WorldWideScience

Sample records for basic biomedical sciences

  1. Truth in basic biomedical science will set future mankind free.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Gilbert N

    2011-01-01

    It is self-evident that continued wellbeing and prosperity of our species in time to come depends upon a steady supply of major scientific and technologic innovations. However, major scientific and technical innovations are rare. As a rule, they grow only in the exceptionally fertile minds of men and women, who have fully mastered the underlying basic sciences. To waken their interest in science at an early critical age and to nurture and enhance that interest afterward, good textbooks at all level of education that accurately portray the relevant up-to-date knowledge are vital. As of now, the field of science that offers by far the greatest promise for the future of humanity is the science of life at the most basic cell and below-cell level. Unfortunately, it is precisely this crucial part of the (standardized) biological textbooks for all high schools and colleges in the US and abroad that have become, so to speak, fossilized. As a result, generation after generation of (educated) young men and women have been and are still being force-fed as established scientific truth an obsolete membrane (pump) theory, which has been categorically disproved half a century ago (see Endnote 1.) To reveal this Trojan horse of a theory for what it really is demands the concerted efforts of many courageous individuals especially young biology teachers who take themselves and their career seriously. But even the most courageous and the most resourceful won't find the task easy. To begin with, they would find it hard to access the critical scientific knowledge, with which to convert the skeptic and to rally the friendly. For the wealth of mutually supportive evidence against the membrane (pump) theory are often hidden in inaccessible publications and/or in languages other than English. To overcome this seemingly trivial but in fact formidable obstacle and to reveal the beauty and coherence of the existing but untaught truth, I put together in this small package a collection of the

  2. Egyptian Journal of Biomedical Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Egyptian Journal of Biomedical Sciences publishes in all aspects of biomedical research sciences. Both basic and clinical research papers are welcomed. Vol 23 (2007). DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Table of Contents. Articles. Phytochemical And ...

  3. Plasmonic enhancement of scattering and emission of light in nanostructures: from basic science to biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaponenko, Sergey

    2013-01-01

    Advances and challenges of plasmonic enhancement of Raman scattering and fluorescence with metal-dielectric nanostructures are discussed. Theoretical predictions and experimental implementation are presented and compared. Reasonable agreement of experimental data with the theory is outlined. Special attention is given to biomedical applications including fluorescent and Raman immunospectroscopy. (author)

  4. Biomedical Science Technologists in Lagos Universities: Meeting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biomedical Science Technologists in Lagos Universities: Meeting Modern Standards in Biomedical Research. ... biomedical techniques. SOTA biomedical science needs adequate financial investment for the scientific resources as well as stable civic infrastructure, thus these public institutions need more of such provisions.

  5. Basic assumptions in statistical analyses of data in biomedical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    If one or more assumptions are violated, an alternative procedure must be used to obtain valid results. This article aims at highlighting some basic assumptions in statistical analyses of data in biomedical sciences. Keywords: samples, independence, non-parametric, parametric, statistical analyses. Int. J. Biol. Chem. Sci. Vol.

  6. Archives: Journal of Medical and Biomedical Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 20 of 20 ... Archives: Journal of Medical and Biomedical Sciences. Journal Home > Archives: Journal of Medical and Biomedical Sciences. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  7. Impedance measurements in the biomedical sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffman, Frederick D; Cohen, Stanley

    2013-01-01

    Biological organisms and their component organs, tissues and cells have unique electrical impedance properties. Impedance properties often change with changes in structure, composition, and metabolism, and can be indicative of the onset and progression of disease states. Over the past 100 years, instruments and analytical methods have been developed to measure the impedance properties of biological specimens and to utilize these measurements in both clinical and basic science settings. This chapter will review the applications of impedance measurements in the biomedical sciences, from whole body analysis to impedance measurements of single cells and cell monolayers, and how cellular impedance measuring instruments can now be used in high throughput screening applications.

  8. Emulsion Science Basic Principles

    CERN Document Server

    Leal-Calderon, Fernando; Schmitt, Véronique

    2007-01-01

    Emulsions are generally made out of two immiscible fluids like oil and water, one being dispersed in the second in the presence of surface-active compounds.They are used as intermediate or end products in a huge range of areas including the food, chemical, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, paint, and coating industries. Besides the broad domain of technological interest, emulsions are raising a variety of fundamental questions at the frontier between physics and chemistry. This book aims to give an overview of the most recent advances in emulsion science. The basic principles, covering aspects of emulsions from their preparation to their destruction, are presented in close relation to both the fundamental physics and the applications of these materials. The book is intended to help scientists and engineers in formulating new materials by giving them the basics of emulsion science.

  9. USSR Report, Life Sciences, Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1984-01-01

    Partial Contents: Life Sciences, Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences, Aerospace Medicine, Argotechnology, Biochemistry, Bionics, Biophysics, Biotechnology, Epidemiology, Genetics, Human Factors, Immunology, Laser...

  10. Basic science right, not basic science lite: medical education at a crossroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincher, Ruth-Marie E; Wallach, Paul M; Richardson, W Scott

    2009-11-01

    This perspective is a counterpoint to Dr. Brass' article, Basic biomedical sciences and the future of medical education: implications for internal medicine. The authors review development of the US medical education system as an introduction to a discussion of Dr. Brass' perspectives. The authors agree that sound scientific foundations and skill in critical thinking are important and that effective educational strategies to improve foundational science education should be implemented. Unfortunately, many students do not perceive the relevance of basic science education to clinical practice.The authors cite areas of disagreement. They believe it is unlikely that the importance of basic sciences will be diminished by contemporary directions in medical education and planned modifications of USMLE. Graduates' diminished interest in internal medicine is unlikely from changes in basic science education.Thoughtful changes in education provide the opportunity to improve understanding of fundamental sciences, the process of scientific inquiry, and translation of that knowledge to clinical practice.

  11. Basic Energy Sciences at NREL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, S.

    2000-12-04

    NREL's Center for Basic Sciences performs fundamental research for DOE's Office of Science. Our mission is to provide fundamental knowledge in the basic sciences and engineering that will underpin new and improved renewable energy technologies.

  12. Journal of Medical and Biomedical Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Medical and Biomedical Sciences. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 3, No 3 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  13. Journal of Medical and Biomedical Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Medical and Biomedical Sciences. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 1, No 3 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  14. Journal of Medical and Biomedical Sciences: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SCOPE: Journal of Medical and Biomedical Science publishes original, novel, peer-reviewed reports that pertain to medical and allied health sciences; confirmatory reports of previously described .... Very occasionally, concerns may also relate to the impli-cations to society of publishing a paper, including threats to security.

  15. Nigerian Journal of Health and Biomedical Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nigerian Journal of Health and Biomedical Sciences is a multidisciplinary and peer-reviewed journal. This journal was established to meet the challenges of health care delivery in the 21st century in Nigeria and other countries with similar setting in the ever-changing world of science and technology. The health care ...

  16. Building the biomedical data science workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Michelle C; Bourne, Philip E

    2017-07-01

    This article describes efforts at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) from 2013 to 2016 to train a national workforce in biomedical data science. We provide an analysis of the Big Data to Knowledge (BD2K) training program strengths and weaknesses with an eye toward future directions aimed at any funder and potential funding recipient worldwide. The focus is on extramurally funded programs that have a national or international impact rather than the training of NIH staff, which was addressed by the NIH's internal Data Science Workforce Development Center. From its inception, the major goal of BD2K was to narrow the gap between needed and existing biomedical data science skills. As biomedical research increasingly relies on computational, mathematical, and statistical thinking, supporting the training and education of the workforce of tomorrow requires new emphases on analytical skills. From 2013 to 2016, BD2K jump-started training in this area for all levels, from graduate students to senior researchers.

  17. Journal of Medical and Biomedical Sciences: Journal Sponsorship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Medical and Biomedical Sciences: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > Journal of Medical and Biomedical Sciences: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  18. Improving Graduate Education to Support a Branching Career Pipeline: Recommendations Based on a Survey of Doctoral Students in the Basic Biomedical Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrmann, C. N.; Halme, D. G.; O'Sullivan, P. S.; Lindstaedt, B.

    2011-01-01

    Today's doctoral programs continue to prepare students for a traditional academic career path despite the inadequate supply of research-focused faculty positions. We advocate for a broader doctoral curriculum that prepares trainees for a wide range of science-related career paths. In support of this argument, we describe data from our survey of…

  19. USSR report: life sciences. Biomedical and behavioral sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    Studies in life sciences, biomedical sciences, and behavioral sciences are reported. The following fields of interest were studied: agricultural biology, biochemistry, biotechnology, environment effects, medical demography, medicine, microbiology, physiology, radiation biology, and human factors engineering. For individual titles, see N82-33989 through N82-33994

  20. Positron emission tomography basic sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Townsend, D W; Valk, P E; Maisey, M N

    2003-01-01

    Essential for students, science and medical graduates who want to understand the basic science of Positron Emission Tomography (PET), this book describes the physics, chemistry, technology and overview of the clinical uses behind the science of PET and the imaging techniques it uses. In recent years, PET has moved from high-end research imaging tool used by the highly specialized to an essential component of clinical evaluation in the clinic, especially in cancer management. Previously being the realm of scientists, this book explains PET instrumentation, radiochemistry, PET data acquisition and image formation, integration of structural and functional images, radiation dosimetry and protection, and applications in dedicated areas such as drug development, oncology, and gene expression imaging. The technologist, the science, engineering or chemistry graduate seeking further detailed information about PET, or the medical advanced trainee wishing to gain insight into the basic science of PET will find this book...

  1. Science, biomedical technology and biolaw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnica, Cristina; Scripcaru, Calin

    2009-01-01

    Starting from legislative recognition of the grounding principles of human rights, the authors describe and comment upon the Council of Europe's Convention on human rights and human dignity confronted with scientific discoveries and also upon the Oviedo Convention of 1997 for the protection of Human Rights and dignity of the human being with regard to the application of biology and medicine. The authors specify that, given the promise made by Romania to observe international obligations, the Romanian law no. 2/1998 on organ and tissue transplantation abrogates the stipulations of the law 3-1978 and also includes 9 appendices which, being part of the law, guarantee in addition the observance of its provisions. All these regulations on the relationship between science and human rights have determined an evolution from the fatality of natural risks to current compensations, as an expression of human solidarity. They have determined the transition from social and vocational paternalism to personal autonomy and personal guarantees of independence and freedom. All these developments are faithfully reflected by comparative legislation on the use of life science outcomes on persons as they presently are. This is also reflected in Romanian legislation concerning tissue and organ transplantation and in mental health legislation.

  2. Building the biomedical data science workforce.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle C Dunn

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article describes efforts at the National Institutes of Health (NIH from 2013 to 2016 to train a national workforce in biomedical data science. We provide an analysis of the Big Data to Knowledge (BD2K training program strengths and weaknesses with an eye toward future directions aimed at any funder and potential funding recipient worldwide. The focus is on extramurally funded programs that have a national or international impact rather than the training of NIH staff, which was addressed by the NIH's internal Data Science Workforce Development Center. From its inception, the major goal of BD2K was to narrow the gap between needed and existing biomedical data science skills. As biomedical research increasingly relies on computational, mathematical, and statistical thinking, supporting the training and education of the workforce of tomorrow requires new emphases on analytical skills. From 2013 to 2016, BD2K jump-started training in this area for all levels, from graduate students to senior researchers.

  3. Nigerian Journal of Health and Biomedical Sciences: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biomedical Engineering Biotechnology in relation to Medicine Clinical Sciences Dental Sciences Environment and Health Health Economics and Management Health Information Management Hygiene and Health Education Legal Aspects of Healthcare Medical Education Nursing Sciences Pharmaceutical Sciences

  4. Application of infrared to biomedical sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Etehadtavakol, Mahnaz

    2017-01-01

    The book covers the latest updates in the application of infrared to biomedical sciences, a non-invasive, contactless, safe and easy approach imaging of skin and tissue temperatures. Its diagnostic procedure allows practitioners to identify the locations of abnormal chemical and blood vessel activity such as angiogenesis in body tissue. Its non-invasive approach works by applying the technology of the infrared camera and state-of-the-art software, where high-resolution digital infrared imaging technology benefits highly from enhanced image production, standardized image interpretation protocols, computerized comparison and storage, and sophisticated image enhancement and analysis. The book contains contributions from global prominent scientists in the area of infrared applications in biomedical studies. The target audience includes academics, practitioners, clinicians and students working in the area of infrared imaging in biomedicine.

  5. Optimizing biomedical science learning in a veterinary curriculum: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Amy L; Donnon, Tyrone

    2013-01-01

    As veterinary medical curricula evolve, the time dedicated to biomedical science teaching, as well as the role of biomedical science knowledge in veterinary education, has been scrutinized. Aside from being mandated by accrediting bodies, biomedical science knowledge plays an important role in developing clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic reasoning skills in the application of clinical skills, in supporting evidence-based veterinary practice and life-long learning, and in advancing biomedical knowledge and comparative medicine. With an increasing volume and fast pace of change in biomedical knowledge, as well as increased demands on curricular time, there has been pressure to make biomedical science education efficient and relevant for veterinary medicine. This has lead to a shift in biomedical education from fact-based, teacher-centered and discipline-based teaching to applicable, student-centered, integrated teaching. This movement is supported by adult learning theories and is thought to enhance students' transference of biomedical science into their clinical practice. The importance of biomedical science in veterinary education and the theories of biomedical science learning will be discussed in this article. In addition, we will explore current advances in biomedical teaching methodologies that are aimed to maximize knowledge retention and application for clinical veterinary training and practice.

  6. [Dendrimers in biomedical sciences and nanotechnology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekowski, Szymon; Miłowska, Katarzyna; Gabryelak, Teresa

    2008-12-30

    Dendrimers are relatively new, hyper-branched polymers that have many interesting abilities. Dendrimers could be used, for example, as drug or gene carriers, contrast agents, sensors for different metal ions, and in developing innovation technology. These spherical polymers are also characterized by pharmacological activity against different bacterial and viral diseases. Dendrimers are currently being intensively investigated as anti-prion and anti-amyloid fibril agents. They can be used to build specific dendrimer films to be applied in modern technology. This review describes different uses of dendrimer particles in biomedical sciences and nanotechnology and shows advantages of their application.

  7. Signal and image analysis for biomedical and life sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Changming; Pham, Tuan D; Vallotton, Pascal; Wang, Dadong

    2014-01-01

    With an emphasis on applications of computational models for solving modern challenging problems in biomedical and life sciences, this book aims to bring collections of articles from biologists, medical/biomedical and health science researchers together with computational scientists to focus on problems at the frontier of biomedical and life sciences. The goals of this book are to build interactions of scientists across several disciplines and to help industrial users apply advanced computational techniques for solving practical biomedical and life science problems. This book is for users in t

  8. Enhancing Diversity in Biomedical Data Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canner, Judith E; McEligot, Archana J; Pérez, María-Eglée; Qian, Lei; Zhang, Xinzhi

    2017-01-01

    The gap in educational attainment separating underrepresented minorities from Whites and Asians remains wide. Such a gap has significant impact on workforce diversity and inclusion among cross-cutting Biomedical Data Science (BDS) research, which presents great opportunities as well as major challenges for addressing health disparities. This article provides a brief description of the newly established National Institutes of Health Big Data to Knowledge (BD2K) diversity initiatives at four universities: California State University, Monterey Bay; Fisk University; University of Puerto Rico, Río Piedras Campus; and California State University, Fullerton. We emphasize three main barriers to BDS careers (ie, preparation, exposure, and access to resources) experienced among those pioneer programs and recommendations for possible solutions (ie, early and proactive mentoring, enriched research experience, and data science curriculum development). The diversity disparities in BDS demonstrate the need for educators, researchers, and funding agencies to support evidence-based practices that will lead to the diversification of the BDS workforce.

  9. Modeling and control in the biomedical sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Banks, H T

    1975-01-01

    These notes are based on (i) a series of lectures that I gave at the 14th Biennial Seminar of the Canadian Mathematical Congress held at the University of Western Ontario August 12-24, 1973 and (li) some of my lectures in a modeling course that I have cotaught in the Division of Bio-Medical Sciences at Brown during the past several years. An earlier version of these notes appeared in the Center for Dynamical Systems Lectures Notes series (CDS LN 73-1, November 1973). I have in this revised and extended version of those earlier notes incorporated a number of changes based both on classroom experience and on my research efforts with several colleagues during the intervening period. The narrow viewpoint of the present notes (use of optimization and control theory in biomedical problems) reflects more the scope of the CMC lectures given in August, 1973 than the scope of my own interests. Indeed, my real interests have included the modeling process itself as well as the contributions made by investiga­ tors who e...

  10. The Impact of Regulating Social Science Research with Biomedical Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durosinmi, Brenda Braxton

    2011-01-01

    The Impact of Regulating Social Science Research with Biomedical Regulations Since 1974 Federal regulations have governed the use of human subjects in biomedical and social science research. The regulations are known as the Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects, and often referred to as the "Common Rule" because 18 Federal…

  11. Basic science of nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, R.P.; Taylor, D.M.; Smith, P.H.S.

    1978-01-01

    A book has been written presenting those aspects of physics, chemistry and related sciences which are essential to a clear understanding of the scientific basis of nuclear medicine. Part I covers the basic physics of radiation and radioactivity. Part II deals with radiation dosimetry, the biological effects of radiation and the principles of tracer techniques. The measurement of radioactivity and the principal aspects of modern instrumentation are presented in Part III. Those aspects of chemistry relevant to the preparation and use of radiopharmaceuticals are discussed in Part IV. The final section is concerned with the production of radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals and with the practical aspects of laboratory practice, facilities and safety. The book serves as a general introductory text for physicians, scientists, radiographers and technicians who are entering nuclear medicine. (U.K.)

  12. Science gateways for biomedical big data analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shahand, S.

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical researchers are facing data deluge challenges such as dealing with large volume of complex heterogeneous data and complex and computationally demanding data processing methods. Such scale and complexity of biomedical research requires multi-disciplinary collaboration between scientists

  13. Artificial Sight Basic Research, Biomedical Engineering, and Clinical Advances

    CERN Document Server

    Humayun, Mark S; Chader, Gerald; Greenbaum, Elias

    2008-01-01

    Artificial sight is a frontier area of modern ophthalmology combining the multidisciplinary skills of surgical ophthalmology, biomedical engineering, biological physics, and psychophysical testing. Many scientific, engineering, and surgical challenges must be surmounted before widespread practical applications can be realized. The goal of Artificial Sight is to summarize the state-of-the-art research in this exciting area, and to describe some of the current approaches and initiatives that may help patients in a clinical setting. The Editors are active researchers in the fields of artificial sight, biomedical engineering and biological physics. They have received numerous professional awards and recognition for their work. The artificial sight team at the Doheny Eye Institute, led by Dr. Mark Humayun, is a world leader in this area of biomedical engineering and clinical research. Key Features Introduces and assesses the state of the art for a broad audience of biomedical engineers, biophysicists, and clinical...

  14. Basic Energy Sciences Program Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-01-04

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) supports fundamental research to understand, predict, and ultimately control matter and energy at the electronic, atomic, and molecular levels to provide the foundations for new energy technologies and to support DOE missions in energy, environment, and national security. The research disciplines covered by BES—condensed matter and materials physics, chemistry, geosciences, and aspects of physical biosciences— are those that discover new materials and design new chemical processes. These disciplines touch virtually every aspect of energy resources, production, conversion, transmission, storage, efficiency, and waste mitigation. BES also plans, constructs, and operates world-class scientific user facilities that provide outstanding capabilities for imaging and spectroscopy, characterizing materials of all kinds ranging from hard metals to fragile biological samples, and studying the chemical transformation of matter. These facilities are used to correlate the microscopic structure of materials with their macroscopic properties and to study chemical processes. Such experiments provide critical insights to electronic, atomic, and molecular configurations, often at ultrasmall length and ultrafast time scales.

  15. Journal of Basic and Clinical Reproductive Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Basic and Clinical Reproductive Sciences (ISSN - 2278-960X, Online - 2320-2041) is a peer-reviewed journal published on behalf of the Society of Reproductive Biologists of Nigeria. The journal publishes articles relating to all aspects of Basic Medical Sciences of the Reproductive system of humans and ...

  16. Statistics and Biomedical Informatics in Forensic Sciences

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zvárová, Jana

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 6 (2009), s. 743-750 ISSN 1180-4009. [TIES 2007. Annual Meeting of the International Environmental Society /18./. Mikulov, 16.08.2007-20.08.2007] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : biomedical informatics * biomedical statistics * genetic information * forensic dentistry Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2009

  17. Basic Energy Sciences FY 2014 Research Summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-01-01

    This report provides a collection of research abstracts and highlights for more than 1,200 research projects funded by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) in Fiscal Year 2014 at some 200 institutions across the U.S. This volume is organized along the three BES Divisions: Materials Sciences and Engineering; Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences; and Scientific User Facilities.

  18. Basic Energy Sciences FY 2011 Research Summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-01-01

    This report provides a collection of research abstracts for more than 1,300 research projects funded by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) in Fiscal Year 2011 at some 180 institutions across the U.S. This volume is organized along the three BES divisions: Materials Sciences and Engineering; Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences; and Scientific User Facilities.

  19. Basic Energy Sciences FY 2012 Research Summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-01-01

    This report provides a collection of research abstracts and highlights for more than 1,400 research projects funded by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) in Fiscal Year 2012 at some 180 institutions across the U.S. This volume is organized along the three BES Divisions: Materials Sciences and Engineering; Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences; and Scientific User Facilities.

  20. Data science, learning, and applications to biomedical and health sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Nabil R; Wieder, Robert; Ghosh, Debopriya

    2017-01-01

    The last decade has seen an unprecedented increase in the volume and variety of electronic data related to research and development, health records, and patient self-tracking, collectively referred to as Big Data. Properly harnessed, Big Data can provide insights and drive discovery that will accelerate biomedical advances, improve patient outcomes, and reduce costs. However, the considerable potential of Big Data remains unrealized owing to obstacles including a limited ability to standardize and consolidate data and challenges in sharing data, among a variety of sources, providers, and facilities. Here, we discuss some of these challenges and potential solutions, as well as initiatives that are already underway to take advantage of Big Data. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  1. Hurdles in Basic Science Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina J. Perry

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the past century there have been incredible advances in the field of medical research, but what hinders translation of this knowledge into effective treatment for human disease? There is an increasing focus on the failure of many research breakthroughs to be translated through the clinical trial process and into medical practice. In this mini review, we will consider some of the reasons that findings in basic medical research fail to become translated through clinical trials and into basic medical practices. We focus in particular on the way that human disease is modeled, the understanding we have of how our targets behave in vivo, and also some of the issues surrounding reproducibility of basic research findings. We will also look at some of the ways that have been proposed for overcoming these issues. It appears that there needs to be a cultural shift in the way we fund, publish and recognize quality control in scientific research. Although this is a daunting proposition, we hope that with increasing awareness and focus on research translation and the hurdles that impede it, the field of medical research will continue to inform and improve medical practice across the world.

  2. Basic concepts in social sciences II

    OpenAIRE

    Hoede, C.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper an extension is given of the set of concepts considered to be basic to the fields of Economics, Organization Theory, Political Science, Psychology and Sociology. The modeling is in terms of automata and automata networks. In the first paper on basic concepts the simplest unit, the social atom, stood central. In this second paper social structures and processes are focused upon.

  3. Basic concepts in social sciences II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoede, C.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper an extension is given of the set of concepts considered to be basic to the fields of Economics, Organization Theory, Political Science, Psychology and Sociology. The modeling is in terms of automata and automata networks. In the first paper on basic concepts the simplest unit, the

  4. Basic Principles of Animal Science. Reprinted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee.

    The reference book is designed to fulfill the need for organized subject matter dealing with basic principles of animal science to be incorporated into the high school agriculture curriculum. The material presented is scientific knowledge basic to livestock production. Five units contain specific information on the following topics: anatomy and…

  5. Journal of Medical and Biomedical Sciences: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. Journal of Medical and Biomedical Science publishes original, novel, peer-reviewed reports that pertain to medical and allied health sciences; confirmatory reports of previously described phenomena that either contain a novel finding or are of such magnitude to enhance the field; as well as laboratory or ...

  6. Basic Research in Computer Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    Widgets 82 6.5.6 Debugging 83 6.5.7 Utilities 84 6.6 Higher-Level Tools 84 6.6.1 Gilt 85 6.6.2 Lapidary 86 6.6.3 C32 86 6.6.4 Marquise 86 6.7...phase of the research-facilitating the eventual transfer of the technology, providing feedback for the ongoing basic-sensor research, and demonstrating... feedback object might have constraints that say "I am the same size as whatever I’m over," and then at runtime, the program will set the referent

  7. Basic energy sciences: Summary of accomplishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-01

    For more than four decades, the Department of Energy, including its predecessor agencies, has supported a program of basic research in nuclear- and energy related sciences, known as Basic Energy Sciences. The purpose of the program is to explore fundamental phenomena, create scientific knowledge, and provide unique user facilities necessary for conducting basic research. Its technical interests span the range of scientific disciplines: physical and biological sciences, geological sciences, engineering, mathematics, and computer sciences. Its products and facilities are essential to technology development in many of the more applied areas of the Department's energy, science, and national defense missions. The accomplishments of Basic Energy Sciences research are numerous and significant. Not only have they contributed to Departmental missions, but have aided significantly the development of technologies which now serve modern society daily in business, industry, science, and medicine. In a series of stories, this report highlights 22 accomplishments, selected because of their particularly noteworthy contributions to modern society. A full accounting of all the accomplishments would be voluminous. Detailed documentation of the research results can be found in many thousands of articles published in peer-reviewed technical literature.

  8. Basic Energy Sciences: Summary of Accomplishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-01

    For more than four decades, the Department of Energy, including its predecessor agencies, has supported a program of basic research in nuclear- and energy-related sciences, known as Basic Energy Sciences. The purpose of the program is to explore fundamental phenomena, create scientific knowledge, and provide unique user'' facilities necessary for conducting basic research. Its technical interests span the range of scientific disciplines: physical and biological sciences, geological sciences, engineering, mathematics, and computer sciences. Its products and facilities are essential to technology development in many of the more applied areas of the Department's energy, science, and national defense missions. The accomplishments of Basic Energy Sciences research are numerous and significant. Not only have they contributed to Departmental missions, but have aided significantly the development of technologies which now serve modern society daily in business, industry, science, and medicine. In a series of stories, this report highlights 22 accomplishments, selected because of their particularly noteworthy contributions to modern society. A full accounting of all the accomplishments would be voluminous. Detailed documentation of the research results can be found in many thousands of articles published in peer-reviewed technical literature.

  9. Science communication in the field of fundamental biomedical research (editorial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illingworth, Sam; Prokop, Andreas

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this special issue on science communication is to inspire and help scientists who are taking part or want to take part in science communication and engage with the wider public, clinicians, other scientists or policy makers. For this, some articles provide concise and accessible advice to individual scientists, science networks, or learned societies on how to communicate effectively; others share rationales, objectives and aims, experiences, implementation strategies and resources derived from existing long-term science communication initiatives. Although this issue is primarily addressing scientists working in the field of biomedical research, much of it similarly applies to scientists from other disciplines. Furthermore, we hope that this issue will also be used as a helpful resource by academic science communicators and social scientists, as a collection that highlights some of the major communication challenges that the biomedical sciences face, and which provides interesting case studies of initiatives that use a breadth of strategies to address these challenges. In this editorial, we first discuss why we should communicate our science and contemplate some of the different approaches, aspirations and definitions of science communication. We then address the specific challenges that researchers in the biomedical sciences are faced with when engaging with wider audiences. Finally, we explain the rationales and contents of the different articles in this issue and the various science communication initiatives and strategies discussed in each of them, whilst also providing some information on the wide range of further science communication activities in the biomedical sciences that could not all be covered here. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. [Biomedical informatics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capurro, Daniel; Soto, Mauricio; Vivent, Macarena; Lopetegui, Marcelo; Herskovic, Jorge R

    2011-12-01

    Biomedical Informatics is a new discipline that arose from the need to incorporate information technologies to the generation, storage, distribution and analysis of information in the domain of biomedical sciences. This discipline comprises basic biomedical informatics, and public health informatics. The development of the discipline in Chile has been modest and most projects have originated from the interest of individual people or institutions, without a systematic and coordinated national development. Considering the unique features of health care system of our country, research in the area of biomedical informatics is becoming an imperative.

  11. FWP executive summaries: Basic energy sciences materials sciences programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samara, G.A.

    1996-02-01

    This report provides an Executive Summary of the various elements of the Materials Sciences Program which is funded by the Division of Materials Sciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico.

  12. Convergence of Terahertz Sciences in Biomedical Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Yong; Han, Haewook; Han, Joon; Ahn, Jaewook; Son, Joo-Hiuk; Park, Woong-Yang; Jeong, Young

    2012-01-01

    Recent technological breakthrough in the field of Terahertz radiation has triggered new applications in biology and biomedicine. Particularly, biological applications are based on the specific spectroscopic fingerprints of biological matter in this spectral region. Historically with the discovery of new electromagnetic wave spectrum, we have always discovered new medical diagnostic imaging systems. The use of terahertz wave was not realized due to the absence of useful terahertz sources. Now after successful generation of THz waves, it is reported that a great potential for THz wave exists for its resonance with bio-molecules. There are many challenging issues such as development of THz passive and active instrumentations, understanding of THz-Bio interaction for THz spectroscopy, THz-Bio nonlinear phenomena and safety guideline, and THz imaging systems. Eventually the deeper understanding of THz-Bio interaction and novel THz systems enable us to develop powerful THz biomedical imaging systems which can contr...

  13. Innovative strategies in teaching of biomedical sciences to health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge and skills in biomedical sciences have reached a level, which is difficult to pass on to students in the traditional one to two years by traditional lecture methods and are still expanding. Recently, innovative methods of enabling the students to acquire the knowledge and skills have been evolved, and include ...

  14. Important techniques in today's biomedical science research that ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need for best evidence has driven researchers into multidisciplinary, collaborative approaches which have become mainstay in today's biomedical science. The multidisciplinary and collaborative approaches to research in research-intensive academic medical centres in the USA and in other countries of affluence has ...

  15. Blended learning as an effective pedagogical paradigm for biomedical science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perry Hartfield

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Blended learning combines face-to-face class based and online teaching and learning delivery in order to increase flexibility in how, when, and where students study and learn. The development, integration, and promotion of blended learning in frameworks of curriculum design can optimize the opportunities afforded by information and communication technologies and, concomitantly, accommodate a broad range of student learning styles. This study critically reviews the potential benefits of blended learning as a progressive educative paradigm for the teaching of biomedical science and evaluates the opportunities that blended learning offers for the delivery of accessible, flexible and sustainable teaching and learning experiences. A central tenet of biomedical science education at the tertiary level is the development of comprehensive hands-on practical competencies and technical skills (many of which require laboratory-based learning environments, and it is advanced that a blended learning model, which combines face-to-face synchronous teaching and learning activities with asynchronous online teaching and learning activities, effectively creates an authentic, enriching, and student-centred learning environment for biomedical science. Lastly, a blending learning design for introductory biochemistry will be described as an effective example of integrating face-to-face and online teaching, learning and assessment activities within the teaching domain of biomedical science.   DOI: 10.18870/hlrc.v3i4.169

  16. Nigerian Journal of Health and Biomedical Sciences: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. The Nigerian Journal of Health and Biomedical Sciences publishes original research articles, case report, review articles and short communications of outstanding research findings. Manuscript Preparation Manuscripts (3 copies) should be typewritten on A4 paper (210 x 297 mm) with double line ...

  17. Publications in biomedical and environmental sciences programs, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfuderer, H.A.; Moody, J.B.

    1981-07-01

    This bibliography contains 690 references to articles in journals, books, and reports published in the subject area of biomedical and environmental sciences during 1980. There are 529 references to articles published in journals and books and 161 references to reports. Staff members in the Biomedical and Environmental Sciences divisions have other publications not included in this bibliography; for example, theses, book reviews, abstracts published in journals or symposia proceedings, pending journal publications and reports such as monthly and bimonthly progress reports, contractor reports, and reports for internal distribution. This document is sorted by the division, and then alphabetically by author. The sorting by divisions separates the references by subject area in a simple way. The divisions represented in the order that they appear in the bibliography are Analytical Chemistry, Biology, Chemical Technology, Information R and D, Health and Safety Research, Energy, Environmental Sciences, and Computer Sciences

  18. Graduate Biomedical Science Education Needs a New Philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Gundula; Casadevall, Arturo

    2017-12-19

    There is a growing realization that graduate education in the biomedical sciences is successful at teaching students how to conduct research but falls short in preparing them for a diverse job market, communicating with the public, and remaining versatile scientists throughout their careers. Major problems with graduate level education today include overspecialization in a narrow area of science without a proper grounding in essential critical thinking skills. Shortcomings in education may also contribute to some of the problems of the biomedical sciences, such as poor reproducibility, shoddy literature, and the rise in retracted publications. The challenge is to modify graduate programs such that they continue to generate individuals capable of conducting deep research while at the same time producing more broadly trained scientists without lengthening the time to a degree. Here we describe our first experiences at Johns Hopkins and propose a manifesto for reforming graduate science education. Copyright © 2017 Bosch and Casadevall.

  19. Publications in biomedical and environmental sciences programs, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfuderer, H.A.; Moody, J.B.

    1981-07-01

    This bibliography contains 690 references to articles in journals, books, and reports published in the subject area of biomedical and environmental sciences during 1980. There are 529 references to articles published in journals and books and 161 references to reports. Staff members in the Biomedical and Environmental Sciences divisions have other publications not included in this bibliography; for example, theses, book reviews, abstracts published in journals or symposia proceedings, pending journal publications and reports such as monthly and bimonthly progress reports, contractor reports, and reports for internal distribution. This document is sorted by the division, and then alphabetically by author. The sorting by divisions separates the references by subject area in a simple way. The divisions represented in the order that they appear in the bibliography are Analytical Chemistry, Biology, Chemical Technology, Information R and D, Health and Safety Research, Energy, Environmental Sciences, and Computer Sciences.

  20. The use of AMS to the biomedical sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, J.S.

    1991-04-01

    The Center for Accelerator Mass Spectroscopy (AMS) began making AMS measurements in 1989. Biomedical experiments were originally limited by sample preparation techniques, but we expect the number of biomedical samples to increase five-fold. While many of the detailed techniques for making biomedical measurements resemble those used in other fields, biological tracer experiments differ substantially from the observational approaches of earth science investigators. The role of xenobiotius in initiating mutations in cells is of particular interest. One measure of the damage caused to the genetic material is obtained by counting the number of adducts formed by a chemical agent at a given dose. AMS allows direct measurement of the number of adducts through stoichiometric quantification of the 14 C label attached to the DNA after exposure to a labelled carcinogen. Other isotopes of interest include tritium, 36 Cl, 79 SE, 41 Ca, 26 Al and 129 I. Our experiments with low dose environmental carcinogens reflect the protocols which will become a common part of biomedical AMS. In biomedical experiments, the researcher defines the carbon to be analyzed through dissection and/or chemical purification; thus the sample is ''merely'' combusted and graphitized at the AMS facility. However, since biomedical samples can have a 14 C range of five orders of magnitude, preparation of graphite required construction of a special manifold to prevent cross-contamination. Additionally, a strain of 14 C-depleted C57BL/6 mice is being developed to further reduce background in biomedical experiments. AMS has a bright and diverse future in radioisotope tracing. Such work requires a dedicated amalgamation of AMS scientists and biomedical researchers who will redesign experimental protocols to maximize the AMS technique and minimize the danger of catastrophic contamination. 18 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  1. The use of AMS to the biomedical sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, J.S.

    1991-04-01

    The Center for Accelerator Mass Spectroscopy (AMS) began making AMS measurements in 1989. Biomedical experiments were originally limited by sample preparation techniques, but we expect the number of biomedical samples to increase five-fold. While many of the detailed techniques for making biomedical measurements resemble those used in other fields, biological tracer experiments differ substantially from the observational approaches of earth science investigators. The role of xenobiotius in initiating mutations in cells is of particular interest. One measure of the damage caused to the genetic material is obtained by counting the number of adducts formed by a chemical agent at a given dose. AMS allows direct measurement of the number of adducts through stoichiometric quantification of the {sup 14}C label attached to the DNA after exposure to a labelled carcinogen. Other isotopes of interest include tritium, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 79}SE, {sup 41}Ca, {sup 26}Al and {sup 129}I. Our experiments with low dose environmental carcinogens reflect the protocols which will become a common part of biomedical AMS. In biomedical experiments, the researcher defines the carbon to be analyzed through dissection and/or chemical purification; thus the sample is merely'' combusted and graphitized at the AMS facility. However, since biomedical samples can have a {sup 14}C range of five orders of magnitude, preparation of graphite required construction of a special manifold to prevent cross-contamination. Additionally, a strain of {sup 14}C-depleted C57BL/6 mice is being developed to further reduce background in biomedical experiments. AMS has a bright and diverse future in radioisotope tracing. Such work requires a dedicated amalgamation of AMS scientists and biomedical researchers who will redesign experimental protocols to maximize the AMS technique and minimize the danger of catastrophic contamination. 18 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Reaching Consensus on Essential Biomedical Science Learning Objectives in a Dental Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Leandra; Walton, Joanne N; Walker, Judith; von Bergmann, HsingChi

    2016-04-01

    This article describes how the University of British Columbia Faculty of Dentistry reached consensus on essential basic biomedical science objectives for DMD students and applied the information to the renewal of its DMD curriculum. The Delphi Method was used to build consensus among dental faculty members and students regarding the relevance of over 1,500 existing biomedical science objectives. Volunteer panels of at least three faculty members (a basic scientist, a general dentist, and a dental specialist) and a fourth-year dental student were formed for each of 13 biomedical courses in the first two years of the program. Panel members worked independently and anonymously, rating each course objective as "need to know," "nice to know," "irrelevant," or "don't know." Panel members were advised after each round which objectives had not yet achieved a 75% consensus and were asked to reconsider their ratings. After a maximum of three rounds to reach consensus, a second group of faculty experts reviewed and refined the results to establish the biomedical science objectives for the renewed curriculum. There was consensus on 46% of the learning objectives after round one, 80% after round two, and 95% after round three. The second expert group addressed any remaining objectives as part of its review process. Only 47% of previous biomedical science course objectives were judged to be essential or "need to know" for the general dentist. The consensus reached by participants in the Delphi Method panels and a second group of faculty experts led to a streamlined, better integrated DMD curriculum to prepare graduates for future practice.

  3. Integration of Basic Sciences in Health's Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzalis, L. A.; Giavarotti, L.; Sato, S. N.; Barros, N. M. T.; Junqueira, V. B. C.; Fonseca, F. L. A.

    2012-01-01

    Concepts from disciplines such as Biochemistry, Genetics, Cellular and Molecular Biology are essential to the understanding and treatment of an elevated number of illnesses, but often they are studied separately, with no integration between them. This article proposes a model for basic sciences integration based on problem-based learning (PBL) and…

  4. Structural biology computing: Lessons for the biomedical research sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Andrew; Sliz, Piotr

    2013-11-01

    The field of structural biology, whose aim is to elucidate the molecular and atomic structures of biological macromolecules, has long been at the forefront of biomedical sciences in adopting and developing computational research methods. Operating at the intersection between biophysics, biochemistry, and molecular biology, structural biology's growth into a foundational framework on which many concepts and findings of molecular biology are interpreted1 has depended largely on parallel advancements in computational tools and techniques. Without these computing advances, modern structural biology would likely have remained an exclusive pursuit practiced by few, and not become the widely practiced, foundational field it is today. As other areas of biomedical research increasingly embrace research computing techniques, the successes, failures and lessons of structural biology computing can serve as a useful guide to progress in other biomedically related research fields. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Biomedical Engineering and Cognitive Science Secondary Science Curriculum Development: A Three Year Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Stacy S.; Sherwood, Robert D.

    2005-01-01

    This study reports on a multi-year effort to create and evaluate cognitive-based curricular materials for secondary school science classrooms. A team of secondary teachers, educational researchers, and academic biomedical engineers developed a series of curriculum units that are based in biomedical engineering for secondary level students in…

  6. The United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haubold, Hans; Balogh, Werner

    2014-05-01

    The basic space science initiative was a long-term effort for the development of astronomy and space science through regional and international cooperation in this field on a worldwide basis, particularly in developing nations. Basic space science workshops were co-sponsored and co-organized by ESA, JAXA, and NASA. A series of workshops on basic space science was held from 1991 to 2004 (India 1991, Costa Rica and Colombia 1992, Nigeria 1993, Egypt 1994, Sri Lanka 1995, Germany 1996, Honduras 1997, Jordan 1999, France 2000, Mauritius 2001, Argentina 2002, and China 2004; http://neutrino.aquaphoenix.com/un-esa/) and addressed the status of astronomy in Asia and the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, Africa, and Western Asia. Through the lead of the National Astronomical Observatory Japan, astronomical telescope facilities were inaugurated in seven developing nations and planetariums were established in twenty developing nations based on the donation of respective equipment by Japan.Pursuant to resolutions of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space of the United Nations (COPUOS) and its Scientific and Technical Subcommittee, since 2005, these workshops focused on the preparations for and the follow-ups to the International Heliophysical Year 2007 (UAE 2005, India 2006, Japan 2007, Bulgaria 2008, South Korea 2009; www.unoosa.org/oosa/SAP/bss/ihy2007/index.html). IHY's legacy is the current operation of 16 worldwide instrument arrays with more than 1000 instruments recording data on solar-terrestrial interaction from coronal mass ejections to variations of the total electron content in the ionosphere (http://iswisecretariat.org/). Instruments are provided to hosting institutions by entities of Armenia, Brazil, France, Israel, Japan, Switzerland, and the United States. Starting in 2010, the workshops focused on the International Space Weather Initiative (ISWI) as mandated in a three-year-work plan as part of the deliberations of COPUOS. Workshops on ISWI

  7. Modern Trends in Imaging XI: Impedance Measurements in the Biomedical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick D. Coffman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological organisms and their component organs, tissues and cells have unique electrical impedance properties. Impedance properties often change with changes in structure, composition, and metabolism, and can be indicative of the onset and progression of disease states. Over the past 100 years, instruments and analytical methods have been developed to measure the impedance properties of biological specimens and to utilize these measurements in both clinical and basic science settings. This chapter will review the applications of impedance measurements in the biomedical sciences, from whole body analysis to impedance measurements of single cells and cell monolayers, and how cellular impedance measuring instruments can now be used in high throughput screening applications.

  8. Indicators for the use of robotic labs in basic biomedical research: a literature analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Groth, Paul; Cox, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    Robotic labs, in which experiments are carried out entirely by robots, have the potential to provide a reproducible and transparent foundation for performing basic biomedical laboratory experiments. In this article, we investigate whether these labs could be applicable in current experimental practice. We do this by text mining 1,628 papers for occurrences of methods that are supported by commercial robotic labs. Using two different concept recognition tools, we find that 86%–89% of the paper...

  9. Publications in biomedical and environmental sciences programs, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moody, J.B.

    1983-04-01

    This bibliography contains 725 references to articles in journals, books, and reports published in the subject area of biomedical and environmental sciences during 1982. There are 553 references to articles published in journals and books and 172 references to reports. The citations appear once ordered by the first author's division or by the performing division. Staff members in the Biomedical and Environmental Sciences divisions have other publications not included in this bibliography; for example, theses, book reviews, abstracts published in journals or symposia proceedings, pending journal publications and reports such as monthly, bimonthly, and quarterly progress reports, contractor reports, and reports for internal distribution. This document is sorted by the division, and then alphabetically by author. The sorting by divisions separates the references by subject area in a simple way. The divisions are represented alphabetically. Indexes are provided by author, title, and journal reference. Reprints of articles referenced in this bibliography can be obtained from the author or the author's division

  10. 76 FR 48147 - Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Science. ACTION: Notice of renewal of the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee. SUMMARY... that the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee will be renewed for a two-year period beginning July...

  11. 77 FR 5246 - Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Science... of the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (BESAC). The Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Katie Perine; Office of Basic Energy Sciences; U.S. Department of Energy...

  12. Integrating Contemplative Tools into Biomedical Science Education and Research Training Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney R. Dietert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Academic preparation of science researchers and/or human or veterinary medicine clinicians through the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM curriculum has usually focused on the students (1 acquiring increased disciplinary expertise, (2 learning needed methodologies and protocols, and (3 expanding their capacity for intense, persistent focus. Such educational training is effective until roadblocks or problems arise via this highly-learned approach. Then, the health science trainee may have few tools available for effective problem solving. Training to achieve flexibility, adaptability, and broadened perspectives using contemplative practices has been rare among biomedical education programs. To address this gap, a Cornell University-based program involving formal biomedical science coursework, and health science workshops has been developed to offer science students, researchers and health professionals a broader array of personal, contemplation-based, problem-solving tools. This STEM educational initiative includes first-person exercises designed to broaden perceptional awareness, decrease emotional drama, and mobilize whole-body strategies for creative problem solving. Self-calibration and journaling are used for students to evaluate the personal utility of each exercise. The educational goals are to increase student self-awareness and self-regulation and to provide trainees with value-added tools for career-long problem solving. Basic elements of this educational initiative are discussed using the framework of the Tree of Contemplative Practices.

  13. Publications in biomedical and environmental sciences programs, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moody, J.B. (comp.)

    1982-07-01

    This bibliography contains 698 references to articles in journals, books, and reports published in the subject area of biomedical and environmental sciences during 1981. There are 520 references to articles published in journals and books and 178 references to reports. Staff members in the Biomedical and Environmental Sciences divisions have other publications not included in this bibliography; for example, theses, book reviews, abstracts published in journals or symposia proceedings, pending journal publications and reports such as monthly, bimonthly, and quarterly progress reports, contractor reports, and reports for internal distribution. This document is sorted by the division, and then alphabetically by author. The sorting by divisions separates the references by subject area in a simple way. The divisions represented in the order that they appear in the bibliography are Analytical Chemistry, Biology, Chemical Technology, Information R and D, Health and Safety Research, Instrumentation and Controls, Computer Sciences, Energy, Engineering Technology, Solid State, Central Management, Operations, and Environmental Sciences. Indexes are provided by author, title, and journal reference.

  14. Publications in biomedical and environmental sciences programs, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moody, J.B.

    1982-07-01

    This bibliography contains 698 references to articles in journals, books, and reports published in the subject area of biomedical and environmental sciences during 1981. There are 520 references to articles published in journals and books and 178 references to reports. Staff members in the Biomedical and Environmental Sciences divisions have other publications not included in this bibliography; for example, theses, book reviews, abstracts published in journals or symposia proceedings, pending journal publications and reports such as monthly, bimonthly, and quarterly progress reports, contractor reports, and reports for internal distribution. This document is sorted by the division, and then alphabetically by author. The sorting by divisions separates the references by subject area in a simple way. The divisions represented in the order that they appear in the bibliography are Analytical Chemistry, Biology, Chemical Technology, Information R and D, Health and Safety Research, Instrumentation and Controls, Computer Sciences, Energy, Engineering Technology, Solid State, Central Management, Operations, and Environmental Sciences. Indexes are provided by author, title, and journal reference

  15. Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences: Journal Sponsorship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  16. Annual report, Basic Sciences Branch, FY 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Basic Sciences Branch of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) from October 1, 1990, through September 30, 1991. Seven technical sections of the report cover these main areas of NREL`s in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, Solid-State Spectroscopy, and Superconductivity. Each section explains the purpose and major accomplishments of the work in the context of the US Department of Energy`s National Photovoltaic Research Program plans.

  17. Annual report, Basic Sciences Branch, FY 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Basic Sciences Branch of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) from October 1, 1990, through September 30, 1991. Seven technical sections of the report cover these main areas of NREL's in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, Solid-State Spectroscopy, and Superconductivity. Each section explains the purpose and major accomplishments of the work in the context of the US Department of Energy's National Photovoltaic Research Program plans.

  18. Indicators for the use of robotic labs in basic biomedical research: a literature analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Groth

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Robotic labs, in which experiments are carried out entirely by robots, have the potential to provide a reproducible and transparent foundation for performing basic biomedical laboratory experiments. In this article, we investigate whether these labs could be applicable in current experimental practice. We do this by text mining 1,628 papers for occurrences of methods that are supported by commercial robotic labs. Using two different concept recognition tools, we find that 86%–89% of the papers have at least one of these methods. This and our other results provide indications that robotic labs can serve as the foundation for performing many lab-based experiments.

  19. Potential applications of microbial surfactants in biomedical sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pooja; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh

    2004-03-01

    The main commercial use of biosurfactants is in pollution remediation because of their ability to stabilize emulsions. This enhances the solubility and availability of hydrophobic pollutants, thus increasing their potential for biodegradation. One useful property of many biosurfactants that has not been reviewed extensively is their antimicrobial activity. Several biosurfactants have strong antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral activity. Other medically relevant uses of biosurfactants include their role as anti-adhesive agents to pathogens, making them useful for treating many diseases and as therapeutic and probiotic agents. Here, we discuss some of the new and exciting applications and related developments of various microbial surfactants in the field of biomedical sciences.

  20. 78 FR 47677 - Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Science... hereby given that the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee's (BESAC) charter will be renewed for a two-year period. The Committee will provide advice and recommendations to the Office of Science on the...

  1. 78 FR 6088 - Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Science... Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (BESAC). The Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463, 86 Stat... INFORMATION CONTACT: Katie Perine, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy; SC-22...

  2. Publications in biomedical and environmental sciences programs, 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moody, J.B. (comp.)

    1983-04-01

    This bibliography contains 725 references to articles in journals, books, and reports published in the subject area of biomedical and environmental sciences during 1982. There are 553 references to articles published in journals and books and 172 references to reports. The citations appear once ordered by the first author's division or by the performing division. Staff members in the Biomedical and Environmental Sciences divisions have other publications not included in this bibliography; for example, theses, book reviews, abstracts published in journals or symposia proceedings, pending journal publications and reports such as monthly, bimonthly, and quarterly progress reports, contractor reports, and reports for internal distribution. This document is sorted by the division, and then alphabetically by author. The sorting by divisions separates the references by subject area in a simple way. The divisions are represented alphabetically. Indexes are provided by author, title, and journal reference. Reprints of articles referenced in this bibliography can be obtained from the author or the author's division.

  3. [Evolutionary medicine: an emergent basic science].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spotorno, Angel E

    2005-02-01

    Evolutionary Medicine is an emergent basic science that offers new and varied perspectives to the comprehension of human health. The application of classic evolutionary theories (descent with modification, and natural selection) to the human organism, to its pathogens, and their mutual co-evolution, provides new explanations about why we get sick, how we can prevent this, and how we can heal. Medicine has focused mainly on the proximate or immediate causes of diseases and the treatment of symptoms, and very little on its evolutionary or mediate causes. For instance, the present human genome and phenotypes are essentially paleolithic ones: they are not adapted to modern life style, thus favoring the so-called diseases of civilization (ie: ateroesclerosis, senescence, myopia, phobias, panic attacks, stress, reproductive cancers). With the evolutionary approach, post-modern medicine is detecting better the vulnerabilities, restrictions, biases, adaptations and maladaptations of human body, its actual diseases, and its preventions.

  4. Radiation chemistry: basic, strategic or tactical science?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wardman, Peter

    1989-01-01

    The work of Weiss in the 1930s, particularly with Haber, has only recently been recognized to have implications in biology and medicine. Similarly, research in radiation chemistry and the application of the pulse radiolysis technique, for example, have implications far beyond traditional radiation chemistry. Some examples of such research are discussed against a background of categorization into 'basic', 'strategic' or 'tactical' science. Examples discussed include redox properties of free radicals, and the identification and characterization of nitro radicals as intermediates in drug metabolism. Radical reactions often take place in multicomponent systems, and the techniques of radiation chemistry can be used to probe, for example, events occurring at interfaces in micelles. Industrial processes involving radiation are attracting investment, particularly in Japan. (author)

  5. Basic Science Research and the Protection of Human Research Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiseman, Elisa

    2001-03-01

    Technological advances in basic biological research have been instrumental in recent biomedical discoveries, such as in the understanding and treatment of cancer, HIV/AIDS, and heart disease. However, many of these advances also raise several new ethical challenges. For example, genetic research may pose no physical risk beyond that of obtaining the initial blood sample, yet it can pose significant psychological and economic risks to research participants, such as stigmatization, discrimination in insurance and employment, invasion of privacy, or breach of confidentiality. These harms may occur even when investigators do not directly interact with the person whose DNA they are studying. Moreover, this type of basic research also raises broader questions, such as what is the definition of a human subject, and what kinds of expertise do Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) need to review the increasingly diverse types of research made possible by these advances in technology. The National Bioethics Advisory Commission (NBAC), a presidentially appointed federal advisory committee, has addressed these and other ethical, scientific and policy issues that arise in basic science research involving human participants. Two of its six reports, in particular, have proposed recommendations in this regard. "Research Involving Human Biological Materials: Ethical and Policy Guidance" addresses the basic research use of human tissues, cells and DNA and the protection of human participants in this type of research. In "Ethical and Policy Issues in the Oversight of Human Research" NBAC proposes a definition of research involving human participants that would apply to all scientific disciplines, including physical, biological, and social sciences, as well as the humanities and related professions, such as business and law. Both of these reports make it clear that the protection of research participants is key to conducting ethically sound research. By ensuring that all participants in

  6. 75 FR 41838 - Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Science. ACTION: Notice of Open Meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (BESAC). The Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463, 86 Stat...

  7. 75 FR 6369 - Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Science. ACTION: Notice of Open Meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (BESAC). Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92- 463, 86 Stat. 770...

  8. 76 FR 41234 - Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Science. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (BESAC). Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92- 463, 86 Stat. 770...

  9. 78 FR 38696 - Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Science. ACTION: Notice of Open Meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (BESAC). The Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463, 86 Stat...

  10. 77 FR 41395 - Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Science. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (BESAC). Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92- 463, 86 Stat. 770...

  11. 76 FR 8358 - Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Science. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (BESAC). Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92- 463, 86 Stat. 770...

  12. Context-Aware Adaptive Hybrid Semantic Relatedness in Biomedical Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emadzadeh, Ehsan

    Text mining of biomedical literature and clinical notes is a very active field of research in biomedical science. Semantic analysis is one of the core modules for different Natural Language Processing (NLP) solutions. Methods for calculating semantic relatedness of two concepts can be very useful in solutions solving different problems such as relationship extraction, ontology creation and question / answering [1--6]. Several techniques exist in calculating semantic relatedness of two concepts. These techniques utilize different knowledge sources and corpora. So far, researchers attempted to find the best hybrid method for each domain by combining semantic relatedness techniques and data sources manually. In this work, attempts were made to eliminate the needs for manually combining semantic relatedness methods targeting any new contexts or resources through proposing an automated method, which attempted to find the best combination of semantic relatedness techniques and resources to achieve the best semantic relatedness score in every context. This may help the research community find the best hybrid method for each context considering the available algorithms and resources.

  13. Developing Basic Space Science World-Wide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamsteker, W.; Albrecht, Rudolf; Haubold, Hans J.

    2004-03-01

    When the first United Nations/European Space Agency Workshop for Basic Space Science was planned to be held in Bangalore, India (1991) on the invitation of ISRO, few of those involved could expect that a unique forum was going to be created for scientific dialogue between scientists from developing and industrialized nations. As the format of the first workshop was on purpose left free with time for presentations, working sessions, and plenary discussions, the workshop was left to find its own dynamics. After a decade of UN/ESA Workshops, this book brings together the historical activities, the plans which have been developed over the past decade in the different nations, and the results which have materialized during this time in different developing nations. It aims to achieve for development agencies to be assisted in ways to find more effective tools for the application of development aid. The last section of the book contains a guide for teachers to introduce astrophysics into university physics courses. This will be of use to teachers in many nations. Everything described in this book is the result of a truly collective effort from all involved in all UN/ESA workshops. The mutual support from the participants has helped significantly to implement some of the accomplishments described in the book. Rather than organizing this book in a subject driven way, it is essentially organized according to the common economic regions of the world, as defined by the United Nations (Africa, Asia and the Pacific, Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean, Western Asia). This allows better recognition of the importance of a regional (and at times) global approach to basic space science for the developing nation's world wide. It highlights very specific scientific investigations which have been completed successfully in the various developing nations. The book supplements the published ten volumes of workshop proceedings containing scientific papers presented in the workshops

  14. Some Aspects of the State-of-the-Arts in Biomedical Science Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary: In the biomedical sciences, there is need to generate solutions for Africa's health and economic problems through the impact of university research. To guide organizational transformation, the author here presents some aspects of the state-of-the-arts of biomedical science research in advanced countries using a ...

  15. Big Biomedical data as the key resource for discovery science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toga, Arthur W.; Foster, Ian; Kesselman, Carl; Madduri, Ravi; Chard, Kyle; Deutsch, Eric W.; Price, Nathan D.; Glusman, Gustavo; Heavner, Benjamin D.; Dinov, Ivo D.; Ames, Joseph; Van Horn, John; Kramer, Roger; Hood, Leroy

    2015-07-21

    Modern biomedical data collection is generating exponentially more data in a multitude of formats. This flood of complex data poses significant opportunities to discover and understand the critical interplay among such diverse domains as genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and phenomics, including imaging, biometrics, and clinical data. The Big Data for Discovery Science Center is taking an “-ome to home” approach to discover linkages between these disparate data sources by mining existing databases of proteomic and genomic data, brain images, and clinical assessments. In support of this work, the authors developed new technological capabilities that make it easy for researchers to manage, aggregate, manipulate, integrate, and model large amounts of distributed data. Guided by biological domain expertise, the Center’s computational resources and software will reveal relationships and patterns, aiding researchers in identifying biomarkers for the most confounding conditions and diseases, such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s.

  16. Complementary therapy use by nursing, pharmacy and biomedical science students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, J M; Simpson, M D

    2001-03-01

    Attitudes towards the use of complementary therapies by students of undergraduate Bachelor of Nursing, Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences were determined using a self-administered questionnaire. Overall, 78% of students had used a complementary therapy in the past year and 56% had visited a complementary therapy practitioner. The therapies most used were those involving vitamins, mineral and other supplements. Practitioners specializing in this area were the most visited, followed by chiropractors. Commonly used products included vitamin C, multivitamins, B group vitamins, garlic, iron and echinacea. Most students thought complementary therapies improved quality of life, with friends and family providing the main sources of information. There were few differences attributable to course or gender. The results suggest that these students have favorable attitudes towards complementary therapies and that many choose to use them as part of normal health care.

  17. 1st International Conference on Computational and Experimental Biomedical Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Jorge, RM

    2015-01-01

    This book contains the full papers presented at ICCEBS 2013 – the 1st International Conference on Computational and Experimental Biomedical Sciences, which was organized in Azores, in October 2013. The included papers present and discuss new trends in those fields, using several methods and techniques, including active shape models, constitutive models, isogeometric elements, genetic algorithms, level sets, material models, neural networks, optimization, and the finite element method, in order to address more efficiently different and timely applications involving biofluids, computer simulation, computational biomechanics, image based diagnosis, image processing and analysis, image segmentation, image registration, scaffolds, simulation, and surgical planning. The main audience for this book consists of researchers, Ph.D students, and graduate students with multidisciplinary interests related to the areas of artificial intelligence, bioengineering, biology, biomechanics, computational fluid dynamics, comput...

  18. Database access and problem solving in the basic sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bliek, R.; Friedman, C. P.; Wildemuth, B. M.; Martz, J. M.; File, D.; Twarog, R. G.; Reich, G. M.; Hoekstra, L.

    1993-01-01

    This study examined the potential contribution that access to a database of biomedical information may offer in support of problem-solving exercises when personal knowledge is inadequate. Thirty-six medical students were assessed over four occasions and three domains in the basic sciences: bacteriology, pharmacology, and toxicology. Each assessment consisted of a two-pass protocol in which students were first assessed for their personal knowledge of a domain with a short-answer problem set. Then, for a sample of problems they had missed, they were asked to use a database, INQUIRER, to respond to questions which they had been unable to address with their personal knowledge. Results indicate that for a domain in which the database is well-integrated in course activities, useful retrieval of information which augmented personal knowledge increased over three assessment occasions, even continuing to increase several months after course exposure and experience with the database. For all domains, even at assessments prior to course exposure, students were able to moderately extend their ability to solve problems through access to the INQUIRER database. PMID:8130561

  19. Non-Invasive Fiber-Optic Biomedical Sensor for Basic Vital Sign Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Nedoma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the functionality verification of a novel non-invasive fibre-optic sensor monitoring basic vital signs such as Respiratory Rate (RR, Heart Rate (HR and Body Temperature (BT. The integration of three sensors in one unit is a unique solution patented by our research team. The integrated sensor is based on two Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBGs encapsulated inside an inert polymer (non-reactive to human skin called PolyDiMethylSiloxane (PDMS. The PDMS is beginning to find widespread applications in the biomedical field due to its desirable properties, especially its immunity to ElectroMagnetic Interference (EMI. The integrated sensor's functionality was verified by carrying out a series of laboratory experiments in 10 volunteer subjects after giving them a written informed consent. The Bland-Altman statistical analysis produced satisfactory accuracy for the respiratory and heart rate measurements and their respective reference signals in all test subjects. A total relative error of 0.31% was determined for body temperature measurements. The main contribution of this article is a proof-of-concept of a novel noninvasive fiber-optic sensor which could be used for basic vital sign monitoring. This sensor offers a potential to enhance and improve the comfort level of patients in hospitals and clinics and can even be considered for use in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI environments.

  20. Development of Tritium AMS for Biomedical Sciences Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dingley, K H; Chiarappa-Zucca, M L

    2002-01-01

    Tritium ( 3 H) is a radioisotope that is extensively utilized in biological research. Normally in the biological sciences, 3 H is quantified by liquid scintillation counting. For the most sensitive measurements, liquid scintillation counting requires large samples and counting times of several-hours. In contrast, provisional studies at LLNL's Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry have demonstrated that Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) can be-used to quantify 3 H in milligram-sized biological samples with a 100 1000-fold improvement in detection limits when compared to scintillation counting. This increased sensitivity is expected to have great impact in the biological research community. However, before 3 H AMS can be used routinely and successfully, two areas of concern needed to be addressed: (1) sample preparation methods needed to be refined and standardized, and (2) smaller and simpler AMS instrumentation needed to be developed. To address these concerns, the specific aims of this project were to: (1) characterize small dedicated 3 H AMS spectrometer (2) develop routine and robust biological sample preparation methods, and (3) with the aid of our external collaborations, demonstrate the application of 3 H AMS in the biomedical sciences. Towards these goals, the 3 H AMS instrument was installed and optimized to enhance performance. The sample preparation methodology was established for standard materials (water and tributyrin) and biological samples. A number of biological and environmental studies which require 3 H AMS were undertaken with university collaborators and our optimized analysis methods were employed to measure samples from these projects

  1. Basic mathematics for the biological and social sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Marriott, F H C

    2013-01-01

    Basic Mathematics for the Biological and Social Sciences deals with the applications of basic mathematics in the biological and social sciences. Mathematical concepts that are discussed in this book include graphical methods, differentiation, trigonometrical or circular functions, limits and convergence, integration, vectors, and differential equations. The exponential function and related functions are also considered. This monograph is comprised of 11 chapters and begins with an overview of basic algebra, followed by an introduction to infinitesimal calculus, scalar and vector quantities, co

  2. Advancement and applications of peptide phage display technology in biomedical science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chien-Hsun; Liu, I-Ju; Lu, Ruei-Min; Wu, Han-Chung

    2016-01-19

    Combinatorial phage library is a powerful research tool for high-throughput screening of protein interactions. Of all available molecular display techniques, phage display has proven to be the most popular approach. Screening phage-displayed random peptide libraries is an effective means of identifying peptides that can bind target molecules and regulate their function. Phage-displayed peptide libraries can be used for (i) B-cell and T-cell epitope mapping, (ii) selection of bioactive peptides bound to receptors or proteins, disease-specific antigen mimics, peptides bound to non-protein targets, cell-specific peptides, or organ-specific peptides, and (iii) development of peptide-mediated drug delivery systems and other applications. Targeting peptides identified using phage display technology may be useful for basic research and translational medicine. In this review article, we summarize the latest technological advancements in the application of phage-displayed peptide libraries to applied biomedical sciences.

  3. A Domino Game Developed To Integrate Basic Disciplines Of Graduation Courses In The Biomedical Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Gonçalves

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Undergraduate students of the biomedical area, such as Medicine, Odontology, Biomedicine,  show considerable difficulty in learni ng basic disciplines, which contributes to the high degree of failure shown in these disciplines. Among them, Biochemistry is “accused” of being the most difficult one and integration of its contents with other  disciplines is still not fully achieved, despite the new technological tools available nowadays. Considering this, some Odontology students produced a domino game to exercise biochemistry knowledge while integrating it with microbiology, but keeping the fun of the original game. In this version of the classic game the number on the pieces were changed to specific subjects in biochemistry or microbiology. Associating the pieces require not only the ordinary strategies of the classic game, but also the academic experience on the related areas. The  students involved in the  development of this game acknowledged it as a helpful tool to better understanding biochemistry as well as microbiology. The formal presentation of the game to the others students of our class brought up similar considerations. The production and distribution of this kind of games might help young students of their career beginnings.

  4. Big biomedical data as the key resource for discovery science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toga, Arthur W; Foster, Ian; Kesselman, Carl; Madduri, Ravi; Chard, Kyle; Deutsch, Eric W; Price, Nathan D; Glusman, Gustavo; Heavner, Benjamin D; Dinov, Ivo D; Ames, Joseph; Van Horn, John; Kramer, Roger; Hood, Leroy

    2015-11-01

    Modern biomedical data collection is generating exponentially more data in a multitude of formats. This flood of complex data poses significant opportunities to discover and understand the critical interplay among such diverse domains as genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and phenomics, including imaging, biometrics, and clinical data. The Big Data for Discovery Science Center is taking an "-ome to home" approach to discover linkages between these disparate data sources by mining existing databases of proteomic and genomic data, brain images, and clinical assessments. In support of this work, the authors developed new technological capabilities that make it easy for researchers to manage, aggregate, manipulate, integrate, and model large amounts of distributed data. Guided by biological domain expertise, the Center's computational resources and software will reveal relationships and patterns, aiding researchers in identifying biomarkers for the most confounding conditions and diseases, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. 76 FR 79273 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical... Committee Act) that the Panel for Eligibility of the Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services Scientific Merit Review Board will meet on...

  6. 76 FR 66367 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical... the panels of the Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research....... The Sheraton Crystal City. Oncology December 8-9, 2011.. The Sheraton Crystal City. Clinical Research...

  7. 76 FR 1212 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical... Committee Act) that the Panel for Eligibility of the Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services Scientific Merit Review Board will meet on...

  8. Basic Sciences Fertilizing Clinical Microbiology and Infection Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baquero, Fernando

    2017-08-15

    Basic sciences constitute the most abundant sources of creativity and innovation, as they are based on the passion of knowing. Basic knowledge, in close and fertile contact with medical and public health needs, produces distinct advancements in applied sciences. Basic sciences play the role of stem cells, providing material and semantics to construct differentiated tissues and organisms and enabling specialized functions and applications. However, eventually processes of "practice deconstruction" might reveal basic questions, as in de-differentiation of tissue cells. Basic sciences, microbiology, infectious diseases, and public health constitute an epistemological gradient that should also be an investigational continuum. The coexistence of all these interests and their cross-fertilization should be favored by interdisciplinary, integrative research organizations working simultaneously in the analytical and synthetic dimensions of scientific knowledge. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  9. The relevance of basic sciences in undergraduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, C; Grant, T; McLoughlin, P; Last, J

    2016-02-01

    Evolving and changing undergraduate medical curricula raise concerns that there will no longer be a place for basic sciences. National and international trends show that 5-year programmes with a pre-requisite for school chemistry are growing more prevalent. National reports in Ireland show a decline in the availability of school chemistry and physics. This observational cohort study considers if the basic sciences of physics, chemistry and biology should be a prerequisite to entering medical school, be part of the core medical curriculum or if they have a place in the practice of medicine. Comparisons of means, correlation and linear regression analysis assessed the degree of association between predictors (school and university basic sciences) and outcomes (year and degree GPA) for entrants to a 6-year Irish medical programme between 2006 and 2009 (n = 352). We found no statistically significant difference in medical programme performance between students with/without prior basic science knowledge. The Irish school exit exam and its components were mainly weak predictors of performance (-0.043 ≥ r ≤ 0.396). Success in year one of medicine, which includes a basic science curriculum, was indicative of later success (0.194 ≥ r (2) ≤ 0.534). University basic sciences were found to be more predictive than school sciences in undergraduate medical performance in our institution. The increasing emphasis of basic sciences in medical practice and the declining availability of school sciences should mandate medical schools in Ireland to consider how removing basic sciences from the curriculum might impact on future applicants.

  10. Work station learning activities: a flexible and scalable instrument for integrating across basic subjects in biomedical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Soltero, Rocío; Learte, Ana Isabel R; Sánchez, Ana Mª; Gal, Beatriz

    2017-11-29

    Establishing innovative teaching programs in biomedical education involves dealing with several national and supra-national (i.e. European) regulations as well as with new pedagogical and demographic demands. We aimed to develop and validate a suitable instrument to integrate activities across preclinical years in all Health Science Degrees while meeting requirements of national quality agencies. The new approach was conceived at two different levels: first, we identified potentially integrative units from different fields according to national learning goals established for each preclinical year (national quality agency regulations). Secondly, we implemented a new instrument that combines active methodologies in Work Station Learning Activities (WSLA), using clinical scenarios as a guiding common thread to instruct students from an integrated perspective. We evaluated students' perception through a Likert-type survey of a total of 118 students enrolled in the first year of the Bachelor's Degree in Medicine. Our model of integrated activities through WSLA is feasible, scalable and manageable with large groups of students and a minimum number of instructors, two major limitations in many medical schools. Students' perception of WSLA was positive in overall terms. Seventy nine percent of participants stated that WSLA sessions were more useful than non-integrated activities. Eighty three percent confirmed that the WSLA methodology was effective at integrating concepts covered by different subjects. The WSLA approach is a flexible and scalable instrument for moving towards integrated curricula, and it can be successfully adapted to teach basic subjects in preclinical years of Health Science degrees. WSLA can be applied to large groups of students in a variety of contexts or environments using clinical cases as connecting threads.

  11. Psychopathology as the basic science of psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanghellini, Giovanni; Broome, Matthew R

    2014-09-01

    We argue that psychopathology, as the discipline that assesses and makes sense of abnormal human subjectivity, should be at the heart of psychiatry. It should be a basic educational prerequisite in the curriculum for mental health professionals and a key element of the shared intellectual identity of clinicians and researchers in this field. Royal College of Psychiatrists.

  12. Basic science research in urology training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Eberli

    2009-01-01

    In this article we will analyse the current status of basic research in urology training and discuss the importance of and obstacles to successful addition of research into the medical training curricula. Further, we will highlight different opportunities for trainees to obtain significant research exposure in urology.

  13. New frontiers in biomedical science and engineering during 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Lee, Dong-Hoon; Lagoa, Ricardo; Kumar, Sandeep

    2015-01-01

    The International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology (ICBEB) is an international meeting held once a year. This, the fourth International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology (ICBEB2015), will be held in Shanghai, China, during August 18th-21st, 2015. This annual conference intends to provide an opportunity for researchers and practitioners at home and abroad to present the most recent frontiers and future challenges in the fields of biomedical science, biomedical engineering, biomaterials, bioinformatics and computational biology, biomedical imaging and signal processing, biomechanical engineering and biotechnology, etc. The papers published in this issue are selected from this Conference, which witness the advances in biomedical engineering and biotechnology during 2014-2015.

  14. Reflections on my journey in biomedical research: the art, science, and politics of advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavkin, H C

    2013-01-01

    Scientific Discovery often reflects the art, science, and advocacy for biomedical research. Here the author reflects on selected highlights of discovery that contributed to several aspects of our understanding of craniofacial biology and craniofacial diseases and disorders.

  15. Interactive Processing and Visualization of Image Data forBiomedical and Life Science Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staadt, Oliver G.; Natarjan, Vijay; Weber, Gunther H.; Wiley,David F.; Hamann, Bernd

    2007-02-01

    Background: Applications in biomedical science and life science produce large data sets using increasingly powerful imaging devices and computer simulations. It is becoming increasingly difficult for scientists to explore and analyze these data using traditional tools. Interactive data processing and visualization tools can support scientists to overcome these limitations. Results: We show that new data processing tools and visualization systems can be used successfully in biomedical and life science applications. We present an adaptive high-resolution display system suitable for biomedical image data, algorithms for analyzing and visualization protein surfaces and retinal optical coherence tomography data, and visualization tools for 3D gene expression data. Conclusion: We demonstrated that interactive processing and visualization methods and systems can support scientists in a variety of biomedical and life science application areas concerned with massive data analysis.

  16. New Development in NASA's Rodent Research Hardware for Conducting Long Duration Biomedical and Basic Research in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi-Fard, Y.; Choi, S.; Harris, C.; Gong, C.; Beegle, J. E.; Stube, K. C.; Martin, K. J.; Nevitt, R. G.; Globus, R. G.

    2017-01-01

    animals easily. The Rodent Research team has also developed Live Animal Return (LAR) capability, which will be implemented during Rodent Research-5 mission for the first time. The animals will be transported from the Habitat to a Transporter, which will return on the Dragon capsule and splashes down in the Pacific Ocean. Once SpaceX retrieves the Dragon, all powered payloads will be transferred to a SeaVan and transferred to the Long Beach pier. The NASA team then receives the transporter and delivers to a PI-designated laboratory within 120 mile radius of Long Beach. This is a significant improvement allowing researchers to examine animals within 72 hrs. of reentry or to conduct recovery experiments. Together, the hardware improvements and experience that the Rodent Research team has gained working with principal investigators and ISS crew to conduct complex experiments on orbit are expanding capabilities for long duration rodent research on the ISS to achieve both basic science and biomedical objectives.

  17. Integration of Basic and Clinical Science in the Psychiatry Clerkship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Kirsten M; Moore, David; Rohrbaugh, Robert M; Briscoe, Gregory W

    2017-06-01

    Integration of basic and clinical science is a key component of medical education reform, yet best practices have not been identified. The authors compared two methods of basic and clinical science integration in the psychiatry clerkship. Two interventions aimed at integrating basic and clinical science were implemented and compared in a dementia conference: flipped curriculum and coteaching by clinician and physician-scientist. The authors surveyed students following each intervention. Likert-scale responses were compared. Participants in both groups responded favorably to the integration format and would recommend integration be implemented elsewhere in the curriculum. Survey response rates differed significantly between the groups and student engagement with the flipped curriculum video was limited. Flipped curriculum and co-teaching by clinician and physician-scientist are two methods of integrating basic and clinical science in the psychiatry clerkship. Student learning preferences may influence engagement with a particular teaching format.

  18. An Assault on Poverty: Basic Human Needs, Science, and Technology

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Does science and technology (S&T) truly have a part to play in meeting basic human needs? Can S&T help the world's communities secure adequate nutrition, health care, water, sanitary facilities, and access to education and information?

  19. Progress in photon science basics and applications

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book features chapters based on lectures presented by world-leading researchers of photon science from Russia and Japan at the first “STEPS Symposium on Photon Science” held in Tokyo in March 2015. It describes recent progress in the field of photon science, covering a wide range of interest to experts in the field, including laser-plasma interaction, filamentation and its applications, laser assisted electron scattering, exotic properties of light, ultrafast imaging, molecules and clusters in intense laser fields, photochemistry and spectroscopy of novel materials, laser-assisted material synthesis, and photon technology.

  20. An engineering paradigm in the biomedical sciences: Knowledge as epistemic tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, Mieke

    2017-01-01

    In order to deal with the complexity of biological systems and attempts to generate applicable results, current biomedical sciences are adopting concepts and methods from the engineering sciences. Philosophers of science have interpreted this as the emergence of an engineering paradigm, in

  1. Teaching Basic Probability in Undergraduate Statistics or Management Science Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidu, Jaideep T.; Sanford, John F.

    2017-01-01

    Standard textbooks in core Statistics and Management Science classes present various examples to introduce basic probability concepts to undergraduate business students. These include tossing of a coin, throwing a die, and examples of that nature. While these are good examples to introduce basic probability, we use improvised versions of Russian…

  2. SPSS for applied sciences basic statistical testing

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Cole

    2013-01-01

    This book offers a quick and basic guide to using SPSS and provides a general approach to solving problems using statistical tests. It is both comprehensive in terms of the tests covered and the applied settings it refers to, and yet is short and easy to understand. Whether you are a beginner or an intermediate level test user, this book will help you to analyse different types of data in applied settings. It will also give you the confidence to use other statistical software and to extend your expertise to more specific scientific settings as required.The author does not use mathematical form

  3. Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Prof. Yusuf Saidu Editor-in-Chief Usmanu Danfodiyo University Editor-in Chief Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences Faculty of Science Usmanu Danfodiyo University P.M.B. 2346 Sokoto Nigeria Phone: +234 803 422 7001. Email: njbas@udusok.edu.ng ...

  4. Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. The Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences is a biannual journal published by the UsmanuDanfodiyo University, Sokoto. The objective of the journal shall be the advancement of science in all its aspects of theory, principles, methodology and practice, with emphasis on areas of common interest ...

  5. Clinical Correlations as a Tool in Basic Science Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klement, Brenda J.; Paulsen, Douglas F.; Wineski, Lawrence E.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical correlations are tools to assist students in associating basic science concepts with a medical application or disease. There are many forms of clinical correlations and many ways to use them in the classroom. Five types of clinical correlations that may be embedded within basic science courses have been identified and described. (1) Correlated examples consist of superficial clinical information or stories accompanying basic science concepts to make the information more interesting and relevant. (2) Interactive learning and demonstrations provide hands-on experiences or the demonstration of a clinical topic. (3) Specialized workshops have an application-based focus, are more specialized than typical laboratory sessions, and range in complexity from basic to advanced. (4) Small-group activities require groups of students, guided by faculty, to solve simple problems that relate basic science information to clinical topics. (5) Course-centered problem solving is a more advanced correlation activity than the others and focuses on recognition and treatment of clinical problems to promote clinical reasoning skills. Diverse teaching activities are used in basic science medical education, and those that include clinical relevance promote interest, communication, and collaboration, enhance knowledge retention, and help develop clinical reasoning skills. PMID:29349328

  6. Clinical Correlations as a Tool in Basic Science Medical Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda J. Klement

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical correlations are tools to assist students in associating basic science concepts with a medical application or disease. There are many forms of clinical correlations and many ways to use them in the classroom. Five types of clinical correlations that may be embedded within basic science courses have been identified and described. (1 Correlated examples consist of superficial clinical information or stories accompanying basic science concepts to make the information more interesting and relevant. (2 Interactive learning and demonstrations provide hands-on experiences or the demonstration of a clinical topic. (3 Specialized workshops have an application-based focus, are more specialized than typical laboratory sessions, and range in complexity from basic to advanced. (4 Small-group activities require groups of students, guided by faculty, to solve simple problems that relate basic science information to clinical topics. (5 Course-centered problem solving is a more advanced correlation activity than the others and focuses on recognition and treatment of clinical problems to promote clinical reasoning skills. Diverse teaching activities are used in basic science medical education, and those that include clinical relevance promote interest, communication, and collaboration, enhance knowledge retention, and help develop clinical reasoning skills.

  7. Biomedical scientist training officers' evaluation of integrated (co-terminus) Applied Biomedical Science BSc programmes: a multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, S J; Cunningham, J M

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of the Institute of Biomedical Science (IBMS) portfolio for pre-registration training in 2003 allowed universities to develop integrated (co-terminus) biomedical science BSc programmes. Students undertake structured placements within clinical pathology laboratories as part of their degree. The clinical training and professional development of students is undertaken by training officers (TOs), who are experienced Health Professions Council (HPC)-registered biomedical scientists and usually also members of the IBMS. This study aims to evaluate TOs' perceptions of these integrated degrees as a means of delivering pre-registration training for biomedical scientists. A questionnaire to collect quantitative data and be completed anonymously was sent to TOs, via staff at participating universities. Items considered TOs' perceptions in four categories: how well students fitted into the laboratory team, their professional and scientific development, the impact of delivering integrated degrees on service delivery, and the commitment to training students. Surveys took place in 2007, 2008 and 2009 and involved TOs taking students from 10, 14 and 17 universities each year, respectively. The response rates to the survey were 60% in 2007, 34% in 2008 and 12% in 2009. Participants were representative in terms of age, gender and pathology discipline and had a broad range of experience with students. The overall mean score for TOs perceptions was 3.38 in 2007 which increased significantly to 3.99 in 2009 (Kruskall Wallis test chi2 = 21.13, P<0.01). Mean scores in three of the four categories were positive in 2007, although the impact on service delivery was perceived negatively. In all areas, means were significantly greater in 2009. The results indicate that TOs view the integrated degrees favourably and are happy with the scientific and professional development of students. Although designing training sessions suitable for undergraduates took extra work initially

  8. Welding As Science: Applying Basic Engineering Principles to the Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, A. C., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    This Technical Memorandum provides sample problems illustrating ways in which basic engineering science has been applied to the discipline of welding. Perhaps inferences may be drawn regarding optimal approaches to particular welding problems, as well as for the optimal education for welding engineers. Perhaps also some readers may be attracted to the science(s) of welding and may make worthwhile contributions to the discipline.

  9. Science dialogues basic concepts and tools for effective science communication

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The book is dedicated to scientists who decide to engage in science communication. It covers the main aspects of science communication, seen as an essential element in constructing the relationship between science and society. It outlines the international context, the principle forms of communication, and provides some tools for helping the reader to construct their own personal communication project.

  10. From Bench to Bedside: A communal utility value intervention to enhance students’ biomedical science motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Elizabeth R.; Smith, Jessi L.; Thoman, Dustin B.; Allen, Jill M.; Muragishi, Gregg

    2015-01-01

    Motivating students to pursue science careers is a top priority among many science educators. We add to the growing literature by examining the impact of a utility value intervention to enhance student’s perceptions that biomedical science affords important utility work values. Using an expectancy-value perspective we identify and test two types of utility value: communal (other-oriented) and agentic (self-oriented). The culture of science is replete with examples emphasizing high levels of agentic value, but communal values are often (stereotyped as) absent from science. However, people in general want an occupation that has communal utility. We predicted and found that an intervention emphasizing the communal utility value of biomedical research increased students’ motivation for biomedical science (Studies 1–3). We refined whether different types of communal utility value (working with, helping, and forming relationships with others) might be more or less important, demonstrating that helping others was an especially important predictor of student motivation (Study 2). Adding agentic utility value to biomedical research did not further increase student motivation (Study 3). Furthermore, the communal value intervention indirectly impacted students’ motivation because students believed that biomedical research was communal and thus subsequently more important (Studies 1–3). This is key, because enhancing student communal value beliefs about biomedical research (Studies 1–3) and science (Study 4) was associated both with momentary increases in motivation in experimental settings (Studies 1–3) and increased motivation over time among students highly identified with biomedicine (Study 4). We discuss recommendations for science educators, practitioners, and faculty mentors who want to broaden participation in science. PMID:26617417

  11. From Bench to Bedside: A communal utility value intervention to enhance students' biomedical science motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Elizabeth R; Smith, Jessi L; Thoman, Dustin B; Allen, Jill M; Muragishi, Gregg

    2015-11-01

    Motivating students to pursue science careers is a top priority among many science educators. We add to the growing literature by examining the impact of a utility value intervention to enhance student's perceptions that biomedical science affords important utility work values. Using an expectancy-value perspective we identify and test two types of utility value: communal (other-oriented) and agentic (self-oriented). The culture of science is replete with examples emphasizing high levels of agentic value, but communal values are often (stereotyped as) absent from science. However, people in general want an occupation that has communal utility. We predicted and found that an intervention emphasizing the communal utility value of biomedical research increased students' motivation for biomedical science (Studies 1-3). We refined whether different types of communal utility value (working with, helping, and forming relationships with others) might be more or less important, demonstrating that helping others was an especially important predictor of student motivation (Study 2). Adding agentic utility value to biomedical research did not further increase student motivation (Study 3). Furthermore, the communal value intervention indirectly impacted students' motivation because students believed that biomedical research was communal and thus subsequently more important (Studies 1-3). This is key, because enhancing student communal value beliefs about biomedical research (Studies 1-3) and science (Study 4) was associated both with momentary increases in motivation in experimental settings (Studies 1-3) and increased motivation over time among students highly identified with biomedicine (Study 4). We discuss recommendations for science educators, practitioners, and faculty mentors who want to broaden participation in science.

  12. Biomedical Science Undergraduate Major: A New Pathway to Advance Research and the Health Professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, John S; Ledford, Cynthia H; Mousetes, Steven J; Grever, Michael R

    2018-01-01

    Many students entering professional degree programs, particularly M.D., Ph.D., and M.D./Ph.D., are not well prepared regarding the breadth of scientific knowledge required, communication skills, research experience, reading and understanding the scientific literature, and significant shadowing (for M.D.-related professions). In addition, physician scientists are a needed and necessary part of the academic research environment but are dwindling in numbers. In response to predictions of critical shortages of clinician investigators and the lack of proper preparation as undergraduates for these professions, the Biomedical Science (BMS) undergraduate major was created at The Ohio State University to attract incoming college freshmen with interests in scientific research and the healthcare professions. The intent of this major was to graduate an elite cohort of highly talented individuals who would pursue careers in the healthcare professions, biomedical research, or both. Students were admitted to the BMS major through an application and interview process. Admitted cohorts were small, comprising 22 to 26 students, and received a high degree of individualized professional academic advising and mentoring. The curriculum included a minimum of 4 semesters (or 2 years) of supervised research experience designed to enable students to gain skills in clinical and basic science investigation. In addition to covering the prerequisites for medicine and advanced degrees in health professions, the integrated BMS coursework emphasized research literacy as well as skills related to work as a healthcare professional, with additional emphasis on independent learning, teamwork to solve complex problems, and both oral and written communication skills. Supported by Ohio State's Department of Internal Medicine, a unique clinical internship provided selected students with insights into potential careers as physician scientists. In this educational case report, we describe the BMS

  13. What Health Sciences Programs Want from Biomedical Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Irving R.

    1980-01-01

    A 1979 survey of U.S. members of the Association of Biomedical Communications Directors asked them to rank the importance of eight types of service to each professional program that his unit supports. Service priorities are reported for programs characteristic of medicine, allied health, dentistry, nursing, and pharmacy. (Author)

  14. Race and Genetics: Controversies in Biomedical, Behavioral, and Forensic Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossorio, Pilar; Duster, Troy

    2005-01-01

    Among biomedical scientists, there is a great deal of controversy over the nature of race, the relevance of racial categories for research, and the proper methods of using racial variables. This article argues that researchers and scholars should avoid a binary-type argument, in which the question is whether to use race always or never.…

  15. Bayes' theorem: A paradigm research tool in biomedical sciences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the most interesting applications of the results of probability theory involves estimating unknown probability and making decisions on the basis of new (sample) information. Biomedical scientists often use the Bayesian decision theory for the purposes of computing diagnostic values such as sensitivity and specificity ...

  16. Navigating the Path to a Biomedical Science Career

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Andrea McNeely

    The number of biomedical PhD scientists being trained and graduated far exceeds the number of academic faculty positions and academic research jobs. If this trend is compelling biomedical PhD scientists to increasingly seek career paths outside of academia, then more should be known about their intentions, desires, training experiences, and career path navigation. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to understand the process through which biomedical PhD scientists are trained and supported for navigating future career paths. In addition, the study sought to determine whether career development support efforts and opportunities should be redesigned to account for the proportion of PhD scientists following non-academic career pathways. Guided by the social cognitive career theory (SCCT) framework this study sought to answer the following central research question: How does a southeastern tier 1 research university train and support its biomedical PhD scientists for navigating their career paths? Key findings are: Many factors influence PhD scientists' career sector preference and job search process, but the most influential were relationships with faculty, particularly the mentor advisor; Planned activities are a significant aspect of the training process and provide skills for career success; and Planned activities provided skills necessary for a career, but influential factors directed the career path navigated. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.

  17. Frequency and Type of Conflicts of Interest in the Peer Review of Basic Biomedical Research Funding Applications: Self-Reporting Versus Manual Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Stephen A; Lemaster, Michael; Glisson, Scott R

    2016-02-01

    Despite the presumed frequency of conflicts of interest in scientific peer review, there is a paucity of data in the literature reporting on the frequency and type of conflicts that occur, particularly with regard to the peer review of basic science applications. To address this gap, the American Institute of Biological Sciences (AIBS) conducted a retrospective analysis of conflict of interest data from the peer review of 282 biomedical research applications via several onsite review panels. The overall conflicted-ness of these panels was significantly lower than that reported for regulatory review. In addition, the majority of identified conflicts were institutional or collaborative in nature. No direct financial conflicts were identified, although this is likely due to the relatively basic science nature of the research. It was also found that 65 % of identified conflicts were manually detected by AIBS staff searching reviewer CVs and application documents, with the remaining 35 % resulting from self-reporting. The lack of self-reporting may be in part attributed to a lack of perceived risk of the conflict. This result indicates that many potential conflicts go unreported in peer review, underscoring the importance of improving detection methods and standardizing the reporting of reviewer and applicant conflict of interest information.

  18. Speaking of food: connecting basic and applied plant science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Briana L; Kellogg, Elizabeth A; Miller, Allison J

    2014-10-01

    The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) predicts that food production must rise 70% over the next 40 years to meet the demands of a growing population that is expected to reach nine billion by the year 2050. Many facets of basic plant science promoted by the Botanical Society of America are important for agriculture; however, more explicit connections are needed to bridge the gap between basic and applied plant research. This special issue, Speaking of Food: Connecting Basic and Applied Plant Science, was conceived to showcase productive overlaps of basic and applied research to address the challenges posed by feeding billions of people and to stimulate more research, fresh connections, and new paradigms. Contributions to this special issue thus illustrate some interactive areas of study in plant science-historical and modern plant-human interaction, crop and weed origins and evolution, and the effects of natural and artificial selection on crops and their wild relatives. These papers provide examples of how research integrating the basic and applied aspects of plant science benefits the pursuit of knowledge and the translation of that knowledge into actions toward sustainable production of crops and conservation of diversity in a changing climate. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  19. Keynote Lecture: The Problems and Challenges in Biomedical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Albert

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Distressed by the perverse incentives that have generated the current hyper-competitive biomedical research environment in the United States, four of us published an open-access article in April 2014 entitled: Rescuing US biomedical research from its systemic flaws (Alberts, B., Kirschner, Marc W., Tilghman, Shirley, and  Varmus, H.; Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, 5773-5777 (2014. As announced in our follow-up piece, Opinion: Addressing systemic problems in the biomedical research enterprise (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 112, 1912-1913 (2015, we have formed a 16-member steering committee to oversee a new website that is designed to collect suggestions for actions that can ameliorate the identified problems, as well as to highlight promising changes that are either underway or proposed (see http://rescuingbiomedicalresearch.org.  Despite widespread agreement concerning the problems, any substantial change in the system is bound to be controversial. Experiments are therefore needed. In my talk, I will outline some possible ideas for overcoming the inertia that prevents moving forward.We are encouraging both national and international contributions to this effort, since the problems that we have described are by no means unique to the United States.

  20. Spicing Up Basic Science Instruction with Storyline Strategy; What Is ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gold

    2012-07-26

    Jul 26, 2012 ... pupils‟ achievement in Basic Science with moderating effect of English. Language proficiency of pupils ... storyline and conventional teaching methods and pupils English proficiency at two level of high and low. ... behaviour, communication skills, conceptual clarity and psychological equanimity have direct ...

  1. A brief simulation intervention increasing basic science and clinical knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria L. Sheakley

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE is increasing clinical content on the Step 1 exam; thus, inclusion of clinical applications within the basic science curriculum is crucial. Including simulation activities during basic science years bridges the knowledge gap between basic science content and clinical application. Purpose: To evaluate the effects of a one-off, 1-hour cardiovascular simulation intervention on a summative assessment after adjusting for relevant demographic and academic predictors. Methods: This study was a non-randomized study using historical controls to evaluate curricular change. The control group received lecture (n l=515 and the intervention group received lecture plus a simulation exercise (nl+s=1,066. Assessment included summative exam questions (n=4 that were scored as pass/fail (≥75%. USMLE-style assessment questions were identical for both cohorts. Descriptive statistics for variables are presented and odds of passage calculated using logistic regression. Results: Undergraduate grade point ratio, MCAT-BS, MCAT-PS, age, attendance at an academic review program, and gender were significant predictors of summative exam passage. Students receiving the intervention were significantly more likely to pass the summative exam than students receiving lecture only (P=0.0003. Discussion: Simulation plus lecture increases short-term understanding as tested by a written exam. A longitudinal study is needed to assess the effect of a brief simulation intervention on long-term retention of clinical concepts in a basic science curriculum.

  2. Spicing Up Basic Science Instruction with Storyline Strategy; What Is ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study determined the effect of storyline strategy on primary school pupils‟ achievement in Basic Science with moderating effect of English Language proficiency of pupils. This study is the pre-test, post-test control group. It is a 2 x 2 quasi experimental study in which intact classes were used. This implies that the design ...

  3. Using Role Play to Teach Overpopulation to Basic Science Students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    By so doing, the children will acquire relevant environmental skills, attitude and interest that will spur them into action towards maintaining a sustainable environment. The paper also made some recommendations on ways to combat environmental degradation among which is that basic science teachers should effectively ...

  4. Basic science of nuclear medicine the bare bone essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Kai H

    2015-01-01

    Through concise, straightforward explanations and supporting graphics that bring abstract concepts to life, the new Basic Science of Nuclear Medicine—the Bare Bone Essentials is an ideal tool for nuclear medicine technologist students and nuclear cardiology fellows looking for an introduction to the fundamentals of the physics and technologies of modern day nuclear medicine.

  5. Emotional Value Judgment and Achievement in Basic Science ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study sought to examine emotional value judgment on student achievement in Basic Science. The study was carried out in Ijebu-North Local Government Area of Ogun State. Data were collected through valid questionnaire sent to five secondary schools within the local Government. One Hundred Junior Secondary II ...

  6. Students' Self-Concept and Their Achievement in Basic Science ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the relationship between students self-concept andtheir academic performance in Basic Science. It further examines genderdifference in students performance. The study adopted ex-post factorresearch design and made use of 300 students all from Public Schools. Theadapted Version of ...

  7. Movement as a basic concept in physiotherapy--a human science approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikström-Grotell, Camilla; Eriksson, Katie

    2012-08-01

    The development of scientific knowledge of physiotherapy (PT) has advanced significantly. Research is mostly conducted within a biomedical paradigm and theory-building is underpinned by a positivist paradigm. The basic philosophical questions and concepts are not much reflected on, and PT lacks an established theoretical frame. The first step in theory development is to define the basic concepts. The aim of this professional theoretical paper was to reflect on and describe the concept of movement in PT based on earlier research as a standpoint for a broader and deeper understanding of the complex nature of PT reality inspired by a model for concept analysis developed in caring science [Eriksson K 2010 Concept determination as part of the development of knowledge in caring science. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences 24: 2-11]. The concept of movement in PT is conceptualized as complex and multidimensional. The understanding of human movement in PT is based on five categories described in the paper. The conceptualization of movement includes acting in relation to the socio-cultural environment, inter-dynamic aspects, as well as personal, intradynamic aspects. This paper argues for the need to further develop the concept of movement in PT within a human science approach. A deeper understanding is needed as a basis for understanding complex clinical practice as well as in shaping the PT discipline.

  8. Basic Research in Materials Science and Economic Sustainable Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermeier, H.-U.

    2000-09-01

    The necessity of public funding of basic research has been proclaimed by V. Bush 1945 in the `social contract for science' and this concept has been unanimously accepted as a vital prerequisite for the wealth of nations during the past 50 years. Recent developments gave rise to a paradigm shift away from the Bush's concept. In this paper this development is critically explored and the economical impact of research is discussed. Current evolution in knowledge generation and a change of the political boundary conditions require a new concept for an integrated research system. Examples taken from the semiconductor industry serve as an indicator of the enabling importance of materials science and condensed matter physics in the past. Basic research in materials science of functional ceramics generated new developments that are believed to have similar impact in the future. Already appearing and in the years ahead more emphasized nature of materials science as an multidisciplinary activity serves a model for the proposal of the vision of an integrated system of basic research and education. This is a prerequisite to master the challenges we are facind in the next century. A science based winning culture is the model for the future.

  9. Very long-term retention of basic science knowledge in doctors after graduation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custers, Eugène J F M; Ten Cate, Olle T J

    2011-04-01

    Despite frequent complaints that biomedical knowledge is quickly forgotten after it has been learned, few investigations of actual long-term retention of basic science knowledge have been conducted in the medical domain. Our aim was to illuminate the long-term retention of basic science knowledge, particularly of unrehearsed knowledge. Using a cross-sectional study design, medical students and doctors in the Netherlands were tested for retention of basic science knowledge. Relationships between retention interval and proportion of correct answers on a knowledge test were investigated. The popular notion that most of basic science knowledge is forgotten shortly after graduation is not supported by our findings. With respect to the full test scores, which reflect a composite of unrehearsed and rehearsed knowledge, performance decreased from approximately 40% correct answers for students still in medical school, to 25-30% correct answers for doctors after many years of practice. When rehearsal during the retention interval is controlled for, it appears that little knowledge is lost for 1.5-2 years after it was last used; from then on, retention is best described by a negatively accelerated (logarithmic) forgetting curve. After ≥ 25 years, retention levels were in the range of 15-20%. Conclusions about the forgetting of unrehearsed knowledge in this study are in line with findings reported in other domains: it proceeds in accordance with the Ebbinghaus curve for meaningful material, except that in our findings the 'downward' part appears to start later than in most other studies. The limitations of the study are discussed and possible ramifications for medical education are proposed. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2011.

  10. Making evolutionary biology a basic science for medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesse, Randolph M.; Bergstrom, Carl T.; Ellison, Peter T.; Flier, Jeffrey S.; Gluckman, Peter; Govindaraju, Diddahally R.; Niethammer, Dietrich; Omenn, Gilbert S.; Perlman, Robert L.; Schwartz, Mark D.; Thomas, Mark G.; Stearns, Stephen C.; Valle, David

    2010-01-01

    New applications of evolutionary biology in medicine are being discovered at an accelerating rate, but few physicians have sufficient educational background to use them fully. This article summarizes suggestions from several groups that have considered how evolutionary biology can be useful in medicine, what physicians should learn about it, and when and how they should learn it. Our general conclusion is that evolutionary biology is a crucial basic science for medicine. In addition to looking at established evolutionary methods and topics, such as population genetics and pathogen evolution, we highlight questions about why natural selection leaves bodies vulnerable to disease. Knowledge about evolution provides physicians with an integrative framework that links otherwise disparate bits of knowledge. It replaces the prevalent view of bodies as machines with a biological view of bodies shaped by evolutionary processes. Like other basic sciences, evolutionary biology needs to be taught both before and during medical school. Most introductory biology courses are insufficient to establish competency in evolutionary biology. Premedical students need evolution courses, possibly ones that emphasize medically relevant aspects. In medical school, evolutionary biology should be taught as one of the basic medical sciences. This will require a course that reviews basic principles and specific medical applications, followed by an integrated presentation of evolutionary aspects that apply to each disease and organ system. Evolutionary biology is not just another topic vying for inclusion in the curriculum; it is an essential foundation for a biological understanding of health and disease. PMID:19918069

  11. Applying Nanotechnology to Human Health: Revolution in Biomedical Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Shrivastava, Siddhartha; Dash, Debabrata

    2009-01-01

    Recent research on biosystems at the nanoscale has created one of the most dynamic science and technology domains at the confluence of physical sciences, molecular engineering, biology, biotechnology, and medicine. This domain includes better understanding of living and thinking systems, revolutionary biotechnology processes, synthesis of new drugs and their targeted delivery, regenerative medicine, neuromorphic engineering, and developing a sustainable environment. Nanobiosystems research is...

  12. Biomedical and environmental sciences programs at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richmond, C.R.; Johnson, C.A.

    1988-02-01

    This progress report summarizes the research and development activities conducted in the Biomedical and Environmental Sciences Programs of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The report is structured to provide descriptions of current activities and accomplishments in each of the major organizational units. Following the accounts of research programs, is a list of publications and awards to its members. 6 figs., 14 tabs.

  13. Biomedical and environmental sciences programs at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richmond, C.R.; Johnson, C.A.

    1988-02-01

    This progress report summarizes the research and development activities conducted in the Biomedical and Environmental Sciences Programs of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The report is structured to provide descriptions of current activities and accomplishments in each of the major organizational units. Following the accounts of research programs, is a list of publications and awards to its members. 6 figs., 14 tabs

  14. [Application of the life sciences platform based on oracle to biomedical informations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhi-Yun; Li, Tai-Huan; Yang, Hong-Qiao

    2008-03-01

    The life sciences platform based on Oracle database technology is introduced in this paper. By providing a powerful data access, integrating a variety of data types, and managing vast quantities of data, the software presents a flexible, safe and scalable management platform for biomedical data processing.

  15. Assessment of the basic energy sciences program. Volume II. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-03-01

    A list of experts reviewing the Basic Energy Sciences (BES) program and their organizations are given. The assessment plan is explained; the program examined the following: quality of science being conducted in the program, quality of performers supported by the Basic Energy Sciences (BES) program, and the impact of the research on mission oriented needs. The intent of the assessment is to provide an indication of general status relative to these questions for the BES divisions. The approach to the assessment is described. The sampling plan which was used as a guide in determining the sample size and selecting the sample to evaluate the research program of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences are discussed. Special analyses were conducted on the dispersion of reviewers' ratings, the ratings of the lower funded projects, and the amount of time the principal investigator devoted to the project. These are presented in the final appendix together with histograms for individual rating variables for each program area. (MCW)

  16. FWP executive summaries: basic energy sciences materials sciences and engineering program (SNL/NM).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samara, George A.; Simmons, Jerry A.

    2006-07-01

    This report presents an Executive Summary of the various elements of the Materials Sciences and Engineering Program which is funded by the Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico. A general programmatic overview is also presented.

  17. Preparing medical students for future learning using basic science instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylopoulos, Maria; Woods, Nicole

    2014-07-01

    The construct of 'preparation for future learning' (PFL) is understood as the ability to learn new information from available resources, relate new learning to past experiences and demonstrate innovation and flexibility in problem solving. Preparation for future learning has been proposed as a key competence of adaptive expertise. There is a need for educators to ensure that opportunities are provided for students to develop PFL ability and that assessments accurately measure the development of this form of competence. The objective of this research was to compare the relative impacts of basic science instruction and clinically focused instruction on performance on a PFL assessment (PFLA). This study employed a 'double transfer' design. Fifty-one pre-clerkship students were randomly assigned to either basic science instruction or clinically focused instruction to learn four categories of disease. After completing an initial assessment on the learned material, all participants received clinically focused instruction for four novel diseases and completed a PFLA. The data from the initial assessment and the PFLA were submitted to independent-sample t-tests. Mean ± standard deviation [SD] scores on the diagnostic cases in the initial assessment were similar for participants in the basic science (0.65 ± 0.11) and clinical learning (0.62 ± 0.11) conditions. The difference was not significant (t[42] = 0.90, p = 0.37, d = 0.27). Analysis of the diagnostic cases on the PFLA revealed significantly higher mean ± SD scores for participants in the basic science learning condition (0.72 ± 0.14) compared with those in the clinical learning condition (0.63 ± 0.15) (t[42] = 2.02, p = 0.05, d = 0.62). Our results show that the inclusion of basic science instruction enhanced the learning of novel related content. We discuss this finding within the broader context of research on basic science instruction, development of adaptive expertise and assessment

  18. Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research publishes papers in all fields of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences including Basic Medical Sciences, Clinical Sciences, Dental Sciences, ... Survey of Current Practice of Labour Analgesia Among Obstetricians in Nigeria: Implications For Pain-free Labour Initiative.

  19. Small animal MRI: clinical MRI as an interface to basic biomedical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinkernelle, J.G.; Stelter, L.; Hamm, B.; Teichgraeber, U.

    2008-01-01

    The demand for highly resolved small animal MRI for the purpose of biomedical research has increased constantly. Dedicated small animal MRI scanners working at ultra high field strengths from 4.7 to 7.0 T and even above are MRI at its best. However, using high resolution RF coils in clinical scanners up to 3.0 T, small animal MRI can achieve highly resolved images showing excellent tissue contrast. In fact, in abundant experimental studies, clinical MRI is used for small animal imaging. Mostly clinical RF coils in the single-loop design are applied. In addition, custom-built RF coils and even gradient inserts are used in a clinical scanner. For the reduction of moving artifacts, special MRI-compatible animal ECG und respiration devices are available. In conclusion, clinical devices offer broad availability, are less expense in combination with good imaging performance and provide a translational nature of imaging results. (orig.)

  20. Does teacher thinking match teaching practice? A study of basic science teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laksov, Klara B; Nikkola, Matti; Lonka, Kirsti

    2008-02-01

    To obtain an understanding of basic science medical teachers' conceptions of learning and their ideas for facilitation of learning. Teaching staff at a biomedical centre (n = 62) were asked to describe their definitions of learning, their suggestions for how to solve an applied educational problem and their intended activities when teaching students. The research was carried out using a questionnaire consisting of open-ended and fixed-choice questions. Although 1 in 4 teachers endorsed constructivist conceptions of learning, only 1 in 8 actually reported using activating teaching strategies. Conceptions of learning did not co-vary with teaching practice. The assumption that conceptions of learning and teaching practice are aligned was challenged. The current questionnaire could be used as an intervention tool for educational development to map whether or not there is a match between teachers' conceptions and their practice.

  1. Applying Nano technology to Human Health: Revolution in Biomedical Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrivastava, S.; Dash, D.

    2009-01-01

    Recent research on bio systems at the nano scale has created one of the most dynamic science and technology domains at the confluence of physical sciences, molecular engineering, biology, biotechnology, and medicine. This domain includes better understanding of living and thinking systems, revolutionary biotechnology processes, synthesis of new drugs and their targeted delivery, regenerative medicine, necrophorum engineering, and developing a sustainable environment. Nano bio systems research is a priority in many countries and its relevance within nano technology is expected to increase in the future. The realisation that the nano scale has certain properties needed to solve important medical challenges and cater to unmet medical needs is driving nano medical research. The present review explores the significance of nano science and latest nano technologies for human health. Addressing the associated opportunities, the review also suggests how to manage far-reaching developments in these areas

  2. Medical Students' Attitudes towards Comprehensive and Basic Sciences Exam Questions in Birjand University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Ghaderi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Basic medical sciences, not only in its traditional form as basic sciences, but also in its modern forms like Biotechnology and Genetics has indicated a highly applicable potential in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of illnesses. Therefore it is essential to improve basic sciences education quality, and because clinical students are in direct contact with medical issues, their judgment towards the clinical application of these lessons is crucial. This study was to analyze the clinical students’ attitude towards the basic sciences and their general questions in Birjand University of Medical Sciences.Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was conducted in 2006. All the medical students at the levels of Trainee I and II, and interns in Birjand University of Medical Sciences took part in this study. Data collection tool was a self-administered questionnaire. In this study, the questions from three periods of comprehensive exam from September 1380-1382(2001-2003 were used, then 60 questions were chosen via the random sampling and given to all clinical students and for each scientific question, one attitude assessment question was given so that the responder could represent his attitude on the Likert scale. The basic sciences courses and the necessity of specific courses in the basic level were analyzed in the further questionnaires. Then the SPSS software and the Chi-Square exam were used in order to analyze the data, and a P value of <0.05 was considered significant.Results: The number of participants in this study was 95 students, from which 27 (28.4% were men and 68 (71.6% were women. According to most students (75.8% there was no significant relationship between the questions of comprehensive exam of basic sciences and the studied courses in the basic sciences' period, and the questions were not so applicable. There was no significant difference between the male and female ideas and students at various

  3. BRIDGES: Evolution of basic and applied linkages in benthic science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aumen, Nicholas G.; Gurtz, Martin E.; Barbour, Michael T.; Moerke, Ashley

    2010-01-01

    Growing awareness of environmental degradation resulted in stricter environmental regulations and laws for aquatic ecosystems. These regulations were followed by an increase in applied research and monitoring beginning in the early 1970s. The number of applied scientists who were members of the North American Benthological Society grew at a commensurate rate. The editors of J-NABS recognized that, despite these increases, submitted manuscripts mostly addressed basic science. In response, the BRIDGES section of J-NABS was created in 1994 to provide a forum for linking basic ecological principles to applied science problems and issues. We examined the emergence of applied science topics in J-NABS and its predecessor, Freshwater Invertebrate Biology, from their beginning in 1982 to 2009. We classified papers among 11 categories that included a basic/applied science linkage. In the 1980s, applied papers were predominantly on effects of eutrophication/pollution and landuse changes. When BRIDGES was established in 1994, papers were solicited by editors and BRIDGES sections usually included >1 paper on a common theme to express complementary or alternate viewpoints. Forty-two papers appeared in BRIDGES between 1994 and 2009, but the number per issue declined after 2001. The total number of applied science papers in J-NABS has increased since ∼1994. Citation analysis of BRIDGES papers illustrates how information is being cited, but applied papers often are used in ways that might not lead to citations. BRIDGES transitioned to a new format in September 2009 to address new types of complex, multifaceted linkages. All new BRIDGES articles will be open access, and authors will be encouraged to produce lay-language fact sheets and to post them on the web.

  4. International Conference for Innovation in Biomedical Engineering and Life Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Usman, Juliana; Mohktar, Mas; Ahmad, Mohd

    2016-01-01

    This volumes presents the proceedings of ICIBEL 2015, organized by the Centre for Innovation in Medical Engineering (CIME) under Innovative Technology Research Cluster, University of Malaya. It was held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, from 6-8 December 2015. The ICIBEL 2015 conference promotes the latest researches and developments related to the integration of the Engineering technology in medical fields and life sciences. This includes the latest innovations, research trends and concerns, challenges and adopted solution in the field of medical engineering and life sciences. .

  5. British Journal of Biomedical Science in 2017: What have we learned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blann, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    In 2017 the British Journal of Biomedical Science published 35 articles in the various disciplines that comprise biomedical science. These were 6 reviews, 22 original articles, 6 'In Brief' short reports and one guideline. Of these, the majority were in clinical chemistry (one review, six data papers), microbiology (one review, four data papers), cellular pathology (four data papers) and virology (one review, two data papers). There were two data papers in transfusion science, whilst haematology, cytopathology and immunology were each represented by one review and one data paper. Reflecting the increasing complexity of the laboratory, five data papers crossed barriers between traditional disciplines, and so may be described as multidisciplinary. The present report will summarise key aspects of these publications.

  6. Ayurgenomics – a new player in biomedical sciences.

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-24

    Aug 24, 2016 ... Contemporary medical science has, until recent times, remained in perennial search of a single cause of a disease, be it physiological or molecular. Looking at the human body through a systems perspective is a relatively new approach in the field of biomedicine. Ayurveda, the Indian traditional medical ...

  7. Applying Nanotechnology to Human Health: Revolution in Biomedical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhartha Shrivastava

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research on biosystems at the nanoscale has created one of the most dynamic science and technology domains at the confluence of physical sciences, molecular engineering, biology, biotechnology, and medicine. This domain includes better understanding of living and thinking systems, revolutionary biotechnology processes, synthesis of new drugs and their targeted delivery, regenerative medicine, neuromorphic engineering, and developing a sustainable environment. Nanobiosystems research is a priority in many countries and its relevance within nanotechnology is expected to increase in the future. The realisation that the nanoscale has certain properties needed to solve important medical challenges and cater to unmet medical needs is driving nanomedical research. The present review explores the significance of nanoscience and latest nanotechnologies for human health. Addressing the associated opportunities, the review also suggests how to manage far-reaching developments in these areas.

  8. Beyond funding: Acknowledgement patterns in biomedical, natural and social sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul-Hus, Adèle; Díaz-Faes, Adrián A; Sainte-Marie, Maxime; Desrochers, Nadine; Costas, Rodrigo; Larivière, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    For the past 50 years, acknowledgments have been studied as important paratextual traces of research practices, collaboration, and infrastructure in science. Since 2008, funding acknowledgments have been indexed by Web of Science, supporting large-scale analyses of research funding. Applying advanced linguistic methods as well as Correspondence Analysis to more than one million acknowledgments from research articles and reviews published in 2015, this paper aims to go beyond funding disclosure and study the main types of contributions found in acknowledgments on a large scale and through disciplinary comparisons. Our analysis shows that technical support is more frequently acknowledged by scholars in Chemistry, Physics and Engineering. Earth and Space, Professional Fields, and Social Sciences are more likely to acknowledge contributions from colleagues, editors, and reviewers, while Biology acknowledgments put more emphasis on logistics and fieldwork-related tasks. Conflicts of interest disclosures (or lack of thereof) are more frequently found in acknowledgments from Clinical Medicine, Health and, to a lesser extent, Psychology. These results demonstrate that acknowledgment practices truly do vary across disciplines and that this can lead to important further research beyond the sole interest in funding.

  9. Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scope of the Journal SLJBR is devoted to the publication of contributions in all fields of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences including Basic Medical Sciences, Clinical Sciences, Dental Sciences, Behavioural Sciences, Biomedical Engineering, Molecular Biology, Pharmaceutical Sciences, Biotechnology in relation to ...

  10. Expanding the basic science debate: the role of physics knowledge in interpreting clinical findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldszmidt, Mark; Minda, John Paul; Devantier, Sarah L; Skye, Aimee L; Woods, Nicole N

    2012-10-01

    Current research suggests a role for biomedical knowledge in learning and retaining concepts related to medical diagnosis. However, learning may be influenced by other, non-biomedical knowledge. We explored this idea using an experimental design and examined the effects of causal knowledge on the learning, retention, and interpretation of medical information. Participants studied a handout about several respiratory disorders and how to interpret respiratory exam findings. The control group received the information in standard "textbook" format and the experimental group was presented with the same information as well as a causal explanation about how sound travels through lungs in both the normal and disease states. Comprehension and memory of the information was evaluated with a multiple-choice exam. Several questions that were not related to the causal knowledge served as control items. Questions related to the interpretation of physical exam findings served as the critical test items. The experimental group outperformed the control group on the critical test items, and our study shows that a causal explanation can improve a student's memory for interpreting clinical details. We suggest an expansion of which basic sciences are considered fundamental to medical education.

  11. "Science Citation Index" Data as a Safety Net for Basic Science Books Considered for Weeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick, Amrita J.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the use of the "Science Citation Index" in deciding whether to keep older basic science books that have failed to meet other criteria for collection retention. It is concluded that manual searching of the indexes proved feasible and reliable, while the lack of book titles on the online version reduced reliability of weeding…

  12. Nutritional biology: a neglected basic discipline of nutritional science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döring, Frank; Ströhle, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    On the basis of a scientific-philosophical analysis, this paper tries to show that the approaches in current nutritional science-including its subdisciplines which focus on molecular aspects-are predominantly application-oriented. This becomes particularly evident through a number of conceptual problems characterized by the triad of 'dearth of theoretical foundation,' 'particularist research questions,' and 'reductionist understanding of nutrition.' The thesis presented here is that an interpretive framework based on nutritional biology is able to shed constructive light on the fundamental problems of nutritional science. In this context, the establishment of 'nutritional biology' as a basic discipline in research and education would be a first step toward recognizing the phenomenon of 'nutrition' as an oecic process as a special case of an organism-environment interaction. Modern nutritional science should be substantively grounded on ecological-and therefore systems biology as well as organismic-principles. The aim of nutritional biology, then, should be to develop near-universal 'law statements' in nutritional science-a task which presents a major challenge for the current science system.

  13. Some Aspects of the State-of-the-Arts in Biomedical Science Research: A Perspective for Organizational Change in African Academia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Theresa Adebola

    2014-12-29

    In the biomedical sciences, there is need to generate solutions for Africa's health and economic problems through the impact of university research. To guide organizational transformation, the author here presents some aspects of the state-of-the-arts of biomedical science research in advanced countries using a perspective derived from the FASEB journal publications. The author examines the thirty three peer reviewed scientific research articles in a centennial (April 2012) issue of the FASEB Journal [Volume 26(4)] using the following parameters: number of authors contributing to the paper; number of academic departments contributing to the paper; number of academic institutions contributing to the paper; funding of the research reported in the article. The articles were written by 7.97±0.61 authors from 3.46±0.3 departments of 2.79±0.29 institutions. The contributors were classified into four categories: basic sciences, clinical sciences, institutions and centers, and programs and labs. Amongst the publications, 21.2% were single disciplinary. Two tier collaboration amongst any two of the four categories were observed in 16/33 (48.5%) of the articles. Three tier and four tier collaborations were observed amongst 7/33 (21.2%) and 3/33 (9%) of the articles respectively. Therefore 26/33 (78.7%) of the articles were multidisciplinary. Collaborative efforts between basic science and clinical science departments were observed in 9/33 (27.3%) articles. Public funding through government agencies provided 85 out of a total of 143 (59.5%) grants. The collaborative and multidisciplinary nature and government support are characteristic of biomedical science in the US where research tends to result in solutions to problems and economic benefits.

  14. Deep significance of the field concept in contemporary biomedical sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerman, Igor; Krasovec, Rok; Leskovar, Robert T

    2009-01-01

    Since antiquity, biology has had two opposing views of life and organisms: holistic (organismic) and reductionist. In contemporary biology, the molecular reductionist approach prevails--its central entity being the gene. Organicism lingers on the margin of biology, having well-elaborated ideas but no empirical confirmation for the integrative biological entity. The latter could be found in the endogenous coherent EM field (ECEMF), since it organizes countless cellular processes, including cell's division, and through the coupling of coherence domains integrates the whole organism. A serious and thorough reconsideration of life and organisms in light of this new biological entity would have far-reaching consequences in all areas of biological science, i.e., in ontogeny, the theory of evolution, understanding and combating serious illnesses, and above all, cancer.

  15. How neuroscience is taught to North American dental students: results of the Basic Science Survey Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Douglas J; Clarkson, Mackenzie J; Hutchins, Bob; Lambert, H Wayne

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how North American dental students are taught neuroscience during their preclinical dental education. This survey represents one part of a larger research project, the Basic Science Survey Series for Dentistry, which covers all of the biomedical science coursework required of preclinical students in North American dental schools. Members of the Section on Anatomical Sciences of the American Dental Education Association assembled, distributed, and analyzed the neuroscience survey, which had a 98.5 percent response from course directors of the sixty-seven North American dental schools. The eighteen-item instrument collected demographic data on the course directors, information on the content in each course, and information on how neuroscience content is presented. Findings indicate that 1) most neuroscience instruction is conducted by non-dental school faculty members; 2) large content variability exists between programs; and 3) an increase in didactic instruction, integrated curricula, and use of computer-aided instruction is occurring. It is anticipated that the information derived from the survey will help guide neuroscience curricula in dental schools and aid in identifying appropriate content.

  16. Opportunities for discovery: Theory and computation in Basic Energy Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, Bruce; Kirby, Kate; McCurdy, C. William

    2005-01-11

    New scientific frontiers, recent advances in theory, and rapid increases in computational capabilities have created compelling opportunities for theory and computation to advance the scientific mission of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES). The prospects for success in the experimental programs of BES will be enhanced by pursuing these opportunities. This report makes the case for an expanded research program in theory and computation in BES. The Subcommittee on Theory and Computation of the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee was charged with identifying current and emerging challenges and opportunities for theoretical research within the scientific mission of BES, paying particular attention to how computing will be employed to enable that research. A primary purpose of the Subcommittee was to identify those investments that are necessary to ensure that theoretical research will have maximum impact in the areas of importance to BES, and to assure that BES researchers will be able to exploit the entire spectrum of computational tools, including leadership class computing facilities. The Subcommittee s Findings and Recommendations are presented in Section VII of this report.

  17. Current Developments in Basic Space Science in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeke, P. N.

    Astronomy is important to developing African countries. In this paper, a brief review of the situation of astronomical research in Africa before 1991 is given. During that period only South Africa and Egypt were carrying out observational research in astronomy. In other African countries astronomy research was in its infancy, except the University of Nigeria Space Research Centre (UNNSRC) in theoretical areas. A summary of the important recommendations for Africa at the United Nations/ European Space Agency (UN/ESA) series of workshops on basic space science were itemized to help identify those which have now been accomplished. Additionally, UNNSRC has now embarked on further observational programmes through the establishment of strong collaborative ventures with two observatories in South Africa, the Hartesbeesthoek Radio Astronomical Observatory (Hart RAO) and the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO). UNNSRC has also made permanent arrangements with HartRAO, SAAO, and the Jodrell Bank for collaborations in data analysis. A new interest in astronomy appears to have awakened in Nigeria with three more universities joining this area of basic space science. It is recommended that the time has come for all African countries to contribute towards a common facility such as the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT). The efforts of UN/ESA which resulted in tremendous achievements are commended.

  18. Geoengineering: Basic science and ongoing research efforts in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Cao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Geoengineering (also called climate engineering, which refers to large-scale intervention in the Earth's climate system to counteract greenhouse gas-induced warming, has been one of the most rapidly growing areas of climate research as a potential option for tackling global warming. Here, we provide an overview of the scientific background and research progress of proposed geoengineering schemes. Geoengineering can be broadly divided into two categories: solar geoengineering (also called solar radiation management, or SRM, which aims to reflect more sunlight to space, and carbon dioxide removal (CDR, which aims to reduce the CO2 content in the atmosphere. First, we review different proposed geoengineering methods involved in the solar radiation management and carbon dioxide removal schemes. Then, we discuss the fundamental science underlying the climate response to the carbon dioxide removal and solar radiation management schemes. We focus on two basic issues: 1 climate response to the reduction in solar irradiance and 2 climate response to the reduction in atmospheric CO2. Next, we introduce an ongoing geoengineering research project in China that is supported by National Key Basic Research Program. This research project, being the first coordinated geoengineering research program in China, will systematically investigate the physical mechanisms, climate impacts, and risk and governance of a few targeted geoengineering schemes. It is expected that this research program will help us gain a deep understanding of the physical science underlying geoengineering schemes and the impacts of geoengineering on global climate, in particular, on the Asia monsoon region.

  19. The art and science of selecting graduate students in the biomedical sciences: Performance in doctoral study of the foundational sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hee-Young; Berkowitz, Oren; Symes, Karen; Dasgupta, Shoumita

    2018-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate associations between admissions criteria and performance in Ph.D. programs at Boston University School of Medicine. The initial phase of this project examined student performance in the classroom component of a newly established curriculum named "Foundations in Biomedical Sciences (FiBS)". Quantitative measures including undergraduate grade point average (GPA), graduate record examination (GRE; a standardized, computer-based test) scores for the verbal (assessment of test takers' ability to analyze, evaluate, and synthesize information and concepts provided in writing) and quantitative (assessment of test takers' problem-solving ability) components of the examination, previous research experience, and competitiveness of previous research institution were used in the study. These criteria were compared with competencies in the program defined as students who pass the curriculum as well as students categorized as High Performers. These data indicated that there is a significant positive correlation between FiBS performance and undergraduate GPA, GRE scores, and competitiveness of undergraduate institution. No significant correlations were found between FiBS performance and research background. By taking a data-driven approach to examine admissions and performance, we hope to refine our admissions criteria to facilitate an unbiased approach to recruitment of students in the life sciences and to share our strategy to support similar goals at other institutions.

  20. The science of consciousness - Basics, models, and visions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinterberger, Thilo

    2015-12-01

    This article presents a few models and aspects of the phenomenon consciousness that are emerging from modern neuroscience and might serve as a basis for scientific discourse in the field of Applied Consciousness Sciences. A first model describes the dynamics of information processing in the brain. The evoked electric brain potentials represent a hierarchical sequence of functions playing an important role in conscious perception. These range from primary processing, attention, pattern recognition, categorization, associations to judgments, and complex thoughts. Most functions seem to be implemented in the brain's neural network operating as a neurobiological computer. Another model treats conscious perception as a process of internalisation leading to the "self" as conscious observer. As a consequence, every conscious perception can be seen as a reduced and already interpreted observation of an inner representation of an outer or imagined "world." Subjective experience thus offers properties which can only be experienced from the inside and cannot be made objective. Basic values of humanity such as responsibility, love, compassion, freedom, and dignity can be derived from these subjective qualities. Therefore, in contrast to the Natural Sciences, the Science of Consciousness additionally is challenged to deal with those subjective qualities, emphasizing the resulting influence on health, social interactions, and the whole society. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Basics of laser physics for students of science and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Renk, Karl F

    2017-01-01

    This textbook provides an introductory presentation of all types of lasers. It contains a general description of the laser, a theoretical treatment and a characterization of its operation as it deals with gas, solid state, free-electron and semiconductor lasers. This expanded and updated second edition of the book presents a description of the dynamics of free-electron laser oscillation using a model introduced in the first edition that allows a reader to understand basic properties of a free-electron laser and makes the difference to “conventional” lasers. The discussions and the treatment of equations are presented in a way that a reader can immediately follow. The book addresses graduate and undergraduate students in science and engineering, featuring problems with solutions and over 400 illustrations.

  2. Integrated Biomaterials for Biomedical Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Ramalingam, Murugan; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Kobayashi, Hisatoshi

    2012-01-01

    This cutting edge book provides all the important aspects dealing with the basic science involved in materials in biomedical technology, especially structure and properties, techniques and technological innovations in material processing and characterizations, as well as the applications. The volume consists of 12 chapters written by acknowledged experts of the biomaterials field and covers a wide range of topics and applications.

  3. Retention of knowledge and perceived relevance of basic sciences in an integrated case-based learning (CBL) curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malau-Aduli, Bunmi S; Lee, Adrian Ys; Cooling, Nick; Catchpole, Marianne; Jose, Matthew; Turner, Richard

    2013-10-08

    Knowledge and understanding of basic biomedical sciences remain essential to medical practice, particularly when faced with the continual advancement of diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. Evidence suggests, however, that retention tends to atrophy across the span of an average medical course and into the early postgraduate years, as preoccupation with clinical medicine predominates. We postulated that perceived relevance demonstrated through applicability to clinical situations may assist in retention of basic science knowledge. To test this hypothesis in our own medical student cohort, we administered a paper-based 50 MCQ assessment to a sample of students from Years 2 through 5. Covariates pertaining to demographics, prior educational experience, and the perceived clinical relevance of each question were also collected. A total of 232 students (Years 2-5, response rate 50%) undertook the assessment task. This sample had comparable demographic and performance characteristics to the whole medical school cohort. In general, discipline-specific and overall scores were better for students in the latter years of the course compared to those in Year 2; male students and domestic students tended to perform better than their respective counterparts in certain disciplines. In the clinical years, perceived clinical relevance was significantly and positively correlated with item performance. This study suggests that perceived clinical relevance is a contributing factor to the retention of basic science knowledge and behoves curriculum planners to make clinical relevance a more explicit component of applied science teaching throughout the medical course.

  4. Basic science faculty in surgical departments: advantages, disadvantages and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinoy, Mala R; Moskowitz, Jay; Wilmore, Douglas W; Souba, Wiley W

    2005-01-01

    The number of Ph.D. faculty in clinical departments now exceeds the number of Ph.D. faculty in basic science departments. Given the escalating pressures on academic surgeons to produce in the clinical arena, the recruitment and retention of high-quality Ph.D.s will become critical to the success of an academic surgical department. This success will be as dependent on the surgical faculty understanding the importance of the partnership as the success of the Ph.D. investigator. Tighter alignment among the various clinical and research programs and between surgeons and basic scientists will facilitate the generation of new knowledge that can be translated into useful products and services (thus improving care). To capitalize on what Ph.D.s bring to the table, surgery departments may need to establish a more formal research infrastructure that encourages the ongoing exchange of ideas and resources. Physically removing barriers between the research groups, encouraging the open exchange of techniques and observations and sharing core laboratories is characteristic of successful research teams. These strategies can meaningfully contribute to developing successful training program grants, program projects and bringing greater research recognition to the department of surgery.

  5. Advances in biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, J H U

    1973-01-01

    Advances in Biomedical Engineering, Volume 2, is a collection of papers that discusses the basic sciences, the applied sciences of engineering, the medical sciences, and the delivery of health services. One paper discusses the models of adrenal cortical control, including the secretion and metabolism of cortisol (the controlled process), as well as the initiation and modulation of secretion of ACTH (the controller). Another paper discusses hospital computer systems-application problems, objective evaluation of technology, and multiple pathways for future hospital computer applications. The pos

  6. Science-Active Liberal Arts Colleges and the Future of Basic Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanitski, Conrad; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A recent report, "Educating America's Scientists: The Role of the Research Colleges" identified a group of 48 liberal arts colleges distinguished by their research records and proportions of science graduates. These institutions are remarkable for their production of meaningful basic research with the presence of doctorate level departments. (MLW)

  7. Teaching authorship and publication practices in the biomedical and life sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrina, Francis L

    2011-06-01

    Examination of a limited number of publisher's Instructions for Authors, guidelines from two scientific societies, and the widely accepted policy document of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) provided useful information on authorship practices. Three of five journals examined (Nature, Science, and the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences) publish papers across a variety of disciplines. One is broadly focused on topics in medical research (New England Journal of Medicine) and one publishes research reports in a single discipline (Journal of Bacteriology). Similar elements of publication policy and accepted practices were found across the policies of these journals articulated in their Instructions for Authors. A number of these same elements were found in the professional society guidelines of the Society for Neuroscience and the American Chemical Society, as well as the ICMJE Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals. Taken together, these sources provide the basis for articulating best practices in authorship in scientific research. Emerging from this material is a definition of authorship, as well as policy statements on duplicative publication, conflict of interest disclosure, electronic access, data sharing, digital image integrity, and research requiring subjects' protection, including prior registration of clinical trials. These common elements provide a foundation for teaching about scientific authorship and publication practices across biomedical and life sciences disciplines.

  8. Leading change: curriculum reform in graduate education in the biomedical sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Shoumita; Symes, Karen; Hyman, Linda

    2015-01-01

    The Division of Graduate Medical Sciences at the Boston University School of Medicine houses numerous dynamic graduate programs. Doctoral students began their studies with laboratory rotations and classroom training in a variety of fundamental disciplines. Importantly, with 15 unique pathways of admission to these doctoral programs, there were also 15 unique curricula. Departments and programs offered courses independently, and students participated in curricula that were overlapping combinations of these courses. This system created curricula that were not coordinated and that had redundant course content as well as content gaps. A partnership of key stakeholders began a curriculum reform process to completely restructure doctoral education at the Boston University School of Medicine. The key pedagogical goals, objectives, and elements designed into the new curriculum through this reform process created a curriculum designed to foster the interdisciplinary thinking that students are ultimately asked to utilize in their research endeavors. We implemented comprehensive student and peer evaluation of the new Foundations in Biomedical Sciences integrated curriculum to assess the new curriculum. Furthermore, we detail how this process served as a gateway toward creating a more fully integrated graduate experience, under the umbrella of the Program in Biomedical Sciences. © 2015 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  9. Differential equation analysis in biomedical science and engineering ordinary differential equation applications with R

    CERN Document Server

    Schiesser, William E

    2014-01-01

    Features a solid foundation of mathematical and computational tools to formulate and solve real-world ODE problems across various fields With a step-by-step approach to solving ordinary differential equations (ODEs), Differential Equation Analysis in Biomedical Science and Engineering: Ordinary Differential Equation Applications with R successfully applies computational techniques for solving real-worldODE problems that are found in a variety of fields, including chemistry, physics, biology,and physiology. The book provides readers with the necessary knowledge to reproduce andextend the comp

  10. Differential equation analysis in biomedical science and engineering partial differential equation applications with R

    CERN Document Server

    Schiesser, William E

    2014-01-01

    Features a solid foundation of mathematical and computational tools to formulate and solve real-world PDE problems across various fields With a step-by-step approach to solving partial differential equations (PDEs), Differential Equation Analysis in Biomedical Science and Engineering: Partial Differential Equation Applications with R successfully applies computational techniques for solving real-world PDE problems that are found in a variety of fields, including chemistry, physics, biology, and physiology. The book provides readers with the necessary knowledge to reproduce and extend the com

  11. Basic science research to support the nuclear material focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boak, J. M. (Jeremy M.); Eller, P. Gary; Chipman, N. A.; Castle, P. M.

    2002-01-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE'S) Office of Environmental Management (EM) is responsible for managing more than 760,000 metric tons of nuclear material that is excess to the current DOE weapons program, as a result of shutdown of elements of the weapons program, mainly during the 1990s. EMowned excess nuclear material comprises a variety of material types, including uranium, plutonium, other actinides and other radioactive elements in numerous forms, all of which must be stabilized for storage and ultimate disposition. Much of this quantity has been in storage for many years. Shutdown of DOE sites and facilities requires removal of nuclear material and consolidation at other sites, and may be delayed by the lack of available technology. Within EM, the Office of Science and Technology (OST) is dedicated to providing timely, relevant technology to accelerate completion and reduce cleanup cost of the DOE environmental legacy. OST is organized around five focus areas, addressing crucial areas of end-user-defined technology need. The Focus Areas regularly identify potential technical solutions for which basic scientific research is needed to determine if the technical solution can be developed and deployed. To achieve a portfolio of projects that is balanced between near-term priorities driven by programmatic risks (such as site closure milestones) and long-term, high-consequence needs that depend on extensive research and development, OST has established the Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) to develop the scientific basis for solutions to long-term site needs. The EMSP directs calls for proposals to address scientific needs of the focus areas. Needs are identified and validated annually by individual sites in workshops conducted across the complex. The process captures scope and schedule requirements of the sites, so that focus areas can identify technology that can be delivered to sites in time to complete site cleanup. The Nuclear Material

  12. Basic Science Research to Support the Nuclear Materials Focus Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chipman, N. A.; Castle, P. M.; Boak, J. M.; Eller, P. G.

    2002-02-26

    The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Environmental Management (EM) is responsible for managing more than 760,000 metric tons of nuclear material that is excess to the current DOE weapons program, as a result of shutdown of elements of the weapons program, mainly during the 1990s. EMowned excess nuclear material comprises a variety of material types, including uranium, plutonium, other actinides and other radioactive elements in numerous forms, all of which must be stabilized for storage and ultimate disposition. Much of this quantity has been in storage for many years. Shutdown of DOE sites and facilities requires removal of nuclear material and consolidation at other sites, and may be delayed by the lack of available technology. Within EM, the Office of Science and Technology (OST) is dedicated to providing timely, relevant technology to accelerate completion and reduce cleanup cost of the DOE environmental legacy. OST is organized around five focus areas, addressing crucial areas of end-user-defined technology need. The Focus Areas regularly identify potential technical solutions for which basic scientific research is needed to determine if the technical solution can be developed and deployed. To achieve a portfolio of projects that is balanced between near-term priorities driven by programmatic risks (such as site closure milestones) and long-term, high-consequence needs that depend on extensive research and development, OST has established the Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) to develop the scientific basis for solutions to long-term site needs. The EMSP directs calls for proposals to address scientific needs of the focus areas. Needs are identified and validated annually by individual sites in workshops conducted across the complex. The process captures scope and schedule requirements of the sites, so that focus areas can identify technology that can be delivered to sites in time to complete site cleanup. The Nuclear Material

  13. Boundary-Work in the Health Research Field: Biomedical and Clinician Scientists' Perceptions of Social Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Mathieu; Laberge, Suzanne; Hodges, Brian D.

    2009-01-01

    Funding agencies in Canada are attempting to break down the organizational boundaries between disciplines to promote interdisciplinary research and foster the integration of the social sciences into the health research field. This paper explores the extent to which biomedical and clinician scientists' perceptions of social science research operate…

  14. International Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The International Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research (IJMBR) is a peer-reviewed scholarly journal by Michael Joanna Publications. It publishes data and information, useful to researchers in all aspects of Clinical and Basic Medical Sciences including Anatomical Sciences, Biochemistry, Dentistry, Genetics, ...

  15. Open access publishing in the biomedical sciences: could funding agencies accelerate the inevitable changes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Steven William; Webb, Anne; Gleghorn, Colette

    2006-09-01

    Open access is making a noticeable impact on access to information. In 2005, many major research funders, including the Wellcome Trust, National Institutes for Health (NIH), and the Research Councils UK (RCUK), set out their position in a number of statements. Of particular note was the stipulation that authors receiving grants must deposit their final manuscript in an open access forum within 6-12 months of publication. The paper will look at the open access position statements issued by some of the major funding bodies in the biomedical sciences. The paper will also look at the models used by publishers to provide open or delayed access, such as Oxford Open from Oxford University Press, HighWire Press' delayed access policy, BioMed Central, and Public Library of Science (PLoS). There are now over 1.2 million articles in PubMed that are freely accessible via publishers' websites.(1) Could funding agencies accelerate the move to open access? The list of funding agencies supporting open access is growing. The National Institutes for Health and the Wellcome Trust have been joined by many of the world's major funders in biomedical research whose goal it is to make their research findings available with no barriers.

  16. Space life and biomedical sciences in support of the global exploration roadmap and societal development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evetts, S. N.

    2014-08-01

    The human exploration of space is pushing the boundaries of what is technically feasible. The space industry is preparing for the New Space era, the momentum for which will emanate from the commercial human spaceflight sector, and will be buttressed by international solar system exploration endeavours. With many distinctive technical challenges to be overcome, human spaceflight requires that numerous biological and physical systems be examined under exceptional circumstances for progress to be made. To effectively tackle such an undertaking significant intra- and international coordination and collaboration is required. Space life and biomedical science research and development (R & D) will support the Global Exploration Roadmap (GER) by enabling humans to 'endure' the extreme activity that is long duration human spaceflight. In so doing the field will discover solutions to some of our most difficult human health issues, and as a consequence benefit society as a whole. This space-specific R&D will drive a significant amount of terrestrial biomedical research and as a result the international community will not only gain benefits in the form of improved healthcare in space and on Earth, but also through the growth of its science base and industry.

  17. Basics of Laser Physics For Students of Science and Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Renk, Karl F

    2012-01-01

    Basics of Laser Physics provides an introductory presentation of the field of all types of lasers. It contains a general description of the laser, a theoretical treatment and a characterization of its operation as it deals with gas, solid state, free-electron and semiconductor lasers and, furthermore, with a few laser related topics. The different subjects are connected to each other by the central principle of the laser, namely, that it is a self-oscillating system. Special emphasis is put on a uniform treatment of gas and solid-state lasers, on the one hand, and semiconductor lasers, on the other hand. The discussions and the treatment of equations are presented in a way that a reader can immediately follow. The book addresses undergraduate and graduate students of science and engineering. Not only should it enable instructors to prepare their lectures, but it can be helpful to students for preparing for an examination.

  18. Basic science behind the cardiovascular benefits of exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mathew G; Ellison, Georgina M; Cable, N Tim

    2016-01-01

    Cardiorespiratory fitness is a strong predictor of cardiovascular (CV) disease and all-cause mortality, with increases in cardiorespiratory fitness associated with corresponding decreases in CV disease risk. The effects of exercise upon the myocardium and vascular system are dependent upon the frequency, intensity and duration of the exercise itself. Following a prolonged period (≥6 months) of regular intensive exercise in previously untrained individuals, resting and submaximal exercising heart rates are typically 5-20 beats lower, with an increase in stroke volume of ∼20% and enhanced myocardial contractility. Structurally, all four heart chambers increase in volume with mild increases in wall thickness, resulting in greater cardiac mass due to increased myocardial cell size. With this in mind, the present paper aims to review the basic science behind the CV benefits of exercise. Attention will be paid to understanding (1) the relationship between exercise and cardiac remodelling; (2) the cardiac cellular and molecular adaptations in response to exercise, including the examination of molecular mechanisms of physiological cardiac growth and applying these mechanisms to identify new therapeutic targets to prevent or reverse pathological remodelling and heart failure; and (3) vascular adaptations in response to exercise. Finally, this review will briefly examine how to optimise the CV benefits of exercise by considering how much and how intense exercise should be. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  19. The HelCat basic plasma science device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, M.; Lynn, A. G.; Desjardins, T. R.; Zhang, Y.; Watts, C.; Hsu, S. C.; Betts, S.; Kelly, R.; Schamiloglu, E.

    2015-01-01

    The Helicon-Cathode(HelCat) device is a medium-size linear experiment suitable for a wide range of basic plasma science experiments in areas such as electrostatic turbulence and transport, magnetic relaxation, and high power microwave (HPM)-plasma interactions. The HelCat device is based on dual plasma sources located at opposite ends of the 4 m long vacuum chamber - an RF helicon source at one end and a thermionic cathode at the other. Thirteen coils provide an axial magnetic field B >= 0.220 T that can be configured individually to give various magnetic configurations (e.g. solenoid, mirror, cusp). Additional plasma sources, such as a compact coaxial plasma gun, are also utilized in some experiments, and can be located either along the chamber for perpendicular (to the background magnetic field) plasma injection, or at one of the ends for parallel injection. Using the multiple plasma sources, a wide range of plasma parameters can be obtained. Here, the HelCat device is described in detail and some examples of results from previous and ongoing experiments are given. Additionally, examples of planned experiments and device modifications are also discussed.

  20. Lecture 10: The European Bioinformatics Institute - "Big data" for biomedical sciences

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Dana, Jose

    2013-01-01

    Part 1: Big data for biomedical sciences (Tom Hancocks) Ten years ago witnessed the completion of the first international 'Big Biology' project that sequenced the human genome. In the years since biological sciences, have seen a vast growth in data. In the coming years advances will come from integration of experimental approaches and the translation into applied technologies is the hospital, clinic and even at home. This talk will examine the development of infrastructure, physical and virtual, that will allow millions of life scientists across Europe better access to biological data Tom studied Human Genetics at the University of Leeds and McMaster University, before completing an MSc in Analytical Genomics at the University of Birmingham. He has worked for the UK National Health Service in diagnostic genetics and in training healthcare scientists and clinicians in bioinformatics. Tom joined the EBI in 2012 and is responsible for the scientific development and delivery of training for the BioMedBridges pr...

  1. Back to the basic sciences: an innovative approach to teaching senior medical students how best to integrate basic science and clinical medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Abby L; Brosenitsch, Teresa; Levine, Arthur S; Kanter, Steven L

    2008-07-01

    Abraham Flexner persuaded the medical establishment of his time that teaching the sciences, from basic to clinical, should be a critical component of the medical student curriculum, thus giving rise to the "preclinical curriculum." However, students' retention of basic science material after the preclinical years is generally poor. The authors believe that revisiting the basic sciences in the fourth year can enhance understanding of clinical medicine and further students' understanding of how the two fields integrate. With this in mind, a return to the basic sciences during the fourth year of medical school may be highly beneficial. The purpose of this article is to (1) discuss efforts to integrate basic science into the clinical years of medical student education throughout the United States and Canada, and (2) describe the highly developed fourth-year basic science integration program at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine. In their critical review of medical school curricula of 126 U.S. and 17 Canadian medical schools, the authors found that only 19% of U.S. medical schools and 24% of Canadian medical schools require basic science courses or experiences during the clinical years, a minor increase compared with 1985. Curricular methods ranged from simple lectures to integrated case studies with hands-on laboratory experience. The authors hope to advance the national discussion about the need to more fully integrate basic science teaching throughout all four years of the medical student curriculum by placing a curricular innovation in the context of similar efforts by other U.S. and Canadian medical schools.

  2. Biomedical Big Data Training Collaborative (BBDTC): An effort to bridge the talent gap in biomedical science and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purawat, Shweta; Cowart, Charles; Amaro, Rommie E; Altintas, Ilkay

    2017-05-01

    The BBDTC (https://biobigdata.ucsd.edu) is a community-oriented platform to encourage high-quality knowledge dissemination with the aim of growing a well-informed biomedical big data community through collaborative efforts on training and education. The BBDTC is an e-learning platform that empowers the biomedical community to develop, launch and share open training materials. It deploys hands-on software training toolboxes through virtualization technologies such as Amazon EC2 and Virtualbox. The BBDTC facilitates migration of courses across other course management platforms. The framework encourages knowledge sharing and content personalization through the playlist functionality that enables unique learning experiences and accelerates information dissemination to a wider community.

  3. PNNL Highlights for the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (July 2013-July 2014)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Benjamin; Warren, Pamela M.; Manke, Kristin L.

    2014-08-13

    This report includes research highlights of work funded in part or whole by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences as well as selected leadership accomplishments.

  4. Biomedical photonics handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2003-01-01

    1.Biomedical Photonics: A Revolution at the Interface of Science and Technology, T. Vo-DinhPHOTONICS AND TISSUE OPTICS2.Optical Properties of Tissues, J. Mobley and T. Vo-Dinh3.Light-Tissue Interactions, V.V. Tuchin 4.Theoretical Models and Algorithms in Optical Diffusion Tomography, S.J. Norton and T. Vo-DinhPHOTONIC DEVICES5.Laser Light in Biomedicine and the Life Sciences: From the Present to the Future, V.S. Letokhov6.Basic Instrumentation in Photonics, T. Vo-Dinh7.Optical Fibers and Waveguides for Medical Applications, I. Gannot and

  5. Biomedical engineering and nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawar, S.H.; Khyalappa, R.J.; Yakhmi, J.V.

    2009-01-01

    This book is predominantly a compilation of papers presented in the conference which is focused on the development in biomedical materials, biomedical devises and instrumentation, biomedical effects of electromagnetic radiation, electrotherapy, radiotherapy, biosensors, biotechnology, bioengineering, tissue engineering, clinical engineering and surgical planning, medical imaging, hospital system management, biomedical education, biomedical industry and society, bioinformatics, structured nanomaterial for biomedical application, nano-composites, nano-medicine, synthesis of nanomaterial, nano science and technology development. The papers presented herein contain the scientific substance to suffice the academic directivity of the researchers from the field of biomedicine, biomedical engineering, material science and nanotechnology. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  6. An international basic science and clinical research summer program for medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramjiawan, Bram; Pierce, Grant N; Anindo, Mohammad Iffat Kabir; Alkukhun, Abedalrazaq; Alshammari, Abdullah; Chamsi, Ahmad Talal; Abousaleh, Mohannad; Alkhani, Anas; Ganguly, Pallab K

    2012-03-01

    An important part of training the next generation of physicians is ensuring that they are exposed to the integral role that research plays in improving medical treatment. However, medical students often do not have sufficient time to be trained to carry out any projects in biomedical and clinical research. Many medical students also fail to understand and grasp translational research as an important concept today. In addition, since medical training is often an international affair whereby a medical student/resident/fellow will likely train in many different countries during his/her early training years, it is important to provide a learning environment whereby a young medical student experiences the unique challenges and value of an international educational experience. This article describes a program that bridges the gap between the basic and clinical research concepts in a unique international educational experience. After completing two semester curricula at Alfaisal University in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, six medical students undertook a summer program at St. Boniface Hospital Research Centre, in Winnipeg, MB, Canada. The program lasted for 2 mo and addressed advanced training in basic science research topics in medicine such as cell isolation, functional assessment, and molecular techniques of analysis and manipulation as well as sessions on the conduct of clinical research trials, ethics, and intellectual property management. Programs such as these are essential to provide a base from which medical students can decide if research is an attractive career choice for them during their clinical practice in subsequent years. An innovative international summer research course for medical students is necessary to cater to the needs of the medical students in the 21st century.

  7. Science Serving the Nation: The Impact of Basic Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2012-01-01

    Impacts: The BES program supports basic research that underpins a broad range of energy technologies. Research in materials sciences and engineering leads to the development of materials that improve the efficiency, economy, environmental acceptability, and safety of energy generation, conversion, transmission, storage, and use. For example, advances in superconductivity have been introduced commercially in a number of demonstration projects around the country. Improvements in alloy design for high temperature applications are used in commercial furnaces and in green technologies such as lead-free solder. Research in chemistry has led to advances such as efficient combustion systems with reduced emissions of pollutants; new solar photoconversion processes; improved catalysts for the production of fuels and chemicals; and better separations and analytical methods for applications in energy processes, environmental remediation, and waste management. Research in geosciences results in advanced monitoring and measurement techniques for reservoir definition and an understanding of the fluid dynamics of complex fluids through porous and fractured subsurface rock. Research in the molecular and biochemical nature of photosynthesis aids the development of solar photo-energy conversion. The BES program also plays a major role in enabling the nanoscale revolution. The importance of nanoscience to future energy technologies is clearly reflected by the fact that all of the elementary steps of energy conversion (e.g., charge transfer, molecular rearrangement, and chemical reactions) take place on the nanoscale. The development of new nanoscale materials, as well as the methods to characterize, manipulate, and assemble them, create an entirely new paradigm for developing new and revolutionary energy technologies.

  8. Biomedical Science Ph.D. Career Interest Patterns by Race/Ethnicity and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Kenneth D; McGready, John; Bennett, Jessica C; Griffin, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    Increasing biomedical workforce diversity remains a persistent challenge. Recent reports have shown that biomedical sciences (BMS) graduate students become less interested in faculty careers as training progresses; however, it is unclear whether or how the career preferences of women and underrepresented minority (URM) scientists change in manners distinct from their better-represented peers. We report results from a survey of 1500 recent American BMS Ph.D. graduates (including 276 URMs) that examined career preferences over the course of their graduate training experiences. On average, scientists from all social backgrounds showed significantly decreased interest in faculty careers at research universities, and significantly increased interest in non-research careers at Ph.D. completion relative to entry. However, group differences emerged in overall levels of interest (at Ph.D. entry and completion), and the magnitude of change in interest in these careers. Multiple logistic regression showed that when controlling for career pathway interest at Ph.D. entry, first-author publication rate, faculty support, research self-efficacy, and graduate training experiences, differences in career pathway interest between social identity groups persisted. All groups were less likely than men from well-represented (WR) racial/ethnic backgrounds to report high interest in faculty careers at research-intensive universities (URM men: OR 0.60, 95% CI: 0.36-0.98, p = 0.04; WR women: OR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.47-0.89, p = 0.008; URM women: OR: 0.46, 95% CI: 0.30-0.71, pworkforce diversity challenges may limit the effectiveness of efforts to attract and retain the best and most diverse workforce. We propose incorporation of an ecological perspective of career development when considering strategies to enhance the biomedical workforce and professoriate through diversity.

  9. Bridging the social and the biomedical: engaging the social and political sciences in HIV research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kippax, Susan C; Holt, Martin; Friedman, Samuel R

    2011-09-27

    This supplement to the Journal of the International AIDS Society focuses on the engagement of the social and political sciences within HIV research and, in particular, maintaining a productive relationship between social and biomedical perspectives on HIV. It responds to a number of concerns raised primarily by social scientists, but also recognized as important by biomedical and public health researchers. These concerns include how best to understand the impact of medical technologies (such as HIV treatments, HIV testing, viral load testing, male circumcision, microbicides, and pre-and post-exposure prophylaxis) on sexual cultures, drug practices, relationships and social networks in different cultural, economic and political contexts. The supplement is also concerned with how we might examine the relationship between HIV prevention and treatment, understand the social and political mobilization required to tackle HIV, and sustain the range of disciplinary approaches needed to inform and guide responses to the global pandemic. The six articles included in the supplement demonstrate the value of fostering high quality social and political research to inform, guide and challenge our collaborative responses to HIV/AIDS.

  10. Hegemony in the marketplace of biomedical innovation: consumer demand and stem cell science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Brian; Zhou, Yinhua; Datta, Saheli

    2015-04-01

    The global political economy of stem cell therapies is characterised by an established biomedical hegemony of expertise, governance and values in collision with an increasingly informed health consumer demand able to define and pursue its own interest. How does the hegemony then deal with the challenge from the consumer market and what does this tell us about its modus operandi? In developing a theoretical framework to answer these questions, the paper begins with an analysis of the nature of the hegemony of biomedical innovation in general, its close relationship with the research funding market, the current political modes of consumer incorporation, and the ideological role performed by bioethics as legitimating agency. Secondly, taking the case of stem cell innovation, it explores the hegemonic challenge posed by consumer demand working through the global practice based market of medical innovation, the response of the national and international institutions of science and their reassertion of the values of the orthodox model, and the supporting contribution of bioethics. Finally, the paper addresses the tensions within the hegemonic model of stem cell innovation between the key roles and values of scientist and clinician, the exacerbation of these tensions by the increasingly visible demands of health consumers, and the emergence of political compromise. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Biomedical laboratory science education: standardising teaching content in resource-limited countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Arneson

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a worldwide shortage of qualified laboratory personnel to provide adequate testing for the detection and monitoring of diseases. In an effort to increase laboratory capacity in developing countries, new skills have been introduced into laboratory services. Curriculum revision with a focus on good laboratory practice is an important aspect of supplying entry-level graduates with the competencies needed to meet the current needs. Objectives: Gaps in application and problem-solving competencies of newly graduated laboratory personnel were discovered in Ethiopia, Tanzania and Kenya. New medical laboratory teaching content was developed in Ethiopia, Tanzania and Kenya using national instructors, tutors, and experts and consulting medical laboratory educators from the United States of America (USA. Method: Workshops were held in Ethiopia to create standardised biomedical laboratory science (BMLS lessons based on recently-revised course objectives with an emphasis on application of skills. In Tanzania, course-module teaching guides with objectives were developed based on established competency outcomes and tasks. In Kenya, example interactive presentations and lesson plans were developed by the USA medical laboratory educators prior to the workshop to serve as resources and templates for the development of lessons within the country itself. Results: The new teaching materials were implemented and faculty, students and other stakeholders reported successful outcomes. Conclusions: These approaches to updating curricula may be helpful as biomedical laboratory schools in other countries address gaps in the competencies of entry-level graduates.

  12. A Simulation for Teaching the Basic and Clinical Science of Fluid Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawson, Richard E.; Dispensa, Marilyn E.; Goldstein, Richard E.; Nicholson, Kimberley W.; Vidal, Noni Korf

    2009-01-01

    The course "Management of Fluid and Electrolyte Disorders" is an applied physiology course taught using lectures and paper-based cases. The course approaches fluid therapy from both basic science and clinical perspectives. While paper cases provide a basis for application of basic science concepts, they lack key components of genuine clinical…

  13. Biomedical Science Ph.D. Career Interest Patterns by Race/Ethnicity and Gender.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth D Gibbs

    Full Text Available Increasing biomedical workforce diversity remains a persistent challenge. Recent reports have shown that biomedical sciences (BMS graduate students become less interested in faculty careers as training progresses; however, it is unclear whether or how the career preferences of women and underrepresented minority (URM scientists change in manners distinct from their better-represented peers. We report results from a survey of 1500 recent American BMS Ph.D. graduates (including 276 URMs that examined career preferences over the course of their graduate training experiences. On average, scientists from all social backgrounds showed significantly decreased interest in faculty careers at research universities, and significantly increased interest in non-research careers at Ph.D. completion relative to entry. However, group differences emerged in overall levels of interest (at Ph.D. entry and completion, and the magnitude of change in interest in these careers. Multiple logistic regression showed that when controlling for career pathway interest at Ph.D. entry, first-author publication rate, faculty support, research self-efficacy, and graduate training experiences, differences in career pathway interest between social identity groups persisted. All groups were less likely than men from well-represented (WR racial/ethnic backgrounds to report high interest in faculty careers at research-intensive universities (URM men: OR 0.60, 95% CI: 0.36-0.98, p = 0.04; WR women: OR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.47-0.89, p = 0.008; URM women: OR: 0.46, 95% CI: 0.30-0.71, p<0.001, and URM women were more likely than all other groups to report high interest in non-research careers (OR: 1.93, 95% CI: 1.28-2.90, p = 0.002. The persistence of disparities in the career interests of Ph.D. recipients suggests that a supply-side (or "pipeline" framing of biomedical workforce diversity challenges may limit the effectiveness of efforts to attract and retain the best and most

  14. 75 FR 65363 - Basic Behavioral and Social Science Opportunity Network (OppNet)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ... activities and initiatives that focus on basic mechanisms of behavior and social processes that are relevant... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Basic Behavioral and Social... public meeting to promote and publicize the Basic Behavioral and Social Science Opportunity Network (Opp...

  15. Science Awareness and Science Literacy through the Basic Physics Course: Physics with a bit of Metaphysics?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusli, Aloysius

    2016-01-01

    Until the 1980s, it is well known and practiced in Indonesian Basic Physics courses, to present physics by its effective technicalities: The ideally elastic spring, the pulley and moving blocks, the thermodynamics of ideal engine models, theoretical electrostatics and electrodynamics with model capacitors and inductors, wave behavior and its various superpositions, and hopefully closed with a modern physics description. A different approach was then also experimented with, using the Hobson and Moore texts, stressing the alternative aim of fostering awareness, not just mastery, of science and the scientific method. This is hypothesized to be more in line with the changed attitude of the so-called Millenials cohort who are less attentive if not interested, and are more used to multi-tasking which suits their shorter span of attention. The upside is increased awareness of science and the scientific method. The downside is that they are getting less experience of the scientific method which intensely bases itself on critical observation, analytic thinking to set up conclusions or hypotheses, and checking consistency of the hypotheses with measured data. Another aspect is recognition that the human person encompasses both the reasoning capacity and the mental- spiritual-cultural capacity. This is considered essential, as the world grows even smaller due to increased communication capacity, causing strong interactions, nonlinear effects, and showing that value systems become more challenging and challenged due to physics / science and its cosmology, which is successfully based on the scientific method. So students should be made aware of the common basis of these two capacities: the assumptions, the reasoning capacity and the consistency assumption. This shows that the limits of science are their set of basic quantifiable assumptions, and the limits of the mental-spiritual-cultural aspects of life are their set of basic metaphysical (non-quantifiable) assumptions. The

  16. Science Awareness and Science Literacy through the Basic Physics Course: Physics with a bit of Metaphysics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusli, Aloysius

    2016-08-01

    Until the 1980s, it is well known and practiced in Indonesian Basic Physics courses, to present physics by its effective technicalities: The ideally elastic spring, the pulley and moving blocks, the thermodynamics of ideal engine models, theoretical electrostatics and electrodynamics with model capacitors and inductors, wave behavior and its various superpositions, and hopefully closed with a modern physics description. A different approach was then also experimented with, using the Hobson and Moore texts, stressing the alternative aim of fostering awareness, not just mastery, of science and the scientific method. This is hypothesized to be more in line with the changed attitude of the so-called Millenials cohort who are less attentive if not interested, and are more used to multi-tasking which suits their shorter span of attention. The upside is increased awareness of science and the scientific method. The downside is that they are getting less experience of the scientific method which intensely bases itself on critical observation, analytic thinking to set up conclusions or hypotheses, and checking consistency of the hypotheses with measured data. Another aspect is recognition that the human person encompasses both the reasoning capacity and the mental- spiritual-cultural capacity. This is considered essential, as the world grows even smaller due to increased communication capacity, causing strong interactions, nonlinear effects, and showing that value systems become more challenging and challenged due to physics / science and its cosmology, which is successfully based on the scientific method. So students should be made aware of the common basis of these two capacities: the assumptions, the reasoning capacity and the consistency assumption. This shows that the limits of science are their set of basic quantifiable assumptions, and the limits of the mental-spiritual-cultural aspects of life are their set of basic metaphysical (non-quantifiable) assumptions. The

  17. Office of Basic Energy Sciences: 1984 summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-11-01

    Subprograms of the OBES discussed in this document include: materials sciences, chemical sciences, nuclear sciences, engineering and geosciences, advanced energy projects, biological energy research, carbon dioxide research, HFBR, HFIR, NSLS, SSRL, IPNS, Combustion Research Facility, high-voltage and atomic resolution electron microscopic facilities, Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator, Dynamitron Accelerator, calutrons, and Transuranium Processing Plant. Nickel aluminide and glassy metals are discussed

  18. Translations on USSR Science and Technology, Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences, Number 20

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-17

    Agricultur Romania. "Receptura de fabricatie nutret urilor combinate ,"" Bucharest, 1972. 6. Sorensen, E. and Havskov, P., "Basic Principles Involved in...antibiotics - - bacitracin, kormogrizein, hygromycin, flavomycin, virginiamycin, tylosin ; growth stimulants - — dimetridazol, karbadox...Czechoslovakia of a scientific research laboratory on the problem of lysine technology for purposes of combining the efforts of interested CEMA

  19. Exploring lecturers' views of first-year health science students' misconceptions in biomedical domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badenhorst, Elmi; Mamede, Sílvia; Hartman, Nadia; Schmidt, Henk G

    2015-05-01

    Research has indicated that misconceptions hamper the process of knowledge construction. Misconceptions are defined as persistent ideas not supported by current scientific views. Few studies have explored how misconceptions develop when first year health students conceptually move between anatomy and physiology to construct coherent knowledge about the human body. This explorative study analysed lecturers' perceptions of first-year health science students' misconceptions in anatomy and physiology to gain a deeper understanding of how and why misconceptions could potentially arise, by attempting to link sources of misconceptions with four schools of thought, namely theories on concept formation, complexity, constructivism and conceptual change. This was a qualitative study where ten lecturers involved in teaching anatomy and physiology in the health science curricula at the University of Cape Town were interviewed to explore perceptions of students' misconceptions. Analytical induction was used to uncover categories within the interview data by using a coding system. A deeper analysis was done to identify emerging themes that begins to explore a theoretical understanding of why and how misconceptions arise. Nine sources of misconceptions were identified, including misconceptions related to language, perception, three dimensional thinking, causal reasoning, curricula design, learning styles and moving between macro and micro levels. The sources of misconceptions were then grouped together to assist educators with finding educational interventions to overcome potential misconceptions. This explorative study is an attempt in theory building to understand what is at the core of biomedical misconceptions. Misconceptions identified in this study hold implications for educators as not all students have the required building blocks and cognitive skills to successfully navigate their way through biomedical courses. Theoretical insight into the sources of misconceptions can

  20. A critical narrative review of transfer of basic science knowledge in health professions education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Jean-Marie; Park, Yoon Soo; Harris, Ilene; Cheung, Jeffrey J H; Sood, Lonika; Clark, Maureen D; Kulasegaram, Kulamakan; Brydges, Ryan; Norman, Geoffrey; Woods, Nicole

    2018-02-08

    'Transfer' is the application of a previously learned concept to solve a new problem in another context. Transfer is essential for basic science education because, to be valuable, basic science knowledge must be transferred to clinical problem solving. Therefore, better understanding of interventions that enhance the transfer of basic science knowledge to clinical reasoning is essential. This review systematically identifies interventions described in the health professions education (HPE) literature that document the transfer of basic science knowledge to clinical reasoning, and considers teaching and assessment strategies. A systematic search of the literature was conducted. Articles related to basic science teaching at the undergraduate level in HPE were analysed using a 'transfer out'/'transfer in' conceptual framework. 'Transfer out' refers to the application of knowledge developed in one learning situation to the solving of a new problem. 'Transfer in' refers to the use of previously acquired knowledge to learn from new problems or learning situations. Of 9803 articles initially identified, 627 studies were retrieved for full text evaluation; 15 were included in the literature review. A total of 93% explored 'transfer out' to clinical reasoning and 7% (one article) explored 'transfer in'. Measures of 'transfer out' fostered by basic science knowledge included diagnostic accuracy over time and in new clinical cases. Basic science knowledge supported learning - 'transfer in' - of new related content and ultimately the 'transfer out' to diagnostic reasoning. Successful teaching strategies included the making of connections between basic and clinical sciences, the use of commonsense analogies, and the study of multiple clinical problems in multiple contexts. Performance on recall tests did not reflect the transfer of basic science knowledge to clinical reasoning. Transfer of basic science knowledge to clinical reasoning is an essential component of HPE that

  1. An engineering paradigm in the biomedical sciences: Knowledge as epistemic tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Mieke

    2017-10-01

    In order to deal with the complexity of biological systems and attempts to generate applicable results, current biomedical sciences are adopting concepts and methods from the engineering sciences. Philosophers of science have interpreted this as the emergence of an engineering paradigm, in particular in systems biology and synthetic biology. This article aims at the articulation of the supposed engineering paradigm by contrast with the physics paradigm that supported the rise of biochemistry and molecular biology. This articulation starts from Kuhn's notion of a disciplinary matrix, which indicates what constitutes a paradigm. It is argued that the core of the physics paradigm is its metaphysical and ontological presuppositions, whereas the core of the engineering paradigm is the epistemic aim of producing useful knowledge for solving problems external to the scientific practice. Therefore, the two paradigms involve distinct notions of knowledge. Whereas the physics paradigm entails a representational notion of knowledge, the engineering paradigm involves the notion of 'knowledge as epistemic tool'. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Beyond Preparation: Identity, Cultural Capital, and Readiness for Graduate School in the Biomedical Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazley, J Lynn; Remich, Robin; Naffziger-Hirsch, Michelle E; Keller, Jill; Campbell, Patricia B; McGee, Richard

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we conducted in-depth interviews with 52 college graduates as they entered a Postbaccalaureate Research Education Program (PREP). Our goal was to investigate what it means for these aspiring scientists, most of whom are from groups underrepresented in the sciences, to feel ready to apply to a doctoral program in the biomedical sciences. For our analysis, we developed and used a theoretical framework which integrates concepts from identity-in-practice literature with Bourdieu's formulation of cultural capital and also examined the impact of racial, ethnic, and gender identities on education and career trajectories. Five patterns of identity work for expected engagement with PREP grew out of our analysis: Credential Seekers, PI Aspirants, Path Builders, Discipline Changers, and Interest Testers. These patterns illuminate differences in perceptions of doing, being , and becoming within science; external and internal foci of identity work; and expectations for institutional and embodied cultural capital. Our findings show that preparing for graduate education is more complex than acquiring a set of credentials as it is infused with identity work which facilitates readiness beyond preparation . This deeper understanding of individual agency and perceptions allows us to shift the focus away from a deficit model where institutions and programs attempt to "fix" students, and to offer implications for programs designed to support college graduates aspiring to become scientists.

  3. Biomedical and environmental sciences programs at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preston, E.L.; Getsi, J.A.

    1982-07-01

    A major objective of the biomedical and environmental sciences (BES) research at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is to provide information on environmental, health, and safety considerations that can be used in the formulation and implementation of energy technology decisions. Research is directed at securing information required for an understanding of both the short- and long-term consequences of the processes involved in new energy technologies. Investigation of the mechanisms responsible for biological and ecological damage caused by substances associated with energy production and of repair mechanisms is a necessary component of this research. The research is carried out by the staff of four divisions and one program: Biology Division, Environmental Sciences Division, Health and Safety Research Division, Information Division, and the Life Sciences Synthetic Fuels Program. Research programs underway in each of these divisions are discussed. Information on the following subjects is also included: interactions with universities; interactions with industry; technology transfer; recent accomplishments in the areas of program, publications, awards, and patents; and new initiatives

  4. Biomedical and environmental sciences programs at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preston, E.L.; Getsi, J.A. (comps.)

    1982-07-01

    A major objective of the biomedical and environmental sciences (BES) research at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is to provide information on environmental, health, and safety considerations that can be used in the formulation and implementation of energy technology decisions. Research is directed at securing information required for an understanding of both the short- and long-term consequences of the processes involved in new energy technologies. Investigation of the mechanisms responsible for biological and ecological damage caused by substances associated with energy production and of repair mechanisms is a necessary component of this research. The research is carried out by the staff of four divisions and one program: Biology Division, Environmental Sciences Division, Health and Safety Research Division, Information Division, and the Life Sciences Synthetic Fuels Program. Research programs underway in each of these divisions are discussed. Information on the following subjects is also included: interactions with universities; interactions with industry; technology transfer; recent accomplishments in the areas of program, publications, awards, and patents; and new initiatives. (JGB)

  5. Multiple choice questions are superior to extended matching questions to identify medicine and biomedical sciences students who perform poorly.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijsvogels, T.M.H.; Brand, T.L. van den; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, medical faculties at Dutch universities have implemented a legally binding study advice to students of medicine and biomedical sciences during their propaedeutic phase. Appropriate examination is essential to discriminate between poor (grade <6), moderate (grade 6-8) and excellent

  6. Mentoring Interventions for Underrepresented Scholars in Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences: Effects on Quality of Mentoring Interactions and Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Vivian; Martina, Camille A.; McDermott, Michael P.; Chaudron, Linda; Trief, Paula M.; LaGuardia, Jennifer G.; Sharp, Daryl; Goodman, Steven R.; Morse, Gene D.; Ryan, Richard M.

    2017-01-01

    Mentors rarely receive education about the unique needs of underrepresented scholars in the biomedical and behavioral sciences. We hypothesized that mentor-training and peer-mentoring interventions for these scholars would enrich the perceived quality and breadth of discussions between mentor-protégé dyads (i.e., mentor-protégé pairs). Our…

  7. Developmental programming: State-of-the-science and future directions-summary from a Pennington biomedical symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    On December 8-9, 2014, the Pennington Biomedical Research Center convened a scientific symposium to review the state-of-the-science and future directions for the study of developmental programming of obesity and chronic disease. The objectives of the symposium were to discuss: (i) past and current s...

  8. BASIC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg; Schmidt, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    BPP. Tilgangen består dels af den overordnede proces-model BASIC og dels af et iboende framework, ABCD, der er en model for systematisk adfærdsanalyse, udvikling, test og implementering af adfærdsrettede løsningskoncepter. Den samlede model gør det muligt for forskere såvel som offentligt ansatte...

  9. Synergies and Distinctions between Computational Disciplines in Biomedical Research: Perspective from the Clinical and Translational Science Award Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstam, Elmer V.; Hersh, William R.; Johnson, Stephen B.; Chute, Christopher G.; Nguyen, Hien; Sim, Ida; Nahm, Meredith; Weiner, Mark; Miller, Perry; DiLaura, Robert P.; Overcash, Marc; Lehmann, Harold P.; Eichmann, David; Athey, Brian D.; Scheuermann, Richard H.; Anderson, Nick; Starren, Justin B.; Harris, Paul A.; Smith, Jack W.; Barbour, Ed; Silverstein, Jonathan C.; Krusch, David A.; Nagarajan, Rakesh; Becich, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Clinical and translational research increasingly requires computation. Projects may involve multiple computationally-oriented groups including information technology (IT) professionals, computer scientists and biomedical informaticians. However, many biomedical researchers are not aware of the distinctions among these complementary groups, leading to confusion, delays and sub-optimal results. Although written from the perspective of clinical and translational science award (CTSA) programs within academic medical centers, the paper addresses issues that extend beyond clinical and translational research. The authors describe the complementary but distinct roles of operational IT, research IT, computer science and biomedical informatics using a clinical data warehouse as a running example. In general, IT professionals focus on technology. The authors distinguish between two types of IT groups within academic medical centers: central or administrative IT (supporting the administrative computing needs of large organizations) and research IT (supporting the computing needs of researchers). Computer scientists focus on general issues of computation such as designing faster computers or more efficient algorithms, rather than specific applications. In contrast, informaticians are concerned with data, information and knowledge. Biomedical informaticians draw on a variety of tools, including but not limited to computers, to solve information problems in health care and biomedicine. The paper concludes with recommendations regarding administrative structures that can help to maximize the benefit of computation to biomedical research within academic health centers. PMID:19550198

  10. The translational science training program at NIH: Introducing early career researchers to the science and operation of translation of basic research to medical interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, C Taylor; Sittampalam, G Sitta; Wang, Philip Y; Ryan, Philip E

    2017-01-02

    Translational science is an emerging field that holds great promise to accelerate the development of novel medical interventions. As the field grows, so does the demand for highly trained biomedical scientists to fill the positions that are being created. Many graduate and postdoctorate training programs do not provide their trainees with sufficient education to take advantage of this growing employment sector. To help better prepare the trainees at the National Institutes of Health for possible careers in translation, we have created the Translational Science Training Program (TSTP). The TSTP is an intensive 2- to 3-day training program that introduces NIH postdoctoral trainees and graduate students to the science and operation of turning basic research discoveries into a medical therapeutic, device or diagnostic, and also exposes them to the variety of career options in translational science. Through a combination of classroom teaching from practicing experts in the various disciplines of translation and small group interactions with pre-clinical development teams, participants in the TSTP gain knowledge that will aid them in obtaining a career in translational science and building a network to make the transition to the field. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(1):13-24, 2017. © 2016 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  11. Development and Validation of the Life Sciences Assessment: A Measure of Preschool Children's Conceptions of Basic Life Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maherally, Uzma Nooreen

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a science assessment tool termed the Life Sciences Assessment (LSA) in order to assess preschool children's conceptions of basic life sciences. The hypothesis was that the four sub-constructs, each of which can be measured through a series of questions on the LSA, will make a significant…

  12. The Relationship between Immediate Relevant Basic Science Knowledge and Clinical Knowledge: Physiology Knowledge and Transthoracic Echocardiography Image Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Dorte Guldbrand; Gotzsche, Ole; Sonne, Ole; Eika, Berit

    2012-01-01

    Two major views on the relationship between basic science knowledge and clinical knowledge stand out; the Two-world view seeing basic science and clinical science as two separate knowledge bases and the encapsulated knowledge view stating that basic science knowledge plays an overt role being encapsulated in the clinical knowledge. However, resent…

  13. Creating a pipeline of talent for informatics: STEM initiative for high school students in computer science, biology, and biomedical informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta-Moscato, Joyeeta; Gopalakrishnan, Vanathi; Lotze, Michael T; Becich, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    This editorial provides insights into how informatics can attract highly trained students by involving them in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) training at the high school level and continuing to provide mentorship and research opportunities through the formative years of their education. Our central premise is that the trajectory necessary to be expert in the emergent fields in front of them requires acceleration at an early time point. Both pathology (and biomedical) informatics are new disciplines which would benefit from involvement by students at an early stage of their education. In 2009, Michael T Lotze MD, Kirsten Livesey (then a medical student, now a medical resident at University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC)), Richard Hersheberger, PhD (Currently, Dean at Roswell Park), and Megan Seippel, MS (the administrator) launched the University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute (UPCI) Summer Academy to bring high school students for an 8 week summer academy focused on Cancer Biology. Initially, pathology and biomedical informatics were involved only in the classroom component of the UPCI Summer Academy. In 2011, due to popular interest, an informatics track called Computer Science, Biology and Biomedical Informatics (CoSBBI) was launched. CoSBBI currently acts as a feeder program for the undergraduate degree program in bioinformatics at the University of Pittsburgh, which is a joint degree offered by the Departments of Biology and Computer Science. We believe training in bioinformatics is the best foundation for students interested in future careers in pathology informatics or biomedical informatics. We describe our approach to the recruitment, training and research mentoring of high school students to create a pipeline of exceptionally well-trained applicants for both the disciplines of pathology informatics and biomedical informatics. We emphasize here how mentoring of high school students in pathology informatics and biomedical informatics

  14. Creating a pipeline of talent for informatics: STEM initiative for high school students in computer science, biology, and biomedical informatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta-Moscato, Joyeeta; Gopalakrishnan, Vanathi; Lotze, Michael T.; Becich, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    This editorial provides insights into how informatics can attract highly trained students by involving them in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) training at the high school level and continuing to provide mentorship and research opportunities through the formative years of their education. Our central premise is that the trajectory necessary to be expert in the emergent fields in front of them requires acceleration at an early time point. Both pathology (and biomedical) informatics are new disciplines which would benefit from involvement by students at an early stage of their education. In 2009, Michael T Lotze MD, Kirsten Livesey (then a medical student, now a medical resident at University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC)), Richard Hersheberger, PhD (Currently, Dean at Roswell Park), and Megan Seippel, MS (the administrator) launched the University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute (UPCI) Summer Academy to bring high school students for an 8 week summer academy focused on Cancer Biology. Initially, pathology and biomedical informatics were involved only in the classroom component of the UPCI Summer Academy. In 2011, due to popular interest, an informatics track called Computer Science, Biology and Biomedical Informatics (CoSBBI) was launched. CoSBBI currently acts as a feeder program for the undergraduate degree program in bioinformatics at the University of Pittsburgh, which is a joint degree offered by the Departments of Biology and Computer Science. We believe training in bioinformatics is the best foundation for students interested in future careers in pathology informatics or biomedical informatics. We describe our approach to the recruitment, training and research mentoring of high school students to create a pipeline of exceptionally well-trained applicants for both the disciplines of pathology informatics and biomedical informatics. We emphasize here how mentoring of high school students in pathology informatics and biomedical informatics

  15. The role biomedical science laboratories can play in improving science knowledge and promoting first-year nursing academic success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arneson, Pam

    The Role Biomedical Science Laboratories Can Play In Improving Science Knowledge and Promoting First-Year Nursing Academic Success The need for additional nursing and health care professionals is expected to increase dramatically over the next 20 years. With this in mind, students must have strong biomedical science knowledge to be competent in their field. Some studies have shown that participation in bioscience laboratories can enhance science knowledge. If this is true, an analysis of the role bioscience labs have in first-year nursing academic success is apposite. In response, this study sought to determine whether concurrent enrollment in anatomy and microbiology lecture and lab courses improved final lecture course grades. The investigation was expanded to include a comparison of first-year nursing GPA and prerequisite bioscience concurrent lecture/lab enrollment. Additionally, research has indicated that learning is affected by student perception of the course, instructor, content, and environment. To gain an insight regarding students' perspectives of laboratory courses, almost 100 students completed a 20-statement perception survey to understand how lab participation affects learning. Data analyses involved comparing anatomy and microbiology final lecture course grades between students who concurrently enrolled in the lecture and lab courses and students who completed the lecture course alone. Independent t test analyses revealed that there was no significant difference between the groups for anatomy, t(285) = .11, p = .912, but for microbiology, the lab course provided a significant educational benefit, t(256) = 4.47, p = .000. However, when concurrent prerequisite bioscience lecture/lab enrollment was compared to non-concurrent enrollment for first-year nursing GPA using independent t test analyses, no significant difference was found for South Dakota State University, t(37) = -1.57, p = .125, or for the University of South Dakota, t(38) = -0.46, p

  16. Basic science research and education: a priority for training and capacity building in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckelbaum, Richard J; Ntambi, James M; Wolgemuth, Debra J

    2011-09-01

    This article provides evidence that basic science research and education should be key priorities for global health training, capacity building, and practice. Currently, there are tremendous gaps between strong science education and research in developed countries (the North) as compared to developing countries (the South). In addition, science research and education appear as low priorities in many developing countries. The need to stress basic science research beyond the typical investment of infectious disease basic service and research laboratories in developing areas is significant in terms of the benefits, not only to education, but also for economic strengthening and development of human resources. There are some indications that appreciation of basic science research education and training is increasing, but this still needs to be applied more rigorously and strengthened systematically in developing countries. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Patterns of biomedical science production in a sub-Saharan research center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnandji Selidji T

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research activities in sub-Saharan Africa may be limited to delegated tasks due to the strong control from Western collaborators, which could lead to scientific production of little value in terms of its impact on social and economic innovation in less developed areas. However, the current contexts of international biomedical research including the development of public-private partnerships and research institutions in Africa suggest that scientific activities are growing in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aims to describe the patterns of clinical research activities at a sub-Saharan biomedical research center. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with a core group of researchers at the Medical Research Unit of the Albert Schweitzer Hospital from June 2009 to February 2010 in Lambaréné, Gabon. Scientific activities running at the MRU as well as the implementation of ethical and regulatory standards were covered by the interview sessions. Results The framework of clinical research includes transnational studies and research initiated locally. In transnational collaborations, a sub-Saharan research institution may be limited to producing confirmatory and late-stage data with little impact on economic and social innovation. However, ethical and regulatory guidelines are being implemented taking into consideration the local contexts. Similarly, the scientific content of studies designed by researchers at the MRU, if local needs are taken into account, may potentially contribute to a scientific production with long-term value on social and economic innovation in sub-Saharan Africa. Conclusion Further research questions and methods in social sciences should comprehensively address the construction of scientific content with the social, economic and cultural contexts surrounding research activities.

  18. The Value of Traditional Ecological Knowledge for the Environmental Health Sciences and Biomedical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Symma; Herne, Mose; Castille, Dorothy

    2017-08-29

    Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) is a term, relatively new to Western science, that encompasses a subset of traditional knowledge maintained by Indigenous nations about the relationships between people and the natural environment. The term was first shared by tribal elders in the 1980s to help raise awareness of the importance of TEK. TEK has become a construct that Western scientists have increasingly considered for conducting culturally relevant research with Tribal nations. The authors aim to position TEK in relation to other emerging schools of thought, that is, concepts such as the exposome, social determinants of health (SDoH), and citizen science, and to explore TEK's relevance to environmental health research. This article provides examples of successful application of TEK principles in federally funded research when implemented with respect for the underlying cultural context and in partnership with Indigenous communities. Rather than treating TEK as an adjunct or element to be quantified or incorporated into Western scientific studies, TEK can instead ground our understanding of the environmental, social, and biomedical determinants of health and improve our understanding of health and disease. This article provides historical and recent examples of how TEK has informed Western scientific research. This article provides recommendations for researchers and federal funders to ensure respect for the contributions of TEK to research and to ensure equity and self-determination for Tribal nations who participate in research. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP858.

  19. Citation Analysis for Biomedical and Health Sciences Journals Published in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Juyeon; Chang, Hyejung; Kim, Jung A; Choi, Mona; Park, Ziyoung; Cho, Yoonhee; Lee, Eun-Gyu

    2017-07-01

    A citation analysis of biomedical and health sciences journals was conducted based on their enlistment in journal databases to identify the factors contributing to the citation metrics. Among the 1,219 academic journals managed by the National Center for Medical Information and Knowledge at the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 556 journals were included for analysis as of July 2016. The characteristics of the journals include history years, publication media, language, open-access policy as well as the status enlisted in international and domestic databases, such as Science Citation Index (SCI), Scopus, Medline, PubMed Central, Embase, and Korea Citation Index (KCI). Six bibliometric measures were collected from SCI, Scopus, and KCI as of 2015, the most recent disclosure year. Analyses of group differences and influential factors were conducted using t -tests, Mann-Whitney tests, and multiple regression. Journal characteristics, such as history years, publication media, and open-access policy, were not significant factors influencing global or domestical citation of the journals. However, global citations were higher for SCI and Medline enlisted journals than for their counterparts. Among KCI journals, the KCI impact factors of journals published in English only were lower. Efforts by journals to be enlisted in international databases, especially in SCI and Medline, are critical to enhance their global circulation. However, articles published in English only hinder the use of domestic researchers. Different strategies are required for enhancing international and domestic readerships.

  20. Basic and applied life science extended by neutron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Kataoka, Mikio

    2017-01-01

    Life science is expected to be one of the major subjects of neutron research. The quantum beam properties of neutron, isotope effect and inelastic/quasi-elastic scattering are useful for studying crystal structures, solution structures and dynamic structures of biomolecules. Research on physical properties of biological materials by inelastic scattering is promising as applied research such as food science. The high-intensity pulse neutrons realized by the accelerator not only has developed the life science research so far, but also is opening a gate to the academic field which has never been used before. (author)

  1. Basic science and energy research sector profile: Background for the National Energy Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    March, F.; Ashton, W.B.; Kinzey, B.R.; McDonald, S.C.; Lee, V.E.

    1990-11-01

    This Profile report provides a general perspective on the role of basic science in the spectrum of research and development in the United States, and basic research's contributions to the goals of the National Energy Strategy (NES). It includes selected facts, figures, and analysis of strategic issues affecting the future of science in the United States. It is provided as background for people from government, the private sector, academia, and the public, who will be reviewing the NES in the coming months; and it is intended to serve as the basis for discussion of basic science issues within the context of the developing NES.

  2. Programmatic Efforts at the National Institutes of Health to Promote and Support the Careers of Women in Biomedical Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plank-Bazinet, Jennifer L; Bunker Whittington, Kjersten; Cassidy, Sara K B; Filart, Rosemarie; Cornelison, Terri L; Begg, Lisa; Austin Clayton, Janine

    2016-08-01

    Although women have reached parity at the training level in the biological sciences and medicine, they are still significantly underrepresented in the professoriate and in mid- and senior-level life science positions. Considerable effort has been devoted by individuals and organizations across science sectors to understanding this disparity and to developing interventions in support of women's career development. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) formed the Office of Research on Women's Health (ORWH) in 1990 with the goals of supporting initiatives to improve women's health and providing opportunities and support for the recruitment, retention, reentry, and sustained advancement of women in biomedical careers. Here, the authors review several accomplishments and flagship activities initiated by the NIH and ORWH in support of women's career development during this time. These include programming to support researchers returning to the workforce after a period away (Research Supplements to Promote Reentry into Biomedical and Behavioral Research Careers), career development awards made through the Building Interdisciplinary Research Careers in Women's Health program, and trans-NIH involvement and activities stemming from the NIH Working Group on Women in Biomedical Careers. These innovative programs have contributed to advancement of women by supporting the professional and personal needs of women in science. The authors discuss the unique opportunities that accompany NIH partnerships with the scientific community, and conclude with a summary of the impact of these programs on women in science.

  3. Basic training in mathematics a fitness program for science students

    CERN Document Server

    Shankar, R

    1995-01-01

    Based on course material used by the author at Yale University, this practical text addresses the widening gap found between the mathematics required for upper-level courses in the physical sciences and the knowledge of incoming students This superb book offers students an excellent opportunity to strengthen their mathematical skills by solving various problems in differential calculus By covering material in its simplest form, students can look forward to a smooth entry into any course in the physical sciences

  4. Using Soils to Teach Basic Concepts in Science and Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindbo, David L.; Kozlowski, Deborah; Robinson, Clay; Chapman, Susan

    2014-05-01

    Teaching primary and secondary school students (K-12) about science and art, although absolutely critical, can be difficult. Teachers have specific standards or subject matters that they are required to cover and often soils and soil science is not included in that list. We have struggled with ways to bring soil science information to the larger audience as the direct approach meets with resistance due to the time commitments to other standards. Our approach now is to use soils as a media or vehicle to teach key concepts in broad subject areas. We have developed several lesson plans in science, geography, math and art that focus on a concept but use soils to convey it. For example students make "mini" monoliths of a state soil. During this exercise students need to use skills in geography to find where their state soil occurs in their state and in the country. They need to understand colors in order to choose the correct colors to use to make their monolith. Finally, they must understand how scales work in order to make the monolith accurate in terms of horizon depths. Throughout the exercise discussion on my certain colors occur in the soil can be discussed. This discussion can lead to a qualitative understanding of chemistry and biology. This presentation will demonstrate this lesson and several others that have been developed and available through the Soil Science Society of America's K12 Education Committee.

  5. Proceedings of the meeting and scientific presentations on basic science research and nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prayitno; Slamet Santosa; Darsono; Syarip; Agus Taftazani; Samin; Tri Mardji Atmono; Dwi Biyantoro; Herry Poernomo; Prajitno; Tjipto Sujitno; Gede Sutresna W; Djoko Slamet Pujorahardjo; Budi Setiawan; Bambang Siswanto; Endro Kismolo; Jumari

    2016-08-01

    The Proceedings of the Meeting and Scientific Presentations on Basic Science Research and Nuclear Technology by Center for Accelerator Science and Technology in Yogyakarta with the theme of Universities and research and development institutions synergy in the development of basic science and nuclear technology held on Surakarta 9 August 2016. This seminar is an annual routine activities of Center for Accelerator Science and Technology for exchange research result among University and BATAN researcher for using nuclear technology. The proceeding consist of 3 article from keynotes’ speaker and 37 articles from BATAN participant as well as outside which have been indexed separately. (MPN)

  6. Disaster Relief and Emergency Medical Services Project (DREAMS TM): Clinical and Basic Science Projects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Casscells, Ward

    1999-01-01

    DREAMS clinical and basic science projects complement the digital EMS effort by investigating the mechanisms of tissue injury in order to minimize the mortality and mortality of trauma and "natural...

  7. Compliance with National Ethics Requirements for Human-Subject Research in Non-biomedical Sciences in Brazil: A Changing Culture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Albuquerque Rocha, Karina; Vasconcelos, Sonia M R

    2018-02-06

    Ethics regulation for human-subject research (HSR) has been established for about 20 years in Brazil. However, compliance with this regulation is controversial for non-biomedical sciences, particularly for human and social sciences (HSS), the source of a recent debate at the National Commission for Research Ethics. We hypothesized that for these fields, formal requirements for compliance with HSR regulation in graduate programs, responsible for the greatest share of Brazilian science, would be small in number. We analyzed institutional documents (collected from June 2014 to May 2015) from 171 graduate programs at six prestigious Brazilian universities in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, the states that fund most of the science conducted in Brazil. Among these programs, 149 were in HSS. The results suggest that non-compliance with standard regulation seems to be the rule in most of these programs. The data may reflect not only a resistance from scientists in these fields to comply with standard regulations for ethics in HSR but also a disciplinary tradition that seems prevalent when it comes to research ethics in HSR. However, recent encounters between Brazilian biomedical and non-biomedical scientists for debates over ethics in HSR point to a changing culture in the approach to research ethics in the country.

  8. Computer literacy and E-learning perception in Cameroon: the case of Yaounde Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bediang, Georges; Stoll, Beat; Geissbuhler, Antoine; Klohn, Axel M; Stuckelberger, Astrid; Nko'o, Samuel; Chastonay, Philippe

    2013-04-19

    Health science education faces numerous challenges: assimilation of knowledge, management of increasing numbers of learners or changes in educational models and methodologies. With the emergence of e-learning, the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) and Internet to improve teaching and learning in health science training institutions has become a crucial issue for low and middle income countries, including sub-Saharan Africa. In this perspective, the Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences (FMBS) of Yaoundé has played a pioneering role in Cameroon in making significant efforts to improve students' and lecturers' access to computers and to Internet on its campus.The objective is to investigate how computer literacy and the perception towards e-learning and its potential could contribute to the learning and teaching process within the FMBS academic community. A cross-sectional survey was carried out among students, residents and lecturers. The data was gathered through a written questionnaire distributed at FMBS campus and analysed with routine statistical software. 307 participants answered the questionnaire: 218 students, 57 residents and 32 lecturers. Results show that most students, residents and lecturers have access to computers and Internet, although students' access is mainly at home for computers and at cyber cafés for Internet. Most of the participants have a fairly good mastery of ICT. However, some basic rules of good practices concerning the use of ICT in the health domain were still not well known. Google is the most frequently used engine to retrieve health literature for all participants; only 7% of students and 16% of residents have heard about Medical Subject Headings (MeSH).The potential of e-learning in the improvement of teaching and learning still remains insufficiently exploited. About two thirds of the students are not familiar with the concept of e-leaning. 84% of students and 58% of residents had never had access to

  9. Computer literacy and E-learning perception in Cameroon: the case of Yaounde Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Health science education faces numerous challenges: assimilation of knowledge, management of increasing numbers of learners or changes in educational models and methodologies. With the emergence of e-learning, the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) and Internet to improve teaching and learning in health science training institutions has become a crucial issue for low and middle income countries, including sub-Saharan Africa. In this perspective, the Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences (FMBS) of Yaoundé has played a pioneering role in Cameroon in making significant efforts to improve students’ and lecturers’ access to computers and to Internet on its campus. The objective is to investigate how computer literacy and the perception towards e-learning and its potential could contribute to the learning and teaching process within the FMBS academic community. Method A cross-sectional survey was carried out among students, residents and lecturers. The data was gathered through a written questionnaire distributed at FMBS campus and analysed with routine statistical software. Results 307 participants answered the questionnaire: 218 students, 57 residents and 32 lecturers. Results show that most students, residents and lecturers have access to computers and Internet, although students’ access is mainly at home for computers and at cyber cafés for Internet. Most of the participants have a fairly good mastery of ICT. However, some basic rules of good practices concerning the use of ICT in the health domain were still not well known. Google is the most frequently used engine to retrieve health literature for all participants; only 7% of students and 16% of residents have heard about Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). The potential of e-learning in the improvement of teaching and learning still remains insufficiently exploited. About two thirds of the students are not familiar with the concept of e-leaning. 84% of students and 58% of

  10. Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the journal shall be the advancement of science in all its aspects of theory, principles, methodology and practice, with emphasis on areas of common interest to all scientists. Papers for the Journal are to be original contribution. The authors are entirely responsible for the accuracy of data and statements.

  11. Using Role Play to Teach Overpopulation to Basic Science Students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRREV STECH: An International Journal of Science and Technology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 4, No 1 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  12. Handbook of Coherent-Domain Optical Methods Biomedical Diagnostics, Environmental Monitoring, and Materials Science

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This Handbook provides comprehensive coverage of laser and coherent-domain methods as applied to biomedicine, environmental monitoring, and materials science. Worldwide leaders in these fields describe the fundamentals of light interaction with random media and present an overview of basic research. The latest results on coherent and polarization properties of light scattered by random media, including tissues and blood, speckles formation in multiple scattering media, and other non-destructive interactions of coherent light with rough surfaces and tissues, allow the reader to understand the principles and applications of coherent diagnostic techniques. The expanded second edition has been thoroughly updated with particular emphasis on novel coherent-domain techniques and their applications in medicine and environmental science. Volume 1 describes state-of-the-art methods of coherent and polarization optical imaging, tomography and spectroscopy; diffusion wave spectroscopy; elastic, quasi-elastic and inelasti...

  13. Bridging between basic medical science and clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakir Mehić

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Translating the extraordinary scientific and technological advances from the biomedical research laboratory into actual patient care practices and other processes aimed at promoting health has been a major challenge, particularly for patients in community settings. Because of that the increased participation of clinicians from primary health care in clinical research would have a number of benefits. As experts in the delivery of clinical care in one society, they have much to contribute providing health care for patients in the whole spectrum of illnesses1. They are among the first to recognize changes in patients’ which come us as result of disease and conditions associated with demographic shiftings. Very often these are unexpected events such as trauma, natural disasters, pandemic infections, etc. They are also directly in contact with the policy-related matters (e.g., health consequences associated with increase in price of medications or the clinical consequences of war, such as the rapid increase in the number of individuals with prosthetic limbs and post traumatic stress syndrome2. Finally, participation in clinical research would benefit clinicians from primary health care in more ways, such as: contributing the mission of medicine and improving the scientific basis for medical practice; allowing clinicians to stay with new innovations ie. the development up to-date of information systems to improve data-gathering associated with the research3.A major goal is the development of teams of investigators from various research disciplines, is to turm the scientific discoveries from the laboratories into treatments and strategies for patients in communities. However, even with that introduction only a small part of the community will provide participation in clinical research. The barriers for this in USA recognised from clinicians community and showed in down table4.

  14. Handbook of photonics for biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Donghyun; Somekh, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Nanophotonics has emerged rapidly into technological mainstream with the advent and maturity of nanotechnology available in photonics and enabled many new exciting applications in the area of biomedical science and engineering that were unimagined even a few years ago with conventional photonic engineering techniques. Handbook of Nanophotonics in Biomedical Engineering is intended to be a reliable resource to a wealth of information on nanophotonics that can inspire readers by detailing emerging and established possibilities of nanophotonics in biomedical science and engineering applications. This comprehensive reference presents not only the basics of nanophotonics but also explores recent experimental and clinical methods used in biomedical and bioengineering research. Each peer-reviewed chapter of this book discusses fundamental aspects and materials/fabrication issues of nanophotonics, as well as applications in interfaces, cell, tissue, animal studies, and clinical engineering. The organization provides ...

  15. Integration of Basic and Clinical Sciences: Faculty Perspectives at a U.S. Dental School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hoeven, Dharini; van der Hoeven, Ransome; Zhu, Liang; Busaidy, Kamal; Quock, Ryan L

    2018-04-01

    Although dental education has traditionally been organized into basic sciences education (first and second years) and clinical education (third and fourth years), there has been growing interest in ways to better integrate the two to more effectively educate students and prepare them for practice. Since 2012, The University of Texas School of Dentistry at Houston (UTSD) has made it a priority to improve integration of basic and clinical sciences, with a focus to this point on integrating the basic sciences. The aim of this study was to determine the perspectives of basic and clinical science faculty members regarding basic and clinical sciences integration and the degree of integration currently occurring. In October 2016, all 227 faculty members (15 basic scientists and 212 clinicians) were invited to participate in an online survey. Of the 212 clinicians, 84 completed the clinician educator survey (response rate 40%). All 15 basic scientists completed the basic science educator survey (response rate 100%). The majority of basic and clinical respondents affirmed the value of integration (93.3%, 97.6%, respectively) and reported regular integration in their teaching (80%, 86.9%). There were no significant differences between basic scientists and clinicians on perceived importance (p=0.457) and comfort with integration (p=0.240), but the basic scientists were more likely to integrate (p=0.039) and collaborate (p=0.021) than the clinicians. There were no significant differences between generalist and specialist clinicians on importance (p=0.474) and degree (p=0.972) of integration in teaching and intent to collaborate (p=0.864), but the specialists reported feeling more comfortable presenting basic science information (p=0.033). Protected faculty time for collaborative efforts and a repository of integrated basic science and clinical examples for use in teaching and faculty development were recommended to improve integration. Although questions might be raised about

  16. Biomedical Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Suh, Sang C; Tanik, Murat M

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical Engineering: Health Care Systems, Technology and Techniques is an edited volume with contributions from world experts. It provides readers with unique contributions related to current research and future healthcare systems. Practitioners and researchers focused on computer science, bioinformatics, engineering and medicine will find this book a valuable reference.

  17. Low statistical power in biomedical science: a review of three human research domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas-Mallet, Estelle; Button, Katherine S.; Boraud, Thomas; Gonon, Francois

    2017-01-01

    Studies with low statistical power increase the likelihood that a statistically significant finding represents a false positive result. We conducted a review of meta-analyses of studies investigating the association of biological, environmental or cognitive parameters with neurological, psychiatric and somatic diseases, excluding treatment studies, in order to estimate the average statistical power across these domains. Taking the effect size indicated by a meta-analysis as the best estimate of the likely true effect size, and assuming a threshold for declaring statistical significance of 5%, we found that approximately 50% of studies have statistical power in the 0–10% or 11–20% range, well below the minimum of 80% that is often considered conventional. Studies with low statistical power appear to be common in the biomedical sciences, at least in the specific subject areas captured by our search strategy. However, we also observe evidence that this depends in part on research methodology, with candidate gene studies showing very low average power and studies using cognitive/behavioural measures showing high average power. This warrants further investigation. PMID:28386409

  18. An Overview of SBIR Phase 2 Physical Sciences and Biomedical Technologies in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.

    2015-01-01

    Technological innovation is the overall focus of NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The program invests in the development of innovative concepts and technologies to help NASA's mission directorates address critical research and development needs for agency projects. This report highlights innovative SBIR Phase II projects from 2007-2012 specifically addressing areas in physical sciences and biomedical technologies in space, which is one of six core competencies at NASA Glenn Research Center. There are twenty two technologies featured with emphasis on a wide spectrum of applications such as reusable handheld electrolyte, sensor for bone markers, wideband single crystal transducer, mini treadmill for musculoskeletal, and much more. Each article in this report describes an innovation, technical objective, and highlights NASA commercial and industrial applications. This report serves as an opportunity for NASA personnel including engineers, researchers, and program managers to learn of NASA SBIR's capabilities that might be crosscutting into this technology area. As the result, it would cause collaborations and partnerships between the small companies and NASA Programs and Projects resulting in benefit to both SBIR companies and NASA.

  19. Translations on USSR Science and Technology, Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences, Number 45, Effects of Nonionizing Electromagnetic Radiation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1978-01-01

    ... Tropicalis Culture, Biomedical Effects of Millimeter Radio Waves, New Scientific Branch Established for Electromagnetic Hygiene Study, The Combined Effect of an SHF Field and an Unfavorable, and Microclimate...

  20. An Analysison Provincial Medical Science Basic Research Competitiveness Based on the National Natural Science Foundation of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Xia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available [Purpose/significance] The National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC is one of the most important channels to support basic research in China. Competition for funding by the NSFC has been a very important indicator to measure the basic research level of various province and scientific research institutions. [Method/process] By combing and analyzing the status quo of NSFC in medical science, it is helpful to narrow the provincial gap and improve the basic research of medical science in China. Based on the project information of NSFC and previous scholars’ research, the paper update the index of basic research competitiveness, and analyzes project number and project funding of medical science during 2006-2016. At the same time, the competitiveness of medical science basic research and its changing trend in 31 provinces of China are analyzed. [Result/conclusion] The result shows that, in recent years, China’s basic scientific research has greatly improved, but there is a large gap between the provinces.

  1. Development of Biomedical Polymer-Silicate Nanocomposites: A Materials Science Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Jung Wu

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Biomedical polymer-silicate nanocomposites have potential to become critically important to the development of biomedical applications, ranging from diagnostic and therapeutic devices, tissue regeneration and drug delivery matrixes to various bio-technologies that are inspired by biology but have only indirect biomedical relation. The fundamental understanding of polymer-nanoparticle interactions is absolutely necessary to control structure-property relationships of materials that need to work within the chemical, physical and biological constraints required by an application. This review summarizes the most recent published strategies to design and develop polymer-silicate nanocomposites (including clay based silicate nanoparticles and bioactive glass nanoparticles for a variety of biomedical applications. Emerging trends in bio-technological and biomedical nanocomposites are highlighted and potential new fields of applications are examined.

  2. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1994 to the DOE Office of Energy Research Part 1: Biomedical sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.F.

    1995-04-01

    Research in the biomedical sciences at PNL is described. Activities reported include: inhaled plutonium in dogs; national radiobiology archives; statistical analysis of data from animal studies; genotoxicity of inhaled energy effluents; molecular events during tumor initiation; biochemistry of free radical induced DNA damage; radon hazards in homes; mechanisms of radon injury; genetics of radon induced lung cancer; and in vivo/in vitro radon induced cellular damage.

  3. Development and Validation of a Project Package for Junior Secondary School Basic Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udofia, Nsikak-Abasi

    2014-01-01

    This was a Research and Developmental study designed to develop and validate projects for Junior Secondary School Basic Science instruction and evaluation. The projects were developed using the project blueprint and sent for validation by experts in science education and measurement and evaluation; using a project validation scale. They were to…

  4. How can we improve Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math education to encourage careers in Biomedical and Pathology Informatics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppal, Rahul; Mandava, Gunasheil; Romagnoli, Katrina M; King, Andrew J; Draper, Amie J; Handen, Adam L; Fisher, Arielle M; Becich, Michael J; Dutta-Moscato, Joyeeta

    2016-01-01

    The Computer Science, Biology, and Biomedical Informatics (CoSBBI) program was initiated in 2011 to expose the critical role of informatics in biomedicine to talented high school students.[1] By involving them in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) training at the high school level and providing mentorship and research opportunities throughout the formative years of their education, CoSBBI creates a research infrastructure designed to develop young informaticians. Our central premise is that the trajectory necessary to be an expert in the emerging fields of biomedical informatics and pathology informatics requires accelerated learning at an early age.In our 4(th) year of CoSBBI as a part of the University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute (UPCI) Academy (http://www.upci.upmc.edu/summeracademy/), and our 2nd year of CoSBBI as an independent informatics-based academy, we enhanced our classroom curriculum, added hands-on computer science instruction, and expanded research projects to include clinical informatics. We also conducted a qualitative evaluation of the program to identify areas that need improvement in order to achieve our goal of creating a pipeline of exceptionally well-trained applicants for both the disciplines of pathology informatics and biomedical informatics in the era of big data and personalized medicine.

  5. Multiple choice questions are superior to extended matching questions to identify medicine and biomedical sciences students who perform poorly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eijsvogels, Thijs M H; van den Brand, Tessa L; Hopman, Maria T E

    2013-11-01

    In recent years, medical faculties at Dutch universities have implemented a legally binding study advice to students of medicine and biomedical sciences during their propaedeutic phase. Appropriate examination is essential to discriminate between poor (grade age and examination preference on this score. Data were collected for 452 first-year medical and biomedical science students during three distinct course examinations: one examination with EMQ only, one with MCQ only and one mixed examination (including EMQ and MCQ). Logistic regression analysis revealed that MCQ examination was 3 times better in identifying poor students compared with EMQ (RR 3.0, CI 2.0-4.5), whereas EMQ better detected excellent students (average grade ≥8) (RR 1.93, CI 1.47-2.53). Mixed examination had comparable characteristics to MCQ. Sex and examination preference did not impact the score of the student. Students ≥20 years had a 4-fold higher risk ratio of obtaining a poor grade (<6) compared with students ≤18 years old (RR 4.1, CI 2.1-8.0). Given the strong discriminative capacity of MCQ examinations to identify poor students, we recommend the use of this type of examination during the propaedeutic phase of medicine and biomedical science study programmes, in the light of the binding study advice.

  6. Why Flies? Inexpensive Public Engagement Exercises to Explain the Value of Basic Biomedical Research on "Drosophila melanogaster"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulver, Stefan R.; Cognigni, Paola; Denholm, Barry; Fabre, Caroline; Gu, Wendy X. W.; Linneweber, Gerit; Prieto-Godino, Lucia; Urbancic, Vasja; Zwart, Maarten; Miguel-Aliaga, Irene

    2011-01-01

    Invertebrate model organisms are powerful systems for uncovering conserved principles of animal biology. Despite widespread use in scientific communities, invertebrate research is often severely undervalued by laypeople. Here, we present a set of simple, inexpensive public outreach exercises aimed at explaining to the public why basic research on…

  7. Information sources in biomedical science and medical journalism: methodological approaches and assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Giovanna F; Vercellesi, Luisa; Bruno, Flavia

    2004-09-01

    Throughout the world the public is showing increasing interest in medical and scientific subjects and journalists largely spread this information, with an important impact on knowledge and health. Clearly, therefore, the relationship between the journalist and his sources is delicate: freedom and independence of information depend on the independence and truthfulness of the sources. The new "precision journalism" holds that scientific methods should be applied to journalism, so authoritative sources are a common need for journalists and scientists. We therefore compared the individual classifications and methods of assessing of sources in biomedical science and medical journalism to try to extrapolate scientific methods of evaluation to journalism. In journalism and science terms used to classify sources of information show some similarities, but their meanings are different. In science primary and secondary classes of information, for instance, refer to the levels of processing, but in journalism to the official nature of the source itself. Scientists and journalists must both always consult as many sources as possible and check their authoritativeness, reliability, completeness, up-to-dateness and balance. In journalism, however, there are some important differences and limits: too many sources can sometimes diminish the quality of the information. The sources serve a first filter between the event and the journalist, who is not providing the reader with the fact, but with its projection. Journalists have time constraints and lack the objective criteria for searching, the specific background knowledge, and the expertise to fully assess sources. To assist in understanding the wealth of sources of information in journalism, we have prepared a checklist of items and questions. There are at least four fundamental points that a good journalist, like any scientist, should know: how to find the latest information (the sources), how to assess it (the quality and

  8. Trends in Basic Sciences Education in Dental Schools, 1999-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, Marilyn S; Shuler, Charles F

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine data published over the past two decades to identify trends in the basic sciences curriculum in dental education, provide an analysis of those trends, and compare them with trends in the basic sciences curriculum in medical education. Data published from the American Dental Association (ADA) Surveys of Dental Education, American Dental Education Association (ADEA) Surveys of Dental School Seniors, and two additional surveys were examined. In large part, survey data collected focused on the structure, content, and instructional strategies used in dental education: what was taught and how. Great variability was noted in the total clock hours of instruction and the clock hours of basic sciences instruction reported by dental schools. Moreover, the participation of medical schools in the basic sciences education of dental students appears to have decreased dramatically over the past decade. Although modest progress has been made in implementing some of the curriculum changes recommended in the 1995 Institute of Medicine report such as integrated basic and clinical sciences curricula, adoption of active learning methods, and closer engagement with medical and other health professions education programs, educational effectiveness studies needed to generate data to support evidence-based approaches to curriculum reform are lacking. Overall, trends in the basic sciences curriculum in medical education were similar to those for dental education. Potential drivers of curriculum change were identified, as was recent work in other fields that should encourage reconsideration of dentistry's approach to basic sciences education. This article was written as part of the project "Advancing Dental Education in the 21st Century."

  9. Integrated online formative assessments in the biomedical sciences for medical students: benefits for learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velan, Gary M; Jones, Philip; McNeil, H Patrick; Kumar, Rakesh K

    2008-11-25

    Online formative assessments have a sound theoretical basis, and are prevalent and popular in higher education settings, but data to establish their educational benefits are lacking. This study attempts to determine whether participation and performance in integrated online formative assessments in the biomedical sciences has measurable effects on learning by junior medical students. Students enrolled in Phase 1 (Years 1 and 2) of an undergraduate Medicine program were studied over two consecutive years, 2006 and 2007. In seven consecutive courses, end-of-course (EOC) summative examination marks were analysed with respect to the effect of participation and performance in voluntary online formative assessments. Online evaluation surveys were utilized to gather students' perceptions regarding online formative assessments. Students rated online assessments highly on all measures. Participation in formative assessments had a statistically significant positive relationship with EOC marks in all courses. The mean difference in EOC marks for those who participated in formative assessments ranged from 6.3% (95% confidence intervals 1.6 to 11.0; p = 0.009) in Course 5 to 3.2% (0.2 to 6.2; p = 0.037) in Course 2. For all courses, performance in formative assessments correlated significantly with EOC marks (p course). The variance in EOC marks that could be explained by performance in the formative assessments ranged from 21.8% in Course 6 to 4.1% in Course 7. The results support the contention that well designed formative assessments can have significant positive effects on learning. There is untapped potential for use of formative assessments to assist learning by medical students and postgraduate medical trainees.

  10. What's hot, what's new at WTC--basic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromberg, J S

    2015-02-01

    The World Transplant Congress of 2014 presented a broad swath of science that touched on many disparate aspects of cell and organ transplantation, molecular and cellular immunology, systems biology, development, technology and translation into humans. A number of themes emerged this year. B cell biology and antibody chemistry were prominent, as they have been for several years. T cells, co-stimulatory blockade and regulatory T cells continue to dominate many aspects of immune research. Many new aspects of monocyte, macrophage, NK cell and NK T cell development, biology and regulation are now being explored. Diverse aspects of organ injury and the acute and chronic responses to injury are being investigated with new techniques, new targets and a resurgent vigor. Novel advances in xenotransplantation and experimental tolerance garnered much attention. Newer investigations in microbiota and nanotechnology promise significant gains in the near future. Lastly the 'omics of DNA, RNA, proteins, metabolites, bacteria and enzyme actions promise new understanding in biological systems and how to control those systems. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  11. User Facilities of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences: A National Resource for Scientific Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-01-01

    The BES user facilities provide open access to specialized instrumentation and expertise that enable scientific users from universities, national laboratories, and industry to carry out experiments and develop theories that could not be done at their home institutions. These forefront research facilities require resource commitments well beyond the scope of any non-government institution and open up otherwise inaccessible facets of Nature to scientific inquiry. For approved, peer-reviewed projects, instrument time is available without charge to researchers who intend to publish their results in the open literature. These large-scale user facilities have made significant contributions to various scientific fields, including chemistry, physics, geology, materials science, environmental science, biology, and biomedical science. Over 16,000 scientists and engineers.pdf file (27KB) conduct experiments at BES user facilities annually. Thousands of other researchers collaborate with these users and analyze the data measured at the facilities to publish new scientific findings in peer-reviewed journals.

  12. Educational Status of Dental Basic Science Course and its Correlation with Students' Educational Background in Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozafar Khazaei

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Basic science course plays a pivotal role in the academic achievement of the students. The scientific background and educational performance of the students are also influential in this period. The aim of the present study was to investigate the educational status of dental basic science course in the first three admissions (2009-2011 and its association with students’ educational background in Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences (KUMS. Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, all dental students admitted to school of dentistry in 2009-2011 years were included. The students’ academic background (scores, grade point average, score of comprehensive basic sciences examination (CBSE were recorded. Data were analyzed by SPSS 16 using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and independent t-test. Results: Kermanshah dental students admitted to university in 2009-2011 were mostly female (59.2%, belonged to regions 2 and 3 (81.6% of university entrance exam, had sciences diploma (89.8% and their grade point average of diploma was nearly 18. There was a significant difference between the three groups of students admitted to university in Biology, Chemistry, Mathematics, Arabic, English language and Theology lessones of entrane exam (P<0.05. The students’ failure rate was 1.5% in university coureses. They all (100% passed CBSE and were ranked second nationally in the year. There was no significant difference between male and female students in terms of age, diploma grade point average, grade point average of basic sciences and score of CBSE. Conclusion: Basic science courses of dentistry in Kermanshah enjoyed a rather constant status and students had a good academic level in these courses.

  13. Systematic Approach to Remediation in Basic Science Knowledge for Preclinical Students: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amara, Francis

    Remediation of pre-clerkship students for deficits in basic science knowledge should help them overcome their learning deficiencies prior to clerkship. However, very little is known about remediation in basic science knowledge during pre-clerkship. This study utilized the program theory framework to collect and organize mixed methods data of the remediation plan for pre-clerkship students who failed their basic science cognitive examinations in a Canadian medical school. This plan was analyzed using a logic model narrative approach and compared to literature on the learning theories. The analysis showed a remediation plan that was strong on governance and verification of scores, but lacked: clarity and transparency of communication, qualified remedial tutors, individualized diagnosis of learner's deficits, and student centered learning. Participants admitted uncertainty about the efficacy of the remediation process. A remediation framework is proposed that includes student-centered participation, individualized learning plan and activities, deliberate practice, feedback, reflection, and rigorous reassessment.

  14. Information-seeking behavior of basic science researchers: implications for library services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Laura L; Light, Jeanene; O'Malley, Donna; Delwiche, Frances A

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the information-seeking behaviors of basic science researchers to inform the development of customized library services. A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews was conducted on a sample of basic science researchers employed at a university medical school. The basic science researchers used a variety of information resources ranging from popular Internet search engines to highly technical databases. They generally relied on basic keyword searching, using the simplest interface of a database or search engine. They were highly collegial, interacting primarily with coworkers in their laboratories and colleagues employed at other institutions. They made little use of traditional library services and instead performed many traditional library functions internally. Although the basic science researchers expressed a positive attitude toward the library, they did not view its resources or services as integral to their work. To maximize their use by researchers, library resources must be accessible via departmental websites. Use of library services may be increased by cultivating relationships with key departmental administrative personnel. Despite their self-sufficiency, subjects expressed a desire for centralized information about ongoing research on campus and shared resources, suggesting a role for the library in creating and managing an institutional repository.

  15. The basic science of dermal fillers: past and present Part I: background and mechanisms of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Erin; Hui, Andrea; Waldorf, Heidi A

    2012-09-01

    Dermal fillers have provided a safe and effective means for aesthetic soft tissue augmentation, and have experienced a dramatic increase in popularity during the past 10 years. Much focus has been placed upon filler technique and patient outcomes. However, there is a relative lack of literature reviewing the basic science of dermal fillers, which is vital to a physician's understanding of how each product behaves in vivo. Part I of this article reviews the basic science and evolution of both historical and contemporary dermal fillers; Part II examines their adverse effects. We endeavor to provide the physician with a practical approach to choosing products that maximize both aesthetic outcome and safety.

  16. Basic Definitions and Concepts of Systems Approach, Mathematical Modeling and Information Technologies in Sports Science

    OpenAIRE

    А. Лопатьєв; М. Пітин; А. Демічковський

    2017-01-01

    The objective is to systematize and adapt the basic definitions and concepts of the systems approach, mathematical modeling and information technologies to sports science. Materials and methods. The research has studied the availability of appropriate terms in shooting sports, which would meet the requirements of modern sports science. It has examined the compliance of the shooting sports training program for children and youth sports schools, the Olympic reserve specialized children and ...

  17. Relationship of biomedical science content acquisition performance to students' level of PBL group interaction: are students learning during PBL group?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romito, Laura M; Eckert, George J

    2011-05-01

    This study assessed biomedical science content acquisition from problem-based learning (PBL) and its relationship to students' level of group interaction. We hypothesized that learning in preparation for exams results primarily from individual study of post-case learning objectives and that outcomes would be unrelated to students' group involvement. During dental curricular years 1 and 2, student-generated biomedical learning issues (LIs) were identified from six randomly chosen PBL cases. Knowledge and application of case concepts were assessed with quizzes based on the identified LIs prior to dissemination of the learning objectives. Students and facilitators were surveyed on students' level of group involvement for the assessed LI topics. Year 1 students had significantly higher assessment scores (p=0.0001). For both student classes, means were significantly higher for the recall item (Q1) than for the application item (Q2). Q1 scores increased along with the student's reported role for Year 1 (p=0.04). However, there was no relationship between the student's reported role and Q1 for Year 2 (p=0.20). There was no relationship between the student's reported role and Q2 for Year 1 (p=0.09) or Year 2 (p=0.19). This suggests that students' level of group involvement on the biomedical learning issues did not significantly impact students' assessment performance.

  18. Basic research needs to assure a secure energy future. A report from the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2003-02-01

    This report has highlighted many of the possible fundamental research areas that will help our country avoid a future energy crisis. The report may not have adequately captured the atmosphere of concern that permeated the discussions at the workshop. The difficulties facing our nation and the world in meeting our energy needs over the next several decades are very challenging. It was generally felt that traditional solutions and approaches will not solve the total energy problem. Knowledge that does not exist must be obtained to address both the quantity of energy needed to increase the standard of living world-wide and the quality of energy generation needed to preserve the environment. In terms of investments, it was clear that there is no single research area that will secure the future energy supply. A diverse range of economic energy sources will be required--and a broad range of fundamental research is needed to enable these. Many of the issues fall into the traditional materials and chemical sciences research areas, but with specific emphasis on understanding mechanisms, energy related phenomena, and pursuing novel directions in, for example, nanoscience and integrated modeling. An important result from the discussions, which is hopefully apparent from the brief presentations above, is that the problems that must be dealt with are truly multidisciplinary. This means that they require the participation of investigators with different skill sets. Basic science skills have to be complemented by awareness of the overall nature of the problem in a national and world context, and with knowledge of the engineering, design, and control issues in any eventual solution. It is necessary to find ways in which this can be done while still preserving the ability to do first-class basic science. The traditional structure of research, with specific disciplinary groupings, will not be sufficient. This presents great challenges and opportunities for the funders of the

  19. Translating Basic Behavioral and Social Science Research to Clinical Application: The EVOLVE Mixed Methods Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Janey C.; Czajkowski, Susan; Charlson, Mary E.; Link, Alissa R.; Wells, Martin T.; Isen, Alice M.; Mancuso, Carol A.; Allegrante, John P.; Boutin-Foster, Carla; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Jobe, Jared B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To describe a mixed-methods approach to develop and test a basic behavioral science-informed intervention to motivate behavior change in 3 high-risk clinical populations. Our theoretically derived intervention comprised a combination of positive affect and self-affirmation (PA/SA), which we applied to 3 clinical chronic disease…

  20. Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences vol. 16 No. 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-12-02

    Dec 2, 2008 ... Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences vol. 16 No. ... Department of Chemistry, University of Abuja, FCT, Nigeria. [*Corresponding Author] .... compounds to form water insoluble complexes. (Chopra and Kanwar, 1991). The organic matter content can therefore increase or decrease the toxicity of ...

  1. Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences vol. 16 No. 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-12-02

    Dec 2, 2008 ... Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences vol. 16 No. 2 December 2008 243 - 247. 243. Analysis of Cowpea Production under the National Programme on ..... Elements of Applied Econometrics CARD,. Ibadan, Nigeria. Olukosi, J.O. and Ogunbgile, A. O. (1989). Introduction to Agricultural Production.

  2. A Mental Model of the Learner: Teaching the Basic Science of Educational Psychology to Future Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willingham, Daniel T.

    2017-01-01

    Although most teacher education programs include instruction in the basic science of psychology, practicing teachers report that this preparation has low utility. Researchers have considered what sort of information from psychology about children's thinking, emotion, and motivation would be useful for teachers' practice. Here, I take a different…

  3. Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences - Vol 24, No 2 (2016)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences - Vol 24, No 2 (2016). Journal Home ... J.O. Ehinmidu, 9-14. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/njbas.v24i2.2 ... Angular Spectral Analysis and Lowpass Filtering of Aeromagnetic Data Over Western Parts of Bornu Basin of Nigeria · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  4. 191 Students' Self-Concept and Their Achievement in Basic Science ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-07-21

    Jul 21, 2011 ... Abstract. The study investigated the relationship between students' self-concept and their academic performance in Basic Science. It further examines gender difference in students' performance. The study adopted ex-post factor research design and made use of 300 students all from Public Schools. The.

  5. Effects of Concept Mapping Instruction Approach on Students' Achievement in Basic Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogonnaya, Ukpai Patricia; Okafor, Gabriel; Abonyi, Okechukwu S.; Ugama, J. O.

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of concept mapping on students' achievement in basic science. The study was carried out in Ebonyi State of Nigeria. The study employed a quasi-experimental design. Specifically the pretest posttest non-equivalent control group research design was used. The sample was 122 students selected from two secondary…

  6. Biomedical applications engineering tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laenger, C. J., Sr.

    1976-01-01

    The engineering tasks performed in response to needs articulated by clinicians are described. Initial contacts were made with these clinician-technology requestors by the Southwest Research Institute NASA Biomedical Applications Team. The basic purpose of the program was to effectively transfer aerospace technology into functional hardware to solve real biomedical problems.

  7. Utilization and acceptance of virtual patients in veterinary basic sciences – the vetVIP-project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinsorgen, Christin; Kankofer, Marta; Gradzki, Zbigniew; Mandoki, Mira; Bartha, Tibor; von Köckritz-Blickwede, Maren; Naim, Hassan Y.; Beyerbach, Martin; Tipold, Andrea; Ehlers, Jan P.

    2017-01-01

    Context: In medical and veterinary medical education the use of problem-based and cased-based learning has steadily increased over time. At veterinary faculties, this development has mainly been evident in the clinical phase of the veterinary education. Therefore, a consortium of teachers of biochemistry and physiology together with technical and didactical experts launched the EU-funded project “vetVIP”, to create and implement veterinary virtual patients and problems for basic science instruction. In this study the implementation and utilization of virtual patients occurred at the veterinary faculties in Budapest, Hannover and Lublin. Methods: This report describes the investigation of the utilization and acceptance of students studying veterinary basic sciences using optional online learning material concurrently to regular biochemistry and physiology didactic instruction. The reaction of students towards this offer of clinical case-based learning in basic sciences was analysed using quantitative and qualitative data. Quantitative data were collected automatically within the chosen software-system CASUS as user-log-files. Responses regarding the quality of the virtual patients were obtained using an online questionnaire. Furthermore, subjective evaluation by authors was performed using a focus group discussion and an online questionnaire. Results: Implementation as well as usage and acceptance varied between the three participating locations. High approval was documented in Hannover and Lublin based upon the high proportion of voluntary students (>70%) using optional virtual patients. However, in Budapest the participation rate was below 1%. Due to utilization, students seem to prefer virtual patients and problems created in their native language and developed at their own university. In addition, the statement that assessment drives learning was supported by the observation that peak utilization was just prior to summative examinations. Conclusion

  8. Utilization and acceptance of virtual patients in veterinary basic sciences – the vetVIP-project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleinsorgen, Christin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Context: In medical and veterinary medical education the use of problem-based and cased-based learning has steadily increased over time. At veterinary faculties, this development has mainly been evident in the clinical phase of the veterinary education. Therefore, a consortium of teachers of biochemistry and physiology together with technical and didactical experts launched the EU-funded project “vetVIP”, to create and implement veterinary virtual patients and problems for basic science instruction. In this study the implementation and utilization of virtual patients occurred at the veterinary faculties in Budapest, Hannover and Lublin.Methods: This report describes the investigation of the utilization and acceptance of students studying veterinary basic sciences using optional online learning material concurrently to regular biochemistry and physiology didactic instruction. The reaction of students towards this offer of clinical case-based learning in basic sciences was analysed using quantitative and qualitative data. Quantitative data were collected automatically within the chosen software-system CASUS as user-log-files. Responses regarding the quality of the virtual patients were obtained using an online questionnaire. Furthermore, subjective evaluation by authors was performed using a focus group discussion and an online questionnaire.Results: Implementation as well as usage and acceptance varied between the three participating locations. High approval was documented in Hannover and Lublin based upon the high proportion of voluntary students (>70% using optional virtual patients. However, in Budapest the participation rate was below 1%. Due to utilization, students seem to prefer virtual patients and problems created in their native language and developed at their own university. In addition, the statement that assessment drives learning was supported by the observation that peak utilization was just prior to summative examinations

  9. Understanding public opinion in debates over biomedical research: looking beyond political partisanship to focus on beliefs about science and society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbet, Matthew; Markowitz, Ezra M

    2014-01-01

    As social scientists have investigated the political and social factors influencing public opinion in science-related policy debates, there has been growing interest in the implications of this research for public communication and outreach. Given the level of political polarization in the United States, much of the focus has been on partisan differences in public opinion, the strategies employed by political leaders and advocates that promote those differences, and the counter-strategies for overcoming them. Yet this focus on partisan differences tends to overlook the processes by which core beliefs about science and society impact public opinion and how these schema are often activated by specific frames of reference embedded in media coverage and popular discourse. In this study, analyzing cross-sectional, nationally representative survey data collected between 2002 and 2010, we investigate the relative influence of political partisanship and science-related schema on Americans' support for embryonic stem cell research. In comparison to the influence of partisan identity, our findings suggest that generalized beliefs about science and society were more chronically accessible, less volatile in relation to media attention and focusing events, and an overall stronger influence on public opinion. Classifying respondents into four unique audience groups based on their beliefs about science and society, we additionally find that individuals within each of these groups split relatively evenly by partisanship but differ on other important dimensions. The implications for public engagement and future research on controversies related to biomedical science are discussed.

  10. Basic Research Needs for Advanced Nuclear Systems. Report of the Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Basic Research Needs for Advanced Nuclear Energy Systems, July 31-August 3, 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberto, J.; Diaz de la Rubia, T.; Gibala, R.; Zinkle, S.; Miller, J.R.; Pimblott, S.; Burns, C.; Raymond, K.; Grimes, R.; Pasamehmetoglu, K.; Clark, S.; Ewing, R.; Wagner, A.; Yip, S.; Buchanan, M.; Crabtree, G.; Hemminger, J.; Poate, J.; Miller, J.C.; Edelstein, N.; Fitzsimmons, T.; Gruzalski, G.; Michaels, G.; Morss, L.; Peters, M.; Talamini, K.

    2006-10-01

    The global utilization of nuclear energy has come a long way from its humble beginnings in the first sustained nuclear reaction at the University of Chicago in 1942. Today, there are over 440 nuclear reactors in 31 countries producing approximately 16% of the electrical energy used worldwide. In the United States, 104 nuclear reactors currently provide 19% of electrical energy used nationally. The International Atomic Energy Agency projects significant growth in the utilization of nuclear power over the next several decades due to increasing demand for energy and environmental concerns related to emissions from fossil plants. There are 28 new nuclear plants currently under construction including 10 in China, 8 in India, and 4 in Russia. In the United States, there have been notifications to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission of intentions to apply for combined construction and operating licenses for 27 new units over the next decade. The projected growth in nuclear power has focused increasing attention on issues related to the permanent disposal of nuclear waste, the proliferation of nuclear weapons technologies and materials, and the sustainability of a once-through nuclear fuel cycle. In addition, the effective utilization of nuclear power will require continued improvements in nuclear technology, particularly related to safety and efficiency. In all of these areas, the performance of materials and chemical processes under extreme conditions is a limiting factor. The related basic research challenges represent some of the most demanding tests of our fundamental understanding of materials science and chemistry, and they provide significant opportunities for advancing basic science with broad impacts for nuclear reactor materials, fuels, waste forms, and separations techniques. Of particular importance is the role that new nanoscale characterization and computational tools can play in addressing these challenges. These tools, which include DOE synchrotron X

  11. Basic Research Needs for Advanced Nuclear Systems. Report of the Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Basic Research Needs for Advanced Nuclear Energy Systems, July 31-August 3, 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberto, J.; Diaz de la Rubia, T.; Gibala, R.; Zinkle, S.; Miller, J.R.; Pimblott, S.; Burns, C.; Raymond, K.; Grimes, R.; Pasamehmetoglu, K.; Clark, S.; Ewing, R.; Wagner, A.; Yip, S.; Buchanan, M.; Crabtree, G.; Hemminger, J.; Poate, J.; Miller, J.C.; Edelstein, N.; Fitzsimmons, T.; Gruzalski, G.; Michaels, G.; Morss, L.; Peters, M.; Talamini, K.

    2006-01-01

    The global utilization of nuclear energy has come a long way from its humble beginnings in the first sustained nuclear reaction at the University of Chicago in 1942. Today, there are over 440 nuclear reactors in 31 countries producing approximately 16% of the electrical energy used worldwide. In the United States, 104 nuclear reactors currently provide 19% of electrical energy used nationally. The International Atomic Energy Agency projects significant growth in the utilization of nuclear power over the next several decades due to increasing demand for energy and environmental concerns related to emissions from fossil plants. There are 28 new nuclear plants currently under construction including 10 in China, 8 in India, and 4 in Russia. In the United States, there have been notifications to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission of intentions to apply for combined construction and operating licenses for 27 new units over the next decade. The projected growth in nuclear power has focused increasing attention on issues related to the permanent disposal of nuclear waste, the proliferation of nuclear weapons technologies and materials, and the sustainability of a once-through nuclear fuel cycle. In addition, the effective utilization of nuclear power will require continued improvements in nuclear technology, particularly related to safety and efficiency. In all of these areas, the performance of materials and chemical processes under extreme conditions is a limiting factor. The related basic research challenges represent some of the most demanding tests of our fundamental understanding of materials science and chemistry, and they provide significant opportunities for advancing basic science with broad impacts for nuclear reactor materials, fuels, waste forms, and separations techniques. Of particular importance is the role that new nanoscale characterization and computational tools can play in addressing these challenges. These tools, which include DOE synchrotron X

  12. Ranking Iranian biomedical research centers according to H-variants (G, M, A, R) in Scopus and Web of Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmudi, Zoleikha; Tahamtan, Iman; Sedghi, Shahram; Roudbari, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a comprehensive bibliometrics analysis to calculate the H, G, M, A and R indicators for all Iranian biomedical research centers (IBRCs) from the output of ISI Web of Science (WoS) and Scopus between 1991 and 2010. We compared the research performance of the research centers according to these indicators. This was a cross-sectional and descriptive-analytical study, conducted on 104 Iranian biomedical research centers between August and September 2011. We collected our data through Scopus and WoS. Pearson correlation coefficient between the scientometrics indicators was calculated using SPSS, version 16. The mean values of all indicators were higher in Scopus than in WoS. Drug Applied Research Center of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences had the highest number of publications in both WoS and Scopus databases. This research center along with Royan Institute received the highest number of citations in both Scopus and WoS, respectively. The highest correlation was seen between G and R (.998) in WoS and between G and R (.990) in Scopus. Furthermore, the highest overlap of the 10 top IBRCs was between G and H in WoS (100%) and between G-R (90%) and H-R (90%) in Scopus. Research centers affiliated to the top ranked Iranian medical universities obtained a better position with respect to the studied scientometrics indicators. All aforementioned indicators are important for ranking bibliometrics studies as they refer to different attributes of scientific output and citation aspects.

  13. Evolution in health and medicine Sackler colloquium: Making evolutionary biology a basic science for medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesse, Randolph M; Bergstrom, Carl T; Ellison, Peter T; Flier, Jeffrey S; Gluckman, Peter; Govindaraju, Diddahally R; Niethammer, Dietrich; Omenn, Gilbert S; Perlman, Robert L; Schwartz, Mark D; Thomas, Mark G; Stearns, Stephen C; Valle, David

    2010-01-26

    New applications of evolutionary biology in medicine are being discovered at an accelerating rate, but few physicians have sufficient educational background to use them fully. This article summarizes suggestions from several groups that have considered how evolutionary biology can be useful in medicine, what physicians should learn about it, and when and how they should learn it. Our general conclusion is that evolutionary biology is a crucial basic science for medicine. In addition to looking at established evolutionary methods and topics, such as population genetics and pathogen evolution, we highlight questions about why natural selection leaves bodies vulnerable to disease. Knowledge about evolution provides physicians with an integrative framework that links otherwise disparate bits of knowledge. It replaces the prevalent view of bodies as machines with a biological view of bodies shaped by evolutionary processes. Like other basic sciences, evolutionary biology needs to be taught both before and during medical school. Most introductory biology courses are insufficient to establish competency in evolutionary biology. Premedical students need evolution courses, possibly ones that emphasize medically relevant aspects. In medical school, evolutionary biology should be taught as one of the basic medical sciences. This will require a course that reviews basic principles and specific medical applications, followed by an integrated presentation of evolutionary aspects that apply to each disease and organ system. Evolutionary biology is not just another topic vying for inclusion in the curriculum; it is an essential foundation for a biological understanding of health and disease.

  14. OPERANT CONDITIONING OF SPINAL REFLEXES:FROM BASIC SCIENCE TO CLINICAL THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiko K. Thompson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available New appreciation of the adaptive capabilities of the nervous system, recent recognition that most spinal cord injuries are incomplete, and progress in enabling regeneration are generating growing interest in novel rehabilitation therapies. Here we review the 35-year evolution of one promising new approach, operant conditioning of spinal reflexes. This work began in the late 1970’s as basic science; its purpose was to develop and exploit a uniquely accessible model for studying the acquisition and maintenance of a simple behavior in the mammalian CNS. The model was developed first in monkeys and then in rats, mice, and humans. Studies with it showed that the ostensibly simple behavior (i.e., a larger or smaller reflex rests on a complex hierarchy of brain and spinal cord plasticity; and current investigations are delineating this plasticity and its interactions with the plasticity that supports other behaviors. In the last decade, the possible therapeutic uses of reflex conditioning have come under study, first in rats and then in humans. The initial results are very exciting, and they are spurring further studies. At the same time, the original basic science purpose and the new clinical purpose are enabling and illuminating each other in unexpected ways. The long course and current state of this work illustrate the practical importance of basic research and the valuable synergy that can develop between basic science questions and clinical needs.

  15. Fundamental of biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sawhney, GS

    2007-01-01

    About the Book: A well set out textbook explains the fundamentals of biomedical engineering in the areas of biomechanics, biofluid flow, biomaterials, bioinstrumentation and use of computing in biomedical engineering. All these subjects form a basic part of an engineer''s education. The text is admirably suited to meet the needs of the students of mechanical engineering, opting for the elective of Biomedical Engineering. Coverage of bioinstrumentation, biomaterials and computing for biomedical engineers can meet the needs of the students of Electronic & Communication, Electronic & Instrumenta

  16. CBIOS Science Sessions - 2016 - Part I and III National Symposium on Nanoscience and Biomedical Nanotechnology - Proceedings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Monteiro Rodrigues, et al.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available CBiOS Science Sessions - 2016 – Part 1 New methods to explore efficacy and safety of natural origin products; Stefânia Duz Delsin Effectiveness of Hypopressive Exercises in women with pelvic floor dysfunctions; Beatriz Navarro Brazález Indoor air quality in baby rooms: a study about VOC levels; Raquel Rodrigues dos Santos, Ana Sofia Fernandes e Liliana Mendes A medicinal chemistry approach for the development of novel anti-tumor agentes; Maria M. M. Santos Isolation, modelling and phytosome forms of antibacterial and anti-proliferative compounds from Plectranthus spp; Diogo Matias Intellectual Property – Patenting Propriedade Intelectual – Patenteamento Rui Gomes Biomarkers in wastewater; Álvaro Lopes A Contribution for a Better Comprehension of Donkey Dentistry: the Importance of Dental Care; João Brandão Rodrigues Characterization of Lusitano’s Pure Blood Pressure Centers using two pressure plates; Pequito M.; Gomes-Costa M.; Prazeres J.; Bragança M.; Roupa I.; Fonseca R.G.; Abrantes J. Application of photoplethysmography to monitor heart rate in dogs; Rui Assunção, Henrique Silva, João Requicha, Luis Lobo, Luis Monteiro Rodrigues Looking into the oscillatory properties of the laser Doppler flowmetry signal in human microcirculation; Henrique Silva, Hugo Ferreira, Marie-Ange Renault, Alain-Pierre Gadeau, Julia Buján, LM Rodrigues III Symposium of Nanoscience and Biomedical Nanotechnology – Proceedings April 15/04/2016 Lisboa - Universidade Lusófona Honor Commitee /Comissão de Honra Magnífico Reitor da Universidade Lusófona, Mário Moutinho Presidente do Conselho de Administração da Universidade Lusófona, Manuel de Almeida Damásio Sr. Bastonário da Ordem dos Engenheiros, Carlos Matias Ramos Sr. Bastonário da Ordem dos Médicos, José Silva Vice-presidente do Conselho de Enfermagem, Maria José Costa Dias Presidente da Associação Nacional de Farmácias, Paulo Cleto Duarte Presidente da Sociedade Portuguesa de Ci

  17. Science and scientific literacy vs science and scientific awareness through basic physics lectures: A study of wish and reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusli, Aloysius

    2012-06-01

    Scientific literacy was already discussed in the 1950s, as a prerequisite for the general citizen in a world increasingly served and infused by science and technology: the so-called knowledge or learning society. This kind of literacy has been described in detail by Victor Showalter in 1975, expanded by others, and later defined succinctly by the OECD in 2003. As a complement, science literacy is described also by the National Science Digital Library (NSDL) as a content knowledge needed in setting up practical models for handling daily matters with science and engineering. These important and worthy aims were studied, and compared with reality and existing conditions. One hypothesis put forward and argued for is, that it is more realistic, considering existing trends, to aim for scientific and science awareness for the general student, while scientific and science literacy remain important and worthy aims for the common good of the global community, and important to be strived for by teachers, lecturers and intellectuals. The Basic Physics lectures can also lend themselves usefully for the more realistic aim, due to the science-based nature of the present knowledge society.

  18. Adult-Rated Oceanography Part 1: A Project Integrating Ocean Sciences into Adult Basic Education Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowles, S.; Collier, R.; Torres, M. K.

    2004-12-01

    Busy scientists seek opportunities to implement education and outreach efforts, but often don't know where to start. One easy and tested method is to form collaborations with federally-funded adult education and adult literacy programs. These programs exist in every U.S. state and territory and serve underrepresented populations through such major initiatives as adult basic education, adult secondary education (and GED preparation), and English language acquisition. These students are workers, consumers, voters, parents, grandparents, and members of every community. They have specific needs that are often overlooked in outreach activities. This presentation will describe the steps by which the Oregon Ocean Science and Math Collaborative program was developed. It is based on a partnership between the Oregon Department of Community Colleges and Workforce Development, Oregon State University College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon Sea Grant, and the OSU Hatfield Marine Science Center. It includes professional development through instructor institutes; teachers at sea and informal education opportunities; curriculum and web site development. Through the partnership described here, instructors in adult basic education programs participate in a yearlong experience in which they develop, test, and adapt innovative instructional strategies to meet the specific needs of adult learners. This, in turn, leads to new prospects for study in the areas of ocean science and math and introduces non-academic careers in marine science to a new community. Working directly with instructors, we have identified expertise level, instructional environment, instructor background and current teaching strategies used to address science literacy and numeracy goals of the adult learners in the State of Oregon. Preliminary evaluation of our ongoing project in meeting these goals will be discussed. These efforts contribute to national goals of science literacy for all, by providing

  19. The Translational Science Training Program at NIH: Introducing Early Career Researchers to the Science and Operation of Translation of Basic Research to Medical Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, C. Taylor; Sittampalam, G. Sitta; Wang, Philip Y.; Ryan, Philip E.

    2017-01-01

    Translational science is an emerging field that holds great promise to accelerate the development of novel medical interventions. As the field grows, so does the demand for highly trained biomedical scientists to fill the positions that are being created. Many graduate and postdoctorate training programs do not provide their trainees with…

  20. Defense, basic, and industrial research at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longshore, A.; Salgado, K. [comps.

    1995-10-01

    The Workshop on Defense, Basic, and Industrial Research at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center gathered scientists from Department of Energy national laboratories, other federal institutions, universities, and industry to discuss the use of neutrons in science-based stockpile stewardship, The workshop began with presentations by government officials, senior representatives from the three weapons laboratories, and scientific opinion leaders. Workshop participants then met in breakout sessions on the following topics: materials science and engineering; polymers, complex fluids, and biomaterials; fundamental neutron physics; applied nuclear physics; condensed matter physics and chemistry; and nuclear weapons research. They concluded that neutrons can play an essential role in science-based stockpile stewardship and that there is overlap and synergy between defense and other uses of neutrons in basic, applied, and industrial research from which defense and civilian research can benefit. This proceedings is a collection of talks and papers from the plenary, technical, and breakout session presentations. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  1. PRP Treatment Efficacy for Tendinopathy: A Review of Basic Science Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiqin Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP has been widely used in orthopaedic surgery and sport medicine to treat tendon injuries. However, the efficacy of PRP treatment for tendinopathy is controversial. This paper focuses on reviewing the basic science studies on PRP performed under well-controlled conditions. Both in vitro and in vivo studies describe PRP’s anabolic and anti-inflammatory effects on tendons. While some clinical trials support these findings, others refute them. In this review, we discuss the effectiveness of PRP to treat tendon injuries with evidence presented in basic science studies and the potential reasons for the controversial results in clinical trials. Finally, we comment on the approaches that may be required to improve the efficacy of PRP treatment for tendinopathy.

  2. Basic science curriculums in nuclear cardiology and cardiovascular imaging: evolving and emerging concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Decker, William A; Villafana, Theodore

    2008-01-01

    The teaching of basic science with regard to physics, instrumentation, and radiation safety has been part of nuclear cardiology training since its inception. Although there are clear educational and quality rationale for such, regulations associated with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Subpart J of old 10 CFR section 35 (Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 35) from the 1960s mandated such prescriptive instruction. Cardiovascular fellowship training programs now have a new opportunity to rethink their basic science imaging curriculums with the era of "revised 10 CFR section 35" and the growing implementation of multimodality imaging training and expertise. This review focuses on the history and the why, what, and how of such a curriculum arising in one city and suggests examples of future implementation in other locations.

  3. Engaging Oral Health Students in Learning Basic Science Through Assessment That Weaves in Personal Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadbeatter, Delyse; Gao, Jinlong

    2018-04-01

    Learning basic science forms an essential foundation for oral health therapy and dentistry, but frequently students perceive it as difficult, dry, and disconnected from clinical practice. This perception is encouraged by assessment methods that reward fact memorization, such as objective examinations. This study evaluated use of a learner-centered assessment portfolio designed to increase student engagement with basic science in an oral health therapy program at the University of Sydney, Australia. The aim of this qualitative study based on focus groups was to investigate students' engagement with basic science courses following introduction of the portfolio. Three assessments were conducted in three subsequent semesters: one based on students' interest in everyday phenomena (one student, for example, explored why she had red hair); the second focussed on scientific evidence and understanding of systemic diseases; and the third explored relations between oral and general health. Students were encouraged to begin with issues from their personal experience or patient care, to focus on what they were curious about, and to ask questions they really cared about. Each student prepared a written report and gave an oral presentation to the entire cohort. After the portfolios were completed, the authors held focus groups with two cohorts of students (N=21) in 2016 and analyzed the results using Zepke's framework for student engagement research. The results showed that the students successfully interweaved personal experience into their studies and that it provided significant motivation for learning. The students described their learning in terms of connection to themselves, their peer community, and their profession. Many additional benefits were identified, from increased student engagement in all courses to appreciation of the relevance of basic science. The findings should encourage dental and allied dental educators to reconsider the effects of assessments and seek

  4. Neutron transfer reactions: Surrogates for neutron capture for basic and applied nuclear science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cizewski, J. A. [Rutgers University; Jones, K. L. [University of Tennessee; Kozub, R. L. [Tennessee Technological University; Pain, Steven D [ORNL; Peters, W. A. [Rutgers University; Adekola, Aderemi S [ORNL; Allen, J. [Rutgers University; Bardayan, Daniel W [ORNL; Becker, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Blackmon, Jeff C [ORNL; Chae, K. Y. [University of Tennessee; Chipps, K. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden; Erikson, Luke [Colorado School of Mines, Golden; Gaddis, A. L. [Furman University; Harlin, Christopher W [ORNL; Hatarik, Robert [Rutgers University; Howard, Joshua A [ORNL; Jandel, M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Johnson, Micah [ORNL; Kapler, R. [University of Tennessee; Krolas, W. [University of Warsaw; Liang, J Felix [ORNL; Livesay, Jake [ORNL; Ma, Zhanwen [ORNL; Matei, Catalin [Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU); Matthews, C. [Rutgers University; Moazen, Brian [University of Tennessee; Nesaraja, Caroline D [ORNL; O' Malley, Patrick [Rutgers University; Patterson, N. P. [University of Surrey, UK; Paulauskas, Stanley [University of Tennessee; Pelham, T. [University of Surrey, UK; Pittman, S. T. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Radford, David C [ORNL; Rogers, J. [Tennessee Technological University; Schmitt, Kyle [University of Tennessee; Shapira, Dan [ORNL; ShrinerJr., J. F. [Tennessee Technological University; Sissom, D. J. [Tennessee Technological University; Smith, Michael Scott [ORNL; Swan, T. P. [University of Surrey, UK; Thomas, J. S. [Rutgers University; Vieira, D. J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Wilhelmy, J. B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Wilson, Gemma L [ORNL

    2009-04-01

    Neutron capture reactions on unstable nuclei are important for both basic and applied nuclear science. A program has been developed at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to study single-neutron transfer (d,p) reactions with rare isotope beams to provide information on neutron-induced reactions on unstable nuclei. Results from (d,p) studies on {sup 130,132}Sn, {sup 134}Te and {sup 75}As are discussed.

  5. Support of a Problem-Based Learning Curriculum by Basic Science Faculty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William L. Anderson

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Although published reports describe benefits to students of learning in a problem-based, student-centered environment, questions have persisted about the excessive faculty time commitments associated with the implementation of PBL pedagogy. The argument has been put forward that the excessive faculty costs of such a curriculum cannot be justified based upon the potential benefits to students. However, the magnitude of the faculty time commitment to a PBL curriculum to support the aforementioned argument is not clear to us and we suspect that it is also equally unclear to individuals charged with making resource decisions supporting the educational efforts of the institution. Therefore, to evaluate this cost - benefit question, we analyzed the actual basic science faculty time commitment in a hybrid PBL curriculum during the first phase 18 months of undergraduate medical education. The results of this analysis do demonstrate an increase in faculty time commitments but do not support the argument that PBL pedagogy is excessively costly in terms of faculty time. For the year analyzed in this report, basic science faculty members contributed on average of 27.4 hours to the instruction of medical students. The results of the analysis did show significant contributions (57% of instructional time by the clinical faculty during the initial 18 months of medical school. In addition, the data revealed a four-fold difference between time commitments of the four basic science departments. We conclude that a PBL curriculum does not place unreasonable demands on the time of basic science faculty. The demands on clinical faculty, in the context of their other commitments, could not be evaluated. Moreover, this type of analysis provides a tool that can be used to make faculty resource allocation decisions fairly.

  6. Terry Turbopump Expanded Operating Band Full-Scale Component and Basic Science Detailed Test Plan - Final.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborn, Douglas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Solom, Matthew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This document details the milestone approach to define the true operating limitations (margins) of the Terry turbopump systems used in the nuclear industry for Milestone 3 (full-scale component experiments) and Milestone 4 (Terry turbopump basic science experiments) efforts. The overall multinational-sponsored program creates the technical basis to: (1) reduce and defer additional utility costs, (2) simplify plant operations, and (3) provide a better understanding of the true margin which could reduce overall risk of operations.

  7. Phenomenographic study of basic science understanding-senior medical students' conceptions of fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelmsson, Niklas; Dahlgren, Lars Owe; Hult, Håkan; Wirell, Staffan; Ledin, Torbjörn; Josephson, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Helping students learn to apply their newly learned basic science knowledge to clinical situations is a long-standing challenge for medical educators. This study aims to describe how medical students' knowledge of the basic sciences is construed toward the end of their medical curriculum, focusing on how senior medical students explain the physiology of a given scenario. Methods A group of final-year medical students from two universities was investigated. Interviews were performed and phenomenographic analysis was used to interpret students' understanding of the physiology underlying the onset of fatigue in an individual on an exercise bicycle. Three categories of description depict the qualitatively different ways the students conceptualized fatigue. A first category depicts well integrated physiological and bio-chemical knowledge characterized by equilibrium and causality. The second category contains conceptions of finite amount of substrate and juxtaposition of physiological concepts that are not fully integrated. The third category exhibits a fragmented understanding of disparate sections of knowledge without integration of basic science and clinical knowledge. Distinctive conceptions of fatigue based with varying completeness of students' understanding characterized the three identified categories. The students' conceptions of fatigue were based on varying understanding of how organ systems relate and of the thresholds that determine physiological processes. Medical instruction should focus on making governing steps in biological processes clear and providing opportunity for causal explanations of clinical scenarios containing bio-chemical as well as clinical knowledge. This augments earlier findings by adding descriptions in terms of the subject matter studied about how basic science is applied by students in clinical settings.

  8. Women's Careers in Biomedical Sciences: Implications for the Economy, Scientific Discovery, and Women's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plank-Bazinet, Jennifer L; Heggeness, Misty L; Lund, P Kay; Clayton, Janine Austin

    2017-05-01

    While women have been well represented in medical school and biomedical doctoral degree programs, they do not comprise half of academic medicine faculty positions. Furthermore, there is a significant paucity of women in academic medicine leadership positions, as evidenced by the fact that only 16% of dean positions at United States Medical schools are filled by women. In this commentary, the authors review the state of women in academic medicine and argue that increased representation of women in the academic workforce will lead to economic gains, increased scientific discovery, and improvements to women's health.

  9. Science and technology of biocompatible thin films for implantable biomedical devices.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, W.; Kabius, B.; Auciello, O.; Materials Science Division

    2010-01-01

    This presentation focuses on reviewing research to develop two critical biocompatible film technologies to enable implantable biomedical devices, namely: (1) development of bioinert/biocompatible coatings for encapsulation of Si chips implantable in the human body (e.g., retinal prosthesis implantable in the human eye) - the coating involves a novel ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) film or hybrid biocompatible oxide/UNCD layered films; and (2) development of biocompatible films with high-dielectric constant and microfabrication process to produce energy storage super-capacitors embedded in the microchip to achieve full miniaturization for implantation into the human body.

  10. Predictive validity of the comprehensive basic science examination mean score for assessment of medical students' performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firouz Behboudi

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Medical education curriculum improvements can be achieved bye valuating students performance. Medical students have to pass two undergraduate comprehensive examinations, basic science and preinternship, in Iran. Purpose To measure validity of the students' mean score in comprehensive basic science exam (CBSE for predicting their performance in later curriculum phases. Methods This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 95 (38 women and 55 men Guilan medical university students. Their admission to the university was 81% by regional quota and 12% by shaheed and other organizations' share. They first enrolled in 1994 and were able to pass CBS£ at first try. Data on gender, regional quota, and average grades of CBS£, PC, and CPIE were collected by a questionnaire. The calculations were done by SPSS package. Results The correlation coefficient between CBS£ and CPIE mean scores (0.65 was higher than correlation coefficient between CBS£ and PC mean scores (0.49. The predictive validity of CBS£ average grade was significant for students' performance in CPIE; however, the predictive validity of CBSE mean scores for students I pe1jormance in PC was lower. Conclusion he students' mean score in CBSE can be a good denominator for their further admission. We recommend further research to assess the predictive validity for each one of the basic courses. Keywords predictive validity, comprehensive basic exam

  11. Basic Definitions and Concepts of Systems Approach, Mathematical Modeling and Information Technologies in Sports Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. Лопатьєв

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective is to systematize and adapt the basic definitions and concepts of the systems approach, mathematical modeling and information technologies to sports science. Materials and methods. The research has studied the availability of appropriate terms in shooting sports, which would meet the requirements of modern sports science. It has examined the compliance of the shooting sports training program for children and youth sports schools, the Olympic reserve specialized children and youth schools, schools of higher sports skills, and sports educational institutions with the modern requirements and principles. Research results. The paper suggests the basic definitions adapted to the requirements of technical sports and sports science. The research has thoroughly analyzed the shooting sports training program for children and youth sports schools, the Olympic reserve specialized children and youth schools, schools of higher sports skills, and sports educational institutions. The paper offers options to improve the training program in accordance with the modern tendencies of training athletes.  Conclusions. The research suggests to systematize and adapt the basic definitions and concepts of the systems approach, mathematical modeling and information technologies using the example of technical sports.

  12. Coordinating the undergraduate medical (MBBS basic sciences programme in a Nepalese medical school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar PR

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available KIST Medical College follows the curriculum of the Institute ofMedicine, Tribhuvan University. The programme aims toproduce socially responsible and competent physicians whoare willing and able to meet the existing and emergingchallenges of the national and international healthcaresystem. The first cohort of undergraduate medical students(MBBS students was admitted in November 2008 and threecohorts including the one admitted in 2008 have beenadmitted at the time of writing. The basic science subjects aretaught in an integrated, organ-system-based manner withcommunity medicine during the first two years. I wasappointed as the MBBS Phase I programme coordinator inSeptember 2008 and in this article I share my experiences ofrunning the basic sciences programme and also offersuggestions for running an efficient academic programme. Themanuscript will be of special interest to readers runningundergraduate medical programmes. The reader canunderstand our experiences in running the programme inadverse circumstances, learning to achieve greater integrationamong basic science, community medicine and clinicaldepartments, obtain information about a communitydiagnosis programme and know about running specialmodules on the medical humanities and pharmaceuticalpromotion.

  13. Application of basic science to clinical problems: traditional vs. hybrid problem-based learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callis, Amber N; McCann, Ann L; Schneiderman, Emet D; Babler, William J; Lacy, Ernestine S; Hale, David Sidney

    2010-10-01

    It is widely acknowledged that clinical problem-solving is a key skill for dental practitioners. The aim of this study was to determine if students in a hybrid problem-based learning curriculum (h-PBL) were better at integrating basic science knowledge with clinical cases than students in a traditional, lecture-based curriculum (TC). The performance of TC students (n=40) was compared to that of h-PBL students (n=31). Participants read two clinical scenarios and answered a series of questions regarding each. To control for differences in ability, Dental Admission Test (DAT) Academic Average scores and predental grade point averages (GPAs) were compared, and an ANCOVA was used to adjust for the significant differences in DAT (t-test, p=0.002). Results showed that h-PBL students were better at applying basic science knowledge to a clinical case (ANCOVA, p=0.022) based on overall scores on one case. TC students' overall scores were better than h-PBL students on a separate case; however, it was not statistically significant (p=0.107). The h-PBL students also demonstrated greater skills in the areas of hypothesis generation (Mann-Whitney U, p=0.016) and communication (p=0.006). Basic science comprehension (p=0.01) and neurology (p<0.001) were two areas in which the TC students did score significantly higher than h-PBL students.

  14. A report of the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee: 1992 review of the Basic Energy Sciences Program of the Department of Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The general quality of BES research at each of the 4 laboratories is high. Diversity of management at the different laboratories is beneficial as long as the primary BES mission and goals are clearly identified and effectively pursued. External sources of personnel should be encouraged. DOE has been designing a new high flux research reactor, the Advanced Neutron Source, to replace DOE's two aging research reactors; BESAC conducted a panel evaluation of neutron sources for the future. The two new light sources, Advanced Light Source and Advanced Photon source will come on line well before all of their beamline instrumentation can be funded, developed, and installed. Appointment of a permanent director and deputy for OBES would enhance OBES effectiveness in budget planning and intra-DOE program coordination. Some DOE and DP laboratories have substantial infrastructure which match well industry development-applications needs; interlaboratory partnerships in this area are encouraged. Funding for basic science research programs should be maintained at FY1993 levels, adjusted for inflation; OBES plans should be updated and monitored to maintain the balance between basic research and facilities construction and operation. The recommendations are discussed in detail in this document

  15. Science for Energy Technology: Strengthening the Link Between Basic Research and Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-04-01

    The nation faces two severe challenges that will determine our prosperity for decades to come: assuring clean, secure, and sustainable energy to power our world, and establishing a new foundation for enduring economic and jobs growth. These challenges are linked: the global demand for clean sustainable energy is an unprecedented economic opportunity for creating jobs and exporting energy technology to the developing and developed world. But achieving the tremendous potential of clean energy technology is not easy. In contrast to traditional fossil fuel-based technologies, clean energy technologies are in their infancy, operating far below their potential, with many scientific and technological challenges to overcome. Industry is ultimately the agent for commercializing clean energy technology and for reestablishing the foundation for our economic and jobs growth. For industry to succeed in these challenges, it must overcome many roadblocks and continuously innovate new generations of renewable, sustainable, and low-carbon energy technologies such as solar energy, carbon sequestration, nuclear energy, electricity delivery and efficiency, solid state lighting, batteries and biofuels. The roadblocks to higher performing clean energy technology are not just challenges of engineering design but are also limited by scientific understanding.Innovation relies on contributions from basic research to bridge major gaps in our understanding of the phenomena that limit efficiency, performance, or lifetime of the materials or chemistries of these sustainable energy technologies. Thus, efforts aimed at understanding the scientific issues behind performance limitations can have a real and immediate impact on cost, reliability, and performance of technology, and ultimately a transformative impact on our economy. With its broad research base and unique scientific user facilities, the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) is ideally positioned to address these needs. BES has laid

  16. Applications of systems science in biomedical research regarding obesity and noncommunicable chronic diseases: opportunities, promise, and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Youfa; Xue, Hong; Liu, Shiyong

    2015-01-01

    Interest in the application of systems science (SS) in biomedical research, particularly regarding obesity and noncommunicable chronic disease (NCD) research, has been growing rapidly over the past decade. SS is a broad term referring to a family of research approaches that include modeling. As an emerging approach being adopted in public health, SS focuses on the complex dynamic interaction between agents (e.g., people) and subsystems defined at different levels. SS provides a conceptual framework for interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary approaches that address complex problems. SS has unique advantages for studying obesity and NCD problems in comparison to the traditional analytic approaches. The application of SS in biomedical research dates back to the 1960s with the development of computing capacity and simulation software. In recent decades, SS has been applied to addressing the growing global obesity epidemic. There is growing appreciation and support for using SS in the public health field, with many promising opportunities. There are also many challenges and uncertainties, including methodologic, funding, and institutional barriers. Integrated efforts by stakeholders that address these challenges are critical for the successful application of SS in the future. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  17. Computer Science, Biology and Biomedical Informatics academy: Outcomes from 5 years of Immersing High-school Students into Informatics Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Andrew J; Fisher, Arielle M; Becich, Michael J; Boone, David N

    2017-01-01

    The University of Pittsburgh's Department of Biomedical Informatics and Division of Pathology Informatics created a Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) pipeline in 2011 dedicated to providing cutting-edge informatics research and career preparatory experiences to a diverse group of highly motivated high-school students. In this third editorial installment describing the program, we provide a brief overview of the pipeline, report on achievements of the past scholars, and present results from self-reported assessments by the 2015 cohort of scholars. The pipeline continues to expand with the 2015 addition of the innovation internship, and the introduction of a program in 2016 aimed at offering first-time research experiences to undergraduates who are underrepresented in pathology and biomedical informatics. Achievements of program scholars include authorship of journal articles, symposium and summit presentations, and attendance at top 25 universities. All of our alumni matriculated into higher education and 90% remain in STEM majors. The 2015 high-school program had ten participating scholars who self-reported gains in confidence in their research abilities and understanding of what it means to be a scientist.

  18. Computer Science, Biology and Biomedical Informatics academy: Outcomes from 5 years of Immersing High-school Students into Informatics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Andrew J.; Fisher, Arielle M.; Becich, Michael J.; Boone, David N.

    2017-01-01

    The University of Pittsburgh's Department of Biomedical Informatics and Division of Pathology Informatics created a Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) pipeline in 2011 dedicated to providing cutting-edge informatics research and career preparatory experiences to a diverse group of highly motivated high-school students. In this third editorial installment describing the program, we provide a brief overview of the pipeline, report on achievements of the past scholars, and present results from self-reported assessments by the 2015 cohort of scholars. The pipeline continues to expand with the 2015 addition of the innovation internship, and the introduction of a program in 2016 aimed at offering first-time research experiences to undergraduates who are underrepresented in pathology and biomedical informatics. Achievements of program scholars include authorship of journal articles, symposium and summit presentations, and attendance at top 25 universities. All of our alumni matriculated into higher education and 90% remain in STEM majors. The 2015 high-school program had ten participating scholars who self-reported gains in confidence in their research abilities and understanding of what it means to be a scientist. PMID:28400991

  19. White Paper on Nuclear Data Needs and Capabilities for Basic Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batchelder, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kawano, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kelley, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kondev, F. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); McCutchan, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Smith, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sonzogni, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Thoennessen, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Thompson, I. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-05-14

    Reliable nuclear structure and reaction data represent the fundamental building blocks of nuclear physics and astrophysics research, and are also of importance in many applications. There is a continuous demand for high-quality updates of the main nuclear physics databases via the prompt compilation and evaluation of the latest experimental and theoretical results. The nuclear physics research community benefits greatly from comprehensive, systematic and up-to-date reviews of the experimentally determined nuclear properties and observables, as well as from the ability to rapidly access these data in user-friendly forms. Such credible databases also act as a bridge between science, technology, and society by making the results of basic nuclear physics research available to a broad audience of users, and hence expand the societal utilization of nuclear science. Compilation and evaluation of nuclear data has deep roots in the history of nuclear science research, as outlined in Appendix 1. They have an enormous impact on many areas of science and applications, as illustrated in Figure 2 for the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) database. The present workshop concentrated on the needs of the basic nuclear science community for data and capabilities. The main role of this community is to generate and use data in order to understand the basic nuclear forces and interactions that are responsible for the existence and the properties of all nuclides and, as a consequence, to gain knowledge about the origins, evolution and structure of the universe. Thus, the experiments designed to measure a wealth of nuclear properties towards these fundamental scientific goals are typically performed from within this community.

  20. Materials Sciences Programs. Fiscal Year 1980, Office of Basic Energy Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-09-01

    This report provides a convenient compilation index of the DOE Materials Sciences Division programs. This compilation is intended for use by administrators, managers, and scientists to help coordinate research and as an aid in selecting new programs and is divided into Sections A and B, listing all the projects, Section C, a summary of funding levels, and Section D, an index

  1. The Future of Basic Science in Academic Surgery: Identifying Barriers to Success for Surgeon-scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keswani, Sundeep G; Moles, Chad M; Morowitz, Michael; Zeh, Herbert; Kuo, John S; Levine, Matthew H; Cheng, Lily S; Hackam, David J; Ahuja, Nita; Goldstein, Allan M

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the challenges confronting surgeons performing basic science research in today's academic surgery environment. Multiple studies have identified challenges confronting surgeon-scientists and impacting their ability to be successful. Although these threats have been known for decades, the downward trend in the number of successful surgeon-scientists continues. Clinical demands, funding challenges, and other factors play important roles, but a rigorous analysis of academic surgeons and their experiences regarding these issues has not previously been performed. An online survey was distributed to 2504 members of the Association for Academic Surgery and Society of University Surgeons to determine factors impacting success. Survey results were subjected to statistical analyses. We also reviewed publicly available data regarding funding from the National Institutes of Health (NIH). NIH data revealed a 27% decline in the proportion of NIH funding to surgical departments relative to total NIH funding from 2007 to 2014. A total of 1033 (41%) members responded to our survey, making this the largest survey of academic surgeons to date. Surgeons most often cited the following factors as major impediments to pursuing basic investigation: pressure to be clinically productive, excessive administrative responsibilities, difficulty obtaining extramural funding, and desire for work-life balance. Surprisingly, a majority (68%) did not believe surgeons can be successful basic scientists in today's environment, including departmental leadership. We have identified important barriers that confront academic surgeons pursuing basic research and a perception that success in basic science may no longer be achievable. These barriers need to be addressed to ensure the continued development of future surgeon-scientists.

  2. Ranking Iranian biomedical research centers according to H-variants (G, M, A, R) in Scopus and Web of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmudi, Zoleikha; Tahamtan, Iman; Sedghi, Shahram; Roudbari, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    Background: We conducted a comprehensive bibliometrics analysis to calculate the H, G, M, A and R indicators for all Iranian biomedical research centers (IBRCs) from the output of ISI Web of Science (WoS) and Scopus between 1991 and 2010. We compared the research performance of the research centers according to these indicators. Methods: This was a cross-sectional and descriptive-analytical study, conducted on 104 Iranian biomedical research centers between August and September 2011. We collected our data through Scopus and WoS. Pearson correlation coefficient between the scientometrics indicators was calculated using SPSS, version 16. Results: The mean values of all indicators were higher in Scopus than in WoS. Drug Applied Research Center of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences had the highest number of publications in both WoS and Scopus databases. This research center along with Royan Institute received the highest number of citations in both Scopus and WoS, respectively. The highest correlation was seen between G and R (.998) in WoS and between G and R (.990) in Scopus. Furthermore, the highest overlap of the 10 top IBRCs was between G and H in WoS (100%) and between G-R (90%) and H-R (90%) in Scopus. Conclusion: Research centers affiliated to the top ranked Iranian medical universities obtained a better position with respect to the studied scientometrics indicators. All aforementioned indicators are important for ranking bibliometrics studies as they refer to different attributes of scientific output and citation aspects. PMID:26478875

  3. Teaching Basic Science Content via Real-World Applications: A College-Level Summer Course in Veterinary Anatomy and Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maza, Paul; Miller, Allison; Carson, Brian; Hermanson, John

    2018-01-01

    Learning and retaining science content may be increased by applying the basic science material to real-world situations. Discussing cases with students during lectures and having them participate in laboratory exercises where they apply the science content to practical situations increases students' interest and enthusiasm. A summer course in…

  4. Materials Sciences Programs. Fiscal Year 1980, Office of Basic Energy Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    This report provides a convenient compilation index of the DOE Materials Sciences Division programs. This compilation is intended for use by administrators, managers, and scientists to help coordinate research and as an aid in selecting new programs and is divided into Sections A and B, listing all the projects, Section C, a summary of funding levels, and Section D, an index (the investigator index is in two parts - laboratory and contract research).

  5. 77 FR 64598 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ... of Veterans Affairs (VA) gives notice under the Public Law 92-463 (Federal Advisory Committee Act... Crystal City Hotel. Mental Health and Behavioral Sciences- November 16, 2012...... *VA Central Office. B..., 2012...... Sheraton Crystal City Hotel. Mental Health and Behavioral Sciences- November 20, 2012...

  6. Los Alamos Life Sciences Division's biomedical and environmental research programs. Progress report, January-December 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, L.M.; Stafford, C.G.; Bolen, S.K.

    1981-09-01

    Highlights of research progress accomplished in the Life Sciences Division during the year ending December 1980 are summarized. Reports from the following groups are included: Toxicology, Biophysics, Genetics; Environmental Pathology, Organic Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences. Individual abstracts have been prepared for 46 items for inclusion in the Energy Data Base

  7. Los Alamos Life Sciences Division's biomedical and environmental research programs. Progress report, January-December 1981. [Leading abstract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, L.M.; Stafford, C.G. (comps.)

    1982-10-01

    This report summarizes research and development activities of the Los Alamos Life Sciences Division's Biomedical and Environmental Research program for the calendar year 1981. Individual reports describing the current status of projects have been entered individually into the data base.

  8. Bridging the gap between basic science and clinical practice: a role for community clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Katherine; Ryan, Gery; Beckett, Megan; Taylor, Stephanie; Berrebi, Claude; Cho, Michelle; Quiter, Elaine; Fremont, Allen; Pincus, Harold

    2011-04-04

    Translating the extraordinary scientific and technological advances occurring in medical research laboratories into care for patients in communities throughout the country has been a major challenge. One contributing factor has been the relative absence of community practitioners from the US biomedical research enterprise. Identifying and addressing the barriers that prevent their participation in research should help bridge the gap between basic research and practice to improve quality of care for all Americans. We interviewed over 200 clinicians and other healthcare stakeholders from 2004 through 2005 to develop a conceptual framework and set of strategies for engaging a stable cadre of community clinicians in a clinical research program. Lack of engagement of community practitioners, lack of necessary infrastructure, and the current misalignment of financial incentives and research participation emerged as the three primary barriers to community clinician research participation. Although every effort was made to learn key motivators for engagement in clinical research from interviewees, we did not observe their behavior and self-report by clinicians does not always track with their behavior. A paradigm shift involving acknowledgement of the value of clinicians in the context of community research, establishment of a stable infrastructure to support a cohort of clinicians across time and research studies, and realignment of incentives to encourage participation in clinical research is required.

  9. Bridging the gap between basic science and clinical practice: a role for community clinicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho Michelle

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Translating the extraordinary scientific and technological advances occurring in medical research laboratories into care for patients in communities throughout the country has been a major challenge. One contributing factor has been the relative absence of community practitioners from the US biomedical research enterprise. Identifying and addressing the barriers that prevent their participation in research should help bridge the gap between basic research and practice to improve quality of care for all Americans. Methods We interviewed over 200 clinicians and other healthcare stakeholders from 2004 through 2005 to develop a conceptual framework and set of strategies for engaging a stable cadre of community clinicians in a clinical research program. Results Lack of engagement of community practitioners, lack of necessary infrastructure, and the current misalignment of financial incentives and research participation emerged as the three primary barriers to community clinician research participation. Although every effort was made to learn key motivators for engagement in clinical research from interviewees, we did not observe their behavior and self-report by clinicians does not always track with their behavior. Conclusions A paradigm shift involving acknowledgement of the value of clinicians in the context of community research, establishment of a stable infrastructure to support a cohort of clinicians across time and research studies, and realignment of incentives to encourage participation in clinical research is required.

  10. Exposure to ACGME Core Competencies through Mentored Basic Science Research: A Pilot Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan J. Wisco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1998, the Short-Term Training Program (STTP at the David Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California, Los Angeles has nearly tripled (from 30 to 89 in the number of first-year undergraduate medical students participants. STTP supports mentored research projects in the areas of basic sciences, clinical sciences, medical education, and public health (local and international. Although projects can be very specific in scope, the overall experience in STTP exposes students to some, if not all, of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME six core competencies–-Patient Care, Medical Knowledge, Practice-based Learning and Improvement, Interpersonal and Communication Skills, Professionalism, and Systems-based Practice. Thus, STTP has been an important aspect of medical education to prepare our students for residency programs. We describe and analyze the STTP as a model system to introduce the ACGME core competencies at an early point in undergraduate medical education. We conclude with a call to provide more mentored anatomical sciences basic and clinically applied research opportunities.

  11. The Neuropsychoanalytic Approach: Using Neuroscience as the Basic Science of Psychoanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Brian; Flores Mosri, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Neuroscience was the basic science behind Freud's psychoanalytic theory and technique. He worked as a neurologist for 20 years before being aware that a new approach to understand complex diseases, namely the hysterias, was needed. Solms coined the term neuropsychoanalysis to affirm that neuroscience still belongs in psychoanalysis. The neuropsychoanalytic field has continued Freud's original ideas as stated in 1895. Developments in psychoanalysis that have been created or revised by the neuropsychoanalysis movement include pain/relatedness/opioids, drive, structural model, dreams, cathexis, and dynamic unconscious. Neuroscience has contributed to the development of new psychoanalytic theory, such as Bazan's (2011) description of anxiety driven by unconscious intentions or “phantoms.” Results of adopting the “dual aspect monism” approach of idiographic psychoanalytic clinical observation combined with nomothetic investigation of related human phenomena include clarification and revision of theory, restoration of the scientific base of psychoanalysis, and improvement of clinical treatments. By imbricating psychoanalytic thinking with neuroscience, psychoanalysts are also positioned to make contributions to neuroscience research. Freud's original Project for a Scientific Psychology/Psychology for Neurologists can be carried forward in a way that moves psychoanalysis into the twenty-first century as a core contemporary science (Kandel, 1999). Neuroscience as the basic science of psychoanalysis both improves the field, and enhances its scientific and cultural status. PMID:27790160

  12. Driving forces of biomedical science education and research in state-of-the arts academic medical centres: the United States as example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, T A

    2011-06-01

    Basic science departments in academic medical centres are influenced by changes that are commonly directed at medical education and financial gain. Some of such changes may have been detrimental to or may have enhanced basic science education. They may have determined basic science research focus or basic science research methods. However, there is lack of research on the educational process in the basic sciences including training of PhD's while there is ample research on medical education pertaining to training of medical doctors. The author here identifies, from university websites and available literature, some forces that have driven teaching and research focus and methods in state-of-the-arts academic medical centres in recent times with a view of seeing through their possible influences on basic science education and research, using the United States of America as an example. The "forces" are: Changes in medical schools; Medical educational philosophies: problem based learning, evidence based medicine, cyberlearning and self-directed learning; Shifting impressions of the value of basic sciences in medical schools; Research trends in Basic Sciences: role of antivivisectionists, alternative experimentations, explosion of molecular and cell biology; Technological advancements; Commercialization of research; and Funding agencies. The author encourages African leaders in academia to pay attention to such forces as the leadership seeks to raise African Universities as centres of knowledge that have a major role in acquiring, preserving, imparting, and utilizing knowledge.

  13. Teaching future teachers basic astronomy concepts - seasonal changes - at a time of reform in science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumper, Ricardo

    2006-11-01

    Bearing in mind students' misconceptions about basic concepts in astronomy, the present study conducted a series of constructivist activities aimed at changing future elementary and junior high school teachers' conceptions about the cause of seasonal changes, and several characteristics of the Sun-Earth-Moon relative movements like Moon phases, Sun and Moon eclipses, and others. The activities and results concerning the cause of seasonal changes are reported. Both the experimental class and the control groups improved their grasp of basic astronomy concepts statistically significantly, although the experimental class made the most impressive progress of all. Regarding subjects relevant to this study (seasonal changes), only the experimental class showed a statistically significant improvement, which justifies the constructivist approach. We conclude that in implementing a reform in the science curriculum, the change has to include the subjects taught and also the way they are taught.

  14. Pharmacy students' use and perceptions of Apple mobile devices incorporated into a basic health science laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Jennifer E; Richard, Craig A H

    To describe pharmacy students' use of mobile devices in a basic health science laboratory and to report the students' perceptions on how solving cases with their mobile devices influenced their attitudes, abilities, and view on the use of mobile devices as tools for pharmacists. First-year pharmacy students utilized mobile devices to solve clinical case studies in a basic health sciences laboratory. A pre-survey and two post-surveys were administered to assess the students' comfort, awareness, use, and perceptions on the use of their mobile devices and apps. The pre-survey and first post-survey each had a response rate of 99%, and the second post-survey had a response rate of 100%. In comparing the pre-survey and first post-survey data, there was a statistically significant increase in the number of students that agreed or strongly agreed that they were more comfortable utilizing their mobile device (p = 0.025), they were more aware of apps for pharmacists (p mobile devices, to be more aware of apps that can be useful for pharmacists, and to be more agreeable with mobile device utilization by pharmacists in improving patient care. In addition, the second post-survey also demonstrated that 84% of students responded that using their mobile devices to solve the cases influenced them to either use their mobile device in a clinical setting for a clinical and/or pharmacy-related purpose for the first time or to use it more frequently for this purpose. The use of mobile devices to solve clinical cases in a first-year basic health science laboratory course was perceived as beneficial by students and influenced them to utilize their mobile device even more in a pharmacy practice setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The energy-climate continuum lessons from basic science and history

    CERN Document Server

    Bret, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    An entertaining, highly informative introduction to the intimate linkage between the energy and climate debates Illustrates the basic science behind energy and climate with back-of-the-envelope calculations, that even non-experts can easily follow without a calculator Thus provides an access to getting an accurate feeling for orders of magnitudes from simple estimations A conversation starter for some of the most debated topics of today Compares the actual situation with historic cases of societies at a turning point and finds warning as well as encouraging examples For everyone, who wan

  16. Somatostatin receptor-mediated imaging and therapy: basic science, current knowledge, limitations and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breeman, W.A.P.; Jong, M. de; Kwekkeboom, D.J.; Valkema, R.; Bakker, W.H.; Kooij, P.P.M.; Visser, T.J.; Krenning, E.P.

    2001-01-01

    In vivo somatostatin receptor-mediated scintigraphy has proven to be a valuable method for the visualisation of neuroendocrine tumours and their metastases. A new application is the use of radiolabelled analogues for somatostatin receptor-mediated therapy. This paper presents a review on the basic science, historical background and current knowledge of somatostatin receptor subtypes and their expression in neuroendocrine tumours. New somatostatin analogues, new chelators, ''new'' radionuclides and combinations thereof are also discussed. Due attention is given to limitations and future perspectives of somatostatin receptor-mediated imaging and therapy. (orig.)

  17. Using a Popular Science Nonfiction Book to Introduce Biomedical Research Ethics in a Biology Majors Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen L.W. Walton

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Although bioethics is an important topic in modern society, it is not a required part of the curriculum for many biology degree programs in the United States.  Students in our program are exposed to biologically relevant ethical issues informally in many classes, but we do not have a requirement for a separate bioethics course.  The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks is a recent nonfiction book that describes the life of the woman whose cervical cancer biopsy gave rise to the HeLa cell line, as well as discussing relevant medical, societal, and ethical issues surrounding human tissue use for research.  Weekly reading assignments from the book with discussion questions and a final paper were used to engage students in learning about the ethics of human subjects and human tissues research.  Students were surveyed for qualitative feedback on the usefulness of including this book as part of the course.  This book has been a successful platform for increasing student knowledge and interest in ethics related to biomedical and biological research.

  18. Using a popular science nonfiction book to introduce biomedical research ethics in a biology majors course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Kristen L W

    2014-12-01

    Although bioethics is an important topic in modern society, it is not a required part of the curriculum for many biology degree programs in the United States. Students in our program are exposed to biologically relevant ethical issues informally in many classes, but we do not have a requirement for a separate bioethics course. The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks is a recent nonfiction book that describes the life of the woman whose cervical cancer biopsy gave rise to the HeLa cell line, as well as discussing relevant medical, societal, and ethical issues surrounding human tissue use for research. Weekly reading assignments from the book with discussion questions and a final paper were used to engage students in learning about the ethics of human subjects and human tissues research. Students were surveyed for qualitative feedback on the usefulness of including this book as part of the course. This book has been a successful platform for increasing student knowledge and interest in ethics related to biomedical and biological research.

  19. Opening of the national biobank of Korea as the infrastructure of future biomedical science in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sang Yun; Hong, Eun Jung; Nam, Jung Min; Han, Bogkee; Chu, Chaeshin; Park, Ok

    2012-09-01

    On April 26, 2012, the Korea National Institute of Health officially held the opening ceremony of newly dedicated biobank building, 'NationalBiobank of Korea'. The stocked biospecimens and related information have been distributed for medical and public health researches. The Korea Biobank Project, which was initiated in 2008, constructed the Korea Biobank Network consisting of the National Biobank of Korea (NBK) with 17 regional biobanks in Korea. As of December 2011, a total of 525,416 biospecimens with related information have been secured: 325,952 biospecimens from the general population obtained through cohort studies and 199,464 biospecimens of patients from regional biobanks. A large scale genomic study, Korea Association Resource (KARE) and many researches utilized the biospecimens secured through Korea Genome Epidemiology Study (KoGES) and Korea Biobank Project (KBP). Construction of 'National Biobank of Korea', a dedicated biobank building at Osong means that NBK can manage and check quality of the biospecimens with promising distribution of 26 million vials of biospecimen, which provide the infrastructure for the development of health technology in Korea. The NBK and the National Library of Medicine (to be constructed in 2014) will play a central role in future biomedical research in Korea.

  20. The reincarnation of a biomedical researcher: from bench science to medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brawer, James R

    2008-02-01

    After 33 years as a biomedical research scientist, I embarked on a new career in medical education. The transformation was awkward, difficult and exciting. Although I had assumed that previous experience in research and scholarship would stand me in good stead, such was hardly the case. I had to learn to navigate a strange new literature, replete with terms that I did not understand, and to deal with concepts that challenged my physico-chemical mindset. As I learned, I found myself discovering a field rich in essential questions, controversial hypotheses, and important potential applications. With my newly acquired knowledge and skills, I began to reflect on my own educational endeavors. I identified a number of outstanding issues and I designed studies to address them. What made these investigations particularly significant for me was their applicability. Although medical education is an exciting and meaningful career path, because of its low profile in most medical schools, few faculty are aware of the academic opportunities that it affords.

  1. Biomedical signal analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Rangayyan, Rangaraj M

    2015-01-01

    The book will help assist a reader in the development of techniques for analysis of biomedical signals and computer aided diagnoses with a pedagogical examination of basic and advanced topics accompanied by over 350 figures and illustrations. Wide range of filtering techniques presented to address various applications. 800 mathematical expressions and equations. Practical questions, problems and laboratory exercises. Includes fractals and chaos theory with biomedical applications.

  2. Use of the National Board of Medical Examiners® Comprehensive Basic Science Exam: survey results of US medical schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wright WS

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available William S Wright,1 Kirk Baston2 1Department of Biomedical Sciences, 2Department of Pathology, University of South Carolina School of Medicine Greenville, Greenville, SC, USA Purpose: The National Board of Medical Examiners® (NBME Comprehensive Basic Science Exam (CBSE is a subject exam offered to US medical schools, where it has been used for external validation of student preparedness for the United States Medical Licensing Examination® (USMLE Step 1 in new schools and schools undergoing curricular reform. Information regarding the actual use of the NBME CBSE is limited. Therefore, the aim of the survey was to determine the scope and utilization of the NBME CBSE by US medical schools.Methods: A survey was sent in May 2016 to curriculum leadership of the 139 US medical schools listed on the Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME® website with provisional or full accreditation as of February 29, 2016. Responses were received from 53 schools (38% response rate. A series of different follow-up questions were asked if respondents stated “yes” or “no” to the initial question “Does your institution administer the NBME CBSE prior to the USMLE Step 1?”.Results: A total of 37 schools (70% administered the NBME CBSE. In all, 36 of the 37 schools responded to follow-up questions. Of 36 schools, 13 schools (36% used the NBME CBSE for curriculum modification. Six schools (17% used the NBME CBSE for formative assessment for a course, and five schools (14% used the NBME CBSE for summative assessment for a course. A total of 28 schools (78% used the NBME CBSE for identifying students performing below expectations and providing targeted intervention strategies. In all, 24 schools (67% of the 36 responding schools administering the NBME CBSE administered the test once prior to the administration of the USMLE Step 1, whereas 10 (28% schools administered the NBME CBSE two or more times prior to the administration of the USMLE Step 1.Conclusion

  3. USSR and Eastern Europe Scientific Abstracts Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences No. 71.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-05-20

    significant increase in the number of aberrant anaphases (by a factor of 2-4) in comparison to the spontaneous level of mutation in control animals (P...ANANYAN, V. L. and SARKISYAN, G. A., Institute of Agrochemical Problems and Hydroponics, Academy of Sciences Armenian SSR [Abstract] Analysis of plant

  4. 78 FR 22622 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ... of Veterans Affairs (VA) gives notice under Public Law 92-463 (Federal Advisory Committee Act) that..., 2013 Sheraton Crystal City Hotel. Mental Health and Behavioral. May 30, 2013 Sheraton Crystal City Hotel. Sciences--A. Gastroenterology May 30-31, 2013......... U.S. Access Board. Pulmonary Medicine May...

  5. Making Bioinformatics Projects a Meaningful Experience in an Undergraduate Biotechnology or Biomedical Science Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutcliffe, Iain C.; Cummings, Stephen P.

    2007-01-01

    Bioinformatics has emerged as an important discipline within the biological sciences that allows scientists to decipher and manage the vast quantities of data (such as genome sequences) that are now available. Consequently, there is an obvious need to provide graduates in biosciences with generic, transferable skills in bioinformatics. We present…

  6. An elective course on the basic and clinical sciences aspects of vitamins and minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammed A

    2013-02-12

    Objective. To develop and implement an elective course on vitamins and minerals and their usefulness as dietary supplements. Design. A 2-credit-hour elective course designed to provide students with the most up-to-date basic and clinical science information on vitamins and minerals was developed and implemented in the doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) curriculum. In addition to classroom lectures, an active-learning component was incorporated in the course in the form of group discussion. Assessment. Student learning was demonstrated by examination scores. Performance on pre- and post-course surveys administered in 2011 demonstrated a significant increase in students' knowledge of the basic and clinical science aspects of vitamins and minerals, with average scores increasing from 61% to 86%. At the end of the semester, students completed a standard course evaluation. Conclusion. An elective course on vitamin and mineral supplements was well received by pharmacy students and helped them to acquire knowledge and competence in patient counseling regarding safe, appropriate, effective, and economical use of these products.

  7. Landscape of Innovation for Cardiovascular Pharmaceuticals: From Basic Science to New Molecular Entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beierlein, Jennifer M; McNamee, Laura M; Walsh, Michael J; Kaitin, Kenneth I; DiMasi, Joseph A; Ledley, Fred D

    2017-07-01

    This study examines the complete timelines of translational science for new cardiovascular therapeutics from the initiation of basic research leading to identification of new drug targets through clinical development and US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of new molecular entities (NMEs) based on this research. This work extends previous studies by examining the association between the growth of research on drug targets and approval of NMEs associated with these targets. Drawing on research on innovation in other technology sectors, where technological maturity is an important determinant in the success or failure of new product development, an analytical model was used to characterize the growth of research related to the known targets for all 168 approved cardiovascular therapeutics. Categorizing and mapping the technological maturity of cardiovascular therapeutics reveal that (1) there has been a distinct transition from phenotypic to targeted methods for drug discovery, (2) the durations of clinical and regulatory processes were significantly influenced by changes in FDA practice, and (3) the longest phase of the translational process was the time required for technology to advance from initiation of research to a statistically defined established point of technology maturation (mean, 30.8 years). This work reveals a normative association between metrics of research maturation and approval of new cardiovascular therapeutics and suggests strategies for advancing translational science by accelerating basic and applied research and improving the synchrony between the maturation of this research and drug development initiatives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. What's hot, what's new in basic science: report from the American Transplant Congress 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeger, P S

    2015-11-01

    Research reports presented at the American Transplant Congress 2015 provided an array of basic science findings of relevance to the transplant community. Among key themes is the concept that ischemia-reperfusion injury and early posttransplantation inflammation is linked to adaptive alloimmunity and transplant injury. Molecular and cellular mechanisms contributing to these interactions were highlighted. The relevance of understanding how blocking costimulation, including CD40/CD154 interactions, affects various aspects of the alloimmune response was enhanced by the description of preclinical studies demonstrating efficacy of a unique, blocking anti-CD40 monoclonal antibody that could potentially be used in humans. The identification of mechanisms underlying interactions among T cell subsets and B cells, including follicular helper T cells, regulatory T cells, effector B cells, and regulatory B cells, provides multiple previously unrecognized targets for future therapeutic interventions. Additional reports of interest include novel insights into effects of the gut microbiome on graft survival and the ability to differentiate insulin-secreting, islet-like cells from induced pluripotent stem cells. Overall, the reported basic science findings from American Transplant Congress 2015 add to the fundamental understanding of innate and adaptive alloimmunity and provide novel and testable hypotheses that have the potential to be translated into improved clinical care of transplant patients. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  9. An Elective Course on the Basic and Clinical Sciences Aspects of Vitamins and Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To develop and implement an elective course on vitamins and minerals and their usefulness as dietary supplements. Design. A 2-credit-hour elective course designed to provide students with the most up-to-date basic and clinical science information on vitamins and minerals was developed and implemented in the doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) curriculum. In addition to classroom lectures, an active-learning component was incorporated in the course in the form of group discussion. Assessment. Student learning was demonstrated by examination scores. Performance on pre- and post-course surveys administered in 2011 demonstrated a significant increase in students’ knowledge of the basic and clinical science aspects of vitamins and minerals, with average scores increasing from 61% to 86%. At the end of the semester, students completed a standard course evaluation. Conclusion. An elective course on vitamin and mineral supplements was well received by pharmacy students and helped them to acquire knowledge and competence in patient counseling regarding safe, appropriate, effective, and economical use of these products. PMID:23463149

  10. How much basic science content do second-year medical students remember from their first year?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneid, Stephen D; Pashler, Hal; Armour, Chris

    2018-01-23

    While most medical students generally perform well on examinations and pass their courses during the first year, we do not know how much basic science content they retain at the start of their second year and how that relates to minimal competency set by the faculty. In the fall of 2014, before starting their second-year courses, 27 medical students volunteered to participate in a study of long-term retention of the basic sciences by taking a "retention exam" after a delay of 5-11 months. The overall mean performance when the students initially answered the 60 multiple choice questions (MCQs) was 82.8% [standard deviation (SD) = 7.4%], which fell to 50.1% (SD = 12.1%) on the retention exam. This gave a mean retention of 60.4% (SD = 12.8%) with the retention for individual students ranging from 37 to 81%. The majority of students (23/27; 85%) fell below the minimal level of competency to start their second year. Medical educators should be more aware of the significant amount of forgetting that occurs during training and make better use of instructional strategies that promote long-term learning such as retrieval practice, interleaving, and spacing.

  11. GPRA (Government Performance and Results Act) and research evaluation for basic science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Shoji

    2002-08-01

    The purpose of the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993 (GPRA) is to ask federal agencies for evaluating their program performance especially from cost-efficiency aspect and to report to Congress. GPRA is to hold agencies accountable for their programs by requiring that they think strategically (in most cases every 5 years) and set, measure and report goals annually. The agencies which have responsibilities for enhancing basic science like Department of Energy (DOE) and National Science Fund (NSF) are not excluded by reasons of the difficulties of economic evaluations. In Japan, based on 'the Rationalization program for the public corporations' of 2001, the research developing type corporations should make a cost-performance evaluation in addition to the conventional ones. They have same theme as US agencies struggles. The purpose of this report is to get some hints for this theme by surveying GPRA reports of DOE and NSF and analyzing related information. At present, I have to conclude although everybody accepts the necessities of socio-economic evaluations and investment criteria for basic research, studies and discussions about ways and means are still continuing even in the US. (author)

  12. Healthcare and biomedical technology in the 21st century an introduction for non-science majors

    CERN Document Server

    Baran, George R; Samuel, Solomon Praveen

    2014-01-01

    This textbook introduces students not pursuing degrees in science or engineering to the remarkable new applications of technology now available to physicians and their patients and discusses how these technologies are evolving to permit new treatments and procedures.  The book also elucidates the societal and ethical impacts of advances in medical technology, such as extending life and end of life decisions, the role of genetic testing, confidentiality, costs of health care delivery, scrutiny of scientific claims, and provides background on the engineering approach in healthcare and the scientific method as a guiding principle. This concise, highly relevant text enables faculty to offer a substantive course for students from non-scientific backgrounds that will empower them to make more informed decisions about their healthcare by significantly enhancing their understanding of these technological advancements. This book also: ·         Presents scientific concepts from modern medical science using r...

  13. USSR and Eastern Europe Scientific Abstracts. Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences. Number 56.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-11-08

    conduct research on the effects of nutrition , soil moisture and solar illumination; to continue studies of mechanization aimed at realizing a labor...connective tissue proteins; the proteins contain all aminoacids including the essential aminoacids ; lysine and histidine content is 1.5 that of beef...VYSOTSKIY, V. G., S0K0L0V, V. N., and YATSYSHINA, T. A., Institute of Nutrition , Academy of Medical Sciences USSR, Moscow THE CONCEPT OF LABILE PROTEIN AND

  14. USSR and Eastern Europe Scientific Abstracts Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences No. 65.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-03-01

    resulting from poor nutrition of the newcomers. The replacement of the "carbohydrate" type of energy metabolism with the "fat" type is conducive...PITANIYA in Russian No 6, Nov/Dec 76 signed to press 9 Feb 76 pp 73-74 MEYEROVICH, R. I., Institute of Nutrition , Academy of Medical Sciences USSR...L438K. Annotation] [Text] This is a collection of articles on biosynthesis of aminoacids , organic acids, enzymes, and other biologically active

  15. USSR and Eastern Europe Scientific Abstracts, Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences, Number 92

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-07-26

    chemistry imeni A. N. Bakh, Academy of Sciences USSR Moscow; Belorussian Scientific Research Institute of Potato, Fruit and Vegetable Growing, Minsk...576.8.097.29 ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF MYC0T0XIN T-2 PRODUCED BY FUSARIUM SPOROTRI- CHIELLA Moscow DOKLADY VASKhNIL in Russian No 3, Mar 78 pp 36-38...identification of Fusarium sporotrichiella mycotoxin T-2: trichotecene 8- alpha-(3-methylbutyryloxy)-4-beta, 15-diacetoxycirp-9-ene-3-alpha-ol, for

  16. International cooperation in basic space science, Western Asian countries and the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Morais Mendonca Teles, Antonio

    The world will never better develop and attain a global peace state, if it does not exist a world-wide cooperation, union of interests among all countries on planet Earth, respecting and understanding each other culture differences. So, if the countries interested in space science want to create or better develop this field, they need to firstly construct peace states and social cooperation, while scientific and technological cooperation will develop -among them. Here in this paper, under the principles in the United Nations (UN)' Agenda 21 (UN UNCED, 1992), I propose four points that can lead to a practical and solid international cooperation in basic aerospace science and technology, based on ground studies, with sustainable space programs in countries with social necessities, and to the construction of an avenue of peace states in those areas and in the world, 1) The creation of LINKS among the "developing" countries, among the "developed" ones and between them -with scientists, engineers, educators and administrative personnel. This can catalyze a self-sustainable scientific and technological production in the "developing" countries. Financial matters could be done through the World Bank in coopera-tion with UNESCO. 2) The administration of this difficult enterprise of international coopera-tion. With the increasing complexity of relationships among the aerospace-interested countries, it will be necessary the creation of a center capable to serve as an INTERNATIONAL CO-ORDINATOR CENTER FOR AEROSPACE ACTIVITIES. 3) CULTURE: in Western Asian countries there is a cultural habit that when somebody gives something valuable to a person, this person should give something back. Thus, the Western Asian countries receiving infor-mation on basic aerospace science and technology from the "developed" ones, those countries would probably feel they should give something in return. Western Asian countries could trans-mit their costumes, thinking ways, habits, persons' worries

  17. [A study of development of medicine and science in the nineteenth century science fiction: biomedical experiments in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Jae-Uk

    2014-12-01

    As the sciences advanced rapidly in the modern European world, outstanding achievements have been made in medicine, chemistry, biology, physiology, physics and others, which have been co-influencing each of the scientific disciplines. Accordingly, such medical and scientific phenomena began to be reflected in novels. In particular, Mary Shelley's Frankenstein includes the diverse aspects of the change and development in the medicine and science. Associated with medical and scientific information reflected in Frankenstein and Frankenstein's experiments in the text, accordingly, this research will investigate the aspects of medical and scientific development taking place in the nineteenth century in three ways. First, the medical and scientific development of the nineteenth century has been reviewed by summerizing both the information of alchemy in which Frankenstein shows his interest and the new science in general that M. Waldman introduces in the text. Second, the actual features of medical and scientific development have been examined through some examples of the experimental methods that M. Waldman implicitly uttered to Frankenstein. Third, it has been checked how the medical and scientific development is related to the main issues of mechanism and vitalism which can be explained as principles of life. Even though this research deals with the developmental process of medicine & science and origin & principles of life implied in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein, its significance is that it is the interdisciplinary research focussing on how deeply medical and scientific discourse of Mary Shelley's period has been imbedded in the nineteenth century novel.

  18. The Need for Veterinarians in Biomedical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosol, Thomas J.; Moore, Rustin M.; Saville, William J.A.; Oglesbee, Michael J.; Rush, Laura J.; Mathes, Lawrence E.; Lairmore, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    The number of veterinarians in the United States is inadequate to meet societal needs in biomedical research and public health. Areas of greatest need include translational medical research, veterinary pathology, laboratory-animal medicine, emerging infectious diseases, public health, academic medicine, and production-animal medicine. Veterinarians have unique skill sets that enable them to serve as leaders or members of interdisciplinary research teams involved in basic science and biomedical research with applications to animal or human health. There are too few graduate veterinarians to serve broad national needs in private practice; academia; local, state, and federal government agencies; and private industry. There are no easy solutions to the problem of increasing the number of veterinarians in biomedical research. Progress will require creativity, modification of priorities, broad-based communication, support from faculty and professional organizations, effective mentoring, education in research and alternative careers as part of the veterinary professional curriculum, and recognition of the value of research experience among professional schools’ admissions committees. New resources should be identified to improve communication and education, professional and graduate student programs in biomedical research, and support to junior faculty. These actions are necessary for the profession to sustain its viability as an integral part of biomedical research. PMID:19435992

  19. Handbook of coherent domain optical methods biomedical diagnostics, environmental and material science

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    For the first time in one set of books, coherent-domain optical methods are discussed in the framework of various applications, which are characterized by a strong light scattering. A few chapters describe basic research containing the updated results on coherent and polarized light non-destructive interactions with a scattering medium, in particular, diffraction, interference, and speckle formation at multiple scattering. These chapters allow for understanding coherent-domain diagnostic techniques presented in later chapters. A large portion of Volume I is dedicated to analysis of various aspects of optical coherence tomography (OCT) - a very new and growing field of coherent optics. Two chapters on laser scanning confocal microscopy give insight to recent extraordinary results on in vivo imaging and compare the possibilities and achievements of confocol, excitation multiphoton, and OCT microscopy. This two volume reference contains descriptions of holography, interferometry and optical heterodyning techniqu...

  20. Advances in biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, J H U

    1976-01-01

    Advances in Biomedical Engineering, Volume 5, is a collection of papers that deals with application of the principles and practices of engineering to basic and applied biomedical research, development, and the delivery of health care. The papers also describe breakthroughs in health improvements, as well as basic research that have been accomplished through clinical applications. One paper examines engineering principles and practices that can be applied in developing therapeutic systems by a controlled delivery system in drug dosage. Another paper examines the physiological and materials vari

  1. Review of the Lujan neutron scattering center: basic energy sciences prereport February 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurd, Alan J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rhyne, James J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lewis, Paul S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The Lujan Neutron Scattering Center (Lujan Center) at LANSCE is a designated National User Facility for neutron scattering and nuclear physics studies with pulsed beams of moderated neutrons (cold, thermal, and epithermal). As one of five experimental areas at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE), the Lujan Center hosts engineers, scientists, and students from around the world. The Lujan Center consists of Experimental Room (ER) 1 (ERl) built by the Laboratory in 1977, ER2 built by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) in 1989, and the Office Building (622) also built by BES in 1989, along with a chem-bio lab, a shop, and other out-buildings. According to a 1996 Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) between the Defense Programs (DP) Office of the National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA) and the Office of Science (SC, then the Office of Energy Research), the Lujan Center flight paths were transferred from DP to SC, including those in ERI. That MOA was updated in 2001. Under the MOA, NNSA-DP delivers neutron beam to the windows of the target crypt, outside of which BES becomes the 'landlord.' The leveraging nature of the Lujan Center on the LANSCE accelerator is a substantial annual leverage to the $11 M BES operating fund worth approximately $56 M operating cost of the linear accelerator (LINAC)-in beam delivery.

  2. Embryology and histology education in North American dental schools: the Basic Science Survey Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, Dorothy T; Lee, Lisa M J; Lambert, H Wayne

    2013-06-01

    As part of the Basic Science Survey Series (BSSS) for Dentistry, members of the American Dental Education Association (ADEA) Anatomical Sciences Section surveyed faculty members teaching embryology and histology courses at North American dental schools. The survey was designed to assess, among other things, curriculum content, utilization of laboratories, use of computer-assisted instruction (CAI), and recent curricular changes. Responses were received from fifty-nine (88.1 percent) of the sixty-seven U.S. and Canadian dental schools. Findings suggest the following: 1) a trend toward combining courses is evident, though the integration was predominantly discipline-based; 2) embryology is rarely taught as a stand-alone course, as content is often covered in gross anatomy, oral histology, and/or in an integrated curriculum; 3) the number of contact hours in histology is decreasing; 4) a trend toward reduction in formal laboratory sessions, particularly in embryology, is ongoing; and 5) use of CAI tools, including virtual microscopy, in both embryology and histology has increased. Additionally, embryology and histology content topic emphasis is identified within this study. Data, derived from this study, may be useful to new instructors, curriculum and test construction committees, and colleagues in the anatomical sciences, especially when determining a foundational knowledge base.

  3. The University of Washington Health Sciences Library BioCommons: an evolving Northwest biomedical research information support infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minie, Mark; Bowers, Stuart; Tarczy-Hornoch, Peter; Roberts, Edward; James, Rose A; Rambo, Neil; Fuller, Sherrilynne

    2006-07-01

    The University of Washington Health Sciences Libraries and Information Center BioCommons serves the bioinformatics needs of researchers at the university and in the vibrant for-profit and not-for-profit biomedical research sector in the Washington area and region. The BioCommons comprises services addressing internal University of Washington, not-for-profit, for-profit, and regional and global clientele. The BioCommons is maintained and administered by the BioResearcher Liaison Team. The BioCommons architecture provides a highly flexible structure for adapting to rapidly changing resources and needs. BioCommons uses Web-based pre- and post-course evaluations and periodic user surveys to assess service effectiveness. Recent surveys indicate substantial usage of BioCommons services and a high level of effectiveness and user satisfaction. BioCommons is developing novel collaborative Web resources to distribute bioinformatics tools and is experimenting with Web-based competency training in bioinformation resource use.

  4. Science as Knowledge, Practice, and Map Making: The Challenge of Defining Metrics for Evaluating and Improving DOE-Funded Basic Experimental Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodnarczuk, M.

    1993-03-01

    Industrial R&D laboratories have been surprisingly successful in developing performance objectives and metrics that convincingly show that planning, management, and improvement techniques can be value-added to the actual output of R&D organizations. In this paper, I will discuss the more difficult case of developing analogous constructs for DOE-funded non-nuclear, non-weapons basic research, or as I will refer to it - basic experimental science. Unlike most industrial R&D or the bulk of applied science performed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the purpose of basic experimental science is producing new knowledge (usually published in professional journals) that has no immediate application to the first link (the R) of a planned R&D chain. Consequently, performance objectives and metrics are far more difficult to define. My claim is that if one can successfully define metrics for evaluating and improving DOE-funded basic experimental science (which is the most difficult case), then defining such constructs for DOE-funded applied science should be much less problematic. With the publication of the DOE Standard - Implementation Guide for Quality Assurance Programs for Basic and Applied Research (DOE-ER-STD-6001-92) and the development of a conceptual framework for integrating all the DOE orders, we need to move aggressively toward the threefold next phase: (1) focusing the management elements found in DOE-ER-STD-6001-92 on the main output of national laboratories - the experimental science itself; (2) developing clearer definitions of basic experimental science as practice not just knowledge; and (3) understanding the relationship between the metrics that scientists use for evaluating the performance of DOE-funded basic experimental science, the management elements of DOE-ER-STD-6001-92, and the notion of continuous improvement.

  5. Attitudes toward becoming a veterinarian in a group of undergraduate agriculture and biomedical sciences students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Russell F; Erickson, Alan K

    2012-11-01

    To assess the level of interest of university students enrolled in veterinary science courses toward becoming a veterinarian, reasons supporting or discouraging their interest, when those attitudes were formed, and future plans for those pursuing veterinary medicine as a career. Cross-sectional study. 585 university students in South Dakota enrolled in 2 veterinary science courses over a 6-year period. Each year, students enrolled in the 2 courses answered survey questions pertaining to their interest in becoming a veterinarian, background, and future plans. Most students enrolled in these courses desired to become a veterinarian at some time in their lives. Females were more likely than males to indicate veterinary medicine as their current career choice. Most students developed their interest during grades 10 to 12. Females developed an interest in veterinary medicine earlier than did males. Enjoyment of animals, intellectual stimulation, and the opportunity to actively work outdoors were cited frequently as reasons for interest in veterinary medicine. Increased duration of education, high educational costs, and preveterinary coursework difficulty were major reasons for disinterest in becoming a veterinarian. Of students pursuing the profession, desired practice type correlated strongly with previous animal experience. Considering that most students, especially males, developed their interest in veterinary medicine during grades 10 to 12, elementary school may be the best starting point for exposing students to veterinary medicine. To increase interest in large animal practice among students entering veterinary school, livestock experiences should be provided to children with no farm experience during their elementary, middle, and high school years. In our survey population, cost and duration of veterinary education had a significant negative influence on student interest in the profession.

  6. The Cognitive Outcome in the Physical Games at the College of Students of the Basic Science in the World Islamic Sciences and Education University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salameh, Ibrahim A. M.; Al-Maharmeh, Yaseen A. M.; Oudat, Mo'een A.

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed at reconnoitering the cognitive outcome in the physical games at students of the college of basic science in the World Islamic Science and Education University. The descriptive method was employed, where the sample was randomly chosen, and amounted to (16) students (males & females) from the faculty. The sample discussed five…

  7. The Divergent Thinking of Basic Skills of Sciences Process Skills of Life Aspects on Natural Sciences Subject in Indonesian Elementary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subali, Bambang; Paidi; Mariyam, Siti

    2016-01-01

    This research aims at measuring the divergent thinking of basic skills of science process skills (SPS) of life aspects in Natural Sciences subjects on Elementary School. The test instruments used in this research have been standardized through the development of instruments. In this case, the tests were tried out to 3070 students. The results of…

  8. Laser-driven electron beam and radiation sources for basic, medical and industrial sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    NAKAJIMA, Kazuhisa

    2015-01-01

    To date active research on laser-driven plasma-based accelerators have achieved great progress on production of high-energy, high-quality electron and photon beams in a compact scale. Such laser plasma accelerators have been envisaged bringing a wide range of applications in basic, medical and industrial sciences. Here inheriting the groundbreaker’s review article on “Laser Acceleration and its future” [Toshiki Tajima, (2010)],1) we would like to review recent progress of producing such electron beams due to relativistic laser-plasma interactions followed by laser wakefield acceleration and lead to the scaling formulas that are useful to design laser plasma accelerators with controllability of beam energy and charge. Lastly specific examples of such laser-driven electron/photon beam sources are illustrated. PMID:26062737

  9. Article Commentary: Online Learning Tools as Supplements for Basic and Clinical Science Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S. Ellman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Undergraduate medical educators are increasingly incorporating online learning tools into basic and clinical science curricula. In this paper, we explore the diversity of online learning tools and consider the range of applications for these tools in classroom and bedside learning. Particular advantages of these tools are highlighted, such as delivering foundational knowledge as part of the “flipped classroom” pedagogy and for depicting unusual physical examination findings and advanced clinical communication skills. With accelerated use of online learning, educators and administrators need to consider pedagogic and practical challenges posed by integrating online learning into individual learning activities, courses, and curricula as a whole. We discuss strategies for faculty development and the role of school-wide resources for supporting and using online learning. Finally, we consider the role of online learning in interprofessional, integrated, and competency-based applications among other contemporary trends in medical education are considered.

  10. Laser-driven electron beam and radiation sources for basic, medical and industrial sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Kazuhisa

    2015-01-01

    To date active research on laser-driven plasma-based accelerators have achieved great progress on production of high-energy, high-quality electron and photon beams in a compact scale. Such laser plasma accelerators have been envisaged bringing a wide range of applications in basic, medical and industrial sciences. Here inheriting the groundbreaker's review article on "Laser Acceleration and its future" [Toshiki Tajima, (2010)],(1)) we would like to review recent progress of producing such electron beams due to relativistic laser-plasma interactions followed by laser wakefield acceleration and lead to the scaling formulas that are useful to design laser plasma accelerators with controllability of beam energy and charge. Lastly specific examples of such laser-driven electron/photon beam sources are illustrated.

  11. Online Learning Tools as Supplements for Basic and Clinical Science Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellman, Matthew S; Schwartz, Michael L

    2016-01-01

    Undergraduate medical educators are increasingly incorporating online learning tools into basic and clinical science curricula. In this paper, we explore the diversity of online learning tools and consider the range of applications for these tools in classroom and bedside learning. Particular advantages of these tools are highlighted, such as delivering foundational knowledge as part of the "flipped classroom" pedagogy and for depicting unusual physical examination findings and advanced clinical communication skills. With accelerated use of online learning, educators and administrators need to consider pedagogic and practical challenges posed by integrating online learning into individual learning activities, courses, and curricula as a whole. We discuss strategies for faculty development and the role of school-wide resources for supporting and using online learning. Finally, we consider the role of online learning in interprofessional, integrated, and competency-based applications among other contemporary trends in medical education are considered.

  12. Green fluorescent protein purification through Immobilized Metal Affinity Chromatografy (IMAC) and its relevance for Biomedical Science students during Biochemistry practical classes at La Trobe University – Australia

    OpenAIRE

    de Melo Silva, Alex Jose José; Alves, Lumar Lucena; Pakay, Julian

    2016-01-01

    This work was performed as an integrated practical of a Biomedical Science undergraduate course of Biochemistry subject, in order to demonstrate used techniques to purify of Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP). To perform the experiments the main methodology applied was the by immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC).  The open reading frame for enhanced GFP was sub-cloned into the pQE30 expression vector. The subsequent production of protein tagged N-terminally with hexahistidine, facili...

  13. Career Coaches as a Source of Vicarious Learning for Racial and Ethnic Minority PhD Students in the Biomedical Sciences: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Simon N; Thakore, Bhoomi K; McGee, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Many recent mentoring initiatives have sought to help improve the proportion of underrepresented racial and ethnic minorities (URMs) in academic positions across the biomedical sciences. However, the intractable nature of the problem of underrepresentation suggests that many young scientists may require supplemental career development beyond what many mentors are able to offer. As an adjunct to traditional scientific mentoring, we created a novel academic career "coaching" intervention for PhD students in the biomedical sciences. To determine whether and how academic career coaches can provide effective career-development-related learning experiences for URM PhD students in the biomedical sciences. We focus specifically on vicarious learning experiences, where individuals learn indirectly through the experiences of others. The intervention is being tested as part of a longitudinal randomized control trial (RCT). Here, we describe a nested qualitative study, using a framework approach to analyze data from a total of 48 semi-structured interviews from 24 URM PhD students (2 interviews per participant, 1 at baseline, 1 at 12-month follow-up) (16 female, 8 male; 11 Black, 12 Hispanic, 1 Native-American). We explored the role of the coach as a source of vicarious learning, in relation to the students' goal of being future biomedical science faculty. Coaches were resources through which most students in the study were able to learn vicariously about how to pursue, and succeed within, an academic career. Coaches were particularly useful in instances where students' research mentors are unable to provide such vicarious learning opportunities, for example because the mentor is too busy to have career-related discussions with a student, or because they have, or value, a different type of academic career to the type the student hopes to achieve. Coaching can be an important way to address the lack of structured career development that students receive in their home training

  14. Career Coaches as a Source of Vicarious Learning for Racial and Ethnic Minority PhD Students in the Biomedical Sciences: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Simon N.; Thakore, Bhoomi K.; McGee, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Many recent mentoring initiatives have sought to help improve the proportion of underrepresented racial and ethnic minorities (URMs) in academic positions across the biomedical sciences. However, the intractable nature of the problem of underrepresentation suggests that many young scientists may require supplemental career development beyond what many mentors are able to offer. As an adjunct to traditional scientific mentoring, we created a novel academic career “coaching” intervention for PhD students in the biomedical sciences. Objective To determine whether and how academic career coaches can provide effective career-development-related learning experiences for URM PhD students in the biomedical sciences. We focus specifically on vicarious learning experiences, where individuals learn indirectly through the experiences of others. Method The intervention is being tested as part of a longitudinal randomized control trial (RCT). Here, we describe a nested qualitative study, using a framework approach to analyze data from a total of 48 semi-structured interviews from 24 URM PhD students (2 interviews per participant, 1 at baseline, 1 at 12-month follow-up) (16 female, 8 male; 11 Black, 12 Hispanic, 1 Native-American). We explored the role of the coach as a source of vicarious learning, in relation to the students’ goal of being future biomedical science faculty. Results Coaches were resources through which most students in the study were able to learn vicariously about how to pursue, and succeed within, an academic career. Coaches were particularly useful in instances where students’ research mentors are unable to provide such vicarious learning opportunities, for example because the mentor is too busy to have career-related discussions with a student, or because they have, or value, a different type of academic career to the type the student hopes to achieve. Implications Coaching can be an important way to address the lack of structured career

  15. Integrating the dimensions of sex and gender into basic life sciences research: methodologic and ethical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdcroft, Anita

    2007-01-01

    The research process -- from study design and selecting a species and its husbandry, through the experiment, analysis, peer review, and publication -- is rarely subject to questions about sex or gender differences in mainstream life sciences research. However, the impact of sex and gender on these processes is important in explaining biological variations and presentation of symptoms and diseases. This review aims to challenge assumptions and to develop opportunities to mainstream sex and gender in basic scientific research. Questions about the mechanisms of sex and gender effects were reviewed in relation to biological, environmental, social, and psychological interactions. Gender variations, in respect to aging, socializing, and reproduction, that are present in human populations but are rarely featured in laboratory research were considered to more effectively translate animal research into clinical health care. Methodologic approaches to address the present lack of a gender dimension in research include actively reducing variations through attention to physical factors, biological rhythms, and experimental design. In addition, through genomic and acute nongenomic activity, hormones may compound effects through multiple small sex differences that occur during the course of an acute pathologic event. Furthermore, the many exogenous sex steroid hormones and their congeners used in medicine (eg, in contraception and cancer therapies) may add to these effects. The studies reviewed provide evidence that sex and gender are determinants of many outcomes in life science research. To embed the gender dimension into basic scientific research, a broad approach -- gender mainstreaming -- is warranted. One example is the use of review boards (eg, animal ethical review boards and journal peer-review boards) in which gender-related standardized questions can be asked about study design and analysis. A more fundamental approach is to question the relevance of present

  16. Basic Science and Public Policy: Informed Regulation for Nicotine and Tobacco Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Christie D; Gipson, Cassandra D; Kleykamp, Bethea A; Rupprecht, Laura E; Harrell, Paul T; Rees, Vaughan W; Gould, Thomas J; Oliver, Jason; Bagdas, Deniz; Damaj, M Imad; Schmidt, Heath D; Duncan, Alexander; De Biasi, Mariella

    2017-08-03

    Scientific discoveries over the past few decades have provided significant insight into the abuse liability and negative health consequences associated with tobacco and nicotine-containing products. While many of these advances have led to the development of policies and laws that regulate access to and formulations of these products, further research is critical to guide future regulatory efforts, especially as novel nicotine-containing products are introduced and selectively marketed to vulnerable populations. In this narrative review, we provide an overview of the scientific findings that have impacted regulatory policy and discuss considerations for further translation of science into policy decisions. We propose that open, bidirectional communication between scientists and policy makers is essential to develop transformative preventive- and intervention-focused policies and programs to reduce appeal, abuse liability, and toxicity of the products. Through these types of interactions, collaborative efforts to inform and modify policy have the potential to significantly decrease the use of tobacco and alternative nicotine products and thus enhance health outcomes for individuals. This work addresses current topics in the nicotine and tobacco research field to emphasize the importance of basic science research and provide examples of how it can be utilized to inform public policy. In addition to relaying current thoughts on the topic from experts in the field, the article encourages continued efforts and communication between basic scientists and policy officials. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Biomedical Science, Unit II: Nutrition in Health and Medicine. Digestion of Foods; Organic Chemistry of Nutrients; Energy and Cell Respiration; The Optimal Diet; Foodborne Diseases; Food Technology; Dental Science and Nutrition. Student Text. Revised Version, 1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomedical Interdisciplinary Curriculum Project, Berkeley, CA.

    This student text presents instructional materials for a unit of science within the Biomedical Interdisciplinary Curriculum Project (BICP), a two-year interdisciplinary precollege curriculum aimed at preparing high school students for entry into college and vocational programs leading to a career in the health field. Lessons concentrate on…

  18. Pharmacology education in North American dental schools: the basic science survey series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Medha; Shaw, David H; Pate, Ted D; Lambert, H Wayne

    2013-08-01

    As part of the Basic Science Survey Series (BSSS) for Dentistry, members of the American Dental Education Association (ADEA) Physiology, Pharmacology, and Therapeutics Section surveyed course directors of basic pharmacology courses in North American dental schools. The survey was designed to assess, among other things, faculty affiliation and experience of course directors, teaching methods, general course content and emphasis, extent of interdisciplinary (shared) instruction, and impact of recent curricular changes. Responses were received from forty-nine of sixty-seven (73.1 percent) U.S. and Canadian dental schools. The findings suggest the following: 1) substantial variation exists in instructional hours, faculty affiliation, placement within curriculum, class size, and interdisciplinary nature of pharmacology courses; 2) pharmacology course content emphasis is similar among schools; 3) the number of contact hours in pharmacology has remained stable over the past three decades; 4) recent curricular changes were often directed towards enhancing the integrative and clinically relevant aspects of pharmacology instruction; and 5) a trend toward innovative content delivery, such as use of computer-assisted instruction applications, is evident. Data, derived from this study, may be useful to pharmacology course directors, curriculum committees, and other dental educators with an interest in integrative and interprofessional education.

  19. Assessment of scientific thinking in basic science questions in the Iranian Fourth National Olympiad for medical sciences students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Ghojazadeh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Regarding to the importance of students Olympiads, and the need for evaluation of quality of questions, the aim of this study was to analyze questions (indices of difficulty coefficient and discrimination coefficient of Fourth Olympiad examination among Iranian medical sciences students in the area of scientific thinking in basic science. Methods: This study was descriptive-analytical study and was conducted in 2013 in the Tabriz University of Medical Sciences (Tabriz, Iran. The individual phase of this period, comprised from four phase and six parts included: designing conceptual map (CM (three part designing CM, summarizing CM, and designing three questions, hypothesis generating, selecting variables, and analyzing the findings. Data analyzed using descriptive statistics and statistical tests in SPSS for Windows. Results: According to difficulty coefficient of selecting variable (82% and making hypothesis was the easiest part (46%. And according to discriminate coefficient, analyzing the findings had the highest discriminate coefficient (83%, and selecting materials had the lowest discriminate coefficient (34%. Difficulty coefficient of the test was estimated about 63%, and discriminate coefficient was 66%. The results of Spearman correlation coefficient test showed that the correlation between scores related to designing CM with generating hypothesis equals to 85%, with selecting variable was 36% and with analyzing the results equals to 71%. Conclusion: Based on the result of this study, it is necessary for a designer of test to focus on selecting variable part of the test for improvement of quality and validity of the test. Furthermore, regarding to effectiveness of CM, it seems logical to pay more attention to their use.

  20. Why not just Google it? An assessment of information literacy skills in a biomedical science curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsley, Karl; Galbraith, Gillian M; Herring, Matthew; Stowers, Eva; Stewart, Tanis; Kingsley, Karla V

    2011-04-25

    Few issues in higher education are as fundamental as the ability to search for, evaluate, and synthesize information. The need to develop information literacy, the process of finding, retrieving, organizing, and evaluating the ever-expanding collection of online information, has precipitated the need for training in skill-based competencies in higher education, as well as medical and dental education. The current study evaluated the information literacy skills of first-year dental students, consisting of two, consecutive dental student cohorts (n = 160). An assignment designed to evaluate information literacy skills was conducted. In addition, a survey of student online search engine or database preferences was conducted to identify any significant associations. Subsequently, an intervention was developed, based upon the results of the assessment and survey, to address any deficiencies in information literacy. Nearly half of students (n = 70/160 or 43%) missed one or more question components that required finding an evidence-based citation. Analysis of the survey revealed a significantly higher percentage of students who provided incorrect responses (n = 53/70 or 75.7%) reported using Google as their preferred online search method (p science librarian, virtually all students were able to find and retrieve evidence-based materials for subsequent coursework. This study confirmed that information literacy among this student population was lacking and that integration of modules within the curriculum can help students to filter and establish the quality of online information, a critical component in the training of new health care professionals. Furthermore, incorporation of these modules early in the curriculum may be of significant value to other dental, medical, health care, and professional schools with similar goals of incorporating the evidence base into teaching and learning activities.

  1. Designing and Implementing Basic Sciences Ontology Based on Concepts and Relationships of Relevant Thesauri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molouk Sadat Hosseini Beheshti

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the main portion of knowledge is stored in electronic texts and documents and for transferring that knowledge effectively, we must use proper methods to gather and retrieve relevant information. Ontologies provide means to produce structured documents and use intelligent search instead of keyword search. Ontology defines the common words and concepts used to describe and represent an area of knowledge. However, developing ontologies is a time consuming and labor work, so many ontology developers try to facilitate and speed up this process by reusing other resources. In fact, thesaurus contains semantic information and hierarchical structure that make it an appropriate resource for ontology construction. Therefore, we determined to use the thesauri previously developed at Iranian Research Institute for Information Science and Technology (IRANDOC to construct ontology in basic sciences domain. At first, we synchronized common concepts in thesauri before integrating them as a macro thesaurus and removed inconsistencies. To reduce the amount of time and human resources which were needed for synchronizing process, Thesaurus Synchronizer was developed to illustrate differences between matched cases of two thesauri. It provides powerful tools for demonstrating differences and suggestions for each of the existing matters. Thus, domain experts synchronized each two thesaurus semi-automatically. Then we merged thesauri and transform the data format into ISO 25964 standard. The conceptual model have been designed based on the terms and their relationships in the integrated thesaurus and the concept maps that were designed by domain experts for each of basic sciences (Chemistry, Physics, Biology, Geology and Mathematics. We used the methodology called METHONTOLOGY in this stage. The main activity in this methodology is conceptualization and it enables the construction of ontologies at the knowledge level. Ultimately, the ontology was generated by

  2. Crowdsourcing biomedical research: leveraging communities as innovation engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saez-Rodriguez, Julio; Costello, James C; Friend, Stephen H; Kellen, Michael R; Mangravite, Lara; Meyer, Pablo; Norman, Thea; Stolovitzky, Gustavo

    2016-07-15

    The generation of large-scale biomedical data is creating unprecedented opportunities for basic and translational science. Typically, the data producers perform initial analyses, but it is very likely that the most informative methods may reside with other groups. Crowdsourcing the analysis of complex and massive data has emerged as a framework to find robust methodologies. When the crowdsourcing is done in the form of collaborative scientific competitions, known as Challenges, the validation of the methods is inherently addressed. Challenges also encourage open innovation, create collaborative communities to solve diverse and important biomedical problems, and foster the creation and dissemination of well-curated data repositories.

  3. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Basic Energy Sciences Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Richard; Wasserman, Harvey

    2011-03-31

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the leading scientific computing facility supporting research within the Department of Energy's Office of Science. NERSC provides high-performance computing (HPC) resources to approximately 4,000 researchers working on about 400 projects. In addition to hosting large-scale computing facilities, NERSC provides the support and expertise scientists need to effectively and efficiently use HPC systems. In February 2010, NERSC, DOE's Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) and DOE's Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) held a workshop to characterize HPC requirements for BES research through 2013. The workshop was part of NERSC's legacy of anticipating users future needs and deploying the necessary resources to meet these demands. Workshop participants reached a consensus on several key findings, in addition to achieving the workshop's goal of collecting and characterizing computing requirements. The key requirements for scientists conducting research in BES are: (1) Larger allocations of computational resources; (2) Continued support for standard application software packages; (3) Adequate job turnaround time and throughput; and (4) Guidance and support for using future computer architectures. This report expands upon these key points and presents others. Several 'case studies' are included as significant representative samples of the needs of science teams within BES. Research teams scientific goals, computational methods of solution, current and 2013 computing requirements, and special software and support needs are summarized in these case studies. Also included are researchers strategies for computing in the highly parallel, 'multi-core' environment that is expected to dominate HPC architectures over the next few years. NERSC has strategic plans and initiatives already underway that address key workshop findings. This report includes a

  4. Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar citation rates: a case study of medical physics and biomedical engineering: what gets cited and what doesn't?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapp, Jamie

    2016-12-01

    There are often differences in a publication's citation count, depending on the database accessed. Here, aspects of citation counts for medical physics and biomedical engineering papers are studied using papers published in the journal Australasian physical and engineering sciences in medicine. Comparison is made between the Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar. Papers are categorised into subject matter, and citation trends are examined. It is shown that review papers as a group tend to receive more citations on average; however the highest cited individual papers are more likely to be research papers.

  5. Guidelines for DOE Long Term Civilian Research and Development. Volume III. Basic Energy Sciences, High Energy and Nuclear Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-12-01

    The Research Panel prepared two reports. This report reviews the Department of Energy's Basic Energy Sciences, High Energy Physics, and Nuclear Physics programs. The second report examines the Environment, Health and Safety programs in the Department. This summary addresses the general value and priority of basic research programs for the Department of Energy and the nation. In addition, it describes the key strategic issues and major recommendations for each program area

  6. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1983 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 1. Biomedical sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.F.

    1984-02-01

    This report summarizes progress on Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) biomedical and health effects research conducted at PNL in FY 1983 to develop the information required for a comprehensive understanding of the interaction of energy-related pollutants with living organisms. The first section is devoted to an evaluation of possible health effects among nuclear workers. The next three sections, which contain reports of health effects research in biological systems, are grouped according to the major endpoint being studied: carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, and systems damage. Since some projects have multiple objectives, a section may contain data concerning other endpoints as well. The section on carcinogenesis presents results from laboratory animal dose-effect relationship studies from both nuclear and synfuels materials. These data, along with metabolism and modeling studies, provide a basis for predicting human risks in the absence of relevant human exposure. This year we include a report on our 22nd Hanford Life Sciences Symposium, which dealt with this problem of extrapolating the results of animal studies to man. Of particular importance in carcinogenesis has been the demonstration that the carcinogenic potencies of complex organic synfuel mixtures may be much lower (or, occasionally, higher) than the sum of the potencies of the individual components. The mutagenesis section is primarily concerned with the results of microbial mutagenesis studies with synfuel materials. These studies provide valuable information on the carcinogenic potential of these complex organic mixtures. With results from studies reported in the carcinogenesis section, they are also being used to establish an adequate data base for determining the correlation between mutagenic and carcinogenic processes. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each program for inclusion in the Energy Data Base

  7. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1983 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 1. Biomedical sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.F.

    1984-02-01

    This report summarizes progress on Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) biomedical and health effects research conducted at PNL in FY 1983 to develop the information required for a comprehensive understanding of the interaction of energy-related pollutants with living organisms. The first section is devoted to an evaluation of possible health effects among nuclear workers. The next three sections, which contain reports of health effects research in biological systems, are grouped according to the major endpoint being studied: carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, and systems damage. Since some projects have multiple objectives, a section may contain data concerning other endpoints as well. The section on carcinogenesis presents results from laboratory animal dose-effect relationship studies from both nuclear and synfuels materials. These data, along with metabolism and modeling studies, provide a basis for predicting human risks in the absence of relevant human exposure. This year we include a report on our 22nd Hanford Life Sciences Symposium, which dealt with this problem of extrapolating the results of animal studies to man. Of particular importance in carcinogenesis has been the demonstration that the carcinogenic potencies of complex organic synfuel mixtures may be much lower (or, occasionally, higher) than the sum of the potencies of the individual components. The mutagenesis section is primarily concerned with the results of microbial mutagenesis studies with synfuel materials. These studies provide valuable information on the carcinogenic potential of these complex organic mixtures. With results from studies reported in the carcinogenesis section, they are also being used to establish an adequate data base for determining the correlation between mutagenic and carcinogenic processes. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each program for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  8. There was less self-critique among basic than in clinical science articles in three rheumatology journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazici, Hasan; Gogus, Feride; Esen, Fehim; Yazici, Yusuf

    2014-06-01

    There is concern that self-critique with authors acknowledging limitations of their work is not given due importance in scientific articles. We had the impression that this was more true for articles in basic compared with clinical science. We thus surveyed for the presence of self-critique in the discussion sections of the original articles in three rheumatology journals with attention to differences between the basic and the clinical science articles. The discussion sections of the original articles in January, May, and September 2012 issues of Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, Arthritis and Rheumatism, and Rheumatology (Oxford) were surveyed (n = 223) after classifying each article as mainly related to clinical or basic science. The discussion sections were electronically scanned by two observers for the presence of the root word "limit" or its derivatives who also read each discussion section for the presence of any limitations otherwise voiced. A limitation discussion in any form was present in only 19 (20.2%) or 29 (30.1%) of 94 basic science vs. 95 (73.6%) or 107 (82.3%) of 129 clinical science articles (P articles, should be given due attention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The potential improvement of team-working skills in Biomedical and Natural Science students using a problem-based learning approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forough L. Nowrouzian

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Teamwork has become an integral part of most organisations today, and it is clearly important in Science and other disciplines. In Science, research teams increase in size while the number of single-authored papers and patents decline. Team-work in laboratory sciences permits projects that are too big or complex for one individual to be tackled. This development requires that students gain experience of team-work before they start their professional career. Students working in teams this may increase productivity, confidence, innovative capacity and improvement of interpersonal skills. Problem-based learning (PBL is an instructional approach focusing on real analytical problems as a means of training an analytical scientist. PBL may have a positive impact on team-work skills that are important for undergraduates and postgraduates to enable effective collaborative work. This survey of the current literature explores the development of the team-work skills in Biomedical Science students using PBL.

  10. Translating Basic Behavioral and Social Science Research to Clinical Application: The EVOLVE Mixed Methods Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Janey C.; Czajkowski, Susan; Charlson, Mary E.; Link, Alissa R.; Wells, Martin T.; Isen, Alice M.; Mancuso, Carol A.; Allegrante, John P.; Boutin-Foster, Carla; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Jobe, Jared B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To describe a mixed-methods approach to develop and test a basic behavioral science-informed intervention to motivate behavior change in three high-risk clinical populations. Our theoretically-derived intervention comprised a combination of positive affect and self-affirmation (PA/SA) which we applied to three clinical chronic disease populations. Methods We employed a sequential mixed methods model (EVOLVE) to design and test the PA/SA intervention in order to increase physical activity in people with coronary artery disease (post-percutaneous coronary intervention [PCI]) or asthma (ASM), and to improve medication adherence in African Americans with hypertension (HTN). In an initial qualitative phase, we explored participant values and beliefs. We next pilot tested and refined the intervention, and then conducted three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with parallel study design. Participants were randomized to combined PA/SA vs. an informational control (IC) and followed bimonthly for 12 months, assessing for health behaviors and interval medical events. Results Over 4.5 years, we enrolled 1,056 participants. Changes were sequentially made to the intervention during the qualitative and pilot phases. The three RCTs enrolled 242 PCI, 258 ASM and 256 HTN participants (n=756). Overall, 45.1% of PA/SA participants versus 33.6% of IC participants achieved successful behavior change (p=0.001). In multivariate analysis PA/SA intervention remained a significant predictor of achieving behavior change (pbehavioral science research can be translated into efficacious interventions for chronic disease populations. PMID:22963594

  11. Job Satisfaction in Basic and Clinical Faculty Members in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Saberi-Firoozi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Shiraz University of Medical Sciences as one of the oldest and largest universities of medicine in Iran with 50 years history has more than 450 faculty members and 5000 students. This study is an attempt to find out the level of job satisfaction among Shiraz University ofMedical Sciences’ faculty members.Methods: In midterm of 2003-2004, data on job satisfaction level among 404 faculty members from all schools of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences were collected. The translation of Spector’s job satisfaction score was used including 34 questions in 9 items of job satisfaction and each one based on Likert’s Scale with score an of 1-5. A question related to overall job satisfaction of faculty members was added.Results: Of all faculties,, 252 responded to the questionnaire and 70.1% expressed satisfaction in response the added question. The mean scores of job satisfaction in items of coworkers, work nature, supervision, management methods, academic relations, promotion, salary and suitable benefits were3.771, 3.265, 2.557, 2.454, 2.395, and 2.376 out of 5 respectively (F=223.8, p=0.0001. In the promotion item, the satisfaction of female faculty was lower than male subjects. The level of job satisfaction was not different between clinical faculty members of Medical School with or without private activity. The results of linear regression analysis between the items of job satisfaction revealed that reimbursement and fringe benefits could predict the overall job satisfaction (r2=0.70, p<0.01.Conclusion: As a whole, the faculty members of the university were satisfied with their jobs, but a correction in reimbursement, benefits and promotion regulations especially in lower academic ranks is needed to improve the level of job satisfaction in this group.Key words: JOB SATISFACTION, FACULTY MEMBER, BASIC AND CLINICAL DEPARTMENTS, FULLTIME, PART-TIME

  12. Data and Communications in Basic Energy Sciences: Creating a Pathway for Scientific Discovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nugent, Peter E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Simonson, J. Michael [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2011-10-24

    This report is based on the Department of Energy (DOE) Workshop on “Data and Communications in Basic Energy Sciences: Creating a Pathway for Scientific Discovery” that was held at the Bethesda Marriott in Maryland on October 24-25, 2011. The workshop brought together leading researchers from the Basic Energy Sciences (BES) facilities and Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR). The workshop was co-sponsored by these two Offices to identify opportunities and needs for data analysis, ownership, storage, mining, provenance and data transfer at light sources, neutron sources, microscopy centers and other facilities. Their charge was to identify current and anticipated issues in the acquisition, analysis, communication and storage of experimental data that could impact the progress of scientific discovery, ascertain what knowledge, methods and tools are needed to mitigate present and projected shortcomings and to create the foundation for information exchanges and collaboration between ASCR and BES supported researchers and facilities. The workshop was organized in the context of the impending data tsunami that will be produced by DOE’s BES facilities. Current facilities, like SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory’s Linac Coherent Light Source, can produce up to 18 terabytes (TB) per day, while upgraded detectors at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory’s Advanced Light Source will generate ~10TB per hour. The expectation is that these rates will increase by over an order of magnitude in the coming decade. The urgency to develop new strategies and methods in order to stay ahead of this deluge and extract the most science from these facilities was recognized by all. The four focus areas addressed in this workshop were: Workflow Management - Experiment to Science: Identifying and managing the data path from experiment to publication. Theory and Algorithms: Recognizing the need for new tools for computation at scale, supporting large data sets and realistic

  13. An International Basic Science and Clinical Research Summer Program for Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramjiawan, Bram; Pierce, Grant N.; Anindo, Mohammad Iffat Kabir; AlKukhun, Abedalrazaq; Alshammari, Abdullah; Chamsi, Ahmad Talal; Abousaleh, Mohannad; Alkhani, Anas; Ganguly, Pallab K.

    2012-01-01

    An important part of training the next generation of physicians is ensuring that they are exposed to the integral role that research plays in improving medical treatment. However, medical students often do not have sufficient time to be trained to carry out any projects in biomedical and clinical research. Many medical students also fail to…

  14. [MD PhD programs: Providing basic science education for ophthalmologists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaniol, K; Geerling, G

    2015-06-01

    Enrollment in MD PhD programs offers the opportunity of a basic science education for medical students and doctors. These programs originated in the USA where structured programs have been offered for many years, but now German universities also run MD PhD programs. The MD PhD programs provided by German universities were investigated regarding entrance requirements, structure and financing modalities. An internet and telephone-based search was carried out. Out of 34 German universities 22 offered MD PhD programs. At 15 of the 22 universities a successfully completed course of studies in medicine was required for enrollment, 7 programs admitted medical students in training and 7 programs required a medical doctoral thesis, which had to be completed with at least a grade of magna cum laude in 3 cases. Financing required scholarships in many cases. Several German universities currently offer MD PhD programs; however, these differ considerably regarding entrance requirements, structure and financing. A detailed analysis investigating the success rates of these programs (e.g. successful completion and career paths of graduates) would be of benefit.

  15. The Impact of Emotion on Learners' Application of Basic Science Principles to Novel Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Meghan M; Monteiro, Sandra; Pottruff, Molly M; Neville, Alan; Norman, Geoff R; Eva, Kevin W; Kulasegaram, Kulamakan

    2016-11-01

    Training to become a physician is an emotionally laden experience. Research in cognitive psychology indicates that emotions can influence learning and performance, but the materials used in such research (e.g., word lists) rarely reflect the complexity of material presented in medical school. The present study examined whether emotions influence learning of basic science principles. Fifty-five undergraduate psychology students were randomly assigned to write about positive, negative, or neutral life events for nine minutes. Participants were then taught three physiological concepts, each in the context of a single organ system. Testing consisted of 13 clinical cases, 7 presented with the same concept/organ system pairing used during training ("near transfer") and 6 with novel pairings ("far transfer"). Testing was repeated after one week with 13 additional cases. Forty-nine students provided complete data. Higher test scores were found when the concept/organ system pairing was held constant (near transfer = 51% correct vs. far = 33%; P concepts by novices. Demands on working memory and subsequent cognitive load provide a potential explanation. Future work will examine the extent to which these findings generalize to medical trainees.

  16. Developmental defects of enamel and dentine: challenges for basic science research and clinical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seow, W K

    2014-06-01

    Abnormalities of enamel and dentine are caused by a variety of interacting factors ranging from genetic defects to environmental insults. The genetic changes associated with some types of enamel and dentine defects have been mapped, and many environmental influences, including medical illnesses that can damage enamel and dentine have been identified. Developmental enamel defects may present as enamel hypoplasia or hypomineralization while dentine defects frequently demonstrate aberrant calcifications and abnormalities of the dentine-pulp complex. Clinically, developmental enamel defects often present with problems of discolouration and aesthetics, tooth sensitivity, and susceptibility to caries, wear and erosion. In contrast, dentine defects are a risk for endodontic complications resulting from dentine hypomineralization and pulpal abnormalities. The main goals of managing developmental abnormalities of enamel and dentine are early diagnosis and improvement of appearance and function by preserving the dentition and preventing complications. However, despite major advances in scientific knowledge regarding the causes of enamel and dentine defects, further research is required in order to translate the knowledge gained in the basic sciences research to accurate clinical diagnosis and successful treatment of the defects. © 2013 Australian Dental Association.

  17. Evaluation of Multiple Choice and Short Essay Question items in Basic Medical Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Mukhtiar; Ali, Syeda Kauser; Ali, Sobia; Huda, Nighat

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate Multiple Choice and Short Essay Question items in Basic Medical Sciences by determining item writing flaws (IWFs) of MCQs along with cognitive level of each item in both methods. Methods: This analytical study evaluated the quality of the assessment tools used for the first batch in a newly established medical college in Karachi, Pakistan. First and sixth module assessment tools in Biochemistry during 2009-2010 were analyzed. Cognitive level of MCQs and SEQs, were noted and MCQ item writing flaws were also evaluated. Results: A total of 36 SEQs and 150 MCQs of four items were analyzed. The cognitive level of 83.33% of SEQs was at recall level while remaining 16.67% were assessing interpretation of data. Seventy six percent of the MCQs were at recall level while remaining 24% were at the interpretation. Regarding IWFs, 69 IWFs were found in 150 MCQs. The commonest among them were implausible distracters (30.43%), unfocused stem (27.54%) and unnecessary information in the stem (24.64%). Conclusion: There is a need to review the quality including the content of assessment tools. A structured faculty development program is recommended for developing improved assessment tools that align with learning outcomes and measure competency of medical students. PMID:24639820

  18. Proprioception in musculoskeletal rehabilitation. Part 1: Basic science and principles of assessment and clinical interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röijezon, Ulrik; Clark, Nicholas C; Treleaven, Julia

    2015-06-01

    Impaired proprioception has been reported as a feature in a number of musculoskeletal disorders of various body parts, from the cervical spine to the ankle. Proprioception deficits can occur as a result of traumatic damage, e.g., to ligaments and muscles, but can also occur in association with painful disorders of a gradual-onset nature. Muscle fatigue can also adversely affect proprioception and this has implications for both symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals. Due to the importance of proprioception for sensorimotor control, specific methods for assessment and training of proprioception have been developed for both the spine and the extremities. The aim of this first part of a two part series on proprioception in musculoskeletal rehabilitation is to present a theory based overview of the role of proprioception in sensorimotor control, assessment, causes and findings of altered proprioception in musculoskeletal disorders and general principles of interventions targeting proprioception. An understanding of the basic science of proprioception, consequences of disturbances and theories behind assessment and interventions is vital for the clinical management of musculoskeletal disorders. Part one of this series supplies a theoretical base for part two which is more practically and clinically orientated, covering specific examples of methods for clinical assessment and interventions to improve proprioception in the spine and the extremities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Physiology education in North American dental schools: the basic science survey series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Medha; Shaw, David H; Pate, Ted D; Lambert, H Wayne

    2014-06-01

    As part of the Basic Science Survey Series for Dentistry, members of the American Dental Education Association (ADEA) Physiology, Pharmacology, and Therapeutics Section surveyed directors of physiology courses in North American dental schools. The survey was designed to assess, among other things, faculty affiliation and experience of course directors, teaching methods, general course content and emphasis, extent of interdisciplinary (shared) instruction, and impact of recent curricular changes. Responses were received from forty-four of sixty-seven (65.7 percent) U.S. and Canadian dental schools. The findings suggest the following: substantial variation exists in instructional hours, faculty affiliation, class size, and interdisciplinary nature of physiology courses; physiology course content emphasis is similar between schools; student contact hours in physiology, which have remained relatively stable in the past fifteen years, are starting to be reduced; recent curricular changes have often been directed towards enhancing the integrative and clinically relevant aspects of physiology instruction; and a trend toward innovative content delivery, such as use of computer-assisted instruction, is evident. Data from this study may be useful to physiology course directors, curriculum committees, and other dental educators with an interest in integrative and interprofessional education.

  20. Annals of Biomedical Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Awareness of health risks associated with body piercing and tattooing among tertiary students in Auchi, Edo state, Nigeria · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. T.A. Ehwarieme, F.O. Amieghemie ...

  1. Changes in Study Strategies of Medical Students between Basic Science Courses and Clerkships Are Associated with Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensminger, David C.; Hoyt, Amy E.; Chandrasekhar, Arcot J.; McNulty, John A.

    2013-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that medical students change their study strategies when transitioning from basic science courses to clerkships, and that their study practices are associated with performance scores. Factor scores for three approaches to studying (construction, rote, and review) generated from student (n = 150) responses to a…

  2. Collaborative diagramming during problem based learning in medical education: Do computerized diagrams support basic science knowledge construction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leng, Bas; Gijlers, Aaltje H.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To examine how collaborative diagramming affects discussion and knowledge construction when learning complex basic science topics in medical education, including its effectiveness in the reformulation phase of problem-based learning. Methods: Opinions and perceptions of students (n = 70) and

  3. Fusion connection: contributions to industry, defense, and basic science resulting from scientific advances made in the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finn, T.; Woo, J.; Temkin, R.

    1985-10-01

    Fusion research has led to significant contributions in many different areas of industry, defense, and basic science. This diversity is represented visually in the introductory figure which shows both a radio galaxy, and a microchip produced by plasma etching. Some of these spin-off technologies are discussed

  4. The articulation of integration of clinical and basic sciences in concept maps : differences between experienced and resident groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, Sylvia; van Tartwijk, Jan; Verloop, Nico; Gosselink, Manon; Driessen, Erik; Bolk, Jan

    To determine the content of integrated curricula, clinical concepts and the underlying basic science concepts need to be made explicit. Preconstructed concept maps are recommended for this purpose. They are mainly constructed by experts. However, concept maps constructed by residents are

  5. The Articulation of Integration of Clinical and Basic Sciences in Concept Maps: Differences between Experienced and Resident Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vink, Sylvia; van Tartwijk, Jan; Verloop, Nico; Gosselink, Manon; Driessen, Erik; Bolk, Jan

    2016-01-01

    To determine the content of integrated curricula, clinical concepts and the underlying basic science concepts need to be made explicit. Preconstructed concept maps are recommended for this purpose. They are mainly constructed by experts. However, concept maps constructed by residents are hypothesized to be less complex, to reveal more tacit basic…

  6. Thinking science with thinking machines: The multiple realities of basic and applied knowledge in a research border zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Steve G

    2015-04-01

    Some scholars dismiss the distinction between basic and applied science as passé, yet substantive assumptions about this boundary remain obdurate in research policy, popular rhetoric, the sociology and philosophy of science, and, indeed, at the level of bench practice. In this article, I draw on a multiple ontology framework to provide a more stable affirmation of a constructivist position in science and technology studies that cannot be reduced to a matter of competing perspectives on a single reality. The analysis is grounded in ethnographic research in the border zone of Artificial Intelligence science. I translate in-situ moments in which members of neighboring but differently situated labs engage in three distinct repertoires that render the reality of basic and applied science: partitioning, flipping, and collapsing. While the essences of scientific objects are nowhere to be found, the boundary between basic and applied is neither illusion nor mere propaganda. Instead, distinctions among scientific knowledge are made real as a matter of course.

  7. Chemical Engineering Division basic energy sciences research: July 1976--September 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    Studies in basic energy science covered many different activities, nearly all of which were designed to gain information required for a better understanding of systems important to national needs in energy and environment. Studies of associating gases included measurements of thermal conductivities and basic molecular orbital calculations. Raman spectroscopy and spectrophotometry were used to determine thermodynamic and spectroscopic data on salt vapor complexes. Polarized Raman spectra of As/sub 2/S/sub 3/ thin films and vapors were recorded. Halogenation of lanthanide oxides with aluminum chloride allowed the separation of the resultant chloride complexes by vapor transport. Electrochemical titrations were used to obtain the solubility product of iron sulfide in molten LiCl--KCl eutectic. Solubility products of eleven sulfides in the same eutectic mixture were calculated. Galvanostatic techniques were used to study metal deposition/dissolution reactions in molten salts. Activity coefficients of lithium in lithium--lead alloys were determined electrochemically; phase diagrams of ternary alloys of Li--Al--Mg and Li--Ca--Mg were computed. Thermodynamic studies are being made of the sorption of hydrogen by Li--Al and Li--Pb alloys. The study of the solubility of oxygen in liquid lithium was completed. An electric resistance method for measuring distribution properties of nonmetallic elements in binary metallic systems containing lithium is being developed. Calorimetric methods were used to measure standard enthalpies of formation of some coal components, lanthanum and rare earth trifluorides, and ..gamma..-UO/sub 3/, UF/sub 6/, Cs/sub 3/CrO/sub 4/, Cs/sub 4/CrO/sub 4/, As/sub 4/S/sub 4/, and As/sub 2/S/sub 3/. High-temperature enthalpy increments were measured for LaF/sub 3/ and ..beta..-As/sub 4/S/sub 4/. The acidities of airborne ammonium sulfate-bearing particles from various areas of the U.S. were measured using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy.

  8. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1983 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 1. Biomedical sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drucker, H.

    1983-02-01

    Biomedical and health effects research conducted at PNL in 1982 on the evaluation of risk to man from existing and/or developing energy-related technologies are described. Most of the studies described in this report relate to activities for three major energy technologies: nuclear fuel cycle; fossil fuel cycle (oil, gas, and coal process technologies, mining, and utilization; synfuel development), and fudion (biomagnetic effects). The report is organized under these technologies. In addition, research reports are included on the application of nuclear energy to biomedical problems. Individual projects are indexed separately

  9. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1983 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 1. Biomedical sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drucker, H.

    1983-02-01

    Biomedical and health effects research conducted at PNL in 1982 on the evaluation of risk to man from existing and/or developing energy-related technologies are described. Most of the studies described in this report relate to activities for three major energy technologies: nuclear fuel cycle; fossil fuel cycle (oil, gas, and coal process technologies, mining, and utilization; synfuel development), and fudion (biomagnetic effects). The report is organized under these technologies. In addition, research reports are included on the application of nuclear energy to biomedical problems. Individual projects are indexed separately.

  10. Assessment of scientific thinking in basic science in the Iranian second national Olympiad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azarpira Negar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the scientific reasoning in basic science among undergraduate medical students, we established the National Medical Science Olympiad in Iran. In this Olympiad, the drawing of a concept map was used to evaluate a student's knowledge framework; students' ability in hypothesis generation and testing were also evaluated in four different steps. All medical students were invited to participate in this program. Finally, 133 undergraduate medical students with average grades ≥ 16/20 from 45 different medical schools in Iran were selected. The program took the form of four exams: drawing a concept map (Exam I, hypothesis generation (Exam II, choosing variables based on the hypothesis (Exam III, measuring scientific thought (Exam IV. The examinees were asked to complete all examination items in their own time without using textbooks, websites, or personal consultations. Data were presented as mean ± SE of each parameter. The correlation coefficient between students' scores in each exam with the total final score and average grade was calculated using the Spearman test. Results Out of a possible score of 200, the mean ± SE of each exam were as follows: 183.88 ± 5.590 for Exam I; 78.68 ± 9.168 for Exam II; 92.04 ± 2.503 for exam III; 106.13 ± 2.345 for Exam IV. The correlation of each exam score with the total final score was calculated, and there was a significant correlation between them (p The average grade was significantly correlated with the total final score (R = 0.770, (p p R = 0.7708 and the average grade. This means students with higher average grades had better grades in each exam, especially in drawing the concept map. Conclusions We hope that this competition will encourage medical schools to integrate theory and practice, analyze data, and read research articles. Our findings relate to a selected population, and our data may not be applicable to all medical students. Therefore, further studies are

  11. Why We Need Minimum Basic Requirements in Science for Acupuncture Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Narda G

    2016-08-05

    As enthusiasm for alternatives to pharmaceuticals and surgery grows, healthcare consumers are turning increasingly to physical medicine modalities such as acupuncture. However, they may encounter obstacles in accessing acupuncture due to several reasons, such as the inability to locate a suitable practitioner, insufficient reimbursement for treatment, or difficulty gaining a referral due to perceived lack of evidence or scientific rigor by specialists. Claims made about a range of treatment paradigms outstrip evidence and students in acupuncture courses are thus led to believe that the approaches they learn are effective and clinically meaningful. Critical inquiry and critical analysis of techniques taught are often omitted, leading to unquestioning acceptance, adoption, and implementation into practice of approaches that may or may not be rational and effective. Acupuncture education for both licensed physicians (DOs and MDs) and non-physicians needs to include science (i.e., explanation of its effects based on contemporary explanations of biological processes), evidence, and critical thinking. Erroneous notions concerning its mechanisms such as moving "stuck Qi (Chi)" or "energy" with needles and that this energy stagnates at specific, tiny locations on the body called acupuncture points lead to mistakes in methodologic design. For example, researchers may select sham and verum point locations that overlap considerably in their neural connections, leading to nonsignificant differences between the two interventions. Furthermore, attributing the effects of acupuncture to metaphorical and arcane views of physiology limits both acceptance and validation of acupuncture in both research and clinical settings. Finally, the content and quality of education and clinical exposure across acupuncture programs varies widely, with currently no minimum basic educational requirements in a scientific methodology. Considering the pressures mounting on clinicians to practice in an

  12. Cannabinoid-Induced Hyperemesis: A Conundrum—From Clinical Recognition to Basic Science Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nissar A. Darmani

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Cannabinoids are used clinically on a subacute basis as prophylactic agonist antiemetics for the prevention of nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapeutics. Cannabinoids prevent vomiting by inhibition of release of emetic neurotransmitters via stimulation of presynaptic cannabinoid CB1 receptors. Cannabis-induced hyperemesis is a recently recognized syndrome associated with chronic cannabis use. It is characterized by repeated cyclical vomiting and learned compulsive hot water bathing behavior. Although considered rare, recent international publications of numerous case reports suggest the contrary. The syndrome appears to be a paradox and the pathophysiological mechanism(s underlying the induced vomiting remains unknown. Although some traditional hypotheses have already been proposed, the present review critically explores the basic science of these explanations in the clinical setting and provides more current mechanisms for the induced hyperemesis. These encompass: (1 pharmacokinetic factors such as long half-life, chronic exposure, lipid solubility, individual variation in metabolism/excretion leading to accumulation of emetogenic cannabinoid metabolites, and/or cannabinoid withdrawal; and (2 pharmacodynamic factors including switching of the efficacy of Δ9-THC from partial agonist to antagonist, differential interaction of Δ9-THC with Gs and Gi signal transduction proteins, CB1 receptor desensitization or downregulation, alterations in tissue concentrations of endocannabinoid agonists/inverse agonists, Δ9-THC-induced mobilization of emetogenic metabolites of the arachidonic acid cascade, brainstem versus enteric actions of Δ9-THC, and/or hypothermic versus hyperthermic actions of Δ9-THC. In addition, human and animal findings suggest that chronic exposure to cannabis may not be a prerequisite for the induction of vomiting but is required for the intensity of emesis.

  13. Molecular Biomedical Imaging Laboratory (MBIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Molecular Biomedical Imaging Laboratory (MBIL) is adjacent-a nd has access-to the Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences clinical imaging facilities. MBIL...

  14. Globalization and changing trends of biomedical research output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Marisa L; Liu, Jing; Schnell, Santiago; Omary, M Bishr

    2017-06-15

    The US continues to lead the world in research and development (R&D) expenditures, but there is concern that stagnation in federal support for biomedical research in the US could undermine the leading role the US has played in biomedical and clinical research discoveries. As a readout of research output in the US compared with other countries, assessment of original research articles published by US-based authors in ten clinical and basic science journals during 2000 to 2015 showed a steady decline of articles in high-ranking journals or no significant change in mid-ranking journals. In contrast, publication output originating from China-based investigators, in both high- and mid-ranking journals, has steadily increased commensurate with significant growth in R&D expenditures. These observations support the current concerns of stagnant and year-to-year uncertainty in US federal funding of biomedical research.

  15. African Journal of Biomedical Research: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AIMS AND SCOPE: The journal is conceived as an academic and professional journal covering all fields within the Biomedical Sciences including the allied health fields. Articles from the Physical Sciences and humanities related to the Medical Sciences will also be considered. The African Journal of Biomedical Research ...

  16. Developing a complex systems perspective for medical education to facilitate the integration of basic science and clinical medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aron, David C

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of medical education is to produce competent and capable professional practitioners who can combine the art and science of medicine. Moreover, this process must prepare individuals to practise in a field in which knowledge is increasing and the contexts in which that knowledge is applied are changing in unpredictable ways. The 'basic sciences' are important in the training of a physician. The goal of basic science training is to learn it in a way that the material can be applied in practice. Much effort has been expended to integrate basic science and clinical training, while adding many other topics to the medical curriculum. This effort has been challenging. The aims of the paper are (1) to propose a unifying conceptual framework that facilitates knowledge integration among all levels of living systems from cell to society and (2) illustrate the organizing principles with two examples of the framework in action - cybernetic systems (with feedback) and distributed robustness. Literature related to hierarchical and holarchical frameworks was reviewed. An organizing framework derived from living systems theory and spanning the range from molecular biology to health systems management was developed. The application of cybernetic systems to three levels (regulation of pancreatic beta cell production of insulin, physician adjustment of medication for glycaemic control and development and action of performance measures for diabetes care) was illustrated. Similarly distributed robustness was illustrated by the DNA damage response system and principles underlying patient safety. Each of the illustrated organizing principles offers a means to facilitate the weaving of basic science and clinical medicine throughout the course of study. The use of such an approach may promote systems thinking, which is a core competency for effective and capable medical practice. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  17. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... science, such as: How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic ... that with brain development in people mental disorders. Genes and environmental cues both help to direct this ...

  18. Basic Energy Sciences Exascale Requirements Review. An Office of Science review sponsored jointly by Advanced Scientific Computing Research and Basic Energy Sciences, November 3-5, 2015, Rockville, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windus, Theresa [Ames Lab., Ames, IA (United States); Banda, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Devereaux, Thomas [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); White, Julia C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Antypas, Katie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Coffey, Richard [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dart, Eli [Energy Sciences Network (ESNet), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dosanjh, Sudip [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gerber, Richard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hack, James [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Monga, Inder [Energy Sciences Network (ESNet), Berkeley, CA (United States); Papka, Michael E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Riley, Katherine [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Rotman, Lauren [Energy Sciences Network (ESNet), Berkeley, CA (United States); Straatsma, Tjerk [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wells, Jack [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Baruah, Tunna [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States); Benali, Anouar [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Borland, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Brabec, Jiri [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Carter, Emily [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Ceperley, David [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Chan, Maria [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chelikowsky, James [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Chen, Jackie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cheng, Hai-Ping [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Clark, Aurora [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Darancet, Pierre [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); DeJong, Wibe [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Deslippe, Jack [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC); Dixon, David [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); Donatelli, Jeffrey [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dunning, Thomas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fernandez-Serra, Marivi [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Freericks, James [Georgetown Univ., Washington, DC (United States); Gagliardi, Laura [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Galli, Giulia [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Garrett, Bruce [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Glezakou, Vassiliki-Alexandra [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gordon, Mark [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Govind, Niri [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gray, Stephen [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gull, Emanuel [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Gygi, Francois [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Hexemer, Alexander [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Isborn, Christine [Univ. of California, Merced, CA (United States); Jarrell, Mark [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Kalia, Rajiv K. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Kent, Paul [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Klippenstein, Stephen [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kowalski, Karol [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Krishnamurthy, Hulikal [Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore (India); Kumar, Dinesh [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lena, Charles [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Li, Xiaosong [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Maier, Thomas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Markland, Thomas [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); McNulty, Ian [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Millis, Andrew [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Mundy, Chris [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Nakano, Aiichiro [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Niklasson, A.M.N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Panagiotopoulos, Thanos [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Pandolfi, Ron [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Parkinson, Dula [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Pask, John [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Perazzo, Amedeo [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Rehr, John [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Rousseau, Roger [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Schenter, Greg [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Selloni, Annabella [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Sethian, Jamie [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Siepmann, Ilja [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Slipchenko, Lyudmila [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Sternberg, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Stevens, Mark [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Summers, Michael [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sumpter, Bobby [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sushko, Peter [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Thayer, Jana [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Toby, Brian [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tull, Craig [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Valeev, Edward [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Vashishta, Priya [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Venkatakrishnan, V. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yang, C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yang, Ping [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Zwart, Peter H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-02-03

    Computers have revolutionized every aspect of our lives. Yet in science, the most tantalizing applications of computing lie just beyond our reach. The current quest to build an exascale computer with one thousand times the capability of today’s fastest machines (and more than a million times that of a laptop) will take researchers over the next horizon. The field of materials, chemical reactions, and compounds is inherently complex. Imagine millions of new materials with new functionalities waiting to be discovered — while researchers also seek to extend those materials that are known to a dizzying number of new forms. We could translate massive amounts of data from high precision experiments into new understanding through data mining and analysis. We could have at our disposal the ability to predict the properties of these materials, to follow their transformations during reactions on an atom-by-atom basis, and to discover completely new chemical pathways or physical states of matter. Extending these predictions from the nanoscale to the mesoscale, from the ultrafast world of reactions to long-time simulations to predict the lifetime performance of materials, and to the discovery of new materials and processes will have a profound impact on energy technology. In addition, discovery of new materials is vital to move computing beyond Moore’s law. To realize this vision, more than hardware is needed. New algorithms to take advantage of the increase in computing power, new programming paradigms, and new ways of mining massive data sets are needed as well. This report summarizes the opportunities and the requisite computing ecosystem needed to realize the potential before us. In addition to pursuing new and more complete physical models and theoretical frameworks, this review found that the following broadly grouped areas relevant to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) would directly affect the Basic Energy

  19. Enhancing Science Teaching through Performing Marbling Art Using Basic Solutions and Base Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çil, Emine; Çelik, Kevser; Maçin, Tuba; Demirbas, Gülay; Gökçimen, Özlem

    2014-01-01

    Basic solutions are an indispensable part of our daily life. Basic solutions are commonly used in industries such as the textile industry, oil refineries, the fertilizer industry, and pharmaceutical products. Most cleaning agents, such as soap, detergent, and bleach, and some of our foods, such as chocolate and eggs, include bases. Bases are the…

  20. The Relationship between Preservice Science Teachers' Attitude toward Astronomy and Their Understanding of Basic Astronomy Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bektasli, Behzat

    2016-01-01

    Turkish preservice science teachers have been taking a two-credit astronomy class during the last semester of their undergraduate program since 2010. The current study aims to investigate the relationship between preservice science teachers' astronomy misconceptions and their attitudes toward astronomy. Preservice science teachers were given an…

  1. Biomedical informatics and translational medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Indra

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Biomedical informatics involves a core set of methodologies that can provide a foundation for crossing the "translational barriers" associated with translational medicine. To this end, the fundamental aspects of biomedical informatics (e.g., bioinformatics, imaging informatics, clinical informatics, and public health informatics may be essential in helping improve the ability to bring basic research findings to the bedside, evaluate the efficacy of interventions across communities, and enable the assessment of the eventual impact of translational medicine innovations on health policies. Here, a brief description is provided for a selection of key biomedical informatics topics (Decision Support, Natural Language Processing, Standards, Information Retrieval, and Electronic Health Records and their relevance to translational medicine. Based on contributions and advancements in each of these topic areas, the article proposes that biomedical informatics practitioners ("biomedical informaticians" can be essential members of translational medicine teams.

  2. Biomedical informatics and translational medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Indra Neil

    2010-02-26

    Biomedical informatics involves a core set of methodologies that can provide a foundation for crossing the "translational barriers" associated with translational medicine. To this end, the fundamental aspects of biomedical informatics (e.g., bioinformatics, imaging informatics, clinical informatics, and public health informatics) may be essential in helping improve the ability to bring basic research findings to the bedside, evaluate the efficacy of interventions across communities, and enable the assessment of the eventual impact of translational medicine innovations on health policies. Here, a brief description is provided for a selection of key biomedical informatics topics (Decision Support, Natural Language Processing, Standards, Information Retrieval, and Electronic Health Records) and their relevance to translational medicine. Based on contributions and advancements in each of these topic areas, the article proposes that biomedical informatics practitioners ("biomedical informaticians") can be essential members of translational medicine teams.

  3. Preservation activities and needs in U.S. biomedical libraries: a status report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, B A

    1989-07-01

    A national sample of health sciences and other types of libraries having significant holdings of biomedical literature was studied to determine the status of library preservation programs. Findings pertaining to 134 basic health sciences libraries and to ninety-seven resource libraries in the Regional Medical Library Program network are reported and discussed. Basic health sciences libraries participating in the study were primarily hospital libraries; resource libraries were primarily academic health sciences center libraries. Findings include information on topics perceived to be of greatest need for staff training and for informational or educational materials; on levels of preservation activity, staffing, and funding; and on capabilities for participating in a national cooperative preservation program. Efforts to identify general and special biomedical collections of potential importance to a national preservation program met with limited success.

  4. A case-based, small-group cooperative learning course in preclinical veterinary science aimed at bridging basic science and clinical literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeman, J P; van Schoor, M; van der Merwe, L L; Meintjes, R A

    2009-03-01

    In 1999 a dedicated problem-based learning course was introduced into the lecture-based preclinical veterinary curriculum of the University of Pretoria. The Introduction to Clinical Studies Course combines traditional lectures, practical sessions, student self-learning and guided tutorials. The self-directed component of the course utilises case-based, small-group cooperative learning as an educational vehicle to link basic science with clinical medicine. The aim of this article is to describe the objectives and structure of the course and to report the results of the assessment of the students' perceptions on some aspects of the course. Students reacted very positively to the ability of the course to equip them with problem-solving skills. Students indicated positive perceptions about the workload of the course. There were, however, significantly lower scores for the clarity of the course objectives. Although the study guide for the course is very comprehensive, the practice regarding the objectives is still uncertain. It is imperative to set clear objectives in non-traditional, student-centred courses. The objectives have to be explained at the outset and reiterated throughout the course. Tutors should also communicate the rationale behind problem-based learning as a pedagogical method to the students. Further research is needed to verify the effectiveness of this course in bridging the gap between basic science and clinical literacy in veterinary science. Ongoing feedback and assessment of the management and content are important to refine this model for integrating basic science with clinical literacy.

  5. Terry Turbopump Expanded Operating Band Full-Scale Component and Basic Science Detailed Test Plan-Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solom, Matthew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Severe Accident Analysis Dept.; Ross, Kyle [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Severe Accident Analysis Dept.; Cardoni, Jeffrey N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Severe Accident Analysis Dept.; Osborn, Douglas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Severe Accident Analysis Dept.

    2017-08-01

    This document details the milestone approach to define the true operating limitations (margins) of the Terry turbopump systems used in the nuclear industry for Milestone 3 (full-scale component experiments) and Milestone 4 (Terry turbopump basic science experiments) efforts. The overall multinational-sponsored program creates the technical basis to: (1) reduce and defer additional utility costs, (2) simplify plant operations, and (3) provide a better understanding of the true margin which could reduce overall risk of operations.

  6. Medical Students’ View about the Effects of Practical Courses on Learning the General Theoretical Concepts of Basic Medical Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Leila Roshangar; Fariba Salek Ranjbarzadeh; Reza Piri; Mahdi Karimi Shoar; Leila Rasi Marzabadi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The basic medical sciences section requires 2.5 years in the medical education curriculum. Practical courses complement theoretical knowledge in this period to improve their appreciation. Despite spending lots of disbursement and time, this period’s efficacy is not clearly known. Methods: One hundred thirty-three General Practitioner (GP) students have been included in this descriptive cross-sectional study and were asked by questionnaire about the positive impact of practical c...

  7. The Evolution of Psychology as a Basic Bio-behavioral Science in Healthcare Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, John E

    2017-12-01

    For over a century, researchers and educators have called for the integration of psychological science into medical school curricula, but such efforts have been impeded by barriers within medicine and psychology. In addressing these barriers, Psychology has re-examined its relationship to Medicine, incorporated psychological practices into health care, and redefined its parameters as a science. In response to interdisciplinary research into the mechanisms of bio-behavioral interaction, Psychology evolved from an ancillary social science to a bio-behavioral science that is fundamental to medicine and health care. However, in recent medical school curriculum innovations, psychological science is being reduced to a set of "clinical skills," and once again viewed as an ancillary social science. These developments warrant concern and consideration of new approaches to integrating psychological science in medical education.

  8. Biomedical photonics handbook biomedical diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2014-01-01

    Shaped by Quantum Theory, Technology, and the Genomics RevolutionThe integration of photonics, electronics, biomaterials, and nanotechnology holds great promise for the future of medicine. This topic has recently experienced an explosive growth due to the noninvasive or minimally invasive nature and the cost-effectiveness of photonic modalities in medical diagnostics and therapy. The second edition of the Biomedical Photonics Handbook presents fundamental developments as well as important applications of biomedical photonics of interest to scientists, engineers, manufacturers, teachers, studen

  9. A case based- shared teaching approach in undergraduate medical curriculum: the real integration in basic and clinical sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Peiman

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available To present a multiple-instructor, active-learning strategy in the undergraduate medical curriculum. This educational research is a descriptive one. Shared teaching sessions, were designed for undergraduate medical students in six organ-system based courses. Sessions that involved in-class discussions of integrated clinical cases were designed implemented and moderated by at least 3 faculties (clinicians and basic scientists. The participants in this study include the basic sciences medical students of The Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Students’ reactions were assessed using an immediate post-session evaluation form on a 5-point Likert scale. Six two-hour sessions for 2 cohorts of students, 2013 and 2014 medical students during their two first years of study were implemented from April 2014 to March 2015. 17 faculty members participated in the program, 21 cases were designed, and participation average was 60 % at 6 sessions. Students were highly appreciative of this strategy. The majority of students in each course strongly agreed that this learning practice positively contributed to their learning (78% and provided better understanding and application of the material learned in an integrated classroom course (74%. They believed that the sessions affected their view about medicine (73%, and should be continued in future courses (80%. The percentage demonstrates the average of all courses. The program helped the students learn how to apply basic sciences concepts to clinical medicine. Evaluation of the program indicated that students found the sessions beneficial to their learning.

  10. The use of self-learning modules to facilitate learning of basic science concepts in an integrated medical curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Mohammed K; Nelson, Loren D; Kibble, Jonathan D

    2010-01-01

    This study used qualitative and quantitative approaches to evaluate the effectiveness of self-learning modules (SLMs) developed to facilitate and individualize students' learning of basic medical sciences. Twenty physiology and nineteen microanatomy SLMs were designed with interactive images, animations, narrations, and self-assessments. Of 41 medical students, 40 students voluntarily completed a questionnaire with open-ended and closed-ended items to evaluate students' attitudes and perspectives on the learning value of SLMs. Closed-ended items were assessed on a five-point Likert scale (5 = high score) and the data were expressed as mean ± standard deviation. Open-ended questions further evaluated students' perspectives on the effectiveness of SLMs; student responses to open-ended questions were analyzed to identify shared patterns or themes in their experience using SLMs. The results of the midterm examination were also analyzed to compare student performance on items related to SLMs and traditional sessions. Students positively evaluated their experience using the SLMs with an overall mean score of 4.25 (SD ± 0.84). Most students (97%) indicated that the SLMs improved understanding and facilitated learning basic science concepts. SLMs were reported to allow learner control, to help in preparation for subsequent in-class discussion, and to improve understanding and retention. A significant difference in students' performance was observed when comparing SLM-related items with non-SLM items in the midterm examination (P learning of basic sciences.

  11. Graduate School of Nuclear and Allied Sciences, College of Basic and Applied Sciences, University of Ghana - Atomic - Annual Report 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The activities of the School of Nuclear and Allied Sciences (SNAS) for the year 2015 have been reported in this document. The report covers the administrative and academic activities of various departments, namely Department of Medical Physics; Department of Nuclear Agriculture and Radiation Processing; Department of Nuclear Engineering; Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications; and Department of Nuclear Safety and Security.

  12. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Join A Study News & Events News & Events Home Science News Events Multimedia Social Media Press Resources Newsletters NIMH News Feeds About Us About Us Home About the Director Advisory Boards and ... Basics will introduce you to some of this science, such as: How the brain develops How genes ...

  13. Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The journal covers technical and clinical studies related to health, ethical and social issues in field of all aspects of medicine (Basic and Clinical), Health Sciences, Nursing, Medical Laboratory Sciences, Medical Radiography and Rehabilitation, Pharmacy, Biomedical Engineering, etc. Articles with clinical interest and ...

  14. A multi-instructor, team-based, active-learning exercise to integrate basic and clinical sciences content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolluru, Srikanth; Roesch, Darren M; Akhtar de la Fuente, Ayesha

    2012-03-12

    To introduce a multiple-instructor, team-based, active-learning exercise to promote the integration of basic sciences (pathophysiology, pharmacology, and medicinal chemistry) and clinical sciences in a doctor of pharmacy curriculum. A team-based learning activity that involved pre-class reading assignments, individual-and team-answered multiple-choice questions, and evaluation and discussion of a clinical case, was designed, implemented, and moderated by 3 faculty members from the pharmaceutical sciences and pharmacy practice departments. Student performance was assessed using a multiple-choice examination, an individual readiness assurance test (IRAT), a team readiness assurance test (TRAT), and a subjective, objective, assessment, and plan (SOAP) note. Student attitudes were assessed using a pre- and post-exercise survey instrument. Students' understanding of possible correct treatment strategies for depression improved. Students were appreciative of this true integration of basic sciences knowledge in a pharmacotherapy course and to have faculty members from both disciplines present to answer questions. Mean student score on the on depression module for the examination was 80.4%, indicating mastery of the content. An exercise led by multiple instructors improved student perceptions of the importance of team-based teaching. Integrated teaching and learning may be achieved when instructors from multiple disciplines work together in the classroom using proven team-based, active-learning exercises.

  15. Basic Research Needs for Solar Energy Utilization. Report of the Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Solar Energy Utilization, April 18-21, 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, N. S.; Crabtree, G.; Nozik, A. J.; Wasielewski, M. R.; Alivisatos, P.; Kung, H.; Tsao, J.; Chandler, E.; Walukiewicz, W.; Spitler, M.; Ellingson, R.; Overend, R.; Mazer, J.; Gress, M.; Horwitz, J.; Ashton, C.; Herndon, B.; Shapard, L.; Nault, R. M.

    2005-04-21

    World demand for energy is projected to more than double by 2050 and to more than triple by the end of the century. Incremental improvements in existing energy networks will not be adequate to supply this demand in a sustainable way. Finding sufficient supplies of clean energy for the future is one of society?s most daunting challenges. Sunlight provides by far the largest of all carbon-neutral energy sources. More energy from sunlight strikes the Earth in one hour (4.3 ? 1020 J) than all the energy consumed on the planet in a year (4.1 ? 1020 J). We currently exploit this solar resource through solar electricity ? a $7.5 billion industry growing at a rate of 35?40% per annum ? and solar-derived fuel from biomass, which provides the primary energy source for over a billion people. Yet, in 2001, solar electricity provided less than 0.1% of the world's electricity, and solar fuel from modern (sustainable) biomass provided less than 1.5% of the world's energy. The huge gap between our present use of solar energy and its enormous undeveloped potential defines a grand challenge in energy research. Sunlight is a compelling solution to our need for clean, abundant sources of energy in the future. It is readily available, secure from geopolitical tension, and poses no threat to our environment through pollution or to our climate through greenhouse gases. This report of the Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Solar Energy Utilization identifies the key scientific challenges and research directions that will enable efficient and economic use of the solar resource to provide a significant fraction of global primary energy by the mid 21st century. The report reflects the collective output of the workshop attendees, which included 200 scientists representing academia, national laboratories, and industry in the United States and abroad, and the U.S. Department of Energy?s Office of Basic Energy Sciences and Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

  16. Chemical and radiation carcinogenesis - basic mechanisms and establishment of biomedical risk-assessment systems. Technical progress report, February 15, 1981-June 1, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    In the past, the characterization of both perturbation and response has been done at the cellular level, and therefore, has only been semi-quantitative, descriptive, and time-consuming. We are rapidly developing the molecular basis of determining the perturbation and the biological response at the molecular level. This is made possible through extensive application of monoclonal antibodies and recombinant DNA as well as other modern molecular biology techniques. Previous studies on somatic mutation and neoplastic transformation have been sufficiently quantitative to indicate the inadequate understanding of the basic mechanisms in the biological system when only focused on these two approaches. For the first time, our studies have been focused on two additional important issues: (1) consideration of differentiation and (2) the importance of stem cells in culture and in the host. We have begun to focus not only on cellular studies in culture but on the establishment of a system which embraces both in vivo and in vitro studies. The two systems which we have chosen to investigate are the embryo-skin cell system and the embryonic-hematopoietic system. The experimental approaches and procedures will involve the study of the problem at the molecular level, and will be extended to the study from cells to tissues to host

  17. Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences vol. 16 No. 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-12-02

    Dec 2, 2008 ... 2Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Kebbi state University of Science and technology, Aliero. 3 Department of Animal Science, ... and the amount of adsorbate remaining in the test medium at equilibrium (Chilton et al., ... adsorbent and aqueous phase at equilibrium (Nur et al ,1998).The isotherm ...

  18. Building ontologies with basic formal ontology

    CERN Document Server

    Arp, Robert; Spear, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    In the era of "big data," science is increasingly information driven, and the potential for computers to store, manage, and integrate massive amounts of data has given rise to such new disciplinary fields as biomedical informatics. Applied ontology offers a strategy for the organization of scientific information in computer-tractable form, drawing on concepts not only from computer and information science but also from linguistics, logic, and philosophy. This book provides an introduction to the field of applied ontology that is of particular relevance to biomedicine, covering theoretical components of ontologies, best practices for ontology design, and examples of biomedical ontologies in use. After defining an ontology as a representation of the types of entities in a given domain, the book distinguishes between different kinds of ontologies and taxonomies, and shows how applied ontology draws on more traditional ideas from metaphysics. It presents the core features of the Basic Formal Ontology (BFO), now u...

  19. Biomedical nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Sarah J

    2011-01-01

    This chapter summarizes the roles of nanomaterials in biomedical applications, focusing on those highlighted in this volume. A brief history of nanoscience and technology and a general introduction to the field are presented. Then, the chemical and physical properties of nanostructures that make them ideal for use in biomedical applications are highlighted. Examples of common applications, including sensing, imaging, and therapeutics, are given. Finally, the challenges associated with translating this field from the research laboratory to the clinic setting, in terms of the larger societal implications, are discussed.

  20. Graduate School of Nuclear and Allied Sciences College of Basic And Applied Sciences, University of Ghana - Atomic, Annual Report-2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The School of Nuclear and Allied Sciences 2014 annual report provides an overview of activities undertaken during the year. It also acknowlegdes the contributions of various departments, namely, Department of Medical Physics, Department of Nuclear Agriculture and Radiation Processing, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, Department of Nuclear Safety and Security and the Office of International Programmes. Also presented are titles of student research projects and publications of staff.

  1. Research prioritization through prediction of future impact on biomedical science: a position paper on inference-analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganapathiraju, Madhavi K; Orii, Naoki

    2013-08-30

    Advances in biotechnology have created "big-data" situations in molecular and cellular biology. Several sophisticated algorithms have been developed that process big data to generate hundreds of biomedical hypotheses (or predictions). The bottleneck to translating this large number of biological hypotheses is that each of them needs to be studied by experimentation for interpreting its functional significance. Even when the predictions are estimated to be very accurate, from a biologist's perspective, the choice of which of these predictions is to be studied further is made based on factors like availability of reagents and resources and the possibility of formulating some reasonable hypothesis about its biological relevance. When viewed from a global perspective, say from that of a federal funding agency, ideally the choice of which prediction should be studied would be made based on which of them can make the most translational impact. We propose that algorithms be developed to identify which of the computationally generated hypotheses have potential for high translational impact; this way, funding agencies and scientific community can invest resources and drive the research based on a global view of biomedical impact without being deterred by local view of feasibility. In short, data-analytic algorithms analyze big-data and generate hypotheses; in contrast, the proposed inference-analytic algorithms analyze these hypotheses and rank them by predicted biological impact. We demonstrate this through the development of an algorithm to predict biomedical impact of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) which is estimated by the number of future publications that cite the paper which originally reported the PPI. This position paper describes a new computational problem that is relevant in the era of big-data and discusses the challenges that exist in studying this problem, highlighting the need for the scientific community to engage in this line of research. The proposed

  2. Basic and Advanced Bayesian Structural Equation Modeling With Applications in the Medical and Behavioral Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Sik-Yum

    2012-01-01

    This book provides clear instructions to researchers on how to apply Structural Equation Models (SEMs) for analyzing the inter relationships between observed and latent variables. Basic and Advanced Bayesian Structural Equation Modeling introduces basic and advanced SEMs for analyzing various kinds of complex data, such as ordered and unordered categorical data, multilevel data, mixture data, longitudinal data, highly non-normal data, as well as some of their combinations. In addition, Bayesian semiparametric SEMs to capture the true distribution of explanatory latent variables are introduce

  3. National Institutes of Health Update: Translating Basic Behavioral Science into New Pediatric Obesity Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajkowski, Susan M

    2016-06-01

    Pediatric obesity increases the risk of later-life obesity and chronic diseases. Basic research to better understand factors associated with excessive weight gain in early life and studies translating research findings into preventive and therapeutic strategies are essential to our ability to better prevent and treat childhood obesity. This overview describes several National Institutes of Health efforts designed to stimulate basic and translational research in childhood obesity prevention and treatment. These examples demonstrate the value of research in early phase translational pediatric obesity research and highlight some promising directions for this important area of research. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Bench to bedside: integrating advances in basic science into daily clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGoldrick, Rory B; Hui, Kenneth; Chang, James

    2014-08-01

    This article focuses on the initial steps of commercial development of a patentable scientific discovery from an academic center through to marketing a clinical product. The basics of partnering with a technology transfer office (TTO) and the complex process of patenting are addressed, followed by a discussion on marketing and licensing the patent to a company in addition to starting a company. Finally, the authors address the basic principles of obtaining clearance from the Food and Drugs Administration, production in a good manufacturing practice (GMP) facility, and bringing the product to clinical trial. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Determining the Correlation Between Language Scores Obtained by Medical Students in their University Entrance and Comprehensive Medical Basic Sciences Exams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Ahmadi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Some professors and educators in the field of English language believe that the high grades attained by medical students in their Comprehensive Medical Basic Sciences Exam (CMBSE are mainly a result of the students prior fluency in the language before entering medical colleges; they are of the opinion that these grades are not necessarily a result of the combined effort of the English teachers and students in language courses at the university. This research aimsat determining the correlation between the level of fluency in English of medical students prior to university entrance and the grades obtained by them in their CMBSE after 3 terms of language courses at the university.Methods: Seven of the major and smaller universities of medical sciences were selected. The language scores of 2426 students admitted to these universities during the three academic years of 1999 to 2002 in both the National University Entrance Examination (NUEE and the Comprehensive Medical Basic Sciences Exam (CMBSE were obtained from their related universities and from the secretariat of the Council of Medical Basic Sciences Education respectively. The language scores of each studentobtained in both NUEE and CMBSE were then matched. The related SPSS software was used to assess the level of correlation between these two groups of language scores for the students of each university, for each academic year and semester and also the overall score for the three years.Results: Overall a positive and moderately significant correlation was found between the NUEE language scores and those of the CMBSE of the students of the universities studied (P<0/001; R=443%. The level of correlation for the various universities studied differed (Max. 69%, min.27%.A comparison of the means of these two groups of scores also confirmed this correlation.Conclusion: students’ grades The NUEE language score was not the only factor affecting the student’s CMBSE score

  6. Teaching Skills to Promote Clinical Reasoning in Early Basic Science Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizondo-Omana, Rodrigo Enrique; Morales-Gomez, Jesus Alberto; Morquecho-Espinoza, Orlando; Hinojosa-Amaya, Jose Miguel; Villarreal-Silva, Eliud Enrique; Garcia-Rodriguez, Maria de los Angeles; Guzman-Lopez, Santos

    2010-01-01

    Basic and superior reasoning skills are woven into the clinical reasoning process just as they are used to solve any problem. As clinical reasoning is the central competence of medical education, development of these reasoning skills should occur throughout the undergraduate medical curriculum. The authors describe here a method of teaching…

  7. 7. International Frumkin Symposium. Basic electrochemistry for science and technology. Abstracts. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Modern tendencies of development of electrochemistry as in regions of fundamental investigations so in applied directions are presented. Basic themes of reports presented are: electrocatalysis and electrosynthesis, batteries and supercapacitors, corrosion and electrodeposition, electrolytes and membranes, biosensors and electroanalysis, nanoelectrochemistry [ru

  8. 7. International Frumkin Symposium. Basic electrochemistry for science and technology. Abstracts. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Modern tendencies of development of electrochemistry as in regions of fundamental investigations so in applied directions are presented. Basic themes of reports presented are: charge transport in condensed media, interface fenomena and electric properties at low soluble substances with electrolyte solutions, structure and properties of charged interfaces, transport in electrochemical systems, problems of bioelectrochemistry [ru

  9. Differences in citation frequency of clinical and basic science papers in cardiovascular research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opthof, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    In this article, a critical analysis is performed on differences in citation frequency of basic and clinical cardiovascular papers. It appears that the latter papers are cited at about 40% higher frequency. The differences between the largest number of citations of the most cited papers are even

  10. Differences in citation frequency of clinical and basic science papers in cardiovascular research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opthof, Tobias

    In this article, a critical analysis is performed on differences in citation frequency of basic and clinical cardiovascular papers. It appears that the latter papers are cited at about 40% higher frequency. The differences between the largest number of citations of the most cited papers are even

  11. Basic science with pulsed power ampersand some off-the-wall ideas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solem, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses aspects of pulsed power for use in basic research, with a principal emphasis on ATLAS, a planned 36-MJ pulsed-power machine with a circular architechture designed primarily for z-pinch implosion of cylindrical foils. The objective of the paper is to give an overview and touch on subjects which might test the limits of this technology

  12. V&V in Computational Engineering and Science. Part 1: Basic Concepts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Babuska, Ivo; Oden, Tinsley

    2003-01-01

    Computational engineering and science, the discipline concerned with the use of computational methods and devices to simulate physical events and engineering systems, is being heralded by many as one...

  13. Future of fundamental discovery in US biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Michael; Levitt, Jonathan M

    2017-06-20

    Young researchers are crucially important for basic science as they make unexpected, fundamental discoveries. Since 1982, we find a steady drop in the number of grant-eligible basic-science faculty [principal investigators (PIs)] younger than 46. This fall occurred over a 32-y period when inflation-corrected congressional funds for NIH almost tripled. During this time, the PI success ratio (fraction of basic-science PIs who are R01 grantees) dropped for younger PIs (below 46) and increased for older PIs (above 55). This age-related bias seems to have caused the steady drop in the number of young basic-science PIs and could reduce future US discoveries in fundamental biomedical science. The NIH recognized this bias in its 2008 early-stage investigator (ESI) policy to fund young PIs at higher rates. We show this policy is working and recommend that it be enhanced by using better data. Together with the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) Maximizing Investigators' Research Award (MIRA) program to reward senior PIs with research time in exchange for less funding, this may reverse a decades-long trend of more money going to older PIs. To prepare young scientists for increased demand, additional resources should be devoted to transitional postdoctoral fellowships already offered by NIH.

  14. Green fluorescent protein purification through Immobilized Metal Affinity Chromatografy (IMAC and its relevance for Biomedical Science students during Biochemistry practical classes at La Trobe University – Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Jose José de Melo Silva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This work was performed as an integrated practical of a Biomedical Science undergraduate course of Biochemistry subject, in order to demonstrate used techniques to purify of Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP. To perform the experiments the main methodology applied was the by immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC.  The open reading frame for enhanced GFP was sub-cloned into the pQE30 expression vector. The subsequent production of protein tagged N-terminally with hexahistidine, facilitated its purification by IMAC.  An approximate 3-fold purification of GFP was achieved. Thus, the students who completed the course gained significant experience related to fundamental techniques in molecular cloning and a sound basis in the principles of recombinant protein expression and purification.

  15. From biomedical-engineering research to clinical application and industrialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Tetsushi; Aoyagi, Takao

    2012-12-01

    The rising costs and aging of the population due to a low birth rate negatively affect the healthcare system in Japan. In 2011, the Council for Science and Technology Policy released the 4th Japan's Science and Technology Basic Policy Report from 2011 to 2015. This report includes two major innovations, 'Life Innovation' and 'Green Innovation', to promote economic growth. Biomedical engineering research is part of 'Life Innovation' and its outcomes are required to maintain people's mental and physical health. It has already resulted in numerous biomedical products, and new ones should be developed using nanotechnology-based concepts. The combination of accumulated knowledge and experience, and 'nanoarchitechtonics' will result in novel, well-designed functional biomaterials. This focus issue contains three reviews and 19 original papers on various biomedical topics, including biomaterials, drug-delivery systems, tissue engineering and diagnostics. We hope that it demonstrates the importance of collaboration among scientists, engineers and clinicians, and will contribute to the further development of biomedical engineering.

  16. Developing a competency-based medical education curriculum for the core basic medical sciences in an African Medical School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olopade, Funmilayo Eniola; Adaramoye, Oluwatosin Adekunle; Raji, Yinusa; Fasola, Abiodun Olubayo; Olapade-Olaopa, Emiola Oluwabunmi

    2016-01-01

    The College of Medicine of the University of Ibadan recently revised its MBBS and BDS curricula to a competency-based medical education method of instruction. This paper reports the process of revising the methods of instruction and assessment in the core basic medical sciences directed at producing medical and dental graduates with a sound knowledge of the subjects sufficient for medical and dental practice and for future postgraduate efforts in the field or related disciplines. The health needs of the community and views of stakeholders in the Ibadan medical and dental schools were determined, and the “old” curriculum was reviewed. This process was directed at identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the old curricula and the newer competences required for modern-day medical/dental practice. The admission criteria and processes and the learning methods of the students were also studied. At the end of the review, an integrated, system-based, community-oriented, person-centered, and competency-driven curriculum was produced and approved for implementation. Four sets of students have been admitted into the curriculum. There have been challenges to the implementation process, but these have been overcome by continuous faculty development and reorientation programs for the nonteaching staff and students. Two sets of students have crossed over to the clinical school, and the consensus among the clinical teachers is that their knowledge and application of the basic medical sciences are satisfactory. The Ibadan medical and dental schools are implementing their competency-based medical education curricula successfully. The modifications to the teaching and assessment of the core basic medical science subjects have resulted in improved learning and performance at the final examinations. PMID:27486351

  17. Developing a competency-based medical education curriculum for the core basic medical sciences in an African Medical School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olopade, Funmilayo Eniola; Adaramoye, Oluwatosin Adekunle; Raji, Yinusa; Fasola, Abiodun Olubayo; Olapade-Olaopa, Emiola Oluwabunmi

    2016-01-01

    The College of Medicine of the University of Ibadan recently revised its MBBS and BDS curricula to a competency-based medical education method of instruction. This paper reports the process of revising the methods of instruction and assessment in the core basic medical sciences directed at producing medical and dental graduates with a sound knowledge of the subjects sufficient for medical and dental practice and for future postgraduate efforts in the field or related disciplines. The health needs of the community and views of stakeholders in the Ibadan medical and dental schools were determined, and the "old" curriculum was reviewed. This process was directed at identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the old curricula and the newer competences required for modern-day medical/dental practice. The admission criteria and processes and the learning methods of the students were also studied. At the end of the review, an integrated, system-based, community-oriented, person-centered, and competency-driven curriculum was produced and approved for implementation. Four sets of students have been admitted into the curriculum. There have been challenges to the implementation process, but these have been overcome by continuous faculty development and reorientation programs for the nonteaching staff and students. Two sets of students have crossed over to the clinical school, and the consensus among the clinical teachers is that their knowledge and application of the basic medical sciences are satisfactory. The Ibadan medical and dental schools are implementing their competency-based medical education curricula successfully. The modifications to the teaching and assessment of the core basic medical science subjects have resulted in improved learning and performance at the final examinations.

  18. Contributions concerning radiosensitivity proffered by the basic sciences to clinical radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caputo, A.

    1974-01-01

    Basic concepts of radiosensitivity are reviewed. Some topics discussed are: probability of lethal injury as a dose dependent function; mutations resulting from radiation damage to DNA; relation of cell radiosensitivity to chromosome volume; relation of molecular structure of DNA to relative radiosensitivity of the organism; repair replication of DNA following uv and x irradiation of Escherichia coli and mammalian cells; and relation of the cell cycle to radiosensitivity. (U.S.)

  19. Developing a competency-based medical education curriculum for the core basic medical sciences in an African Medical School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olopade FE

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Funmilayo Eniola Olopade,1 Oluwatosin Adekunle Adaramoye,2 Yinusa Raji,3 Abiodun Olubayo Fasola,4 Emiola Oluwabunmi Olapade-Olaopa5 1Department of Anatomy, 2Department of Biochemistry, 3Department of Physiology, 4Department of Oral Pathology, 5Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria Abstract: The College of Medicine of the University of Ibadan recently revised its MBBS and BDS curricula to a competency-based medical education method of instruction. This paper reports the process of revising the methods of instruction and assessment in the core basic medical sciences directed at producing medical and dental graduates with a sound knowledge of the subjects sufficient for medical and dental practice and for future postgraduate efforts in the field or related disciplines. The health needs of the community and views of stakeholders in the Ibadan medical and dental schools were determined, and the “old” curriculum was reviewed. This process was directed at identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the old curricula and the newer competences required for modern-day medical/dental practice. The admission criteria and processes and the learning methods of the students were also studied. At the end of the review, an integrated, system-based, community-oriented, person-centered, and competency-driven curriculum was produced and approved for implementation. Four sets of students have been admitted into the curriculum. There have been challenges to the implementation process, but these have been overcome by continuous faculty development and reorientation programs for the nonteaching staff and students. Two sets of students have crossed over to the clinical school, and the consensus among the clinical teachers is that their knowledge and application of the basic medical sciences are satisfactory. The Ibadan medical and dental schools are implementing their competency-based medical education curricula

  20. FY 2005 annual report. 21st century COE program isotope science and engineering from basics to applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-09-01

    The 05' activity on 21st century COE program, Nagoya University, Isotopes open the future' is reported. The contents are: Research and educational execution planning; Operational reports (research activities, educational activities, international conferences, etc.); Research activities (1. the basic research field...isotope separation, isotope production, isotope measurement, and isotope materials, 2. the composite and development field...isotopes in biology, cultural science, and environment, 3. research contributions); Educational activities (1. programs for assist of young research students, 2. lectures on English, 3. lectures for postgraduate students). (M.H.)

  1. Some recent contributions of basic nuclear science to nuclear waste transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schapira, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear waste transmutation aims at alleviating some long-term risks associated with actinides and with some long-lived fission products. Proposals of using accelerator driven system (ADS) to efficiently burn actinides in uranium free fuels have revitalized some basic researches in the field of nuclear and reactor physics. This is the case for high intensity accelerator in the ADS context and for the neutron source which relies to a large extent on basic nuclear physics related to spallation. There is also an experimental program called MUSE at Cadarache to study the sub-critical reactor physics with regard to its neutronics. A second area where basic research is involved is the measurement of new or more reliable neutron cross sections specific to transmutation and also to the thorium fuel cycle considered as a long-term option for ''clean'' energy production with reduced actinide production. This second area will possibly be covered by a new facility called n-TOF developed at CERN. (author)

  2. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1987 to the DOE Office of Energy Research: Part 1, Biomedical Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.F.

    1988-02-01

    This report summarizes progress on OHER biomedical and health-effects research conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory in FY 1987. The research develops the knowledge and scientific principles necessary to identify, understand, and anticipate the long-term health consequences of energy-related radiation and chemicals. Our continuing emphasis is to decrease the uncertainty of health-effects risk estimates from existing and/or developing energy-related technologies through an increased understanding of how radiation and chemicals cause health effects. The report is arranged to reflect PNL research relative to OHER programmatic structure. The first section, on human health effects, concerns statistical and epidemiological studies for assessing health risks. The next section, which contains reports of health-effects research in biological systems, includes research with radiation and chemicals. The last section is related to medical applications of nuclear technology.

  3. Pacific Northwest Laboratory: Annual report for 1986 to the DOE Office of Energy Research: Part 1, Biomedical sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.E.

    1987-02-01

    This report summarizes progress on OHER biomedical and health-effects research conducted at PNL in FY 1986. The research develops the knowledge and scientific principles necessary to identify, understand and anticipate the long-term health consequences of energy-related radiation and chemicals. Our continuing emphasis is to decrease the uncertainty of health-effects risk estimates from existing and/or developing energy-related technologies through an increased understanding of how radiation and chemicals cause health effects. The report is arranged to reflect the PNL research relative to OHER programmatic structure. The first section, on human health effects, concerns statistical and epidemiological methods for assessing health risks among nuclear workers. The next two sections, which contain reports of health-effects research in biological systems, include effects of radiation and of energy-related chemicals. The last section is related to medical applications of nuclear technology

  4. Pacific Northwest Laboratory: Annual report for 1986 to the DOE Office of Energy Research: Part 1, Biomedical sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.F.

    1987-02-01

    This report summarizes progress on OHER biomedical and health-effects research conducted at PNL in FY 1986. The research develops the knowledge and scientific principles necessary to identify, understand and anticipate the long-term health consequences of energy-related radiation and chemicals. Our continuing emphasis is to decrease the uncertainty of health-effects risk estimates from existing and/or developing energy-related technologies through an increased understanding of how radiation and chemicals cause health effects. The report is arranged to reflect the PNL research relative to OHER programmatic structure. The first section, on human health effects, concerns statistical and epidemiological methods for assessing health risks among nuclear workers. The next two sections, which contain reports of health-effects research in biological systems, include effects of radiation and of energy-related chemicals. The last section is related to medical applications of nuclear technology.

  5. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1988 to the DOE Office of Energy Research: Part 1, Biomedical Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.F.

    1989-06-01

    This report summarizes progress on OHER biomedical and health-effects research conducted at PNL in FY 1988. The research develops the knowledge and scientific principles necessary to identify, understand, and anticipate the long-term health consequences of energy-related radiation and chemicals. Our continuing emphasis is to decrease the uncertainty of health-effects risk estimates from existing and/or developing energy-related technologies through an increased understanding of how radiation and chemicals cause health effects. The report is arranged to reflect PNL research relative to OHER programmatic structure. The first section, on human health effects, concerns statistical and epidemiological studies for assessing health risks. The next section, which contains reports of health-effects research in biological systems, includes research with radiation and chemicals.

  6. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1985 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 1. Biomedical sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.F.

    1986-02-01

    This report summarizes progress on OHER biomedical and health-effects research conducted at PNL in FY 1985 to develop information for a comprehensive understanding of the interaction of energy-related radiation and chemicals with man. Our continuing emphasis on decreasing the uncertainty of health-effects risk estimates to man from existing and/or developing energy-related technologies supports the DOE goal of increasing and diversifying national energy resources and decreasing risks to human health. The report is arranged to reflect the PNL research relative to OHER programmatic needs. The first section concerns evaluation of possible health effects among nuclear workers. The next two sections, which contain reports of health-effects research in biological systems, include health effects of radiation and health effects of chemical mixtures. The last section is related to medical applications of nuclear technology.

  7. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1987 to the DOE Office of Energy Research: Part 1, Biomedical Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.F.

    1988-02-01

    This report summarizes progress on OHER biomedical and health-effects research conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory in FY 1987. The research develops the knowledge and scientific principles necessary to identify, understand, and anticipate the long-term health consequences of energy-related radiation and chemicals. Our continuing emphasis is to decrease the uncertainty of health-effects risk estimates from existing and/or developing energy-related technologies through an increased understanding of how radiation and chemicals cause health effects. The report is arranged to reflect PNL research relative to OHER programmatic structure. The first section, on human health effects, concerns statistical and epidemiological studies for assessing health risks. The next section, which contains reports of health-effects research in biological systems, includes research with radiation and chemicals. The last section is related to medical applications of nuclear technology

  8. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1985 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 1. Biomedical sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.F.

    1986-02-01

    This report summarizes progress on OHER biomedical and health-effects research conducted at PNL in FY 1985 to develop information for a comprehensive understanding of the interaction of energy-related radiation and chemicals with man. Our continuing emphasis on decreasing the uncertainty of health-effects risk estimates to man from existing and/or developing energy-related technologies supports the DOE goal of increasing and diversifying national energy resources and decreasing risks to human health. The report is arranged to reflect the PNL research relative to OHER programmatic needs. The first section concerns evaluation of possible health effects among nuclear workers. The next two sections, which contain reports of health-effects research in biological systems, include health effects of radiation and health effects of chemical mixtures. The last section is related to medical applications of nuclear technology

  9. Los Alamos Life Sciences Division's biomedical and environmental research programs. Progress report, January-December 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, L.M.; Stafford, C.G.; Bolen, S.K. (comps.)

    1981-09-01

    Highlights of research progress accomplished in the Life Sciences Division during the year ending December 1980 are summarized. Reports from the following groups are included: Toxicology, Biophysics, Genetics; Environmental Pathology, Organic Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences. Individual abstracts have been prepared for 46 items for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (RJC)

  10. A Cross-College Age Study of Science and Nonscience Students' Conceptions of Basic Astronomy Concepts in Preservice Training for High-School Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumper, Ricardo

    2001-01-01

    A questionnaire of 19 questions given to a total of 433 students in college preservice training for future high school teachers showed that science and nonscience majors held a series of misconceptions on several central topics in basic astronomy. (Author)

  11. Report of the Defense Science Board Task Force on Basic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    valuable as those activities may be. U.S. industry has long recognized the trend toward globalization of science. Major corporations have approached the...Americas Asia Europe Other 2.0 31,104 Japan 9,337 Germany 3,820 Sout h Korea 3,693 Taiwan 3,576 Spa in 3,562 Canada 3,226 UK 1,492 France...DOD mechanisms. How Industry Has Responded to Globalization U.S. industry has long recognized the trend toward globalization of science and

  12. Examination of the relationship between preservice science teachers' scientific reasoning and problem solving skills on basic mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Ibrahim; Ates, Salih

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine relationship between scientific reasoning and mechanics problem solving skills of students in science education program. Scientific Reasoning Skills Test (SRST) and Basic Mechanics Knowledge Test (BMKT) were applied to 90 second, third and fourth grade students who took Scientific Reasoning Skills course at science teaching program of Gazi Faculty of Education for three successive fall semesters of 2014, 2015 and 2016 academic years. It was found a statistically significant positive (p = 0.038 <0.05) but a low correlation (r = 0.219) between SRST and BMKT. There were no significant relationship among Conservation Laws, Proportional Thinking, Combinational Thinking, Correlational Thinking, Probabilistic Thinking subskills of reasoning and BMKT. There were significant and positive correlation among Hypothetical Thinking and Identifying and Controlling Variables subskills of reasoning and BMKT. The findings of the study were compared with other studies in the field and discussed.

  13. Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences vol. 16 No. 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-12-02

    Dec 2, 2008 ... Ishola. O., Eneji, A.E. and Agboola, A.A (1998). Soil fertility changes under hedgerows of. Senna Siamea and leucaena leucocephala in Ayepe, South Western Nigeria. Global. J. Pure Applied Sciences, 4(2): 101-104. Lena, Q.M., Willie, H. and Arthur, H. (1997). Background concentrations of trace metals.

  14. Materials Sciences programs, fiscal year 1978: Office of Basic Energy Services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    A compilation and index are provided of the the DOE Materials Sciences Division programs. This compilation is intended for use by administrators, managers, and scientists to help coordinate research and as an aid in selecting new programs. The report is divided into Sections A and B, listing all the projects, Section C, a summary of funding levels, and Section D, an index

  15. Animal Science Basic Core Curriculum. Kansas Postsecondary Farm and Ranch Management Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albracht, James, Ed.

    Thirty-six units of instruction are included in this core curriculum in animal science for postsecondary farm and ranch management programs. Units of instruction are divided into seven instructional areas: (1) Livestock Types, (2) Livestock Programs, (3) Nutrition, (4) Animal Health, (5) Animal Breeding, (6) Animal Improvement, and (7) Livestock…

  16. Learning Environments as Basis for Cognitive Achievements of Students in Basic Science Classrooms in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atomatofa, Rachel; Okoye, Nnamdi; Igwebuike, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The nature of classroom learning environments created by teachers had been considered very important for learning to take place effectively. This study investigated the effect of creating constructivist and transmissive learning environments on achievements of science students of different ability levels. 243 students formed the entire study…

  17. ``The ESA XMM-Newton Science Operations Centre: Making Basic Space Science Available to the Whole Scientific World''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Carlos; Guainazzi, Matteo; Metcalfe, Leo

    2006-12-01

    XMM-Newton is a major X-ray observatory of the European Space Agency (ESA). Its observing time is open to astronomers from the whole scientific community on a peer reviewed competitive basis. The Science Operations Centre, located at ESA’s premises in Villafranca del Castillo, Spain, is responsible for the instrument operations, as well as for all the tasks related to facilitating the scientific exploitation of the data which the mission has been producing since its launch in December 1999. Among them, one may list: distribution of scientific data in different formats, from raw telemetry, up to processed and calibrated high-level science products, such as images, spectra, source lists, etc; development and distribution of dedicated science analysis software, as well as of continuously updated instrument calibration; regular organisation of training workshops (free of cost), for potential users of XMM-Newton data, where the procedures and techniques to successfully reduce and analyze XMM-Newton data are introduced; access to the data through state-of-the-art, in-house-developed archival facilities, either through the Internet or via CD-ROM; continuously updated documentation on all aspects of spacecraft and instrument operations, data reduction and analysis; maintenance of a comprehensive set of project web pages; a competent and responsive HelpDesk, providing dedicated support to individual XMM-Newton users. Everyone can be an XMM-Newton observer. So far, astronomers from 36 countries submitted observing programs. Public data can be accessed by every scientist in the world through the XMM-Newton Science Archive (XSA). Despite all these efforts, one can’t help noticing an asymmetric level of scientific exploitation in the realm of X-ray astronomy between developing and developed countries. The latter have traditionally enjoyed the comparative advantage of deeper know-how, deriving from direct experience in hardware and mission development. The XMM-Newton Science

  18. Proceedings of the symposium Actinides 2006 - Basic Science, Applications and Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blobaum, Kerri J.M.; Chandler, Elaine A.; Havela, Ladislav; Maple, M. Brian; Neu, Mary P.

    2007-01-01

    These proceedings from the September 2006 symposium includes papers presented on experimental and modeling work with the intention of broadening understanding of the field of actinide research. Actinides have gained attention recently because of their roles in the threat of nuclear terrorism (e.g., 'dirty bombs') and the use of nuclear power to offset fossil fuel consumption. Actinide science is the study of the elements with atomic numbers in the range of 90 to 103, which includes uranium and plutonium. Beyond the well-known nuclear reactions of these heavy radioactive metals, the large electron clouds with 5f electrons in the outer shell yield fascinating and complex chemistries, crystal structures, and physical properties. Traditionally, actinide research has been divided among three scientific disciplines: chemistry (nuclear chemistry and radiochemistry); physics (condensed matter physics and electronic structure); and materials science (metallurgy). Modern actinide research, however, has become an interdisciplinary blend of these traditional fields, and it also incorporates developing fields such as environmental chemistry and superconductivity. Improved scientific understanding of actinides is needed for development of materials for actinide detection and nuclear fuels, and for safer management of nuclear waste. Recently, there has been a resurgence of actinide science at national laboratories and universities. The current multidisciplinary approach to actinide science lays the groundwork for understanding the connection between the 5f electronic structure and observed chemical reactions and physical properties such as structural phase transformations and novel ground states. This work provides many opportunities for new researchers in actinide science. These proceedings gather 25 selected papers among the 53 presentations given at this symposium

  19. Exploration of problem-based learning combined with standardized patient in the teaching of basic science of ophthalmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Yan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the effect of problem-based learning(PBLcombined with standardized patient(SPin the teaching of basic science of ophthalmology. METHODS: Sixty-four students of Optometry in grade 2012 were randomly divided into experimental group(n=32and control group(n=32. Traditional teaching method was implemented in control group while PBL combined with SP was applied in experimental group. At the end of term students were interviewed using self-administered questionnaire to obtain their evaluation for teaching effect. Measurement data were expressed as (-overx±s and analyzed by independent samples t test. Enumeration data were analyzed by χ2 test, and PRESULTS:The mean scores of theory test(83.22±3.75and experimental test(94.28±2.20in experimental group were significantly higher than theory test(70.72±3.95and experimental test(85.44±3.52in control group(all PPPCONCLUSION:Using PBL combined with SP teaching mode in basic science of ophthalmology can highly improve learning enthusiasm of students and cultivate self-learning ability of students, practice ability and ability of clinical analysis.

  20. Differences in basic digital competences between male and female university students of Social Sciences in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Vázquez-Cano

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article analyses the differences in basic digital competences of male and female university students on Social Education, Social Work and Pedagogy courses. The study of gender differences in university students’ acquisition of digital competence has considerable didactic and strategic consequences for the development of these skills. The study was carried out at two public universities in Spain (UNED – the National Distance-Learning University, and the Universidad Pablo de Olavide on a sample of 923 students, who responded to a questionnaire entitled “University Students’ Basic Digital Competences 2.0” (COBADI – registered at the Spanish Patent and Trademark Office. The research applied a quantitative methodology based on a Bayesian approach using multinomial joint distribution as prior distribution. The use of Bayes factors also offers advantages with respect to the use of frequentist p-values, like the generation of information on the alternative hypothesis, that the evidence is not dependent on the sample size used. The results show that men have greater perceived competence in digital cartography and online presentations, whereas women prefer to request personal tutorials to resolve doubts about technology and have greater perceived competence in corporate emailing. There is also evidence that the men have greater perceived competence in developing “online presentations” than women do. Regarding to, “Interpersonal competences in the use of ICT at university”, we observed that the female students opted for personal sessions with tutors in greater numbers than the male students did.

  1. The basic science of platelet-rich plasma (PRP): what clinicians need to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnoczky, Steven P; Sheibani-Rad, Shahin; Shebani-Rad, Shahin

    2013-12-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been advocated for the biological augmentation of tissue healing and regeneration through the local introduction of increased levels (above baseline) of platelets and their associated bioactive molecules. In theory, the increased levels of autologous growth factors and secretory proteins provided by the concentrated platelets may enhance the wound healing process, especially in degenerative tissues or biologically compromised individuals. Although PRP has been increasingly utilized in the treatment of a variety of sports-related injuries, improvements in healing and clinical outcomes have not been universally reported. One reason for this may be the fact that all PRP preparations are not the same. Variations in the volume of whole blood taken, the platelet recovery efficacy, the final volume of plasma in which the platelets are suspended, and the presence or absence of white blood cells, and the addition of exogenous thrombin to activate the platelets or calcium chloride to induce fibrin formation, can all affect the character and potential efficacy of the final PRP product. This article will review the basic principles involved in creating PRP and examine the potential basic scientific significance of the individual blood components contained in the various forms of PRP currently used in sports medicine.

  2. Multimedia Bootcamp: a health sciences library provides basic training to promote faculty technology integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Ellen C

    2006-04-25

    Recent research has shown a backlash against the enthusiastic promotion of technological solutions as replacements for traditional educational content delivery. Many institutions, including the University of Virginia, have committed staff and resources to supporting state-of-the-art, showpiece educational technology projects. However, the Claude Moore Health Sciences Library has taken the approach of helping Health Sciences faculty be more comfortable using technology in incremental ways for instruction and research presentations. In July 2004, to raise awareness of self-service multimedia resources for instructional and professional development needs, the Library conducted a "Multimedia Bootcamp" for nine Health Sciences faculty and fellows. Case study. Program stewardship by a single Library faculty member contributed to the delivery of an integrated learning experience. The amount of time required to attend the sessions and complete homework was the maximum fellows had to devote to such pursuits. The benefit of introducing technology unfamiliar to most fellows allowed program instructors to start everyone at the same baseline while not appearing to pass judgment on the technology literacy skills of faculty. The combination of wrapping the program in the trappings of a fellowship and selecting fellows who could commit to a majority of scheduled sessions yielded strong commitment from participants as evidenced by high attendance and a 100% rate of assignment completion. Response rates to follow-up evaluation requests, as well as continued use of Media Studio resources and Library expertise for projects begun or conceived during Bootcamp, bode well for the long-term success of this program. An incremental approach to integrating technology with current practices in instruction and presentation provided a supportive yet energizing environment for Health Sciences faculty. Keys to this program were its faculty focus, traditional hands-on instruction, unrestricted

  3. Biomedical journals in Republic of Macedonia: the current state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polenakovic, Momir; Danevska, Lenche

    2014-01-01

    Several biomedical journals in the Republic of Macedonia have succeeded in maintaining regular publication over the years, but only a few have a long-standing tradition. In this paper we present the basic characteristics of 18 biomedical journals that have been published without a break in the Republic of Macedonia. Of these, more details are given for 14 journals, a particular emphasis being on the journal Prilozi/Contributions of the Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Section of Medical Sciences as one of the journals with a long-term publishing tradition and one of the journals included in the Medline/PubMed database. A brief or broad description is given for the following journals: Macedonian Medical Review, Acta Morphologica, Physioacta, MJMS-Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences, International Medical Journal Medicus, Archives of Public Health, Epilepsy, Macedonian Orthopaedics and Traumatology Journal, BANTAO Journal, Macedonian Dental Review, Macedonian Pharmaceutical Bulletin, Macedonian Veterinary Review, Journal of Special Education and Rehabilitation, Balkan Journal of Medical Genetics, Contributions of the Macedonian Scientific Society of Bitola, Vox Medici, Social Medicine: Professional Journal for Public Health, and Prilozi/Contributions of the Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts. Journals from Macedonia should aim to be published regularly, should comply with the Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals, and with the recommendations of reliable organizations working in the field of publishing and research. These are the key prerequisites which Macedonian journals have to accomplish in order to be included in renowned international bibliographic databases. Thus the results of biomedical science from the Republic of Macedonia will be presented to the international scientific arena.

  4. Radiochemicals in biomedical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, E.A.; Oldham, K.G.

    1988-01-01

    This volume describes the role of radiochemicals in biomedical research, as tracers in the development of new drugs, their interaction and function with receptor proteins, with the kinetics of binding of hormone - receptor interactions, and their use in cancer research and clinical oncology. The book also aims to identify future trends in this research, the main objective of which is to provide information leading to improvements in the quality of life, and to give readers a basic understanding of the development of new drugs, how they function in relation to receptor proteins and lead to a better understanding of the diagnosis and treatment of cancers. (author)

  5. Using a Popular Science Nonfiction Book to Introduce Biomedical Research Ethics in a Biology Majors Course †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Kristen L. W.

    2014-01-01

    Although bioethics is an important topic in modern society, it is not a required part of the curriculum for many biology degree programs in the United States. Students in our program are exposed to biologically relevant ethical issues informally in many classes, but we do not have a requirement for a separate bioethics course. The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks is a recent nonfiction book that describes the life of the woman whose cervical cancer biopsy gave rise to the HeLa cell line, as well as discussing relevant medical, societal, and ethical issues surrounding human tissue use for research. Weekly reading assignments from the book with discussion questions and a final paper were used to engage students in learning about the ethics of human subjects and human tissues research. Students were surveyed for qualitative feedback on the usefulness of including this book as part of the course. This book has been a successful platform for increasing student knowledge and interest in ethics related to biomedical and biological research. PMID:25574289

  6. The basics of formation of expert systems for industry and science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidyaev Igor G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the basics of development of a practice-oriented information system of examination of industrial and scientific projects realized in the field of machine building. The first part of the paper is devoted to the main problems which are necessary to solve while designing such systems. The methods of self-organisation and adaptation, the use of expert evaluations and other approaches, for instance, those connected with the study of various fundamental and applied aspects of intelligence control systems, were considered. The main problems that are solved when creating an effective system of the expert selection were structured and expounded. In addition, the information, based both on already existing models (DFD, BPMN and on modern approaches (a system approach, Delphi technique, artificial neural networks, concerning the creation of an effective system of expert evaluations was presented. A combination of the approved methods and new approaches allows adapting the system to different conditions of use.

  7. Medical Students’ View about the Effects of Practical Courses on Learning the General Theoretical Concepts of Basic Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Roshangar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The basic medical sciences section requires 2.5 years in the medical education curriculum. Practical courses complement theoretical knowledge in this period to improve their appreciation. Despite spending lots of disbursement and time, this period’s efficacy is not clearly known. Methods: One hundred thirty-three General Practitioner (GP students have been included in this descriptive cross-sectional study and were asked by questionnaire about the positive impact of practical courses on learning theoretical knowledge. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics. Result: The agreement in “Practical Head and Neck Anatomy” was 40.91% ± 29.45, in “Practical Trunk Anatomy” was 63.62% ± 2.32 and in “Practical Anatomy of Extremities” was 56.16% ± 2.57. In “Practical Histology”, agreement was 69.50%±2.19; “Practical Biophysics” was 45.97%±2.25, “Practical Physiology” 61.75%±2.17; “Practical Biochemistry” 36.28%±2.42; “Practical Pathology” 59.80%±2.53; “Practical Immunology” 56.25%±26.40; “Practical Microbiology and Virology” 60.39%±2.27 and “Practical Mycology and Parasitology” 68.2%± 2.16.Conclusion: GP students in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences are not optimistic about the applicability of practical courses of basic medical sciences lessons.

  8. Proposal to DOE Basic Energy Sciences: Ultrafast X-ray science facility at the Advanced Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenlein, Robert W.; Falcone, Roger W.; Abela, R.; Alivisatos, A.P.; Belkacem, A.; Berrah, N.; Bozek, J.; Bressler, C.; Cavalleri, A.; Chergui, M.; Glover, T.E.; Heimann, P.A.; Hepburn, J.; Larsson, J.; Lee, R.W.; McCusker, J.; Padmore, H.A.; Pattison, P.; Pratt, S.T.; Shank, C.V.; Wark, J.; Chang, Z.; Robin, D.W.; Schlueter, R.D.; Zholents, A.A.; Zolotorev, M.S.

    2001-01-01

    We propose to develop a true user facility for ultrafast x-ray science at the Advanced Light Source. This facility will be unique in the world, and will fill a critical need for the growing ultrafast x-ray research community. The development of this facility builds upon the expertise from long-standing research efforts in ultrafast x-ray spectroscopy and the development of femtosecond x-ray sources and techniques at both the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and at U.C. Berkeley. In particular, the technical feasibility of a femtosecond x-ray beamline at the ALS has already been demonstrated, and existing ultrafast laser technology will enable such a beamline to operate near the practical limit for femtosecond x-ray flux and brightness from a 3rd generation synchrotron

  9. Proposal to DOE Basic Energy Sciences: Ultrafast X-ray science facility at the Advanced Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenlein, Robert W.; Falcone, Roger W.; Abela, R.; Alivisatos, A.P.; Belkacem, A.; Berrah, N.; Bozek, J.; Bressler, C.; Cavalleri, A.; Chergui, M.; Glover, T.E.; Heimann, P.A.; Hepburn, J.; Larsson, J.; Lee, R.W.; McCusker, J.; Padmore, H.A.; Pattison, P.; Pratt, S.T.; Shank, C.V.; Wark, J.; Chang, Z.; Robin, D.W.; Schlueter, R.D.; Zholents, A.A.; Zolotorev, M.S.

    2001-12-12

    We propose to develop a true user facility for ultrafast x-ray science at the Advanced Light Source. This facility will be unique in the world, and will fill a critical need for the growing ultrafast x-ray research community. The development of this facility builds upon the expertise from long-standing research efforts in ultrafast x-ray spectroscopy and the development of femtosecond x-ray sources and techniques at both the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and at U.C. Berkeley. In particular, the technical feasibility of a femtosecond x-ray beamline at the ALS has already been demonstrated, and existing ultrafast laser technology will enable such a beamline to operate near the practical limit for femtosecond x-ray flux and brightness from a 3rd generation synchrotron.

  10. Basic conceptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasanov, A.Kh.

    1988-01-01

    In this part of book author presents the basic conceptions of minerals studying. The course of minerals deposits is the most important branch of geology science and studying the geology, material constitution, formation conditions and regularity of distribution in earth crust different types of mineral raw materials

  11. Radiation chemistry from basics to applications in material and life sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belloni, J.; Mostafavi, M. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France); Douki, Th. [CEA Grenoble, 38 (France); Spotheim-Maurizot, M. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 45 - Orleans-la-Source (France)

    2008-07-01

    This book gives a progress report on the many and original contributions of radiation chemistry to the fundamental knowledge of the vast domain of chemical reactions and its applications. Radiation chemistry techniques indeed make it possible to elucidate detailed physicochemical mechanisms in inorganic and organic chemistry (including in space) and in biochemistry. Moreover, this comprehension is applied in materials science to precisely control syntheses by radiation, such as radiopolymerization, radio-grafting, specific treatment of surfaces (textiles, paintings, inks,..), synthesis of complex nano-materials, degradation of environmental pollutants and radioresistance of materials for nuclear reactors. In life sciences, the study of the effects of radiation on bio-macromolecules (DNA, proteins, lipids) not only permits the comprehension of normal or pathological biological mechanisms, but also the improvement of our health. In particular, many advances in cancer radiotherapy, in the radioprotection of nuclear workers and the general population, as well as in the treatment of diseases and the radiosterilization of drugs, could be obtained thanks to this research. Abundantly illustrated and written in English by top international specialists who have taken care to render the subjects accessible, this work will greatly interest those curious about a scientific field that is new to them and students attracted by the original and multidisciplinary aspects of the field. At a time when radiation chemistry research is experiencing spectacular development in numerous countries, this book will attract newcomers to the field. (authors)

  12. Radiation chemistry from basics to applications in material and life sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belloni, J.; Mostafavi, M.; Douki, Th.; Spotheim-Maurizot, M.

    2008-01-01

    This book gives a progress report on the many and original contributions of radiation chemistry to the fundamental knowledge of the vast domain of chemical reactions and its applications. Radiation chemistry techniques indeed make it possible to elucidate detailed physicochemical mechanisms in inorganic and organic chemistry (including in space) and in biochemistry. Moreover, this comprehension is applied in materials science to precisely control syntheses by radiation, such as radiopolymerization, radio-grafting, specific treatment of surfaces (textiles, paintings, inks,..), synthesis of complex nano-materials, degradation of environmental pollutants and radioresistance of materials for nuclear reactors. In life sciences, the study of the effects of radiation on bio-macromolecules (DNA, proteins, lipids) not only permits the comprehension of normal or pathological biological mechanisms, but also the improvement of our health. In particular, many advances in cancer radiotherapy, in the radioprotection of nuclear workers and the general population, as well as in the treatment of diseases and the radiosterilization of drugs, could be obtained thanks to this research. Abundantly illustrated and written in English by top international specialists who have taken care to render the subjects accessible, this work will greatly interest those curious about a scientific field that is new to them and students attracted by the original and multidisciplinary aspects of the field. At a time when radiation chemistry research is experiencing spectacular development in numerous countries, this book will attract newcomers to the field. (authors)

  13. Beyond the Flipped Classroom: A Highly Interactive Cloud-Classroom (HIC) Embedded into Basic Materials Science Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Wei-Kai; Bhagat, Kaushal Kumar; Chang, Chun-Yen

    2016-06-01

    The present study compares the highly interactive cloud-classroom (HIC) system with traditional methods of teaching materials science that utilize crystal structure picture or real crystal structure model, in order to examine its learning effectiveness across three dimensions: knowledge, comprehension and application. The aim of this study was to evaluate the (HIC) system, which incorporates augmented reality, virtual reality and cloud-classroom to teach basic materials science courses. The study followed a pretest-posttest quasi-experimental research design. A total of 92 students (aged 19-20 years), in a second-year undergraduate program, participated in this 18-week-long experiment. The students were divided into an experimental group and a control group. The experimental group (36 males and 10 females) was instructed utilizing the HIC system, while the control group (34 males and 12 females) was led through traditional teaching methods. Pretest, posttest, and delayed posttest scores were evaluated by multivariate analysis of covariance. The results indicated that participants in the experimental group who used the HIC system outperformed the control group, in the both posttest and delayed posttest, across three learning dimensions. Based on these results, the HIC system is recommended to be incorporated in formal materials science learning settings.

  14. A study of the academic performance of medical students in the comprehensive examination of the basic sciences according to the indices of emotional intelligence and educational status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moslehi, Mohsen; Samouei, Rahele; Tayebani, Tayebeh; Kolahduz, Sima

    2015-01-01

    Considering the increasing importance of emotional intelligence (EI) in different aspects of life, such as academic achievement, the present survey is aimed to predict academic performance of medical students in the comprehensive examination of the basic sciences, according to the indices of emotional intelligence and educational status. The present survey is a descriptive, analytical, and cross-sectional study performed on the medical students of Isfahan, Tehran, and Mashhad Universities of Medical Sciences. Sampling the universities was performed randomly after which selecting the students was done, taking into consideration the limitation in their numbers. Based on the inclusion criteria, all the medical students, entrance of 2005, who had attended the comprehensive basic sciences examination in 2008, entered the study. The data collection tools included an Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (standardized in Isfahan), the average score of the first to fifth semesters, total average of each of the five semesters, and the grade of the comprehensive basic sciences examination. The data were analyzed through stepwise regression coefficient by SPSS software version 15. The results indicated that the indicators of independence from an emotional intelligence test and average scores of the first and third academic semesters were significant in predicting the students' academic performance in the comprehensive basic sciences examination. According to the obtained results, the average scores of students, especially in the earlier semesters, as well as the indicators of independence and the self-esteem rate of students can influence their success in the comprehensive basic sciences examination.

  15. A study of the academic performance of medical students in the comprehensive examination of the basic sciences according to the indices of emotional intelligence and educational status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moslehi, Mohsen; Samouei, Rahele; Tayebani, Tayebeh; Kolahduz, Sima

    2015-01-01

    Background: Considering the increasing importance of emotional intelligence (EI) in different aspects of life, such as academic achievement, the present survey is aimed to predict academic performance of medical students in the comprehensive examination of the basic sciences, according to the indices of emotional intelligence and educational status. Materials and Methods: The present survey is a descriptive, analytical, and cross-sectional study performed on the medical students of Isfahan, Tehran, and Mashhad Universities of Medical Sciences. Sampling the universities was performed randomly after which selecting the students was done, taking into consideration the limitation in their numbers. Based on the inclusion criteria, all the medical students, entrance of 2005, who had attended the comprehensive basic sciences examination in 2008, entered the study. The data collection tools included an Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (standardized in Isfahan), the average score of the first to fifth semesters, total average of each of the five semesters, and the grade of the comprehensive basic sciences examination. The data were analyzed through stepwise regression coefficient by SPSS software version 15. Results: The results indicated that the indicators of independence from an emotional intelligence test and average scores of the first and third academic semesters were significant in predicting the students’ academic performance in the comprehensive basic sciences examination. Conclusion: According to the obtained results, the average scores of students, especially in the earlier semesters, as well as the indicators of independence and the self-esteem rate of students can influence their success in the comprehensive basic sciences examination. PMID:26430693

  16. Can Clinical Scenario Videos Improve Dental Students' Perceptions of the Basic Sciences and Ability to Apply Content Knowledge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Cynthia Jayne; Metz, Michael James

    2015-12-01

    Dental students often have difficulty understanding the importance of basic science classes, such as physiology, for their future careers. To help alleviate this problem, the aim of this study was to create and evaluate a series of video modules using simulated patients and custom-designed animations that showcase medical emergencies in the dental practice. First-year students in a dental physiology course formatively assessed their knowledge using embedded questions in each of the three videos; 108 to 114 of the total 120 first-year students answered the questions, for a 90-95% response rate. These responses indicated that while the students could initially recognize the cause of the medical emergency, they had difficulty in applying their knowledge of physiology to the scenario. In two of the three videos, students drastically improved their ability to answer high-level clinical questions at the conclusion of the video. Additionally, when compared to the previous year of the course, there was a significant improvement in unit exam scores on clinically related questions (6.2% increase). Surveys were administered to the first-year students who participated in the video modules and fourth-year students who had completed the course prior to implementation of any clinical material. The response rate for the first-year students was 96% (115/120) and for the fourth-year students was 57% (68/120). The first-year students indicated a more positive perception of the physiology course and its importance for success on board examinations and their dental career than the fourth-year students. The students perceived that the most positive aspects of the modules were the clear applications of physiology to real-life dental situations, the interactive nature of the videos, and the improved student comprehension of course concepts. These results suggest that online modules may be used successfully to improve students' perceptions of the basic sciences and enhance their ability to

  17. The Tarsal Bone Test: A Basic Test of Health Sciences Students' Knowledge of Lower Limb Anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Castillo-López

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of the present study was to design an easy-to-use tool, the tarsal bone test (TBT, to provide a snapshot of podiatry students’ basic anatomical knowledge of the bones of the lower limb. Methods. The study included 254 podiatry students from three different universities, 145 of them were first-year students and 109 were in their fourth and final years. The TBT was administered without prior notice to the participants and was to be completed in 5 minutes. Results. The results show that 97.2% of the subjects (n=247 correctly labelled all tarsal bones, while the other 2.8% (n=7 incorrectly labelled at least one bone, that was either the cuboid (7 times or the navicular (6 times. Although only one fourth-year student inaccurately identified one bone, no significant differences in the distribution of the correct and incorrect responses were found between first and fourth-year students. Conclusions. The TBT seems to be a straightforward and easy-to-apply instrument, and provides an objective view of the level of knowledge acquired at different stages of podiatry studies.

  18. Sperm DNA: organization, protection and vulnerability: from basic science to clinical applications--a position report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barratt, Christopher L R; Aitken, R John; Björndahl, Lars; Carrell, Douglas T; de Boer, Peter; Kvist, Ulrik; Lewis, Sheena E M; Perreault, Sally D; Perry, Melissa J; Ramos, Liliana; Robaire, Bernard; Ward, Steven; Zini, Armand

    2010-04-01

    This article reports the results of the most recent in a series of EHSRE workshops designed to synthesize the current state of the field in Andrology and provide recommendations for future work (for details see Appendix). Its focus is on methods for detecting sperm DNA damage and potential application of new knowledge about sperm chromatin organization, vulnerability and repair to improve the diagnosis and treatment of clinical infertility associated with that damage. Equally important is the use and reliability of these tests to identify the extent to which environmental contaminants or pharmaceutical agents may contribute to the incidence of sperm DNA damage and male fertility problems. A working group (for workshop details, see Appendix) under the auspices of ESHRE met in May 2009 to assess the current knowledgebase and suggest future basic and clinical research directions. This document presents a synthesis of the working group's understanding of the recent literature and collective discussions on the current state of knowledge of sperm chromatin structure and function during fertilization. It highlights the biological, assay and clinical uncertainties that require further research and ends with a series of 5 key recommendations.

  19. Advances in classification, basic mechanisms and clinical science in ankylosing spondylitis and axial spondyloarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, P C; Benham, H

    2015-02-01

    The field of spondyloarthritis (SpA) has seen huge advances over the past 5 years. The classification of axial disease has been redefined by the axial SpA criteria that incorporate disease captured before radiographic damage is evident as well as established erosive sacroiliac joint disease. Our knowledge of genetics and basic immunological pathways has progressed significantly. In addition, revolutionary progress has been achieved with the availability of tumour necrosis factor inhibitors for treating patients with moderate to severe disease. In parallel, several of novel biomarkers have been identified that show significant promise for the future. Advances in magnetic resonance imaging have helped define positive disease. We have identified that T1 and short tau inversion recovery sequences are best for the diagnosis of axial SpA, and gadolinium contrast is not additive for diagnosis. Progress has been made in identifying potential agents and strategies that reduce radiographic progression. Several referral strategies aimed at appropriate identification of patients have been trialled and found to be effective. There is still substantial work ahead, but the advances of the last 5 years have made a huge and tangible difference at the clinical coalface, and we suggest that this trend will continue. © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  20. MATLAB for Engineering and the Life Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Tranquillo, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the life sciences have embraced simulation as an important tool in biomedical research. Engineers are also using simulation as a powerful step in the design process. In both arenas, Matlab has become the gold standard. It is easy to learn, flexible, and has a large and growing userbase. MATLAB for Engineering and the Life Sciences is a self-guided tour of the basic functionality of MATLAB along with the functions that are most commonly used in biomedical engineering and other life sciences. Although the text is written for undergraduates, graduate students and academics, those