biosensor with conventional anayltical methods.

  12. Family functioning, social support, and quality of life for patients with anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jikun; Chen, Yuhao; Tan, Cuicui; Zhao, Xudong

    2016-02-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between family functioning, social support and quality of life in patients with anxiety disorder. There is a paucity of research on anxiety disorders and their predictors in China. This study aimed to explore family functioning, social support and quality of life for patients with anxiety disorder and examine the relationship between these elements. A total of 107 patients who met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV) criteria for anxiety disorder and 80 healthy controls completed the McMaster Family Assessment Device, the Perceived Social Support Scale and the short form of the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire. The findings indicate that patients with anxiety disorder in China tend to have poor family functioning and quality of life, as well as a higher subjective perception of social support. There were strong correlations between family functioning, social support and quality of life. Affective involvement and not living with parents were identified as risk factors for anxiety disorders, while a high family income was a protective factor. Anxiety disorder is associated with reduced family functioning and poorer quality of life for Chinese patients. In addition, the Family Assessment Device is a suitable instrument for evaluating family functioning in Chinese patients with anxiety disorder. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Decision Support Systems for Research and Management in Advanced Life Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriquez, Luis F.

    2004-01-01

    Decision support systems have been implemented in many applications including strategic planning for battlefield scenarios, corporate decision making for business planning, production planning and control systems, and recommendation generators like those on Amazon.com(Registered TradeMark). Such tools are reviewed for developing a similar tool for NASA's ALS Program. DSS are considered concurrently with the development of the OPIS system, a database designed for chronicling of research and development in ALS. By utilizing the OPIS database, it is anticipated that decision support can be provided to increase the quality of decisions by ALS managers and researchers.

  14. Peers' Perceived Support, Student Engagement in Academic Activities and Life Satisfaction: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakimzadeh, Rezvan; Besharat, Mohammad-Ali; Khaleghinezhad, Seyed Ali; Ghorban Jahromi, Reza

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the relationships among peers' perceived support, life satisfaction, and student engagement in academic activities. Three hundred and fifteen Iranian students (172 boys and 143 girls) who were studying in one suburb of Tehran participated in this study. All participants were asked to complete Peers' Perceived Support scale…

  15. Supportive College Environment for Meaning Searching and Meaning in Life among American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Joo Yeon; Steger, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    We examined whether American college students who perceive their college environment as supportive for their meaning searching report higher levels of meaning in life. We also examined whether students' perception of college environmental support for meaning searching moderates the relation between the presence of and search for meaning. Students'…

  16. Gender differences in the relation between depression and social support in later life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonnenberg, C.M.; Deeg, D.J.H.; van Tilburg, T.G.; Vink, D.; Stek, M.L.; Beekman, A.T.F.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Prevalence of depression is twice as high in women as in men, also in older adults. Lack of social support is a risk factor for late-life depression. The relation between depression and social support may be different for men and women. Methods: Data from the Longitudinal Aging

  17. Life Course Status and Exchanges of Support between Young Adults and Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucx, Freek; van Wel, Frits; Knijn, Trudie

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated intergenerational support exchanges in relation to young adults' life course status. In a sample of 2,022 young adults (ages 18-34 years) in The Netherlands, single young adults reported receiving more advice from parents than married young adults, and those with children of their own received more practical support.…

  18. Suicidal Ideation and Distress among Immigrant Adolescents: The Role of Acculturation, Life Stress, and Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yong-Beom; Haslam, Nick

    2010-01-01

    Acculturative stress and social support play important roles in suicide-related phenomena among adolescent immigrants. To examine their contributions, measures of acculturative and general life stress and a measure of multiple sources of social support were used to predict psychological distress and suicidal ideation among Korean-born high school…

  19. Relationship between family support and quality of life of type-2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study of 250 adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus was carried out over twenty (20) weeks. Respondents' family support was measured using Perceived Social Support – Family Scale {PSS- Fa}, while their quality of life was measured using the short version of the World Health ...

  20. The role of interpersonal sensitivity, social support, and quality of life in rural older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedgeworth, Monika; LaRocca, Michael A; Chaplin, William F; Scogin, Forrest

    The mental health of elderly individuals in rural areas is increasingly relevant as populations age and social structures change. While social support satisfaction is a well-established predictor of quality of life, interpersonal sensitivity symptoms may diminish this relation. The current study extends the findings of Scogin et al by investigating the relationship among interpersonal sensitivity, social support satisfaction, and quality of life among rural older adults and exploring the mediating role of social support in the relation between interpersonal sensitivity and quality of life (N = 128). Hierarchical regression revealed that interpersonal sensitivity and social support satisfaction predicted quality of life. In addition, bootstrapping resampling supported the role of social support satisfaction as a mediator between interpersonal sensitivity symptoms and quality of life. These results underscore the importance of nurses and allied health providers in assessing and attending to negative self-perceptions of clients, as well as the perceived quality of their social networks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. How Do Lessons Learned on the International Space Station (ISS) Help Plan Life Support for Mars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.; Hodgson, Edward W.; Gentry, Gregory J.; Kliss, Mark H.

    2016-01-01

    How can our experience in developing and operating the International Space Station (ISS) guide the design, development, and operation of life support for the journey to Mars? The Mars deep space Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) must incorporate the knowledge and experience gained in developing ECLSS for low Earth orbit, but it must also meet the challenging new requirements of operation in deep space where there is no possibility of emergency resupply or quick crew return. The understanding gained by developing ISS flight hardware and successfully supporting a crew in orbit for many years is uniquely instructive. Different requirements for Mars life support suggest that different decisions may be made in design, testing, and operations planning, but the lessons learned developing the ECLSS for ISS provide valuable guidance.

  2. Perceived social support and life satisfaction in drug addicts: Self-esteem and loneliness as mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qilong; Liang, Ying

    2017-11-01

    This study was designed to investigate the mediation effects of both self-esteem and loneliness on the relationship between social support and subjective well-being in drug addicts. In all, 110 participants, all drug addicts from Guangdong Fangcun Brain Hospital, completed the questionnaire. Pearson's correlation analysis showed that perceived social support was positively related to self-esteem and life satisfaction and was negatively correlated with loneliness in drug addicts. Structural equation modeling estimated by the Bootstrap method indicated that loneliness and self-esteem partially mediated the association between perceived social support and life satisfaction. These findings provided insights into the association between perceived social support and life satisfaction in drug addicts.

  3. Human life support during interplanetary travel and domicile. VI - Generic modular flow schematic for hybrid physical/chemical-biological life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganapathi, Gani B.; Seshan, P. K.; Ferrall, Joseph; Rohatgi, Naresh

    1992-01-01

    An extension is proposed for the NASA Space Exploration Initiative's Generic Modular Flow Schematics for physical/chemical life support systems which involves the addition of biological processes. The new system architecture includes plant, microbial, and animal habitat, as well as the human habitat subsystem. Major Feedstock Production and Food Preparation and Packaging components have also been incorporated. Inedible plant, aquaculture, microbial, and animal solids are processed for recycling.

  4. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for life-threatening asthma refractory to mechanical ventilation: analysis of the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization registry

    OpenAIRE

    Yeo, Hye Ju; Kim, Dohyung; Jeon, Doosoo; Kim, Yun Seong; Rycus, Peter; Cho, Woo Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Background The use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in cases of near-fatal asthma (NFA) has increased, but the benefits and potential complications of this therapy have yet to be fully investigated. Methods Cases were extracted from the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization Registry between March 1992 and March 2016. All patients with a diagnosis of asthma (according to the International Classification of Diseases 9th edition), who also received ECMO, were extracted. Exclusion...

  5. Much Lower Launch Costs Make Resupply Cheaper than Recycling for Space Life Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2017-01-01

    The development of commercial launch vehicles by SpaceX has greatly reduced the cost of launching mass to Low Earth Orbit (LEO). Reusable launch vehicles may further reduce the launch cost per kilogram. The new low launch cost makes open loop life support much cheaper than before. Open loop systems resupply water and oxygen in tanks for crew use and provide disposable lithium hydroxide (LiOH) in canisters to remove carbon dioxide. Short human space missions such as Apollo and shuttle have used open loop life support, but the long duration International Space Station (ISS) recycles water and oxygen and removes carbon dioxide with a regenerative molecular sieve. These ISS regenerative and recycling life support systems have significantly reduced the total launch mass needed for life support. But, since the development cost of recycling systems is much higher than the cost of tanks and canisters, the relative cost savings have been much less than the launch mass savings. The Life Cycle Cost (LCC) includes development, launch, and operations. If another space station was built in LEO, resupply life support would be much cheaper than the current recycling systems. The mission most favorable to recycling would be a long term lunar base, since the resupply mass would be large, the proximity to Earth would reduce the need for recycling reliability and spares, and the launch cost would be much higher than for LEO due to the need for lunar transit and descent propulsion systems. For a ten-year lunar base, the new low launch costs make resupply cheaper than recycling systems similar to ISS life support.

  6. Physics Education: Effect of Micro-Teaching Method Supported by Educational Technologies on Pre-Service Science Teachers' Misconceptions on Basic Astronomy Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurbuz, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research study is to explore pre-service science teachers' misconceptions on basic astronomy subjects and to examine the effect of micro teaching method supported by educational technologies on correcting misconceptions. This study is an action research. Semi- structured interviews were used in the study as a data collection…

  7. Educational tool for modeling and simulation of a closed regenerative life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Tatsuya; Fanchiang, Christine; Aoki, Hirofumi; Newman, Dava J.

    For long term missions on the moon and Mars, regenerative life support systems emerge as a promising key technology for sustaining successful explorations with reduced re-supply logistics and cost. The purpose of this study was to create a simple model of a regenerative life support system which allows preliminary investigation of system responses. A simplified regenerative life support system was made with MATLAB Simulink ™. Mass flows in the system were simplified to carbon, water, oxygen and carbon dioxide. The subsystems included crew members, animals, a plant module, and a waste processor, which exchanged mass into and out of mass reservoirs. Preliminary numerical simulations were carried out to observe system responses. The simplified life support system model allowed preliminary investigation of the system response to perturbations such as increased or decreased number of crew members. The model is simple and flexible enough to add new components, and also possible to numerically predict non-linear subsystem functions and responses. Future work includes practical issues such as energy efficiency, air leakage, nutrition, and plant growth modeling. The model functions as an effective teaching tool about how a regenerative advanced life support system works.

  8. Spousal recovery support, recovery experiences, and life satisfaction crossover among dual-earner couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, YoungAh; Fritz, Charlotte

    2015-03-01

    Research has indicated the importance of recovery from work stress for employee well-being and work engagement. However, very little is known about the specific factors that may support or hinder recovery in the context of dual-earner couples. This study proposes spousal recovery support as a potential resource that dual-earner couples can draw on to enhance their recovery experiences and well-being. It was hypothesized that spousal recovery support would be related to the recipient spouse's life satisfaction via his or her own recovery experiences (i.e., psychological detachment, relaxation, and mastery experiences). The study further investigated the crossover of life satisfaction between working spouses as a potential outcome of recovery processes. Data from 318 full-time employed married couples in South Korea were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results showed that spousal recovery support was positively related to all 3 recovery experiences of the recipient spouse. Moreover, this recovery support was related to the recipient spouse's life satisfaction via relaxation and mastery experiences. Unexpectedly, psychological detachment was negatively related to life satisfaction, possibly indicating a suppression effect. Life satisfaction crossed over between working spouses. No gender differences were found in the hypothesized paths. Based on these findings, theoretical and practical implications are discussed, and future research directions are presented. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Stressful life events, family support and successful ageing in the Biafran War generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukwuorji, JohnBosco Chika; Nwoke, Mary Basil; Ebere, Magnus Okechukwu

    2017-01-01

    Although the developing countries contribute substantially to the population of the elderly, little is known about ageing in populous countries like Nigeria, particularly the Biafran War generation (BWG). Some of those who witnessed the Biafran War (also known as Nigerian Civil War) as children are well into late adulthood, while the majority of this pre-war/wartime cohort who are in their golden years will enter into later life in less than a decade from now. The aim of the present research was to examine the role of stressful life events and family support in successful ageing of the BWG. Data were collected using a self-administered survey completed by 453 members of the BWG who were ≥45 years. The survey included measures such as the Successful Ageing Inventory, Life Events Inventory, and family support subscale of Family Dynamics Scale. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted to test the hypotheses of the study. The three dimensions of stressful life events (health events, interpersonal events and work-related/financial events) had moderate negative relationships with successful ageing. Family support was moderately and positively associated with successful ageing. For the moderation hypotheses, family support was a significant moderator of only the relationship between work-related stressful life events and successful ageing, especially for the Family support provides social protection for older people, in the face of difficult socio-economic circumstances.

  10. Advanced life support therapy and on out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients: Applying signal processing and pattern recognition methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trygve Eftestøl

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available In the US alone, several hundred thousands die of sudden cardiac arrests each year. Basic life support defined as chest compressions and ventilations and early defibrillation are the only factors proven to increase the survival of patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, and are key elements in the chain of survival defined by the American Heart Association. The current cardiopulmonary resuscitation guidelines treat all patients the same, but studies show need for more individualiza- tion of treatment. This review will focus on ideas on how to strengthen the weak parts of the chain of survival including the ability to measure the effects of therapy, improve time efficiency, and optimize the sequence and quality of the various components of cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

  11. Autonomy supportive environments and mastery as basic factors to motivate physical activity in children: a controlled laboratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roemmich James N

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Choice promotes the experience of autonomy, which enhances intrinsic motivation. Providing a greater choice of traditional active toys may increase children's activity time. Mastery also increases intrinsic motivation and is designed into exergames, which may increase play time of a single exergame, reducing the need for choice to motivate activity compared to traditional active toys. Providing both choice and mastery could be most efficacious at increasing activity time. The energy expenditure (EE of an active play session is dependent on the duration of play and the rate of EE during play. The rate of EE of exergames and the same game played in traditional fashion is not known. The purpose was to test the basic parameters of choice and mastery on children's physical activity time, activity intensity, and energy expenditure. Methods 44 children were assigned to low (1 toy or high (3 toys choice groups. Children completed 60 min sessions with access to traditional active toys on one visit and exergame versions of the same active toys on another visit. Results Choice had a greater effect on increasing girls' (146% than boys' (23% activity time and on girls' (230% than boys' (minus 24% activity intensity. When provided choice, girls' activity time and intensity were no longer lower than boys' activity time and intensity. The combination of choice and mastery by providing access to 3 exergames produced greater increases in physical activity time (1 toy 22.5 min, 3 toys 41.4 min than choice alone via access to 3 traditional games (1 toy 13.6 min, 3 toys 19.5 min. Energy expenditure was 83% greater when engaging in traditional games than exergames. Conclusions Boys and girls differ in their behavioral responses to autonomy supportive environments. By providing girls with greater autonomy they can be motivated to engage in physical activity equal to boys. An environment that provides both autonomy and mastery is most efficacious at

  12. A Discussion of Oxygen Recovery Definitions and Key Performance Parameters for Closed-Loop Atmosphere Revitalization Life Support Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abney, Morgan B.; Perry, Jay L.

    2016-01-01

    Over the last 55 years, NASA has evolved life support for crewed space exploration vehicles from simple resupply during Project Mercury to the complex and highly integrated system of systems aboard the International Space Station. As NASA targets exploration destinations farther from low Earth orbit and mission durations of 500 to 1000 days, life support systems must evolve to meet new requirements. In addition to having more robust, reliable, and maintainable hardware, limiting resupply becomes critical for managing mission logistics and cost. Supplying a crew with the basics of food, water, and oxygen become more challenging as the destination ventures further from Earth. Aboard ISS the Atmosphere Revitalization Subsystem (ARS) supplies the crew's oxygen demand by electrolyzing water. This approach makes water a primary logistics commodity that must be managed carefully. Chemical reduction of metabolic carbon dioxide (CO2) provides a method of recycling oxygen thereby reducing the net ARS water demand and therefore minimizing logistics needs. Multiple methods have been proposed to achieve this recovery and have been reported in the literature. However, depending on the architecture and the technology approach, "oxygen recovery" can be defined in various ways. This discontinuity makes it difficult to compare technologies directly. In an effort to clarify community discussions of Oxygen Recovery, we propose specific definitions and describe the methodology used to arrive at those definitions. Additionally, we discuss key performance parameters for Oxygen Recovery technology development including challenges with comparisons to state-of-the-art.

  13. A life cycle framework to support materials selection for Ecodesign: A case study on biodegradable polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, I.; Peças, P.; Henriques, E.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Life cycle framework to support material selection in Ecodesign. • Early design stage estimates and sensitivity analyses based on process-based models. • Sensitivity analysis to product geometry, industrial context and EoL scenarios. • Cost and environmental performance comparison – BDP vs. fossil based polymers. • Best alternatives mapping integrating cost and environmental performances. - Abstract: Nowadays society compels designers to develop more sustainable products. Ecodesign directs product design towards the goal of reducing environmental impacts. Within Ecodesign, materials selection plays a major role on product cost and environmental performance throughout its life cycle. This paper proposes a comprehensive life cycle framework to support Ecodesign in material selection. Dealing with new materials and technologies in early design stages, process-based models are used to represent the whole life cycle and supply integrated data to assess material alternatives, considering cost and environmental dimensions. An integrated analysis is then proposed to support decision making by mapping the best alternative materials according to the importance given to upstream and downstream life phases and to the environmental impacts. The proposed framework is applied to compare the life cycle performance of injection moulded samples made of four commercial biodegradable polymers with different contents of Thermo Plasticized Starch and PolyLactic Acid and a common fossil based polymer, Polypropylene. Instead of labelling materials just as “green”, the need to fully capture all impacts in the whole life cycle was shown. The fossil based polymer is the best economic alternative, but polymers with higher content of Thermo Plasticized Starch have a better environmental performance. However, parts geometry and EoL scenarios play a major role on the life cycle performance of candidate materials. The selection decision is then supported by mapping

  14. THE DEVELOPMENT OF A NATIONAL STANDARD «SAFE LIFE OF THE POPULATION ON RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATED TERRITORIES. SAFE USE OF AGRICULTURAL LANDS. THE BASIC FRAMEWORK»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Marchenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of the implementation of the Federal target program «Managing the consequences of radiation accidents for the period till 2015» the National Standard «Safe life of the population on radioactive contaminated territories. Safe use of agricultural lands. The basic framework» has been developed. Its aim is to ensure safe use of agricultural lands in the areas affected by radiation incidents, accidents and disasters.

  15. Canadians' support for radical life extension resulting from advances in regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragojlovic, Nick

    2013-04-01

    This paper explores Canadian public perceptions of a hypothetical scenario in which a radical increase in life expectancy results from advances in regenerative medicine. A national sample of 1231 adults completed an online questionnaire on stem cell research and regenerative medicine, including three items relating to the possibility of Canadians' average life expectancy increasing to 120 years by 2050. Overall, Canadians are strongly supportive of the prospect of extended lifespans, with 59% of the sample indicating a desire to live to 120 if scientific advances made it possible, and 47% of respondents agreeing that such increases in life expectancy are possible by 2050. The strongest predictors of support for radical life extension are individuals' general orientation towards science and technology and their evaluation of its plausibility. These results contrast with previous research, which has suggested public ambivalence for biomedical life extension, and point to the need for more research in this area. They suggest, moreover, that efforts to increase public awareness about anti-aging research are likely to increase support for the life-extending consequences of that research program. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Limitation to Advanced Life Support in patients admitted to intensive care unit with integrated palliative care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazutti, Sandra Regina Gonzaga; Nascimento, Andréia de Fátima; Fumis, Renata Rego Lins

    2016-01-01

    Objective To estimate the incidence of limitations to Advanced Life Support in critically ill patients admitted to an intensive care unit with integrated palliative care. Methods This retrospective cohort study included patients in the palliative care program of the intensive care unit of Hospital Paulistano over 18 years of age from May 1, 2011, to January 31, 2014. The limitations to Advanced Life Support that were analyzed included do-not-resuscitate orders, mechanical ventilation, dialysis and vasoactive drugs. Central tendency measures were calculated for quantitative variables. The chi-squared test was used to compare the characteristics of patients with or without limits to Advanced Life Support, and the Wilcoxon test was used to compare length of stay after Advanced Life Support. Confidence intervals reflecting p ≤ 0.05 were considered for statistical significance. Results A total of 3,487 patients were admitted to the intensive care unit, of whom 342 were included in the palliative care program. It was observed that after entering the palliative care program, it took a median of 2 (1 - 4) days for death to occur in the intensive care unit and 4 (2 - 11) days for hospital death to occur. Many of the limitations to Advanced Life Support (42.7%) took place on the first day of hospitalization. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (96.8%) and ventilatory support (73.6%) were the most adopted limitations. Conclusion The contribution of palliative care integrated into the intensive care unit was important for the practice of orthothanasia, i.e., the non-extension of the life of a critically ill patient by artificial means. PMID:27626949

  17. Research on bearing life prediction based on support vector machine and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Chuang; Zhang Zhousuo; He Zhengjia

    2011-01-01

    Life prediction of rolling element bearing is the urgent demand in engineering practice, and the effective life prediction technique is beneficial to predictive maintenance. Support vector machine (SVM) is a novel machine learning method based on statistical learning theory, and is of advantage in prediction. This paper develops SVM-based model for bearing life prediction. The inputs of the model are features of bearing vibration signal and the output is the bearing running time-bearing failure time ratio. The model is built base on a few failed bearing data, and it can fuse information of the predicted bearing. So it is of advantage to bearing life prediction in practice. The model is applied to life prediction of a bearing, and the result shows the proposed model is of high precision.

  18. Poster: Ocean Literacy Principal 5. The ocean supports a great diversity of life and ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Society, Blue; Institute, Marine

    2015-01-01

    BlueSociety.org, Sea for Society and the Marine Institute have developed a number of 'Your Ocean - Your Future' posters that can be used in class to raise awareness and understanding about "the ocean's influence on us and our influence on the ocean". The posters can be used to help learn about the key fundamental concepts about our ocean. Poster 5. The ocean supports a great diversity of life and ecosystems: More plants and animal life are found in the ocean than on land. Ocean life range...

  19. Life Support and Habitation Systems: Crew Support and Protection for Human Exploration Missions Beyond Low Earth Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Daniel J.; McQuillan, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has recently expanded its mission set for possible future human exploration missions. With multiple options there is interest in identifying technology needs across these missions to focus technology investments. In addition to the Moon and other destinations in cis-lunar space, other destinations including Near Earth Objects and Mars have been added for consideration. Recently, technology programs and projects have been re-organizing to better meet the Agency s strategic goals and address needs across these potential future missions. Life Support and Habitation Systems (LSHS) is one of 10 Foundational Domains as part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Exploration Technology Development Program. The chief goal of LSHS is to develop and mature advanced technologies to sustain human life on missions beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to increase reliability, reduce dependency on resupply and increase vehicle self-sufficiency. For long duration exploration missions, further closure of life support systems is of interest. Focus includes key technologies for atmosphere revitalization, water recovery, waste management, thermal control and crew accommodations. Other areas of focus include technologies for radiation protection, environmental monitoring and fire protection. The aim is to recover additional consumable mass, reduce requirements for power, volume, heat rejection, crew involvement, and meet exploration vehicle requirements. This paper provides a brief description of the LSHS Foundational Domain as defined for fiscal year 2011.

  20. Trends in biomedical engineering: focus on Patient Specific Modeling and Life Support Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubini, Gabriele; Ambrosi, Davide; Bagnoli, Paola; Boschetti, Federica; Caiani, Enrico G; Chiastra, Claudio; Conti, Carlo A; Corsini, Chiara; Costantino, Maria Laura; D'Angelo, Carlo; Formaggia, Luca; Fumero, Roberto; Gastaldi, Dario; Migliavacca, Francesco; Morlacchi, Stefano; Nobile, Fabio; Pennati, Giancarlo; Petrini, Lorenza; Quarteroni, Alfio; Redaelli, Alberto; Stevanella, Marco; Veneziani, Alessandro; Vergara, Christian; Votta, Emiliano; Wu, Wei; Zunino, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Over the last twenty years major advancements have taken place in the design of medical devices and personalized therapies. They have paralleled the impressive evolution of three-dimensional, non invasive, medical imaging techniques and have been continuously fuelled by increasing computing power and the emergence of novel and sophisticated software tools. This paper aims to showcase a number of major contributions to the advancements of modeling of surgical and interventional procedures and to the design of life support systems. The selected examples will span from pediatric cardiac surgery procedures to valve and ventricle repair techniques, from stent design and endovascular procedures to life support systems and innovative ventilation techniques.