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Sample records for basement membrane pathology

  1. Cell invasion through basement membrane

    OpenAIRE

    Morrissey, Meghan A; Hagedorn, Elliott J.; Sherwood, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Cell invasion through basement membrane is an essential part of normal development and physiology, and occurs during the pathological progression of human inflammatory diseases and cancer. F-actin-rich membrane protrusions, called invadopodia, have been hypothesized to be the “drill bits” of invasive cells, mediating invasion through the dense, highly cross-linked basement membrane matrix. Though studied in vitro for over 30 y, invadopodia function in vivo has remained elusive. We have recent...

  2. Atypical anti-glomerular basement membrane disease

    OpenAIRE

    Troxell, Megan L.; Donald C Houghton

    2015-01-01

    Background Anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) disease classically presents with aggressive necrotizing and crescentic glomerulonephritis, often with pulmonary hemorrhage. The pathologic hallmark is linear staining of GBMs for deposited immunoglobulin G (IgG), usually accompanied by serum autoantibodies to the collagen IV alpha-3 constituents of GBMs. Methods Renal pathology files were searched for cases with linear anti-GBM to identify cases with atypical or indolent course. Histopa...

  3. Still more complexity in mammalian basement membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erickson, A C; Couchman, J R

    2000-01-01

    At the epithelial/mesenchymal interface of most tissues lies the basement membrane (BM). These thin sheets of highly specialized extracellular matrix vary in composition in a tissue-specific manner, and during development and repair. For about two decades it has been apparent that all BMs contain...

  4. Basement membrane proteoglycans are of epithelial origin in rodent skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamane, Y; Yaoita, H; Couchman, J R

    1996-01-01

    sites on mice demonstrated the presence of rat basement membrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan and rat perlecan on interfollicular and follicular basement membranes including that separating dermal papillae from adjacent hair follicle epithelium. In contrast, the basement membranes of all dermal......-epidermal junction and hair follicle epithelium are of epidermal (epithelial) origin in vivo. Stratified rat keratinocytes cultured on a collagen matrix at the air-liquid interface showed the synthesis of perlecan, laminin 1, and type IV collagen in basement membranes, but not clearly detectable basement membrane...

  5. Glomerular Basement Membrane Type IV Collagen in Health and Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Fish, Alfred J.; Kashtan, Clifford E.; Matsukura, Hiro; Butkowski, Ralph J.

    1991-01-01

    Glomerular basement membrane is the major supporting structural element of the glomerular capillary wall. This is a highly complex locus which functionally serves as a filtration barrier, and has been the subject of detailed investigation. The composition of whole glomerular basement membrane suggests that collagen is a major component. Isolation and characterization of the collagenous domains has revealed that glomerular basement membrane is chiefly composed of type IV collagen. This molecul...

  6. Basement membrane changes in capillaries of the ageing human retina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powner, Michael B; Scott, Andrew; Zhu, Meidong; Munro, Peter M G; Foss, Alexander J E; Hageman, Gregory S; Gillies, Mark C; Fruttiger, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The ultrastructural appearance of retinal capillaries can yield important information about disease mechanisms, but is not well characterised in human post mortem samples. We therefore aimed to create a baseline for the appearance of capillaries and establish how this is influenced by post mortem fixation delays and donor age. Methods Electron microscopy was used to characterise retinal capillaries in 20 anonymous donors (with no known eye diseases) of various ages and with various post mortem fixation delays. In addition, samples from six patients with conditions that are known to affect the retinal vasculature (four cases of type 2 diabetes without diabetic retinopathy, one case of diabetic retinopathy and one case of macular telangiectasia type 2) were analysed. Results Vacuoles were found in capillary basement membranes at the vessel—glia interface in all samples, from both the normal and disease cases. Vacuole frequency increased with donor age but was not influenced by post mortem fixation delays. Conclusion Vacuoles in the basement membrane are a normal feature of adult human retinal capillaries and do not indicate disease. Their incidence increases with age and might be a contributing factor to late-onset pathologies of the retinal vasculature. PMID:21606466

  7. Expression of VLA-integrins and their related basement membrane ligands in gingiva from patients of various periodontitis categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gürses, N.; Thorup, Alis Karabulut; Reibel, J.; Carter, G.W.; Holmstrup, Palle

    integrins, basement membrane, gingiva, periodontitis, periodontal disease activity immunofluorescence......integrins, basement membrane, gingiva, periodontitis, periodontal disease activity immunofluorescence...

  8. Basement membrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans: localization in adult rat tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarthy, K J; Couchman, J R

    1990-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans have been described as the major proteoglycan component of basement membranes. However, previous investigators have also provided evidence for the presence of chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan in these structures. Recently we described the production and...... characterization of core protein-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAb) against a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) present in Reichert's membrane, a transient extra-embryonic structure of rodents. This CSPG was also demonstrated to be present in adult rat kidney. We report here the tissue distribution of...... epitopes recognized by these MAb. The ubiquitous presence of these epitopes in the basement membranes of nearly all adult rat tissues demonstrates that at least one CSPG is a constituent of most basement membranes, and by virtue of its unique distribution is distinct from other chondroitin and dermatan...

  9. Mouse endometrial stromal cells produce basement-membrane components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, U M; Damjanov, A; Weiss, J;

    1986-01-01

    During mouse pregnancy, uterine stromal cells transform into morphologically distinct decidual cells under the influence of the implanting embryo and a proper hormonal environment. Mechanical stimulation of hormonally primed uterine stromal cells leads to the same morphologic alterations. The....... Mouse decidual cells isolated from 6- to 7-day pregnant uteri explanted in vitro continue to synthesize basement-membrane-like extracellular matrix. Using immunohistochemistry and metabolic labeling followed by immunoprecipitation, SDS-PAGE, and fluorography, it was shown that the decidual cells...... undergo pseudodecidualization. We thus showed that stromal cells from pregnant and nonpregnant mouse uteri synthesize significant amounts of basement-membrane components in vitro, and hence could serve as a good model for the study of normal basement-membrane components....

  10. Coarctation induces alterations in basement membranes in the cardiovascular system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipke, D W; McCarthy, K J; Elton, T S;

    1993-01-01

    A coarctation hypertensive rat model was used to examine the effects of elevated blood pressure on basement membrane component synthesis by cardiac myocytes and aorta using immunohistochemistry and Northern blot analysis. Carotid arterial pressure increased immediately on coarctation, and left ve...

  11. Reticular basement membrane in asthma and COPD: Similar thickness, yet different composition

    OpenAIRE

    Jeroen JW Liesker; Ten Hacken, Nick H.; Mieke Zeinstra-Smith; Rutgers, Steven R; Dirkje S Postma; et al.

    2009-01-01

    Jeroen JW Liesker1, Nick H Ten Hacken1, Mieke Zeinstra-Smith2, Steven R Rutgers1, Dirkje S Postma1, Wim Timens21Department of Pulmonology; 2Department of Pathology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands Background: Reticular basement membrane (RBM) thickening has been variably associated with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Even if RBM thickness is similar in both diseases, its composition might still differ. Objectiv...

  12. Immunological characterization of a basement membrane-specific chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarthy, K J; Accavitti, M A; Couchman, J R

    1989-01-01

    Reichert's membrane, an extraembryonic membrane present in developing rodents, has been proposed as an in vivo model for the study of basement membranes. We have used this membrane as a source for isolation of basement membrane proteoglycans. Reichert's membranes were extracted in a guanidine/3-[...

  13. Regulation of the basement membrane by epithelia generated forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumor metastasis involves a progressive loss of tissue architecture and dissolution of structural boundaries between the epithelium and connective tissue. The basement membrane (BM), a specialized network of extracellular matrix proteins forms a barrier that physically restricts pre-invasive lesions such that they remain as local insults. The BM is not a static structure, but one that is constantly regenerated and remodeled in the adult organism. Matrix organization also regulates cell function. Thus alterations in the balance of synthesis, remodeling and proteolytic degradation of the extracellular matrix proteins may contribute to a loss of structural integrity. However, the de novo assembly and maintenance of the complex structural properties of in vivo basement membranes remain elusive. Here, this paper highlights the current understanding on the structural properties and the establishment of the BM, and discusses the potential role of self-generated forces in adult tissue remodeling and the maintenance of the BM as a malignancy suppressor. (paper)

  14. Basement membrane abnormalities in human eyes with diabetic retinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljubimov, A V; Burgeson, R E; Butkowski, R J;

    1996-01-01

    human eyes obtained at autopsy (seven normal, five diabetic without DR, and 13 diabetic with DR) by immunofluorescence with antibodies to 30 BM and extracellular matrix components. In non-DR eyes, no qualitative changes of ocular BM components were seen. In some DR corneas, epithelial BM was stained......Vascular and parenchymal basement membranes (BMs) are thickened in diabetes, but alterations in individual BM components in diabetic eyes, especially in diabetic retinopathy (DR), are obscure. To identify abnormalities in the distribution of specific constituents, we analyzed cryostat sections of...... discontinuously for laminin-1, entactin/nidogen, and alpha3-alpha4 Type IV collagen, in contrast to non-DR corneas. Major BM alterations were found in DR retinas compared to normals and non-DR diabetics. The inner limiting membrane (retinal BM) of DR eyes had accumulations of fibronectin (including cellular) and...

  15. Laminin isoforms in endothelial and perivascular basement membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousif, Lema F.; Di Russo, Jacopo; Sorokin, Lydia

    2013-01-01

    Laminins, one of the major functional components of basement membranes, are found underlying endothelium, and encasing pericytes and smooth muscle cells in the vessel wall. Depending on the type of blood vessel (capillary, venule, postcapillary venule, vein or artery) and their maturation state, both the endothelial and mural cell phenotype vary, with associated changes in laminin isoform expression. Laminins containing the α4 and α5 chains are the major isoforms found in the vessel wall, with the added contribution of laminin α2 in larger vessels. We here summarize current data on the precise localization of these laminin isoforms and their receptors in the different layers of the vessel wall, and their potential contribution to vascular homeostasis. PMID:23263631

  16. The Acinar Cage: Basement Membranes Determine Molecule Exchange and Mechanical Stability of Human Breast Cell Acini.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aljona Gaiko-Shcherbak

    Full Text Available The biophysical properties of the basement membrane that surrounds human breast glands are poorly understood, but are thought to be decisive for normal organ function and malignancy. Here, we characterize the breast gland basement membrane with a focus on molecule permeation and mechanical stability, both crucial for organ function. We used well-established and nature-mimicking MCF10A acini as 3D cell model for human breast glands, with ether low- or highly-developed basement membrane scaffolds. Semi-quantitative dextran tracer (3 to 40 kDa experiments allowed us to investigate the basement membrane scaffold as a molecule diffusion barrier in human breast acini in vitro. We demonstrated that molecule permeation correlated positively with macromolecule size and intriguingly also with basement membrane development state, revealing a pore size of at least 9 nm. Notably, an intact collagen IV mesh proved to be essential for this permeation function. Furthermore, we performed ultra-sensitive atomic force microscopy to quantify the response of native breast acini and of decellularized basement membrane shells against mechanical indentation. We found a clear correlation between increasing acinar force resistance and basement membrane formation stage. Most important native acini with highly-developed basement membranes as well as cell-free basement membrane shells could both withstand physiologically relevant loads (≤ 20 nN without loss of structural integrity. In contrast, low-developed basement membranes were significantly softer and more fragile. In conclusion, our study emphasizes the key role of the basement membrane as conductor of acinar molecule influx and mechanical stability of human breast glands, which are fundamental for normal organ function.

  17. Production of monoclonal antibodies to human glomerular basement membrane.

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    Mino,Yasuaki

    1984-10-01

    Full Text Available Using the technique of somatic cell fusion, we produced monoclonal antibodies to collagenase-digested human glomerular basement membrane (GBM. Fourteen monoclonal antibodies which reacted with normal human kidney in indirect immunofluorescence (IIF studies were produced. An analysis of the binding patterns indicated that the antigens recognized could be divided into six broad groups. Monoclonal antibody B3-H10 (Group 1 reacted with only GBM in a fine granular pattern. A5-B12 and B5-C2 (Group 2 reacted with GBM and peritubular capillary in a linear pattern. B2-A12 (Group 3 reacted with only epithelial cells. Al-C9 and A4-E2 (Group 4 showed a mesangial pattern in glomerulus and a lineal pattern in tubular basement membrane (TBM, Bowman's capsule and peritubular capillary. A1-E1, A1-E11, A2-E6, A3-B6, A4-F8 and B5-H2 (Group 5 recognized determinants common to GBM, TBM, Bowman's capsule and/or peritubular capillary. A3-F1 and B5-E10 (Group 6 reacted with TBM and Bowman's capsule. The staining pattern of B3-H10 (Group 1 was characteristic because it was not linear, but finely granular along the GBM. The staining pattern of B2-A12 (Group 3 was also characteristic because only epithelial cells were stained, and processes of epithelial cells were observed as fine fibrils. To the best of our knowledge, these two types of monoclonal antibodies have not been reported previously.

  18. Basement membrane-specific chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan is abnormally associated with the glomerular capillary basement membrane of diabetic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarthy, K J; Abrahamson, D R; Bynum, K R; St John, P L; Couchman, J R

    1994-01-01

    exception being the normal glomerular capillary basement membrane (GBM), where it is absent. In the present study of mature kidneys we examined the distribution of BM-CSPG in streptozocin-induced diabetes mellitus in rats. We found BM-CSPG atypically associated with the GBM of diabetic animals as early as 1...... month after induction of diabetes mellitus. Immunoelectron microscopy (IEM) of affected capillary loops showed BM-CSPG present in the subendothelial matrix in areas of GBM thickening and absent in areas where the GBM appears to be of normal thickness. Moreover, the association of BM-CSPG with regions of...... the pericapillary GBM affects the morphology of the capillary endothelial cells within these areas, directly displacing the cell body from the GBM proper and causing loss of fenestrae. These new data on BM-CSPG distribution reflect abnormal glomerular extracellular matrix protein biosynthesis...

  19. Comparison of double filtration plasmapheresis with immunoadsorption therapy in patients with anti-glomerular basement membrane nephritis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yi-yan; Tang, Zheng; Chen, Dong-mei; Gong, De-Hua; Ji, Da-Xi; Liu, Zhi-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Background Double filtration plasmapheresis (DFPP) and (IA) are both used to clear antibody. However, the clinical efficacy and safety of DFPP in patients with anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) disease are unclear. Methods The 28 enrolled patients diagnosed serologically and pathologically with anti-GBM disease from 2003 to 2013 included 16 treated with DFPP and 12 with IA, with all patients administered immunosuppressive agents. DFPP consisted of an EC50W filter for plasma separat...

  20. Reticular basement membrane in asthma and COPD: Similar thickness, yet different composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen JW Liesker

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Jeroen JW Liesker1, Nick H Ten Hacken1, Mieke Zeinstra-Smith2, Steven R Rutgers1, Dirkje S Postma1, Wim Timens21Department of Pulmonology; 2Department of Pathology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands Background: Reticular basement membrane (RBM thickening has been variably associated with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Even if RBM thickness is similar in both diseases, its composition might still differ. Objective: To assess whether RBM thickness and composition differ between asthma and COPD. Methods: We investigated 24 allergic asthmatics (forced expiratory volume in one second [FEV1] 92% predicted, and 17 nonallergic COPD patients (FEV1 60% predicted, and for each group a control group of similar age and smoking habits (12 and 10 persons, respectively. Snap-frozen sections of bronchial biopsies were stained with hematoxylin/eosin and for collagen I, III, IV, V, laminin and tenascin. RBM thickening was assessed by digital image analysis. Relative staining intensity of each matrix component was determined.Results: Mean (SD RBM thickness was not significantly different between asthma and COPD 5.5 (1.3 vs 6.0 (1.8 μm, but significantly larger than in their healthy counterparts, ie, 4.7 (0.9 and 4.8 (1.2 μm, respectively. Collagen I and laminin stained significantly stronger in asthma than in COPD. Tenascin stained stronger in asthma than in healthy controls of similar age, and stronger in COPD controls than in asthma controls (p 0.05.Conclusion: RBM thickening occurs both in asthma and COPD. We provide supportive evidence that its composition differs in asthma and COPD. Keywords: reticular basement membrane thickness, reticular basement membrane composition, asthma, biopsy, COPD, remodeling

  1. Fluid Mechanics of the Vascular Basement Membrane in the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coloma, Mikhail; Hui, Jonathan; Chiarot, Paul; Huang, Peter; Carare, Roxana; McLeod, Kenneth; Schaffer, David

    2013-11-01

    Beta-amyloid is a normal product of brain metabolic function and is found within the interstitial fluid of the brain. Failure of the clearance of beta-amyloid from the aging brain leads to its accumulation within the walls of arteries and to Alzheimer's disease. The vascular basement membrane (VBM) within the walls of cerebral arteries surrounds the spirally arranged smooth muscle cells and represents an essential pathway for removal of beta-amyloid from the brain. This process fails with the stiffening of arterial walls associated with aging. In this study we hypothesize that the deformation of the VBM associated with arterial pulsations drives the interstitial fluid to drain in the direction opposite of the arterial blood flow. This hypothesis is theoretically investigated by modeling the VBM as a thin, coaxial, fluid-filled porous medium surrounding a periodically deforming cylindrical tube. Flow and boundary conditions required to achieve such a backward clearance are derived through a control volume analysis of mass, momentum, and energy.

  2. The vascular basement membrane as "soil" in brain metastasis.

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    W Shawn Carbonell

    Full Text Available Brain-specific homing and direct interactions with the neural substance are prominent hypotheses for brain metastasis formation and a modern manifestation of Paget's "seed and soil" concept. However, there is little direct evidence for this "neurotropic" growth in vivo. In contrast, many experimental studies have anecdotally noted the propensity of metastatic cells to grow along the exterior of pre-existing vessels of the CNS, a process termed vascular cooption. These observations suggest the "soil" for malignant cells in the CNS may well be vascular, rather than neuronal. We used in vivo experimental models of brain metastasis and analysis of human clinical specimens to test this hypothesis. Indeed, over 95% of early micrometastases examined demonstrated vascular cooption with little evidence for isolated neurotropic growth. This vessel interaction was adhesive in nature implicating the vascular basement membrane (VBM as the active substrate for tumor cell growth in the brain. Accordingly, VBM promoted adhesion and invasion of malignant cells and was sufficient for tumor growth prior to any evidence of angiogenesis. Blockade or loss of the beta1 integrin subunit in tumor cells prevented adhesion to VBM and attenuated metastasis establishment and growth in vivo. Our data establishes a new understanding of CNS metastasis formation and identifies the neurovasculature as the critical partner for such growth. Further, we have elucidated the mechanism of vascular cooption for the first time. These findings may help inform the design of effective molecular therapies for patients with fatal CNS malignancies.

  3. Heterogeneous distribution of a basement membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan in rat tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R

    1987-01-01

    buoyant density HSPG from the murine Engelbreth-Holm swarm tumor. It was, however, confirmed that only a single population of antibodies was present in the serum. Despite the presence of similar epitopes on these two proteoglycans of different hydrodynamic properties, it was apparent that the PYS-2 HSPG...... recognized by this antiserum. Those basement membranes that lacked the HSPG strongly stained with antisera against laminin and type IV collagen. The striking distribution pattern is possibly indicative of multiple species of basement membrane HSPGs of which one type is recognized by this antiserum. Further...... represents a basement membrane proteoglycan of distinct properties reflected in its restricted distribution in vivo....

  4. Anti-glomerular basement membrane disease superimposed on membranous nephropathy: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivera Noel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Anti-glomerular basement membrane disease is a rare autoimmune disorder characterized by pulmonary hemorrhage, crescentic glomerulonephritis and the presence of circulating anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies. The simultaneous occurrence of both anti-glomerular basement membrane disease and membranous nephropathy is rare. Case presentation A 59-year-old Hispanic man presented with acute onset of nausea and vomiting and was found to have renal insufficiency. Work-up included a kidney biopsy, which revealed anti-glomerular basement membrane disease with underlying membranous nephropathy. He was treated with emergent hemodialysis, intravenous corticosteroids, plasmapheresis, and cyclophosphamide without improvement in his renal function. Conclusion Simultaneous anti-glomerular basement membrane disease and membranous nephropathy is very rare. There have been 16 previous case reports in the English language literature that have been associated with a high mortality and morbidity, and a very high rate of renal failure resulting in hemodialysis. Co-existence of membranous nephropathy and anti-glomerular basement membrane disease may be immune-mediated, although the exact mechanism is not clear.

  5. Cell Receptor-Basement Membrane Interactions in Health and Disease: A Kidney-Centric View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borza, Corina M; Chen, Xiwu; Zent, Roy; Pozzi, Ambra

    2015-01-01

    Cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions are essential for tissue development, homeostasis, and response to injury. Basement membranes (BMs) are specialized ECMs that separate epithelial or endothelial cells from stromal components and interact with cells via cellular receptors, including integrins and discoidin domain receptors. Disruption of cell-BM interactions due to either injury or genetic defects in either the ECM components or cellular receptors often lead to irreversible tissue injury and loss of organ function. Animal models that lack specific BM components or receptors either globally or in selective tissues have been used to help with our understanding of the molecular mechanisms whereby cell-BM interactions regulate organ function in physiological and pathological conditions. We review recently published works on animal models that explore how cell-BM interactions regulate kidney homeostasis in both health and disease. PMID:26610916

  6. Perlecan and basement membrane-chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (bamacan) are two basement membrane chondroitin/dermatan sulfate proteoglycans in the Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm tumor matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R; Kapoor, R; Sthanam, M; Wu, R R

    1996-01-01

    perlecan but, in addition to being present as a heparan sulfate proteoglycan, it is also present as a hybrid molecule, with dermatan sulfate chains. A minor population of perlecan apparently lacks heparan sulfate chains totally, and some of this is substituted with chondroitin sulfate. The second species...... heparan sulfate proteoglycan, widespread in many basement membranes and connective tissues. We now identify two distinct proteoglycan species from this tumor source, which are substituted with galactosaminoglycans and which show basement membrane localization by immunohistochemistry. One species is...... is immunologically related to basement membrane-chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (BM-CSPG) and bears chondroitin sulfate chains. No BM-CSPG was detectable which was substituted with heparan sulfate chains. A combination of immunological and molecular approaches, including cDNA cloning, showed that...

  7. Remodeling of basement membrane in patients with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoraş, Adriana; Grigoraş, Constantin Cristian; Giuşcă, Simona Eliza; Căruntu, Irina Draga; Amălinei, Cornelia

    2016-01-01

    The "bronchial remodeling" specific for the asthmatic disease consists in irreversible changes of the bronchial wall, including glandular and smooth muscle fibers hyperplasia and÷or hypertrophy, goblet cells hyperplasia, and thickening of basement membrane (BM). We aimed to analyze the BM thickness in asthma patients, in order to validate the relationship between its changes and the disease severity defined in agreement with the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) criteria. The study group has been formed of 38 patients with different degrees of severity of asthma established by spirometry using Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV1), and two patients without asthma symptoms as controls. The specimens harvested by fibrobronchoscopy have been processed by paraffin embedding followed by Hematoxylin-Eosin (HE) and Periodic Acid-Schiff (PAS) staining. For each case, the BM measurement has been realized by a "point-by-point" method. Statistical analysis has been performed using SPSS 17 software, by applying non-parametric correlation tests. The quantitative assessment revealed a progressive increase in BM thickness during the course of the disease, from a mean value of 11.2 μm in stage 1 to that of 15.6 μm in stage 4. Even if this process has been noticed starting with the first stage of asthma, the differences in the BM size were statistically significant only for stages 1 and 3 (p=0.047), stages 1 and 4 (p=0.000), stages 2 and 3 (p=0.000), and stages 3 and 4 (p=0.000). Spearman's test has shown an opposite correlation between the BM thickness and asthma severity defined by FEV1 values (r=-0.86, pasthma and continues in a progressive modality, the BM thickening being correlated with the disease severity. Thus, we support the concept of biological consequences of BM thickening in asthma pathogenesis, a mechanism still incompletely deciphered. PMID:27151696

  8. Detection of hidden nephritogenic antigen determinants in human renal and nonrenal basement membranes.

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshioka, K; Michael, A F; Velosa, J; Fish, A. J.

    1985-01-01

    The reactivity of 10 human anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) autoantibodies with basement membrane antigens of human adult and infant kidney, lung, placenta, and skin was examined by ELISA and immunofluorescence microscopy. All autoantibodies were previously shown to react with adult kidney by indirect immunofluorescence and with collagenase-digested adult GBM by ELISA. Four antibodies (group A) were positive on infant and fetal kidney sections by immunofluorescence, and six antibodies ...

  9. Organogenesis of the kidney glomerulus: Focus on the glomerular basement membrane

    OpenAIRE

    Miner, Jeffrey H.

    2011-01-01

    The glomerular basement membrane (GBM) is a crucial component of the kidney's filtration barrier that separates the vasculature from the urinary space. During glomerulogenesis, the GBM is formed from fusion of two distinct basement membranes, one synthesized by the glomerular epithelial cell (podocyte) and the other by the glomerular endothelial cell. The main components of the GBM are laminin-521 (α5β2γ1), collagen α3α4α5(IV), nidogen and the heparan sulfate proteoglycan, agrin. By studying ...

  10. Energy stored and dissipated in skeletal muscle basement membranes during sinusoidal oscillations.

    OpenAIRE

    Tidball, J. G.

    1986-01-01

    We subjected single skeletal muscle cells from frog semitendinosus to sinusoidal oscillations that simulated the strain experienced as the cells near the end of passive extension and begin active contraction in slow swimming. Other cells from which the basement membrane was removed by enzymatic and mechanical procedures were tested identically. Effectiveness of the basement membrane removal technique was evaluated by electron microscopy, by an electrophoretic and lectin-binding assay for depl...

  11. Attachment of oral bacteria to a basement-membrane-like matrix and to purified matrix proteins.

    OpenAIRE

    Winkler, J R; S. R. John; Kramer, R H; Hoover, C.I.; Murray, P A

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the adherence of oral bacteria to an in vitro basement-membrane-like matrix and to selected individual macromolecular constituents of this matrix. Radiolabeled bacteria were incubated with basement-membrane-like matrices isolated from PF HR-9 cells. Bacteroides gingivalis 33277, Fusobacterium nucleatum FN-2, and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans GA3(A) bound to the matrix in the range of 44 to 70%, considerably higher than the ranges of A. actin...

  12. Vascular basement membranes as pathways for the passage of fluid into and out of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Alan W J; Sharp, Matthew MacGregor; Albargothy, Nazira J; Fernandes, Rute; Hawkes, Cheryl A; Verma, Ajay; Weller, Roy O; Carare, Roxana O

    2016-05-01

    In the absence of conventional lymphatics, drainage of interstitial fluid and solutes from the brain parenchyma to cervical lymph nodes is along basement membranes in the walls of cerebral capillaries and tunica media of arteries. Perivascular pathways are also involved in the entry of CSF into the brain by the convective influx/glymphatic system. The objective of this study is to differentiate the cerebral vascular basement membrane pathways by which fluid passes out of the brain from the pathway by which CSF enters the brain. Experiment 1: 0.5 µl of soluble biotinylated or fluorescent Aβ, or 1 µl 15 nm gold nanoparticles was injected into the mouse hippocampus and their distributions determined at 5 min by transmission electron microscopy. Aβ was distributed within the extracellular spaces of the hippocampus and within basement membranes of capillaries and tunica media of arteries. Nanoparticles did not enter capillary basement membranes from the extracellular spaces. Experiment 2: 2 µl of 15 nm nanoparticles were injected into mouse CSF. Within 5min, groups of nanoparticles were present in the pial-glial basement membrane on the outer aspect of cortical arteries between the investing layer of pia mater and the glia limitans. The results of this study and previous research suggest that cerebral vascular basement membranes form the pathways by which fluid passes into and out of the brain but that different basement membrane layers are involved. The significance of these findings for neuroimmunology, Alzheimer's disease, drug delivery to the brain and the concept of the Virchow-Robin space are discussed. PMID:26975356

  13. Molecular sieve of the rat glomerular basement membrane: a transmission electron microscopic study of enzyme-treated specimens.

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    Ichiyasu,Akira

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available Isolated rat glomerular basement membrane was treated with elastase and observed by transmission electron microscopy. The treatment with elastase revealed the fundamental structure of the glomerular basement membrane quite clearly, and enabled the observation of a sieve structure within the glomerular basement membrane. This sieve structure may play a major role in the filtration of blood as well as in the production of urine. Treatment with antibody showed that the sieve was mainly constituted of type IV collagen.

  14. Basement membrane proteoglycans in glomerular morphogenesis: chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan is temporally and spatially restricted during development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarthy, K J; Bynum, K; St John, P L; Abrahamson, D R; Couchman, J R

    1993-01-01

    basement membrane (GBM) but present in other basement membranes of the nephron, including collecting ducts, tubules, Bowman's capsule, and the glomerular mesangium. In light of this unique pattern of distribution and of the complex histoarchitectural reorganization occurring during nephrogenesis, the...... vasculature and ureteric buds, its first appearance in nephron basement membrane occurs during the late comma stage. In capillary loop-stage glomeruli of prenatal animals, BM-CSPG is present in the presumptive mesangial matrix but undetectable in the GBM. However, as postnatal glomerular maturation progresses...... BM-CSPG is also found in both the lamina rara interna and lamina densa of the GBM in progressively increasing amounts, being most evident in the GBM of 21-day-old animals. Micrographs of glomeruli from 42-day-old animals show that BM-CSPG gradually disappears from the GBM and, by 56 days after birth...

  15. Experimental autoimmune glomerulonephritis induced by anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody. II. Effects of injecting heterologous, homologous, or autologous glomerular basement membranes and complete Freund's adjuvant into sheep.

    OpenAIRE

    Steblay, R. W.; Rudofsky, U H

    1983-01-01

    The effects of injecting human, rabbit, rat, or single-kidney homologous glomerular basement membrane (GBM) or autologous GBM, each in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA), into 15- to 18-month-old sheep are compared. All sheep receiving heterologous GBM and 3 of 6 sheep receiving homologous GBM had anti-GBM nephritis, but such sheep did not bind autoantibodies or have Goodpasturelike lesions in their lungs. Sheep given injections of human GBM had autoantibodies to antigenic determinants shared b...

  16. Development and heterogeneity of antigens in the immature nephron. Reactivity with human antiglomerular basement membrane autoantibodies.

    OpenAIRE

    Jeraj, K.; Fish, A. J.; Yoshioka, K; Michael, A. F.

    1984-01-01

    Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy was performed with 15 human anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) antibodies and mouse monoclonal antibodies to Type IV collagen (MBM4) and renal basement membranes (MBM15) on renal tissue from 6 fetuses (gestational age, 15-23 weeks), 8 infants (age, 1-21 days), and 8 children and adults (ages, 3-27 years). Of the 15 human anti-GBM antibodies that react with GBM in adult glomeruli, only 4 identified antigens in the GBM of fetal and infant glomeruli. I...

  17. Expression of basement membrane components through morphological changes in the hair growth cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R; Gibson, W T

    1985-01-01

    membrane separating this from the epithelial cells of the hair bulb, and in the basement membrane and connective tissue sheath which underly the cells of the outer root sheath. Early in catagen, the transitional stage, staining of the dermal papilla matrix disappeared. Fibronectin persisted in the basement...... the increase in fibronectin expression. However, growing cells, even in a suprabasal position, always had some fibronectin at their surface. Immunoelectron microscopy of early anagen follicles confirmed the light microscopic findings and also showed that fibronectin was present in small vesicles close...

  18. Rituximab for the treatment of refractory simultaneous anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) and membranous nephropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Bandak, Ghassan; Jones, Bruce A.; Li, Jian; Yee, Jerry; Umanath, Kausik

    2014-01-01

    Antibody-mediated anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) disease occurs rarely in the presence of another B-cell disorder, membranous nephropathy. The coexistence of these two autoimmune disorders would be anticipated to require differing, specific therapies targeted to each disease process. We describe a case of concomitant membranous nephropathy and anti-GBM disease in which conventional therapy, including steroids, plasmapheresis and cyclophosphamide, failed to attenuate the anti-GBM...

  19. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans made by different basement-membrane-producing tumors have immunological and structural similarities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, U M; Albrechtsen, R; Hassell, J R

    1985-01-01

    Using immunological assays, we determined the relationship between the heparan sulfate proteoglycans produced by two different murine basement-membrane-producing tumors, i.e., the mouse Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm (EHS) tumor and the L2 rat yolk-sac tumor. Antibodies prepared against the heparan sulfat...

  20. Cdc42 expression in keratinocytes is required for the maintenance of the basement membrane in skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xunwei; Quondamatteo, Fabio; Brakebusch, Cord

    2006-01-01

    , structure and number of hemidesomosomes were not significantly changed in the Cdc42 mutant skin compared with the control mice and no blister formation was observed in mutant skin. These data indicate that Cdc42 in keratinocytes is important for maintenance of the basement membrane of skin....

  1. Monoclonal antibody GB3, a new probe for the study of human basement membranes and hemidesmosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verrando, P.; Pisani, A.; Serieys, N.; Ortonne, J.P. (UER Medecine, Nice (France)); Hsi, Baeli; Yeh, Changjing (INSERM U210, Nice (France))

    1987-05-01

    A monoclonal antibody, GB3, has been raised against human amnion. Not only does GB3 bind to amniotic basement membrane, but it also recognizes an antigenic structure expressed by epidermal as well as by some other human basement membranes. This antigen is synthesized (and excreted) by cultured normal human epidermal keratinocytes. It is expressed to a lesser extent by the A431 epidermoid carcinoma cell line, but is not expressed by the SV40 virus-transformed SVK14 keratinocyte cell line. In ultrastructural studies, this antigen was located in the epidermal basement membrane, both in the lamina densa and in the lamina lucida, associated with hemidesmosomes. It was identified as a protein by in vitro proteolytic cleavage studies. The radio-immunoprecipitates from cultured human keratinocytes, analyzed by SDS-PAGE, showed that GB3 recognized five polypeptides of 93.5, 125, 130, 146 and 150 kD under reducing conditions. The tissue distribution of the antigen and the molecular weights (MWs) of its constitutive polypeptides suggest that it is different from other known components of basement membranes. It may provide a biochemical marker for hemidesmosomes. Furthermore, GB3 represents an interesting and original clinical probe, since the antigenic structure recognized by GB3 is lacking in Junctional Epidermolysis Bullosa, a lethal genodermatosis in which a dermo-epidermal splitting occurs at the level of lamina lucida.

  2. Experimental orchitis induced in rats by passive transfer of an antiserum to seminiferous tubule basement membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustig, L; Denduchis, B; González, N N; Puig, R P

    1978-09-01

    A multifocal damage of the testis was obtained when rats were injected intravenously or under the tunica albuginea of the testis with a rabbit antiseminiferous tubule basement membrane serum. The damage was characterized by foci of perivascular and peritubular infiltrates of mononuclear round cells, infolding, thickening, and rupture of the seminiferous tubular wall and different degrees of injury of the germinal epithelium such as, cell disorganization, cell sloughing, and atrophy. Delamination and thickening of seminiferous tubule basement membrane and vacuolization of the Sertoli cell cytoplasm was often observed by electron microscopy. A linear deposit of rabbit gamma-globulin was detected by immunohistochemical techniques along the basement membranes of the seminiferous tubules and vessels. Testicular damage was not detected in rats injected with normal rabbit serum, used as control. In the kidneys of rats injected intravenously with the immune serum, a deposit of rabbit gamma-globulin was detected along glomerular basement membrane. Focal areas of mononuclear cell infiltrates, hypercellularity of glomeruli and thickening of glomerular capillary walls and Bowman's capsule were also observed. PMID:367304

  3. Monoclonal antibody GB3, a new probe for the study of human basement membranes and hemidesmosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A monoclonal antibody, GB3, has been raised against human amnion. Not only does GB3 bind to amniotic basement membrane, but it also recognizes an antigenic structure expressed by epidermal as well as by some other human basement membranes. This antigen is synthesized (and excreted) by cultured normal human epidermal keratinocytes. It is expressed to a lesser extent by the A431 epidermoid carcinoma cell line, but is not expressed by the SV40 virus-transformed SVK14 keratinocyte cell line. In ultrastructural studies, this antigen was located in the epidermal basement membrane, both in the lamina densa and in the lamina lucida, associated with hemidesmosomes. It was identified as a protein by in vitro proteolytic cleavage studies. The radio-immunoprecipitates from cultured human keratinocytes, analyzed by SDS-PAGE, showed that GB3 recognized five polypeptides of 93.5, 125, 130, 146 and 150 kD under reducing conditions. The tissue distribution of the antigen and the molecular weights (MWs) of its constitutive polypeptides suggest that it is different from other known components of basement membranes. It may provide a biochemical marker for hemidesmosomes. Furthermore, GB3 represents an interesting and original clinical probe, since the antigenic structure recognized by GB3 is lacking in Junctional Epidermolysis Bullosa, a lethal genodermatosis in which a dermo-epidermal splitting occurs at the level of lamina lucida

  4. Deposition of nucleosomal antigens (histones and DNA) in the epidermal basement membrane in human lupus nephritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootscholten, C.; Bruggen, M.C.J. van; Pijl, J.W. van der; Jong, E.M.G.J. de; Ligtenberg, G.; Derksen, R.H.W.M.; Berden, J.H.M.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Antinuclear autoantibodies complexed to nucleosomes can bind to heparan sulfate (HS) in the glomerular basement membrane. This binding is due to the binding of the positively charged histones to the strongly anionic HS. Nucleosomes and histones have been identified in glomerular deposits

  5. Effect of 137Cs gamma radiation on the fibronectin content in basement membrane of mouse small intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of fibronectin in the small intestine of the mouse was investigated using an indirect immunofluorescence technique. Tissue fibronectin was preferentially located in the basement membrane and in the muscularis layer. Semiquantitative immunofluorescence determination of tissue fibronectin in the basement membrane showed only minor changes at 24 or 48 hours after 10 or 20 Gy of 137Cs gamma irradiation. (Auth.)

  6. Isotropic Versus Bipolar Functionalized Biomimetic Artificial Basement Membranes and Their Evaluation in Long-Term Human Cell Co-Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Angela; Wistlich, Laura; Heffels, Karl-Heinz; Walles, Heike; Groll, Jürgen

    2016-08-01

    In addition to dividing tissues into compartments, basement membranes are crucial as cell substrates and to regulate cellular behavior. The development of artificial basement membranes is indispensable for the ultimate formation of functional engineered tissues; however, pose a challenge due to their complex structure. Herein, biodegradable electrospun polyester meshes are presented, exhibiting isotropic or bipolar bioactivation as a biomimetic and biofunctional model of the natural basement membrane. In a one-step preparation process, reactive star-shaped prepolymer additives, which generate a hydrophilic fiber surface, are electrospun with cell-adhesion-mediating peptides, derived from major components of the basement membrane. Human skin cells adhere to the functionalized meshes, and long-term co-culture experiments confirm that the artificial basement membranes recapitulate and preserve tissue specific functions. Several layers of immortalized human keratinocytes grow on the membranes, differentiating toward the surface and expressing typical epithelial markers. Fibroblasts migrate into the reticular lamina mimicking part of the mesh. Both cells types begin to produce extracellular matrix proteins and to remodel the initial membrane. It is shown at the example of skin that the artificial basement membrane design provokes biomimetic responses of different cell types and can thus be used as basis for the future development of basement membrane containing tissues. PMID:27283510

  7. Ultrastructural appearance of renal and other basement membranes in the Bull terrier model of autosomal dominant hereditary nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, J C; Savige, J; Seymour, A E; Dowling, J; Martinello, P; Colville, D; Sinclair, R; Naito, I; Jennings, G; Huxtable, C

    2000-08-01

    Bull terrier hereditary nephritis may represent a model for autosomal dominant Alport's syndrome because affected dogs have the typically lamellated glomerular basement membrane (GBM) and father-to-son disease transmission occurs. This study examined the ultrastructural appearance of the renal and extrarenal basement membranes and their composition in affected Bull terriers. Affected stillborn animals and puppies had subepithelial frilling and vacuolation of the GBM. In adult dogs, lamellation was common, and subepithelial frilling and vacuolation were less prominent. Foot-process effacement and mesangial matrix expansion occurred frequently. Basement membranes in the glomeruli, tubules, and Bowman's capsule were significantly thickened and often mineralized. Immunohistochemical examination showed alpha 1(IV) and alpha 2(IV) collagen chains in all renal basement membranes; alpha 3(IV), alpha 4(IV), and alpha 5(IV) chains in the GBM, distal tubular basement membrane, and Bowman's capsule; and the alpha 6(IV) chain in Bowman's capsule. Conversely, the basement membranes from the affected Bull terrier cornea, lens capsule, retina, skin, lung, and muscle had a normal ultrastructural appearance and were not thickened compared with membranes in normal age-matched dogs. The distribution of basement membrane abnormalities in Bull terrier hereditary nephritis may occur because the defective protein is present exclusively or more abundantly in the kidney and is structurally more important in the kidney or because of local intrarenal stresses. PMID:10922317

  8. Distribution of individual components of basement membrane in human colon polyps and adenocarcinomas as revealed by monoclonal antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljubimov, A V; Bartek, J; Couchman, J R; Kapuller, L L; Veselov, V V; Kovarik, J; Perevoshchikov, A G; Krutovskikh, V A

    1992-01-01

    -membrane components (laminin, entactin/nidogen, collagen type IV and large heparan sulfate proteoglycan), as well as to keratin 8. In all adenocarcinomas, including mucinous, basement membranes were altered more at the invasive front than in the parenchyma. The degree of this alteration was inversely correlated with...... basement-membrane components and to a specific keratin may constitute an adequate immunohistochemical test for the presence of invasion, and may be useful in the histologic analysis of polyps, especially in dubious cases....

  9. The basement membrane constituents in the mouse embryo's tooth. An autoradiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enamel organs isolated from the lower first teeth of 18-days old white mouse embryo by trypsin treatment were used in this study. The organs were cultured during periods of increasing time on a semi-solid medium containing cock serum. In another chase experiments, the organs were cultured on a liquid medium containing proline-3H, leucine-3H, and glucosamine-3H, were studied by autoradiography using both light and electron microscopes. It has been shown that the nature of the culture medium does not apparently interfere with the ability of the enamel to reconstitute the basement membrane. On the other hand, it have been found obvious differences concerning the kinetic of the used isotopes. The results indicate that the turn-over of the basement membrane constituents represents a continuous and homogenous process which continues to take place during, before and after reconstitution. 42 refs. (author)

  10. Enhanced assembly of basement membrane matrix by endodermal cells in response to fibronectin substrata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austria, M R; Couchman, J R

    1991-01-01

    cells, in comparison to cells adherent to type I collagen-coated, vitronectin-coated or uncoated substrata. Direct effects of fibronectin or laminin on the degree of cell spreading or rate of proliferation were not responsible for enhanced matrix deposition. The effect did not result from a redirection...... of basement membrane components to the matrix, since there was no decrease in matrix constituents released to the culture supernatants. Furthermore, the synthesis and release of other molecules that are not basement membrane constituents was unaltered in response to different extracellular matrix...... substrata. Experiments with fibronectin fragments showed that a 105 x 10(3) Mr 'cell'-binding domain (containing the cell attachment sequence Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser) was an important contributor to enhanced matrix deposition, while the N-terminal 29 x 10(3) Mr heparin-binding domain also contributed to the effect...

  11. Ultrastructural and Temporal Changes of the Microvascular Basement Membrane and Astrocyte Interface Following Focal Cerebral Ischemia

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Il; Kim, Eun Hee; del Zoppo, Gregory J.; Heo, Ji Hoe

    2009-01-01

    Microvascular integrity is lost during cerebral ischemia. Detachment of the microvascular basement membrane (BM) from the astrocyte, as well as degradation of the BM, is responsible for the loss of microvascular integrity. However, their ultrastructural and temporal changes during cerebral ischemia are not well known. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 1, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 48 hr. By using transmission electron microscopy, the p...

  12. Autoantibodies against basement membrane collagen type IV are associated with myocardial infarction

    OpenAIRE

    Olga McLeod; Pontus Dunér; Ann Samnegård; Per Tornvall; Jan Nilsson; Anders Hamsten; Eva Bengtsson

    2015-01-01

    Background: Collagen type IV is the major constituent of basement membranes underlying endothelial cells and is important for endothelial cell attachment and function. Autoantibodies against native collagen type IV have been found in various autoimmune diseases. Oxidation of LDL in the vascular wall results in the formation of reactive aldehydes, which could modify surrounding matrix proteins. Like oxidized LDL, these modified matrix proteins are likely to induce immune responses. We examined...

  13. Immunohistochemical distribution of basement membrane proteins in the human inner ear from older subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Ishiyama, Akira; Mowry, Sarah E.; Lopez, Ivan A.; Ishiyama, Gail

    2009-01-01

    The immunolocalization of several basement membrane (BM) proteins was investigated in vestibular endorgans microdissected from temporal bones obtained from subjects with a documented normal auditory and vestibular function (n = 5, average age = 88 years old). Fluorescent immunostaining using antibodies directed at collagen IVα2, nidogen-1, laminin-β2, α-dystroglycan, and tenascin-C was applied to cryosections from human cochlea, cristae ampullares, utricular and saccular maculae. Collagen IVα...

  14. Tissue fibrocytes in patients with mild asthma: A possible link to thickness of reticular basement membrane?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjermer Leif

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myofibroblasts, proposed as being derived from circulating fibrocytes, are considered to be important cells in thickening of the basement membrane in patients with asthma. We have studied the correlation of tissue fibrocyte levels to basement membrane thickness and the presence of fibrocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF in steroid-naive patients with mild asthma and controls. Methods Patients with mild asthma (n = 9 were recruited and divided into two categories based on whether or not fibroblast-like cells could be established from BALF. Non-asthmatic healthy subjects (n = 5 were used as controls. Colocalization of the fibrocyte markers CD34, CD45RO, procollagen I, and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA were identified in bronchial biopsies from patients and controls by confocal microscopy. Kruskall-Wallis method was used to calculate statistical significance and Spearman coefficient of rank correlation was used to assess the degree of association. Results In patients with BALF fibroblasts, a 14-fold increase of tissue cells expressing CD34/CD45RO/α-SMA and a 16-fold increase of tissue cells expressing CD34/procollagen I was observed when compared to controls (p Conclusion These findings indicate a correlation between recruited fibrocytes in tissue and thickness of basement membrane. Fibroblast progenitor cells may therefore be important in airway remodeling in steroid-naive patients with mild asthma.

  15. Antigens of the basement membranes of the seminiferous tubules induce autoimmunity in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustig, L; Satz, M L; Sztein, M B; Denduchis, B

    1982-05-01

    A preparation enriched in basement membranes from seminiferous tubules was isolated from rat testes (STBM) and injected with complete Freund's adjuvant into Wistar rats. In 60% of animals a mild multifocal orchitis was observed. In damaged areas, perivascular and peritubular mononuclear cell infiltrates and different degrees of cell sloughing of some seminiferous tubules were observed. Electron microscopy revealed focal thickenings and delamination of the basement membrane of the seminiferous tubules as well as vacuolization of Sertoli cell cytoplasm. Using immunofluorescence discontinuous linear deposits of IgG were detected along the seminiferous tubular wall. Moreover, the same pattern of immunofluorescence was observed when the IgG eluted from the testes of the immunized rats was layered on sections of normal rat testis. Circulating antibodies to STBM were detected using passive haemagglutination in approximately 45% of the immunized rats, with titers ranging from 1:20 to 1:80. Leukocyte migration was inhibited when the spleen cells of the immunized rats were incubated with antigens from the basement membrane of seminiferous tubules, whilst a negative reaction was obtained when the soluble fraction of testis homogenate was used. PMID:7050376

  16. Intercellular deposits of basement membrane material in active human pituitary adenomas detected by immunostaining for laminin and electron microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, S; Wewer, U M; Albrechtsen, R

    1986-01-01

    Thirty-eight human pituitary adenomas (24 endocrine active and 14 endocrine inactive tumors) were studied immunohistochemically for the presence of the basement membrane component, laminin, and ultrastructurally for the presence of basement membrane. Immunoreactivity of laminin delineated staining...... of epithelial and endothelial basement membranes, the reaction product being confined mostly to the perivascular zones. Moreover, a hitherto undescribed presence of intercellular laminin-positive droplets was observed in ten of the active adenomas (nine patients with hyperprolactinemia and....../or acromegalia and one patient with Cushing's syndrome). Concurrently, at the ultrastructural level, bunches of basement membrane-like material intermingled between the adenoma cells were demonstrated in seven of these ten active adenomas. Furthermore, secretory granules were entrapped occasionally in this...

  17. C3d fragment of complement interacts with laminin and binds to basement membranes of glomerulus and trophoblast

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    Two mouse monoclonal antibodies generated against human placental homogenate were found to react specifically with human complement component C3. In immunofluorescence of human tissues, these antibodies gave a bright linear staining outlining the glomerular basement membrane of the adult kidney and the trophoblast basement membrane of placenta. An identical staining pattern was observed with a rabbit C3d antiserum which also prevented binding of the monoclonal antibodies to tissue sections. O...

  18. Identification of the cutaneous basement membrane zone antigen and isolation of antibody in linear immunoglobulin A bullous dermatosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Zone, J J; Taylor, T B; Kadunce, D P; Meyer, L J

    1990-01-01

    Linear IgA bullous dermatosis (LABD) is a rare blistering skin disease characterized by basement membrane zone deposition of IgA. This study identifies a tissue antigen detected by patient serum and then isolates the autoantibody using epidermis and protein bands blotted on nitrocellulose as immunoabsorbents. Sera from 10 patients (9 with cutaneous disease and 1 with cicatrizing conjunctivitis) were evaluated. Indirect immunofluorescence revealed an IgA anti-basement membrane antibody in 6 of...

  19. Basement membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan from the L2 rat yolk sac carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, M; Wewer, U; Albrechtsen, R

    1984-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycan from the L2 rat yolk sac carcinoma has been purified and partially characterized. The proteoglycan has an apparent Mr of 750 000, 35% of which represents the core protein. The core protein seems to be homogeneous, whereas the heparan sulfate chains are heterogeneous w...... with an Mr of about 50 000-70 000, with 30% of the glucosamine being N-sulfated. Antibodies raised against the core protein of the heparan sulfate proteoglycan reacted with basement membranes of various rat and human tissue....

  20. Pericytes regulate vascular basement membrane remodeling and govern neutrophil extravasation during inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijun Wang

    Full Text Available During inflammation polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs traverse venular walls, composed of the endothelium, pericyte sheath and vascular basement membrane. Compared to PMN transendothelial migration, little is known about how PMNs penetrate the latter barriers. Using mouse models and intravital microscopy, we show that migrating PMNs expand and use the low expression regions (LERs of matrix proteins in the vascular basement membrane (BM for their transmigration. Importantly, we demonstrate that this remodeling of LERs is accompanied by the opening of gaps between pericytes, a response that depends on PMN engagement with pericytes. Exploring how PMNs modulate pericyte behavior, we discovered that direct PMN-pericyte contacts induce relaxation rather than contraction of pericyte cytoskeletons, an unexpected response that is mediated by inhibition of the RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway in pericytes. Taking our in vitro results back into mouse models, we present evidence that pericyte relaxation contributes to the opening of the gaps between pericytes and to the enlargement of the LERs in the vascular BM, facilitating PMN extravasation. Our study demonstrates that pericytes can regulate PMN extravasation by controlling the size of pericyte gaps and thickness of LERs in venular walls. This raises the possibility that pericytes may be targeted in therapies aimed at regulating inflammation.

  1. Laminin, a noncollagenous component of epithelial basement membranes synthesized by a rat yolk sac tumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, U; Albrechtsen, R; Ruoslahti, E

    1981-01-01

    Laminin, a glycoprotein antigenically similar or identical to a component of epithelial basement membranes, was identified as a major component of the abundant extracellular matrix synthesized by an experimentally induced rat yolk sac tumor. Immunocytochemical staining revealed laminin in cultured...... polypeptides with molecular weights of approximately 200,000 and 400,000. These comigrated with the polypeptides of mouse laminin isolated previously. The yolk sac tumor tissue grown in vivo contained laminin in the tumor cells and in the extracellular material as evidenced by immunofluorescence and...... membranes in rat tissues in a manner indistinguishable from antilaminin. The presence of laminin in rat yolk sac cells, the presumed origin of our yolk sac tumor, was studied in some detail. Laminin was found to be present in normal cells of the visceral as well as the parietal yolk sac layer and in their...

  2. Specific fixation of bovine brain and retinal acidic and basic fibroblast growth factors to mouse embryonic eye basement membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The labeling pattern of mouse embryonic eye frozen sections incubated with radioiodinated brain acidic and basic fibroblasts growth factors (aFGF and bFGF) was investigated by autoradiography. Both growth factors bind to basement membranes in a dose-dependent way, with a higher affinity for bFGF. Similar data were obtained with eye-derived growth factors (EDGF), the retinal forms of FGF. There was a heterogeneity in the affinity of the various basement membranes toward these growth factors. The specificity of the growth factor-basement membrane interaction was demonstrated by the following experiments: (i) an excess of unlabeled growth factor displaced the labeling; (ii) unrelated proteins with different isoelectric points did not modify the labeling; and (iii) iodinated EGF or PDGF did not label basement membrane. In order to get a better understanding of the nature of this binding, the authors performed the incubation of the frozen sections with iodinated FGFs preincubated with various compounds. These results demonstrate that FGFs bind specifically to basement membranes, probably on the polysaccharidic part of the proteoheparan sulfate, and suggest that this type of interaction may be a general feature of the mechanism of action of these growth factors

  3. Nephritogenic antigen determinants in epidermal and renal basement membranes of kindreds with Alport-type familial nephritis.

    OpenAIRE

    Kashtan, C; Fish, A. J.; Kleppel, M; Yoshioka, K; Michael, A. F.

    1986-01-01

    We probed epidermal basement membranes (EBM) of acid-urea denatured skin from members of kindreds with Alport-type familial nephritis (FN) for the presence of antigens reactive with Goodpasture sera (GPS) and serum (FNS) from an Alport patient who developed anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) nephritis in a renal allograft. By immunoblotting, GPS reacted primarily with the 28,000 molecular weight (mol wt) monomer but also the 24,000 mol wt and 26,000 mol wt monomers of the noncollagenous ...

  4. Changes in the molecular sieve of glomerular basement membrane in rats with aminonucleoside nephrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaya,Yasumasa

    1980-02-01

    Full Text Available Isolated and purified glomerular basement membranes (GBM of normal and aminonucleoside (PAN nephrosis rats were observed by electron microscopy after negative staining. Although GBM of normal rats appeared as a molecular sieve with uniform pores, GBM of nephrotic rats showed enlargement and elongation of the pores. For an average of fifty pores, the long dimension was 40.4+/-10.7 A and the short dimension 13.8+/-3.6 A in nephrosis whereas the long dimension was 12.3+/-2.5 A and the short dimension 8.4+/-1.0 A in normal rats. Changes in the pores in GBM were thought to result in increased permeability of serum protein and hence proteinuria.

  5. Basement membrane changes in breast cancer detected by immunohistochemical staining for laminin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, R; Nielsen, M; Wewer, U;

    1981-01-01

    micrometastases were present, these cells also stained strongly for laminin. In nonmalignant breast tissues, the epithelial cells of the duct were positive for laminin, but the staining was weaker than in the carcinomas. Pretreatment of the fixed tissue sections with trypsin markedly enhanced the staining of......The distribution of the basement membrane glycoprotein laminin was studied by the immunoperoxidase technique in benign and malignant human breast tissue and in axillary lymph nodes from patients with breast cancer. An antiserum prepared against rat laminin was used. The specificity of this...... molecular weights of 400,000 and 200,000 of rat laminin in sodium dodecyl sulfate:polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The neoplastic cells in malignant breast tissues showed strong cytoplasmic staining for laminin, and a positive reaction was aslo found in lymph node metastases. In some cases in which only...

  6. In vivo turnover of the basement membrane and other heparan sulfate proteoglycans of rat glomerulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The metabolic turnover of rat glomerular proteoglycans in vivo was investigated. Newly synthesized proteoglycans were labeled during a 7-h period after injecting sodium [35S]sulfate intraperitoneally. At the end of the labeling period a chase dose of sodium sulfate was given. Subsequently at defined times (0-163 h) the kidneys were perfused in situ with 0.01% cetylpyridinium chloride in phosphate-buffered saline to maximize the recovery of 35S-proteoglycans. Glomeruli were isolated from the renal cortex and analyzed for 35S-proteoglycans by autoradiographic, biochemical, and immunochemical methods. Grain counting of autoradiographs revealed a complex turnover pattern of 35S-labeled macromolecules, commencing with a rapid phase followed by a slower phase. Biochemical analysis confirmed the biphasic pattern and showed that the total population of [35S]heparan sulfate proteoglycans had a metabolic half-life (t1/2) of 20 and 60 h in the early and late phases, respectively. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans accounted for 80% of total 35S-proteoglycans, the remainder being chondroitin/dermatan sulfate proteoglycans. Whole glomeruli were extracted with 4% 3-[(cholamidopropyl)dimethy-lammonio]-1-propanesulfonate-4 M guanidine hydrochloride, a procedure which solubilized greater than 95% of the 35S-labeled macromolecules. Of these 11-13% was immunoprecipitated by an antiserum against heparan sulfate proteoglycan which, in immunolocalization experiments, showed specificity for staining the basement membrane of rat glomeruli. Autoradiographic analysis showed that 18% of total radioactivity present at the end of the labeling period was associated with the glomerular basement membrane

  7. In vivo turnover of the basement membrane and other heparan sulfate proteoglycans of rat glomerulus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beavan, L.A.; Davies, M.; Couchman, J.R.; Williams, M.A.; Mason, R.M.

    1989-03-01

    The metabolic turnover of rat glomerular proteoglycans in vivo was investigated. Newly synthesized proteoglycans were labeled during a 7-h period after injecting sodium (35S)sulfate intraperitoneally. At the end of the labeling period a chase dose of sodium sulfate was given. Subsequently at defined times (0-163 h) the kidneys were perfused in situ with 0.01% cetylpyridinium chloride in phosphate-buffered saline to maximize the recovery of 35S-proteoglycans. Glomeruli were isolated from the renal cortex and analyzed for 35S-proteoglycans by autoradiographic, biochemical, and immunochemical methods. Grain counting of autoradiographs revealed a complex turnover pattern of 35S-labeled macromolecules, commencing with a rapid phase followed by a slower phase. Biochemical analysis confirmed the biphasic pattern and showed that the total population of (35S)heparan sulfate proteoglycans had a metabolic half-life (t1/2) of 20 and 60 h in the early and late phases, respectively. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans accounted for 80% of total 35S-proteoglycans, the remainder being chondroitin/dermatan sulfate proteoglycans. Whole glomeruli were extracted with 4% 3-((cholamidopropyl)dimethy-lammonio)-1-propanesulfonate-4 M guanidine hydrochloride, a procedure which solubilized greater than 95% of the 35S-labeled macromolecules. Of these 11-13% was immunoprecipitated by an antiserum against heparan sulfate proteoglycan which, in immunolocalization experiments, showed specificity for staining the basement membrane of rat glomeruli. Autoradiographic analysis showed that 18% of total radioactivity present at the end of the labeling period was associated with the glomerular basement membrane.

  8. A unique covalent bond in basement membrane is a primordial innovation for tissue evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, Aaron L; Vanacore, Roberto M; Chetyrkin, Sergei V; Pedchenko, Vadim K; Bhave, Gautam; Yin, Viravuth P; Stothers, Cody L; Rose, Kristie Lindsey; McDonald, W Hayes; Clark, Travis A; Borza, Dorin-Bogdan; Steele, Robert E; Ivy, Michael T; Hudson, Julie K; Hudson, Billy G

    2014-01-01

    Basement membrane, a specialized ECM that underlies polarized epithelium of eumetazoans, provides signaling cues that regulate cell behavior and function in tissue genesis and homeostasis. A collagen IV scaffold, a major component, is essential for tissues and dysfunctional in several diseases. Studies of bovine and Drosophila tissues reveal that the scaffold is stabilized by sulfilimine chemical bonds (S = N) that covalently cross-link methionine and hydroxylysine residues at the interface of adjoining triple helical protomers. Peroxidasin, a heme peroxidase embedded in the basement membrane, produces hypohalous acid intermediates that oxidize methionine, forming the sulfilimine cross-link. We explored whether the sulfilimine cross-link is a fundamental requirement in the genesis and evolution of epithelial tissues by determining its occurrence and evolutionary origin in Eumetazoa and its essentiality in zebrafish development; 31 species, spanning 11 major phyla, were investigated for the occurrence of the sulfilimine cross-link by electrophoresis, MS, and multiple sequence alignment of de novo transcriptome and available genomic data for collagen IV and peroxidasin. The results show that the cross-link is conserved throughout Eumetazoa and arose at the divergence of Porifera and Cnidaria over 500 Mya. Also, peroxidasin, the enzyme that forms the bond, is evolutionarily conserved throughout Metazoa. Morpholino knockdown of peroxidasin in zebrafish revealed that the cross-link is essential for organogenesis. Collectively, our findings establish that the triad-a collagen IV scaffold with sulfilimine cross-links, peroxidasin, and hypohalous acids-is a primordial innovation of the ECM essential for organogenesis and tissue evolution. PMID:24344311

  9. [3H]glucosamine and [3H]proline radioautography of embryonic mouse dental basement membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    [3H]proline and [3H]glucosamine radioautography was performed to analyze the labeling pattern of mouse embryonic dental basement membrane before and during odontoblast terminal differentiation. Sixteen- and eighteen-day-old first lower molars and trypsin-isolated enamel organs, as well as EDTA-isolated dental papillae, were used. Continuous labeling for 12 to 24 hr was required with [3H]proline to obtain a clear labeling of epithelial-mesenchymal junction in intact tooth germs or accumulation of surface label in trypsin-isolated enamel organs. With [3H]glucosamine, after 6-hr labeling, the epithelial-mesenchymal junction was heavily labeled and the trypsin-isolated enamel organs accumulated substantial amounts of surface label, corresponding to the redeposited basement membrane. At Day 16 stage, these labels always had a uniform distribution and decreased during chase without any redistribution. At Day 18 stage, when the terminal differentiation of odontoblasts occurred the label accumulated in a unique pattern: much more label was at the epithelial surface corresponding to the top of the cusps than in the apical parts. During chase and only in intact tooth germs epithelial surfaces which had labeled poorly during pulse became labeled, but those labeling heavily during pulse lost label. This pattern existed only in the presence of mesenchyme. EDTA treatment of [3H]glucosamine-labeled teeth enabled us to obtain isolated dental papillae with surface label. Distribution of this label was exactly the same as that for the epithelial-mesenchymal junction of intact teeth. During chase, these dental papillae completely lost the surface label. The mesenchyme seen to control the synthesis and/or the degradation of epithelially derived [3H]glucosamine-labeled material

  10. An Overlapping Case of Alport Syndrome and Thin Basement Membrane Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alganabi, Mashriq; Eter, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a 48-year-old male who presented with hematuria of at least 10 years, and has a daughter with hematuria as well. The patient has a history of degenerative hearing loss, decreased vision and cataract formation, but no diabetes, hypertension or proteinuria. A full serology and urology workup was negative for any abnormality. A kidney biopsy for the patient revealed a diagnosis of Alport syndrome but was unable to rule out thin basement membrane disease. The biopsy was inconclusive in making the diagnosis but the patient’s clinical presentation led to the diagnosis of Alport syndrome. The patient’s 10-year-old daughter also has hematuria with no clear etiology but now can subsequently be anticipatorily managed for Alport syndrome progression. Due to the rarity of the disease, diagnosis is often missed or delayed by primary care providers especially when no associated proteinuria has yet developed. This can lead to confusion and misdiagnosis with thin basement membrane disease, a generally benign hematuria without kidney failure progression. Additionally, biopsy can be inconclusive in these patients, relying on the physician’s history and physical examination findings to diagnose. It is important to appropriately diagnose Alport syndrome not only to manage the patient’s rate of kidney failure progression but also allow for a higher degree of suspicion, screening and intervention in the patient’s family members. Both the inconclusive nature of kidney biopsies and the usefulness of diagnosis for family member screening are often overlooked in medical literature but are explored in this case.

  11. Basement membrane and interstitial proteoglycans produced by MDCK cells correspond to those expressed in the kidney cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erickson, A C; Couchman, J R

    2001-01-01

    Multiple proteoglycans (PGs) are present in all basement membranes (BM) and may contribute to their structure and function, but their effects on cell behavior are not well understood. Their postulated functions include: a structural role in maintaining tissue histoarchitecture, or aid in selectiv...

  12. Electron microscopic study of the myelinated nerve fibres and the perineurial cell basement membrane in the diabetic human peripheral nerves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the quantitative and ultrastructural changes in myelinated nerve fibers and the basement membranes of the perineurial cells in diabetic nerves. The study was performed at the Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdul-Aziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia from 2003 to 2005. Human sural nerves were obtained from 15 lower limbs and 5 diabetic nerve biopsies. The total mean and density of myelinated nerve fibers per fascicle were calculated, with density of microtubules and mitochondria in the axoplasm. The number of the perineurial cell basement membrane layers was counted, and thickness of the basement membrane was measured. Among the 15 diabetic and 5 normal human sural nerves, the average diameters, number and surface area of myelinated nerve fibers and axonal microtubules density were found to be less in diabetic nerves. Mitochondrial density was higher in diabetic axons. Thickness of the perineurial cell basement membrane had a greater mean, but the number of perineurial cell layers was less than that of the diabetic group. The inner cellular layer of the perineurium of the diabetic nerves contained large vacuoles containing electron-dense degenerated myelin. A few specimens showed degenerated myelinated nerve fibers, while others showed recovering ones. Retracted axoplasms were encountered with albumin extravasation. Diabetes caused an increase in perineurial permeability. The diabetic sural nerve showed marked decrease in the myelinated nerve fibres, increase degenerated mitochondria, and decreased microtubules. (author)

  13. MT1-MMP-mediated basement membrane remodeling modulates renal development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riggins, Karen S.; Mernaugh, Glenda [Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Su, Yan; Quaranta, Vito [Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Koshikawa, Naohiko; Seiki, Motoharu [Division of Cancer Cell Research, Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Pozzi, Ambra [Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Research Medicine, Veterans Affairs Hospital, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Zent, Roy, E-mail: roy.zent@vanderbilt.edu [Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Research Medicine, Veterans Affairs Hospital, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling regulates multiple cellular functions required for normal development and tissue repair. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are key mediators of this process and membrane targeted MMPs (MT-MMPs) in particular have been shown to be important in normal development of specific organs. In this study we investigated the role of MT1-MMP in kidney development. We demonstrate that loss of MT1-MMP leads to a renal phenotype characterized by a moderate decrease in ureteric bud branching morphogenesis and a severe proliferation defect. The kidneys of MT1-MMP-null mice have increased deposition of collagen IV, laminins, perlecan, and nidogen and the phenotype is independent of the MT-1MMP target, MMP-2. Utilizing in vitro systems we demonstrated that MTI-MMP proteolytic activity is required for renal tubule cells to proliferate in three dimensional matrices and to migrate on collagen IV and laminins. Together these data suggest an important role for MT1-MMP in kidney development, which is mediated by its ability to regulate cell proliferation and migration by proteolytically cleaving kidney basement membrane components.

  14. Functional differentiation and alveolar morphogenesis of primary mammary cultures on reconstituted basement membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BARCELLOS-HOFF, M. H; AGGELER, J.; RAM, T. G; BISSELL, M. J

    1989-02-01

    An essential feature of mammary gland differentiation during pregnancy is the formation of alveoli composed of polarized epithelial cells, which, under the influence of lactogenic hormones, secrete vectorially and sequester milk proteins. Previous culture studies have described either organization of cells polarized towards lumina containing little or no demonstrable tissue-specific protein, or establishment of functional secretory cells exhibiting little or no glandular architecture. In this paper, we report that tissue-specific vectorial secretion coincides with the formation of functional alveoli-like structures by primary mammary epithelial cells cultured on a reconstituted basement membrane matrix (derived from Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm murine tumour). Morphogenesis of these unique three-dimensional structures was initiated by cell-directed remodelling of the exogenous matrix leading to reorganization of cells into matrixensheathed aggregates by 24 h after plating. The aggregates subsequently cavitated, so that by day 6 the cells were organized into hollow spheres in which apical cell surfaces faced lumina sealed by tight junctions and basal surfaces were surrounded by a distinct basal lamina. The profiles of proteins secreted into the apical (luminal) and basal (medium) compartments indicated that these alveoli-like structures were capable of an appreciable amount of vectorial secretion. Immunoprecipitation with a broad spectrum milk antiserum showed that more than 80% of caseins were secreted into the lumina, whereas iron-binding proteins (both lactoferrin and transferrin) were present in comparable amounts in each compartment. Thus, these mammary cells established protein targeting pathways directing milk-specific proteins to the luminal compartment. A time course monitoring secretory activity demonstrated that establishment of tissue-specific vectorial secretion and increased total and milk protein secretion coincided with functional alveolar

  15. Deletion of PPAR-γ in immune cells enhances susceptibility to antiglomerular basement membrane disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristen Chafin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Cristen Chafin2, Sarah Muse2, Raquel Hontecillas5, Josep Bassaganya-Riera5, David L Caudell2, Samuel K Shimp III4, M Nichole Rylander4, John Zhang6, Liwu Li3, Christopher M Reilly1,21Virginia College of Osteopathic Medicine, 2Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology, Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, USA; 3Department of Biological Sciences, 4Department of Mechanical Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, USA; 5Nutritional Immunology and Molecular Medicine Laboratory, Virginia Bioinformatics Institute, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, USA; 6Medical University of SC, Charleston, SC, USAAbstract: Activation of the nuclear hormone receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ has been shown to be immunoregulatory in autoimmune diseases by inhibiting production of a number of inflammatory mediators. We investigated whether PPAR-γ gene deletion in hematopoietic cells would alter disease pathogenesis in the antiglomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM mouse model. PPAR-γ+/+ and PPAR-γ-/- mice were immunized with rabbit antimouse GBM antibodies and lipopolysaccharide and evaluated for two weeks. Although both the PPAR-γ+/+ and PPAR-γ-/- mice had IgG deposition in the glomerulus and showed proteinuria two weeks after injection, glomerular and tubulointerstitial disease in PPAR-γ-/- mice were significantly more severe compared with the PPAR-γ+/+ animals. We observed that the PPAR-γ-/- mice had decreased CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells and an increased CD8+:CD4+ ratio as compared with the PPAR-γ+/+ mice, suggesting that PPAR-γ has a role in the regulation of T cells. Furthermore, plasma interleukin-6 levels were significantly increased in the PPAR-γ-/- mice at two weeks as compared with the PPAR-γ+/+ animals. Taken together, these studies show that

  16. Vascular Basement Membrane-derived Multifunctional Peptide, a Novel Inhibitor of Angiogenesis and Tumor Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Guo CAO; Shu-Ping PENG; Li SUN; Hui LI; Li WANG; Han-Wu DENG

    2006-01-01

    Vascular basement membrane-derived multifunctional peptide (VBMDMP) gene (fusion gene of the human immunoglobulin G3 upper hinge region and two tumstatin-derived fragments) obtained by chemical synthesis was cloned into vector pUC 19, and introduced into the expression vector pGEX-4T-1 to construct a prokaryotic expression vector pGEX-4T-1-VBMDMP. Recombinant VBMDMP produced in Escherichia coli has been shown to have significant activity of antitumor growth and antimetastasis in Lewis lung carcinoma transplanted into mouse C57B1/6. In the present study, we have studied the ability of rVBMDMP to inhibit endothelial cell tube formation and proliferation, to induce apoptosis in vitro, and to suppress tumor growth in vivo. The experimental results showed that rVBMDMP potently inhibited proliferation of human endothelial (HUVEC-12) cells and human colon cancer (SW480) cells in vitro, with no inhibition of proliferation in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells. rVBMDMP also significantly inhibited human endothelial cell tube formation and suppressed tumor growth of SW480 cells in a mouse xenograft model. These results suggest that rVBMDMP is a powerful therapeutic agent for suppressing angiogenesis and tumor growth.

  17. Retinoid inhibition of in vitro invasion of human amnion basement membrane by human tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biological activity of retinoids was assayed in an in vitro quantitative assay of human tumor cell invasion using human amnion basement membrane (BM). The effects measured were the inhibition of tumor cell migration through the BM and tumor cell degradative enzyme activity on 14C-proline labeled collagenous and noncollagenous components of the BM. The human lung carcinoma A549 or the human Ewing's sarcoma TC-106 cell lines treated with retinoids for two days were incubated on the BM in the absence of retinoids. A dose-dependent inhibition of cell invasion was produced by retinoids. Among the retinoids tested, the most powerful was retinol acetate which inhibited invasion by 50% of A549 cells at a concentration of 0.009 μg/mL, and of TC-106 cells at 0.07 μg/mL. Retinol acetate inhibited A549 and TC-106 cell growth by approximately 50% at levels over 100-fold higher than those needed for antiinvasive activity. Retinol acetate was about 20 times more potent than retinoic acid and 30 times more potent than retinol palmitate. The model system will be useful for investigating antiinvasive activity of other retinoids as well as other compounds

  18. Retinoid inhibition of in vitro invasion of human amnion basement membrane by human tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects measured were the inhibition of tumor cell migration through the basement membrane (BM) and tumor cell degradative enzyme activity on 3H-proline labeled collagenous and non collagenous components of the BM. The human lung carcinoma A549 or the human Ewing's sarcoma TC-106 cell lines treated with retinoids for two days were incubated on the BM in the absence of retinoids. A dose-dependent inhibition of cell invasion was produced by retinoids. Among the retinoids tested the most powerful was retinol acetate which inhibited invasion by 50% of A549 cells at a concentration of 0.09 μg/ml, and TC-106 cells at 0.08 μg/ml. Retinol acetate inhibited A549 and TC-106 cell growth by approximately 50% at levels almost 100-fold higher than those needed for antiinvasive activity. Retinol acetate was about 20 times more potent than retinoic acid and 30 times more than retinol palmitate. Furthermore, A549 cells treated with retinol acetate, under conditions whereby an anti-invasive state was induced,showed an increase in the number of cellular retinoic acid binding proteins (CRABP), a decrease in the activity of type IV collagenase and ectosialyltransferase, and no change in the activity of transglutaminase

  19. Anti-glomerular basement membrane glomerulonephritis in an HIV positive patient: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo José Bellotto Monteiro

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available We report on a case of a patient with HIV infection, diagnosed 18 months prior to the development of an anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis; this is probably the first report of such an association. A 30-year-old white man presented with elevation of serum creatinine (1.3 - 13.5 mg/dL within one month. At admission, the urinalysis showed proteinuria of 7.2 g/L and 8,000,000 erythrocytes/mL. Renal biopsy corresponded to a crescentic diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis mediated by anti-GBM, and serum testing for anti-GBM antibodies was positive; antinuclear antibodies (ANA and anti-neutrophilic cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA were also positive. The patient underwent hemodyalisis and was treated with plasmapheresis, cyclophosphamide and prednisone. The association described here is not casual, as crescentic glomerulonephritis is not common in HIV-positive patients, anti-GBM glomerulonephritis is rare and anti-GBM antibodies are frequently observed in HIV-positive subjects when compared to the overall population. Based on the current case and on the elevated frequency of the positivity for such antibodies in this group of patients, it is advisable to be aware of the eventual association between these two conditions and to promote an active search for anti-GBM antibodies and early diagnosis of eventual urinary abnormalities in HIV-positive subjects, considering the severity of anti-GBM glomerulonephritis.

  20. Binding of Streptococcus mutans antigens to heart and kidney basement membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, M W; Barua, P K; Bergey, E J; Nisengard, R J; Neiders, M E; Albini, B

    1984-01-01

    Using indirect immunofluorescence, alkali-extracted components of Streptococcus mutans were found to bind in vitro to capillary walls and sarcolemmal sheaths of monkey cardiac muscle and to glomerular and tubular basement membranes of monkey kidney. Adsorption of S. mutans components to tissue fragments was also detected by indirect radioimmunoassay and immunoblotting on nitrocellulose paper. Antibodies did not bind to untreated, control tissues in these experiments, proving that antigens shared by S. mutans and tissue components were not involved. Rabbit and monkey heart and kidney components bound S. mutans antigens of 24,000, 35,000, and 65,000 Mr. Monkey heart also bound molecules of 90,000 and 120,000 Mr. Rabbits immunized by intravenous injection of disrupted S. mutans cells developed severe nephritis that was characterized by the deposition of immunoglobulins, complement component C3, and S. mutans antigens in the glomeruli. Immunoglobulin G eluted from nephritic kidneys reacted in immunoblots with the 24,000, 35,000, and 65,000 Mr components of S. mutans extract, indicating that the antigens that bound to tissue in vitro also bound in vivo and reacted with antibodies in situ. Antibodies to other S. mutans antigens were not detected in the kidney eluate, although they were present in the serum of the same rabbit. Images PMID:6384042

  1. Distribution of two basement membrane proteoglycans through hair follicle development and the hair growth cycle in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R; King, J L; McCarthy, K J

    1990-01-01

    The distribution of two distinct populations of basement membrane proteoglycans has been monitored through hair growth development in the rat embryo and subsequent hair growth cycle. An antiserum against a small heparan sulfate proteoglycan uniformly stained the dermal-epidermal junction of...... embryonic rats throughout the period of hair follicle formation. On the other hand, monoclonal antibodies recognizing a basement membrane-specific chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan only weakly stained 16-d embryo dermal-epidermal junction, but strong staining was associated with hair follicle buds as they...... developed. Through the hair growth cycle, it was found that the heparan sulfate proteoglycan persisted around the follicles, while the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan decreased in amount through catagen until it was undetectable at the base and dermal papilla of the telogen follicle. As anagen commenced...

  2. De novo adipogenesis in mice at the site of injection of basement membrane and basic fibroblast growth factor

    OpenAIRE

    Kawaguchi, Nobuko; TORIYAMA, KAZUHIRO; Nicodemou-Lena, Eleni; Inou, Kazuhiko; Torii, Shuhei; Kitagawa, Yasuo

    1998-01-01

    Autografting of fat pads has a long history in plastic and reconstructive surgery for augmentation of lost soft tissue. However, the results are disappointing because of absorption of the grafts with time. The fate of transplanted fat is linked to adipose precursor cells distributed widely in connective tissues. Adipocyte precursor cells can proliferate and mature into adipocytes even in the adult body depending on microenvironment. When reconstituted basement membrane, Matrigel, supplemented...

  3. Effect of reconstituted basement membrane components on the growth of a panel of human tumour cell lines in nude mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Topley, P.; Jenkins, D C; Jessup, E. A.; Stables, J. N.

    1993-01-01

    Previous reports have indicated that reconstituted basement membrane (matrigel), when co-injected with either established or primary human tumour cells, can improve the growth of subcutaneous xenografts in nude mice. The human adenocarcinoma cell lines A549, SW480, and WiDr, and the human fibrosarcoma cell line HT1080scc2 exhibit varying degrees of tumourigenicity in nude mice. All these lines showed increased tumorigenicity and/or growth rate, together with a change towards a more differenti...

  4. A Possible Clue for the Production of Anti-Glomerular Basement Membrane Antibody Associated with Ureteral Obstruction and Hydronephrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Takeuchi, Yasuo; Takeuchi, Emiko; Kamata, Kouju

    2015-01-01

    Background Anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) antibody-mediated glomerulonephritis (anti-GBM GN) is an autoimmune disease with rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. Based on a case report of anti-GBM GN following hydronephrosis, we hypothesized that hydronephrosis may act as a trigger for the development of anti-GBM antibodies. Patients and Methods We evaluated 11 patients who were diagnosed with hydronephrosis. It was measured with serum anti-GBM antibody. These patients’ medical...

  5. Ultrastructural localization of the core protein of a basement membrane-specific chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan in adult rat skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarthy, K J; Horiguchi, Y; Couchman, J R;

    1990-01-01

    Basement membranes are complex extracellular matrices present at epithelial/mesenchymal interfaces of tissues. The dermal-epidermal junction has been shown to contain numerous components, some of the most well known being laminin, types IV and VII collagens, heparan sulfate proteoglycan, fibronec...... primarily within the basal lamina, apparently concentrated in the lamina densa. In addition, some of the proteoglycan was also present beneath the lamina densa, associated with the reticular lamina collagen fibrils....

  6. Human skin basement membrane-associated heparan sulphate proteoglycan: distinctive differences in ultrastructural localization as a function of developmental age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horiguchi, Y; Fine, J D; Couchman, J R

    1991-01-01

    different developmental ages using two monoclonal antibodies to a well-characterized basement membrane-associated heparan sulphate proteoglycan. A series of foetal skin specimens (range, 54-142 gestational days) were examined using an immunoperoxidase immunoelectron microscopic technique. In specimens...... representing very early developmental ages, very diffuse immunoreaction products were detected. However, by approximately 76 gestational days, some accentuation of heparan sulphate proteoglycan was noted along the lamina densa, and by 142 gestational days, the distribution of heparan sulphate proteoglycan was...

  7. Alport familial nephritis. Absence of 28 kilodalton non-collagenous monomers of type IV collagen in glomerular basement membrane.

    OpenAIRE

    Kleppel, M M; Kashtan, C. E.; Butkowski, R J; Fish, A. J.; Michael, A. F.

    1987-01-01

    Alport-type familial nephritis (FN), a genetic disorder, results in progressive renal insufficiency and sensorineural hearing loss. Immunochemical and biochemical analyses of the non-collagenous (NC1) domain of type IV collagen isolated from the glomerular basement membranes (GBM) of three males with this disease demonstrate absence of the normally occurring 28-kilodalton (kD) NC1 monomers, but persistence of the 26- and 24-kD monomeric subunits derived from alpha 1 and 2 (both type IV) colla...

  8. Lysyl Hydroxylase 3 Localizes to Epidermal Basement Membrane and Is Reduced in Patients with Recessive Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa

    OpenAIRE

    Watt, Stephen A; Dayal, Jasbani H.S; Wright, Sheila; Riddle, Megan; Pourreyron, Celine; McMillan, James R.; Kimble, Roy M; Prisco, Marco; Gartner, Ulrike; Warbrick, Emma; McLean, W H Irwin; Leigh, Irene M.; McGrath, John A.; Salas-Alanis, Julio C; Tolar, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    Recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB) is caused by mutations in COL7A1 resulting in reduced or absent type VII collagen, aberrant anchoring fibril formation and subsequent dermal-epidermal fragility. Here, we identify a significant decrease in PLOD3 expression and its encoded protein, the collagen modifying enzyme lysyl hydroxylase 3 (LH3), in RDEB. We show abundant LH3 localising to the basement membrane in normal skin which is severely depleted in RDEB patient skin. We demonstra...

  9. Lysyl Hydroxylase 3 Localizes to Epidermal Basement Membrane and Is Reduced in Patients with Recessive Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A Watt

    Full Text Available Recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB is caused by mutations in COL7A1 resulting in reduced or absent type VII collagen, aberrant anchoring fibril formation and subsequent dermal-epidermal fragility. Here, we identify a significant decrease in PLOD3 expression and its encoded protein, the collagen modifying enzyme lysyl hydroxylase 3 (LH3, in RDEB. We show abundant LH3 localising to the basement membrane in normal skin which is severely depleted in RDEB patient skin. We demonstrate expression is in-part regulated by endogenous type VII collagen and that, in agreement with previous studies, even small reductions in LH3 expression lead to significantly less secreted LH3 protein. Exogenous type VII collagen did not alter LH3 expression in cultured RDEB keratinocytes and we show that RDEB patients receiving bone marrow transplantation who demonstrate significant increase in type VII collagen do not show increased levels of LH3 at the basement membrane. Our data report a direct link between LH3 and endogenous type VII collagen expression concluding that reduction of LH3 at the basement membrane in patients with RDEB will likely have significant implications for disease progression and therapeutic intervention.

  10. Lysyl Hydroxylase 3 Localizes to Epidermal Basement Membrane and Is Reduced in Patients with Recessive Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Stephen A; Dayal, Jasbani H S; Wright, Sheila; Riddle, Megan; Pourreyron, Celine; McMillan, James R; Kimble, Roy M; Prisco, Marco; Gartner, Ulrike; Warbrick, Emma; McLean, W H Irwin; Leigh, Irene M; McGrath, John A; Salas-Alanis, Julio C; Tolar, Jakub; South, Andrew P

    2015-01-01

    Recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB) is caused by mutations in COL7A1 resulting in reduced or absent type VII collagen, aberrant anchoring fibril formation and subsequent dermal-epidermal fragility. Here, we identify a significant decrease in PLOD3 expression and its encoded protein, the collagen modifying enzyme lysyl hydroxylase 3 (LH3), in RDEB. We show abundant LH3 localising to the basement membrane in normal skin which is severely depleted in RDEB patient skin. We demonstrate expression is in-part regulated by endogenous type VII collagen and that, in agreement with previous studies, even small reductions in LH3 expression lead to significantly less secreted LH3 protein. Exogenous type VII collagen did not alter LH3 expression in cultured RDEB keratinocytes and we show that RDEB patients receiving bone marrow transplantation who demonstrate significant increase in type VII collagen do not show increased levels of LH3 at the basement membrane. Our data report a direct link between LH3 and endogenous type VII collagen expression concluding that reduction of LH3 at the basement membrane in patients with RDEB will likely have significant implications for disease progression and therapeutic intervention. PMID:26380979

  11. A Case of Fibrillary Glomerulonephritis Associated with Thrombotic Microangiopathy and Anti-Glomerular Basement Membrane Antibody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akishi Momose

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We present the first report of a case of fibrillary glomerulonephritis (FGN associated with thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA and anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody (anti-GBM antibody. A 54-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for high fever and anuria. On the first hospital day, we initiated hemodialysis for renal dysfunction. Laboratory data revealed normocytic-normochromic anemia with schistocytes in the peripheral smear, thrombocytopenia, increased serum lactate dehydrogenase, decreased serum haptoglobin, and negative results for both direct and indirect Coombs tests. Based on these results, we diagnosed TMA. Assays conducted several days later indicated a disintegrin-like and metalloprotease with a thrombospondin motif 13 (ADAMTS13 activity of 31.6%, and ADAMTS13 inhibitors were negative. We started plasma exchange using fresh frozen plasma and steroid pulse therapy. Anti-GBM antibody was found to be positive. Renal biopsy showed FGN. Blood pressure rose on the 46th hospital day, and mild convulsions developed. Based on magnetic resonance imaging of the head, the patient was diagnosed with reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome. Hypertension persisted despite administration of multiple antihypertensive agents, and the patient experienced a sudden generalized seizure. Computed tomography of the head showed multiple cerebral hemorrhages. However, his blood pressure subsequently decreased and the platelet count increased. TMA remitted following 36 plasma exchange sessions, but renal function was not restored, and maintenance hemodialysis was continued. The patient was discharged on the 119th day of hospitalization. In conclusion, it was shown that TMA, FGN and anti-GBM antibody were closely related.

  12. Long-term outcome of anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody disease treated with immunoadsorption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Biesenbach

    Full Text Available Anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM antibody disease may lead to acute crescentic glomerulonephritis with poor renal prognosis. Current therapy favours plasma exchange (PE for removal of pathogenic antibodies. Immunoadsorption (IAS is superior to PE regarding efficiency of antibody-removal and safety. Apart from anecdotal data, there is no systemic analysis of the long-term effects of IAS on anti-GBM-disease and antibody kinetics.To examine the long-term effect of high-frequency IAS combined with standard immunosuppression on patient and renal survival in patients with anti-GBM-disease and to quantify antibody removal and kinetics through IAS.Retrospective review of patients treated with IAS for anti-GBM-antibody disease confirmed by biopsy and/or anti-GBM-antibodies.University Hospital of Vienna, Austria.10 patients with anti-GBM-disease treated with IAS.Patient and renal survival, renal histology, anti-GBM-antibodies.Anti-GBM-antibodies were reduced by the first 9 IAS treatments (mean number of 23 to negative levels in all patients. Renal survival was 40% at diagnosis, 70% after the end of IAS, 63% after one year and 50% at the end of observation (mean 84 months, range 9 to 186. Dialysis dependency was successfully reversed in three of six patients. Patient survival was 90% at the end of observation.IAS efficiently eliminates anti-GBM-antibodies suggesting non-inferiority to PE with regard to renal and patient survival. Hence IAS should be considered as a valuable treatment option for anti-GBM-disease, especially in patients presenting with a high percentage of crescents and dialysis dependency due to an unusual high proportion of responders.

  13. Ultrastructural morphometry of capillary basement membrane thickness in normal and transgenic diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Edward C; Audette, Janice L; Veitenheimer, Nicole J; Risan, Jessica A; Laturnus, Donna I; Epstein, Paul N

    2003-04-01

    Capillary basement membrane (CBM) thickening is an ultrastructural hallmark in diabetic patients and in animal models of diabetes. However, the wide variety of tissues sampled and diverse methods employed have made the interpretation of thickness data difficult. We showed previously that acellular glomerular BMs in OVE26 transgenic diabetic mice were thickened beyond normal age-related thickening, and in the current study we hypothesized that other microvascular BMs likewise would show increased widths relative to age-matched controls. Accordingly, a series of tissues, including skeletal and cardiac muscle, ocular retina and choriod, peripheral nerve, lung, pancreas, and renal glomerulus was collected from 300-350-day-old normal and transgenic mice. Transmission electron micrographs of cross sections through capillary walls were prepared, and CBM thickness (CBMT) was determined by the "orthogonal intercept" method. Morphometric analyses showed highly variable transgene-related BMT increases in the sampled tissues, with glomerular BM showing by far the greatest increase (+87%). Significant thickness increases were also seen in the retina, pulmonary alveolus, and thoracoabdominal diaphragm. BMT increases were not universal; however, most were modestly widened, and those that were thickest in controls generally showed the greatest increase. Although the pathogenesis of diabetes-related increases in CBM is poorly understood, data in the current study showed that in OVE26 transgenic mice increased BMT was a frequent concomitant of hyperglycemia. Accordingly, it seems likely that hyperglycemia-induced microvascular damage may be a contributing factor in diabetic BM disease, and that microvessel cellular and extracellular heterogeneity may limit the extent of CBM thickening in diverse tissues. PMID:12629676

  14. Upregulation of basement membrane-degrading metalloproteinase secretion after balloon injury of pig carotid arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southgate, K M; Fisher, M; Banning, A P; Thurston, V J; Baker, A H; Fabunmi, R P; Groves, P H; Davies, M; Newby, A C

    1996-12-01

    Basement membrane-degrading metalloproteinases (gelatinases) appear necessary for vascular smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation in culture and for intimal migration of cells after balloon injury to the rat carotid artery. We investigated in the present study the secretion of gelatinases from pig carotid artery tissue after balloon injury. Segments of injured artery and segments proximal and distal to the area of injury were removed 3, 7, and 21 days after balloon dilatation. Medial explants from these segments were then cultured for 3 days, and the serum-free conditioned media were subjected to gelatin zymography. Production of 72- and 95-kD gelatinases was quantified by densitometry. Balloon-injured segments secreted significantly more 72- and 95-kD gelatinase than did paired distal segments at all time points. Release of both gelatinase activities was increased at 3 and 7 days relative to segments from uninjured arteries but declined again by 21 days after balloon injury. Similar results were found for gelatinase levels in extracts of arterial tissue. Consistent with the protein secretion data, in situ hybridization demonstrated that the mRNAs for both gelatinases were upregulated after balloon injury. Expression was prominent in medial smooth muscle cells, particularly around foci of necrosis, and in neointimal cells 3 and 7 days after balloon injury; 72-kD gelatinase mRNA persisted after 21 days and was prominent in regrown endothelial cells. The upregulation of gelatinase activity paralleled the time course of smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation in this model. We conclude that increased gelatinase production occurs in response to balloon injury and may play a role in permitting migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. PMID:8943956

  15. Insufficient Folding of Type IV Collagen and Formation of Abnormal Basement Membrane-like Structure in Embryoid Bodies Derived from Hsp47-Null Embryonic Stem CellsD⃞

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuoka, Yasuhiro; Kubota, Hiroshi; Adachi, Eijiro; Nagai, Naoko; Marutani, Toshihiro; Hosokawa, Nobuko; Nagata, Kazuhiro

    2004-01-01

    Hsp47 is a molecular chaperone that specifically recognizes procollagen in the endoplasmic reticulum. Hsp47-null mouse embryos produce immature type I collagen and form discontinuous basement membranes. We established Hsp47-/- embryonic stem cell lines and examined formation of basement membrane and production of type IV collagen in embryoid bodies, a model for postimplantation egg-cylinder stage embryos. The visceral endodermal cell layers surrounding Hsp47-/- embryoid bodies were often diso...

  16. The distribution of IgG subclass deposition on renal tissues from patients with anti-glomerular basement membrane disease

    OpenAIRE

    QU, ZHEN; Cui, Zhao; Liu, Gang; Zhao, Ming-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Background Renal injury of anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) disease is defined by the linear deposition of IgG along GBM and rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. To date, the distribution of anti-GBM IgG subclasses on renal tissue is still unclear. In the current study, we investigated the deposition of the four IgG subclasses using immunohistochemistry in the renal biopsy specimens from 46 patients with anti-GBM disease. Results All four IgG subclasses can be detected within the GB...

  17. Overexpression of β1-chain-containing laminins in capillary basement membranes of human breast cancer and its metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laminins are the major components of vascular and parenchymal basement membranes. We previously documented a switch in the expression of vascular laminins containing the α4 chain from predominantly laminin-9 (α4β2γ1) to predominantly laminin-8 (α4β1γ1) during progression of human brain gliomas to high-grade glioblastoma multiforme. Here, differential expression of laminins was studied in blood vessels and ductal epithelium of the breast. In the present study the expressions of laminin isoforms α1–α5, β1–β3, γ1, and γ2 were examined during progression of breast cancer. Forty-five clinical samples of breast tissues including normal breast, ductal carcinomas in situ, invasive ductal carcinomas, and their metastases to the brain were compared using Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry for various chains of laminin, in particular laminin-8 and laminin-9. Laminin α4 chain was observed in vascular basement membranes of most studied tissues, with the highest expression in metastases. At the same time, the expression of laminin β2 chain (a constituent of laminin-9) was mostly seen in normal breast and carcinomas in situ but not in invasive carcinomas or metastases. In contrast, laminin β1 chain (a constituent of laminin-8) was typically found in vessel walls of carcinomas and their metastases but not in those of normal breast. The expression of laminin-8 increased in a progression-dependent manner. A similar change was observed from laminin-11 (α5β2γ1) to laminin-10 (α5β1γ1) during breast tumor progression. Additionally, laminin-2 (α2β1γ1) appeared in vascular basement membranes of invasive carcinomas and metastases. Chains of laminin-5 (α3β3γ2) were expressed in the ductal epithelium basement membranes of the breast and diminished with tumor progression. These results suggest that laminin-2, laminin-8, and laminin-10 are important components of tumor microvessels and may associate with breast tumor progression. Angiogenic switch

  18. Influence of a reconstituted basement membrane and its components on casein gene expression and secretion in mouse mammary epithelial cells.

    OpenAIRE

    M. L. Li; Aggeler, J; Farson, D A; Hatier, C; Hassell, J; Bissell, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    When primary mouse mammary epithelial cells are cultured on plastic, they rapidly lose their ability to synthesize and secrete most milk proteins even in the presence of lactogenic hormones, whereas cells cultured on released type I collagen gels show greatly enhanced mRNA levels and secretion rates of beta-casein and of some other milk proteins. We show here that culture on a reconstituted basement membrane from Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm tumor (EHS) allows greater than 90% of cells to produce hi...

  19. ER stress and basement membrane defects combine to cause glomerular and tubular renal disease resulting from Col4a1 mutations in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Frances E.; Bailey, Matthew A.; Murray, Lydia S.; Lu, Yinhui; McNeilly, Sarah; Schlötzer-Schrehardt, Ursula; Lennon, Rachel; Sado, Yoshikazu; Brownstein, David G.; Mullins, John J.; Kadler, Karl E.; Van Agtmael, Tom

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Collagen IV is a major component of basement membranes, and mutations in COL4A1, which encodes collagen IV alpha chain 1, cause a multisystemic disease encompassing cerebrovascular, eye and kidney defects. However, COL4A1 renal disease remains poorly characterized and its pathomolecular mechanisms are unknown. We show that Col4a1 mutations in mice cause hypotension and renal disease, including proteinuria and defects in Bowman's capsule and the glomerular basement membrane, indicating a role for Col4a1 in glomerular filtration. Impaired sodium reabsorption in the loop of Henle and distal nephron despite elevated aldosterone levels indicates that tubular defects contribute to the hypotension, highlighting a novel role for the basement membrane in vascular homeostasis by modulation of the tubular response to aldosterone. Col4a1 mutations also cause diabetes insipidus, whereby the tubular defects lead to polyuria associated with medullary atrophy and a subsequent reduction in the ability to upregulate aquaporin 2 and concentrate urine. Moreover, haematuria, haemorrhage and vascular basement membrane defects confirm an important vascular component. Interestingly, although structural and compositional basement membrane defects occurred in the glomerulus and Bowman's capsule, no tubular basement membrane defects were detected. By contrast, medullary atrophy was associated with chronic ER stress, providing evidence for cell-type-dependent molecular mechanisms of Col4a1 mutations. These data show that both basement membrane defects and ER stress contribute to Col4a1 renal disease, which has important implications for the development of treatment strategies for collagenopathies. PMID:26839400

  20. Patterns of placental pathology in preterm premature rupture of membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Armstrong-Wells, J.; Post, M. D.; Donnelly, M; MANCO-JOHNSON, M J; Fisher, B. M.; Winn, V D

    2013-01-01

    Inflammation is associated with preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) and adverse neonatal outcomes. Subchorionic thrombi, with or without inflammation, may also be a significant pathological finding in PPROM. Patterns of inflammation and thrombosis may give insight into mechanisms of adverse neonatal outcomes associated with PPROM. To characterize histologic findings of placentas from pregnancies complicated by PPROM at altitude, 44 placentas were evaluated for gross and histologica...

  1. Deletion of the basement membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan type XVIII collagen causes hypertriglyceridemia in mice and humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph R Bishop

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lipoprotein lipase (Lpl acts on triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in the peripheral circulation, liberating free fatty acids for energy metabolism or storage. This essential enzyme is synthesized in parenchymal cells of adipose tissue, heart, and skeletal muscle and migrates to the luminal side of the vascular endothelium where it acts upon circulating lipoproteins. Prior studies suggested that Lpl is immobilized by way of heparan sulfate proteoglycans on the endothelium, but genetically altering endothelial cell heparan sulfate had no effect on Lpl localization or lipolysis. The objective of this study was to determine if extracellular matrix proteoglycans affect Lpl distribution and triglyceride metabolism. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We examined mutant mice defective in collagen XVIII (Col18, a heparan sulfate proteoglycan present in vascular basement membranes. Loss of Col18 reduces plasma levels of Lpl enzyme and activity, which results in mild fasting hypertriglyceridemia and diet-induced hyperchylomicronemia. Humans with Knobloch Syndrome caused by a null mutation in the vascular form of Col18 also present lower than normal plasma Lpl mass and activity and exhibit fasting hypertriglyceridemia. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report demonstrating that Lpl presentation on the lumenal side of the endothelium depends on a basement membrane proteoglycan and demonstrates a previously unrecognized phenotype in patients lacking Col18.

  2. cDNA cloning of the basement membrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan core protein, bamacan: a five domain structure including coiled-coil motifs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, R R; Couchman, J R

    1997-01-01

    Basement membranes contain several proteoglycans, and those bearing heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans such as perlecan and agrin usually predominate. Most mammalian basement membranes also contain chondroitin sulfate, and a core protein, bamacan, has been partially characterized. We have now...... obtained cDNA clones encoding the entire bamacan core protein of Mr = 138 kD, which reveal a five domain, head-rod-tail configuration. The head and tail are potentially globular, while the central large rod probably forms coiled-coil structures, with one large central and several very short interruptions....... This molecular architecture is novel for an extracellular matrix molecule, but it resembles that of a group of intracellular proteins, including some proposed to stabilize the mitotic chromosome scaffold. We have previously proposed a similar stabilizing role for bamacan in the basement membrane matrix...

  3. Histopathological and ultrastructural analysis of vestibular endorgans in Meniere's disease reveals basement membrane pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCall Andrew A

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We report the systematic analysis of the ultrastructural and cytological histopathology of vestibular endorgans acquired from labyrinthectomy in Meniere's disease. Methods 17 subjects with intractable Meniere's disease and ipsilateral non-serviceable hearing presenting to the Neurotology Clinic from 1997 to 2006 who chose ablative labyrinthectomy (average age = 62 years; range 29–83 years participated. The average duration of symptoms prior to surgery was 7 years (range 1–20 years. Results Nearly all vestibular endorgans demonstrated varying degrees of degeneration. A monolayer of epithelial cells occurred significantly more frequently in the horizontal cristae (12/13 = 92% (p Conclusion Systematic histopathological analysis of the vestibular endorgans from Meniere's disease demonstrated neuroepithelial degeneration which was highly correlated with an associated BM thickening. Other findings included hair cell and supporting cell microvessicles, increased intercellular clear spaces in the stroma, and endothelial cell vacuolization and stromal perivascular BM thickening.

  4. Sequential occurrence of anti-glomerular basement membrane disease 9 years after anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Pui Shan Julia; Leung, Moon Ho

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of 63-year-old Chinese man, having a history of anti-myeloperoxidase (MPO) antibody anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated pulmonary-renal syndrome 9 years ago, presented with second episode of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN) and alveolar haemorrhage compatible with anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) disease. In first presentation, his anti-GBM antibody was negative. This time, anti-MPO antibody was negative, but anti-GBM antibody was positive. The long interval of sequential development of anti-GBM disease after ANCA-associated vasculitis in this patient may provide clues to the potential immunological links between these two distinct conditions. Clinicians should be aware of such double-positive association.

  5. A role for PDGF-C/PDGFRα signaling in the formation of the meningeal basement membranes surrounding the cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrae, Johanna; Gouveia, Leonor; Gallini, Radiosa; He, Liqun; Fredriksson, Linda; Nilsson, Ingrid; Johansson, Bengt R; Eriksson, Ulf; Betsholtz, Christer

    2016-01-01

    Platelet-derived growth factor-C (PDGF-C) is one of three known ligands for the tyrosine kinase receptor PDGFRα. Analysis ofPdgfcnull mice has demonstrated roles for PDGF-C in palate closure and the formation of cerebral ventricles, but redundancy with other PDGFRα ligands might obscure additional functions. In search of further developmental roles for PDGF-C, we generated mice that were double mutants forPdgfc(-/-)andPdgfra(GFP/+) These mice display a range of severe phenotypes including spina bifida, lung emphysema, abnormal meninges and neuronal over-migration in the cerebral cortex. We focused our analysis on the central nervous system (CNS), where PDGF-C was identified as a critical factor for the formation of meninges and assembly of the glia limitans basement membrane. We also present expression data onPdgfa,PdgfcandPdgfrain the cerebral cortex and microarray data on cerebral meninges. PMID:26988758

  6. Defective muscle basement membrane and lack of M-laminin in the dystrophic dy/dy mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, H; Christmas, P; Wu, X R;

    1994-01-01

    M-laminin is a major member of the laminin family of basement membrane proteins. It is prominently expressed in striated muscle and peripheral nerve. M-laminin is deficient in patients with the autosomal recessive Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy but is normal in patients with the sex......-linked Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies. We have examined M-laminin expression in mice with autosomal recessive muscular dystrophy caused by the mutation dy. The heavy chain of M-laminin was undetectable in skeletal muscle, heart muscle, and peripheral nerve by immunofluorescence and immunoblotting in...... tissue from dy/dy mice, suggesting that M-laminin heavy-chain mRNA may be produced at very low levels or is unstable. Information about the chromosomal localization of the M heavy-chain in human and mouse suggests that a mutation in the M-chain gene causes the muscular dystrophy in dy/dy mice. The dy...

  7. (/sup 3/H)glucosamine and (/sup 3/H)proline radioautography of embryonic mouse dental basement membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osman, M.; Ruch, J.V.

    1981-01-01

    (/sup 3/H)proline and (/sup 3/H)glucosamine radioautography was performed to analyze the labeling pattern of mouse embryonic dental basement membrane before and during odontoblast terminal differentiation. Sixteen- and eighteen-day-old first lower molars and trypsin-isolated enamel organs, as well as EDTA-isolated dental papillae, were used. Continuous labeling for 12 to 24 hr was required with (/sup 3/H)proline to obtain a clear labeling of epithelial-mesenchymal junction in intact tooth germs or accumulation of surface label in trypsin-isolated enamel organs. With (/sup 3/H)glucosamine, after 6-hr labeling, the epithelial-mesenchymal junction was heavily labeled and the trypsin-isolated enamel organs accumulated substantial amounts of surface label, corresponding to the redeposited basement membrane. At Day 16 stage, these labels always had a uniform distribution and decreased during chase without any redistribution. At Day 18 stage, when the terminal differentiation of odontoblasts occurred the label accumulated in a unique pattern: much more label was at the epithelial surface corresponding to the top of the cusps than in the apical parts. During chase and only in intact tooth germs epithelial surfaces which had labeled poorly during pulse became labeled, but those labeling heavily during pulse lost label. This pattern existed only in the presence of mesenchyme. EDTA treatment of (/sup 3/H)glucosamine-labeled teeth enabled us to obtain isolated dental papillae with surface label. Distribution of this label was exactly the same as that for the epithelial-mesenchymal junction of intact teeth. During chase, these dental papillae completely lost the surface label. The mesenchyme seen to control the synthesis and/or the degradation of epithelially derived (/sup 3/H)glucosamine-labeled material.

  8. Histones have high affinity for the glomerular basement membrane. Relevance for immune complex formation in lupus nephritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmiedeke, T.M.; Stoeckl, F.W.W.; Weber, R.; Sugisaki, Y.; Batsford, S.R.; Vogt, A.

    1989-06-01

    An effort has been made to integrate insights on charge-based interactions in immune complex glomerulonephritis with nuclear antigen involvement in lupus nephritis. Attention was focussed on the histones, a group of highly cationic nuclear constituents, which could be expected to bind to fixed anionic sites present in the glomerular basement membrane (GBM). We demonstrated that all histone subfractions, prepared according to Johns, have a high affinity for GBM and the basement membrane of peritubular capillaries. Tissue uptake of /sup 125/I-labeled histones was measured by injecting 200 micrograms of each fraction into the left kidney via the aorta and measuring organ uptake after 15 min. In glomeruli isolated from the left kidneys, the following quantities of histones were found: f1, 13 micrograms; f2a (f2al + f2a2), 17 micrograms; f2b, 17 micrograms; and f3, 32 micrograms. Kinetic studies of glomerular binding showed that f1 disappeared much more rapidly than f2a. The high affinity of histones (pI between 10.5 and 11.0; mol wt 10,000-22,000) for the GBM correlates well with their ability to form aggregates (mol wt greater than 100,000) for comparison lysozyme (pI 11, mol wt 14,000), which does not aggregate spontaneously bound poorly (0.4 micrograms in isolated glomeruli). The quantity of histones and lysozyme found in the isolated glomeruli paralleled their in vitro affinity for a Heparin-Sepharose column (gradient elution studies). This gel matrix contains the sulfated, highly anionic polysaccharide heparin, which is similar to the negatively charged heparan sulfate present in the GBM. Lysozyme eluted with 0.15 M NaCl, f1 with 1 M NaCl, and f2a, f2b, and f3 could not be fully desorbed even with 2 M NaCl; 6 M guanidine-HCl was necessary.

  9. 19-DEJ-1, a hemidesmosome-anchoring filament complex-associated monoclonal antibody. Definition of a new skin basement membrane antigenic defect in junctional and dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fine, J D; Horiguchi, Y; Couchman, J R

    1989-01-01

    normally expressed in one or more forms of epidermolysis bullosa (EB) known to have structural and antigenic defects in skin basement membrane, we examined by indirect immunofluorescence 46 specimens of clinically normal skin from 43 patients representing each of the four forms of inherited EB (simplex, 15...

  10. Identification and expression profile of a putative basement membrane protein gene in the midgut of Helicoverpa armigera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Da-Wei

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The midgut undergoes histolysis and remodeling during the larval to adult transition in holometabolous insects, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this process are not well understood. Results Using Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH, we identified a 531 bp cDNA predicted to encode a 176 amino acid protein, which we call hmg176. Northern and western blot analysis suggested that high levels of hmg176 are expressed in the midgut during molting, but not during metamorphosis. HMG176 protein was detected by immunofluorescence within the membrane of fat bodies and the basement membrane of the midgut of both molting and feeding larvae, but not in metamorphically committed larvae. In situ hybridization revealed that hmg176 transcripts mainly localized to the columnar cells of the midgut. Interestingly, a non-steroidal ecdysone agonist, RH-2485, significantly upregulated expression of hmg176. Conclusion These observations suggest that hmg176 encodes a larval-specific protein that may participate in sustaining larval midgut during larval development, possibly in response to ecdysteroid in vivo. This study will enlighten our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of tissue histolysis during metamorphosis.

  11. A direct contact between astrocyte and vitreous body is possible in the rabbit eye due to discontinuities in the basement membrane of the retinal inner limiting membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Haddad

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Different from most mammalian species, the optic nerve of the rabbit eye is initially formed inside the retina where myelination of the axons of the ganglion cells starts and vascularization occurs. Astrocytes are confined to these regions. The aforementioned nerve fibers known as medullated nerve fibers form two bundles that may be identified with the naked eye. The blood vessels run on the inner surface of these nerve fiber bundles (epivascularization and, accordingly, the accompanying astrocytes lie mostly facing the vitreous body from which they are separated only by the inner limiting membrane of the retina. The arrangement of the astrocytes around blood vessels leads to the formation of structures known as glial tufts. Fragments (N = 3 or whole pieces (N = 3 of the medullated nerve fiber region of three-month-old male rabbits (Orictolagus cuniculus were fixed in glutaraldehyde followed by osmium tetroxide, and their thin sections were examined with a transmission electron microscope. Randomly located discontinuities (up to a few micrometers long of the basement membrane of the inner limiting membrane of the retina were observed in the glial tufts. As a consequence, a direct contact between the astrocyte plasma membrane and vitreous elements was demonstrated, making possible functional interactions such as macromolecular exchanges between this glial cell type and the components of the vitreous body.

  12. Synthesis and localization of two sulphated glycoproteins associated with basement membranes and the extracellular matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hogan, B L; Taylor, A; Kurkinen, M; Couchman, J R

    1982-01-01

    Two sulphated glycoproteins (sgps) of apparent molecular weight (Mr) 180,000 and 150,000, are synthesized by murine PYS and PF HR9 parietal endoderm and Swiss 3T3 cells. The Mr 150,000 sgp has a similar chemical structure to the sulphated glycoprotein, C, synthesized and laid down in Reichert...... interactions and are not precursors or products of each other. They contain asparagine-linked oligosaccharides, but these are not the exclusive sites of sulphate labeling. Antiserum raised against the Mr 150,000 sgp C of Reichert's membranes has been used in an immunohistochemical analysis of rat skin. In...

  13. Localization of type IV collagen a 1 to a 6 chains in basement membrane during mouse molar germ development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, N; Nakano, K; Sado, Y; Naito, I; Gunduz, M; Tsujigiwa, H; Nagatsuka, H; Ninomiya, Y; Siar, C H

    2001-10-01

    The dental basement membrane (BM) putatively mediates epithelial-mesenchymal interactions during tooth morphogenesis and cytodifferentiation. Type IV collagen alpha chains, a major network-forming protein of the dental BM, was studied and results disclosed distinct expression patterns at different stages of mouse molar germ development. At the dental placode and bud stage, the BM of the oral epithelium expressed alpha 1, alpha 2, alpha 5 and alpha 6 chains while the gubernaculum dentis, in addition to the above four chains, also expressed a 4 chain. An asymmetrical expression for alpha 4, alpha 5 and alpha 6 chains was observed at the bud stage. At the early bell stage, the BM associated with the inner enamel epithelium (IEE) of molar germ expressed alpha 1, alpha 2 and alpha 4 chains while the BM of the outer enamel epithelium (OEE) expressed only alpha 1 and a 2 chains. With the onset of dentinogenesis, the collagen a chain profile of the IEE BM gradually disappeared. Howeverfrom the early to late bell stage, the gubernaculum dentis consistently expressed alpha 1, alpha 2, alpha 5 and a 6 chains resembling fetal oral mucosa. These findings suggest that stage- and position-specific distribution of type IV collagen alpha subunits occur during molar germ development and that these changes are essential for molar morphogenesis and cytodifferentiation. PMID:11732842

  14. Influence of a reconstituted basement membrane and its components on casein gene expression and secretion in mouse mammary epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When primary mouse mammary epithelial cells are cultured on plastic, they rapidly lose their ability to synthesize and secrete most milk proteins even in the presence of lactogenic hormones, whereas cells cultured on release type I collagen gels show greatly enhanced mRNA levels and secretion rates of β-casein and of some other milk proteins. The authors show here that culture on a reconstituted basement membrane from Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm tumor (EHS) allows > 90% of cells to produce high levels of β-casein. By comparison, 30-40% of cells on released type 1 gels and only 2-10% of cells on plastic express β-casein after 6 days in culture. Because only 40% of cells from late pregnant gland produced β-casein before culture, the EHS matrix can both induce and maintain an increased level of casein gene expression. Individual basal lamina components were also evaluated. Type IV collagen and fibronectin had little effect on morphology and β-casein mRNA levels. In contrast, both laminin and heparan sulfate proteoglycan increased β-casein mRNA levels. Profound morphological differences were evident between cells cultured on plastic and on EHS matrix, the latter cells forming ducts, ductules, and lumina and resembling secretory alveoli. These results emphasize the vital role of the extracellular matrix in receiving and integrating structural and functional signals that can direct specific gene expression in differentiated tissues

  15. Genome wide analysis indicates genes for basement membrane and cartilage matrix proteins as candidates for hip dysplasia in Labrador Retrievers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrijsen, Ineke C M; Leegwater, Peter A J; Martin, Alan J; Harris, Stephen J; Tryfonidou, Marianna A; Heuven, Henri C M; Hazewinkel, Herman A W

    2014-01-01

    Hip dysplasia, an abnormal laxity of the hip joint, is seen in humans as well as dogs and is one of the most common skeletal disorders in dogs. Canine hip dysplasia is considered multifactorial and polygenic, and a variety of chromosomal regions have been associated with the disorder. We performed a genome-wide association study in Dutch Labrador Retrievers, comparing data of nearly 18,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 48 cases and 30 controls using two different statistical methods. An individual SNP analysis based on comparison of allele frequencies with a χ(2) statistic was used, as well as a simultaneous SNP analysis based on Bayesian variable selection. Significant association with canine hip dysplasia was observed on chromosome 8, as well as suggestive association on chromosomes 1, 5, 15, 20, 25 and 32. Next-generation DNA sequencing of the exons of genes of seven regions identified multiple associated alleles on chromosome 1, 5, 8, 20, 25 and 32 (phip dysplasia. These genes are involved in hypertrophic differentiation of chondrocytes and extracellular matrix integrity of basement membrane and cartilage. The functions of the genes are in agreement with the notion that disruptions in endochondral bone formation in combination with soft tissue defects are involved in the etiology of hip dysplasia. PMID:24498183

  16. Glomerular extraction of antiglomerular basement membrane antibody in normal Wistar and in Brattleboro rats with hereditary diabetes insipidus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our results show that A-GBM antibody is, unfortunably, not a suitable indicator for glomerular plasma flow distribution studies. Its fixation is influenced by other factors, among which the size of the glomeruli and hence the glomerular basement membrane surface area are probably predominant. This is suggested: 1) by the parallel patterns of antibody fixation and glomerular size found in normal and in DI rats; 2) by the simultaneous restoration of size and A-GBM fixation heterogeneity in treated DI rats; 3) by the correlation between size and A-GBM fixation found in the various glomeruli of a given rat. Further experiments are required to determine whether other factors are also involved in the process of A-GBM fixation. Because the A-GBM antibody is not an adequate blood flow indicator, it was not possible to study the influence of ADH on GPF distribution as we had first intended. Nevertheless, the use of Brattleboro rats in these experiments disclosed the fact that their deep glomeruli are abnormally small and that this anomaly can be reversed, or prevented, by chronic vasopressin treatment. It is not possible to determine from the present experiments whether ADH has a direct effect on kidney morphology or acts indirectly through the correction of the DI and its consequences or other mechanisms. (orig.)

  17. Skin Basement Membrane: The Foundation of Epidermal Integrity—BM Functions and Diverse Roles of Bridging Molecules Nidogen and Perlecan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Breitkreutz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The epidermis functions in skin as first defense line or barrier against environmental impacts, resting on extracellular matrix (ECM of the dermis underneath. Both compartments are connected by the basement membrane (BM, composed of a set of distinct glycoproteins and proteoglycans. Herein we are reviewing molecular aspects of BM structure, composition, and function regarding not only (i the dermoepidermal interface but also (ii the resident microvasculature, primarily focusing on the per se nonscaffold forming components perlecan and nidogen-1 and nidogen-2. Depletion or functional deficiencies of any BM component are lethal at some stage of development or around birth, though BM defects vary between organs and tissues. Lethality problems were overcome by developmental stage- and skin-specific gene targeting or by cell grafting and organotypic (3D cocultures of normal or defective cells, which allows recapitulating BM formation de novo. Thus, evidence is accumulating that BM assembly and turnover rely on mechanical properties and composition of the adjacent ECM and the dynamics of molecular assembly, including further “minor” local components, nidogens largely functioning as catalysts or molecular adaptors and perlecan as bridging stabilizer. Collectively, orchestration of BM assembly, remodeling, and the role of individual players herein are determined by the developmental, tissue-specific, or functional context.

  18. Synthesis and deposition of basement membrane proteins by primary brain capillary endothelial cells in a murine model of the blood-brain barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Maj Schneider; Birkelund, Svend; Burkhart, Annette;

    2016-01-01

    The brain vascular basement membrane is important for both blood-brain barrier (BBB) development, stability, and barrier integrity and the contribution hereto from brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs), pericytes, and astrocytes of the BBB is probably significant. The aim of the present study......-culture, in co-culture with pericytes or mixed glial cells, or as a triple-culture with both pericytes and mixed glial cells. The integrity of the BBB models was validated by measures of transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) and passive permeability to mannitol. The expression of basement membrane...... proteins was analysed using RT-qPCR, mass spectrometry, and immunocytochemistry. Co-culturing mBCECs with pericytes, mixed glial cells, or both significantly increased the TEER compared to the mono-culture, and a low passive permeability was correlated with high TEER. The mBCECs expressed all major...

  19. Surface-bound basement membrane components accelerate amyloid-β peptide nucleation in air-free wells: an in vitro model of cerebral amyloid angiopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Kazuhiro; Ozawa, Daisaku; Ookoshi, Tadakazu; Naiki, Hironobu

    2013-08-01

    Cerebral amyloid angiopathy is caused by deposition of the amyloid β-peptide which consists of mainly 39-40 residues to the cortical and leptomeningeal vessel walls. There are no definite in vitro systems to support the hypothesis that the vascular basement membrane may act as a scaffold of amyloid β-peptide carried by perivascular drainage flow and accelerate its amyloid fibril formation in vivo. We previously reported the critical roles of interfaces and agitation on the nucleation of amyloid fibrils at low concentrations of amyloid β-peptide monomers. Here, we reproduced the perivascular drainage flow in vitro by using N-hydroxysuccinimide-Sepharose 4 Fast flow beads as an inert stirrer in air-free wells rotated at 1rpm. We then reproduced the basement membranes in the media of cerebral arteries in vitro by conjugating Matrigel and other proteins on the surface of Sepharose beads. These beads were incubated with 5μM amyloid β(1-40) at 37°C without air, where amyloid β(1-40) alone does not form amyloid fibrils. Using the initiation time of fibril growth kinetics (i.e., the lag time of fibril growth during which nuclei, on-pathway oligomers and protofibrils are successively formed) as a parameter of the efficiency of biological molecules to induce amyloid fibril formation, we found that basement membrane components including Matrigel, laminin, fibronectin, collagen type IV and fibrinogen accelerate the initiation of amyloid β-peptide fibril growth in vitro. These data support the essential role of vascular basement membranes in the development of cerebral amyloid angiopathy. PMID:23608949

  20. Detection of the basement membrane-degrading proteolytic activity of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis after SDS-PAGE using agarose overlays containing Abz-MKALTLQ-EDDnp

    OpenAIRE

    Puccia, R; M. A. Juliano; L. Juliano; Travassos, L R; Carmona, A. K.

    1999-01-01

    We have characterized, in the Paracoccidioides brasiliensis yeast phase, an exocellular SH-dependent serine proteinase activity against Abz-MKRLTL-EDDnp and analogous fluorescent-quenched peptides, and showed that it is also active against constituents of the basement membrane in vitro. In the present study, we separated the components of P. brasiliensis culture filtrates by electrophoresis and demonstrated that the serine-thiol exocellular proteinase has a diffuse and heterogeneous migration...

  1. Assessment of proteolytic degradation of the basement membrane: a fragment of type IV collagen as a biochemical marker for liver fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Veidal Sanne S; Karsdal Morten A; Nawrocki Arkadiusz; Larsen Martin R; Dai Yueqin; Zheng Qinlong; Hägglund Per; Vainer Ben; Skjøt-Arkil Helene; Leeming Diana J

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Collagen deposition and an altered matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression profile are hallmarks of fibrosis. Type IV collagen is the most abundant structural basement membrane component of tissue, which increases 14-fold during fibrogenesis in the liver. Proteolytic degradation of collagens by proteases produces small fragments, so-called neoepitopes, which are released systemically. Technologies investigating MMP-generated fragments of collagens may provide more useful...

  2. VP08R from Infectious Spleen and Kidney Necrosis Virus Is a Novel Component of the Virus-Mock Basement Membrane

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Xiaopeng; Yan, Muting; Wang, Rui; Lin, Ting; Tang, Junliang; Li, Chaozheng; Weng, Shaoping; He, Jian-Guo

    2014-01-01

    Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV), the type species of the genus Megalocytivirus, family Iridoviridae, brings great harm to fish farming. In infected tissues, ISKNV infection is characterized by a unique phenomenon, in that the infected cells are attached by lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs), which are speculated to wall off the infected cells from host immune attack. A viral membrane protein, VP23R, binds and recruits the host nidogen-1 protein to construct a basement memb...

  3. Control of mammary epithelial differentiation: basement membrane induces tissue-specific gene expression in the absence of cell-cell interaction and morphological polarity

    OpenAIRE

    1991-01-01

    Functional differentiation in mammary epithelia requires specific hormones and local environmental signals. The latter are provided both by extracellular matrix and by communication with adjacent cells, their action being intricately connected in what appears to be a cascade of events leading to milk production. To distinguish between the influence of basement membrane and that of cell-cell contact in this process, we developed a novel suspension culture assay in which mammary epithelial cell...

  4. Genome wide analysis indicates genes for basement membrane and cartilage matrix proteins as candidates for hip dysplasia in Labrador Retrievers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ineke C M Lavrijsen

    Full Text Available Hip dysplasia, an abnormal laxity of the hip joint, is seen in humans as well as dogs and is one of the most common skeletal disorders in dogs. Canine hip dysplasia is considered multifactorial and polygenic, and a variety of chromosomal regions have been associated with the disorder. We performed a genome-wide association study in Dutch Labrador Retrievers, comparing data of nearly 18,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in 48 cases and 30 controls using two different statistical methods. An individual SNP analysis based on comparison of allele frequencies with a χ(2 statistic was used, as well as a simultaneous SNP analysis based on Bayesian variable selection. Significant association with canine hip dysplasia was observed on chromosome 8, as well as suggestive association on chromosomes 1, 5, 15, 20, 25 and 32. Next-generation DNA sequencing of the exons of genes of seven regions identified multiple associated alleles on chromosome 1, 5, 8, 20, 25 and 32 (p<0.001. Candidate genes located in the associated regions on chromosomes 1, 8 and 25 included LAMA2, LRR1 and COL6A3, respectively. The associated region on CFA20 contained candidate genes GDF15, COMP and CILP2. In conclusion, our study identified candidate genes that might affect susceptibility to canine hip dysplasia. These genes are involved in hypertrophic differentiation of chondrocytes and extracellular matrix integrity of basement membrane and cartilage. The functions of the genes are in agreement with the notion that disruptions in endochondral bone formation in combination with soft tissue defects are involved in the etiology of hip dysplasia.

  5. Subepithelial basement membrane thickness in patients with normal colonic mucosal appearance in colonoscopy:Results from southern Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fazilet Kayaselcuk; Ender Serin; Yǖksel Gumurdulu; Birol Ozer; Ilhan Tuncer; Sedat Boyacioglu

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Our aims were to determine the normal limits of subepithelial basement membrane (SEBM) thickness in order to more accurately diagnose collagenous colitis in the population from southern Turkey and to investigate into links between SEBM thickness and age, and sex.METHODS: The study included 100 patients (mean age 50.0±13.3 years; male, 34; female, 66) with miscellaneous gastrointestinal symptoms, and normal colonic mucosal appearance in colonoscopic evaluation. Biopsies were taken from five different regions of the colon. SEBM was measured with a calibrated eyepiece on specimens prepared with specific stains for collagen. Intensity of inflammatory cells was graded semiquantitatively. Differences in SEBM thickness among the different colon regions, and relationships between SEBM thickness and age, sex, and density of inflammatory cells were statistically evaluated.RESULTS: The cecum and rectum showed the largest amounts of infiltrate. None of the specimens showed histologic findings of collagenous colitis. The SEBM thicknesses measured for each case ranged from 3-20 μm. The biggest thickness was observed in rectal mucosa (median value: 10 μm).Cecum and ascending colon showed similar SEBM thickness (median value: 5 μm). SEBM thickness was not correlated with patient age or sex, but was positively correlated with the intensity of inflammatory cells in each colon segment.CONCLUSION: In this patient group from southern Turkey,SEBM was thickest in the rectum. Our results indicate that,in this population, SEBM thickness is not correlated with age or sex, but is positively correlated with severity of inflammation. The findings also support the concept that measuring SEBM thickness at one segment in the colon is inadequate and may be misleading.

  6. Patterns of placental pathology in preterm premature rupture of membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong-Wells, J; Post, M D; Donnelly, M; Manco-Johnson, M J; Fisher, B M; Winn, V D

    2013-06-01

    Inflammation is associated with preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) and adverse neonatal outcomes. Subchorionic thrombi, with or without inflammation, may also be a significant pathological finding in PPROM. Patterns of inflammation and thrombosis may give insight into mechanisms of adverse neonatal outcomes associated with PPROM. To characterize histologic findings of placentas from pregnancies complicated by PPROM at altitude, 44 placentas were evaluated for gross and histological indicators of inflammation and thrombosis. Student's t-test (or Mann-Whitney U-test), χ 2 analysis (or Fisher's exact test), mean square contingency and logistic regression were used when appropriate. The prevalence of histologic acute chorioamnionitis (HCA) was 59%. Fetal-derived inflammation (funisitis and chorionic plate vasculitis) was seen at lower frequency (30% and 45%, respectively) and not always in association with HCA. There was a trend for Hispanic women to have higher odds of funisitis (OR = 5.9; P = 0.05). Subchorionic thrombi were seen in 34% of all placentas. The odds of subchorionic thrombi without HCA was 6.3 times greater that the odds of subchorionic thrombi with HCA (P = 0.02). There was no difference in gestational age or rupture-to-delivery interval, with the presence or absence of inflammatory or thrombotic lesions. These findings suggest that PPROM is caused by or can result in fetal inflammation, placental malperfusion, or both, independent of gestational age or rupture-to-delivery interval; maternal ethnicity and altitude may contribute to these findings. Future studies focused on this constellation of PPROM placental findings, genetic polymorphisms and neonatal outcomes are needed. PMID:23828732

  7. The use of thermovision camera to observe physiological and pathological conditions of oral cavity mucous membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbrowski, M.; Dulski, R.; Żmuda, S.; Zaborowski, P.; Pogorzelski, C.

    2002-06-01

    This article presents initial results of investigations of the temperature distribution changes in oral cavity mucous membrane. The investigations aimed to prepare a model of temperature changes existing within mucosal membrane in physiological conditions and to compare those changes with those under pathological conditions. Our investigations were carried out using an infrared imaging system. A representative group of patients was tested.

  8. Normal and tumor-derived myoepithelial cells differ in their ability to interact with luminal breast epithelial cells for polarity and basement membrane deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudjonsson, Thorarinn; Ronnov-Jessen, Lone; Villadsen, Rene; Rank, Fritz; Bissell, Mina J.; Petersen, Ole William

    2001-10-04

    The signals that determine the correct polarity of breast epithelial structures in vivo are not understood. We have shown previously that luminal epithelial cells can be polarized when cultured within a reconstituted basement membrane gel. We reasoned that such cues in vivo may be given by myoepithelial cells. Accordingly, we used an assay where luminal epithelial cells are incorrectly polarized to test this hypothesis. We show that culturing human primary luminal epithelial cells within collagen-I gels leads to formation of structures with no lumina and with reverse polarity as judged by dual stainings for sialomucin, epithelial specific antigen or occludin. No basement membrane is deposited, and {beta}4-integrin staining is negative. Addition of purified human myoepithelial cells isolated from normal glands corrects the inverse polarity, and leads to formation of double-layered acini with central lumina. Among the laminins present in the human breast basement membrane (laminin-1, -5 and -10/11), laminin-1 was unique in its ability to substitute for myoepithelial cells in polarity reversal. Myoepithelial cells were purified also from four different breast cancer sources including a biphasic cell line. Three out of four samples either totally lacked the ability to interact with luminal epithelial cells, or conveyed only correction of polarity in a fraction of acini. This behavior was directly related to the ability of the tumor myoepithelial cells to produce {alpha}-1 chain of laminin. In vivo, breast carcinomas were either negative for laminin-1 (7/12 biopsies) or showed a focal, fragmented deposition of a less intensely stained basement membrane (5/12 biopsies). Dual staining with myoepithelial markers revealed that tumorassociated myoepithelial cells were either negative or weakly positive for expression of laminin-1, establishing a strong correlation between loss of laminin-1 and breast cancer. We conclude that the double-layered breast acinus may be

  9. The Preliminary Report of Pathological Changes of Epiretinal Membranes and Internal Limiting Membrane Removed during Idiopathic Macular Hole Surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiaqing Li; Shibo Tang; Yan Luo; Jie Zhang; Shaofen Lin

    2002-01-01

    Purpose:To investigate the pathological changes of epiretinal membranes(ERM)and internal limiting membrane (ILM) removed during idiopathic macular hole surgery.Methods:Ten consecutive patients with a unilateral idiopathic macular hole underwent pars plana vitrectomy(PPV) with the surgical removal of the ERMs overlying the hole and ILM surrounding the hole. The pathological features of the excised tissues were examined under the microscope. Results:According to the morphological changes, four ERMs showed cellular elements which looked like glia cells, macrophages, plasma cells, lymphocytes and fibroblast cells. Two of the ILM appeared as transparent membranes without cellular elements. The other eight ILM showed cellular elements on the transparent membranes.Conclusion: Our study supports the hypothesis that the tangential traction of vitreous and proliferative cellular elements on the inner surface of ILM causes idiopathic macular holes. Removal of the posterior cortical vitreous, ILM and proliferative cellular tissue is a valid treatment for IMH.

  10. The central role of vascular extracellular matrix and basement membrane remodeling in metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes: the matrix preloaded

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyagi Suresh C

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The vascular endothelial basement membrane and extra cellular matrix is a compilation of different macromolecules organized by physical entanglements, opposing ionic charges, chemical covalent bonding, and cross-linking into a biomechanically active polymer. These matrices provide a gel-like form and scaffolding structure with regional tensile strength provided by collagens, elasticity by elastins, adhesiveness by structural glycoproteins, compressibility by proteoglycans – hyaluronans, and communicability by a family of integrins, which exchanges information between cells and between cells and the extracellular matrix of vascular tissues. Each component of the extracellular matrix and specifically the capillary basement membrane possesses unique structural properties and interactions with one another, which determine the separate and combined roles in the multiple diabetic complications or diabetic opathies. Metabolic syndrome, prediabetes, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and their parallel companion (atheroscleropathy are associated with multiple metabolic toxicities and chronic injurious stimuli. The adaptable quality of a matrix or form genetically preloaded with the necessary information to communicate and respond to an ever-changing environment, which supports the interstitium, capillary and arterial vessel wall is individually examined.

  11. Membranous nephropathy in the cat: a clinical and pathological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, A S; Wright, N G; Spencer, A J; Thompson, H; Fisher, E W

    1979-07-28

    A series of 13 cases of feline membranous nephropathy is presented. Two groups were distinguished clinically; eight cats had the nephrotic syndrome and five others were in renal failure but not nephrotic. The definitive diagnosis was based on histological, immunofluorescence and ultrastructural examinations of renal tissue obtained at renal biopsy or necropsy. Glomerular lesions were classified according to the degree of glomerular change into three distinct groups; mild, moderately severe and advanced. A relationship was established between the mild and moderately severe groups and cats with the nephrotic syndrome, and the advanced group and cats in renal failure. Diuretic therapy was satisfactory in initial control of oedema in the nephrotic cases. Monitoring of previously nephrotic cats for up to three years indicated that the disease is progressive, although in some cases it is sufficiently slow for a cat to live a relatively normal life without continuing treatment. The prognosis for cats presented in renal failure is hopeless. PMID:552741

  12. Case with Brunsting-Perry-like localized subepidermal blister formations and immunoglobulin G antibodies against unidentified basement membrane zone antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato-Shibuya, Mami; Dainichi, Teruki; Egawa, Gyohei; Honda, Tetsuya; Otsuka, Atsushi; Ishii, Norito; Hashimoto, Takashi; Miyachi, Yoshiki; Kabashima, Kenji

    2016-04-01

    Brunsting-Perry type bullous pemphigoid is defined by the blister formation limited to the head and neck, and autoantibodies to type VII collagen are detected in several cases. However, the pathomechanisms and autoantigens in this condition remain unknown. We report a 20-year-old female patient with a more than 2-year history of recurrent tense blisters localized on the face with no distinct atrophic scar formation. The patient had neither extensive sun exposure nor a history suggestive of contact dermatitis. Oral betamethasone was effective on the skin lesions. Histopathology revealed subepidermal blister formation with dermal infiltrates of neutrophils. Although direct and indirect immunofluorescence tests detected immunoglobulin G antibodies to the basement membrane zone (BMZ), no known dermal or epidermal autoantigens were detected in immunoblot analyses. Therefore, this case may be a rare variant of Brunsting-Perry type localized bullous pemphigoid with autoantibodies to an undetermined BMZ antigen. PMID:26362108

  13. Glycosylation of human glomerular basement membrane collagen: increased content of hexose in ketoamine linkage and unaltered hydroxylysine-O-glycosides in patients with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uitto, J; Perejda, A J; Grant, G A; Rowold, E A; Kilo, C; Williamson, J R

    1982-01-01

    To study the glycosylation of glomerular basement membrane collagen (GBMC) in diabetes, kidneys were obtained at autopsy from 5 patients with insulin-requiring diabetes of long duration and diabetic complications, and from 5 control subjects. Glomeruli were prepared by sieving and collagen was isolated by limited pepsin proteolysis followed by salt precipitations. Amino acid analyses of the collagen preparations, after acid hydrolysis, indicated a composition consistent with that of type IV collagen. No differences in the relative contents of various amino acids, and in particular, 3-hydroxyproline, 4-hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine, were noted between diabetic and control samples. Non-enzymatic glucosylation was assessed by measuring hexose in ketoamine linkage with thiobarbituric acid after conversion to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural. In 4 of the 5 patients studied, glucosylation values exceeded the mean +2 S.D. of the controls; in the fifth subject glucosylation was in the high normal range. No correlation between the severity of diabetes and hexose content of GBMC was noted, however. In further studies, enzymatic glycosylation of GBMC was assayed after alkaline hydrolysis by separation of glucosylgalactosyl-O-hydroxylysine, galactosyl-O-hydroxylysine, and unsubstituted hydroxylysine in an amino acid analyzer. No differences in the relative contents of hydroxylysine-O-glycosides were evident between diabetic and control GBMC. The results suggest that non-enzymatic glucosylation, but not glycosylation catalyzed by collagen glucosyl and galactosyl transferases, is increased in diabetes. The increased carbohydrate content of collagen may lead to decreased turnover and/or excessive accumulations of basement membrane collagen thus contributing to the vascular complications of diabetes. PMID:6218960

  14. Heparanase expression,degradation of basement membrane and low degree of infiltration by immunocytes correlate with invasion and progression of human gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zun-Jiang Xie; Ying Liu; Li-Min Jia; Ye-Chun He

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To disclose the mechanisms that accelerate or limit tumor invasion and metastasis in gastric cancer patients.METHODS: The heparanase expression,continuity of basement,degree of infiltration by dendritic cells and lymphocytes in gastric cancer tissues from 33 the early and late stage patients were examined by immunohistochemistry,in situ hybridization and transmission electron microscopy.RESULTS: Heparanase mRNA expression in the late stage patients with gastric cancer was stronger than that in the early stage gastric cancer patients.In the early stage gastric cancer tissues,basement membrane (BlVl) appeared intact,whereas in the late stage,discontinuous BM was often present.The density of $100 protein positive tumor infiltrating dendritic cells (TIDC) in the early stage gastric cancer tissues was higher than that in the late stage.The infiltrating degree of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) in the early stage patients whose tumor tissues contained a high density of TIDC was significantly higher than that in the late stage gastric cancer tissues patients with a low density of TIDC.There were few cancer cells penetrated through the continuous BM of cancer nests in the early stage gastric cancers,but many cancer cells were found outside of the defective BM of cancer nests in the late stage.CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that strong heparanase expression is related with the degradation of BM which allows or accelerates tumor invasion and metastasis.However,high density of TIDC and degree of infiltration by TIL are associated with tumor progression in human gastric cancers.

  15. Eye lens membrane junctional microdomains: a comparison between healthy and pathological cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buzhynskyy, Nikolay; Scheuring, Simon [Institut Curie, Equipe Inserm Avenir, UMR168-CNRS, 26 Rue d' Ulm, 75248 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Sens, Pierre [ESPCI, CNRS-UMR 7083, 75231 Paris (France); Behar-Cohen, Francine, E-mail: simon.scheuring@curie.fr [UMRS Inserm 872, Universite Paris Descartes, Centre de Recherches des Cordeliers, 15 rue de l' Ecole de Medecine, 75270 Paris Cedex 06 (France)

    2011-08-15

    The eye lens is a transparent tissue constituted of tightly packed fiber cells. To maintain homeostasis and transparency of the lens, the circulation of water, ions and metabolites is required. Junctional microdomains connect the lens cells and ensure both tight cell-to-cell adhesion and intercellular flow of fluids through a microcirculation system. Here, we overview membrane morphology and tissue functional requirements of the mammalian lens. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has opened up the possibility of visualizing the junctional microdomains at unprecedented submolecular resolution, revealing the supramolecular assembly of lens-specific aquaporin-0 (AQP0) and connexins (Cx). We compare the membrane protein assembly in healthy lenses with senile and diabetes-II cataract cases and novel data of the lens membranes from a congenital cataract. In the healthy case, AQP0s form characteristic square arrays confined by connexons. In the cases of senile and diabetes-II cataract patients, connexons were degraded, leading to malformation of AQP0 arrays and breakdown of the microcirculation system. In the congenital cataract, connexons are present, indicating probable non-membranous grounds for lens opacification. Further, we discuss the energetic aspects of the membrane organization in junctional microdomains. The AFM hence becomes a biomedical nano-imaging tool for the analysis of single-membrane protein supramolecular association in healthy and pathological membranes.

  16. Eye lens membrane junctional microdomains: a comparison between healthy and pathological cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The eye lens is a transparent tissue constituted of tightly packed fiber cells. To maintain homeostasis and transparency of the lens, the circulation of water, ions and metabolites is required. Junctional microdomains connect the lens cells and ensure both tight cell-to-cell adhesion and intercellular flow of fluids through a microcirculation system. Here, we overview membrane morphology and tissue functional requirements of the mammalian lens. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has opened up the possibility of visualizing the junctional microdomains at unprecedented submolecular resolution, revealing the supramolecular assembly of lens-specific aquaporin-0 (AQP0) and connexins (Cx). We compare the membrane protein assembly in healthy lenses with senile and diabetes-II cataract cases and novel data of the lens membranes from a congenital cataract. In the healthy case, AQP0s form characteristic square arrays confined by connexons. In the cases of senile and diabetes-II cataract patients, connexons were degraded, leading to malformation of AQP0 arrays and breakdown of the microcirculation system. In the congenital cataract, connexons are present, indicating probable non-membranous grounds for lens opacification. Further, we discuss the energetic aspects of the membrane organization in junctional microdomains. The AFM hence becomes a biomedical nano-imaging tool for the analysis of single-membrane protein supramolecular association in healthy and pathological membranes.

  17. H-ras oncogene-transformed human bronchial epithelial cells (TBE-1) secrete a single metalloprotease capable of degrading basement membrane collagen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    H-ras transformed human bronchial epithelial cells (TBE-1) secrete a single major extracellular matrix metalloprotease which is not found in the normal parental cells. The enzyme is secreted in a latent form which can be activated to catalyze the cleavage of the basement membrane macromolecule type IV collagen. The substrates in their order of preference are: gelatin, type IV collagen, type V collagen, fibronectin, and type VII collagen; but the enzyme does not cleave the interstitial collagens or laminin. This protease is identical to gelatinase isolated from normal human skin explants, normal human skin fibroblasts, and SV40-transformed human lung fibroblasts. Based on this ability to initiate the degradation of type IV collagen in a pepsin-resistant portion of the molecule, it will be referred to as type IV collagenase. This enzyme is most likely the human analog of type IV collagenase detected in several rodent tumors. Type IV collagenase consists of three domains. Type IV collagenase represents the third member of a newly recognized gene family coding for secreted extracellular matrix metalloproteases, which includes interstitial fibroblast collagenase and stromelysin

  18. A two-dimensional model of the colonic crypt accounting for the role of the basement membrane and pericryptal fibroblast sheath.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara-Jane Dunn

    Full Text Available The role of the basement membrane is vital in maintaining the integrity and structure of an epithelial layer, acting as both a mechanical support and forming the physical interface between epithelial cells and the surrounding connective tissue. The function of this membrane is explored here in the context of the epithelial monolayer that lines the colonic crypt, test-tube shaped invaginations that punctuate the lining of the intestine and coordinate a regular turnover of cells to replenish the epithelial layer every few days. To investigate the consequence of genetic mutations that perturb the system dynamics and can lead to colorectal cancer, it must be possible to track the emerging tissue level changes that arise in the crypt. To that end, a theoretical crypt model with a realistic, deformable geometry is required. A new discrete crypt model is presented, which focuses on the interaction between cell- and tissue-level behaviour, while incorporating key subcellular components. The model contains a novel description of the role of the surrounding tissue and musculature, based upon experimental observations of the tissue structure of the crypt, which are also reported. A two-dimensional (2D cross-sectional geometry is considered, and the shape of the crypt is allowed to evolve and deform. Simulation results reveal how the shape of the crypt may contribute mechanically to the asymmetric division events typically associated with the stem cells at the base. The model predicts that epithelial cell migration may arise due to feedback between cell loss at the crypt collar and density-dependent cell division, an hypothesis which can be investigated in a wet lab. This work forms the basis for investigation of the deformation of the crypt structure that can occur due to proliferation of cells exhibiting mutant phenotypes, experiments that would not be possible in vivo or in vitro.

  19. Oxidized phosphatidylcholines in membrane-level cellular signaling: from biophysics to physiology and molecular pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volinsky, Roman; Kinnunen, Paavo K J

    2013-06-01

    The oxidation of lipids has been shown to impact virtually all cellular processes. The paradigm has been that this involvement is due to interference with the functions of membrane-associated proteins. It is only recently that methodological advances in molecular-level detection and identification have begun to provide insights into oxidative lipid modification and its involvement in cell signaling as well as in major diseases and inflammation. Extensive evidence suggests a correlation between lipid peroxidation and degenerative neurological diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's, as well as type 2 diabetes and cancer. Despite the obvious relevance of understanding the molecular basis of the above ailments, the exact modes of action of oxidized lipids have remained elusive. In this minireview, we summarize recent findings on the biophysical characteristics of biomembranes following oxidative derivatization of their lipids, and how these altered properties are involved in both physiological processes and major pathological conditions. Lipid-bearing, oxidatively truncated and functionalized acyl chains are known to modify membrane bulk physical properties, such as thermal phase behavior, bilayer thickness, hydration and polarity profiles, as manifest in the altered structural dynamics of lipid bilayers, leading to augmented membrane permeability, fast lipid transbilayer diffusion (flip-flop), loss of lipid asymmetry (scrambling) and phase segregation (the formation of 'rafts'). These changes, together with the generated reactive lipid derivatives, can be further expected to interfere with lipid-protein interactions, influencing metabolic pathways, causing inflammation, the execution phase in apoptosis and initiating pathological processes. PMID:23506295

  20. Genetic interaction between Caenorhabditis elegans teneurin ten-1 and prolyl 4-hydroxylase phy-1 and their function in collagen IV–mediated basement membrane integrity during late elongation of the embryo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topf, Ulrike; Chiquet-Ehrismann, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    Teneurins are a family of phylogenetically conserved proteins implicated in pattern formation and morphogenesis. The sole orthologue in Caenorhabditis elegans, ten-1, is important for hypodermal cell migration, neuronal migration, path finding and fasciculation, gonad development, and basement membrane integrity of some tissues. However, the mechanisms of TEN-1 action remain to be elucidated. Using a genome-wide RNA interference approach, we identified phy-1 as a novel interaction partner of ten-1. phy-1 codes for the catalytic domain of collagen prolyl 4-hydroxylase. Loss of phy-1 significantly enhanced the embryonic lethality of ten-1 null mutants. Double-mutant embryos arrested during late elongation with epidermal defects, disruption of basement membranes, and detachment of body wall muscles. We found that deletion of phy-1 caused aggregation of collagen IV in body wall muscles in elongated embryos and triggered the loss of tissue integrity in ten-1 mutants. In addition, phy-1 and ten-1 each genetically interact with genes encoding collagen IV. These findings support a functional mechanism in which loss of ten-1, together with a reduction of assembled and secreted basement membrane collagen IV protein, leads to detachment of the epidermis from muscle cells during late elongation of the embryo when mechanical stress is generated by muscle contractions. PMID:21795395

  1. Detection of gelatinolytic activity in developing basement membranes of the mouse embryo head by combining sensitive in situ zymography with immunolabeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkantidis, Nikolaos; Katsaros, Christos; Chiquet, Matthias

    2012-10-01

    Genetic evidence indicates that the major gelatinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 are involved in mammalian craniofacial development. Since these matrix metalloproteinases are secreted as proenzymes that require activation, their tissue distribution does not necessarily reflect the sites of enzymatic activity. Information regarding the spatial and temporal expression of gelatinolytic activity in the head of the mammalian embryo is sparse. Sensitive in situ zymography with dye-quenched gelatin (DQ-gelatin) has been introduced recently; gelatinolytic activity results in a local increase in fluorescence. Using frontal sections of wild-type mouse embryo heads from embryonic day 14.5-15.5, we optimized and validated a simple double-labeling in situ technique for combining DQ-gelatin zymography with immunofluorescence staining. MMP inhibitors were tested to confirm the specificity of the reaction in situ, and results were compared to standard SDS-gel zymography of tissue extracts. Double-labeling was used to show the spatial relationship in situ between gelatinolytic activity and immunostaining for gelatinases MMP-2 and MMP-9, collagenase 3 (MMP-13) and MT1-MMP (MMP-14), a major activator of pro-gelatinases. Strong gelatinolytic activity, which partially overlapped with MMP proteins, was confirmed for Meckel's cartilage and developing mandibular bone. In addition, we combined in situ zymography with immunostaining for extracellular matrix proteins that are potential gelatinase substrates. Interestingly, gelatinolytic activity colocalized precisely with laminin-positive basement membranes at specific sites around growing epithelia in the developing mouse head, such as the ducts of salivary glands or the epithelial fold between tongue and lower jaw region. Thus, this sensitive method allows to associate, with high spatial resolution, gelatinolytic activity with epithelial morphogenesis in the embryo. PMID:22688677

  2. Targeted Expression of Stromelysin-1 in Mammary Gland Provides Evidence for a Role of Proteinases in Branching Morphogenesis and the Requirement for an Intact Basement Membrane for Tissue-specific Gene Expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sympson, Carolyn J; Talhouk, Rabih S; Alexander, Caroline M; Chin, Jennie R; Cliff, Shirley M; Bissell, Mina J; Werb, Zena

    1994-05-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is an important regulator of the differentiated phenotype of mammary epithelial cells in culture. Despite the fact that ECM-degrading enzymes have been implicated in morphogenesis and tissue remodeling, there is little evidence for a direct role for such regulation in vivo. We generated transgenic mice that express autoactivated isoforms of the matrix metalloproteinase stromelysin-1, under the control of the whey acidic protein gene promoter, to examine the effect of inappropriate expression of this enzyme. Stromelysin-1 is implicated as the primary player in the loss of basement membrane and loss of function in the mammary gland during involution. The transgene was expressed at low levels in mammary glands of virgin female mice, leading to an unexpected phenotype: The primary ducts had supernumerary branches and showed precocious development of alveoli that expressed beta-casein at levels similar to that of an early- to mid-pregnant gland. Lactating glands showed high levels of transgene expression, with accumulation at the basement membrane, and a decrease in laminin and collagen IV, resulting in a loss of basement membrane integrity; this was accompanied by a dramatic alteration of alveolar morphology, with decreased size and shrunken lumina containing little beta-casein. During pregnancy, expression of endogenous whey acidic protein and beta-casein was reduced in transgenic glands, confirming the observed dependence of milk protein transcription of ECM in mammary epithelial cells in culture. These data provide direct evidence that stromelysin-1 activity can be morphogenic for mammary epithelial cells, inducing hyperproliferation and differentiation in virgin animals, and that its lytic activity can, indeed, disrupt membrane integrity and reduce mammary-specific function. We conclude that the balance of ECM-degrading enzymes with their inhibitors, and the associated regulation of ECM structure, is crucial for tissue-specific gene

  3. Proteolysis breaks tolerance toward intact α345(IV) collagen, eliciting novel anti-glomerular basement membrane autoantibodies specific for α345NC1 hexamers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaru, Florina; Wang, Xu-Ping; Luo, Wentian; Ge, Linna; Miner, Jeffrey H; Kleinau, Sandra; Geiger, Xochiquetzal J; Wasiluk, Andrew; Heidet, Laurence; Kitching, A Richard; Borza, Dorin-Bogdan

    2013-02-15

    Goodpasture disease is an autoimmune kidney disease mediated by autoantibodies against noncollagenous domain 1 (NC1) monomers of α3(IV) collagen that bind to the glomerular basement membrane (GBM), usually causing rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (GN). We identified a novel type of human IgG4-restricted anti-GBM autoantibodies associated with mild nonprogressive GN, which specifically targeted α345NC1 hexamers but not α3NC1 monomers. The mechanisms eliciting these anti-GBM autoantibodies were investigated in mouse models recapitulating this phenotype. Wild-type and FcγRIIB(-/-) mice immunized with autologous murine GBM NC1 hexamers produced mouse IgG1-restricted autoantibodies specific for α345NC1 hexamers, which bound to the GBM in vivo but did not cause GN. In these mice, intact collagen IV from murine GBM was not immunogenic. However, in Col4a3(-/-) Alport mice, both intact collagen IV and NC1 hexamers from murine GBM elicited IgG Abs specific for α345NC1 hexamers, which were not subclass restricted. As heterologous Ag in COL4A3-humanized mice, murine GBM NC1 hexamers elicited mouse IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b autoantibodies specific for α345NC1 hexamers and induced anti-GBM Ab GN. These findings indicate that tolerance toward autologous intact α345(IV) collagen is established in hosts expressing this Ag, even though autoreactive B cells specific for α345NC1 hexamers are not purged from their repertoire. Proteolysis selectively breaches this tolerance by generating autoimmunogenic α345NC1 hexamers. This provides a mechanism eliciting autoantibodies specific for α345NC1 hexamers, which are restricted to noninflammatory IgG subclasses and are nonnephritogenic. In Alport syndrome, lack of tolerance toward α345(IV) collagen promotes production of alloantibodies to α345NC1 hexamers, including proinflammatory IgG subclasses that mediate posttransplant anti-GBM nephritis. PMID:23303673

  4. Divergent mechanisms underlie Smad4-mediated positive regulation of the three genes encoding the basement membrane component laminin-332 (laminin-5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hahn Stephan A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional inactivation of the tumor suppressor Smad4 in colorectal and pancreatic carcinogenesis occurs coincident with the transition to invasive growth. Breaking the basement membrane (BM barrier, a prerequisite for invasive growth, can be due to tumor induced proteolytic tissue remodeling or to reduced synthesis of BM molecules by incipient tumor cells. Laminin-332 (laminin-5, a heterotrimeric BM component composed of α3-, β3- and γ2-chains, has recently been identified as a target structure of Smad4 and represents the first example for expression control of an essential BM component by a tumor and invasion suppressor. Biochemically Smad4 is a transmitter of signals of the TGFβ superfamily of cytokines. We have reported previously, that Smad4 functions as a positive transcriptional regulator of constitutive and of TGFβ-induced transcription of all three genes encoding Laminin-332, LAMA3, LAMB3 and LAMC2. Methods Promoter-reporter constructs harboring 4 kb upstream regions, each of the three genes encoding Laminin-322 as well as deletion and mutations constructs were established. Promoter activities and TGFβ induction were assayed through transient transfections in Smad4-negative human cancer cells and their stable Smad4-positive derivatives. Functionally relevant binding sites were subsequently confirmed through chromatin immunoprecipitation. Results Herein, we report that Smad4 mediates transcriptional regulation through three different mechanisms, namely through Smad4 binding to a functional SBE site exclusively in the LAMA3 promoter, Smad4 binding to AP1 (and Sp1 sites presumably via interaction with AP1 family components and lastly a Smad4 impact on transcription of AP1 factors. Whereas Smad4 is essential for positive regulation of all three genes, the molecular mechanisms are significantly divergent between the LAMA3 promoter as compared to the LAMB3 and LAMC2 promoters. Conclusion We hypothesize that this

  5. Pulmonary opacification in infants undergoing extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO): Clinical and pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors reviewed the chest radiographs and clinical records of 18 infants with severe respiratory failure treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in order to determine the correlation between degree of abnormality on chest radiographs and the clinical severity of disease. In addition, the results of postmortem examinations of the lungs of seven infants who died while undergoing ECMO therapy were reviewed and compared with the radiographic appearance of the lung within 24 hours of death. Changes in lung compliance and ECMO requirements correlated well with improving radiographic appearance. Pathologic changes were mainly those associated with intensive respiratory support and/or the underlying pulmonary condition of the patient. One patient had diffuse pulmonary hemorrhage

  6. Role of plasma membrane calcium ATPase 2 in spinal cord pathology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amanda; Kathleen; Fakira; Stella; Elkabes

    2010-01-01

    A number of studies have indicated that plasma membrane calcium ATPases(PMCAs) are expressed in the brain and spinal cord and could play important roles not only in the maintenance of cellular calcium homeostasis but also in the survival and function of central nervous system cells under pathological conditions.The different regional and cellular distributions of the various PMCA isoforms and splice variants in the nervous system and the diverse phenotypes of PMCA knockout mice support the notion that each isoform might play a distinct role. Especially in the spinal cord,the survival of neurons and,in particular,motor neurons could be dependent on PMCA2.This is indicated by the knockdown of PMCA2 in pure spinal cord neuronal cultures that leads to cell death via a decrease in collapsing response mediator protein 1 levels.Moreover,the progressive decline in the number of motor neurons in PMCA2-null mice andheterozygous mice further supports this notion.Therefore,the reported reduction in PMCA2 mRNA and protein levels in the inflamed spinal cord of mice affected by experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis(EAE) ,an animal model of multiple sclerosis,and after spinal cord contusion injury,suggests that changes in PMCA2 expression could be a cause of neuronal pathology and death during inflammation and injury.Glutamate excitotoxicity mediated via kainate receptors has been implicated in the neuropathology of both EAE and spinal cord injury,and has been identified as a trigger that reduces PMCA2 levels in pure spinal cord neuronal cultures through degradation of the pump by calpain without affecting PMCA2 transcript levels.It remains to be determined which other stimuli modulate PMCA2 mRNA expression in the aforementioned pathological conditions of the spinal cord.

  7. PECAM-1 (CD31) Homophilic Interaction Up-Regulates α6β1 on Transmigrated Neutrophils In Vivo and Plays a Functional Role in the Ability of α6 Integrins to Mediate Leukocyte Migration through the Perivascular Basement Membrane

    OpenAIRE

    Dangerfield, John; Larbi, Karen Y.; Huang, Miao-Tzu; Dewar, Ann; Nourshargh, Sussan

    2002-01-01

    Platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM)-1 has been implicated in leukocyte migration through the perivascular basement membrane (PBM) though the mechanisms involved are unclear. The present results demonstrate that the ability of α6 integrins to mediate neutrophil migration through the PBM is PECAM-1 dependent, a response associated with PECAM-1–mediated increased expression of α6β1 on transmigrating neutrophils in vivo. An anti-α6 integrins mAb (GoH3) inhibited (78%, P < 0.001) n...

  8. Seismic basement in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grad, Marek; Polkowski, Marcin

    2016-06-01

    The area of contact between Precambrian and Phanerozoic Europe in Poland has complicated structure of sedimentary cover and basement. The thinnest sedimentary cover in the Mazury-Belarus anteclize is only 0.3-1 km thick, increases to 7-8 km along the East European Craton margin, and 9-12 km in the Trans-European Suture Zone (TESZ). The Variscan domain is characterized by a 1- to 2-km-thick sedimentary cover, while the Carpathians are characterized by very thick sediments, up to c. 20 km. The map of the basement depth is created by combining data from geological boreholes with a set of regional seismic refraction profiles. These maps do not provide data about the basement depth in the central part of the TESZ and in the Carpathians. Therefore, the data set is supplemented by 32 models from deep seismic sounding profiles and a map of a high-resistivity (low-conductivity) layer from magnetotelluric soundings, identified as a basement. All of these data provide knowledge about the basement depth and of P-wave seismic velocities of the crystalline and consolidated type of basement for the whole area of Poland. Finally, the differentiation of the basement depth and velocity is discussed with respect to geophysical fields and the tectonic division of the area.

  9. Slc20a2 deficiency results in fetal growth restriction and placental calcification associated with thickened basement membranes and novel CD13 and lamininα1 expressing cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallingford, Mary C; Gammill, Hilary S; Giachelli, Cecilia M

    2016-03-01

    The essential nutrient phosphorus must be taken up by the mammalian embryo during gestation. The mechanism(s) and key proteins responsible for maternal to fetal phosphate transport have not been identified. Established parameters for placental phosphate transport match those of the type III phosphate transporters, Slc20a1 and Slc20a2. Both members are expressed in human placenta, and their altered expression is linked to preeclampsia. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that Slc20a2 is required for placental function. Indeed, complete deficiency of Slc20a2 in either the maternal or embryonic placental compartment results in fetal growth restriction. We found that Slc20a2 null mice can reproduce, but are subviable; ∼50% are lost prior to weaning age. We also observed that 23% of Slc20a2 deficient females develop pregnancy complications at full term, with tremors and placental abnormalities including abnormal vascular structure, increased basement membrane deposition, abundant calcification, and accumulation of novel CD13 and lamininα1 positive cells. Together these data support that Slc20a2 deficiency impacts both maternal and neonatal health, and Slc20a2 is required for normal placental function. In humans, decreased levels of placental Slc20a1 and Slc20a2 have been correlated with early onset preeclampsia, a disorder that can manifest from placental dysfunction. In addition, preterm placental calcification has been associated with poor pregnancy outcomes. We surveyed placental calcification in human preeclamptic placenta samples, and detected basement membrane-associated placental calcification as well as a comparable lamininα1 positive cell type, indicating that similar mechanisms may underlie both human and mouse placental calcification. PMID:26952749

  10. Heterogeneous Pathology of Melasma and Its Clinical Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Soon-Hyo Kwon; Young-Ji Hwang; Soo-Keun Lee; Kyoung-Chan Park

    2016-01-01

    Melasma is a commonly acquired hypermelanosis that affects sun-exposed areas of the skin, with frequent facial involvement. Its histologic manifestations are evident in the epidermis, extracellular matrix, and dermis. In addition to epidermal pigmentation, pathologic findings of melasma include extracellular matrix abnormality, especially solar elastosis. The disrupted basement membrane has been described in melasma with variable incidences. In the dermis, an increase in vascularity and an in...

  11. Role of basement membranes and their break-down in human carcinomas:a study by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry of the expression of laminin chains, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs)

    OpenAIRE

    Määttä, M. (Mikko)

    2000-01-01

    Abstract In malignancies many alterations involving matrix macromolecule synthesis, secretion and assembly into basement membranes (BMs) as well as their degradation are present. The most important groups associated with matrix turnover are matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors (TIMPs). In this study altogether 285 tissue samples were investigated comprising various malignant epithelial tumors and normal tissue structures, in which the distribution of different laminin ...

  12. Experimental study of application of anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies neutralizing monoclonal antibody on anti-glomerular basement membrane nephritis rats%应用抗肾小球基底膜抗体的中和性单克隆抗体治疗抗肾小球基底膜肾炎大鼠的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖静; 刘章锁; 聂志勇; 王雅楠; 赵国强

    2010-01-01

    目的 应用抗肾小球基底膜(GBM)抗体的中和性单克隆抗体注射抗GBM肾炎大鼠,观察各种生化指标及肾脏病理学的变化.方法 将Wistar大鼠随机分为5组,每组9只:(1)肾炎模型组:经尾静脉注入人抗GBM抗体;(2)正常对照Ⅰ组:经尾静脉注入非抗体性的健康人IgG;(3)对照Ⅱ组:经尾静脉注入抗GBM抗体的中和性单克降抗体;(4)干预Ⅰ组:经尾静脉注入人抗GBM抗体,第7天后再经尾静脉注入抗GBM抗体的中和性单克隆抗体(1.5ml/100 g);(5)干预Ⅱ组:经尾静脉注入人抗GBM抗体,第14天后再经尾静脉注入抗GBM抗体的中和性单克隆抗体.分别在实验后第7、14、21天观察大鼠24 h尿蛋白量、BUN、Scr和肾组织病理学的变化.结果 第21天干预Ⅰ组尿蛋白量为(16.62±5.53)g/d、BUN为(11.53±2.26)mmol/L、Scr为(102.46±16.86)μmol/L,均显著低于肾炎模型组(P<0.05);干预Ⅱ组较肾炎模型组也有所降低,但差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).干预Ⅰ组和干预Ⅱ组肾脏细胞增生、新月体的形成及免疫复合物的沉积均少于肾炎模型组,但干预Ⅰ组更为明显.对照Ⅰ组和对照Ⅱ组之间无明显变化.结论 早期应用抗GBM抗体的中和性单克隆抗体能够有效改善抗GBM肾炎大鼠的肾脏病变.%Objective To observe the effect of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies to antiglomerular basement membrane (GBM) antibody on anti-GBM nephritis rats. Methods Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: control group Ⅰ was a negative control and was injected with healthy human IgG via the caudal vein. Control group Ⅱ was injected with neutralizing monoclonal antibodies to anti-GBM antibody only. Anti- GBM nephritis group was injected with human anti-GBM antibody via the caudal vein only. Intervention group Ⅰ was injected with human anti-GBM antibody via the caudal vein and then with neutralizing monoclonal antibodies to anti-GBM antibody at day 7. Intervention group Ⅱ was

  13. Lymphocyte deficiency limits Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein 1 induced chronic inflammation and carcinogenic pathology in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Sarah

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of the malignant cell environment to its growth and survival is becoming increasingly apparent, with dynamic cross talk between the neoplastic cell, the leukocyte infiltrate and the stroma. Most cancers are accompanied by leukocyte infiltration which, contrary to an anticipated immuno-protective role, could be contributing to tumour development and cancer progression. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV associated cancers, including nasopharyngeal carcinoma and Hodgkin's Disease, show a considerable leukocyte infiltration which surrounds the neoplastic cells, raising the questions as to what role these cells play in either restricting or supporting the tumour and what draws the cells into the tumour. In order to begin to address this we have studied a transgenic model of multistage carcinogenesis with epithelial expression of the EBV primary oncoprotein, latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1. LMP1 is expressed particularly in the skin, which develops a hyperplastic pathology soon after birth. Results The pathology advances with time leading to erosive dermatitis which is inflamed with a mixed infiltrate involving activated CD8+ T-cells, CD4+ T-cells including CD4+/CD25+/FoxP3+ Treg cells, mast cells and neutrophils. Also significant dermal deposition of immunoglobulin-G (IgG is observed as the pathology advances. Along with NF-kappaB activation, STAT3, a central factor in inflammation regulation, is activated in the transgenic tissue. Several inflammatory factors are subsequently upregulated, notably CD30 and its ligand CD153, also leukocyte trafficking factors including CXCL10, CXCL13, L-selectin and TGFβ1, and inflammatory cytokines including IL-1β, IL-3 and the murine IL-8 analogues CXCL1, CXCL2 and CXCL5-6, amongst others. The crucial role of mature T- and/or B-lymphocytes in the advancing pathology is demonstrated by their elimination, which precludes mast cell infiltration and limits the pathology to an early, benign

  14. Electron Pathways through Erythrocyte Plasma Membrane in Human Physiology and Pathology: Potential Redox Biomarker?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Matteucci

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Erythrocytes are involved in the transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the body. Since pH is the influential factor in the Bohr-Haldane effect, pHi is actively maintained via secondary active transports Na+/H+ exchange and HC3 -/Cl- anion exchanger. Because of the redox properties of the iron, hemoglobin generates reactive oxygen species and thus, the human erythrocyte is constantly exposed to oxidative damage. Although the adult erythrocyte lacks protein synthesis and cannot restore damaged proteins, it is equipped with high activity of protective enzymes. Redox changes in the cell initiate various signalling pathways. Plasma membrane oxido-reductases (PMORs are transmembrane electron transport systems that have been found in the membranes of all cells and have been extensively characterized in the human erythrocyte. Erythrocyte PMORs transfer reducing equivalents from intracellular reductants to extracellular oxidants, thus their most important role seems to be to enable the cell respond to changes in intra- and extra-cellular redox environments.So far the activity of erythrocyte PMORs in disease states has not been systematically investigated. This review summarizes present knowledge on erythrocyte electron transfer activity in humans (health, type 1 diabetes, diabetic nephropathy, and chronic uremia and hypothesizes an integrated model of the functional organization of erythrocyte plasma membrane where electron pathways work in parallel with transport metabolons to maintain redox homeostasis.

  15. [Microflora of the mucous membrane of human tonsils in the normal state and in pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khusnutdinova, L M

    2006-01-01

    A total of 50 healthy persons and 50 chronic tonsillitis patients were examined with the use of the bacteriological method. The microflora of tonsillar mucous membrane was represented by 8 genera of facultative anaerobic microorganisms. In the biocenosis of the tonsillar mucosa of the healthy subjects the occurrence of Streptococcus was 1.5-fold greater than in that of the patients; microorganisms of the genus Staphylococcus prevailed on the tonsillar mucosa of chronic tonsillitis patients 1.3-fold prevailed more often and Klebsiella and Neisseria prevailed 4-fold more often. Among the microorganisms isolated from the patients, cultures simultaneously having two or more pathogenicity markers occurred twice as often as among the representatives of the microbiocenosis obtained from the healthy subjects. The microflora of the tonsillar mucosa of the chronic tonsillitis patients was characterized by resistance to penicillins, macrolides and aminoglygosides, but was simultaneously sensitive to lincosamides and glycopeptides. PMID:16532644

  16. Measure Guideline: Basement Insulation Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, R.; Mantha, P.; Puttagunta, S.

    2012-10-01

    This guideline is intended to describe good practices for insulating basements in new and existing homes, and is intended to be a practical resources for building contractors, designers, and also to homeowners.

  17. Comparison between light and electron microscopy in canine and feline renal pathology: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaglione, F E; Catalano, D; Bestonso, R; Brovida, C; D'Angelo, A; Zanatta, R; Cornaglia, S; Cornaglia, E; Capucchio, M T

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the accuracy and clinical use of light and transmission electron microscopy in detecting the early stages of renal pathologies in domestic animals. We examined 30 samples of renal tissue from cats and dogs referred to the Veterinary Hospital of the Department of Animal Pathology for different systemic diseases. The progressions of the kidney pathologies were classified using the scheme system proposed by the International Renal Interest Society. All samples were submitted for conventional histology and ultrastructural examination. Our study shows that electron microscopy is necessary to complete the histological examinations, especially to define early stages of kidney diseases (minimal changes disease, epithelial tubular pathologies, tubular basement membrane and glomerular basement membrane changes). Electron microscopy can be more accurate in defining the level of focal lesion, and permits discrimination between different clinical and pathological alterations such as fibrillary deposits. In conclusion, transmission electron microscopy associated with clinical, histological, histochemical and immunological examinations, is an essential method for diagnosis and prognosis of renal disease. PMID:19094015

  18. Renal pathology in hematopoietic cell transplant recipients: a contemporary biopsy, nephrectomy, and autopsy series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkerhoff, Brian T; Houghton, Donald C; Troxell, Megan L

    2016-06-01

    Renal injury in hematopoietic cell transplant recipients may be related to a combination of factors including chemotherapy, radiation, infection, immunosuppressive agents, ischemia, and graft-versus-host disease, and can involve glomerular, tubulointerstitial, and vascular structures. We reviewed renal pathology from 67 patients at a single institution (2009-2014), including 14 patients with biopsy for clinical dysfunction, 6 patients with surgical kidney resection for other causes, and 47 autopsy patients. Kidney specimens frequently contained multiple histopathologic abnormalities. Thrombotic microangiopathy, membranous nephropathy, minimal change disease, and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis were the most common glomerular findings. Pathologies not previously reported in the hematopoietic cell transplant setting included collapsing glomerulopathy, antiglomerular basement membrane disease, fibrillary glomerulonephritis, and in the case of two surgical resections distinctive cellular segmental glomerular lesions that defied classification. Kidney specimens frequently demonstrated acute tubular injury, interstitial fibrosis, arteriolar hyaline, and arteriosclerosis. Other kidney findings at autopsy included leukemia and amyloid (both recurrent), diabetic nephropathy, bacterial infection, fungal invasion, and silver deposition along glomerular and tubular basement membranes. Also in the autopsy cohort, C4d immunohistochemistry demonstrated unexpected membranous nephropathy in two patients, yet C4d also colocalized with arteriolar hyaline. This retrospective hematopoietic cell transplant cohort illustrates multifaceted renal injury in patients with renal dysfunction, as well as in patients without clinically recognized kidney injury. PMID:27015134

  19. Membraner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Finn

    2009-01-01

    Notatet giver en kort introduktion til den statiske virkemåde af membraner og membrankonstruktioner......Notatet giver en kort introduktion til den statiske virkemåde af membraner og membrankonstruktioner...

  20. Extracellular Membrane Vesicles as Vehicles for Brain Cell-to-Cell Interactions in Physiological as well as Pathological Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Schiera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular vesicles are involved in a great variety of physiological events occurring in the nervous system, such as cross talk among neurons and glial cells in synapse development and function, integrated neuronal plasticity, neuronal-glial metabolic exchanges, and synthesis and dynamic renewal of myelin. Many of these EV-mediated processes depend on the exchange of proteins, mRNAs, and noncoding RNAs, including miRNAs, which occurs among glial and neuronal cells. In addition, production and exchange of EVs can be modified under pathological conditions, such as brain cancer and neurodegeneration. Like other cancer cells, brain tumours can use EVs to secrete factors, which allow escaping from immune surveillance, and to transfer molecules into the surrounding cells, thus transforming their phenotype. Moreover, EVs can function as a way to discard material dangerous to cancer cells, such as differentiation-inducing proteins, and even drugs. Intriguingly, EVs seem to be also involved in spreading through the brain of aggregated proteins, such as prions and aggregated tau protein. Finally, EVs can carry useful biomarkers for the early diagnosis of diseases. Herein we summarize possible roles of EVs in brain physiological functions and discuss their involvement in the horizontal spreading, from cell to cell, of both cancer and neurodegenerative pathologies.

  1. On the physiological/pathological link between Aβ peptide, cholesterol, calcium ions and membrane deformation: A molecular dynamics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannuzzo, Martina

    2016-06-01

    The dynamic interplay between cholesterol, asymmetrically (at physiological condition) or symmetrically (hallmark of aging) distributed in membrane, and β amyloid peptides is investigated by a computational approach. The drawn overall picture, starting from the very appearance of β amyloid peptides and going through their self-assembling into potentially toxic oligomeric species, reinforces some of the experimental and theoretical shots recently reported in literature, while new important molecular hints on the physiological role played by the β amyloid peptide are proposed. The so dreaded formation of amyloid pores selective for the passage of calcium ions could in fact explain their physiological concomitant recruitment in the regulation of synaptic plasticity. PMID:27003127

  2. Oxidant Status and Lipid Composition of Erythrocyte Membranes in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes, Chronic Liver Damage, and a Combination of Both Pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Hernández-Muñoz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an important set of cirrhotic and diabetic patients that present both diseases. However, information about metabolic and cellular blood markers that are altered, in conjunction or distinctively, in the 3 pathological conditions is scarce. The aim of this project was to evaluate several indicators of prooxidant reactions and the membrane composition of blood samples (serum and red blood cells (RBCs from patients clinically classified as diabetic (n=60, cirrhotic (n=70, and diabetic with liver cirrhosis (n=25 as compared to samples from a similar population of healthy individuals (n=60. The results showed that levels of TBARS, nitrites, cysteine, and conjugated dienes in the RBC of cirrhotic patients were significantly increased. However, the coincidence of diabetes and cirrhosis partially reduced the alterations promoted by the cirrhotic condition. The amount of total phospholipids and cholesterol was greatly enhanced in the patients with both pathologies (between 60 and 200% according to the type of phospholipid but not in the patients with only one disease. Overall, the data indicate that the cooccurrence of diabetes and cirrhosis elicits a physiopathological equilibrium that is different from the alterations typical of each individual malady.

  3. Morphision: A method for subjective evaluation of metamorphopsia in patients with unilateral macular pathology (i.e., full thickness macular hole and epiretinal membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Ugarte

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lack of clinical tests to quantify spatial components of distortion in patients with full thickness macular holes (FTMH and epiretinal membranes (ERM. Aim: To develop a test for subjective evaluation of visual distortion in the central visual field around fixation in patients with unilateral FTMH or ERM. Settings and Design: Prospective case-control study carried out at tertiary referral center. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five patients with unilateral macular disease (13 macular epiretinal membranes, 12 full-thickness macular holes, and nine controls (without ocular pathology underwent ophthalmological examination with logMAR ETDRS visual acuity, near vision and contrast sensitivity assessed. Macular optical coherence tomography and metamorphopsia assessment using Morphision test was also carried out. This test consists of a set of modified Amsler charts for detection, identification, and subjective quantification of visual distortion in the central visual field around fixation. Morphision test content and construct validity, and reliability (test-retest method were evaluated. Sixteen patients completed an unstructured survey on test performance and preference. Results: Every patient with unilateral FTMH or ERM identified a particular chart using Morphision test (content validity. None of the normal subjects without symptoms of metamorphopsia identified any distortion (construct validity. Test-retest showed a 100% consistency for frequency and 67% for amplitude. The mean amplitude difference between measurements was 0.02 degrees (SD = 0.038. The coefficient of repeatability was 0.075. There was a correlation between Morphision amplitude score and visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, individually. Conclusions: Morphision test allowed detection and subjective quantification of metamorphopsia in the clinical setting in our patients with unilateral macular epiretinal membranes and full thickness macular holes.

  4. Overexpression of membrane-bound fas ligand (CD95L) exacerbates autoimmune disease and renal pathology in pristane-induced lupus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossaller, Lukas; Rathinam, Vijay A K; Bonegio, Ramon; Chiang, Ping-I; Busto, Patricia; Wespiser, Adam R; Caffrey, Daniel R; Li, Quan-Zhen; Mohan, Chandra; Fitzgerald, Katherine A; Latz, Eicke; Marshak-Rothstein, Ann

    2013-09-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in the Fas death receptor or its ligand result in a lymphoproliferative syndrome and exacerbate clinical disease in most lupus-prone strains of mice. One exception is mice injected with 2,6,10,14-tetramethylpentadecane (TMPD), a hydrocarbon oil commonly known as pristane, which induces systemic lupus erythematosus-like disease. Although Fas/Fas ligand (FasL) interactions have been strongly implicated in the activation-induced cell death of both lymphocytes and other APCs, FasL can also trigger the production of proinflammatory cytokines. FasL is a transmembrane protein with a matrix metalloproteinase cleavage site in the ectodomain. Matrix metalloproteinase cleavage inactivates membrane-bound FasL and releases a soluble form reported to have both antagonist and agonist activity. To better understand the impact of FasL cleavage on both the proapoptotic and proinflammatory activity of FasL, its cleavage site was deleted through targeted mutation to produce the deleted cleavage site (ΔCS) mouse line. ΔCS mice express higher levels of membrane-bound FasL than do wild-type mice and fail to release soluble FasL. To determine to what extent FasL promotes inflammation in lupus mice, TMPD-injected FasL-deficient and ΔCS BALB/c mice were compared with control TMPD-injected BALB/c mice. We found that FasL deficiency significantly reduced the early inflammatory exudate induced by TMPD injection. In contrast, ΔCS mice developed a markedly exacerbated disease profile associated with a higher frequency of splenic neutrophils and macrophages, a profound change in anti-nuclear Ab specificity, and markedly increased proteinuria and kidney pathology compared with controls. These results demonstrate that FasL promotes inflammation in TMPD-induced autoimmunity, and its cleavage limits FasL proinflammatory activity. PMID:23918976

  5. Heterogeneous Pathology of Melasma and Its Clinical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Soon-Hyo; Hwang, Young-Ji; Lee, Soo-Keun; Park, Kyoung-Chan

    2016-01-01

    Melasma is a commonly acquired hypermelanosis that affects sun-exposed areas of the skin, with frequent facial involvement. Its histologic manifestations are evident in the epidermis, extracellular matrix, and dermis. In addition to epidermal pigmentation, pathologic findings of melasma include extracellular matrix abnormality, especially solar elastosis. The disrupted basement membrane has been described in melasma with variable incidences. In the dermis, an increase in vascularity and an increase in the number of mast cells were observed, indicating that dermal factors have critical roles in the pathogenesis of melasma, despite the fact that melasma is characterized by epidermal hyperpigmentation. This review discusses such histologic characteristics of melasma, with consideration to their implications for melasma treatment. PMID:27240341

  6. Heterogeneous Pathology of Melasma and Its Clinical Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon-Hyo Kwon

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Melasma is a commonly acquired hypermelanosis that affects sun-exposed areas of the skin, with frequent facial involvement. Its histologic manifestations are evident in the epidermis, extracellular matrix, and dermis. In addition to epidermal pigmentation, pathologic findings of melasma include extracellular matrix abnormality, especially solar elastosis. The disrupted basement membrane has been described in melasma with variable incidences. In the dermis, an increase in vascularity and an increase in the number of mast cells were observed, indicating that dermal factors have critical roles in the pathogenesis of melasma, despite the fact that melasma is characterized by epidermal hyperpigmentation. This review discusses such histologic characteristics of melasma, with consideration to their implications for melasma treatment.

  7. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mutant vesicle-associated membrane protein-associated protein-B transgenic mice develop TAR-DNA-binding protein-43 pathology.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tudor, E L

    2010-05-19

    Cytoplasmic ubiquitin-positive inclusions containing TAR-DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43) within motor neurons are the hallmark pathology of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). TDP-43 is a nuclear protein and the mechanisms by which it becomes mislocalized and aggregated in ALS are not properly understood. A mutation in the vesicle-associated membrane protein-associated protein-B (VAPB) involving a proline to serine substitution at position 56 (VAPBP56S) is the cause of familial ALS type-8. To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms by which VAPBP56S induces disease, we created transgenic mice that express either wild-type VAPB (VAPBwt) or VAPBP56S in the nervous system. Analyses of both sets of mice revealed no overt motor phenotype nor alterations in survival. However, VAPBP56S but not VAPBwt transgenic mice develop cytoplasmic TDP-43 accumulations within spinal cord motor neurons that were first detected at 18 months of age. Our results suggest a link between abnormal VAPBP56S function and TDP-43 mislocalization.

  8. Fractured unconventional reservoirs in the Crystalline Basement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikova, Irina

    2015-04-01

    Since the late 1960-es, the crystalline basement of Tatarstan has been in the focus of intense geological and geophysical surveys. Since 1975, within the framework of the Subsoil Survey Program of Tatarstan, two extra deep wells have been drilled in the Republic, including: 20000-Minnibaevskaya well (bottomhole depth - 5,099 m, meters drilled in the basement - 3,215 m) and 20009-Novoelkhovskaya well (bottomhole depth - 5,881 m, meters drilled in the basement - 4,077 m), as well as 24 wells penetrating the basement at depth from 100 to 2,432 m. Reservoir properties of the crystalline basement rocks can be evaluated based on the resulting volumes of produced liquid, which vary from 0.027 to 125 m3/day. The highest flow rate was registered for well № 20000 Minnibaevskaya. Therefore, there are high-capacity reservoir zones in the crystalline basement of the eastern margin of the Russian Platform. The statement saying that natural reservoirs with significant sizes and fluid storage capacities occur everywhere within the Precambrian crystalline massive on the territory of Tatarstan can be justified by the following provisions: - deconsolidation and fracturing zones of the crystalline basement are registered by a full set of geological and geophysical methods applied in the process of geophysical well surveys and in the process of surface geophysical studies; - there is a certain regular pattern of crystalline basement zone distribution by area and by profile. Wide-spaced drilling into the crystalline basement helped to identify numerous zones of deconsolidation and fracturing with different fluid storage capacity and different extent of fluid saturation. Thickness of the crystalline basement reservoir zones varies from several meters to dozens of meters. Such zones were identified close to the crystalline basement top, As well as at depths more than 5 km. Well log survey was the key method used for reservoir differentiation in the crystalline basement. In total, 16

  9. Clinico-pathological Responses of Calves Associated with Infection of Pasteurella multocida Type B and the Bacterial Lipopolysaccharide and Outer Membrane Protein Immunogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faez Firdaus Jesse Abdullah

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The current study aims to investigate the Clinico-pathological responses of calves associated with the infections of Pasteurella multocida type B and the bacterial lipopolysaccharide and outer membrane protein immunogens. Alterations in the behavior of animals and pathological lesions observed following innate or experimental infections usually divulge extensive and detrimental changes in the clinical signs, organs and tissues of the animals afflicted with the disease. These alterations are imperative for Veterinary evaluation of herd health. Eight clinically healthy, non-pregnant and non-lactating Brangus cross heifers weighing 150±50 kg were used in the study. The heifers (n = 8 were divided into 4 groups of 2 calves per group. The control calves in group 1 were inoculated intramuscularly with 10 mL of sterile Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS. Calves in group 2 were inoculated intramuscularly with 10 mL of 1012 colony forming unit (cfu of wild-type P. multocida and calves in group 3 were inoculated intravenously with 10 mL of LPS broth extract. Calves in group 4 were inoculated intramuscularly with 10 mL of OMP broth extract. All animals were observed for 48 h for clinical signs, changes in behavior and mortality pattern, including the time of death. The results divulged significant differences in the Clinico-pathological alterations. Calves inoculated with whole cell P. multocida type B: 2 showed a significant (p<0.05 increased in rectal temperature. The affected calves showed significant severe dullness (p<0.000 and significant rumen hypomotility (p<0.000 was also exhibited. The calves showed signs of hypersalivation at 14 h. There is no significant difference (p = 0.240 in pulmonary oedema in the Calves of group 2 compared to control group 1. Calves of group 4 also showed no significant difference in pulmonary oedema (p = 0.612 compared to control group 1. Calves of group 3 showed significantly moderate pulmonary oedema (p<0.000. All the

  10. Immunohistochemical localization of basement membrane components during hair follicle morphogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westgate, G E; Shaw, D A; Harrap, G J; Couchman, J R

    1984-01-01

    visible by indirect immunofluorescence in the BMZ before epidermal involution but appeared in all regions of BMZ after this had occurred. As follicular length increased during maturation, the distribution of BPA was no longer uniform, being reduced or absent from the BMZ around the lower part of the...

  11. Optically Highlighting Basement Membrane Components in C. elegans

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Authors: Elliott Hagedorn & David Sherwood ### Abstract Green fluorescent protein (GFP) and other genetically encoded fluorescent proteins provide a means to study gene expression pattern and protein localization in living tissues. Recently discovered GFP-like fluorophores and engineered variants have further expanded the fluorescent protein toolkit for in vivo imaging. Here we describe a technique using transgenic C. elegans that contain laminin or type IV collagen fused to the g...

  12. Attachment of cells to basement membrane collagen type IV

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    Of ten different cell lines examined, three showed distinct attachment and spreading on collagen IV substrates, and neither attachment nor spreading was enhanced by adding soluble laminin or fibronectin. This reaction was not inhibited by cycloheximide or antibodies to laminin, indicating a direct attachment to collagen IV without the need of mediator proteins. Cell-binding sites were localized to the major triple-helical domain of collagen IV and required an intact triple helical conformatio...

  13. Collagen IV in normal skin and in pathological processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Abreu-Velez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Type IV collagen is a type of collagen found primarily in the skin within the basement membrane zone. The type IV collagen C4 domain at the C-terminus is not removed in post-translational processing, and the fibers are thus link head-to-head, rather than in a parallel fashion. Also, type IV collagen lacks a glycine in every third amino-acid residue necessary for the tight collagen helix. Thus, the overall collagen-IV conformation is structurally more pliable and kinked, relative to other collagen subtypes. These structural features allow collagen IV to form sheets, which is the primary structural form found in the cutaneous basal lamina. There are six human genes associated with collagen IV, specifically COL4A1, COL4A2, COL4A3, COL4A4, COL4A5 and COL4A6. The aim of this review is to highlight the significance of this protein in normal skin, and in selected diseases. Results: The alpha 3 protein constituent of type IV collagen is thought to be the antigen implicated in Goodpasture′s syndrome, wherein the immune system attacks the basement membranes of the renal glomeruli and pulmonary alveoli. In addition, mutations to the genes coding for type IV collagen lead to the Alport syndrome. Furthermore, autoantibodies directed against denatured human type IV collagen have been described in rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma, and SLE. Structural studies of collagen IV have been utilized to differentiate between subepidermal blistering diseases, including bullous pemphigoid, acquired epidermolysis bullosa, anti-epiligrin cicatricial pemphigoid, and bullous lupus erythematosus. Collagen IV is also of importance in wound healing and in embryogenesis. Conclusions: Pathological studies have demonstrated that minor structural differences in collagen IV can lead to distinct, clinically different diseases.

  14. Pathological gambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to a gambling habit. Stressful situations can worsen gambling problems. ... to avoid letting other people know about their problem. The American Psychiatric Association defines pathological gambling as having five or more of the following ...

  15. Basement Aquifers : How Useful Are Gravity Data ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genthon, P.; Mouhouyouddine, A. H.; Hinderer, J.; Hector, B.; Yameogo, S.

    2014-12-01

    Gravity data with a few microgal precision were proved to be able to constrain the specific yield of various kinds of aquifer in West Africa from annual fluctuations of both the gravimetric and piezometric signals (Pfeffer et al., Geophys. J. Int., 2011; Hector et al., Geophys. J. Int., 2013). However some recent papers reported a disappointing potential of gravity measurements during a pumping experiment in a sandy aquifer (Blainey et al., WRR, 2007; Herckenrath et al., WRR, 2012) and their poor ability in constraining the transmissity and specific yield of the aquifer, which are the parameters to which pumping tests give access. Fresh basement rocks present generally a null porosity and the structure of basement aquifers is given by the weathering profile. In tropical climate, this profile consists of a few tens meter thick saprolite layer, with noticeable porosity but low permeability overlying the weathering front. This weathering front includes in many instances a fractured medium and presents a high permeability with variable porosity. It is hardly sampled in coring experiments. We present some numerical simulation results on the ability of gravity to constrain the transmissivity of this medium. Due to poroelasticity of clay minerals in the saprolite, soil subsidence is expected to occur during pumping with a significant gravity effect. Gravity measurements have therefore to be completed with leveling data at a millimetric precision. We present first the results of numerical modeling of the gravity and subsidence for a theoretical horizontally stratified basement aquifer, and show that gravity and leveling are able to provide independently the poroelasticity coefficient and a single transmissivity coefficient for the bottom of the aquifer, if the properties of the upper saprolites are known. We will discuss then the general case, where the aquifer presents a vertical fracture where the weathering profile thickens.

  16. Digital pathology

    CERN Document Server

    Sucaet, Yves

    2014-01-01

    Digital pathology has experienced exponential growth, in terms of its technology and applications, since its inception just over a decade ago. Though it has yet to be approved for primary diagnostics, its values as a teaching tool, facilitator of second opinions and quality assurance reviews and research are becoming, if not already, undeniable. It also offers the hope of providing pathology consultant and educational services to under-served areas, including regions of the world that could not possibly sustain this level of services otherwise. And this is just the beginning, as its adoption b

  17. Geochemistry of the Puna Austral and Cordillera Oriental basement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major and trace elements, rare earths, and 143Nd/147Nd and, 147Sm/144Nd isotope ratios have been determined in the Puna Austral and Cordillera Oriental basement. The basement is formed by high temperature amphibolite facies rocks ranulites (750-550 degrees C) and green schists. They are represented by schists, paragneiss, orthogneiss, migmatites, few metabasites, marbles and chalcosilicatic banks. Hypotheses on the formation and evolution of the basement are presented

  18. What is the role of radiation in the treatment of subfoveal membranes: Review of radiobiologic, pathologic, and other considerations to initiate a multimodality discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Single-dose-fraction conformal proton beam and multiple-fraction X ray dose schedules have been used to treat subfoveal neovascular membranes. All schedules successfully controlled membrane progression, stabilized vision in most patients, and increased visual acuity in some. Conformal protons also decreased the radiation dose to healthy tissues outside the designated volume (16 mm in diameter). It appears that radiation therapy could be useful and cost-effective, but neither the optimal time-dose schedule single or multiple dose fractions nor the type of radiation proton conformal beam or x-ray therapy are defined. Methods: By means of an extensive literature survey, we reviewed the rationale for using radiation to treat subfoveal neovascularization, examined a paradigm of radiation interaction with tissue, reviewed the histopathology of neovascular membranes, and documented the role of growth factors in the pathophysiology of the disease. Accepting that the eye is an extracranial brain extension, and that its microvasculature has properties similar to brain microvessels, we reviewed the radiobiologic response of brain microvessels. We also revisited the controversy concerning the efficacy of single-dose-fraction vs. multifraction schedules. Results: This paper outlines parameters within which radiation therapy's role might be defined, and proposes a clinical radiation-biology scoring program to evaluate radiation effects, based on the SOMA concept. Conclusion: A prospective, controlled clinical trial is feasible and is indicated to determine radiation therapy's role in managing the proliferative component of age-related macular degeneration

  19. Water coning in fractured basement reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saad, S.E.D.M.; Darwich, T.D.; Asaad, Y.

    1995-11-01

    The problem of water coning in fractured basement reservoirs has been addressed in this work. The outcome of experimental and theoretical investigation to determine the critical production rate for single- and multi-fractured system, the capillary pressure effect, and the break-through time is presented. The results of the experimental work verify the presented theoretical relationship for different fluid viscosities, fracture angles, oil-water contacts (OWC), and rates for the case of single fracture system. The results also indicate that the capillary pressure effect may be generally neglected if the distance between the OWC and the fluid entry is sufficiently large compared to the capillary rise. The extension of the critical rate determination for a multi-fractured reservoir is also discussed. Finally, the main factors influencing the break-through time were investigated. The difference in viscosity between the oil and water phases has been fond to be the main factor affecting the breakthrough time.

  20. A rapid method for determining arachidonic:eicosapentaenoic acid ratios in whole blood lipids: correlation with erythrocyte membrane ratios and validation in a large Italian population of various ages and pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corsetto Paola

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Omega-3 and -6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA, are important for good health conditions. They are present in membrane phospholipids. The ratio of total n-6:n-3 LCPUFA and arachidonic acid:eicosapentaenoic acid (AA and EPA, should not exceed 5:1. Increased intake of n-6 and decreased consumption of n-3 has resulted in much higher, ca 10/15:1 ratio in RBC fatty acids with the possible appearance of a pathological "scenario". The determination of RBC phospholipid LCPUFA contents and ratios is the method of choice for assessing fatty acid status but it is labour intensive and time consuming. Aims of the study [i] To describe and validate a rapid method, suitable for large scale population studies, for total blood fatty acid assay; [ii] to verify a possible correlation between total n-6:n-3 ratio and AA:EPA ratios in RBC phospholipids and in whole-blood total lipids, [iii] to assess usefulness of these ratio as biomarkers of LCPUFA status. Methods 1 Healthy volunteers and patients with various pathologies were recruited. 2 Fatty acid analyses by GC of methyl esters from directly derivatized whole blood total lipids and from RBC phospholipids were performed on fasting blood samples from 1432 subjects categorised according to their age, sex and any existing pathologies. AA:EPA ratio and the total n-6:n-3 ratio were determined. Results AA:EPA ratio is a more sensitive and reliable index for determining changes in total blood fatty acid and it is correlated with the ratio derived from extracted RBC phospholipids. Conclusions The described AA:EPA ratio is a simple, rapid and reliable method for determining n-3 fatty acid status.

  1. Potential Development of Hydrocarbon in Basement Reservoirs In Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sunarjanto

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v8i3.165Basement rocks, in particular igneous and metamorphic rocks are known to have porosity and permeability which should not be ignored. Primary porosity of basement rocks occurs as the result of rock formation. The porosity increases by the presence of cracks occurring as the result of tectonic processes (secondary porosity. Various efforts have been carried out to explore hydrocarbon in basement rocks. Some oil and gas fields proved that the basement rocks are as reservoirs which so far have provided oil and gas in significant amount. A review using previous research data, new data, and observation of igneous rocks in some fields has been done to see the development of exploration and basement reservoirs in Indonesia. A review on terminology of basement rock up till the identification of oil and gas exploration in basement rocks need to be based on the latest technology. An environmental approach is suggested to be applied as an alternative in analyzing the policy on oil and gas exploration development, especially in basement reservoirs.

  2. Synovial pathology: Magnetic resonance study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synovial membrane lines the inner surface of the entire joint capsule of the so-called synovial, or diarthrosis, joints. It also constitutes the lining synovial bursa and tendon sheaths. It is lubricated at all these sites by the synovial fluid secreted by the membrane itself. The identification of this structure is bases on the correct knowledge of its anatomical locations. Synovial membrane pathology includes lesions produced by tumors, inflammation, degeneration and trauma. In this report, we classify them as benign (cysts, chondromatosis, pigmented villonodular synovitis, inflammatory synovitis and hemangioma) or malignant (synovial sarcoma and hemangiosarcoma). Magnetic resonance (MR) constitutes a useful and reliable method for diagnosis synovial lesions, providing a means of determining their origin and identifying distinctive features of some types. We present our experience in 12 cases of synovial pathology studied by MR over the past year, all of which were confirmed by histopathological study. 13 refs

  3. Ultrastructural immunocytochemical localization of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan in Bruch's membrane of the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, W L; Essner, E; McCarthy, K J;

    1992-01-01

    Two monoclonal antibodies (Mab 4D5 and 2D6) raised against the core protein of a basement membrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan from Reichert's membrane of the rat, were used for ultrastructural immunoperoxidase localization of this protein in Bruch's membrane of the rat. Immunoreactivity for...... both antibodies was found in the basal lamina (basement membrane) of the choriocapillary endothelium and retinal pigment epithelium, in collagen fibers in the collagenous zones, and surrounding the elastic layer....

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging assessment of labyrinthine pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsot-Dupuch, K. [Hopital Saint-Antoine, Service de Radiologie, 75 - Paris (France); Vignaud, J. [Val de Grace, Hopital d`Instruction du Service de Sante des Armees, 75 - Paris (France); Mehdi, M. [Hopital Saint-Antoine, Service de Radiologie, 75 - Paris (France); Pharaboz, C. [Hopital Begin, Hopital d`Instruction des Armees, 94 - Saint-Mande (France); Meyer, B. [Hopital Saint-Antoine, Service d`ORL, 75 - Paris (France)

    1996-10-01

    Membranous labyrinth pathologies are quite rare. They were until recently difficult to demonstrate by imaging technics, CT being the modality of choice. Our purpose was to stress the interest of MR examination for investigating patients complaining of vertigo, tinnitus, and profound sensorineural hearing loss. Normal anatomy as well as the main pathologically encountered changes are illustrated. (orig.)

  5. Subsidence resistant repair of a block basement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A one story house was damaged by mine subsidence movement. The house is located in a small subsidence sag and is experiencing differential settlement and compressive ground strains. Instead of waiting for the ground movements to eventually stop, The Illinois Mine Subsidence Insurance Fund developed a permanent repair scheme that was implemented at the same time damaging mine subsidence movement was affecting the structure. This repair provided a significant structural resistance against the anticipated residual mine subsidence movement and was aesthetically acceptable to the homeowners. The repair consisted of epoxying vertical and horizontal steel straps and then applying a cover coat of fiber-cement on the unreinforced concrete block basement walls. The repair scheme was relatively untried, but had been successfully researched. This paper provides information on the mine subsidence movement/damage, the design concepts of steel strap/fiber-cement repair, construction details, performance and costs. Other applications of the use of the steel strap repair method are also discussed for releveling of a building and/or correcting subsidence damage to structures located in the tension zone

  6. Pathological gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, E; Buchalter, A J; DeCaria, C M

    2000-09-01

    With increasing access to gambling facilities through casinos, the Internet, and other venues, PG is a rapidly emerging mental health concern. This impulse-control disorder tends to be comorbid with a wide range of other disorders and is reportedly associated with a high rate of suicide. For most gamblers, gambling is a form of entertainment, but for many individuals, the activity leads to far-reaching disruption of family and work. The personal and societal financial ramifications are severe, and many individuals with PG end up in the criminal justice system. An understanding of the neurobiology of PG is beginning to surface. 5-HT is linked to behavioral initiation and disinhibition, which are important in the onset of the gambling cycle and the difficulty in ceasing the behavior. Norepinephrine is associated with the arousal and risk taking in patients with PG. Dopamine is linked to positive and negative reward, the addictive component of this disorder. Effective treatment strategies for pathological gamblers are emerging. Potentially useful pharmacologic agents include SRIs (clomipramine and fluvoxamine), mood stabilizers for pathological gamblers with comorbid bipolar disorders (lithium), and naltrexone. Cognitive-behavioral psychotherapies offer promising results in the treatment of patients with this disorder. To devise prevention and early-intervention programs, research is needed to identify specific features of the individuals at risk for gambling problems. Education targeting vulnerable youth that show early signs of gambling behavior may be worthwhile and should be investigated further. Funding is necessary to support these endeavors, so perhaps a portion of tax revenues generated from the gambling industry should go toward specialized treatment facilities, educational efforts, and research into the neurobiology and treatment of PG. PMID:10986732

  7. Olfactory dysfunction, olfactory bulb pathology and urban air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Franco-Lira, Maricela; Henríquez-Roldán, Carlos; Osnaya, Norma; González-Maciel, Angelica; Reynoso-Robles, Rafael; Villarreal-Calderon, Rafael; Herritt, Lou; Brooks, Diane; Keefe, Sheyla; Palacios-Moreno, Juan; Villarreal-Calderon, Rodolfo; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Medina-Cortina, Humberto; Delgado-Chávez, Ricardo; Aiello-Mora, Mario; Maronpot, Robert R.; Doty, Richard L

    2010-01-01

    Mexico City (MC) residents are exposed to severe air pollution and exhibit olfactory bulb inflammation. We compared the olfactory function of individuals living under conditions of extreme air pollution to that of controls from a relatively clean environment and explore associations between olfaction scores, apolipoprotein E (APOE) status, and pollution exposure. The olfactory bulbs (OBs) of 35 MC and 9 controls 20.8 ± 8.5 y were assessed by light and electron microscopy. The University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) was administered to 62 MC / 25 controls 21.2 ±2.7 y. MC subjects had significantly lower UPSIT scores: 34.24 ± 0.42 versus controls 35.76 ± 0.40, p=0.03. Olfaction deficits were present in 35.5% MC and 12% of controls. MC APOE ε 4 carriers failed 2.4 ± 0.54 items in the 10-item smell identification scale from the UPSIT related to Alzheimer's disease, while APOE 2/3 and 3/3 subjects failed 1.36 ± 0.16 items, p = 0.01. MC residents exhibited OB endothelial hyperplasia, neuronal accumulation of particles (2/35), and immunoreactivity to beta amyloid βA42 (29/35) and/or α-synuclein (4/35) in neurons, glial cells and/or blood vessels. Ultrafine particles were present in OBs endothelial cytoplasm and basement membranes. Control OBs were unremarkable. Air pollution exposure is associated with olfactory dysfunction and OB pathology, APOE 4 may confer greater susceptibility to such abnormalities, and ultrafine particles could play a key role in the OB pathology. This study contributes to our understanding of the influences of air pollution on olfaction and its potential contribution to neurodegeneration. PMID:19297138

  8. 64 Effect of Formoterol on Eosinophil Trans-Basement Migration Induced by Interleukin-8-Stimulated Neutrophils

    OpenAIRE

    KAWASHIMA, Akiko; Nishihara, Fuyumi; Kobayashi, Takehito; Nakagome, Kazuyuki; Nagata, Makoto

    2012-01-01

    Background Neutrophils are often increased in the airways of either chronic severe disease or acute exacerbation of asthma. Neutrophils migrated in response to interleukin-8 (IL-8) may lead eosinophils to accumulate in the airways of asthma and possibly aggravate this disease. In this study, we investigated whether formoterol modify the trans-basement membrane migration (TBM) of eosinophils stimulated with neutrophils and IL-8. Methods Neutrophils and eosinophils were isolated from peripheral...

  9. Survey of Scania county (basement rock part). Geologic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A broad survey of the geologic conditions in Scania county is presented, with the aim to give background for the location of a repository for spent fuels. The study is restricted to the basement rock part of the county

  10. Survey of Jaemtland county (basement rock part). Geologic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A broad survey of the geologic conditions in Jaemtland county is presented, with the aim to give background for the location of a repository for spent fuels. The study is restricted to the basement rock part of the county

  11. Survey of Dalarna county (basement rock part). Geologic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A broad survey of the geologic conditions in Dalarna county is presented, with the aim to give background for the location of a repository for spent fuels. The study is restricted to the basement rock part of the county

  12. Building America Top Innovations 2012: Basement Insulation Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes research on basement insulation, which identifies the wall installation methods and materials that perform best in terms of insulation and water resistance.

  13. Canine and feline oral pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, S.; Pais, B.; Almeida, D.; Simões, J.; Mega, A. C.; Vala, Helena

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to present a brief review of the main conditions affecting the oral cavity of dogs and cats. In recent years there has been increased attention with regard to veterinary dentistry, being several and frequent the pathologies located in the oral cavity of our pets. These diseases mainly affect the teeth and the mucous membranes of the oral cavity, and may, in chronic cases, also affect vital organs. This condition could have different causes, including hereditary, conge...

  14. [Pathology of the vitreomacular interface].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, Monica; Gheorghe, Alina

    2014-01-01

    Vitreous role in the pathophysiology of retinal diseases has increased importantly over the recent years. This was possible using Optical Coherence Tomography which reviewed the way the vitreoretinal interface should be looked at and defined and classified new pathologies such as Vitreoretinal Traction Syndrome. Vitreous is not an empty space but an important anatomical structure with role in ocular physiology. With age biochemical changes occur so that vitreous starts to liquefy. Once the vitreous is liquefied (sinchisis) it collapses and passes in the retrohialoid space (sineresis). In complete PVD besides sinchisis there is a weakness of the adherence between the posterior cortex and ILM with total detachment of posterior cortex. Abnormal adhesions are associated with incomplete PVD. The definition and understanting of vitreoretinal pathology is an active and continuous process, PVD being the trigger of a lot of retinal pathologies: epiretinal membrane, macular hole, tractional macular oedema, VMTS, myopic traction maculopathy, exacerbations of exudative ARMD. PMID:25300121

  15. Exosomes in liver pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Keisaku; Meng, Fanyin; Glaser, Shannon; Alpini, Gianfranco

    2016-07-01

    Exosomes are small (∼100nm) membrane-bound extracellular vesicles released by various types of cells into biological fluids. They contain proteins, mRNAs and miRNAs as cargo. Different cell types can take up exosomes by endocytosis and the cargo contained within them can be transferred horizontally to these recipient cells. Exosomal proteins and miRNAs can be functional and regulate physiological cell events modifying the microenvironment in target cells, a key event of liver pathology. Exosome-mediated cell-cell communication can alter tumor growth, cell migration, antiviral infection and hepatocyte regeneration, indicating that exosomes have great potential for development as diagnostic or therapeutic tools. Analyses of circulating total or exosomal miRNAs have identified a large number of candidate miRNAs that are regulated in liver diseases, and the diagnostic testing using single or multiple miRNAs shows good sensitivity and specificity. Some candidate miRNAs have been identified to play an important role in various liver disorders. This review summarizes recent findings on the role of extracellular vesicles in liver diseases and their diagnostic and therapeutic potential, mainly focusing on exosomes but also includes microvesicles in liver pathology. PMID:26988731

  16. Microbial community transitions across the deep sediment-basement interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labonté, J.; Lever, M. A.; Orcutt, B.

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies of microbial abundance and geochemistry in deep marine sediments indicate a stimulation of microbial activity near the sediment-basement interface; yet, the extent to which microbial communities in bottom sediments and underlying crustal habitats interact is unclear. We conducted tag pyrosequencing on DNA extracted from a spectrum of deep sediment-basement samples to try to identify patterns in microbial community shifts across sediment-basement interfaces, focusing on samples from the subsurface of the Juan de Fuca Ridge flank (IODP Expedition 327). Our results demonstrate that sediment and the basaltic crust harbor microbial communities that are phylogenetically connected, but the eveness is characteristic of the environment. We will discuss the microbial community transitions that occur horizontally along fluid flow pathways and vertically across the sediment basement interface, as well as the possible implications regarding the controls of microbial community composition along deep sediment-basement interfaces in hydrothermal systems. We will also highlight efforts to overcome sample contamination in crustal subsurface samples.

  17. Basement depressurization using dwelling mechanical exhaust ventilation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanical ventilation exhaust system is commonly used in France to generate air renewal into building and especially into dwelling. It consists of a permanent mechanical air extraction from technical rooms (kitchen, bathrooms and toilets) using a unique fan connected to exhaust ducts. Natural air inlets in living room and bed rooms ensure an air flow from living spaces towards technical rooms. To fight against radon into building, the most recognised efficient technique is the Soil Depressurization System (S.D.S.) consisting in depressurizing the house basement. The aim of this study is to test the ability of the dwelling mechanical ventilation system to depressurize the basement in conjunction with air renewal of a house. For that purpose, a S.D.S. has been installed in an experimental house at CSTB during its construction. At first, tests undertaken with a variable velocity fan connected to the S.D.S. have characterised the permeability of the basement. It is shown that basement can be depressurized adequately with a relatively low air flow rate. At a second stage, S.D.S. has been connected to the exhaust ventilation fan used for the mechanical ventilation of the house. Results obtained show the ability of such ventilation system to generate sufficient depressurization in the basement and to ensure simultaneously adequate air change rate in the dwelling. (author)

  18. Curriculum Guidelines for Pathology and Oral Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Dental Education, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Guidelines for dental school pathology courses describe the interrelationships of general, systemic, and oral pathology; primary educational goals; prerequisites; a core curriculum outline and behavioral objectives for each type of pathology. Notes on sequencing, faculty, facilities, and occupational hazards are included. (MSE)

  19. Discussion on the basement topography and its relation with the uranium mineralization in Xiangshan basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The depth of the basement and the relation between the basement relief shape and uranium mineralization are discussed by forward and inverse computation for large-scale gravity data in Xiangshan basin. The difference of basement topography result in the inhomogeneous distribution of uranium mineralization. The margin of the basement upheaval section and the variation place of basement topography are the favorable place for uranium mineralization. It's helpful to prospect deep and blind uranium deposit in Xiangshan basin

  20. Current Trends about Inner Limiting Membrane Peeling in Surgery for Epiretinal Membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Semeraro; Francesco Morescalchi; Sarah Duse; Elena Gambicorti; Andrea Russo; Ciro Costagliola

    2015-01-01

    The inner limiting membrane (ILM) is the basement membrane of the Müller cells and can act as a scaffold for cellular proliferation in the pathophysiology of disorders affecting the vitreomacular interface. The atraumatic removal of the macular ILM has been proposed for treating various forms of tractional maculopathy in particular for macular pucker. In the last decade, the removal of ILM has become a routine practice in the surgery of the epiretinal membranes (ERMs), with good anatomical re...

  1. The Danish Pathology Register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Beth; Larsen, Ole B

    The National Board of Health, Denmark in 1997 published guidelines for reporting of pathology data and the Danish Pathology Register (DPR) was established.......The National Board of Health, Denmark in 1997 published guidelines for reporting of pathology data and the Danish Pathology Register (DPR) was established....

  2. Pathological patterns of mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis seen at a tertiary care center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhtar Ghadeer A.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis (MesPGN is a common morphological pattern that encompasses several groups of renal diseases including IgA nephropathy (IgAN, IgM nephropathy (IgMN, lupus nephritis (LN, C1q nephropathy (C1qN and other entities. Objectives: The aim of this study was to analyze the pathological findings and the clinical features of cases of MesPGN seen at the king Abdulaziz University, in Saudi Arabia. Patients and Methods: A total of 750 percutaneous native renal biopsies were seen at our institution from January 2000 to December 2011. All the cases diagnosed as MesPGN on light microscopy (LM were retrieved from the archives of pathology. The pathological features and the clinical data of these cases were reviewed. The clinical data was available for 80 cases only. Results: A total of 103 cases (14% met the inclusion criteria for the diagnosis of MesPGN. The most common diagnostic entity was IgMN (46.6% followed by IgAN (30% along with few cases of class II LN, C1qN, minimal change disease (MCD, Alport’s syndrome, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS, thin basement membrane disease (TBMD, and fibrillary glomerulonephritis. The most common clinical presentation was nephrotic syndrome seen in 71% of 80 cases, followed by hematuria (14%. Histologically, focal mesangial proliferation was seen in 62% while diffuse proliferation was seen in 38% of the cases. Conclusion: Mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis is an important cause of nephrotic syndrome in young adults in the western region of Saudi Arabia. Future studies from the region are needed to elucidate the clinical relevance of mesangial cell proliferation to the end stage kidney diseases.

  3. Injection-induced seismicity on basement faults including poroelastic stressing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, K. W.; Segall, P.

    2016-04-01

    Most significant induced earthquakes occur on faults within the basement beneath sedimentary cover. In this two-dimensional plane strain numerical study, we examine the full poroelastic response of basement faults to fluid injection into overlying strata, considering both (1) the permeability of the fault zone and (2) the hydraulic connectivity of the faults to the target horizon. Given hydraulic and mechanical properties, we compute the spatiotemporal change in Coulomb stress, which we separate into (1) the change in poroelastic stresses Δτs+fΔσn, where Δτs and Δσn are changes in shear and normal stress (Δτs>0 and Δσn>0 both favor slip), and (2) the change in pore pressure fΔp. Pore pressure diffusion into hydraulically connected, permeable faults dominates their mechanical stability. For hydraulically isolated or low-permeability faults, however, poroelastic stresses transmitted to deeper basement levels can trigger slip, even without elevated pore pressure. The seismicity rate on basement fault zones is predicted using the model of Dieterich (1994). High seismicity rates can occur on permeable, hydraulically connected faults due to direct pore pressure diffusion. Lower rates are predicted on isolated steeply dipping normal faults, caused solely by poroelastic stressing. In contrast, seismicity on similarly oriented reverse faults is inhibited.

  4. Magnetic basement in the central Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, K.V.L; Ramana, M.V.; Ramprasad, T.; Desa, M.; Subrahmanyam, V.; Krishna, K.S.; Rao, M.M.M.

    . The N10-12 degrees W trending subsurface 85 degrees E Ridge buried under 2 to 3 km thick sediments is a prominent tectonic feature. Offshore basins characterised by deeper magnetic basement (approx. 9 km) and 100-200 km wide are present on either sides...

  5. Arsenic induced clinico-hemato-pathological alterations in broilers and its attenuation by vitamin e and selenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present study was carried out to know the arsenic (As) induced toxico-pathological alterations in broiler chicks and their attenuation with vitamin E (Vit E) and selenium (Se). A total of 90 day-old broiler chicks were equally distributed into 5 groups. Groups 1-4 were administered As at 50 mg/kg BW daily through feed for 30 days. In addition to A , groups 2 to 4 received Vitamin E at 150 mg/kg BW, selenium at 0.25 mg/kg BW and Vitamin E plus selenium, respectively. Group 5 (Control) received normal drinking water for 30 days. Dullness, depression, open mouth breathing, increased thirst; ruffled feathers, pale comb, skin irritation and watery diarrhea were the most striking clinical signs. The body weight and feed intake was significantly decreased in treated birds. The erythrocyte counts, hemoglobin concentration and packed cell volume decreased (P<0.05) in treated broilers with As or As with Se and Vit E. Grossly pale and hemorrhagic liver and swollen kidneys were observed in As treated birds. Arsenic treated groups showed significant decrease in serum. Histopathologically, liver exhibited congestion and cytoplasmic vacuolation. In kidneys, condensation of tubular epithelium nuclei, epithelial cell necrosis, increased urinary spaces, sloughing of tubules from basement membrane and cast deposition were observed. In conclusion As induced toxico-pathological alterations and vitamin E and selenium partially ameliorate the toxic effects in broilers chicks. (author)

  6. Cell Biology and Pathology of Podocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greka, Anna; Mundel, Peter

    2013-01-01

    As an integral member of the filtration barrier in the kidney glomerulus, the podocyte is in a unique geographical position: It is exposed to chemical signals from the urinary space (Bowman’s capsule), it receives and transmits chemical and mechanical signals to/from the glomerular basement membrane upon which it elaborates, and it receives chemical and mechanical signals from the vascular space with which it also communicates. As with every cell, the ability of the podocyte to receive signals from the surrounding environment and to translate them to the intracellular milieu is dependent largely on molecules residing on the cell membrane. These molecules are the first-line soldiers in the ongoing battle to sense the environment, to respond to friendly signals, and to defend against injurious foes. In this review, we take a membrane biologist’s view of the podocyte, examining the many membrane receptors, channels, and other signaling molecules that have been implicated in podocyte biology. Although we attempt to be comprehensive, our goal is not to capture every membrane-mediated pathway but rather to emphasize that this approach may be fruitful in understanding the podocyte and its unique properties. PMID:22054238

  7. Basement configuration of KG offshore basin from magnetic anomalies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Subrahmanyam; K V Swamy; Neetha Raj

    2016-04-01

    Marine magnetic anomalies along three representative profiles falling between shelf break and continent–ocean boundary in the offshore Krishna–Godavari basin were quantitatively interpreted for understandingthe nature and structure of the magnetic basement using inversion technique. The interpretation of theanomalies shows that the magnetic basement lies deeper than the base of the sediments, i.e., acousticbasement identified by the seismic studies. This interpretation also shows that the magnetic basementis faulted along the NW–SE direction with the upthrown side lying to the north of the anomaly trendof this region. The coincidence of magnetizations observed through the present interpretation with thatof charnockites of neighbouring EGMB and onshore K–G basin areas indicates that EGMB geology(charnockites, granitic gneiss, etc.) extends up to COB in the offshore K–G basin.

  8. Pathological tau disrupts ongoing network activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menkes-Caspi, Noa; Yamin, Hagar G; Kellner, Vered; Spires-Jones, Tara L; Cohen, Dana; Stern, Edward A

    2015-03-01

    Pathological tau leads to dementia and neurodegeneration in tauopathies, including Alzheimer's disease. It has been shown to disrupt cellular and synaptic functions, yet its effects on the function of the intact neocortical network remain unknown. Using in vivo intracellular and extracellular recordings, we measured ongoing activity of neocortical pyramidal cells during various arousal states in the rTg4510 mouse model of tauopathy, prior to significant cell death, when only a fraction of the neurons show pathological tau. In transgenic mice, membrane potential oscillations are slower during slow-wave sleep and under anesthesia. Intracellular recordings revealed that these changes are due to longer Down states and state transitions of membrane potentials. Firing rates of transgenic neurons are reduced, and firing patterns within Up states are altered, with longer latencies and inter-spike intervals. By changing the activity patterns of a subpopulation of affected neurons, pathological tau reduces the activity of the neocortical network. PMID:25704951

  9. Updates of pathologic myopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno-Matsui, Kyoko; Lai, Timothy Y Y; Lai, Chi-Chun; Cheung, Chiu Ming Gemmy

    2016-05-01

    Complications from pathologic myopia are a major cause of visual impairment and blindness, especially in east Asia. The eyes with pathologic myopia may develop loss of the best-corrected vision due to various pathologies in the macula, peripheral retina and the optic nerve. Despite its importance, the definition of pathologic myopia has been inconsistent. The refractive error or axial length alone often does not adequately reflect the 'pathologic myopia'. Posterior staphyloma, which is a hallmark lesion of pathologic myopia, can occur also in non-highly myopic eyes. Recently a revised classification system for myopic maculopathy has been proposed to standardize the definition among epidemiological studies. In this META-PM (meta analyses of pathologic myopia) study classification, pathologic myopia was defined as the eyes having chorioretinal atrophy equal to or more severe than diffuse atrophy. In addition, the advent of new imaging technologies such as optical coherence tomography (OCT) and three dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (3D MRI) has enabled the detailed observation of various pathologies specific to pathologic myopia. New therapeutic approaches including intravitreal injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents and the advance of vitreoretinal surgeries have greatly improved the prognosis of patients with pathologic myopia. The purpose of this review article is to provide an update on topics related to the field of pathologic myopia, and to outline the remaining issues which need to be solved in the future. PMID:26769165

  10. Forms of pathologization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkmann, Svend

    before, perhaps due to the malaises of modernity. Instead, we have learned to think and talk about human problems in new ways, viz. ways that involve pathologization. Pathologization, however, is not a unitary phenomenon, and the presentation gives an overview of four types of pathologization, which are...

  11. Clinical and pathological features of idiopathic membranous nephropathy in children%儿童特发性膜性肾病13例临床病理分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌逸虹; 陈丽植; 蒋小云; 陆慧瑜; 莫樱; 孙良忠; 肖子正

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical and pathological features of idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN) in children. Methods The clinicopathological features of children with renal-biopsy-diagnosed IMN between July 1999 and July 2009 in our hospital were retrospectively analyzed in our study. Results Thirteen pediatric patients diagnosed with IMN were included. The median age was 11.4(3.0 ~ 14.5)years with 11 males and 2 females. The median interval time between renal biopsy and the onset of IMN was 3.7 ( 1.4 ~ 65.3 ) months. Due to IMN, 8 children presented with nephritis-type nephrotic syndrome(NS), 1 with simplex-type NS, 3 with proteinuria and hematuria and 1 with recurrent macroscopic hematuria at the initial visit. One case had hypertension. Renal insufficiency was not noted in any patient. The Results of renal histopathology suggested that: (1)Four cases were in stage Ⅰ and 9 in stage Ⅱ. Four cases showed glomerulus sclerosis ( the percentages of glomerulus sclerosis were 11.8%, 2.9%, 7.5%,4.5%, respectively) and 1 case showed segmental sclerosis( the percentage of segmental sclerosis was 4.5% ). Three cases were associated with tubular atrophy. Formation of crescent fiber cells occurred in 1 case (3.8%). (2)The predominant immunoglobulins in the subepithelial deposits were IgG and C3 (12 and 10 in 12 cases, respectively). Among them, a few eases were combined with IgM, Fg, C 1q and IgA deposition, but the depositional strength was significantly weaker than IgG and C3. (3)Under electron microscope, 13 cases showed different degrees of membrane thickening. Intracapillary microthromb were observed in two cases. According to different clinicopathology features, the patients were treated with prednisone and/or immuno-suppressive drugs therapy, combined or separately used with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotension receptor blocker (ACEI/ARB). In 9 cases with NS due to IMN, 5 patients achieved complete remission (CR), 1

  12. Podocyte Pathology and Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra eMerscher

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Sphingolipids are components of the lipid rafts in plasma membranes, which are important for proper function of podocytes, a key element of the glomerular filtration barrier. Research revealed an essential role of sphingolipids and sphingolipid metabolites in glomerular disorders of genetic and non-genetic origin. The discovery that glucocerebrosides accumulate in Gaucher disease in glomerular cells and are associated with clinical proteinuria initiated intensive research into the function of other sphingolipids in glomerular disorders. The accumulation of sphingolipids in other genetic diseases including Tay-Sachs, Sandhoff, Fabry, hereditary inclusion body myopathy 2, Niemann-Pick and nephrotic syndrome of the Finnish type and its implications with respect to glomerular pathology will be discussed. Similarily, sphingolipid accumulation occurs in glomerular diseases of non-genetic origin including diabetic kidney disease (DKD, HIV-associated nephropathy, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS and lupus nephritis. Sphingomyelin metabolites, such as ceramide, sphingosine and sphingosine-1-phosphate have also gained tremendous interest. We recently described that sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase acid-like 3b (SMPDL3b is expressed in podocytes where it modulates acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase activity and acts as a master modulator of danger signaling. Decreased SMPDL3b expression in post-reperfusion kidney biopsies from transplant recipients with idiopathic FSGS correlates with the recurrence of proteinuria in patients and in experimental models of xenotransplantation. Increased SMPDL3b expression is associated with DKD. The consequences of differential SMPDL3b expression in podocytes in these diseases with respect to their pathogenesis will be discussed. Finally, the role of sphingolipids in the formation of lipid rafts in podocytes and their contribution to the maintenance of a functional slit diaphragm in the glomerulus will be discussed.

  13. Pathology of Natural Cases of Equine Endocrinopathic Laminitis Associated With Hyperinsulinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karikoski, N P; McGowan, C M; Singer, E R; Asplin, K E; Tulamo, R-M; Patterson-Kane, J C

    2015-09-01

    Laminitis in equids is a clinical syndrome usually associated with systemic disease. Endocrinopathies recently have been recognized as the most common cause of laminitis, with hyperinsulinemia playing a key role. Descriptions of laminitis-associated lesions have been confusing due to the wide range of experimental models used, failure of adequate clinical documentation for naturally occurring cases, lack of separate analysis of inflammatory and endocrinopathic laminitis, and uncertainty regarding normal morphological variation of lamellae. In this study, lamellar morphology and pathology were described in 14 laminitic horses and ponies that had hyperinsulinemia (>20 mIU/l), with reference to 25 age- and breed-matched controls. The type and severity of lesions noted had no correlation with reported clinical duration and in at least some cases must have preceded it. Lesions were largely localized abaxially within the lamellar tissue and included apoptotic cell death, as well as lamellar fusion, hyperplasia, and partial replacement with aberrant keratin containing nucleated debris and proteinaceous lakes. The lesions resulted in irregular margins between the inner horn and the lamellar tissue. Acute separation originated from the abaxial region, with minimal associated inflammation. Axially, epidermal lamellar tapering was the most frequent morphological observation. The lesions in these chronic cases of laminitis were similar to those described in some inflammatory laminitis models and contained features seen in developmental phases of hyperinsulinemic models. These findings support the theory that repeated episodes of subclinical laminitis occur prior to clinical presentation. In addition, the pathology does not include extensive basement membrane failure seen in some inflammatory models. PMID:25232034

  14. Protection against Chlamydia trachomatis infection and upper genital tract pathological changes by vaccine-promoted neutralizing antibodies directed to the VD4 of the major outer membrane protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anja W.; Follmann, Frank; Erneholm, Karin Susanne;

    2015-01-01

    bacterial numbers in vagina and prevention of pathological changes in the upper genital tract. Adoptive transfer of serumand T-cell depletion experiments demonstrated a dominant role for antibodies and CD4+ T cells in the protective immune response. Integrating a multivalent VD4 construct into the sequence...

  15. Basement faults and volcanic rock distributions in the Ordos Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Volcanic rocks in the Ordos Basin are of mainly two types: one in the basin and the other along the margin of the basin. Besides those along the margin, the marginal volcanic rocks also include the volcanic rocks in the Yinshanian orogenic belt north of the basin. Based on the latest collection of gravitational and aeromagnetic data, here we interpret basement faults in the Ordos Basin and its peripheral region, compare the faults derived from aeromagnetic data with those from seismic data, and identify the geological ages of the fault development. Two aeromagnetic anomaly zones exist in the NE-trending faults of the southern basin, and they are in the volcanic basement formed in pre-Paleozoic. These NE-trending faults are the channel of volcanic material upwelling in the early age (Archean-Neoproterozoic), where igneous rocks and sedimentary rocks stack successively on both sides of the continental nucleus. In the Cambrian, the basin interior is relatively stable, but in the Late Paleozoic and Mesozoic, the basin margin underwent a number of volcanic activities, accompanied by the formation of nearly north-south and east-west basement faults in the basin periphery and resulting in accumulation of great amount of volcanic materials. Volcanic tuff from the basin periphery is discovered in the central basin and volcanic materials are exposed in the margins of the basin. According to the source-reservoir-cap rock configuration, the basin peripheral igneous traps formed in the Indosinian-Early Yanshanian and Late Hercynian are favorable exploration objectives, and the volcanic rocks in the central basin are the future target of exploration.

  16. Basement configuration of KG offshore basin from magnetic anomalies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Subrahmanyam, V.; Swamy, K.V.; Raj, N.

    . The calculated depth (5.1 km) in this method corresponds to the depth to the center of the sheet. Thus for a throw of 1 km the depths to the top and bottom of the mag- netic basement will be 4.6 and 5.6 km respectively with an intensity of magnetization of 1030 n.... I V Radhakrishna Murthy for his valuable suggestions to improve the manuscript. The first author Dr. V Subrahmanyam is grateful to CSIR, New Delhi for grant of Emeritus Fellow- ship under which this work was carried out. Neetha Raj is thankful...

  17. Basement topography and fresh-water resources of the coastal aquifer at Acapetahua, Chiapas, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Birgit Steinich; Gerardo Bocanegra; Eva Sánchez

    1999-01-01

    The coastal aquifer of Acapetahua, Chiapas, southeastern Mexico, consists of one hydrostratigraphic unit composed of continental sediments overlying a crystalline basement. Twenty-four resistivity soundings were conducted and fifty-one water samples were taken in order to determine basic aquifer characteristics such as aquifer geometry and fresh water reserves. The basement topography in the study area is characterized by hills and deep valleys with highly variable basement depths ranging fro...

  18. Investigation on evaluation method for characteristic seismic transmission. Standard earthquake basement from observation records of earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluation of standard earthquake movement in seismic-resistant design for nuclear power plants is important and carried out at free surface of base stratum according to the guidelines. However, the seismic transmittance differs from site to site depending on the geological features, basement depth, and the state of uppers above the basement. The present method takes into account site characteristic propagation character between the basement surface and top surface and using standard and uniform earthquake motion throughout the country. Thus, the report presents investigation results of characteristic seismic motion at the basement from the records of observed earthquakes. (S. Ohno)

  19. Pathology informatics fellowship training: Focus on molecular pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Mandelker; Lee, Roy E.; Platt, Mia Y.; Gregory Riedlinger; Andrew Quinn; Luigi K F Rao; Klepeis, Veronica E.; Michael Mahowald; Lane, William J; Beckwith, Bruce A; Baron, Jason M.; David S McClintock; Kuo, Frank C.; Lebo, Matthew S.; Gilbertson, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pathology informatics is both emerging as a distinct subspecialty and simultaneously becoming deeply integrated within the breadth of pathology practice. As specialists, pathology informaticians need a broad skill set, including aptitude with information fundamentals, information systems, workflow and process, and governance and management. Currently, many of those seeking training in pathology informatics additionally choose training in a second subspecialty. Combining pathology ...

  20. Structural analysis of a fractured basement reservoir, central Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeningen, Resi; Rice, Hugh; Schneider, Dave; Grasemann, Bernhard; Decker, Kurt

    2013-04-01

    The Pan-African Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS), within which Yemen lies, formed as a result of Neoproterozoic collisional events between c. 870-550 Ma. Several subsequent phases of extension occurred, from the Mesozoic (due to the breakup of Gondwana) to the Recent (forming the Gulf of Aden and the Red Sea). These resulted in the formation of numerous horst- and-graben structures and the development of fractured basement reservoirs in the southeast part of the ANS. Two drill cores from the Mesozoic Marib-Shabwa Basin, central Yemen, penetrated the upper part of the Pan-African basement. The cores show both a lithological and structural inhomogeneity, with variations in extension-related deformation structures such as dilatational breccias, open fractures and closed veins. At least three deformation events have been recognized: D1) Ductile to brittle NW-SE directed faulting during cooling of a granitic pluton. U-Pb zircon ages revealed an upper age limit for granite emplacement at 627±3.5 Ma. As these structures show evidence for ductile deformation, this event must have occurred during the Ediacaran, shortly after intrusion, since Rb/Sr and (U-Th)/He analyses show that subsequent re-heating of the basement did not take place. D2) The development of shallow dipping, NNE-SSW striking extensional faults that formed during the Upper Jurassic, simultaneously with the formation of the Marib-Shabwa Basin. These fractures are regularly cross-cut by D3. D3) Steeply dipping NNE-SSW to ENE-WSW veins that are consistent with the orientation of the opening of the Gulf of Aden. These faults are the youngest structures recognized. The formation of ductile to brittle faults in the granite (D1) resulted in a hydrothermally altered zone ca. 30 cm wide replacing (mainly) plagioclase with predominantly chlorite, as well as kaolinite and heavy element minerals such as pyrite. The alteration- induced porosity has an average value of 20%, indicating that the altered zone is potentially a

  1. Clearance of pathological antibodies using biomimetic nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Copp, Jonathan A.; Fang, Ronnie H.; Luk, Brian T.; Hu, Che-Ming J.; Gao, Weiwei; Zhang, Kang; Zhang, Liangfang

    2014-01-01

    The selective depletion of disease-causing antibodies using nanoparticles offers a new model in the management of type II immune hypersensitivity reactions. The demonstration of pathophysiologically inspired nanoengineering serves as a valuable prototype for additional therapeutic improvements with the goal of minimizing therapy-related adverse effects. Through the use of cell membrane-cloaked nanoparticles, nanoscale decoys with strong affinity to pathological antibodies can be administered ...

  2. Entactin: ultrastructural localization of an ubiquitous basement membrane glycoprotein in mouse skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horiguchi, Y; Fine, J D; Ljubimov, A V; Yamasaki, H; Couchman, J R

    1989-01-01

    present study, we have sought to determine the localization of entactin in mouse skin. Indirect immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy (the latter via immunoperoxidase technique) were performed on both intact and NaCl-separated mouse skin, using a well-characterized IgG class entactin...

  3. IgA-mediated anti-glomerular basement membrane disease: an uncommon mechanism of Goodpasture's syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Moulis, Guillaume; Huart, Antoine; Guitard, Joëlle; Fortenfant, Françoise; Chauveau, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Goodpasture's (GP) disease is usually mediated by IgG autoantibodies. We describe a case of IgA-mediated GP, in a patient presenting with isolated rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. The diagnosis was established on kidney biopsy, since routine enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) targeted at IgG circulating autoantibodies failed to detect the nephritogenic antibodies. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed intense linear deposition of IgA along the glomerular capillary walls. An eleva...

  4. Matrigel Basement Membrane Matrix influences expression of microRNAs in cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Matrigel alters cancer cell line miRNA expression relative to culture on plastic. ► Many identified Matrigel-regulated miRNAs are implicated in cancer. ► miR-1290, -210, -32 and -29b represent a Matrigel-induced miRNA signature. ► miR-32 down-regulates Integrin alpha 5 (ITGA5) mRNA. -- Abstract: Matrigel is a medium rich in extracellular matrix (ECM) components used for three-dimensional cell culture and is known to alter cellular phenotypes and gene expression. microRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression and have roles in cancer. While miRNA profiles of numerous cell lines cultured on plastic have been reported, the influence of Matrigel-based culture on cancer cell miRNA expression is largely unknown. This study investigated the influence of Matrigel on the expression of miRNAs that might facilitate ECM-associated cancer cell growth. We performed miRNA profiling by microarray using two colon cancer cell lines (SW480 and SW620), identifying significant differential expression of miRNAs between cells cultured in Matrigel and on plastic. Many of these miRNAs have previously been implicated in cancer-related processes. A common Matrigel-induced miRNA signature comprised of up-regulated miR-1290 and miR-210 and down-regulated miR-29b and miR-32 was identified using RT-qPCR across five epithelial cancer cell lines (SW480, SW620, HT-29, A549 and MDA-MB-231). Experimental modulation of these miRNAs altered expression of their known target mRNAs involved in cell adhesion, proliferation and invasion, in colon cancer cell lines. Furthermore, ITGA5 was identified as a novel putative target of miR-32 that may facilitate cancer cell interactions with the ECM. We propose that culture of cancer cell lines in Matrigel more accurately recapitulates miRNA expression and function in cancer than culture on plastic and thus is a valuable approach to the in vitro study of miRNAs.

  5. Matrigel Basement Membrane Matrix influences expression of microRNAs in cancer cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Karina J. [Laboratory for Cancer Medicine, Western Australian Institute for Medical Research and University of Western Australia Centre for Medical Research, Perth, WA 6000 (Australia); School of Medicine and Pharmacology, University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WA 6008 (Australia); Tsykin, Anna [Centre for Cancer Biology, SA Pathology, Adelaide, SA 5000 (Australia); School of Molecular and Biomedical Science, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Giles, Keith M. [Laboratory for Cancer Medicine, Western Australian Institute for Medical Research and University of Western Australia Centre for Medical Research, Perth, WA 6000 (Australia); Sladic, Rosemary T. [Centre for Cancer Biology, SA Pathology, Adelaide, SA 5000 (Australia); Epis, Michael R. [Laboratory for Cancer Medicine, Western Australian Institute for Medical Research and University of Western Australia Centre for Medical Research, Perth, WA 6000 (Australia); Ganss, Ruth [Laboratory for Cancer Medicine Angiogenesis Unit, Western Australian Institute for Medical Research and University of Western Australia Centre for Medical Research, Perth, WA 6000 (Australia); Goodall, Gregory J. [Centre for Cancer Biology, SA Pathology, Adelaide, SA 5000 (Australia); School of Molecular and Biomedical Science, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Department of Medicine, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Leedman, Peter J., E-mail: peter.leedman@waimr.uwa.edu.au [Laboratory for Cancer Medicine, Western Australian Institute for Medical Research and University of Western Australia Centre for Medical Research, Perth, WA 6000 (Australia); School of Medicine and Pharmacology, University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WA 6008 (Australia)

    2012-10-19

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Matrigel alters cancer cell line miRNA expression relative to culture on plastic. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Many identified Matrigel-regulated miRNAs are implicated in cancer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-1290, -210, -32 and -29b represent a Matrigel-induced miRNA signature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-32 down-regulates Integrin alpha 5 (ITGA5) mRNA. -- Abstract: Matrigel is a medium rich in extracellular matrix (ECM) components used for three-dimensional cell culture and is known to alter cellular phenotypes and gene expression. microRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression and have roles in cancer. While miRNA profiles of numerous cell lines cultured on plastic have been reported, the influence of Matrigel-based culture on cancer cell miRNA expression is largely unknown. This study investigated the influence of Matrigel on the expression of miRNAs that might facilitate ECM-associated cancer cell growth. We performed miRNA profiling by microarray using two colon cancer cell lines (SW480 and SW620), identifying significant differential expression of miRNAs between cells cultured in Matrigel and on plastic. Many of these miRNAs have previously been implicated in cancer-related processes. A common Matrigel-induced miRNA signature comprised of up-regulated miR-1290 and miR-210 and down-regulated miR-29b and miR-32 was identified using RT-qPCR across five epithelial cancer cell lines (SW480, SW620, HT-29, A549 and MDA-MB-231). Experimental modulation of these miRNAs altered expression of their known target mRNAs involved in cell adhesion, proliferation and invasion, in colon cancer cell lines. Furthermore, ITGA5 was identified as a novel putative target of miR-32 that may facilitate cancer cell interactions with the ECM. We propose that culture of cancer cell lines in Matrigel more accurately recapitulates miRNA expression and function in cancer than culture on plastic and thus is a valuable approach to the in vitro study of miRNAs.

  6. Bone marrow transplantation restores epidermal basement membrane protein expression and rescues epidermolysis bullosa model mice

    OpenAIRE

    Fujita, Yasuyuki; Abe, Riichiro; Inokuma, Daisuke; Sasaki, Mikako; Hoshina, Daichi; Natsuga, Ken; Nishie, Wataru; McMillan, James R.; Nakamura, Hideki; Shimizu, Tadamichi; Akiyama, Masashi; Sawamura, Daisuke; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Attempts to treat congenital protein deficiencies using bone marrow-derived cells have been reported. These efforts have been based on the concepts of stem cell plasticity. However, it is considered more difficult to restore structural proteins than to restore secretory enzymes. This study aims to clarify whether bone marrow transplantation (BMT) treatment can rescue epidermolysis bullosa (EB) caused by defects in keratinocyte structural proteins. BMT treatment of adult collagen XVII (Col17) ...

  7. Dye Transport across the Retinal Basement Membrane of the Blowfly Calliphora erythrocephala

    OpenAIRE

    Weyrauther, E.; Roebroek, J.G.H.; Stavenga, D.G.

    1989-01-01

    In the blowfly, Calliphora erythrocephala, transport of dye into or out of the retina, following injection into the eye or thorax, was investigated, mainly by microspectrophotometry and fluorimetry. After injection into the eye, Phenol Red, Trypan Blue, Lucifer Yellow and 9-amino-acridine were transported out of the retina; Procion Yellow and Rhodamine-123 stayed in it. The time constants of this transport process were in the range 45-80 min at 23°C, depending on the dye. When Lucifer Yellow ...

  8. Adipocyte-derived basement membrane extract with biological activity: applications in hepatocyte functional augmentation in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Nripen S.; Nagrath, Deepak; Martin L Yarmush

    2010-01-01

    Natural and synthetic biomaterials utilized in tissue engineering applications require a dynamic interplay of complex macromolecular compositions of hydrated extracellular matrices (ECMs) and soluble growth factors. The challenges in utilizing synthetic ECMs is the effective control of temporal and spatial complexity of multiple signal presentation, as compared to natural ECMs that possess the inherent properties of biological recognition, including presentation of receptor-binding ligands, s...

  9. In vivo turnover of the basement membrane and other heparan sulfate proteoglycans of rat glomerulus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beavan, L A; Davies, M; Couchman, J R;

    1989-01-01

    The metabolic turnover of rat glomerular proteoglycans in vivo was investigated. Newly synthesized proteoglycans were labeled during a 7-h period after injecting sodium [35S]sulfate intraperitoneally. At the end of the labeling period a chase dose of sodium sulfate was given. Subsequently at...... methods. Grain counting of autoradiographs revealed a complex turnover pattern of 35S-labeled macromolecules, commencing with a rapid phase followed by a slower phase. Biochemical analysis confirmed the biphasic pattern and showed that the total population of [35S]heparan sulfate proteoglycans had a...... metabolic half-life (t1/2) of 20 and 60 h in the early and late phases, respectively. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans accounted for 80% of total 35S-proteoglycans, the remainder being chondroitin/dermatan sulfate proteoglycans. Whole glomeruli were extracted with 4% 3-[(cholamidopropyl)dimethy-lammonio]-1...

  10. In vivo imaging of basement membrane movement: ECM patterning shapes Hydra polyps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aufschnaiter, Roland; Zamir, Evan A.; Little, Charles D.; Özbek, Suat; Münder, Sandra; David, Charles N.; Li, Li; Sarras, Michael P.; Zhang, Xiaoming

    2011-01-01

    Growth and morphogenesis during embryonic development, asexual reproduction and regeneration require extensive remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM). We used the simple metazoan Hydra to examine the fate of ECM during tissue morphogenesis and asexual budding. In growing Hydra, epithelial cells constantly move towards the extremities of the animal and into outgrowing buds. It is not known, whether these tissue movements involve epithelial migration relative to the underlying matrix or whether cells and ECM are displaced as a composite structure. Furthermore, it is unclear, how the ECM is remodeled to adapt to the shape of developing buds and tentacles. To address these questions, we used a new in vivo labeling technique for Hydra collagen-1 and laminin, and tracked the fate of ECM in all body regions of the animal. Our results reveal that Hydra ‘tissue movements’ are largely displacements of epithelial cells together with associated ECM. By contrast, during the evagination of buds and tentacles, extensive movement of epithelial cells relative to the matrix is observed, together with local ECM remodeling. These findings provide new insights into the nature of growth and morphogenesis in epithelial tissues. PMID:22194305

  11. Basement membrane components secreted by mouse yolk sac carcinoma cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damjanov, A; Wewer, U M; Tuma, B;

    1990-01-01

    Three new cell lines (NE, ME, LRD) were cloned from mouse-embryo-derived teratocarcinomas and characterized on the basis of developmental, ultrastructural, and cytochemical criteria as nullipotent embryonal carcinoma (EC), pure parietal yolk sac (PYS) carcinoma and mixed parieto-visceral yolk sac...

  12. Rat hair follicle dermal papillae have an extracellular matrix containing basement membrane components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R

    1986-01-01

    Dermal papillae are small mesenchymally derived zones at the bases of hair follicles which have an important role in hair morphogenesis in the embryo and control of the hair growth cycle in postnatal mammals. The cells of the papilla are enmeshed in a dense extracellular matrix which undergoes...

  13. Tectonic evolution of the Tombel graben basement, southwestern Cameroon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.S.Njome; C.E.Suh

    2005-01-01

    Planar structures (foliations and fractures) around the Tombel graben (southwestern end of the Central African Shear zone system) have been investigated and analyzed with the aim of unraveling the tectonic evolution of the basement. The foliations show two major trends, an older N-S-trending gneissose layering of uncertain agereworked by a later Pan-African (600 + 50 Ma) NE-SW ductile trend that is contemporaneous with sinistral shearing and mylonitization. The brittle phase characterized by NW-SE-trending open and partially filled fractures is younger than the mylonitization event and although it has not been dated, it is suggested that the origin of these fractures is linked to the onset of volcanism along the Cameroon volcanic line-31 m.y. ago.The mylonitic foliation is recognized for the first time and supports a tectonic evolution model for the Tombel graben in which ductile non-coaxial deformation was succeeded by brittle failure.

  14. The spatial organization of Descemet's membrane-associated type IV collagen in the avian cornea

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    The organization of type IV collagen in the unconventional basement membrane of the corneal endothelium (Descemet's membrane) was investigated in developing chicken embryos using anti-collagen mAbs. Both immunofluorescence histochemistry and immunoelectron microscopy were performed. In mature embryos (greater than 15 d of development), the type IV collagen of Descemet's membrane was present as an array of discrete aggregates of amorphous material at the interface between Descemet's membrane a...

  15. Basement structures and geophysical anomalies in eastern New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, G.R.; Suleiman, A.S.

    1986-03-01

    To understand basement structures in eastern New Mexico better, an integrated analysis of subsurface and geophysical data in the area was undertaken. A data base of 6600 gravity stations was used to generate complete Bouguer anomaly, polynomial, and residual maps. Aeromagnetic data for the New Mexico area were used to generate total intensity, residual, and low-pass filtered magnetic maps. The complete Bouguer gravity and total intensity magnetic maps show a large relief, which indicates substantial structures are present. A fifth-order polynomial surface map shows a regional gravity increase from the northwest to the southeast, and the residuals with respect to this surface provide a better definition of upper crustal structures, which are some-what obscured in the complete Bouguer gravity map. A low-pass filtered magnetic map, which was constructed from the third-order residual magnetic map, enhanced the major structures of interest in this study. These anomaly maps and the drilling results in the area were used to construct new maps of the depth to the Precambrian basement in the area. The authors obtained four major results concerning the features in this study area: (1) they believe the Southern Oklahoma aulacogen extends northwest as far as the Cimarron arch; (2) the north-south-trending, negative anomalies located along long. 105/sup 0/W in southern New Mexico possibly represent an extension of the Tucumcari basin or a new basin; (3) the exposed Precambrian rocks located west of the Raton and Las Vegas basins may be allochthonous because they overlie the negative anomalies associated with these basins; and (4) the central Basin platform is underlain by a large mafic mass, which has been recently penetrated by deep drilling in Pecos County, Texas.

  16. Basement domain map of the conterminous U.S.A. and Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The basement-domain map is a compilation of basement domains in the conterminous United States and Alaska designed to be used at 1:5,000,000-scale, particularly as...

  17. Basement Surface Faulting and Topography for Savannah River Site and Vicinity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cumbest, R.J.

    1998-12-17

    This report integrates the data from more than 60 basement borings and over 100 miles of seismic reflection profiling acquired on the Savannah River Site to map the topography of the basement (unweathered rock) surface and faulting recorded on this surface.

  18. Basement Surface Faulting and Topography for Savannah River Site and Vicinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report integrates the data from more than 60 basement borings and over 100 miles of seismic reflection profiling acquired on the Savannah River Site to map the topography of the basement (unweathered rock) surface and faulting recorded on this surface

  19. Radionuclide distribution in TMI-2 reactor building basement liquids and solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large quantities of radioactive water and some core debris solids were released to the reactor building basement during the March 1979 accident at Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2). A reactor building basement sampling and analysis program is underway to support fission product mass balance and source term studies, TMI-2 accident analysis, and decontamination planning. Liquid and solid samples were collected from a variety of locations to determine the composition, quantity, and distribution of the debris and fission products released to the basement environment. Basement water sources, sample history, and sampling techniques are discussed. Fuel, radionuclide content and elemental composition of liquid and solid samples are presented. Conclusions are presented on the partitioning of fission products within liquids and solids and on the transport paths within the basement area

  20. A sonic well log of the basement complex of the Walvis Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, Philip D.; Borella, Peter E.

    1984-03-01

    A sonic well log was obtained within the basement complex of the Walvis Ridge during Deep Sea Drilling Project Leg 74. The top of the basement complex is characterized by smooth acoustic reflectors. The rocks recovered within the basement complex consist of basalts with intercalated sediments. According to the log ˜-50% of the upper 75 m of basement are igneous rocks and the other 50% sedimentary. Sonobuoy results indicate that the ratio of sediments to basalt increases with depth for an additional 225 m until a typical oceanic velocity structure is observed. Paleontological results suggest that the processes forming this upper 300 m of the basement complex was accomplished within a short time interval.

  1. Hemodynamic changes vs pathologic foundation in rabbit models of radiation-induced lung injury: a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the hemodynamic changes and pathologic foundation of rabbit models of radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) via 64-slice CT pulmonary perfusion imaging (CTPI), in order to seek the correlation between the alterations of the hemodynamic parameters and pathophysiology. Methods: Seventy-two healthy New Zealand rabbits were randomly classified into two groups: test group (n=36), received 25 Gy with single fraction irradiation in a whole unilateral lung; control group (n=36), received sham-irradiation. Each group was divided into 12 subgroups respectively according to post- and pseudo-irradiation time points (1, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 h and 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24 w). Each rabbit underwent HRCT and CTPI at every pre- and post-radiation time point. All rabbits were sacrificed,and morphology of specimens was observed using light- and electron microscope. The changing regularity of HRCT, CTPI parameters and pathology were analyzed and compared with each other in order to find the correlation among them. The CTPI parameters of the test and control groups were compared using t test. The CTPI parameters and pathological values were analyzed using linear correlation with two variables, the detection rates of RILI by CTPI and HRCT was compared using Chi-square test. Results: (1) The changes of CTPI parameters from control group after irradiation was relatively stable, but in test group those parameters including rBF, rBV and rPS, at pre- and post-irradiation time points (0, 72 h and 2 w), were respectively 1.01 ± 0.09, 1.86 ± 0.20, 1.43 ±0.12, 1.03 ±0.08, 1.63 ±0.19, 1.56±0.14, 0.96±0.12, 1.54 ±0.17 and 1.83 ±0.24. The corresponding parameters before and after irradiation were significantly different (t=2.90-6.37, P>0.05). (2)In test group, capillary endothelial cells,basement membrane and alveolar epithelial cells, as the main injury targets, showed certain alterations in pathology. There was a significant correlation between the changes of CTPI parameters (r

  2. Pathologic conditions in pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soma authors suggested that MR imaging could rapresent an effective diagnostic alternative in the study of pathologic conditions of mother and fetus during pregnancy. To verify the actual role of MR imaging, we examined 20 patients in the 2nd and 3rd trimester of gestation, after a preliminary US examination. Fifteen patients presented fetal or placental pathologies; in 4 patients the onset of the pathologic condition occurred during pregnancy; in 1 case of US diagnosis of fetal ascites, MR findings were nornal and the newborn was healty. As for placental pathologies, our series included a case of placental cyst, two hematomas between placenta and uterine wall, and two cases of partial placenta previa. As for fetal malformation, we evaluated a case of omphalocele, one of Prune-Belly syndrome, a case of femoral asimmetry, one of thanatophoric dwarfism, a case of thoracopagus twins with cardiovascular abnormalities, two fetal hydrocephali, and three cases of pyelo-ureteral stenosis. As for maternal pathologies during pregnancy, we observed a case of subserous uterine fibromyoma, one of of right hydronephrosis, one of protrusion of lumbar invertebral disk, and a large ovarian cyst. In our experience, MR imaging exhibited high sensitivity and a large field of view, which were both useful in the investigation of the different conditions occurring during pregnancy. In the evaluation of fetal and placental abnormalities, especially during the 3rd trimester, the diagnostic yieldof MR imaging suggested it as a complementary technique to US for the evaluation of fetal malformation and of intrauterine growth retardation

  3. Simulating Oil Production from Fractured/Faulted Basement Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Forster, C.; Fu, Y.; Huang, C.; Yang, Y.; Deo, M.

    2006-12-01

    A fully-implicit, three-dimensional (3D), three-phase, discrete fault/fracture, black oil simulator provides new insight and understanding of oil production from reservoirs in fractured, low-permeability basement rocks. Results obtained with a controlled volume finite element (CVFE) method compare favorably to those obtained using both single- and dual-porosity finite difference methods (e.g., ECLIPSE). A regularized network of 30 orthogonal faults within a 1000 by 1000 by 200 feet model domain is used to compare the simulator results and to explore the implications of grid sensitivity. In this simple reservoir, cumulative oil recoveries over 900 days of production are similar for CVFE, single-porosity and dual-porosity approaches. CVFE is used to simulate a complex network of intersecting faults that mimic a more realistic basement reservoir with the same fault surface area and fault volume as the regularized network. Cumulative oil production at 900 days is about 3% lower than for the regularized network. The CVFE method provides a much improved ability to represent complex fracture/fault geometries and spatial variations in the internal properties of faults. CVFE simulations of the realistic network illustrate the possible consequences of uncertainty in knowing fracture/fault properties (e.g., porosity, permeability, thickness, dip orientation, connectivity and flow transmissibility). For example, introducing spatial variability in permeability within the fault planes (using spatially randomized patterns of 10, 100 and 1000 md), while retaining a constant geometric mean permeability of 100 md, yields enhanced oil production due to the high-permeability pathways. A 50:50 mix of 10 and 1000 md elements yields 36%OOIP while a 33:33:33 mix of 10, 100 and 1000 md yields 24%OOIP. These results are 26% and 14% greater, respectively, than that obtained for the uniform 100 md case (11%OOIP). This inherent variability, combined with uncertainty in knowing the detailed

  4. Muscle Tissue Damage Induced by the Venom of Bothrops asper: Identification of Early and Late Pathological Events through Proteomic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Cristina; Macêdo, Jéssica Kele A.; Feoli, Andrés; Escalante, Teresa; Rucavado, Alexandra; Gutiérrez, José María; Fox, Jay W.

    2016-01-01

    The time-course of the pathological effects induced by the venom of the snake Bothrops asper in muscle tissue was investigated by a combination of histology, proteomic analysis of exudates collected in the vicinity of damaged muscle, and immunodetection of extracellular matrix proteins in exudates. Proteomic assay of exudates has become an excellent new methodological tool to detect key biomarkers of tissue alterations for a more integrative perspective of snake venom-induced pathology. The time-course analysis of the intracellular proteins showed an early presence of cytosolic and mitochondrial proteins in exudates, while cytoskeletal proteins increased later on. This underscores the rapid cytotoxic effect of venom, especially in muscle fibers, due to the action of myotoxic phospholipases A2, followed by the action of proteinases in the cytoskeleton of damaged muscle fibers. Similarly, the early presence of basement membrane (BM) and other extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in exudates reflects the rapid microvascular damage and hemorrhage induced by snake venom metalloproteinases. The presence of fragments of type IV collagen and perlecan one hour after envenoming suggests that hydrolysis of these mechanically/structurally-relevant BM components plays a key role in the genesis of hemorrhage. On the other hand, the increment of some ECM proteins in the exudate at later time intervals is likely a consequence of the action of endogenous matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) or of de novo synthesis of ECM proteins during tissue remodeling as part of the inflammatory reaction. Our results offer relevant insights for a more integrative and systematic understanding of the time-course dynamics of muscle tissue damage induced by B. asper venom and possibly other viperid venoms. PMID:27035343

  5. Muscle Tissue Damage Induced by the Venom of Bothrops asper: Identification of Early and Late Pathological Events through Proteomic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Cristina; Macêdo, Jéssica Kele A; Feoli, Andrés; Escalante, Teresa; Rucavado, Alexandra; Gutiérrez, José María; Fox, Jay W

    2016-04-01

    The time-course of the pathological effects induced by the venom of the snake Bothrops asper in muscle tissue was investigated by a combination of histology, proteomic analysis of exudates collected in the vicinity of damaged muscle, and immunodetection of extracellular matrix proteins in exudates. Proteomic assay of exudates has become an excellent new methodological tool to detect key biomarkers of tissue alterations for a more integrative perspective of snake venom-induced pathology. The time-course analysis of the intracellular proteins showed an early presence of cytosolic and mitochondrial proteins in exudates, while cytoskeletal proteins increased later on. This underscores the rapid cytotoxic effect of venom, especially in muscle fibers, due to the action of myotoxic phospholipases A2, followed by the action of proteinases in the cytoskeleton of damaged muscle fibers. Similarly, the early presence of basement membrane (BM) and other extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in exudates reflects the rapid microvascular damage and hemorrhage induced by snake venom metalloproteinases. The presence of fragments of type IV collagen and perlecan one hour after envenoming suggests that hydrolysis of these mechanically/structurally-relevant BM components plays a key role in the genesis of hemorrhage. On the other hand, the increment of some ECM proteins in the exudate at later time intervals is likely a consequence of the action of endogenous matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) or of de novo synthesis of ECM proteins during tissue remodeling as part of the inflammatory reaction. Our results offer relevant insights for a more integrative and systematic understanding of the time-course dynamics of muscle tissue damage induced by B. asper venom and possibly other viperid venoms. PMID:27035343

  6. Complications of Pathologic Myopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Bum-Joo; Shin, Joo Young; Yu, Hyeong Gon

    2016-01-01

    Pathologic myopia (PM) is one of the leading causes of visual impairment worldwide. The pathophysiology of PM is not fully understood, but the axial elongation of the eye followed by chorioretinal thinning is suggested as a key mechanism. Pathologic myopia may lead to many complications such as chorioretinal atrophy, foveoschisis, choroidal neovascularization, rhegmatogenous retinal detachment, cataract, and glaucoma. Some complications affect visual acuity significantly, showing poor visual prognosis. This article aims to review the types, pathophysiology, treatment, and visual outcome of the complications of PM. PMID:26649982

  7. Complexity and forensic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Richard Martin

    2015-12-01

    It has become increasingly apparent that nonlinearity and complexity are the norm in human physiological systems, the relevance of which is informing an enhanced understanding of basic pathological processes such as inflammation, the host response to severe trauma, and critical illness. This article will explore how an understanding of nonlinear systems and complexity might inform the study of the pathophysiology of deaths of medicolegal interest, and how 'complexity thinking' might usefully be incorporated into modern forensic medicine and forensic pathology research, education and practice. PMID:26372537

  8. Membrane dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Pól Martin

    2015-01-01

    Current topics include membrane-protein interactions with regard to membrane deformation or curvature sensing by BAR domains. Also, we study the dynamics of membrane tubes of both cells and simple model membrane tubes. Finally, we study membrane phase behavior which has important implications for...

  9. Movement of fossil pore fluids in granite basement, Illinois

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The compositions of pore fluids in granite cores from the Precambrian basement in northern Illinois were determined. The estimated chloride concentration in the aqueous phase increases from near zero at the upper contact with sandstone to 2.7 M at 624 m below the contact. Traces of aliphatic oil are present in the overlying sandstone and the upper 516 m of granite, and oil occupies most of the pore space in one sample of unaltered granite 176 m below the contact. The oil has a Δ13C of -25%, about the same as average petroleum. The high concentrations of salt more than 500 m below the contact imply that little or no fresh water has reached these levels of the granite by flow. Lower concentrations near the contact are consistent with replacement of brine in the sandstone by fresh water at least 11 m.y. ago and subsequent upward diffusion of salt from the granite. Geologic data suggest that the time of replacement was about 130 Ma. The purpose of the investigation is to study the record of movement of intergranular fluids within a granite pluton. The composition and movement of ground waters can determine the extent that hazardous or radioactive wastes disposed in igneous rock will remain isolated

  10. Geophysical siting of boreholes in crystalline basement areas of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olayinka, A. I.

    1992-02-01

    This paper assesses the effectiveness of surface geophysical methods namely electrical resistivity, electromagnetic, seismic refraction, magnetic, gravity and induced polarization for groundwater exploration in crystalline basement complex areas. Most of these geophysical techniques can provide quantitative information on the characteristics of the weathered zone which relate to the occurrence of an economic aquifer. The critical factors in the choice of a particular method include the local geological setting, the initial and maintenance costs of the equipment, the speed of surveying, the manpower required as field crew, the degree of sophistication entailed in data processing to enable a geologically meaningful interpretation, and anomaly resolution. The particular advantages and limitations of each technique are highlighted. Several case histories from Nigeria and the rest of Africa indicate that electrical resistivity (both vertical sounding and horizontal profiling) is the most widely used, followed by electromagnetic traversing. These are often employed in combination to improve upon the percentage of successful boreholes. Due to the high cost of equipment, large scale of the field operations and difficulties in data interpretation, seismic refraction is not widely adopted in commercial-type surveys. Similarly, magnetic, gravity and induced polarization are used only sparingly.

  11. Uranium distribution in the Variscan Basement of Northeastern Sardinia

    CERN Document Server

    Kaçeli, Xhixha M; Baldoncini, M; Bezzon, G P; Buso, G P; Callegari, I; Casini, L; Cuccuru, S; Fiorentini, G; Guastaldi, E; Mantovani, F; Mou, L; Oggiano, G; Puccini, A; Alvarez, C Rossi; Strati, V; Xhixha, G; Zanon, A

    2015-01-01

    We present a detailed map of the uranium distribution and its uncertainties in the Variscan Basement of Northeastern Sardinia (VBNS) at a scale 1:100,000. An area of 2100 km2 was investigated by means of 535 data points obtained from laboratory and in situ gamma-ray spectrometry measurements. These data volume corresponds to the highest sampling density of the European Variscides, aimed at studying the genetic processes of the upper crust potentially triggered by an enrichment of radiogenic heat-producing elements. For the first time the Kriging with Variance of Measurement Error method was used to assign weights to the input data which are based on the degree of confidence associated to the measurements obtained with different gamma-ray spectrometry techniques. A detailed tuning of the model parameters for the adopted Experimental Semi-Variogram led to identify a maximum distance of spatial variability coherent to the observed tendency of the experimental data. We demonstrate that the obtained uranium distri...

  12. Tracers in high temperature and fractured basement rock reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background on FBR. Fractured Basement Reservoir is uncommon oil reservoir where hydrocarbone storage and conductivity are provided by fracture system which is fault oriented. The fractures can be classified by macrofracture developing close to the fault with high porosity and being filled with clay or minerals, microfracture of much smaller porosity developing in the solid rock. The average porosity of fractured reservoir is rather small, about 2-3% while the permeability distributed in relative wide range. Fracture system divides reservoir into compartments and creates high heterogeneity of permeability and porosity distribution. Flow in FBR is unpredictable. Water is injected in the deeper part of reservoir to maintain the reservoir pressure and replace the oil toward production zone at the upper part. Combining all available geology data and seismic data the reservoir model and flow model are not completed. Considering all these uncertainties, it is indispensable to develop a new concept to work on oil production in FBR and other applied techniques including tracer need to comply with.

  13. Pathological Gambling: Psychiatric Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, James R.

    2008-01-01

    Three psychiatric conceptual models: addictive, obsessive-compulsive spectrum and mood spectrum disorder have been proposed for pathological gambling. The objectives of this paper are to (1) evaluate the evidence base from the most recent reviews of each model, (2) update the evidence through 2007 and (3) summarize the status of the evidence for…

  14. TC pathological Neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation is about different imaging techniques such as ultrasound, CT, RNM, PET-CT. These techniques permit to detect head and neck tumors, breast and digestive pathologies as well as congenital diseases and glandular tumor in the thyroid, parathyroid, muscles, lymphatic, nerves and vessels

  15. Pathological Gambling Subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachon, David D.; Bagby, R. Michael

    2009-01-01

    Although pathological gambling (PG) is regarded in the 4th edition of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) as a unitary diagnostic construct, it is likely composed of distinct subtypes. In the current report, the authors used cluster analyses of personality traits with a…

  16. Pathology informatics fellowship training: Focus on molecular pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Mandelker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pathology informatics is both emerging as a distinct subspecialty and simultaneously becoming deeply integrated within the breadth of pathology practice. As specialists, pathology informaticians need a broad skill set, including aptitude with information fundamentals, information systems, workflow and process, and governance and management. Currently, many of those seeking training in pathology informatics additionally choose training in a second subspecialty. Combining pathology informatics training with molecular pathology is a natural extension, as molecular pathology is a subspecialty with high potential for application of modern biomedical informatics techniques. Methods and Results: Pathology informatics and molecular pathology fellows and faculty evaluated the current fellowship program′s core curriculum topics and subtopics for relevance to molecular pathology. By focusing on the overlap between the two disciplines, a structured curriculum consisting of didactics, operational rotations, and research projects was developed for those fellows interested in both pathology informatics and molecular pathology. Conclusions: The scope of molecular diagnostics is expanding dramatically as technology advances and our understanding of disease extends to the genetic level. Here, we highlight many of the informatics challenges facing molecular pathology today, and outline specific informatics principles necessary for the training of future molecular pathologists.

  17. Basement configuration of Visakhapatnam - Paradip continental margin from inversion of magnetic anomalies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, M.M.M.; Rao, S.J.; Venkateswarlu, K.; Murthy, K.S.R.; Murthy, I.V.R.; Subrahmanyam, A.S.

    Inversion of magnetic data was carried out on 40 profiles collected across the continental margin of Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India at a spacing of about 10 km and magnetic basement map for this region is prepared. The map reveals complex...

  18. Numerical investigation of thermal response of basement wall systems with low emissivity material and furred airspace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saber, Hamed H.; Maref, Wahid; Swinton, Michael C. [Institute for Research in Construction, National Research Council Canada (Canada)], email: hamed.saber@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca

    2011-07-01

    In Canada, most basements are used as a living space rather than a utility area and they are presumed to be inside the envelope. Basements account for significant heat loss and it is therefore crucial to improve their thermal resistance. The aim of this paper is to present a new method for increasing a basement's insulation by using foil in a furred-assembly with airspace next to the foil. The steady-state and transient thermal performance of this system was modeled using hygIRC-C and compared to a wall without furred airspace assembly. Results showed that the thermal performance of the system depends on the soil, outdoor and indoor temperatures, and that it can provide 17.7% energy savings compared to a wall without furred airspace assembly. This study highlighted that using foil in a furred-assembly with airspace next to the foil in basements can help reduce energy consumption.

  19. Characteristics of the crystalline basement beneath the Ordos Basin:Constraint from aeromagnetic data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhentao Wang; Hongrui Zhou; Xunlian Wang; Xiuchun Jing

    2015-01-01

    Aeromagnetic anomaly zonation of the Ordos Basin and adjacent areas was obtained by processing high-precision and large-scale aeromagnetic anomalies with an approach of reduction to the pole upward continuation. Comparative study on aeromagnetic and seismic tomography suggests that aeromagnetic anomalies in this area are influenced by both the magnetic property of the rock and the burial depth of the Precambrian crystalline basement. Basement depth might be the fundamental control factor for aeromagnetic anomalies because the positive and negative anomalies on the reduction to the pole-upward-continuation anomaly maps roughly coincide with the uplifts and depressions of the crystal-line basement in the basin. The results, together with the latest understanding of basement faults, SHRIMP U-Pb zircon dating of metamorphic rock and granite, drilling data, detrital zircon ages, and gravity data interpretation, suggest that the Ordos block is not an entirety of Archean.

  20. Feline oral pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, S.; Pais, B.; Almeida, D.; Simões, J.; Mega, A. C.; Vala, Helena

    2013-01-01

    The main pathologies of the oral cavity are of utmost importance, not only by the number of exposed individuals, but also by the consequences which stems. With the development of this work, we intend to conduct a brief approach to the same, since, specifically affecting domestic felines. Feline Lymphoplasmatic Gingivostomatitis (GELF), the Feline Odontoclastic Reabsorption Lesions (LROF) Complex and gingivitis-stomatitis-pharyngitis, have been studied, some of which are considered an enigma i...

  1. Pathology of tropical appendicitis.

    OpenAIRE

    S. C. Gupta; A. K. Gupta; Keswani, N. K.; Singh, P. A.; Tripathi, A.K.; Krishna, V.

    1989-01-01

    Over the past 25 years, 2921 appendicectomies were performed at this hospital. All were subjected to routine histopathological examination. In 95% of cases, histopathological examination did not add any further information but in 153 (5%) cases, clinically important pathological findings were detected for the first time. Seventy (2.3%) specimens showed typical evidence of tuberculosis. Parasitic infestation was detected in 75 (2.5%), including enterobiasis (1.4%), amoebiasis (0.5%), ascariasi...

  2. Microchimerism in Endocrine Pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Rust, Daniel W.; Bianchi, Diana W.

    2009-01-01

    Chimerism in an individual refers to the coexistence of cells arising from two distinct organisms. It can arise iatrogenically via transplant or blood transfusion, and physiologically via twin to twin transfer, or from trafficking between mother and fetus during pregnancy. Many of the diseases associated with microchimerism affect the endocrine system (e.g., autoimmune thyroid disease and diabetes mellitus type 1). Microchimerism is relevant to endocrine pathology because (a) it is associated...

  3. Contribution To The Geology Of Basement Rocks In The South Western Desert Of Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three major Precambrian basement inliers are exposed in the South Western Desert of Egypt between Long. 29 degree E and the River Nile within the Uweinat-Bir Safsaf-Aswan E-W uplift system. These are Bir Safsaf, Gabal EI-Asr and Gabal Umm Shaghir areas. Smaller outcrops include Gabal EI-Gara El-Hamra and Gabal El-Gara EI-Soda, Gabal Siri, GabaI EI-Fantas and Aswan-Kalabsha area as well as the scattered outcrops around Darb El-Arbain road. Band ratios 5/7, 5/1, 4 of Landsat TM images were applied to delineate the borders, the lithologic units and structural features of low relief basement outcrops within the surrounding flat lying sedimentary rocks and sand plains. These basement rocks comprise ortho gneisses (assumed by many authors as related to old continent pre Pan-African rocks), G 1 tonalite-granodiorite, and G2 monzogranite-alkali feldspar granite intruded by variable dykes. The boundaries between the basement exposures and the sedimentary rocks are marked by nonconformity surfaces or sets of faults. Both basement and sedimentary rocks are intruded by Mesozoic syenite-G3 granites, rhyolite, trachytic plugs and Upper Cretaceous to Tertiary basalts. The basement exposures are structurally controlled by major E- W fault systems. Their vertical uplifting is overprinted by folding the overlying sedimentary rocks. This study revealed that, the different basement exposures in the SE of the Western Desert of Egypt are similar in appearance and field relations to the Pan-African basement rocks extending towards the east of the River Nile and exposed everywhere in the Eastern Desert of Egypt

  4. Petrography Of The Basement Complex Of Maddhapara Mining (Production Level) Dinajpur District, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Md. Saidul; Quamruzzaman, Chowdhury; Monir, Md. Minhaj Uddin; Jahan, Sakura; Begum, Momtaj

    2014-01-01

    This research work deals with the petrography of the Palaeoproterozoic Basement Complex (production level) Maddhapara Granite mining project area, Dinajpur district, Bangladesh. Tectonically the study area is a continuation of the Central Indian Tectonic Zone (CITZ), where the Basement Complex is overlain by the Tertiary thin to moderate sediment sequence. The present study has been performed on the basis of collected samples which are taken from the production level at the elevation of about...

  5. The geology and geochemistry of the Lumwana Basement hosted copper-cobalt (uranium) deposits, NW Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Bernau, Robin

    2007-01-01

    The Lumwana Cu±Co deposits Malundwe and Chimiwungo are examples of pre-Katangan mineralized basement that are located in the Domes Region of the Lufilian Arc, an arcuate North neo-Proterozoic fold belt, which hosts the Zambian and Congolese deposits that make up the Central African Copperbelt. The Lumwana deposits are situated within the Mwombezhi Dome; a Mesoproterozoic basement inlier consisting of highly sheared amphibolite grade schist to gneiss units that host the Cu±Co mineralization. K...

  6. Membrane fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Pól Martin

    2015-01-01

    At Stanford University, Boxer lab, I worked on membrane fusion of small unilamellar lipid vesicles to flat membranes tethered to glass surfaces. This geometry closely resembles biological systems in which liposomes fuse to plasma membranes. The fusion mechanism was studied using DNA zippering...... between complementary strands linked to the two apposing membranes closely mimicking the zippering mechanism of SNARE fusion complexes....

  7. Gravity and magnetic field features and basement relief of the Sanjiang Basin in Heilongjiang Province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sanjiang Basin has received more attention in Mesozoic stratum and petroleum potential research because of its particularity in geographic and tectonic position. There remains debate on the basement structure of the basin since igneous rocks and faults make the structure and stratigraphy more complicated. In this paper we utilize gravity and magnetic data as well as petrophysical properties and drilling logs to understand the structure of the Sanjiang Basin. The study is focused on the comparison between the western and eastern parts of the basin. The comparison reveals that there are distinct differences in the gravity and magnetic field between the western and eastern parts. The integrated analysis of the gravity, magnetic, geological, petrophysical data and drilling logs indicates that the difference in the gravity and magnetic field results from the different basement structure and caprock formation of the two parts of the basin. The basement consists of three parts from west to east, the Proterozoic crystalline basement, the Neopaleozoic fold basement and the Lower Mesozoic fold basement separately. The Tongjiang–Yingchun Fault and the Qinglongshan–Xiaoheyan Fault controlled the formation and development of depressions and uplifts and also affected the sedimentation and volcanic activities of the basin. The Sanjiang Basin has relatively thin and stable crust thickness, varying around 33 km, and the deep structure has control and constraint over the shallow conformations. (paper)

  8. Basement Kind Effects on Air Temperature of a Solar Chimney in Baghdad - Iraq Weather

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miqdam Tariq Chaichan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A solar updraft tower power plant (solar tower is a solar thermal power plant that utilizes a combination of solar air collector and central updraft tube to generate an induced convective flow which drives pressure staged turbines to generate electricity. This paper presents practical results of a prototype of a solar chimney with thermal mass, where the glass surface is replaced by transparence plastic cover. The study focused on chimney's basements kind effect on collected air temperatures. Three basements were used: concrete, black concrete and black pebbles basements. The study was conducted in Baghdad from August to November 2009. The results show that the best chimney efficiency attained was 49.7% for pebbles base. The highest collected air temperature reached was 49ºC when using the black pebbles basement also.also, the maximum basement temperature measured was 59ºC for black pebbles. High increaments in collected air temperatures were achieved in comparison with the ambient air temperatures for the three basement kinds. The highest temperature difference reached was 22ºC with the pebble ground.

  9. American Society for Clinical Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... With the National Cancer Institute for Inaugural Global Pathology Conference March 2016 OneLab Memo ASCP Action Alert - ... 2016 Copyright © 2016 by American Society for Clinical Pathology. All Rights Reserved. Terms of Use About ASCP ...

  10. Priorities in seed pathology research

    OpenAIRE

    Nameth S.T.

    1998-01-01

    Seed pathology as a subdisipline of plant pathology is relatively new. Paul Neergard is considered the father of seed pathology. Recent developments in the area of seed pathology technology allow for more ecofriendly seed treatments and more reliable seed health testing. Due to economics and new interest in environmental issues, research into the viability of biological seed treatments is becoming more common. The use of sophisticated DNA amplification technologies allows for the detection of...

  11. Pathology Gross Photography: The Beginning of Digital Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampy, B Alan; Glassy, Eric F

    2016-03-01

    The underutilized practice of photographing anatomic pathology specimens from surgical pathology and autopsies is an invaluable benefit to patients, clinicians, pathologists, and students. Photographic documentation of clinical specimens is essential for the effective practice of pathology. When considering what specimens to photograph, all grossly evident pathology, absent yet expected pathologic features, and gross-only specimens should be thoroughly documented. Specimen preparation prior to photography includes proper lighting and background, wiping surfaces of blood, removing material such as tubes or bandages, orienting the specimen in a logical fashion, framing the specimen to fill the screen, positioning of probes, and using the right-sized scale. PMID:26851666

  12. Pathological potential of astroglia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chvátal, Alexandr; Anděrová, Miroslava; Neprašová, Helena; Prajerová, Iva; Benešová, Jana; Butenko, Olena; Verkhratsky, Alexei

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 57, Suppl.3 (2008), S101-S110. ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/06/1316; GA ČR GA305/06/1464; GA ČR GA305/08/1384; GA ČR GA309/08/1381; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0538 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : astrocyte * astrogliosis * brain pathology Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.653, year: 2008

  13. Marketing the pathology practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, E N

    1995-07-01

    Effective marketing of the pathology practice is essential in the face of an increasingly competitive market. Successful marketing begins with a market-driven planning process. As opposed to the traditional planning process used in health care organizations, a market-driven approach is externally driven. Implementing a market-driven plan also requires recognition of the definition of the service. Each market to which pathologists direct their service defines the service differently. Recognition of these different service definitions and creation of a product to meet these needs could lead to competitive advantages in the marketplace. PMID:7625911

  14. Pathology of the vestibulocochlear nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Foer, Bert [Department of Radiology, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: bert.defoer@GZA.be; Kenis, Christoph [Department of Radiology, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: christophkenis@hotmail.com; Van Melkebeke, Deborah [Department of Neurology, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: Deborah.vanmelkebeke@Ugent.be; Vercruysse, Jean-Philippe [University Department of ENT, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: jphver@yahoo.com; Somers, Thomas [University Department of ENT, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: Thomas.somers@GZA.be; Pouillon, Marc [Department of Radiology, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: marc.pouillon@GZA.be; Offeciers, Erwin [University Department of ENT, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: Erwin.offeciers@GZA.be; Casselman, Jan W. [Department of Radiology, AZ Sint-Jan AV Hospital, Ruddershove 10, Bruges (Belgium); Consultant Radiologist, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Academic Consultent, University of Ghent (Belgium)], E-mail: jan.casselman@azbrugge.be

    2010-05-15

    There is a large scala of pathology affecting the vestibulocochlear nerve. Magnetic resonance imaging is the method of choice for the investigation of pathology of the vestibulocochlear nerve. Congenital pathology mainly consists of agenesis or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve. Tumoral pathology affecting the vestibulocochlear nerve is most frequently located in the internal auditory canal or cerebellopontine angle. Schwannoma of the vestibulocochlear nerve is the most frequently found tumoral lesion followed by meningeoma, arachnoid cyst and epidermoid cyst. The most frequently encountered pathologies as well as some more rare entities are discussed in this chapter.

  15. Late-Paleozoic emplacement and Meso-Cenozoic reactivation of the southern Kazakhstan granitoid basement

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pelsmaeker, Elien; Glorie, Stijn; Buslov, Mikhail M.; Zhimulev, Fedor I.; Poujol, Marc; Korobkin, Valeriy V.; Vanhaecke, Frank; Vetrov, Evgeny V.; De Grave, Johan

    2015-11-01

    The Ili-Balkhash Basin in southeastern Kazakhstan is located at the junction of the actively deforming mountain ranges of western Junggar and the Tien Shan, and is therefore part of the southwestern Central Asian Orogenic Belt. The basement of the Ili-Balkhash area consists of an assemblage of mainly Precambrian microcontinental fragments, magmatic arcs and accretionary complexes. Eight magmatic basement samples (granitoids and tuffs) from the Ili-Balkhash area were dated with zircon U-Pb LA-ICP-MS and yield Carboniferous to late Permian (~ 350-260 Ma) crystallization ages. These ages are interpreted as reflecting the transition from subduction to (post-) collisional magmatism, related to the closure of the Junggar-Balkhash Ocean during the Carboniferous-early Permian and hence, to the final late Paleozoic accretion history of the ancestral Central Asian Orogenic Belt. Apatite fission track (AFT) dating of 14 basement samples (gneiss, granitoids and volcanic tuffs) mainly provides Cretaceous cooling ages. Thermal history modeling based on the AFT data reveals that several intracontinental tectonic reactivation episodes affected the studied basement during the late Mesozoic and Cenozoic. Late Mesozoic reactivation and associated basement exhumation is interpreted as distant effects of the Cimmerian collisions at the southern Eurasian margin and possibly of the Mongol-Okhotsk Orogeny in SE Siberia during the Jurassic-Cretaceous. Following tectonic stability during the Paleogene, inherited basement structures were reactivated during the Neogene (constrained by Miocene AFT ages of ~ 17-10 Ma). This late Cenozoic reactivation is interpreted as the far-field response of the India-Eurasia collision and reflects the onset of modern mountain building and denudation in southeast Kazakhstan, which seems to be at least partially controlled by the inherited basement architecture.

  16. Tracking in anatomic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantanowitz, Liron; Mackinnon, Alexander C; Sinard, John H

    2013-12-01

    Bar code-based tracking solutions, long present in clinical pathology laboratories, have recently made an appearance in anatomic pathology (AP) laboratories. Tracking of AP "assets" (specimens, blocks, slides) can enhance laboratory efficiency, promote patient safety, and improve patient care. Routing of excess clinical material into research laboratories and biorepositories are other avenues that can benefit from tracking of AP assets. Implementing tracking is not as simple as installing software and turning it on. Not all tracking solutions are alike. Careful analysis of laboratory workflow is needed before implementing tracking to assure that this solution will meet the needs of the laboratory. Such analysis will likely uncover practices that may need to be modified before a tracking system can be deployed. Costs that go beyond simply that of purchasing software will be incurred and need to be considered in the budgeting process. Finally, people, not technology, are the key to assuring quality. Tracking will require significant changes in workflow and an overall change in the culture of the laboratory. Preparation, training, buy-in, and accountability of the people involved are crucial to the success of this process. This article reviews the benefits, available technology, underlying principles, and implementation of tracking solutions for the AP and research laboratory. PMID:23634908

  17. Modeling differentiation of Karaj Dam basement igneous rocks (northern Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeily, D.; M-Mashhour, R.

    2009-04-01

    The Karaj Dam basement igneous body (KDB) is located in the north of city of Karaj, 30 km from city of Tehran, which lies between 35° 50' N to 36° 05' N and between 50° 50' E to 51° 15' E. It is one of the several plutonic bodies within the E-W trending Alborz zone in northern Iran. Following the late Cretaceous orogenic movements, vast volumes of dacite, andesites and basaltic lavas with tuffaceous and other clastic sediments were deposited during Eocene time, forming Karaj Formation in central Iran and Albourz. The KDB is penetrated thorough middle and upper tuff units from Karaj Formation which is underlain by late Jurassic depositions (Shemshak Formation) and overlain by the Neogene red Conglomerates in regard to stratographic consideration. It is mainly composed of a layered series dominated by gabbro, diorite and monzonite, which is a rock sequence formed upward from the lower to upper chilled margins, respectively. The chilled margins, which have gabbroic in composition, show porphyritic texture with euhedral to subhedral plagioclase (andesine & labradorite) and pyroxene (augite) megacrysts up to 5 mm long. These rocks become coarse-grained inward and transform to equigranular texture gradually.In addition, a small fine-grained doleritic stock as well as some doleritic dykes is intrusive into the pyroclastic volcanic rocks of Karaj Formation. It is possible to observe doleritic enclaves included in the KDB, indicating that the KDB are slightly younger than the dolerites. Whole rock geochemistry and mineral chemistry of the plagioclase and pyroxene in various rock samples, suggest differentiation processes. The Mg# of the pyroxene and An% of plagioclase of the contact chilled samples can be used as an indication of the original magma and plotted between the gabbro and monzonitic samples. In addition, increasing of the Mg# within the whole rock samples from the upper of contact chilled, in comparison to the lower one, demonstrates elemental differentiation

  18. Fracture and vein characterization of a crystalline basement reservoir, central Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeningen, R.; Grasemann, B.; Decker, K.; Bischoff, R.; Rice, A. H. N.

    2012-04-01

    The country of Yemen is located in the south-western part of the Arabian plate. The Pan-African basement found in western and central Yemen is highly deformed during the Proterozoic eon and is part of the Arabian-Nubian shield ANS (670-540Ma). This ANS is a result of the amalgamation of high-grade gneiss terranes and low-grade island arcs. The development of an extensive horst-and-graben system related to the breakup of Gondwana in the Mesozoic, has reactivated the Pan-African basement along NW-SE trending normal faults. As a result, younger Meosozoic marls, sandstones, clastics and limestones are unconformably overlying the basement. Some of these formations act as a source and/or reservoir for hydrocarbons. Due to fracturing of the basement, hydrocarbons have migrated horizontally into the basement, causing the crystalline basement to be a potential hydrocarbon reservoir. Unfortunately, little is known about the Pan-African basement in Central Yemen and due its potential as a reservoir, the deformation and oil migration history (with a main focus on the fracturing and veining history) of the basement is investigated in high detail. Representative samples are taken from 2 different wells from the Habban Field reservoir, located approximately 320 ESE of Sana'a. These samples are analysed using e.g. the Optical Microscope, SEM, EDX and CL, but also by doing Rb-Sr age dating, isotope analysis and fluid inclusion analysis. In well 1, the only lithology present is an altered gneiss with relative large (<5 cm diameter) multi-mineralic veins. In well 3, quartzite (top), gneiss (middle) and quartz porphyry's (middle) are intruded by a so called "younger" granitoid body (592.6±4.1Ma). All lithologies record polyphase systems of mineral veins. Pyrite and saddle dolomite in these veins have euhedral shapes, which means that they have grown in open cavities. Calcite is the youngest mineral in these veins, closing the vein and aborting the fluid flow. Fluid inclusions inside

  19. The metamorphic basement of the Cordillera Frontal of Mendoza: New geochronologic and isotopic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The metamorphic rocks of the Cordillera Frontal exposed in the Cordon del Portillo, Mendoza were examined by Rb/Sr geochronology and Nd/Sm isotopic analysis. The Rb/Sr data defined a Devonian age for the last metamorphic episode, similar to the previous K/Ar and Ar/Ar ages obtained in this region and western Precordillera. The isotopic analysis identified three sets of model ages: 1.- The oldest corresponds to a set of meta sedimentary rocks with a model age of 1,400 to 1,700 Ma; 2.- A monzogranodiorite with a model age of 1,000 Ma; and 3.- Metabasites with model ages between 577 and 330 Ma. These rocks are interpreted as 1.- A typical Grenvillian derived basement; 2.- Late Paleozoic granitoids derived from a different Proterozoic basement; and 3.- Some Eopaleozoic metabasites tectonically inter fingered with the Grenvillian basement. These new data are coherent with the existence of a Laurentia derived terrane, Chilenia, that was separated by oceanic rocks from the basement of Pre cordillera during Eopaleozoic times. This last basement known as the Cuyania terrane, was also derived from Laurentia. (author)

  20. Cuddapah uranium province, Andhra Pradesh role of basement granites, tectonism and geochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cuddapah Uranium Province encompasses two economically viable genetic types of uranium deposits as the carbonate-hosted stratabound uranium deposits around Tummalapalle-Rachakuntapalle area, and the unconformity-proximal type in basement granitoids and overlying Srisailam/Banganapalle quartzite in the Lambapur-Peddagattu-Chitrial-Koppunuru area . Besides, the basin characteristically hosts important occurrences, of fracture controlled uranium mineralisation in Gulcheru quartzite near Gandi and in basement granitoid around Lakkireddipalle-Rayachoti; shear-controlled along the thrusted eastern margin of Cuddapah basin in basic metavolcanics and schists at Gudarukoppu and Kasturigattu. In the northern part of the basin, uranium deposits of Lambapur, Peddagattu, Chitrial, and Koppunuru area characteristically show association of ore bodies along structures formed by intersection of prominent basement fractures with the unconformity separating Srisailam and Palnad sediments from the basement. In the southwestern part of the basin, potential carbonate-hosted, stratabound uranium mineralisation extends over a 160 km long belt from Chelumpalli to Maddimadugu with large-tonnage, low-grade, uranium deposits in Tummallapalle-Rachakuntapalle area. The unconformity-proximal and fracture controlled deposits/prospects characteristically share a common source for uranium, repeated tectonism, weathering of the basement granitoids and episodic, epigenetic hydrothermal processes of uranium mineralisation. This paper evaluates the role of granitoids spatially and temporally associated with uranium mineralisation in making the Cuddapah Basin a unique uranium province. (author)

  1. Dissolution of biogenic ooze over basement edifices in the equatorial Pacific with implications for hydrothermal ventilation of the oceanic crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekins, B.A.; Spivack, A.J.; Davis, E.E.; Mayer, L.A.

    2007-01-01

    Recent observations indicate that curious closed depressions in carbonate sediments overlying basement edifices are widespread in the equatorial Pacific. A possible mechanism for their creation is dissolution by fluids exiting basement vents from off-axis hydrothermal flow. Quantitative analysis based on the retrograde solubility of calcium carbonate and cooling of basement fluids during ascent provides an estimate for the dissolution capacity of the venting fluids. Comparison of the dissolution capacity and fluid flux with typical equatorial Pacific carbonate mass accumulation rates shows that this mechanism is feasible. By maintaining sediment-free basement outcrops, the process may promote widespread circulation of relatively unaltered seawater in the basement in an area where average sediment thicknesses are 300-500 m. The enhanced ventilation can explain several previously puzzling observations in this region, including anomalously low heat flux, relatively unaltered seawater in the basement, and aerobic and nitrate-reducing microbial activity at the base of the sediments. ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America.

  2. Characteristic aerial and ground radioactives of basement and sedimentary rocks in (Egypt): relations and natural cycles across geologic time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Each geologic unit, exposure, formation or rock group of the exposed precambrian I (igneous and metamorphic) basement complex (Upper proterozoic) and phanerozoic cover sediments in an area covering about 4500 km2 located in the central eastern desert of egypt, has been found to possess certain radioactivity characteristics and levels. Minimum values of radiation are generally associated with the first basement volcanics, maximum values are correlated are correlated with the third basement plutonites and phosphate formation (upper cretaceous), while intermedialte values are connected with the first basement sediments and upper eocene-quaternary fifth detrital-calcareous-evaporite sediments. Therefore, the radioactivities of various rock groups of the precambrian I basement complex - except the first basement sediments sediments- correlate progressively well with their chronology. Generally, the increase of radioactivity within this complex is connected with the transition into final stages of the magmatic evolution

  3. [Cystic renal pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosi, P; Cesaroni, M; Bracarda, S; Rociola, W; Virgili, G

    1993-08-01

    Ultrasonography has a great interest in diagnosis of cystic kidney disorders for typical eco-pattern of this pathology. In this work we show the eco-pattern of the most common cystic kidney disorders. Particularly we examine simple cysts (typical, atypical, complicated), multicystic kidney dysplasia, autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (infantile) autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (adult age). The so-called neoplastic cysts (multiloculated cysts, multiloculated cysts nephroma, cystic nephroblastoma), medullar cysts (medullary sponge kidney, medullary cystic disease), parapyelic cysts, acquired cystic kidney disease in renal failure patients, parasitic cysts, epidermoid cysts. About this disorders we present the more typical and expressive ultrasonographic appearance and we define the role and the opportunity of diagnostic setting by echography, moreover ultrasonography allows us to make a differential diagnosis between cystic kidney disorders and other kidney disease. PMID:8353538

  4. 'Pathological Science'; is not Scientific Misconduct (nor is it pathological

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry H. Bauer

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available 'Pathological' science implies scientific misconduct: it should not happen and the scientists concerned ought to know better. However, there are no clear and generally agreed definitions of pathological science or of scientific misconduct. The canonical exemplars of pathological science in chemistry (N-rays, polywater as well as the recent case of cold fusion in electrochemistry involved research practices not clearly distinguishable from those in (revolutionary science. The concept of 'pathological science' was put forth nearly half a century ago in a seminar and lacks justification in contemporary understanding of science studies (history, philosophy, and sociology of science. It is time to abandon the phrase.

  5. Membrane Biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Ashrafuzzaman, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Physics, mathematics and chemistry all play a vital role in understanding the true nature and functioning of biological membranes, key elements of living processes. Besides simple spectroscopic observations and electrical measurements of membranes we address in this book the phenomena of coexistence and independent existence of different membrane components using various theoretical approaches. This treatment will be helpful for readers who want to understand biological processes by applying both simple observations and fundamental scientific analysis. It provides a deep understanding of the causes and effects of processes inside membranes, and will thus eventually open new doors for high-level pharmaceutical approaches towards fighting membrane- and cell-related diseases.

  6. Rb-Sr and Pb-Pb geochronology of basement granites from Tintini, Yadgir district, Karnataka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 'z' shaped Bhima Basin is located between the northern margin of the Eastern Dharwar Craton (EDC) and the Deccan Traps. The Neo-Proterozoic Bhima group of sediments overlies the granitic basement of EDC with a profound unconformity and has faulted contacts at many places. Both the sediments and the granitoids have been affected by intense faulting. Significant radioactive zones have been located at Ukinal and Gogi along the Gogi-Kurlagere fault and at Ramtirth along the Wadi-Ramtirth fault on the southern margin of the basin. Uranium mineralization in these fault zones is associated with brecciated siliceous limestone and sheared basement granitoids. Another E-W striking fault which has affected the granitic basement along the southern margin of the Bhima basin is observed near Tintini, Yadgir District, Karnataka located about 40 km southwest of Gogi. The present study is an attempt to understand the geochronology and the isotopic characteristics of these granitoids around Tintini

  7. Use of natural basement ventilation to control radon in single family dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural basement ventilation has always been recommended as a means of reducing radon levels in houses. However, its efficacy has never been documented. In these experiments, natural ventilation has for the first time been studied systematically in two research houses during both the summer cooling season and the winter heating season. Ventilation rates, environmental and house operating parameters, as well as radon levels, have been monitored. It can be definitely concluded from radon entry rate calculations that natural ventilation can reduce radon levels in two ways. The first is by simple dilution. The second is by reducing basement depressurization and thus the amount of radon-contaminated soil gas drawn into the structure. Therefore, basement ventilation can be an effective mitigation strategy under some circumstances. It might be especially useful in houses with low radon concentrations (of the order of 370 Bq m-1) or those with low levels and which cannot be mitigated cost-effectively with conventional technology. (Author)

  8. Fracture Analysis of basement rock: A case example of the Eastern Part of the Peninsular Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In general, reservoir rocks can be defined into carbonates, tight elastics and basement rocks. Basement rocks came to be highlighted as their characteristics are quite complicated and remained as a significant challenge in exploration and production area. Motivation of this research is to solve the problem in some area in the Malay Basin which consist fractured basement reservoirs. Thus, in order to increase understanding about their characteristic, a study was conducted in the Eastern part of the Peninsular Malaysia. The study includes the main rock types that resemble the offshore rocks and analysis on the factors that give some effect on fracture characteristic that influence fracture systems and fracture networks. This study will allow better fracture prediction which will be beneficial for future hydrocarbon prediction in this region

  9. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating from granitoids in southern basement of Songliao basin: Constraints on ages of the basin basement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO FuHong; XU WenLiang; YANG DeBin; PEI FuPing; LIU XiaoMing; HU ZhaoChu

    2007-01-01

    Seven LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb datings from granitoids in the southern basement of the Songliao basin were done in order to constrain the ages of the basin basement. The cathodoluminescence (CL) images of the zircons from seven granitoids indicate that they are euhedral-subhedral ones with striped absorption and obvious oscillatory zoning rims. The dating results show that a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age is 236±3 Ma for quartz diorite (sample No.T6-1) located in the western slope of the basin, that weighted mean 206Pb/238U ages are 319±1 Ma (2126 m) and 361±2 Ma (1994 m) for diorite (sample No.YC1-1) and granite (sample No.YC1-2) located in northern part of southeastern uplift of the basin, respectively, and that weighted mean 206Pb/238U ages are 161±5 Ma, 165±2 Ma, 165±1 Ma and 161±4 Ma for samples Q2-1, SN121, SN122, and SN72 granitoids located in southern part of southeastern uplift of the basin, respectively. The statistical results of ages suggest that the middle Jurassic granitoids constitute the main part of basement granitoids, and that the Hercynian and Indo-Sino magmatisms also occur in the basin basement. It is implied that the Songliao basin should be a rift one formed in the intracontinent or active continental margin settings in the late Mesozoic after the Middle Jurassic orogeny took place.

  10. Hydrogeologic controls on induced seismicity in crystalline basement rocks due to fluid injection into basal reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yipeng; Person, Mark; Rupp, John; Ellett, Kevin; Celia, Michael A; Gable, Carl W; Bowen, Brenda; Evans, James; Bandilla, Karl; Mozley, Peter; Dewers, Thomas; Elliot, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    A series of Mb 3.8-5.5 induced seismic events in the midcontinent region, United States, resulted from injection of fluid either into a basal sedimentary reservoir with no underlying confining unit or directly into the underlying crystalline basement complex. The earthquakes probably occurred along faults that were likely critically stressed within the crystalline basement. These faults were located at a considerable distance (up to 10 km) from the injection wells and head increases at the hypocenters were likely relatively small (∼70-150 m). We present a suite of simulations that use a simple hydrogeologic-geomechanical model to assess what hydrogeologic conditions promote or deter induced seismic events within the crystalline basement across the midcontinent. The presence of a confining unit beneath the injection reservoir horizon had the single largest effect in preventing induced seismicity within the underlying crystalline basement. For a crystalline basement having a permeability of 2 × 10(-17)  m(2) and specific storage coefficient of 10(-7) /m, injection at a rate of 5455 m(3) /d into the basal aquifer with no underlying basal seal over 10 years resulted in probable brittle failure to depths of about 0.6 km below the injection reservoir. Including a permeable (kz  = 10(-13)  m(2) ) Precambrian normal fault, located 20 m from the injection well, increased the depth of the failure region below the reservoir to 3 km. For a large permeability contrast between a Precambrian thrust fault (10(-12)  m(2) ) and the surrounding crystalline basement (10(-18)  m(2) ), the failure region can extend laterally 10 km away from the injection well. PMID:23745958

  11. Role of mitochondria in parvovirus pathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonna Nykky

    Full Text Available Proper functioning of the mitochondria is crucial for the survival of the cell. Viruses are able to interfere with mitochondrial functions as they infect the host cell. Parvoviruses are known to induce apoptosis in infected cells, but the role of the mitochondria in parvovirus induced cytopathy is only partially known. Here we demonstrate with confocal and electron microscopy that canine parvovirus (CPV associated with the mitochondrial outer membrane from the onset of infection. During viral entry a transient depolarization of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential and increase in ROS level was detected. Subsequently, mitochondrial homeostasis was normalized shortly, as detected by repolarization of the mitochondrial membrane and decrease of ROS. Indeed, activation of cell survival signalling through ERK1/2 cascade was observed early in CPV infected cells. At 12 hours post infection, concurrent with the expression of viral non-structural protein 1, damage to the mitochondrial structure and depolarization of its membrane were apparent. Results of this study provide additional insight of parvovirus pathology and also more general information of virus-mitochondria association.

  12. [Diagnostic significance of pathologic synkinesis for detection of pyramidal pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baliasnyĭ, M M

    1991-01-01

    Five types of pathological synkinesis (++blepharo-ocular, ++blepharo-facial, ++bucco-manual, ++digito-digital on the hands, ++pedo-digital) are described. They are of definite importance for revealing pyramidal pathology including its early stages as well as for objective evaluation and observation of the time-course of changes in the illness. PMID:1654715

  13. Rotator cuff pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifteen volunteers and 73 patients with suspected rotator cuff lesions were examined at 0.5 T with T2*-weighted gradient-echo (GE) MR imaging (700/33/30 degrees) (oblique coronal and sagittal 3 mm thick, surface coil). Results were compared with those of arthrography (all cases), T1-weighted GE imaging (400/20/90 degrees) (35 cases), surgery (28 cases), and T2-weighted spin-echo (SE) images (2,000/60-120) (17 cases). GE images demonstrated all tears (complete, 32, partial, 12) and was superior to arthrography in determining site and size and in displaying muscles (critical point in surgical planning). In 20 cases without tears on arthrography, GE imaging demonstrated five cases of tendinitis, five cases of bursitis, and six probable intratendinous or superficial partial tears. T2*-weighted GE imaging was superior to T2-weighted SE and T1-weighted GE imaging, with higher fluid contrast and a low fat signal. Therefore, it might replace arthrography in the diagnosis and surgical approach to this pathology

  14. Resistivity soundings and VLF profiles for siting groundwater wells in a fractured basement aquifer in the Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, A. I.; Kruse, S. E.

    2016-04-01

    Seasonal shortages of groundwater are common in parts of the Arabian Shield, where complex basement hydrogeology can make siting of water wells difficult. To identify optimal production well locations, six 200-400 m-long Very Low Frequency (VLF) electromagnetic traverses and ten Vertical Electrical Soundings (VESes) were run at the western edge of the Arabian Shield near At-Taif town, Saudi Arabia. Here wadi sediments overlie fractured Precambrian basement, which in turn overlies unfractured basement. The fractured basement forms the water supply aquifer. Both VLF and VES data indicate significant lateral heterogeneity in the electrical conductivity of both wadi and basement deposits over lengths scales as small as ∼100 m. VES results correlate closely with data from two wells in the study area. The change in resistivity at the wadi-to-fractured basement contact is relatively subtle, but the transition from low resistivity fractured basement to high resistivity unfractured basement is well resolved. Inferred wadi thicknesses range from 0 to 14 m; the electrically conductive fractured basement extends from wadi down to 12-32 m depth. VES data indicate the fractured basement aquifer thickens progressively to the south in this area. A production well, sited on the basis of the VES analysis, successfully yielded 70m3/day. The relationship between VLF and VES data is complex, suggesting that the terrain is heterogeneous on the scale of the different effective sampling volumes of the two methods, and/or that fracture azimuth is locally heterogeneous. Overall resistivities in this study are similar to those observed at other locations in Saudi Arabia, suggesting these methods may be widely applicable for siting of groundwater wells in the complex basement of the Arabian Shield.

  15. Membrane Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrin, Marie-Laure; Burbano, Marie S; Sadler, Mary E; Diamond, Jason; Baker, Simon; Greiner, Anthony D; Arabi, Sara; Wong, Joseph; Doody, Alexandra; Padhye, Lokesh P; Sears, Keith; Kistenmacher, Peter; Kent, Fraser; Tootchi, Leila; Aguinaldo, Jorge; Saddredini, Sara; Schilling, Bill; Min, Kyungnan; McCandless, Robert; Danker, Bryce; Gamage, Neranga P; Wang, Sunny; Aerts, Peter

    2016-10-01

    This review, for literature published in 2015, contains information related to membrane processes for municipal and industrial applications. This review is a subsection of the Treatment Systems section of the annual Water Environment Federation literature review and covers the following topics: pretreatment, membrane bioreactor (MBR) configuration, design, nutrient removal, operation, industrial treatment, anaerobic membrane systems, reuse, microconstituents removal, membrane technology advances, membrane fouling, and modeling. Other sub-sections of the Treatment Systems section that might relate to this literature review include: Biological Fixed-Film Systems, Activated Sludge and Other Aerobic Suspended Culture Processes, Anaerobic Processes, Water Reclamation and Reuse. The following sections might also have related information on membrane processes: Industrial Wastes, Hazardous Wastes, and Fate and Effects of Pollutants. PMID:27620084

  16. Membrane Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrin, Marie-Laure; Sadler, Mary E; Greiner, Anthony D; Aguinaldo, Jorge; Min, Kyungnan; Zhang, Kai; Arabi, Sara; Burbano, Marie S; Kent, Fraser; Shoaf, Robert

    2015-10-01

    This review, for literature published in 2014, contains information related to membrane processes for municipal and industrial applications. This review is a subsection of the Treatment Systems section of the annual Water Environment Federation literature review and covers the following topics: pretreatment, membrane bioreactor (MBR) configuration, design, nutrient removal, operation, industrial treatment, fixed film and anaerobic membrane systems, reuse, microconstituents removal, membrane technology advances, membrane fouling, and modeling. Other sub-sections of the Treatment Systems section that might relate to this literature review include: Biological Fixed-Film Systems, Activated Sludge and Other Aerobic Suspended Culture Processes, Anaerobic Processes, Water Reclamation and Reuse. The following sections might also have related information on membrane processes: Industrial Wastes, Hazardous Wastes, and Fate and Effects of Pollutants. PMID:26420079

  17. Delineation of Piceance Basin basement structures using multiple source data: Implications for fractured reservoir exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoak, T.E.; Klawitter, A.L.

    1995-10-01

    Fractured production trends in Piceance Basin Cretaceous-age Mesaverde Group gas reservoirs are controlled by subsurface structures. Because many of the subsurface structures are controlled by basement fault trends, a new interpretation of basement structure was performed using an integrated interpretation of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM), side-looking airborne radar (SLAR), high altitude, false color aerial photography, gas and water production data, high-resolution aeromagnetic data, subsurface geologic information, and surficial fracture maps. This new interpretation demonstrates the importance of basement structures on the nucleation and development of overlying structures and associated natural fractures in the hydrocarbon-bearing section. Grand Valley, Parachute, Rulison, Plateau, Shire Gulch, White River Dome, Divide Creek and Wolf Creek fields all produce gas from fractured tight gas sand and coal reservoirs within the Mesaverde Group. Tectonic fracturing involving basement structures is responsible for development of permeability allowing economic production from the reservoirs. In this context, the significance of detecting natural fractures using the intergrated fracture detection technique is critical to developing tight gas resources. Integration of data from widely-available, relatively inexpensive sources such as high-resolution aeromagnetics, remote sensing imagery analysis and regional geologic syntheses provide diagnostic data sets to incorporate into an overall methodology for targeting fractured reservoirs. The ultimate application of this methodology is the development and calibration of a potent exploration tool to predict subsurface fractured reservoirs, and target areas for exploration drilling, and infill and step-out development programs.

  18. Possible options for reducing occupational dose from the TMI-2 basement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major sources of exposure in the basement include the enclosed stairwell/elevator shaft structure, water and sludge in the elevator shaft, cast concrete walls, concrete floor slab, water and sludge on the floor, and activity in the paint and loose surface contamination. The sources were identified using data obtained by the utility from water processing, water and solid samples, remote video inspections and radiation monitoring with a robot, and strings of thermoluminescent dosimeters lowered from upper elevations. The area dose rates in the basement range from approximately 4 R/hr (in the NE quadrant) to over 1100 R/hr (near the enclosed stairwell/elevator shaft structure). It is estimated that the basement contains between 11,000 and 21,000 curies of 137Cs. Specific decontamination and cleanup techniques are discussed. These techniques include flushing with water, high-pressure water blasting, leaching, scabbling and chemical cleaning. The applicability of these techniques to the major sources of radiation are discussed, and possible approaches and work sequences for basement cleanup are given

  19. Influence of basement structures on in situ stresses over the Surat Basin, southeast Queensland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke-Barnett, Samuel; Flottmann, Thomas; Paul, Pijush K.; Busetti, Seth; Hennings, Peter; Reid, Ray; Rosenbaum, Gideon

    2015-07-01

    The Jurassic to Cretaceous sedimentary rocks of the Surat Basin in southeast Queensland host a significant volume of coal seam gas resources. Consequently, knowledge of the in situ stress is important for coal permeability enhancement and wellbore stability. Using wireline log data and direct stress measurements, we have calculated stress orientations from 36 wells and stress magnitudes from 7 wells across the Surat Basin. Our results reveal a relationship between high tectonic stress and proximity to structures within the underlying "basement" rocks. The influence of tectonic stresses is diminished with depth in areas with thicker sedimentary cover that are relatively far from the basement structures. We suggest that this relationship is due to the redistribution of in situ stresses around areas where basement is shallower and where basement structures, such as the Leichhardt-Burunga Fault System, are present. This behavior is explained by a lower rigidity in the thickest basin cover, which reduces the ability to maintain higher tectonic stress. Over the entire Surat Basin, a significant amount of variability in in situ stress orientation is observed. The authors attribute this stress variability to complex plate boundary interactions on the northern and eastern margins of the Indo-Australian Plate.

  20. Impact of climate changes during the last 5 million years on groundwater in basement aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilina, Luc; Vergnaud-Ayraud, Virginie; Les Landes, Antoine Armandine; Pauwels, Hélène; Davy, Philippe; Pételet-Giraud, Emmanuelle; Labasque, Thierry; Roques, Clément; Chatton, Eliot; Bour, Olivier; Ben Maamar, Sarah; Dufresne, Alexis; Khaska, Mahmoud; La Salle, Corinne Le Gal; Barbecot, Florent

    2015-09-01

    Climate change is thought to have major effects on groundwater resources. There is however a limited knowledge of the impacts of past climate changes such as warm or glacial periods on groundwater although marine or glacial fluids may have circulated in basements during these periods. Geochemical investigations of groundwater at shallow depth (80-400 m) in the Armorican basement (western France) revealed three major phases of evolution: (1) Mio-Pliocene transgressions led to marine water introduction in the whole rock porosity through density and then diffusion processes, (2) intensive and rapid recharge after the glacial maximum down to several hundred meters depths, (3) a present-day regime of groundwater circulation limited to shallow depth. This work identifies important constraints regarding the mechanisms responsible for both marine and glacial fluid migrations and their preservation within a basement. It defines the first clear time scales of these processes and thus provides a unique case for understanding the effects of climate changes on hydrogeology in basements. It reveals that glacial water is supplied in significant amounts to deep aquifers even in permafrosted zones. It also emphasizes the vulnerability of modern groundwater hydrosystems to climate change as groundwater active aquifers is restricted to shallow depths.

  1. SOME RESULTS FROM THE DEMONSTRATION OF INDOOR RADON REDUCTION MEASURES IN BLOCK BASEMENT HOUSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Active soil ventilation techniques have been tested in 26 block-wall basement houses in eastern Pennsylvania with significantly elevated indoor radon concentrations, generally above 740 Bq/m3, and the results indicate that radon levels can be reduced substantially often below the...

  2. Quantification of focusing effects of the semi-spherical and semi-cylindrical synclinal basement topography on ground motion characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahar, D.; Narayan, J. P.

    2016-01-01

    The anomalous damage patterns developed by the focusing of seismic waves due to deep and shallow seated synclinal basement topography were reported during the Northridge earthquake of 1994 and the Nisqually earthquake of 2001, respectively. This paper presents the role of sediment velocity, depth and geometry of the basement topography in basement focusing effects on ground motion characteristics. An increase of amplitude of the mode converted and the diffracted waves with an increase of impedance contrast and curvature of the basement topography was inferred. It is concluded that the basement focusing effect is unaffected by the change of focal length due to the change of either sediment velocity or radius of curvature for a fixed chord length in the absence of sediment damping. Further, under a favourable condition, the focusing of multiples of the transmitted waves may cause much larger amplitude amplification than that caused by the focusing of the transmitted wave itself. Extensive spatial variations in ground motion level were obtained with the change of depth and chord length of the basement topography. A comparative analysis of the responses of semi-spherical basement topography (3D) and semi-cylindrical basement topography (2D) strongly suggests that 1D or 2D response of an area underlain by a 3D depression should not be used in predicting the ground motion.

  3. Uranium deposits in the metamorphic basement of the Rouergue massif. Genesis and extension of related albitization processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albitization processes in the Rouergue metamorphic basement, probably Permian aged is evidenced. Late development of uranium orebodies occured within albitized zones. The detection of the latter serves as a highly valuable indirect guide for prospecting this type of deposits in a metamorphic basement

  4. On the issue of the Precambrian basement of the Arctic shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernikovsky, Valery A.; Korago, Evgeny A.; Proskurnin, Vasily F.; Sobolev, Nikolay N.

    2015-04-01

    Many researchers of the geological structures of the Russian Arctic concluded that the basements of the terranes composing the Arctic shelf and continental slopes have a Precambrian age. It is assumed that these terranes are actually fragments of the ancient Arctida paleocontinent [Zonenshain, Natapov, 1987] that broke up as a result of rifting and its separate plates and terranes either were overlain by continental margins sediments or included in the fold belts in the periphery of the ocean. In the western part of the Russian Arctic, a Grenvillian and Mesoproterozoic basement was demonstrated for Svalbard, Novaya Zemlya and Taimyr Peninsula, and at least a Neoproterozoic basement was established for structures in the basement of Severnaya Zemlya archipelago. In the eastern part of the Russian Arctic, such proofs were almost nonexistent. In recent years, new information was obtained concerning the continental nature and Precambrian age of the basement crust of the New Siberian Islands and De Long archipelagos as well as probably the Mendeleev Ridge. For the New Siberian Islands and De Long archipelagos, a whole series of geochronological evidence was obtained in addition to geological data (horizontally bedding Early Paleozoic passive continental margin sediments (Cambrian, Ordovician) at Bennett Island). In magmatic and tuffaceous-sedimentary rocks of Henrietta and Zhokhov islands we discovered zircons that had formed from magmatic crystallization in the Late Neoproterozoic. New U-Pb data for zircons from rocks of these islands do not contradict isotopic dating obtained earlier by other methods - Ar/Ar and Sm/Nd in different laboratories. Considering different closure temperatures for isotopic systems, these new results complement each other. On the islands of the eastern sector of the Russian Arctic, a Neoproterozoic complex of rocks is most certainly established in the basement of the mesozoides of Vrangel Island. Here were discovered metamorphosed volcanics

  5. Stress inversion and basement-cover stress transmission across weak layers in the Paris basin, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunzburger, Yann; Magnenet, Vincent

    2014-03-01

    We investigate the source of non-purely gravitational horizontal stresses in the Paris basin, a nowadays tectonically quiet intracratonic basin, in its eastern border of which outstandingly dense stress measurements are available. Based on a synthesis of published data, the stress state in the basin is first shown to be very close to the one that may be extrapolated for the underlying basement, in terms of principal stress orientations and horizontal to vertical stress ratios. This is in favour of a mechanical coupling between the basement and its sedimentary cover, which may seem contradictory to the presence of several weak rock layers in the basin fill, e.g. an argillite layer that was shown to bear low deviatoric stresses, and salt layers that are implicated in a major décollement elsewhere. To unravel this apparent contradiction, a 3D-numerical modelling is performed, following a rigorous inverse problem approach, to determine the long-term elastic properties of both the basement and the basin rocks. The objective is to find the set of elastic constants that provides the best fit between the calculated stress state in the basin and the in situ data, by assuming that the stress state in the basement is known. This methodology provides a realistic set of mechanical parameters, in agreement with previous studies, which leads to the conclusion that the horizontal stresses in the basin constitute its mechanical response to the stresses that developed in the underlying basement during and since the last tectonic event (Alpine phase). The fact that horizontal stresses could be transmitted across the weak horizons, contrary to what may be expected at first glance, is explained both by the geometry of the basin and the fact that, over the long term, the stiffnesses of the various sedimentary rocks are only slightly different from each other.

  6. Metamorphic basement characteristics, palaeo-tectonic patterns and prospect of uranium and gold mineralization in South (East) China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The metamorphic basement in South (East) China is composed of two geological terrains, Yangtze and Cathaysian, with different characteristics. After the Midde Proterozoic, the area experienced the evolution: collision-welding-pulling apart-rewelding. The main patterns of basement structures in the area are collision-welding zone and the intra-continental thrusting and strike-ship shearing welding zone which were developed on the old rift system. Uranium and gold prospect are intimately related with the basement structure. Uranium deposits mainly occur in the faulted-uplifted portion of the basement, while gold deposits, in the taphrogenic portion. The intersection part of the palaeo basement structures is an active part of Mesozoic-Cenozoic tectonic activities and the lateral volcanic rift basins controlled by the Meso-Cenozoic tectonics at the early stage and the magmatic complex belt formed under the extension condition at the late stage are the best prospective areas of uranium, gold and polymetallic metallogenesis

  7. Bone pathology inpsoriatic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Badokin

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study different variants of osteolysis in pts with psoriatic arthritis (PA and to reveal their relationship with other clinico-radiological features of joint damage. Material and methods. 370 pts with definite PA having different variants of joint damage were included. Radiological examination of bones and joints (in some cases large picture frame was performed. Morphological evaluation of synovial biopsies was done in 34 pts with PA and 10 pts with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Results. Different types of osteolysis were revealed in 80 (21,6% pts. Osteolytic variant of joint damage was present in 29 pts. 33 pts had acral, 48 — intra-articular osteolysis and 16 - true bone atrophy. Frequency and intensity of bone resorption were associated with severity of PA. Acral osteolysis correlated with arthritis of distal interphalangeal joints and onychodystrophy. Intra-articular osteolysis was most often present in distal interphalangeal joints of hands and metacarpophalangeal joints (39,6% and 41,7% respectively. Characteristic feature of PA was combination of prominent resorption with formation of bone ankylosis and periosteal reaction. Ankylosis was present in 33,3% of pts with intra-articular osteolysis and in 60% of pts with combination of different osteolysis variants. Systemic reaction of microcirculation in synovial biopsies was most prominent in osteolytic variant: marked thickening of capillary and venule basal membrane with high level of acid phosphatase, increased capillary and precapillary blood flow with stasis features, vascular lymphocyte and macrophage infiltration, productive vasculitis with annular wall thickening, thrombovasculitis and villi deep layer sclerosis. Conclusion. Different variants of osteolysis show bone involvement in PA. Acral and intra- articular osteolysis association with bone ankylosis and periostitis proves their common pathogenetic entity.

  8. Structural changes in plasma membrane under influence of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects ionizing radiation on membranes was studied. Changes arising in the oligosaccharide layer of the surface of the cell membrane, in the protein and lipid phases of membranes under the influence of radiation, as well as possible schemes of formation of structural changes in the membrane are discussed. Molecular bases of structural membrane changes induced by radiation, and determination of their role in development of cell pathology were investigated. The influence of the state of irradiated cell membranes on their radiosensitivity are also studied

  9. Digital pathology and anatomic pathology laboratory information system integration to support digital pathology sign-out

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huazhang Guo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The adoption of digital pathology offers benefits over labor-intensive, time-consuming, and error-prone manual processes. However, because most workflow and laboratory transactions are centered around the anatomical pathology laboratory information system (APLIS, adoption of digital pathology ideally requires integration with the APLIS. A digital pathology system (DPS integrated with the APLIS was recently implemented at our institution for diagnostic use. We demonstrate how such integration supports digital workflow to sign-out anatomical pathology cases. Methods: Workflow begins when pathology cases get accessioned into the APLIS (CoPathPlus. Glass slides from these cases are then digitized (Omnyx VL120 scanner and automatically uploaded into the DPS (Omnyx; Integrated Digital Pathology (IDP software v.1.3. The APLIS transmits case data to the DPS via a publishing web service. The DPS associates scanned images with the correct case using barcode labels on slides and information received from the APLIS. When pathologists remotely open a case in the DPS, additional information (e.g. gross pathology details, prior cases gets retrieved from the APLIS through a query web service. Results: Following validation of this integration, pathologists at our institution have signed out more than 1000 surgical pathology cases in a production environment. Integration between the APLIS and DPS enabled pathologists to review digital slides while simultaneously having access to pertinent case metadata. The introduction of a digital workflow eliminated costly manual tasks involving matching of glass slides and avoided delays waiting for glass slides to be delivered. Conclusion: Integrating the DPS and APLIS were instrumental for successfully implementing a digital solution at our institution for pathology sign-out. The integration streamlined our digital sign-out workflow, diminished the potential for human error related to matching slides, and

  10. Brain venous pathologies: MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To describe MRI findings of the different brain venous pathologies. Material and Methods: Between January 2002 and March 2004, 18 patients were studied 10 males and 8 females between 6 and 63 years old; with different brain venous pathologies. In all cases brain MRI were performed including morphological sequences with and without gadolinium injection and angiographic venous sequences. Results: 10 venous occlusions were found, 6 venous angiomas, and 2 presented varices secondary to arteriovenous dural fistula. Conclusion: Brain venous pathologies can appear in many different clinical contexts, with different prognosis and treatment. In all the cases brain MRI was the best imaging study to disclose typical morphologic abnormalities. (author)

  11. Digital photography in anatomical pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Leong F; Leong A

    2004-01-01

    Digital imaging has made major inroads into the routine practice of anatomical pathology and replaces photographic prints and Kodachromes for reporting and conference purposes. More advanced systems coupled to computers allow greater versatility and speed of turnaround as well as lower costs of incorporating macroscopic and microscopic pictures into pathology reports and publications. Digital images allow transmission to remote sites via the Internet for consultation, quality assurance and ed...

  12. Development of pathology in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan GEDİKOĞLU

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Autospy is an important tool for the development of pathology as a science. In western civilisation dissection of human body became widespread with Renaissance, in contrast in the Ottoman Empire first dissection was not performed until the 19th century. Mustafa Behçet Efendi, head physician of the Empire, was one of the Ottoman physician who suggested the importance of dissection in the medical education. The first dissection was however performed by Charles Ambroise Bernard, a foreign physician who had been invited to help establishing a new medical school; “Mekteb-i Tıbbiye-i Adliye-i Şâhâne”, in 1843. The first modern medical schools called “Tıphane” and “Cerrahhane-i Amire” which were founded in 1827, did not have pathology courses. Pathology courses began in “Mekteb-i Tıbbiye-i Adliyei Şâhâne”. Dr. Hamdi Suat (Aknar, educated in anatomic pathology in Germany, was the first pathologist who established the modern pathology in Turkey in “İstanbul Darülfünun” medical school. In 1933 “Darülfünün” was closed and İstanbul University was built and the “University Reform Commission” invited many scientists escaping from Nazi government to study in İstanbul University. Dr. Philipp Schwartz had an important role both in the invitation of these scientists and establishment of the pathology department in İstanbul University. Practical courses were increased, clinicopathologic courses were organized for the first time and a lot of autopsies were performed, as high as 1000 autopsy per year, by Dr. Philipp Schwartz. More progress has takes place in Turkey over the years since pathology was first established. Today Turkey has many pathology departments which keep up with the worldwide advances in the field.

  13. Percolation of diagenetic fluids in the Archaean basement of the Franceville basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouélé, Idalina Moubiya; Dudoignon, Patrick; Albani, Abderrazak El; Cuney, Michel; Boiron, Marie-Christine; Gauthier-Lafaye, François

    2014-01-01

    The Palaeoproterozoic Franceville basin, Gabon, is mainly known for its high-grade uranium deposits, which are the only ones known to act as natural nuclear fission reactors. Previous work in the Kiéné region investigated the nature of the fluids responsible for these natural nuclear reactors. The present work focuses on the top of the Archaean granitic basement, specifically, to identify and date the successive alteration events that affected this basement just below the unconformity separating it from the Palaeoproterozoic basin. Core from four drill holes crosscutting the basin-basement unconformity have been studied. Dating is based on U-Pb isotopic analyses performed on monazite. The origin of fluids is discussed from the study of fluid inclusion planes (FIP) in quartz from basement granitoids. From the deepest part of the drill holes to the unconformable boundary with the basin, propylitic alteration assemblages are progressively replaced by illite and locally by a phengite + Fe chlorite ± Fe oxide assemblage. Illitic alteration is particularly strong along the sediment-granitoid contact and is associated with quartz dissolution. It was followed by calcite and anhydrite precipitation as fracture fillings. U-Pb isotopic dating outlines three successive events: a 3.0-2.9-Ga primary magmatic event, a 2.6-Ga propylitic alteration and a late 1.9-Ga diagenetic event. Fluid inclusion microthermometry suggests the circulation of three types of fluids: (1) a Na-Ca-rich diagenetic brine, (2) a moderately saline (diagenetic + meteoric) fluid, and (3) a low-salinity fluid of probable meteoric origin. These fluids are similar to those previously identified within the overlying sedimentary rocks of the Franceville basin. Overall, the data collected in this study show that the Proterozoic-Archaean unconformity has operated as a major flow corridor for fluids circulation, around 1.9 Ga. highly saline diagenetic brines; hydrocarbon-rich fluids derived from organic matter

  14. Statistical analysis of indoor radon concentrations in a reinforced concrete building with three stories above ground and one basement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is important to understand 222Rn concentrations in dwellings precisely for dose assessment. 222Rn concentrations were continuously measured in a reinforced-concrete house in Tokyo with three stories above ground and one basement for seven years, from October 1988 to September 1995. In the basement, temperature and humidity were also measured, which were used for analyzing the seasonal variation of the 222Rn concentration and its relationship with environmental factors. 222Rn concentrations on the 2nd and 3rd floors showed a statistically significant seasonal variation, i.e., higher in winter and lower in summer, but those on the 1st floor did not show any significant seasonal variation. The 222Rn concentration in the basement showed a reverse seasonal variation, i.e., higher in summer and lower in winter. The 222Rn concentrations on each floor showed a drastic decrease after the renewal of the dehumidifier in the basement, which suggests that the 222Rn concentration in the basement has an influence on that in the rooms above ground. A multiple regression analysis suggested that the 222Rn concentration in the basement and its seasonal variation can be expressed with statistical significance by the linear combination of temperature, humidity and atmospheric pressure. It was also revealed that the 222Rn concentration on the 1st floor can be expressed by the linear combination of the concentrations in the basement, 2nd and 3rd floors. (author)

  15. Geology and petrography of basement in south extreme in Sierra Grande de San Luis, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the south of the Sierra de San Luis is recognized a basement composed by La Escalerilla and Los Puquios granites, accompanied by schist, mylonite s and mafic-ultramafic rocks. The schists, La Escalerilla granite and the mafic -ultramafic rocks are affected by a regional metamorphism in anphibolites facies, the two first present a N-S foliation di ping to east. The mylonite s correspond to a second event of deformation, distributed in thin belts of NNE-SSO direction and inclination to east, developed in green schist to anphibolites facies. Los Puquios granite represents the more young of the basement rocks and the intrusion was associated with a shear zone. Los Puquios granite forms dikes and small plutons cutting La Escalerilla granite and micas chits in high cortical levels

  16. Time variation of 222Rn concentration and gamma level in a half-basement room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correlation between 222Rn (radon) concentration and gamma level in a half-basement has been discussed. In order to decrease the background count of a whole-body counter (WBC), a ventilation blower of 72 m2h-1 was installed. The device succeeded in a big reduction of radon concentration in the half-basement and then the background of WBC (NaI(Tl)) decreased to the 76.5% of the saturated value. Through a radon saturation test the exhalation rate of radon from concrete wall was estimated as 2.1 Bqm-2h-1 by a simple model calculation. In addition, through a ventilation test, the procedure was analyzed by another simple model. (author)

  17. Characteristics of basement granitoids and their role on uranium mineralisation in and around southwestern margin of Cuddapah Basin, Andhra Pradesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different types of uranium mineralisation in the environs of Cuddapah Basin show temporal and spatial association with uraniferous basement granitoids (Closepet Equivalent) exposed in its southern and southwestern margin. Geochemical studies of these granitoids show that these are generally peraluminous and strongly differentiated with uranium concentration from 10 to 90 ppm. Uranium mineralisation (in terms of grade and thickness) in the granite-hosted, fracture- controlled type and in the Cuddapah sediments is pronounced in areas where basement rocks have more volume of these strongly differentiated uraniferous granitoids. In contrast, uranium mineralisation is of low grade and thickness where basement is represented by Peninsular gneisses. (author)

  18. Dolichol alters brain membrane functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been well demonstrated that there is a direct correlation between increase in dolichol level in brain and aging. An abnormally high level of dolichol was found in brain tissue of patients with pathological aging disorders. The aim of this study is to examine the physiological significance of dolichol affecting membrane transport activity and phospholipid acyl group turnover. Dolichol added to synaptic plasma membranes resulted in a biphasic effect on (Na+, K+)-ATPase, i.e., an enhancement of activity at low concentrations (5 μg/125 mg protein) and an inhibition of activity at high concentrations (40-100 μg). To probe the membrane acyl group turnover, the incorporation of [14C]-arachidonate into plasma membrane phospholipids was examined in the presence and absence of dolichol. Dolichol elicited an increase in the incorporation of label into phospholipids. However, the effects varied depending on whether BSA is present. In the absence of BSA, the increase in labeling of phosphatidylinositols is higher than that of phosphatidylcholines. These results suggest that dolichols, when inserted into membranes, may alter membrane functions

  19. Dolichol alters brain membrane functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, G.Y.; Sun, A.Y.; Schroeder, F.; Wood, G.; Strong, R.

    1986-03-05

    It has been well demonstrated that there is a direct correlation between increase in dolichol level in brain and aging. An abnormally high level of dolichol was found in brain tissue of patients with pathological aging disorders. The aim of this study is to examine the physiological significance of dolichol affecting membrane transport activity and phospholipid acyl group turnover. Dolichol added to synaptic plasma membranes resulted in a biphasic effect on (Na/sup +/, K/sup +/)-ATPase, i.e., an enhancement of activity at low concentrations (5 ..mu..g/125 mg protein) and an inhibition of activity at high concentrations (40-100 ..mu..g). To probe the membrane acyl group turnover, the incorporation of (/sup 14/C)-arachidonate into plasma membrane phospholipids was examined in the presence and absence of dolichol. Dolichol elicited an increase in the incorporation of label into phospholipids. However, the effects varied depending on whether BSA is present. In the absence of BSA, the increase in labeling of phosphatidylinositols is higher than that of phosphatidylcholines. These results suggest that dolichols, when inserted into membranes, may alter membrane functions.

  20. Groundwater recharge estimation and water resources assessment in a tropical crystalline basement aquifer

    OpenAIRE

    Nyagwambo, N.L.

    2006-01-01

    While most groundwater recharge estimation methods give reasonable long-term annual average estimates very few if any methods offer guidance on monthly recharge. In crystalline basement aquifers (CBAs) the problem is compounded by the high seasonal, intra-annual and inter-annual variability. The chloride mass balance (CMB), the daily catchment water balance (WB) and the water table fluctuation (WTF) groundwater recharge estimation methods have been used to estimate groundwater recharge in a s...

  1. Apparatus for centrifuge modelling of top down basement construction with heave reducing piles

    OpenAIRE

    McNamara, A M; Goodey, R J; Taylor, R.N.

    2009-01-01

    The construction of deep basements in urban areas is associated with many risks and problems among which is the possible damage to existing structures and services resulting from settlements near the excavation. A number of methods are routinely employed to attempt to control these movements (e.g. top-down construction, use of stiff diaphragm walls). This paper discusses the methodology and practicalities of a series of centrifuge model tests designed to investigate the effect of deep basemen...

  2. Hydrogeological characterisation and water-supply potential of basement aquifers in tropical Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Chilton, P.J.; Foster, S S D

    1995-01-01

    AbstractCrystalline basement rocks, with a mantle of weathered alternation products, occur beneath very extensive areas of tropical Africa. Low-productivity aquifers are widely, but rather unpredictably, present in this formation. They yield small water supplies vital to the rural population for domestic purposes and for livestock watering. On a more localised basis, a potential may exist to develop larger supplies that are adequate for small towns or for small-scale irrigation. This paper re...

  3. Rat mesangial cells in vitro synthesize a spectrum of proteoglycan species including those of the basement membrane and interstitium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, G J; Shewring, L; McCarthy, K J; Couchman, J R; Mason, R M; Davies, M

    1995-01-01

    Accumulation of extracellular matrix within the mesangium is an important event in the development of glomerular disease. In this report we have used indirect immunofluorescence to positively identify a number of constituents of the mesangial matrix synthesized by rat mesangial cells (RMC) in vitro...

  4. Genome wide analysis indicates genes for basement membrane and cartilage matrix proteins as candidates for hip dysplasia in Labrador Retrievers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lavrijsen, Ineke; Leegwater, Peter; Martin, AJ; Harris, SJ; Tryfonidou, Marianna; Heuven, Henri; Hazewinkel, Herman

    2014-01-01

    Hip dysplasia, an abnormal laxity of the hip joint, is seen in humans as well as dogs and is one of the most common skeletal disorders in dogs. Canine hip dysplasia is considered multifactorial and polygenic, and a variety of chromosomal regions have been associated with the disorder. We performed a

  5. AGE-modified basement membrane cooperates with Endo180 to promote epithelial cell invasiveness and decrease prostate cancer survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez-Teja, Mercedes; Gronau, Julian H; Breit, Claudia;

    2015-01-01

    Biomechanical strain imposed by age-related thickening of the basal lamina and augmented tissue stiffness in the prostate gland coincides with increased cancer risk. Here we hypothesized that the structural alterations in the basal lamina associated with age can induce mechanotransduction pathways...... in prostate epithelial cells (PECs) to promote invasiveness and cancer progression. To demonstrate this, we developed a 3D model of PEC acini in which thickening and stiffening of basal lamina matrix was induced by advanced glycation end-product (AGE)-dependent non-enzymatic crosslinking of its major...... [myosin-light chain-2 (MLC2) phosphorylation], loss of cell polarity, loss of cell-cell junctions, luminal infiltration and basal invasion induced by AGE-modified basal lamina matrix in PEC acini. Our in vitro results were concordant with luminal occlusion of acini in the prostate glands of adult Endo180...

  6. Anti-IL-5 treatment reduces deposition of ECM proteins in the bronchial subepithelial basement membrane of mild atopic asthmatics

    OpenAIRE

    Flood-Page, Patrick; Menzies-Gow, Andrew; Phipps, Simon; Ying, Sun; Wangoo, Arun; Ludwig, Mara S.; Barnes, Neil; Robinson, Douglas; Kay, A. Barry

    2003-01-01

    Eosinophil-derived TGF-β has been implicated in remodeling events in asthma. We hypothesized that reduction of bronchial mucosal eosinophils with anti–IL-5 would reduce markers of airway remodeling. Bronchial biopsies were obtained before and after three infusions of a humanized, anti–IL-5 monoclonal antibody (mepolizumab) in 24 atopic asthmatics in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. The thickness and density of tenascin, lumican, and procollagen III in the reticular baseme...

  7. Deletion of the Basement Membrane Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycan Type XVIII Collagen Causes Hypertriglyceridemia in Mice and Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Bishop, Joseph R.; Passos-Bueno, Maria Rita; Fong, Loren; Stanford, Kristin I.; Gonzales, Jon C.; Yeh, Erika; Young, Stephen G.; Bensadoun, Andre; Witztum, Joseph L.; Esko, Jeffrey D.; Moulton, Karen S.

    2010-01-01

    Background Lipoprotein lipase (Lpl) acts on triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in the peripheral circulation, liberating free fatty acids for energy metabolism or storage. This essential enzyme is synthesized in parenchymal cells of adipose tissue, heart, and skeletal muscle and migrates to the luminal side of the vascular endothelium where it acts upon circulating lipoproteins. Prior studies suggested that Lpl is immobilized by way of heparan sulfate proteoglycans on the endothelium, but genetic...

  8. Cross-reactivity of cell-mediated immunity between interstitial (type I) and basement membrane (type IV) collagens

    OpenAIRE

    1982-01-01

    In the present study, we demonstrate delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) to homologous type I collagen that cross-reacts with type IV collagen. Mice immunized with native or denatured type I collagens and challenged with these same antigens or native type IV collagen develop a peak DTH response on day 7. Challenge with denatured type IV collagen or collagenase-treated type IV collagen failed to elicit DTH in type I collagen-sensitized mice. Type I collagen-sensitized spleen cells adoptively t...

  9. Uraniferous rhyolitic vein in the basement fractures of Singhora Protobasin near Juba Village, Raipur District, Chhattisgarh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uraniferous rhyolitic vein occupying fracture (N80°E - S80°W), is reported in the in-lier exposed as basement (Sambalpur Granitoid) windows within the eastern margin of Singhora Group of rocks, near Juba village, in Raipur District of Chhattisgarh State. Chemically, vein shows granitic composition which is further confirmed by thin section studies. Presences of phenocrysts of bipyramidal quartz, euhedral senidine and biotite in fine grained glassy to devitrified groundmass classified the rock to rhyolitic category. The rhyolitic vein (5 m X 1 m) analysed uranium (28 to 100 ppm) associated with limonite, goethite and apatite. This Uranium bearing rhyolitic vein is fracture filled in the basement rocks and has significance in the light of uranium-sulphide mineralisation already reported in the overlying sedimentary rocks of Singhora Group exposed very near to this location. Presence of such acid volcanic activity during Singhora sedimentation or post Singhora basement activation is important from the uranium exploration point of view. (author)

  10. Volcanic conduit migration over a basement landslide at Mount Etna (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolosi, I.; Caracciolo, F. D'ajello; Branca, S.; Ventura, G.; Chiappini, M.

    2014-06-01

    The flanks of volcanoes may slide in response to the loading of the edifice on a weak basement, magma push, and/or to tectonic stress. However, examples of stratovolcanoes emplaced on active landslides are lacking and the possible effects on the volcano dynamics unknown. Here, we use aeromagnetic data to construct a three-dimensional model of the clay-rich basement of Etna volcano (Italy). We provide evidence for a large stratovolcano growing on a pre-existing basement landslide and show that the eastern Etna flank, which slides toward the sea irrespective of volcanic activity, moves coherently with the underlying landslide. The filling of the landslide depression by lava flows through time allows the formation of a stiffness barrier, which is responsible for the long-term migration of the magma pathways from the coast to the present-day Etna summit. These unexpected results provide a new interpretation clue on the causes of the volcanic instability processes and of the mechanisms of deflection and migration of volcanic conduits.

  11. Geochemical variability of the Yucatan basement: Constraints from crystalline clasts in Chicxulub impactites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettrup, B.; Deutsch, A.

    2003-07-01

    The 65 Ma old Chicxulub impact structure with a diameter of about 180 km is again in the focus of the geosciences because of the recently commenced drilling of the scientific well Yaxcopoil- 1. Chicxulub is buried beneath thick post-impact sediments, yet samples of basement lithologies in the drill cores provide a unique insight into age and composition of the crust beneath Yucatan. This study presents major element, Sr, and Nd isotope data for Chicxulub impact melt lithologies and clasts of basement lithologies in impact breccias from the PEMEX drill cores C-1 and Y-6, as well as data for ejecta material from the K/T boundaries at La Lajilla, Mexico, and Furlo, Italy. The impact melt lithologies have an andesitic composition with significantly varying contents of Al, Ca, and alkali elements. Their present day 87Sr/86Sr ratios cluster at about 0.7085, and 143Nd/144Nd ratios range from 0.5123 to 0.5125. Compared to the melt lithologies that stayed inside the crater, data for ejecta material show larger variations. The 87Sr/86Sr ratios range from 0.7081 for chloritized spherules from La Lajilla to 0.7151 for sanidine spherules from Furlo. The 143Nd/144Nd ratio is 0.5126 for La Lajilla and 0.5120 for the Furlo spherules. In an tCHUR(Nd)-tUR(Sr) diagram, the melt lithologies plot in a field delimited by Cretaceous platform sediments, various felsic lithic clasts and a newly found mafic fragment from a suevite. Granite, gneiss, and amphibolite have been identified among the fragments from crystalline basement gneiss. Their 87Sr/86Sr ratios range from 0.7084 to 0.7141, and their 143Nd/144Nd ratios range from 0.5121 to 0.5126. The TNdDM model ages vary from 0.7 to 1.4 Ga, pointing to different source terranes for these rocks. This leads us to believe that the geological evolution and the lithological composition of the Yucatàn basement is probably more complex than generally assumed, and Gondwanan as well as Laurentian crust may be present in the Yucatàn basement.

  12. Pharmacological Treatments in Pathological Gambling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Schreiber, Liana R N

    2012-01-01

    AIMS: Pathological gambling (PG) is a relatively common and often disabling psychiatric condition characterized by intrusive urges to engage in deleterious gambling behavior. Although common and financially devastating to individuals and families, there currently exist no formally approved...... pharmacotherapeutic interventions for this disorder. This review seeks to examine the history of medication treatments for PG. METHODS: A systematic review of the 18 double-blind, placebo-controlled pharmacotherapy studies conducted for the treatment of pathological gambling was conducted. Study outcome and the mean...

  13. Axionic membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aurilia, A. (Dept. of Physics, California State Polytechnic Univ., Pomona, CA (United States)); Spallucci, E. (Dipt. di Fisica Teorica, Univ. Trieste (Italy) INFN, Sezione Trieste (Italy))

    1992-05-21

    A metal ring removed from a soap-water solution encloses a film of soap which can be mathematically described as a minimal surface having the ring as its only boundary. This is known to everybody. In this letter we suggest a relativistic extension of the above fluidodynamic system where the soap film is replaced by a Kalb-Ramand gauge potential B{sub {mu}{nu}}(x) and the ring by a closed string. The interaction between the B{sub {mu}{nu}} field and the string current excites a new configuration of the system consisting of a relativistic membrane bounded by the string. We call such a classical solution of the equation of motion an axionic membrane. As a dynamical system, the axionic membrane admits a Hamilton-Jacobi formulation which is an extension of the HJ theory of electromagnetic strings. (orig.).

  14. A common landscape for membrane-active peptides

    OpenAIRE

    Last, Nicholas B.; Schlamadinger, Diana E.; Miranker, Andrew D.

    2013-01-01

    Three families of membrane-active peptides are commonly found in nature and are classified according to their initial apparent activity. Antimicrobial peptides are ancient components of the innate immune system and typically act by disruption of microbial membranes leading to cell death. Amyloid peptides contribute to the pathology of diverse diseases from Alzheimer's to type II diabetes. Preamyloid states of these peptides can act as toxins by binding to and permeabilizing cellular membranes...

  15. Membranous nephropathy with monoclonal IgG4 deposits and associated IgG4-related lung disease

    OpenAIRE

    Omokawa, Ayumi; Komatsuda, Atsushi; Hirokawa, Makoto; Wakui, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    A 62-year-old woman was admitted for nephrotic syndrome and lung tumor. A renal biopsy showed membranous features of the glomeruli. Immunofluorescence studies revealed granular IgG4-κ deposits along with the glomerular basement membrane. Electron microscopy revealed granular electron-dense deposits. Further study denied multiple myeloma. Light microscopy of the resected lung tumor revealed IgG4-related lung disease with no malignancy. Steroid therapy induced a remission of the nephrotic syndr...

  16. Testing of indoor radon-reduction techniques in basement houses having adjoining wings. Final report, August 1988-September 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report gives results of tests of indoor radon reduction techniques in 12 existing Maryland houses, with the objective of determining when basement houses with adjoining wings require active soil depressurization (ASD) treatment of both wings, and when treatment of the basement alone is sufficient. In five basement houses with adjoining slabs on grade, ASD treatment of both wings provided an incremental additional radon reduction of 0 to 5.2 pCi/L, compared to ASD treatment of either one of the slabs alone. However, basement-only treatment reduced radon to <4 pCi/L in all five houses. In six basement houses having adjoining crawl spaces, ASD treatment of both wings (including sub-liner depressurization of the crawl space) provided little additional reduction compared to basement-only treatment, when sub-slab communication was good. When communication was not good, treatment of both wings was required to achieve <4 pCi/L. Tests of one fully slab-on-grade house showed that, when there is good aggregate under the slab, a one-pipe sub-slab depressurization system can achieve <1-2 pCi/L, even when there are forced-air supply ducts under the slab

  17. 糖尿病患者牙髓组织微血管病变的超微结构观察%Ultramicrostructural study of pathological changes of capillary vessels in pulp tissues of diabetes mellitus patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓丽; 杨长怡; 张遵; 孙青; 杨柳青

    2012-01-01

    目的:通过对糖尿病(diabetes mellitus,DM)患者和正常人牙髓组织状况、微血管超微结构的比较,探讨DM与牙髓病变的关系及DM患者牙髓病变的发病机制.方法:采用分组对照法,DM组(30颗)为Ⅱ型DM患者拔除的外观完好、无牙髓病症状的阻生第三磨牙,对照组(30颗)为正常人拔除的阻生第三磨牙.光镜下观察2组牙髓组织的结构特点,电镜下观察牙髓组织中微血管超微结构及改变,测量微血管基底膜厚度,并通过组织化学电镜技术进行VEGF上负电荷位点的计数.采用SAS6.12软件包对数据进行统计学分析.结果:光镜下可见DM组牙髓毛细血管壁增厚.电镜下见DM组牙髓毛细血管壁增厚,管腔狭窄、变形,毛细血管基底膜显著增厚(P<0.01),毛细血管内皮细胞肿胀、结构紊乱.特殊染色电镜下见DM组牙髓毛细血管基底膜上负电荷位点显著减少(P<0.01).结论:DM患者无龋坏、创伤缺损、牙髓病症状的牙的牙髓中毛细血管内皮细胞肿胀、结构紊乱,毛细血管基底膜增厚,基底膜上负电荷位点数目减少,可能是导致DM性牙髓病变的病理基础.%To investigate the relationship between diabetes mellitus and pulposis and the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus pulposis, via comparing the pulp tissue conditions and ultramicrostructures of capillary vessels in pulp tissues of diabetes mellitus patients and normal control. METHODS: Pulp tissues were obtained from clinically extracted human third molars with impaction (control group, 30 cases) and intact third molars with impaction (non-insulin dependent diabetes patients) whilst without pulposis symptom (diabetic group, 30 cases). The pathological changes of two groups' pulp tissues were evaluated under light microscope and electron microscopy. The thickness of pulp capillary basement membrane and their anionic sites were quantitatively analyzed by electron microscopy and special staining. Statistical analysis

  18. Alternative Pathway Dysregulation and the Conundrum of Complement Activation by IgG4 Immune Complexes in Membranous Nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borza, Dorin-Bogdan

    2016-01-01

    Membranous nephropathy (MN), a major cause of nephrotic syndrome, is a non-inflammatory immune kidney disease mediated by IgG antibodies that form glomerular subepithelial immune complexes. In primary MN, autoantibodies target proteins expressed on the podocyte surface, often phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R1). Pathology is driven by complement activation, leading to podocyte injury and proteinuria. This article overviews the mechanisms of complement activation and regulation in MN, addressing the paradox that anti-PLA2R1 and other antibodies causing primary MN are predominantly (but not exclusively) IgG4, an IgG subclass that does not fix complement. Besides immune complexes, alterations of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) in MN may lead to impaired regulation of the alternative pathway (AP). The AP amplifies complement activation on surfaces insufficiently protected by complement regulatory proteins. Whereas podocytes are protected by cell-bound regulators, the GBM must recruit plasma factor H, which inhibits the AP on host surfaces carrying certain polyanions, such as heparan sulfate (HS) chains. Because HS chains present in the normal GBM are lost in MN, we posit that the local complement regulation by factor H may be impaired as a result. Thus, the loss of GBM HS in MN creates a micro-environment that promotes local amplification of complement activation, which in turn may be initiated via the classical or lectin pathways by subsets of IgG in immune complexes. A detailed understanding of the mechanisms of complement activation and dysregulation in MN is important for designing more effective therapies. PMID:27199983

  19. Physiological and pathological cardiac hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Ippei; Minamino, Tohru

    2016-08-01

    The heart must continuously pump blood to supply the body with oxygen and nutrients. To maintain the high energy consumption required by this role, the heart is equipped with multiple complex biological systems that allow adaptation to changes of systemic demand. The processes of growth (hypertrophy), angiogenesis, and metabolic plasticity are critically involved in maintenance of cardiac homeostasis. Cardiac hypertrophy is classified as physiological when it is associated with normal cardiac function or as pathological when associated with cardiac dysfunction. Physiological hypertrophy of the heart occurs in response to normal growth of children or during pregnancy, as well as in athletes. In contrast, pathological hypertrophy is induced by factors such as prolonged and abnormal hemodynamic stress, due to hypertension, myocardial infarction etc. Pathological hypertrophy is associated with fibrosis, capillary rarefaction, increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and cellular dysfunction (impairment of signaling, suppression of autophagy, and abnormal cardiomyocyte/non-cardiomyocyte interactions), as well as undesirable epigenetic changes, with these complex responses leading to maladaptive cardiac remodeling and heart failure. This review describes the key molecules and cellular responses involved in physiological/pathological cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:27262674

  20. Learning Biology with Plant Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Juliet E.

    This monograph contains 10 plant pathology experiments that were written to correspond to portions of a biology curriculum. Each experiment is suitable to a biology topic and designed to encourage exploration of those biological concepts being taught. Experiments include: (1) The Symptoms and Signs of Disease; (2) Koch's Postulates; (3)…

  1. Telescoping phenomenon in pathological gambling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Mooney, Marc E

    2012-01-01

    The course of pathological gambling (PG) in women has been described as having a later age of initiation but a shorter time to problematic gambling ("telescoped"). This study examined evidence for telescoping and its relationship with comorbidities. Seventy-one treatment-seeking individuals with PG...

  2. CT and pathologic correlation acute miliary pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To elucidate the CT characteristics and pathology of acute miliary pulmonary tuberculosis (AMPT). Methods: The CT features of AMPT in 25 cases were analyzed retrospectively, and the CT features in HIV-seronegative and HIV-seropositive patients were compared by 2-sided exact probability Chi-square test. Two lung specimens were inflated and fixed by Heitzman's method. HRCT scans, gross specimen section (80-150 μm) and histologic section (5 μm) were performed on dry lung specimens and CT-pathologic correlation was conducted. The distribution of micronodules in the secondary lobule on HRCT and pathology in one specimen was evaluated by Chi-square test. Results: Twenty five patients with AMPT were included in this study, including 11 HIV-seropositive patients and 14 HIV- seronegative patients. HRCT showed diffuse micronodules randomly distributed throughout both lungs in 25 patients, and ground-glass opacity (17 patients) was the predominant complicated finding. Coalescence of nodules and consolidation in HIV-seropositive patients (5 and 6 patients) were markedly higher than that in HIV-seronegative patients (none). In lung specimens, most nodules located in the lung parenchyma between the central bronchovascular bundle and the perilobular structures (792 and 560 nodules), which located in the interlobular septum pathologically. The distribution of micronodules in the secondary lobule showed on HRCT (1060 nodules) and pathology (864 nodules) was not significantly difference (χ2=2.814, P>0.05) . HRCT showed ground-glass opacities when ARDS occurred, which were pulmonary edema, inflammation and hyaline membrane on alveolar wall pathologically. Conclusions: The HRCT characteristic of nodule distribution in AMPT is random. ARDS should be suspected when diffuse ground-glass opacities appear on HRCT. (authors)

  3. Robotic membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette

    2008-01-01

    prototypes, Vivisection and Strange Metabolisms, were developed at the Centre for Information Technology and Architecture (CITA) at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts in Copenhagen as a means of engaging intangible digital data with tactile physical material. As robotic membranes, they are a dual...

  4. Basement configuration of the northwestern South America - Caribbean margin from recent geophysical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oceanic nature of the crust in northern Colombia (underlying the lower Magdalena basins) has been postulated by different authors as a northern extension of the cretaceous, mafic and ultramafic rocks accreted to the western margin of northwest Colombia (in the western cordillera and Baudo range). Localized, small outcrops of oceanic affinity rocks seem to support this hypothesis. However, geophysical data do not support this northern extension, but clearly mark the boundary between the collision panama terrane with northern south America and the over thrusting of the latter on top of the obliquely convergent Caribbean plate. We produced maps to basement and Moho topography by integrated modeling of gravity, magnetic, seismic reflection surveys and well data from northwest Colombia and the southwestern Caribbean in areas with good seismic coverage, the basement under the lower Magdalena basins (LMB) is represented by o clear reflector. in areas where seismic data shows poor imaging or is absent, we use a bock stripping methodology to model first the sedimentary section, with known densities, composition and geometry controlled by oil wells and high quality seismic data, and then the deeper section. 2,50 gravity and magnetic modeling results in on initial Moho that con be extended to the entire region based on the control of available seismic refraction points. This controlled Moho provides the basis for basement modeling for the whole area and this sequence is iterated for several sections across the region. Our results indicate that the crust under northern Colombia is continental to thinned continental (transitional) in nature, with densities between 2,6 and 2,7 g/cm3. our model also requires a dense wedge of sediments (density 2,5 g/cm3) of the base of the modern fold belt, which may represent a fossil sedimentary wedge attachment to the continental margin. This wedge may have served as a backstop for the modern fold belt. The gravity modeling does not

  5. Dwellings with cellars and basements. A BRE guide to radon remedial measures in existing dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This guide is one of a series giving practical advice on methods of reducing radon levels in existing dwellings. It is intended to help surveyors, builders and householders who are trying to reduce indoor radon levels in houses with cellars or basements. The guide is based on a large body of remedial work carried out to advice given by BRE, and on discussions with others working in the field. The measures it describes are applicable, in principle, to all dwellings and other buildings of a similar scale and construction which have cellars or basements. Contact details of other organisations referred to are listed at the back of this guide. Basements and cellars are relatively uncommon in the United Kingdom, but where they do occur they are likely to be major contributors to the radon problem within a building. Experience shows that most houses with high indoor radon levels can be remedied through the use of straightforward building works. These can be carried out by a builder or householder competent in DIY. The cost should not be excessive. Before reading this guide, for background information on radon, consult Radon: a householder's guide and Radon: a guide to reducing levels M your home, obtainable from local Environmental Health Officers or from the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions. The Government recommends that, if the average radon concentration in a dwelling exceeds 200 Bq/m3 (the 'action' level), measures should be taken to reduce it. This guide assumes that radon measurements have been made in the building and that the annual average indoor radon level was shown to exceed the action level

  6. The role of mechanical heterogeneities in evaporite sequence during deformation initiated by basement fault activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamuszek, Marta; Dabrowski, Marcin; Burliga, Stanisław

    2016-04-01

    Kłodawa Salt Structure (KSS) situated in the centre of the Polish Zechstein Basin started to rise above a basement fault in the Early Triassic. Geological studies of the KSS revealed significant differences in the deformation patterns between the PZ1-PZ2 (intensely deformed) and PZ3-PZ4 (less deformed) cycle evaporites. These two older and two younger cycle evaporite complexes are separated by the thick Main Anhydrite (A3) bed. We use numerical simulations to assess the impact of a thick anhydrite bed on intrasalt deformation. In our models, the overburden consists of clastic sediments. A normal fault located in the rigid basement beneath the salt is activated due to model extension. At the same time, the sedimentation process takes place. The evaporites consist of a salt bed intercalated with a thick anhydrite layer of varying position and geometry. To understand the role of anhydrite layer, we run comparative simulations, in which no anhydrite layer is present. In the study, we use our own numerical codes implemented in MATLAB combined with the MILAMIN and MUTILS numerical packages. Our investigations revealed a significant influence of the anhydrite on deformation style in the evaporate series. The supra-anhydrite domain is characterized by weaker deformation and lower rates of salt flow in comparison to the sub-anhydrite domain. The highest contrast in the rate of salt flow between the two domains is observed in the case of the anhydrite layer situated close to the bottom of the salt complex. The thick anhydrite layer additionally diminishes the deformation rate in the supra-anhydrite domain and can lead to detachment of the basement deformation from its overlay. Our numerical simulations showed that the presence of the A3 Main Anhydrite bed could be the dominant factor responsible for the decoupling of deformation in the KSS salt complex.

  7. Structure of Charnockitic basement in a part of the Krishna–Godavari basin, Andhra Pradesh

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I V Radhakrishna Murthy; S Bangaru Babu

    2006-08-01

    A regional magnetic survey was carried out over an area of 8000 km2 in Godavari districts of Andhra Pradesh,India,which is covered by the rocks of Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt (EGMB) viz., the Khondalitic series and Charnockites in the northern half and Permian to Mesozoic and Cenozoic sediments in the southern half,and forms a part of the Krishna –Godavari (K –G)basin. The survey brought out a strong NE –SW trending anomaly in the area covered by the rocks of Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt (EGMB),and a mild ENE –WSW trending anomaly in the area covered by the sediments of the Krishna –Godavari (K –G)basin.The NE –SW trending anomaly in the northern half could be attributed to the exposed/near surface Charnockite basement that has come closer to the surface as a result of Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt (EGMB)tectonics.Explanation of the mild ENE –WSW trending anomaly over the sediments of the Krishna –Godavari (K –G)basin required a faulted magnetic basement at depth downthrown towards the south.It is therefore concluded that the Charnockitic basement together with the Khondalite group of rocks which are folded and faulted during the different phases of tectonics of Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt (EGMB) extend into the Krishna –Godavari (K –G)basin and further,were involved in faulting during the phases of formation and sedimentation in the Krishna –Godavari (K –G)basin.

  8. The nature of the acoustic basement on Mendeleev and northwestern Alpha ridges, Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruvoll, Vibeke; Kristoffersen, Yngve; Coakley, Bernard J.; Hopper, John R.; Planke, Sverre; Kandilarov, Aleksandre

    2012-01-01

    The Alpha-Mendeleev ridge complex, over 1500 km long and 250-400 km wide, is the largest submarine structure in the Arctic Ocean basin. Its origin is unknown, but often inferred to represent a large igneous province where domains of continental crust may also be a possibility. We investigate the basement geology of part of this large scale feature using 1100 km of multichannel seismic reflection data, sonobuoy recordings and marine gravity data acquired in 2005 from USCG icebreaker Healy. The sonobuoy results show top and intra-acoustic basement velocities in the range of 2.3-4.0 km/s and the seismic reflection attributes define three main acoustic facies: 1) continuous high amplitude reflections often with abrupt breaks, 3) weak wedge geometry and 3) segmented, disrupted to chaotic reflections. The acoustic characteristics and seismic velocities compare more closely with basement on Ontong Java Plateau than normal ocean crust or wedges of seaward dipping reflections at volcanic margins. The acoustic facies are interpreted to represent basalt flows and sills capping voluminous tuff deposits and possible sediments. At least two volcanic centres are identified. The upper volcanic carapace on the surveyed part of Mendeleev and northwestern Alpha ridges was emplaced during a brief igneous episode no later than Campanian (80 Ma) and most likely part of wider Late Cretaceous circum Arctic volcanism. The horst and graben morphology on Mendeleev Ridge is largely a result of post-emplacement faulting where a number of the major extensional faults remained active until a late Miocene intrusive event.

  9. Thermochronology and geochemistry of the Pan-African basement below the Sab'atayn Basin, Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeningen, Resi; Rice, A. Hugh N.; Schneider, David A.; Grasemann, Bernhard

    2015-02-01

    Three important lithologies occur in two drill wells from the Pan-African basement underlying the Mesozoic Sab'atayn Basin, in a previously undocumented area of the Pan-African, 83 and 90 km NE of known exposures in Yemen. Cores from well 1 include amphibolite, with basaltic to andesitic compositions, affected by crustal contamination during emplacement into a thickened crust. Deeper in the well, an unfoliated dark red monzogranite has a U-Pb zircon age of 628.8 ± 3.1 Ma and a Rb-Sr biotite cooling age of 591.6 ± 5.8 Ma (∼300 °C). Regional constraints suggest emplacement in a transitional tectonic setting with compressional terrane amalgamation followed by extensional collapse. Sm-Nd isotope analysis yields a TDM model age of 1.24 Ga with negative εNd values, suggesting the monzogranite is part of the Al Bayda island arc terrane. Cores from well 2 contains a weakly deformed, massive (unbedded) medium grey meta-arkose exhibiting essentially no geochemical signature of weathering and with an almost pure dacitic composition. This rock may have been directly derived from an (extrusive) granitoid that was emplaced prior to, or during terrane amalgamation. A (U-Th-Sm)/He zircon age of 156 ± 14 Ma constrains the time of basement cooling to ∼180 °C, synchronous with basin formation. These lithologies provide new insights in the development of the Pan-African basement of Yemen, extending our knowledge of the nearby surface geology to the subsurface.

  10. Ordovician magmatic belt upon pre-Variscan basement in the internal Sardinian Variscides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbing, H.; Frisch, W.; Tiepolo, M.

    2003-04-01

    A middle Ordovician angular unconformity overlain by conglomerates is exposed in the foreland of the Sardinian Variscides and marks the Sardic phase. Towards the orogen, the foreland is bordered by the nappe zone, in which calc-alkaline suite-derived porphyroids occur in the stratigraphic position of middle Ordovician, but such an unconformity as documented in the foreland is not exposed. The nappe zone records increasing metamorphism from low- to medium-grade towards internal parts and is juxtaposed against the high-grade axial zone along a late Variscan fault. Towards the internal parts, the stratigraphy and the porphyroid occurrence become increasingly uncertain. The Ordovician orthogneisses from Lodè and Tanaunella appear respectively in the medium-grade nappe zone and high-grade axial zone as plutonic equivalents to the porphyroids and rise the question whether these orthogneisses intruded in a sedimentary sequence or in an older basement. In order to solve this classical basement problem, we obtained the following results at the transition between nappe zone and axial zone in NE Sardinia. We discovered porphyroids in the low-grade nappe zone south of the village Lula. Furthermore, the earliest foliation S1 is restricted to the medium-grade nappe zone and high-grade axial zone, but is not developed neither in the orthogneisses nor in the porphyroid-interlayered low-grade nappe zone. In-situ U-Pb isotopic data obtained by laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) on zircon yield 485 +/- 11 Ma for the low-grade Lula porphyroid, 493 +/- 11 Ma for the medium-grade Lodè orthogneiss, and 453 +/- 8 Ma for the high-grade Tanaunella orthogneiss. Besides these Ordovician ages, Neoproterozoic ages are inherited from a Pan-African episode. According to these results we can draw the following conclusions. The internal Sardinian Variscides are made up by an Ordovician magmatic belt upon a pre-Variscan basement. The displacement at the late

  11. Detailed petrographic-structural study of an outcrop of Crystalline Basement of Montevideo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary data analysis of detailed outcrop Punta Virgilo, located on the S E coast of the department of Montevideo are presented. The investigated outcrop includes gneisses, amphibolite s and several generations of pegmatite and aplite dikes of Paleoproterozoic metamorphic basement, plus a set of dikes emplaced lamprófido exhumed once the area. Petrographic and microstructural studies of metamorphic units allowed to determine the conditions of metamorphism and deformation temperature between 520-720 ° C and pressure between 2 and 6 kbar (depth of 10 to 23 km)

  12. Roter Kamm impact crater, Namibia: Geochemistry of basement rocks and breccias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimold, Wolf Uwe; Koeberl, Christian; Bishop, Janice

    1994-06-01

    The Roter Kamm crater in the southern Namib Desert has previously been identified as an impact structure on the basis of crater morphology and the presence of impact melt breccias which contain shock metamorphosed quartz and lithic clasts. To better define the variety of target rocks and breccias, we studied the petrography and chemical composition of a new suite of twenty-eight basement and breccia samples from the Roter Kamm crater. Based on chemical data for target lithologies and breccias we suggest that the crater was formed in a two-layer target region: an upper layer of Gariep metasediments (schist, marble, ± quartzite and sandstone) overlying the crystalline basement of the Namaqualand Metamorphic Complex. The basement was also heavily intruded by coarse-grained quartz veins and quartz- and quartz-feldspar pegmatites. The clast population in the melt breccias indicates that impact-induced melting involved mainly metasedimentary target rocks, with rarely detected contributions from pegmatite and granite/granodiorite. Three varieties of melt breccias can be defined: (1) "schistose," (2) quartzitic melt breccias, (3) "true" impact melt breccias. These melt breccia types are chemically heterogeneous, and even the impact melt breccias may have been produced in situ and not from a coherent melt body. The shapes of the schistose melt breccias, previously thought to be ejected impact breccias, are most likely caused by erosion, and these breccias are now interpreted to be locally derived. The crater basement as exposed at the rim was structurally severely affected and, at least locally, considerable thermal energy was generated during formation of large volumes of cataclastic, mylonitic, and pseudotachylitic breccias. Analyses of mylonite and pseudotachylites from the crater rim, as well as their respective host rocks, show that these breccias were mainly formed from local material. Analyses of pseudotachylite-like breccias indicate that these possible friction

  13. Variszische Fahrstuhltektonik und cadomisches Basement im Westteil der Böhmischen Masse

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zulauf, G.; Vejnar, Zdeněk

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 85, - (2003), s. 295-315 ISSN 0078-2947. [Variszische Fahrstuhltektonik und cadomisches Basement im Westteil der Böhmischen Masse (Exkursion I).. Erlangen - Waldmänchen - Babylon - Česká Kubice - Domažlice - Mračnice - Horšovský Týn - Holyšov - Stod, 25.04.2003] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK3012103 Keywords : Variscides * Orogenic collapse * Bohemian Massif Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  14. Calc-alkaline magmatism at the Archean-Proterozoic transition : The caic complex basement (NE Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    De Souza, Z. S.; Martin, Hervé; Peucat, J. J.; Jardim de Sa, E. F.; De Freitas Macedo, M. H.

    2007-01-01

    The Paleoproterozoic metaplutonic rocks of the Caico Complex Basement (Serid region, NE Brazil) provide important and crucial insights into the petrogenetic processes governing crustal growth and may potentially be a proxy for understanding the ArcheanProterozoic transition. These rocks consist of high-K calc-alkaline diorite to granite, with RbSr, UPb, PbPb and SmNd ages of c. 225215 Ga. They are metaluminous, with high Yb-N, K2O/Na2O and Rb/Sr, low I-Sr ratios, and are large ion lithophile ...

  15. Nature of basement highs in ultra-distal ocean-continent transitions: on- and off-shore examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epin, Marie-Eva; Manatschal, Gianreto

    2016-04-01

    Despite the fact that many studies investigated magma-poor rifted margins, there are still questions that are related to the nature and the origin of basement highs in ultra-distal Ocean-Continent Transitions (OCT). Indeed it has been observed that the morphology of the OCT of magma-poor rifted margins is structured and complex. The aim of this study is to determine the nature of these basement highs, their 3D morphology, the processes associated to their creation, and the timing related to their formation. To do this, we focused on distal seismic lines with well data from the Iberia and Newfoundland margins and on field observations of the Platta nappe, which exposes an about 300 km² large, little overprinted remnant of a fossil OCT belonging to the Alpine Tethys, exposed in the area of Bivio in SE Switzerland. The first results are the establishment of criteria allowing the identification of the different types of basement highs or groups of basement highs using offshore and onshore data. The main criteria are: the top-basement morphology, seismic reflectivity patterns, rooting depth of basement highs, the size, the related sedimentary architecture, the relative location in the margin, and if possible to determine, the magmatic budget. These criteria allow us to define 4 different types of highs that are: 1) footwall crustal wedges, 2) hanging wall extensional allochthon blocks, 3) peridotite ridges, and 4) outer highs. The overall observations provide important information on the temporal and spatial organization of the structural and magmatic systems. These systems are at the origin of the creation of ultra-distal OCTs which are important for the understanding of the processes controlling the final rifting stage. The goal of this study is to use an observation driven approach and to create identification criteria that can be used to describe the nature of basement highs at not yet drilled distal magma-poor rifted margins.

  16. Cellular Prion Protein: From Physiology to Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Kikuchi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The human cellular prion protein (PrPC is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI anchored membrane glycoprotein with two N-glycosylation sites at residues 181 and 197. This protein migrates in several bands by Western blot analysis (WB. Interestingly, PNGase F treatment of human brain homogenates prior to the WB, which is known to remove the N-glycosylations, unexpectedly gives rise to two dominant bands, which are now known as C-terminal (C1 and N-terminal (N1 fragments. This resembles the β-amyloid precursor protein (APP in Alzheimer disease (AD, which can be physiologically processed by α-, β-, and γ-secretases. The processing of APP has been extensively studied, while the identity of the cellular proteases involved in the proteolysis of PrPC and their possible role in prion biology has remained limited and controversial. Nevertheless, there is a strong correlation between the neurotoxicity caused by prion proteins and the blockade of their normal proteolysis. For example, expression of non-cleavable PrPC mutants in transgenic mice generates neurotoxicity, even in the absence of infectious prions, suggesting that PrPC proteolysis is physiologically and pathologically important. As many mouse models of prion diseases have recently been developed and the knowledge about the proteases responsible for the PrPC proteolysis is accumulating, we examine the historical experimental evidence and highlight recent studies that shed new light on this issue.

  17. Quality in pathology laboratory practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, S

    1995-06-01

    Quality refers not only to analytical quality control, a traditional area of laboratory excellence, but to the entire science of quality management. As measures of quality, structural indicators refer to staffing and physical facilities, process indicators to the institutions operations and, perhaps most importantly, outcome indicators address the ultimate patient care uses that pathology information is put to. Comparison of performance to peer laboratories, external quality control, is a practical, if limited, yardstick of performance. Customer satisfaction and turn-around-time of tests are receiving more recent attention as quality measures. Blood banking, because of its inherently complex cycle from donor phlebotomy to product infusion, requires special considerations with regard to quality management. Reporting of anatomical pathology, where the only gold standard is a consensus of experts, also does not lend itself to classical numerical quality assessment. PMID:7670717

  18. Pathological Gambling in Parkinson's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Mette Buhl; Linnet, Jakob; Thomsen, Kristine Rømer;

    Pathological Gambling in Parkinson’s Disease Mette Buhl Callesen, Jakob Linnet, Kristine Rømer Thomsen, Albert Gjedde, Arne Møller PET Center, Aarhus University Hospital and Center of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience, Aarhus University.   The neurotransmitter dopamine is central to many...... aspects of human functioning, e.g., reward, learning, and addiction, including Pathological Gambling (PG), and its loss is key to Parkinson’s Disease (PD). PD is a neurodegenrative disorder caused by progressive loss of dopamine-producing cells in the midbrain [1]. One type of treatment of PD symptoms...... are twofold, both driven by the main hypothesis that PD patients who develop PG secondary to treatment with dopamine agonists have a decreased sensitivity towards dopamine and hence an increased demand for dopamine. The neurophysiological subproject 1 uses PET imaging to determine changes of dopamine...

  19. Radioisotope studies under pathologic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents a general discussion on salivary pathology, before dealing with the various salivary gland diseases which can draw real advantage from radioisotope studies. Clinical problems related to the salivary glands first concern diffuse or focal glandular swelling. Focal swelling includes inflammatory or metastatic deposits in preauricular or submandibular lymph nodes, cysts, abscesses, foci of inflammation, benign and malignant neoplasms of the salivary glands themselves or of surrounding blood or lymph vessels, nerves, connective tissue, and oral mucosa. Primary tumors of the salivary glands are rare and usually benign. The combination of a systemic disease with dry mouth and dry eyes due to inflamed conjunctiva and cornea because of decreased fluid production, forms Sjogren syndrome. It may also cause diffuse glandular swelling. Chronic alcoholism, cirrhosis, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipoproteinemia, and malnutrition are other pathologic conditions sometimes associated with diffuse salivary gland swelling

  20. Diagnostic pathology in 2012: development of digital pathology in an open access journal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayser Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Herein we describe and interpret the digital world of diagnostic surgical pathology, and take the in Pathology leading Open Access Journal Diagnostic Pathology as example. Virtual slide http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1944221953867351

  1. Insulin dysfunction and Tau pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Planel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD include senile plaques of β-amyloid (Aβ peptides (a cleavage product of the Amyloid Precursor Protein, or APP and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT of hyperphosphorylated Tau protein assembled in paired helical filaments (PHF. NFT pathology is important since it correlates with the degree of cognitive impairment in AD.Only a small proportion of AD is due to genetic variants, whereas the large majority of cases (~99% is late onset and sporadic in origin. The cause of sporadic AD is likely to be multifactorial, with external factors interacting with biological or genetic susceptibilities to accelerate the manifestation of the disease.Insulin dysfunction, manifested by diabetes mellitus (DM might be such factor, as there is extensive data from epidemiological studies suggesting that DM is associated with an increased relative risk for AD. Type 1 diabetes (T1DM and type 2 diabetes (T2DM are known to affect multiple cognitive functions in patients. In this context, understanding the effects of diabetes on Tau pathogenesis is important since tau pathology show a strong relationship to dementia in AD, and to memory loss in normal aging and mild cognitive impairment.Here, we reviewed preclinical studies that link insulin dysfunction to Tau protein pathogenesis, one of the major pathological hallmarks of AD. We found more than 30 studies reporting on Tau phosphorylation in a mouse or rat model of insulin dysfunction. We also payed attention to potential sources of artifacts, such as hypothermia and anesthesia, that were demonstrated to results in Tau hyperphosphorylation and could major confounding experimental factors. We found that very few studies reported the temperature of the animals, and only a handful did not use anesthesia. Overall, most published studies showed that insulin dysfunction can promote Tau hyperphosphorylation and pathology, both directly and indirectly, through hypothermia.

  2. Medical discourse in pathological anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskalenko, R; Tatsenko, N; Romanyuk, A; Perelomova, O; Moskalenko, Yu

    2012-05-01

    The paper is devoted to the peculiarities of medical discourse in pathological anatomy as coherent speech and as a linguistic correlate of medical practice taking into account the analysis of its strategies and tactics. The purpose of the paper is to provide a multifaceted analysis of the speech strategies and tactics of pathological anatomy discourse and ways of their implementation. The main strategies of medical discourse in pathological anatomy are an anticipating strategy, a diagnosing strategy and an explaining one. The supporting strategies are pragmatic, conversational and a rhetorical one. The pragmatic strategy is implemented through contact establishing tactics, the conversational one - with the help of control tactics, the rhetorical one - with the help of attention correction tactics. The above mentioned tactics and strategies are used in the distinguishing of major, closely interrelated strategies: "the contact strategy" (to establish contact with a patient's relatives - phatic replicas of greeting and addressing) and "the strategy of explanation" (used in the practice of a pathologist for a detailed explanation of the reasons of a patient's death). The ethic aspect of speech conduct of a doctor-pathologist is analyzed. PMID:22870841

  3. Digital imaging in anatomic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, M J; Sotnikov, A V

    1996-10-01

    Advances in computer technology continue to bring new innovations to departments of anatomic pathology. This article briefly reviews the present status of digital optical imaging, and explores the directions that this technology may lead over the next several years. Technical requirements for digital microscopic and gross imaging, and the available options for image archival and retrieval are summarized. The advantages of digital images over conventional photography in the conference room, and the usefulness of digital imaging in the frozen section suite and gross room, as an adjunct to surgical signout and as a resource for training and education, are discussed. An approach to the future construction of digital histologic sections and the computer as microscope is described. The digital technologic applications that are now available as components of the surgical pathologist's workstation are enumerated. These include laboratory information systems, computerized voice recognition, and on-line or CD-based literature searching, texts and atlases and, in some departments, on-line image databases. The authors suggest that, in addition to these resources that are already available, tomorrow's surgical pathology workstation will include network-linked digital histologic databases, on-line software for image analysis and 3-D image enhancement, expert systems, and ultimately, advanced pattern recognition capabilities. In conclusion, the authors submit that digital optical imaging is likely to have a significant and positive impact on the future development of anatomic pathology. PMID:8853053

  4. Peptides that influence membrane topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Gerard C. L.

    2014-03-01

    We examine the mechanism of a range of polypeptides that influence membrane topology, including antimicrobial peptides, cell penetrating peptides, viral fusion peptides, and apoptosis proteins, and show how a combination of geometry, coordination chemistry, and soft matter physics can be used to approach a unified understanding. We will also show how such peptides can impact biomedical problems such as auto-immune diseases (psoriasis, lupus), infectious diseases (viral and bacterial infections), and mitochondrial pathologies (under-regulated apoptosis leads to neurodegenerative diseases whereas over-regulated apoptosis leads to cancer.)

  5. Study On Method For Simulation Of Partitioning Tracers In Double Porosity Model Of Fractured Basement Formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single well tracer test (SWTT) has been widely used and accepted as a standard method for residual oil saturation (SOR) measurement in the field. The test involves injecting of the partitioning tracers into the reservoir, producing them back and matching their profiles using a suitable simulation program. Most of simulation programs were first developed for sandstone reservoir using single porosity model cannot be applied for highly heterogeneous reservoirs such as fractured basement and carbonate reservoirs. Therefore a simulation code in double porosity model is needed to simulate tracer flow in our fractured basement reservoirs. In this project, a finite-difference simulation code has been developed by following the Tang mathematical model to simulate the partitioning tracers in double porosity medium. The code was matched with several field tracer data and compare with results of the University of Texas chemical simulator showing an acceptable agreement between our program and the famous UTChem simulator. Besides, several experiments were conducted to measure residual oil saturation in 1D column and a 2D sandpad model. Results of the experiments show that the partitioning tracers can measure residual oil saturation in glass bead models with a relatively high accuracy when the flow velocity of tracer is sufficiently low. (author)

  6. Development Of The Dipole Model For Investigating Of Tracer Flow In Fractured Basement Reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the aim of extracting more reservoir information from tracer test, numerous analytical models have been developed since 1960 decade. However its applications are only suitable for sedimentary or layering reservoirs and hard to apply for Fractured Basement Reservoirs (FBRs) due to difference in flow geometry and heterogeneity structures. This paper has developed a semi-analytical model by streamtube method of Abbaszadeh-Brigham for characterizing of tracer flow in the dipole flow geometry in FBRs. Dipole model is a 2-D fractured plane in which water is injected at the bottom and produced at the upper part of the plane. The study consists of an analytical solution for predicting of tracer breakthrough and verification of this solution by mean of physical experiments and numerical simulations. Firstly an analytical solution for tracer breakthrough was derived by succeeding the direct-line solution of Abbaszadeh then the physical model was built in form of a glass bead filled box with the size of 117.5 x 47 x 2 cm on which 6 valves were placed equidistantly for playing role of injection and production wells. Verifications showed a good match between analytical solutions and physical experiments as well as the results of numerical simulations running by UTChem - a reservoir simulator developed by University of Texas that indicates the solution can be used in the next development steps of dipole model for investigating of tracer in Fractured Basement Reservoirs. (author)

  7. Gravity inversion and uncertainty assessment of basement relief via Particle Swarm Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallero, J. L. G.; Fernández-Martínez, J. L.; Bonvalot, S.; Fudym, O.

    2015-05-01

    Gravity inversion is a classical tool in applied geophysics that corresponds, both, to a linear (density unknown) or nonlinear (geometry unknown) inverse problem depending on the model parameters. Inversion of basement relief of sedimentary basins is an important application among the nonlinear techniques. A common way to approach this problem consists in discretizing the basin using polygons (or other geometries), and iteratively solving the nonlinear inverse problem by local optimization. Nevertheless, this kind of approach is highly dependent of the prior information that is used and lacks from a correct solution appraisal (nonlinear uncertainty analysis). In this paper, we present the application of a full family Particle Swarm Optimizers (PSO) to the 2D gravity inversion and model appraisal (uncertainty assessment) of basement relief in sedimentary basins. The application of these algorithms to synthetic and real cases (a gravimetric profile from Atacama Desert in north Chile) shows that it is possible to perform a fast inversion and uncertainty assessment of the gravimetric model using a sampling while optimizing procedure. Besides, the parameters of these exploratory PSO optimizers are automatically tuned and selected based on stability criteria. We also show that the result is robust to the presence of noise in data. The fact that these algorithms do not require large computational resources makes them very attractive to solve this kind of gravity inversion problems.

  8. RAETRAD model extensions for radon entry into multi-level buildings with basements or crawl spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The RAETRAD model was generalized to characterize radon generation and movement from soils and building materials into multi-level buildings with basements or crawl spaces. With the generalization, the model retains its original simplicity and ease of use. The model calculates radon entry rates that are consistent with measurements published for basement test structures at Colorado State University, confirming approximately equal contributions from diffusion and pressure-driven air flow at indoor-outdoor air pressure differences of ΔPi-o = -3.5 Pa. About one-fourth of the diffusive radon entry comes from concrete slabs and three-fourths comes from the surrounding soils. Calculated radon entry rates with and without a barrier over floor-wall shrinkage cracks generally agree with Colorado State University measurements when a sustained pressure of ΔPi-o = -2 Pa is used to represent calm wind (-1) conditions. Calculated radon distributions in a 2-level house also are consistent with published measurements and equations

  9. TMI-2 Reactor Building source term measurements: surfaces and basement water and sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presented in this report are the results of radiochemical and elemental analyses performed on samples collected from the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Reactor Building from August 1979 to December 1983. The quantities of fission products and core materials that were measured on the external surfaces in the Reactor Building or in the water and sediment in its basement are summarized. Recent analysis results for access panels removed from the air cooling assembly and for liquid and particulate samples collected from the Reactor Building sump and reactor coolant drain tank are included in the report. Measurements show that 59% of the 3H, 2.7% of the 90Sr, 15% of the 129I, 20% of the 131I, and 42% of the 137Cs originally in the core at the time of the accident could be accounted for outside the core in the Reactor Building. With the exceptions of 90Sr and 144Ce, the vast majority of each radionuclide released was found dispersed in the water and sediment in the basement

  10. Seismicity on Basement Faults Induced by Simultaneous Fluid Injection-Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kyung Won; Segall, Paul

    2016-08-01

    Large-scale carbon dioxide (CO2) injection into geological formations increases pore pressure, potentially inducing seismicity on critically stressed faults by reducing the effective normal stress. In addition, poroelastic expansion of the reservoir alters stresses, both within and around the formation, which may trigger earthquakes without direct pore-pressure diffusion. One possible solution to mitigate injection-induced earthquakes is to simultaneously extract pre-existing pore fluids from the target reservoir. To examine the feasibility of the injection-extraction strategy, we compute the spatiotemporal change in Coulomb stress on basement normal faults, including: (1) the change in poroelastic stresses Δ τ _s+fΔ σ _n, where Δ τ _s and Δ σ _n are changes in shear and normal stress. respectively, and (2) the change in pore-pressure fΔ p. Using the model of (J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth 99(B2):2601-2618, 1994), we estimate the seismicity rate on basement fault zones. Fluid extraction reduces direct pore-pressure diffusion into conductive faults, generally reducing the risk of induced seismicity. Limited diffusion into/from sealing faults results in negligible pore pressure changes within them. However, fluid extraction can cause enhanced seismicity rates on deep normal faults near the injector as well as shallow normal faults near the producer by poroelastic stressing. Changes in seismicity rate driven by poroelastic response to fluid injection-extraction depends on fault geometry, well operations, and the background stressing rate.

  11. Seismicity on Basement Faults Induced by Simultaneous Fluid Injection-Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kyung Won; Segall, Paul

    2016-06-01

    Large-scale carbon dioxide (CO2) injection into geological formations increases pore pressure, potentially inducing seismicity on critically stressed faults by reducing the effective normal stress. In addition, poroelastic expansion of the reservoir alters stresses, both within and around the formation, which may trigger earthquakes without direct pore-pressure diffusion. One possible solution to mitigate injection-induced earthquakes is to simultaneously extract pre-existing pore fluids from the target reservoir. To examine the feasibility of the injection-extraction strategy, we compute the spatiotemporal change in Coulomb stress on basement normal faults, including: (1) the change in poroelastic stresses Δ τ _s+fΔ σ _n , where Δ τ _s and Δ σ _n are changes in shear and normal stress. respectively, and (2) the change in pore-pressure fΔ p . Using the model of (J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth 99(B2):2601-2618, 1994), we estimate the seismicity rate on basement fault zones. Fluid extraction reduces direct pore-pressure diffusion into conductive faults, generally reducing the risk of induced seismicity. Limited diffusion into/from sealing faults results in negligible pore pressure changes within them. However, fluid extraction can cause enhanced seismicity rates on deep normal faults near the injector as well as shallow normal faults near the producer by poroelastic stressing. Changes in seismicity rate driven by poroelastic response to fluid injection-extraction depends on fault geometry, well operations, and the background stressing rate.

  12. Fractured-basement reservoir modeling using continuous fracture modeling (CFM) method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isniarny, Nadya; Haris, Abdul; Nurdin, Safrizal

    2016-02-01

    The challenge in oil and gas exploration has now shifted due to increasingly difficult to get back up economic value in a conventional reservoir. Explorationist are developing various drilling technology, optimizing conventional reserves and unconventional reserve in reservoirs. One of the unconventional reservoir that has been developed is the basement reservoir. This rock type has no primary porosity and the permeability of the rocks of this type are generally influenced by the naturally fracture networks. The purpose of this study is to map the fracture intensity distribution in the basement reservoir using Continuous Fracture Modeling (CFM) method. CFM method applies the basic concepts of neural network in finding a relationship between well data with seismic data in order to build a model of fracture intensity. The Formation Micro Imager (FMI) interpretation data is used to identify the presence of fracture along the well as dip angle and dip azimuth. This indicator will be laterally populated in 3D grid model. Several seismic attribute which are generated from seismic data is used as a guidance to populate fracture intensity in the model. The results from the model were validated with Drill Stem Test (DST) data. Zones of high fracture intensity on the model correlates positively with the presence of fluid in accordance with DST data.

  13. Groundwater supply and demand from southern Africa's crystalline basement aquifer: evidence from Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Nick; Davies, Jeffrey; Farr, John

    2013-06-01

    Failure of borehole sources in weathered and fractured crystalline basement aquifers in Malawi in southern Africa has been linked with poor borehole design, mechanical failure and badly sited boreholes. However, recent work in Malawi indicates that demand may now exceed long-term resource potential in some places and that this is also a cause of water point failure. An 11-year climate cycle (including a wet and dry period) necessitates overdraft from groundwater storage during the dry-cycle years before episodic rainfall events in the wetter part of the cycle again recharge the aquifers. Data, particularly groundwater hydrograph data, are sparse, but sufficient to evaluate the long-term renewable groundwater potential for both fractured and weathered basement-aquifer types in each of the 15 management areas in Malawi. The groundwater potential or long-term renewable resource (recharge) is given by the sum of Darcian throughflow and dry-season depletion of storage. Estimated rural demand exceeds the renewable resource in the fractured-rock aquifer in two management units and in the weathered-rock aquifer in two other units. Although there is inherent uncertainty in the water-balance estimates, the likelihood that rural demand is exceeding long-term average recharge in some areas is cause for concern.

  14. Real-Time Detection of Redox Species in Basement Fluids Accessed Through IODP CORK Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazer, B. T.; Cowen, J. P.; Rappe, M. S.; Matzinger, M.; Ricardo, A.

    2008-12-01

    Growing evidence suggests that a substantial subseafloor biosphere extends throughout the immense volume of sediment-buried basement that underlies the global system of mid-ocean ridge (MOR) flanks and ocean basins. CORK (Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kit) observatories affixed to Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) boreholes offer an unprecedented opportunity to study intriguing questions regarding biogeochemical properties and microbial diversity in circulating fluids from buried ocean basement. Here, we describe voltammetric measurements collected from DSV Alvin using an in situ electrochemical analyzer (ISEA) coupled to CORK Observatory Fluid Delivery Lines in Cascadia Basin on the Juan de Fuca Ridge Flanks. The ISEA allows for deployment of up to four solid-state gold amalgam working electrodes, capable of providing simultaneous detection of oxygen, iron, sulfur, and other species in real time or continuous data logging modes. We also present traditional and electrochemical on-deck measurements taken on discrete samples collected during voltammetric seafloor scanning to illustrate changes in speciation and oxidation rates that occur between sample collection and on-deck analyses.

  15. Faults in Quaternary cover as a relfection of basement tectonics: Kolguev island, barents sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapivner, R. B.; Skorobogat'ko, A. V.

    2012-09-01

    The paper is concerned with the results of the detailed study of dislocations in the Pliocene-Quaternary loose sediments exposed as cliffs extending for ˜30 km along the rectilinear shore of Kolguev Island. According to seismic data, this lineament is related to the Coastal Fault in the lower part of the sedimentary cover. A system of faults longitudinal, diagonal, and transverse relative to the shoreline is established from observations at the cliffs. Their arrangement in plan view corresponds to the geometry of the right-lateral shear zone, the axis of which almost coincides with the shoreline. This has allowed us to identify the faults as secondary disturbances in the region of dynamic effect of the Coastal Fault in the basement. The kinematics of the secondary faults and their dip azimuth are consistent with echeloned geometry in plan view. The low-angle dip of the reverse-strike-slip faults observed at the outcrops is caused by their near-surface flattening toward the subsided block. The shallow-seated dislocations are related to ductile lateral shear in the vertical plane. The lower layers of the sedimentary cover mimic the horizontal movements in the basement more closely than the upper layers. The data obtained indicate high neotectonic activity of the Barents Sea shelf and specify the geodynamic setting of the region in the Pliocene and Quaternary.

  16. Raetrad model extensions for radon entry into multi-level buildings with basements or crawl spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, K K; Rogers, V C; Rogers, V; Holt, R B

    1997-10-01

    The RAETRAD model was generalized to characterize radon generation and movement from soils and building materials into multi-level buildings with basements or crawl spaces. With the generalization, the model retains its original simplicity and ease of use. The model calculates radon entry rates that are consistent with measurements published for basement test structures at Colorado State University, confirming approximately equal contributions from diffusion and pressure-driven air flow at indoor-outdoor air pressure differences of deltaP(i-o) = -3.5 Pa. About one-fourth of the diffusive radon entry comes from concrete slabs and three-fourths comes from the surrounding soils. Calculated radon entry rates with and without a barrier over floor-wall shrinkage cracks generally agree with Colorado State University measurements when a sustained pressure of deltaP(i-o) = -2 Pa is used to represent calm wind (<1 m s(-1)) conditions. Calculated radon distributions in a 2-level house also are consistent with published measurements and equations. PMID:9314234

  17. TMI-2 Reactor Building source term measurements: surfaces and basement water and sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIsaac, C V; Keefer, D G

    1984-10-01

    Presented in this report are the results of radiochemical and elemental analyses performed on samples collected from the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Reactor Building from August 1979 to December 1983. The quantities of fission products and core materials that were measured on the external surfaces in the Reactor Building or in the water and sediment in its basement are summarized. Recent analysis results for access panels removed from the air cooling assembly and for liquid and particulate samples collected from the Reactor Building sump and reactor coolant drain tank are included in the report. Measurements show that 59% of the /sup 3/H, 2.7% of the /sup 90/Sr, 15% of the /sup 129/I, 20% of the /sup 131/I, and 42% of the /sup 137/Cs originally in the core at the time of the accident could be accounted for outside the core in the Reactor Building. With the exceptions of /sup 90/Sr and /sup 144/Ce, the vast majority of each radionuclide released was found dispersed in the water and sediment in the basement.

  18. Extensive renovation the pathology of heritage building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2015-01-01

    The pathology of heritage buildings is often related to renovation initiatives typically initiated by implementing energy savings measures.......The pathology of heritage buildings is often related to renovation initiatives typically initiated by implementing energy savings measures....

  19. Extensive renovation the pathology of heritage buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2015-01-01

    The pathology of heritage buildings is often related to renovation initiatives typically initiated by implementing energy savings measures.......The pathology of heritage buildings is often related to renovation initiatives typically initiated by implementing energy savings measures....

  20. Personality dimensions and disorders in pathological gambling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Schreiber, Liana R N; Grant, Jon E

    2013-01-01

    This review presents the most current research in personality dimensions and disorders with respect to pathological gambling.......This review presents the most current research in personality dimensions and disorders with respect to pathological gambling....

  1. Tectonic inheritage from adjacent basement, north of the Campos Basin; Heranca tectonica no embasamento adjacente no norte da Bacia de Campos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferroni, Felipe R. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil); Castro, Joel C. de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas. Dept. de Geologia Aplicada; Souza, Iata A. de; Castro, Joel C. de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas

    2008-07-01

    The evolution of the Atlantic Brazilian basins is a target of researches since the firth discovery of oil deposits. With the advance of the geophysical methods the understanding of the structures in depth became possible. The objective of this paper is to determine if the adjacent basement in the north of Campos Basin has significant influence in the identification of areas that can contain hydrocarbons. Therefore, lineaments had been extracted with SRTM images of continental basement and the main alignment was correlated with gravimetric anomalies map and seismic data. Eight levels on seismic data had been interpreted (basement, top rift, shallow water Albian, Albian, mid-Oligocene and mid-Miocene). In all levels were identified a fault normal system, which cut sediments since basement until the Recent. The main direction of the basement is NE-SW, and the alignments formed for basin basement faults coincide with this direction, what indicates that the system is active and also genetically related. (author)

  2. 42 CFR 493.853 - Condition: Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Pathology. 493.853 Section 493.853 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... These Tests § 493.853 Condition: Pathology. The specialty of pathology includes, for purposes...

  3. Lipids in the structure and functions of biological membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsov V.I.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Lipids are one of the main components of cellular membranes. Lipids make up 30-55% of the cell content depending on the types of cells. Phospholipids, sphingomyelins, cholesterol, etc. are characteristic to cellular membranes. The composition of lipids of the both sides of the membranes differs. This fact determines asymmetry of the structure of bili-pid layer. The reason for many pathologies is the changes in the properties of cellular membranes with the modification of their components. The study of structure and functioning of cellular biomembranes is essential for many researchers. The condition of membranes, their quality, their quantitative composition and modification under the influence of different factors as well as their interaction with carbohydrate and protein component are of great importance for the functioning of both membranes, cells and the body in general. Analysis and structuring of lipids and their functions in biological membranes are studied.

  4. Omniphobic Membrane for Robust Membrane Distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, SH; Nejati, S; Boo, C; Hu, YX; Osuji, CO; Ehmelech, M

    2014-11-01

    In this work, we fabricate an omniphobic microporous membrane for membrane distillation (MD) by modifying a hydrophilic glass fiber membrane with silica nanoparticles followed by surface fluorination and polymer coating. The modified glass fiber membrane exhibits an anti-wetting property not only against water but also against low surface tension organic solvents that easily wet a hydrophobic polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane that is commonly used in MD applications. By comparing the performance of the PTFE and omniphobic membranes in direct contact MD experiments in the presence of a surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS), we show that SDS wets the hydrophobic PTFE membrane but not the omniphobic membrane. Our results suggest that omniphobic membranes are critical for MD applications with feed waters containing surface active species, such as oil and gas produced water, to prevent membrane pore wetting.

  5. Iliopsoas: Pathology, Diagnosis, and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Christian N

    2016-07-01

    Disorders of the iliopsoas can be a significant source of groin pain in the athletic population. Commonly described pathologic conditions include iliopsoas bursitis, tendonitis, impingement, and snapping. The first-line treatment for iliopsoas disorders is typically conservative, including activity modification, physical therapy, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and corticosteroid injections. Surgical treatment can be considered if the patient fails conservative measures and typically involves arthroscopic lengthening of the musculotendinous unit and treatment of concomitant intra-articular abnormality. Tendon release has been described: in the central compartment, in the peripheral compartment, and at the lesser trochanter, with similar outcomes observed between the techniques. PMID:27343394

  6. A case of Biateral Extensive Persistent Pupillary Membranes with Amblyopia and Cataract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Kocabeyoğlu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Persistent pupillary membrane represents a congenital remnant of the anterior tunica vasculosa lentis. It can be associated with other ocular pathologies. These membranes can cause deprivation or anisometropic amblyopia. The choice of treatment depends on the patient’s age and the characteristics of the membranes. In this paper, we report the findings in a 21-year-old female patient with bilateral persistent pupillary membranes, amblyopia, and cataract. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 70-2

  7. The offshore basement of Perú: Evidence for different igneous and metamorphic domains in the forearc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Darwin; Valencia, Kiko; Alarcón, Pedro; Peña, Daniel; Ramos, Victor A.

    2013-03-01

    As a result of new studies carried out in the offshore of Perú during the exploration and hydrocarbon evaluation of the forearc basins, new U-Pb SHRIMP and TIMS in zircons and some Ar-Ar data were obtained in the metamorphic and igneous basement. The understanding of this basement was critical to evaluate different hypotheses that have been proposed for the tectonic evolution of pre-Andean crust of Perú. Recent research performed in the basement rocks of the Marañón Massif in northern Perú, claimed that west of this area was a basement-free region in the Paleozoic, where the arc and forearc were developed in a mafic quasi-oceanic crust. However, petrographic studies and new preliminary ages indicate, for the first time, the nature and age of this sialic basement. Reconnaissance studies were performed in several offshore islands, as the Las Hormigas de Afuera Island west of Lima, and Macabí and Lobera islands along the edge of the continental platform. These data were complemented with the studies of some cutting samples obtained in recent exploration wells in northern Perú. The results of the present work show two large crustal domains in the Peruvian offshore forearc. A northern domain contains late Paleozoic igneous rocks that appear to be the southern offshore continuation of the Amotape-Tahuin block, which is interpreted as the southernmost remnant of the Laurentia Alleghenian orogen. The central offshore domain, known as the Paracas High, corresponds to the outer shelf high of previous studies. It contains orthogneisses of Grenville-age, probably recrystallized during an Ordovician magmatic episode. The new results show that the central offshore of Perú is an extension of the Grenville-age basement affected by Famatinian, early Paleozoic magmatism, well exposed in the southern domain in the Arequipa Massif along the coast of southern Perú.

  8. Tectonic aspect of the basement and its constrain on U-mineralization, in Shouchang-Lenpu volcanic belt, eastern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shouchang-Linpu volcanic belt, at the margin of Eastern China Mesozoic continent, overlies on the upward zone of both the basement and the underlying mantle. A mechanism of U-mineralization in volcanic rents can be inferred from the following processes: thinning of the lithosphere; magma and heat flow transferred from the asthenosphere; U-rich basemental strata and anatectic volcanics which both were the efficient uranium sources; NNE trend compression-tensional fault system; Σ CO2 released from the intermediate-basic melt derived from the mantle

  9. Fibroadenomas: Sonographic-pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To correlate sonographic appearance and histopathologic findings of fibroadenomas. Forty-one biopsy-proven fibroadenomas were retrospectively evaluate for sonographic-pathologic correlation. The fibroadenomas were histologically classified into sclerotic, myxoid, glandular and mixed type. The stromal cellularity and fibrosis were also classified into mild and severe. The internal echotexture and posterior acoustic enhancement of mass in ultrasonogram were correlated with histopathologic findings. The pathologic types of fibroadenomas were sclerotic in sixteen, myxoid in thirteen, and glandular or mixed in each of six cases. Most of the sclerotic type showed hypoechoic internal echotexture (68.8%) and myxoid and glandular types showed isoechoic internal echotexture (84.6%, 83.3% respectively). The hypoechoic masses showed 12 cases of mild (75.0%) and 4 cases of severe (25.0%) in cellularity and 3 cases of mild (18.7%) and 13 cases (81.3%) of sever degree in fibrosis. Most of the myxoid type (77%) showed posterior enhancement, and most of the sclerotic type (87.5%) did not show posterior enhancement on ultrasonogram. Posterior enhancement was absent in 22 cases, in which 4 cases (18.2%) showed mild and 18 cases (81.2%) showed severe degree of fibrosis. Sclerotic type with mild cellularity and severe fibrosis on histopathology showed hypoechogenicity on ultrasonogram; whereas myxoid and glandular types were predominantly isoechoic. Most of the myxoid type showed posterior enhancement. Sclerotic type with mild cellularity and severe fibrosis did not show posterior enhancement.

  10. Fibroadenomas: Sonographic-pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi Sung; Choi, Hye Young; Kim, Eun Ah; Lee, Sun Wha; Sung, Soon Hee [Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-09-15

    To correlate sonographic appearance and histopathologic findings of fibroadenomas. Forty-one biopsy-proven fibroadenomas were retrospectively evaluate for sonographic-pathologic correlation. The fibroadenomas were histologically classified into sclerotic, myxoid, glandular and mixed type. The stromal cellularity and fibrosis were also classified into mild and severe. The internal echotexture and posterior acoustic enhancement of mass in ultrasonogram were correlated with histopathologic findings. The pathologic types of fibroadenomas were sclerotic in sixteen, myxoid in thirteen, and glandular or mixed in each of six cases. Most of the sclerotic type showed hypoechoic internal echotexture (68.8%) and myxoid and glandular types showed isoechoic internal echotexture (84.6%, 83.3% respectively). The hypoechoic masses showed 12 cases of mild (75.0%) and 4 cases of severe (25.0%) in cellularity and 3 cases of mild (18.7%) and 13 cases (81.3%) of sever degree in fibrosis. Most of the myxoid type (77%) showed posterior enhancement, and most of the sclerotic type (87.5%) did not show posterior enhancement on ultrasonogram. Posterior enhancement was absent in 22 cases, in which 4 cases (18.2%) showed mild and 18 cases (81.2%) showed severe degree of fibrosis. Sclerotic type with mild cellularity and severe fibrosis on histopathology showed hypoechogenicity on ultrasonogram; whereas myxoid and glandular types were predominantly isoechoic. Most of the myxoid type showed posterior enhancement. Sclerotic type with mild cellularity and severe fibrosis did not show posterior enhancement.

  11. Assessment of Pollutant Spread from a Building Basement with three Ventilation Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Koffi, Juslin

    2010-01-01

    Ventilation aims at providing a sufficient air renewal for ensuring a good indoor air quality (IAQ), yet building energy policies are leading to adapting various ventilation strategies minimising energy losses through air renewal. A recent IAQ evaluation campaign in French dwellings shows important pollution of living spaces by VOCs such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde or hexanal, particularly in buildings equipped with a garage. Besides, radon emission from soil is a subject of concern in many countries. Several studies are done to understand its release mode and deal with the spread of this carcinogen gas. This paper aims to experimentally assess a contaminant spread from a house basement using mechanical exhaust and balanced ventilation systems, and natural ventilation.

  12. Radon concentration in basements of old town buildings in the Lublin region, Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon concentration in basements of old buildings in the oldest towns of Lublin region (Zamosc, Chelm and Sandomierz) was determined. Two techniques were applied: passive (Pico-rad) and alpha-spectrometry for radon progeny concentration measurement (SILENA). It was found that only 7% of results exceeded a dose limit of 400 Bq x m-3, established for old buildings. Radon concentration levels ranged from 0.2 to 5150 Bq x m-3. Distribution of the results satisfied a log-normal relationship. Applying these two methods at the same time, the radioactive equilibrium factor of radon and its progeny was determined. In the underground ways, open for visitors, no higher radon concentration was observed. (author)

  13. On the long term indoor radon concentration measurements the basement of Japanese hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long term indoor radon gas measurements using a passive monitor were conducted in the basement rooms of five hospitals, which are built in the Tokyo metropolitan area. The ventilation rate averaged over all hospital was 12.3 air change per hour (ACH). The highest radon concentration was 56.3 Bq/m3. The value averaged concentration over all hospital and all season was 20 Bq/m3. But the average of the two hospitals were twice as high as those of three others. Since the total ventilation rate integrated over a day is not different much, the reason of the concentration difference is considered to be the difference in radon emission rate from concrete wall and soil of the each hospital. Though we inquired workers about 'Environmental complaints', it do not show the direct relation between radon and environmental complaints. (author)

  14. Thermal history of the Pan-African basement under the Jurassic Marib-Shabwa Basin, Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, A. Hugh N.; Schneider, David; Veeningen, Resi; Grasemann, Bernhard; Decker, Kurt

    2013-04-01

    Pan-African tectonism within the Arabian Nubian Shield in Yemen is very poorly known. New drill-cores from the Marib-Shabwa Basin (Habban oil field) from central Yemen penetrated 600 m into the pre-Jurassic crystalline basement, providing a unique opportunity to extend our understanding of Pan-African events in Yemen. The cores were obtained some 80 km NE of the exposure limit of the Al Bayda Terrane, which lies SE of Sana'a. This terrane, which has no direct correlative in the ANS further north in Saudi Arabia, comprises deformed greenschist facies acid to basic volcanic rocks later witnessing acid to basic magmatism and has been previously interpreted as a Pan-African island arc complex with a basement component. Ophiolite fragments are common, both within the terrane and at its margins (sutures). To the north lies the Abas Gneiss Terrane and to the south the Al Mahfid Gneiss Terrane; both consist of older pre-Pan-African crystalline basement rocks. Geochemistry of a red, undeformed granite from the drill core indicates an A-type composition. LA-ICPMS U-Pb analysis of granite zircons gave two concordant age populations: 628.3 ± 3.1 Ma (large & small zircons) and 604.9 ± 2.0 Ma (intermediate sized zircons). The former age is interpreted as the time of crystallization, within the range of other A-type Younger Granites in the ANS, and the latter age as constraining lower temperature dissolution-reprecipitation of zircon, due to hydrothermal fluids or melt remobilization. Nd Tdm model ages for two granite samples from the drill core both gave ages of 1.24 Ga, within the range of the Al Bayda Terrane (1.2-2.5 Ga) and outside the range of the adjacent Palaeoproterozoic gneissic terranes (1.7-2.3 Ga, Abas Gneiss Terrane; 1.8-3.0 Ga, Al Mahfid Gneiss Terrane). Thus it seems certain that the Al Bayda Terrane extends at least 80 km to the NE of its present surface exposure. Rb-Sr biotite ages from the granite indicate closure through ~300°C at 593 Ma, indicating fast

  15. Chronological study of the pre-jurassic basement rocks of southern Patagonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Southern Patagonia east of the Andes was the site of extensive rhyolite volcanism during the Jurassic rifting of Gondwana and subsequent shallow marine basin formation during the Cretaceous. Thus exposures of pre-Jurassic basement are extremely sparse. Nevertheless, extraction of the maximum amount of information from these scattered outcrops of granite and metamorphic rocks is crucial to assessment of the Palaeozoic and earliest Mesozoic history and crustal structure of the Pacific margin of the supercontinent. In particular, the identification and possible correlation of early terrane accretion on this margin depends on comparison of pre-Jurassic igneous and metamorphic events with adjacent areas. This is a preliminary report on work now in progress to this end (au)

  16. Membranous lipodystrophy (Nasu)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three siblings with membranous lipodystrophy (Nasu) were reported. The parents were the first cousins. Case 1 (a 39 year old man), case 2 (a 33 year old man) and case 3 (a 30 year old female) all developed repeated pathological fractures of the long bone starting between the ages of 17 and 20. The neurological features were characterized by progressive dementia recognized at 24 years of age in case 1 and at approximately 30 years in cases 2 and 3. Plain roentgenograms of the long bones revealed multiple cystic lesions mostly in the epiphyses. Histological examination of the right tibia obtained by curettage in case 1 revealed a peculiar membranocystic structure. Serum levels of parathyroid hormone and calcitonin were normal. Ellsworth-Howard test showed a normal response. Skull x-ray films showed calcification of the basal ganglia in cases 1 and 3. Electroencephalograms showed generalized diffuse 3 - 6 Hz slow wave activities with temporo-occipital spikes in case 1, and frequent theta wave activities in case 2 and 3. CT scans were repeatedly performed in each case. The initial scan revealed calcification in the basal ganglia in all cases. Follow up CT scans in the next four years showed progressive brain atrophy in all cases including case 2 in which no atrophy was evident initially. It was concluded that intracranial calcification and progressive brain atrophy are frequent accompaniments of membranous lipodystrophy and can be readily detected on CT scans. It was also suggested that the degree of brain atrophy is closely related to that of dementia. (J.P.N.)

  17. Preliminary low-T thermochronology of basement rocks and cover sequences in NE Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdel, C.; Stockli, D. F.

    2013-12-01

    We measured apatite and zircon (U-Th)/He ages from basement rocks of the Thomson Orogen and overlying Paleozoic strata in the back-arc of the New England Orogen in NE Australia. Zircon (U-Th)/He ages from cover sequences and most basement samples (including those recovered from boreholes at depths of up to 1.1 km) are characterized by large inter- and intra-sample variability and range from approximately 200 to 350 Ma. Our interpretation is that this large range results from protracted residence of these rocks in the zircon (U-Th)/He partial retention zone (temperatures of roughly 130-200 °C) during a ~100 My period that encompassed late Carboniferous-early Permian extensional exhumation, Triassic burial beneath thick sedimentary basins, and Late Triassic tectonic denudation related to retroarc shortening during the Hunter-Bowen Orogeny. Relatively tightly-clustered Paleogene zircon (U-Th)/He ages from an exposure of Ordovician granitic rocks in the core of a structural dome in east-central Queensland are exceptions to this pattern. These granitoids also have Paleogene apatite (U-Th)/He ages, suggesting either rapid Eocene-Oligocene exhumation of the dome or resetting of both apatite and zircon (U-Th)/He ages by nearby Paleogene magmas. Apatite (U-Th)/He data from late Permian sandstone in the Bowen Basin also suggest cooling to near-surface conditions during the Paleogene. Overall, these data refine the timing of major extensional and contractional events that have affected the back-arc of the northern New England Orogen over approximately the last 300 My.

  18. Structural Controls on Groundwater Flow in Basement Terrains: Geophysical, Remote Sensing, and Field Investigations in Sinai

    KAUST Repository

    Mohamed, Lamees

    2015-07-09

    An integrated [very low frequency (VLF) electromagnetic, magnetic, remote sensing, field, and geographic information system (GIS)] study was conducted over the basement complex in southern Sinai (Feiran watershed) for a better understanding of the structural controls on the groundwater flow. The increase in satellite-based radar backscattering values following a large precipitation event (34 mm on 17–18 January 2010) was used to identify water-bearing features, here interpreted as preferred pathways for surface water infiltration. Findings include: (1) spatial analysis in a GIS environment revealed that the distribution of the water-bearing features (conductive features) corresponds to that of fractures, faults, shear zones, dike swarms, and wadi networks; (2) using VLF (43 profiles), magnetic (7 profiles) techniques, and field observations, the majority (85 %) of the investigated conductive features were determined to be preferred pathways for groundwater flow; (3) northwest–southeast- to north–south-trending conductive features that intersect the groundwater flow (southeast to northwest) at low angles capture groundwater flow, whereas northeast–southwest to east–west features that intersect the flow at high angles impound groundwater upstream and could provide potential productive well locations; and (4) similar findings are observed in central Sinai: east–west-trending dextral shear zones (Themed and Sinai Hinge Belt) impede south to north groundwater flow as evidenced by the significant drop in hydraulic head (from 467 to 248 m above mean sea level) across shear zones and by reorientation of regional flow (south–north to southwest–northeast). The adopted integrated methodologies could be readily applied to similar highly fractured basement arid terrains elsewhere. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht

  19. Some Compositional and Kinetic Controls on the Bioenergetic Landscapes in Oceanic Basement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    This contribution assesses the availability of catabolic energy for microbial life during water–rock reactions in the flanks of mid-ocean ridges, where basaltic and ultramafic rocks interact with circulating seawater. In addition to equilibrium thermodynamic computations, results for kinetic reaction paths are presented. In these calculations, it is assumed that dissolution of olivine and basalt glass control the rates of hydrogen forming reactions in ultramafic and basaltic rocks, respectively. The results suggest that all ocean crust basement rocks release enough hydrogen (H2,aq) to support hydrogenotrophic life at low water-to-rock ratios. Olivine dissolution rate control imposes a stronger effect on hydrogen production than phase equilibrium controls, indicating that magnetite formation is not a requirement for production of large amounts of hydrogen in ultramafic rocks. The formation of non-tronite and celadonite are primarily responsible for the formation of the moderate amounts of hydrogen (H2,aq) expected in basaltic ridge flanks. Under conditions of large seawater fluxes required to account for the great global convective heat flow in ridge flanks, however, hydrogen production in basaltic ridge flanks is insufficient for supporting hydrogenotrophic life. It is hence proposed that the role of Fe oxidation in basaltic ridge flanks is greater than previously suggested. A standing stock of 2.4∗1028 cells may be supported by Fe oxidation in basaltic ridge flanks, equivalent of about 10% of the sedimentary deep biosphere. The size of a hydrogenotrophic biomass within the ocean crust is more difficult to estimate because the rates and processes of hydrogen release are insufficiently constrained. In any case, hydrogenotrophy in the ocean crust should be of key importance only in olivine-rich basement rocks and in sedimented ridge flanks with low time-integrated seawater fluxes. PMID:26903986

  20. Structural Controls on Groundwater Flow in Basement Terrains: Geophysical, Remote Sensing, and Field Investigations in Sinai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Lamees; Sultan, Mohamed; Ahmed, Mohamed; Zaki, Abotalib; Sauck, William; Soliman, Farouk; Yan, Eugene; Elkadiri, Racha; Abouelmagd, Abdou

    2015-09-01

    An integrated [very low frequency (VLF) electromagnetic, magnetic, remote sensing, field, and geographic information system (GIS)] study was conducted over the basement complex in southern Sinai (Feiran watershed) for a better understanding of the structural controls on the groundwater flow. The increase in satellite-based radar backscattering values following a large precipitation event (34 mm on 17-18 January 2010) was used to identify water-bearing features, here interpreted as preferred pathways for surface water infiltration. Findings include: (1) spatial analysis in a GIS environment revealed that the distribution of the water-bearing features (conductive features) corresponds to that of fractures, faults, shear zones, dike swarms, and wadi networks; (2) using VLF (43 profiles), magnetic (7 profiles) techniques, and field observations, the majority (85 %) of the investigated conductive features were determined to be preferred pathways for groundwater flow; (3) northwest-southeast- to north-south-trending conductive features that intersect the groundwater flow (southeast to northwest) at low angles capture groundwater flow, whereas northeast-southwest to east-west features that intersect the flow at high angles impound groundwater upstream and could provide potential productive well locations; and (4) similar findings are observed in central Sinai: east-west-trending dextral shear zones (Themed and Sinai Hinge Belt) impede south to north groundwater flow as evidenced by the significant drop in hydraulic head (from 467 to 248 m above mean sea level) across shear zones and by reorientation of regional flow (south-north to southwest-northeast). The adopted integrated methodologies could be readily applied to similar highly fractured basement arid terrains elsewhere.

  1. Can the Metamorphic Basement of Northwestern Guatemala be Correlated with the Chuacús Complex?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacao, N.; Martens, U.

    2007-05-01

    The Chuacús complex constitutes a northward concave metamorphic belt that stretches ca. 150 km south of the Cuilco-Chixoy-Polochic (CCP) fault system in central and central-eastern Guatemala. It represents the basement of the southern edge of the Maya block, being well exposed in the sierra de Chuacús and the sierra de Las Minas. It is composed of high-Al metapelites, amphibolites, quartzofeldspathic gneisses, and migmatites. In central Guatemala the Chuacús complex contains ubiquitous epidote-amphibolite mineral associations, and local relics of eclogite reveal a previous high-pressure metamorphic event. North of the CCP, in the Sierra de Los Cuchumatanes area of western Guatemala, metamorphic rocks have been considered the equivalent of the Chuacús complex and hence been given the name Western Chuacús group, These rocks, which were intruded by granitic rocks and later mylonitized, include chloritic schist and gneiss, biotite-garnet schist, migmatites, and amphibolites. No eclogitic relics have been found within metamorphic rocks in northwestern Guatemala. Petrographic analyses of garnet-biotite schist reveal abundant retrogression and the formation of abundant zeolite-bearing veins associated with intrusion. Although metamorphic conditions in the greenschist and amphibolite facies are similar to those in the sierra de Chuacús, the association with deformed intrusive granites is unique for western Guatemala. Hence a correlation with metasediments intruded by the Rabinal granite in the San Gabriel area of Baja Verapaz seems more feasible than a correlation with the Chuacús complex. This idea is supported by reintegration of the Cenozoic left-lateral displacement along the CCP, which would place the metamorphic basement of western Guatemala north of Baja Verapaz, adjacent to metasediments intruded by granites in the San Gabriel-Rabinal area.

  2. Origin of natural gases in the Paleozoic-Mesozoic basement of the Polish Carpathian Foredeep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotarba, Maciej

    2012-08-01

    Hydrocarbon gases from Upper Devonian and Lower Carboniferous reservoirs in the Paleozoic basement of the Polish Carpathian Foredeep were generated mainly during low-temperature thermogenic processes ("oil window"). They contain only insignificant amounts of microbial methane and ethane. These gaseous hydrocarbons were generated from Lower Carboniferous and/or Middle Jurassic mixed Type III/II kerogen and from Ordovician-Silurian Type II kerogen, respectively. Methane, ethane and carbon dioxide of natural gas from the Middle Devonian reservoir contain a significant microbial component whereas their small thermogenic component is most probably genetically related to Ordovician-Silurian Type II kerogen. The gaseous hydrocarbons from the Upper Jurassic and the Upper Cretaceous reservoirs of the Mesozoic basement were generated both by microbial carbon dioxide reduction and thermogenic processes. The presence of microbial methane generated by carbon dioxide reduction suggests that in some deposits the traps had already been formed and sealed during the migration of microbial methane, presumably in the immature source rock environment. The traps were successively supplied with thermogenic methane and higher hydrocarbons generated at successively higher maturation stages of kerogen. The higher hydrocarbons of the majority of deposits were generated from mixed Type III/II kerogen deposited in the Middle Jurassic, Lower Carboniferous and/or Devonian strata. Type II or mixed Type II/III kerogen could be the source for hydrocarbons in both the Tarnów and Brzezówka deposits. In the Cenomanian sandstone reservoir of the Brzezowiec deposit and one Upper Jurassic carbonate block of the Lubaczów deposit microbial methane prevails. It migrated from the autochthonous Miocene strata.

  3. Membranes for energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peinemann, K.V.; Pereira Nunes, S. (eds.) [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    This volume contains the following chapters: 1. Sulfonated poly(arylether)-type polymers as proton exchange membranes: Synthesis and performance; 2. Polyimide ionomer membranes for PEFCs and DMFCs; 3. Membranes for high temperature PEFC based on acid-doped polybenzimidazoles; 4. Membrane for medium temperature PEFC based on Nafion filled with layered metal phosphates and phosphonates 5. Composite membranes for high temperature direct methanol fuel cells; 6. Dense ceramic membranes for hydrogen separation; 7. Membranes in energy systems with CO{sub 2} capture 8. Palladium membranes for hydrogen separation; 9. Membranes for power generation by pressure retarded osmosis.

  4. Protein folding pathology in domestic animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GRUYS Erik

    2004-01-01

    Fibrillar proteins form structural elements of cells and the extracellular matrix. Pathological lesions of fibrillar microanatomical structures, or secondary fibrillar changes in globular proteins are well known. A special group concerns histologically amorphous deposits, amyloid. The major characteristics of amyloid are: apple green birefringence after Congo red staining of histological sections, and non-branching 7-10 nm thick fibrils on electron microscopy revealing a high content of cross beta pleated sheets. About 25 different types of amyloid have been characterised. In animals,AA-amyloid is the most frequent type. Other types of amyloid in animals represent: AIAPP (in cats), AApoAⅠ, AApoAⅡ,localised AL-amyloid, amyloid in odontogenic or mammary tumors and amyloid in the brain. In old dogs Aβ and in sheep APrPsc-amyloid can be encountered. AA-amyloidosis is a systemic disorder with a precursor in blood, acute phase serum amyloid A (SAA). In chronic inflammatory processes AA-amyloid can be deposited. A rapid crystallization of SAA to shown to penetrate the enteric barrier. Amyloid fibrils can aggregate from various precursor proteins in vitro in particular at acidic pH and when proteolytic fragments are formed. Molecular chaperones influence this process. Tissue data point to amyloid fibrillogenesis in lysosomes and near cell surfaces. A comparison can be made of the fibrillogenesis in prion diseases and in enhanced AA-amyloidosis. In the reactive form, acute phase SAA is the supply of the precursor protein,whereas in tho prion diseases, cell membrane proteins form a structural source. Aβ-amyloid in brain tissue of aged dogs showing signs of dementia forms a canine counterpart of senile dementia of the Alzheimer type (ccSDAT) in man. Misfolded proteins remain potential food hazards. Developments concerning prevention of amyloidogenesis and therapy of amyloid deposits are shortly commented.

  5. Review: Protein folding pathology in domestic animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GRUYSErik

    2004-01-01

    Fibrillar proteins form structural elements of cells and the extracellular matrix. Pathological lesions of fibrillar microanatomical structures, or secondary fibrillar changes in globular proteins are well known. A special group concerns histologically amorphous deposits, amyloid. The major characteristics of amyloid are: apple green birefringence after Congo red staining of histological sections, and non-branching 7-10nm thick fibrils on electron microscopy revealing a high content of cross beta pleated sheets. About 25 different types of amyloid have been characterised. In animals, AA-amyloid is the most frequent type. Other types of amyloid in animals represent: AIAPP (in cats), AApoAⅠ, AApoAⅡ, localised AL-amyloid, amyloid in odontogenic or mammary tumors and amyloid in the brain. In old dogs Aβ and in sheep APrPsc-amyloid can be encountered. AA-amyloidosis is a systemic disorder with a precursor in blood, acute phase serum amyloid A (SAA). In chronic inflammatory processes AA-amyloid can be deposited. A rapid crystallization of SAA to amyloid fibrils on small beta-sheeted fragments, the ‘amyloid enhancing factor' (AEF), is known and the AEF has been shown to penetrate the enteric barrier. Amyloid fibrils can aggregate from various precursor proteins in vitro in particular at acidic pH and when proteolytic fragments are formed. Molecular chaperones influence this process. Tissue data point to amyloid fibrillogenesis in lysosomes and near cell surfaces. A comparison can be made of the fibrillogenesis in prion diseases and in enhanced AA-amyloidosis. In the reactive form, acute phase SAA is the supply of the precursor protein, whereas in the prion diseases, cell membrane proteins form a structural source. AI3-amyloid in brain tissue of aged dogs showing signs of dementia forms a canine counterpart of senile dementia of the Alzheimer type (ccSDAT) in man. Misfolded proteins remain potential food hazards. Developments concerning prevention of amyloidogenesis

  6. Pathology of high altitude pulmonary oedema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To describe autopsy findings in fatal cases of high altitude pulmonary oedema. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out between 1999 and 2002 at an army field medical unit in Baltistan, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi and Army Medical College, Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Patients and Methods:Autopsies were performed in 17 fatal cases of High Altitude Pulmonary Edema (HAPE) occurring among soldiers serving in Siachen. Results:All cases were males with a mean age of 26.8 years (19-35). The mean altitude at which HAPE occurred was 5192 meters (2895-6492), and the mean duration of stay at these altitudes was 15.3 days (1-30). Eleven individuals had undergone proper acclimatization. The commonest clinical findings were cough (70%), dyspnoea (53%), nausea (47%), headache (41%), vomiting (35%), chest pain (35%) and tightness in chest (24%). Cyanosis and frothy secretions in the nostrils and mouth were present in all but one case. Mean combined weight of lungs was 1470 grams (1070-1810). There was marked congestion of outer and cut surfaces. Interstitial oedema was present in all cases. RBCs and leukocyte infiltrates were seen in 13 and alveolar hyaline membranes in 9 cases. Thrombi were seen in 2 cases. Cerebral oedema was present in 9 cases. Conclusion:HAPE can occur after more than two weeks of stay at high altitudes despite proper acclimatization. Concomitant cerebral oedema is frequently present. Our autopsy findings are consistent with what has been reported previously. (author)

  7. Needs in omega 3 and ocular pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bretillon Lionel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Life expectancy at birth has regularly increased decade after decade, especially since the beginning of the 20th century: 15 years have been gained over the past 50 years. Changes in living and dietary habits during this time period have been associated with the development of various pathologies which represent a growing socioeconomic burden. Among age-related disorders, ocular diseases are the second most prevalent ones after 65 years. Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD is the leading cause of visual impairment after the age of 50 years. Age is the prominent risk factor for AMD and is accompanied with both endogenous (including genetics and environmental factors, such as smoking habits and dietary factors (diet rich in cholesterol and saturated fatty acids. AMD is characterized by the loss of cells at the most central area of the retina, called macula. The neural retina is a highly structured neurosensory tissue that is responsible for the transduction pathway. The transduction pathway is initiated in photoreceptors where the light stimulus is coded into an electrical signal. This signal is transmitted to neighboured neurons and transferred to the brain via the optic nerve. The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE is the cellular and metabolic interface between the neural retina and choriocapillaris through Bruch’s membrane. The close association between RPE and photoreceptors is one of the factors that promote the efficacy of RPE to, in the one hand, provide nutrients and oxygen to photoreceptors and, in the other hand, eliminate the metabolic debris originating from shedding of the outer segments. Epidemiological data suggest that dietary habits privileging the consumption of omega- 3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids participate to prevent from the development of AMD (Sangiovanni et al., 2009. The mechanisms underlying the effects of omega-3 fatty acids remain unclear until now. The purpose of the present paper is to give a review on

  8. Electrophysiology of mycoplasma membranes.

    OpenAIRE

    Schummer, U.; Schiefer, H G

    1983-01-01

    The influence of transmembrane ion fluxes on mycoplasma membrane potentials was studied. Fluorescence intensity of potential-sensitive carbocyanine dyes was calibrated vs. electric membrane potential. Potassium and sodium ion diffusion potentials significantly contributed to mycoplasma membrane potential. Chloride ions were obviously freely permeable across mycoplasma membranes. Under growth conditions the mycoplasma membrane potential was estimated to be delta psi = - 80 mV.

  9. Pathology of hepatic iron overload

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yves Deugnier; Bruno Turlin

    2007-01-01

    Although progress in imaging and genetics allow for a noninvasive diagnosis of most cases of genetic iron overload, liver pathology remains often useful (1) to assess prognosis by grading fibrosis and seeking for associated lesions and (2) to guide the etiological diagnosis, especially when no molecular marker is available.Then, the type of liver siderosis (parenchymal, mesenchymal or mixed) and its distribution throughout the lobule and the liver are useful means for suggesting its etiology: HLA-linked hemochromatosis gene (HFE) hemochromatosis or other rare genetic hemochromatosis,nonhemochromatotic genetic iron overload (ferroportin disease, aceruloplasminemia), or iron overload secondary to excessive iron supply, inflammatory syndrome,noncirrhotic chronic liver diseases including dysmetabolic iron overload syndrome, cirrhosis, and blood disorders.

  10. Molecular pathology in real time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryška, Aleš

    2016-03-01

    With the development of sophisticated individualized therapeutic approaches, the role of pathology in classification of tumors is enormously increasing. The solely morphological characterization of neoplastic process is no more sufficient for qualified decision on optimal therapeutic approach. Thus, morphologic diagnosis must be supplemented by molecular analysis of the lesion with emphasis on the detection of status of certain markers used as predictive factors for targeted therapy. Both intrinsic and acquired types of intratumor heterogeneity have an impact at various moments of cancer diagnostics and therapy. The primary heterogeneity of neoplastic tissue represents a significant problem in patients, where only limited biopsy samples from the primary tumor are available for diagnosis, such as core needle biopsy specimens in breast cancer, transthoracic or endobronchial biopsies in lung cancer, or endoscopic biopsies in gastric cancer. Detection of predictive markers may be influenced by this heterogeneity, and the marker detection may be falsely negative or (less probably) falsely positive. In addition, as these markers are often detected in the tissue samples from primary tumor, the differences between molecular features of the primary lesion and its metastases may be responsible for failure of systemic therapy in patients with discordant phenotype between primary and metastatic disease. The fact of tumor heterogeneity must be taken into consideration already in establishing pathological diagnosis. One has to be aware that limited biopsy specimen must not always be fully representative of the entire tumor volume. To overcome these limitations, there does not exist one single simple solution. Examination of more tissue (preference of surgical resection specimens over biopsies, whenever possible), use of ultra-sensitive methods able to identify the minute subclones as a source of possible resistance to treatment, and detection of secondary molecular events from

  11. Contemporary pharmacotherapy and iatrogenic pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trailović D.R.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available During the past few decades, the pharmaceutical industry has developed into a powerful human activity highly influencing modern medicine. Thousands of synthetic therapeuticals have been developed, and these formulations enabled the successful treatment of many diseases, some of which were considered incurable. An increase in drug consumption followed the development of the pharmaceutical industry and the introduction of synthetic drugs. The widespread use of new medicals enabled the collection of data confirming their effectiveness, but also more and more data concerning side and unwanted effects were reported. Frequent side/unwanted effect reports gave rise to development of iatrogenic pathology, a new branch of clinical pathology. The knowledge of the possible unwanted effects of drugs on macro organisms did not enable the effective withdrawal of such formulations from the market. At the beginning, the reports concerning unwanted effects were not verealed. Consequently some potentially harmful formulations were used for years without methodical analyses of their side/unwanted effects. Some potentially dangerous formulations are still on the market such as drugs containing ulcerogenic, hepatotoxic, nephrotoxic substances as well as those inducing bone marrow aplasia. The administration of these potentially dangerous formulations is understandable in the case of clear therapeutic indications allowing no alternatives. In these cases the risk of harmful side effects is greatly overwhelmed by the risk from the primary disease. Otherwise the administration of the potentially harmful drug is unjustified, especially if the indication is not a disease. Many potentially harmful drugs are formulated for use in healthy animals, recommended as growth, laying and milk stimulators, those allowing higher speed and strength in sport and racing horses, estrus inducers and suppressors. The misuse or maluse medication is highly present in sport horses daily

  12. From biological membranes to biomimetic model membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eeman, M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological membranes play an essential role in the cellular protection as well as in the control and the transport of nutrients. Many mechanisms such as molecular recognition, enzymatic catalysis, cellular adhesion and membrane fusion take place into the biological membranes. In 1972, Singer et al. provided a membrane model, called fluid mosaic model, in which each leaflet of the bilayer is formed by a homogeneous environment of lipids in a fluid state including globular assembling of proteins and glycoproteins. Since its conception in 1972, many developments were brought to this model in terms of composition and molecular organization. The main development of the fluid mosaic model was made by Simons et al. (1997 and Brown et al. (1997 who suggested that membrane lipids are organized into lateral microdomains (or lipid rafts with a specific composition and a molecular dynamic that are different to the composition and the dynamic of the surrounding liquid crystalline phase. The discovery of a phase separation in the plane of the membrane has induced an explosion in the research efforts related to the biology of cell membranes but also in the development of new technologies for the study of these biological systems. Due to the high complexity of biological membranes and in order to investigate the biological processes that occur on the membrane surface or within the membrane lipid bilayer, a large number of studies are performed using biomimicking model membranes. This paper aims at revisiting the fundamental properties of biological membranes in terms of membrane composition, membrane dynamic and molecular organization, as well as at describing the most common biomimicking models that are frequently used for investigating biological processes such as membrane fusion, membrane trafficking, pore formation as well as membrane interactions at a molecular level.

  13. Tensile mechanical and creep properties of Descemet's membrane and lens capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsen, Carl Christian

    2004-09-01

    Descemet's membrane (DM) and the lens capsule (LC) are two ocular basement membrane structures which in comparison with other basement membranes have exceptional thicknesses which increase with age. Both membranes are supposed to contain networks of type IV collagen and laminin linked together with nidogen/entactin and containing other glycoproteins and proteoglycans. DM is a unique basement membrane which in addition contains fine filaments of type VIII collagen arranged in a hexagonal lattice. The mechanical functions of the LC are in lens suspension and accommodation, and its mechanical properties, previously investigated, are of great interest from a surgical point of view. DM serves as an endothelial basement membrane. Otherwise, its physiological function is unknown but may be one of mechanical support, filtration, or fluid barrier. Data on the mechanical properties of DM or the supramolecular assembly of type VIII collagen are very scarce or absent. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the mechanical properties of the two ocular membranes in order to elucidate the properties of DM in the light of those of LC. The human eyes were from testamentary donors and rat, cow, and sow eyes were obtained from normal animals. The tensile mechanical properties were determined by a volume-strain procedure and creep properties by subjecting the membranes from the latter three species to a constant axial stress. In rat, cow, and sow, DM was less strained to obtain a fixed moderate stress value (0.5 MPa) and showed to be 3.4- to 5.2-fold stiffer and to attain 2.7- to 4.6-fold higher stress at a strain value of 0.10 when compared with LC. The maximal strain, stiffness and stress were found to be less than those of the LC. In humans, DM and LC showed very similar mechanical properties. The instantaneous creep of DM was found to be less than that of LC indicating a higher stiffness of DM in the axial direction. In conclusion, depending on the species, DM showed to

  14. Basement evolution in the Northern Hesperian Massif. A preliminary survey of results obtained by the Leiden research group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tex, den E.

    1981-01-01

    Historical notes on Galician geology, and on the work of the Leiden University petrology team in particular, are first provided. This is followed by an introduction to the geology of Galicia with emphasis on its crystalline basement and upper mantle inliers. Six lithotectonic units are distinguished

  15. Simulation of the steady-state transport of radon from soil into houses with basements under constant negative pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A theoretical model was developed to simulate this phenomenon, under some specific assumptions. The model simulates: the generation and decay of radon within the soil; its transport throughout the soil due to diffusion and convection induced by the pressure disturbance applied at a crack in the basement; its entrance into the house through the crack; and the resultant indoor radon concentration. The most important assumptions adopted in the model were: a steady-state condition; a house with a basement; a geometrically well-defined crack at the wall-floor joint in the basement; and a constant negative pressure applied at the crack in relation to the outside atmospheric pressure. Two three-dimensional finite-difference computer programs were written to solve the mathematical equations of the model. The first program, called PRESSU, was used to calculate: the pressure distribution within the soil as a result of the applied disturbance pressure at the crack; and the resultant velocity distribution of the soil gas throughout the soil matrix. The second program, called MASTRA, was used to: solve the radon mass-transport equation, and to calculate the concentration distribution of radon in the soil gas within the whole soil; and to calculate the entry rate of radon through the crack into the basement, and the final indoor radon concentration. A parametric sensitivity analysis performed on the model, revealed several features of the mechanisms involved in the transport of radon into the house. 84 refs., 66 figs., 16 tabs

  16. Geochronology of the basement rocks, Amazonas Territory, Venezuela and the tectonic evolution of the western Guiana Shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Amazonas Territory of Venezuela is a large area of Precambrian basement rocks overlain in some locales by the supracrustal sedimentary and volcanic rocks of the Roraima Formation. The basement rocks are medium to high grade gneisses with both igneous and sedimentary protoliths, plutonic rocks ranging in composition from granite to tonalite, and meta-volcanic rocks. Rb-Sr whole rock, and U-Pb isotopic analyses of zircons indicate a period of medium to high grade metamorphism and intrusion from 1860 to 1760 Ma. Post-tectonic plutonic activity continued to 1550 Ma. The volcanic rocks of the Roraima Formation in Venezuela give an age of 1746 Ma comparable to volcanic rocks of the Roraima Formation in other parts of the Guiana Shield. The ages and distribution of the basement rocks suggest the presence of a tectonic zone, approximately coincident with the Venezuelan-Colombian border, representing an active orogenic boundary between distinct tectonic provinces. The rocks to the northeast of this zone are part of the Trans-Amazonian of the Guiana Shield, while to the southwest and in adjacent Brazil and Colombia, new younger continental crust has been developed and cratonized. We suggest a model of collision and subduction followed by a chan0140n tectonic style to extensional-vertical to produce the basement rocks of the western Guiana Shield in the Amazonas Territory. (Auth.)

  17. CT-pathologic correlation study of interstitial pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A direct CT-pathologic correlative study of interstitial pneumonia was performed using inflated and fixed lungs. The specimens, which were obtained from 26 patients at the time of autopsy or during surgery, had pathologic findings of interstitial pneumonia (UIP and/or DAD). The specimens were fixed in distension and air dried. They were then scanned with a GE CT/T9800. HRCT images of the specimens could be correlated with two different types of pathologic processes. One was the chronic fibrotic change which was seen in the subpleural area of the specimens both from the autopsied and surgical cases, and the other was the acute alveolar change which was seen in the diffuse area of the specimens only from autopsied cases. HRCT images of the chronic fibrotic change showed nodular opacities, ring like opacities, increased density (high density), and air-bronchiologram in the subpleural area. These findings were correlated with patchy fibrotic lesions, honeycombing, mucus stasis in cysts of the honeycomb, and dilatation of the airways. HRCT images of the acute alveolar change showed mainly diffuse increased densities (hazy appearance and high density) and diffuse nodular opacities. These findings were correlated with a diffuse thickening of the alveolar walls, hyaline membranes in the alveoli and alveolar ducts, and their organization. Understanding of the difference between HRCT images of these chronic and acute pathologic processes is helpful for the evaluation of disease processes of interstitial pneumonia by HRCT. The abnormal patterns on HRCT images of the specimens were influenced by several technical factors of CT scanning, such as reconstruction algorithm, thickness of the slice, window level, and window width. It is, therefore, necessary to know the influence on HRCT images by these technical factors for a better understanding of HRCT images in interstitial pneumonia. (author)

  18. Slot Machine Response Frequency Predicts Pathological Gambling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Jakob; Rømer Thomsen, Kristine; Møller, Arne;

    2013-01-01

    Slot machines are among the most addictive forms of gambling, and pathological gambling slot machine players represent the largest group of treatment seekers, accounting for 35% to 93% of the population. Pathological gambling sufferers have significantly higher response frequency (games / time) on...... slot machines compared with non-problem gamblers, which may suggest increased reinforcement of the gambling behavior in pathological gambling. However, to date it is unknown whether or not the increased response frequency in pathological gambling is associated with symptom severity of the disorder....... This study tested the hypothesis that response frequency is associated with symptom severity in pathological gambling. We tested response frequency among twenty-two pathological gambling sufferers and twenty-one non-problem gamblers on a commercially available slot machine, and screened for...

  19. Anaerobic membrane bioreactors: Are membranes really necessary?

    OpenAIRE

    Davila, M.; Kassab, G.; Klapwijk, A.; Van, Lier, G

    2008-01-01

    Membranes themselves represent a significant cost for the full scale application of anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBR). The possibility of operating an AnMBR with a self-forming dynamic membrane generated by the substances present in the reactor liquor would translate into an important saving. A self-forming dynamic membrane only requires a support material over which a cake layer is formed, which determines the rejection properties of the system. The present research studies the applicat...

  20. Functional changes of man erythrocyte surface in the norm and pathology following UV-radiation of various spectral content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    UV radiation (UVR) of different wavelengths causes immediate increase in the expression of membrane antigenes (EMA) of erythrocytes (Er) in systems ABO and Rhesus in donors, persons with surgical and gynecologic pathologies, but not in leukosis patients. The same effect is recorded for patients with surgical pathology in the process and after treatment with autotransfusion of UV-irradiated blood. Direct stimulation of EMA Er after UVR action is conditioned by partial destruction of external near the membrane layer of Er, by desorption of its components and baring of antigenic determinations. The absence of the effect is related to structural anomaly in Er surface in leukosis patients

  1. Pathologic mitoses and pathology of mitosis in tumorigenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RG Steinbeck

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The gist of my hypothesis (.. is a certain abnormal chromatin constitution. Each process, which brings about this chromatin constitution, would result in the origin of a malignant tumour. Certainly, I consider irregularities with mitosis as the normal mode of the origin of an incorrectly assembled nucleus. This statement by Boveri (1914 has considered earlier observations of asymmetric divisions in human cancers (Hansemann, 1890. The hypothesis is based on the understanding of mitosis as an equational bipartition of the hereditary substance (Flemming, 1879; Roux, 1883. Latest since it was known that genes are located on chromosomes (Sturtevant, 1913, their balanced transport in anaphase appeared as a condition of correct somatic proliferation. True mitoses guarantee the constancy of terminally differentiated tissues. Politzer (1934 has performed X-ray experiments to investigate abnormal karyokinesis with regard to anomalous chromatin condensation, chromosome breakage, spindle malformation, and failure in cytokinesis. On the basis of light microscopy, further significant progress in understanding the pathology of mitosis was not possible. Tumour cases with reduced chromosome numbers seduced to the idea that mitotic activity is rather under cytoplasmic than under nuclear control (Koller, 1947.

  2. Heterogeneity of groundwater storage properties in the critical zone of Irish metamorphic basement from geophysical surveys and petrographic analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comte, Jean-Christophe; Cassidy, Rachel; Caulfield, John; Nitsche, Janka; Ofterdinger, Ulrich; Wilson, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    Weathered/fractured bedrock aquifers contain groundwater resources that are crucial in hard rock basement regions for rural water supply and maintaining river flow and ecosystem resilience. Groundwater storage in metamorphic rocks is subject to high spatial variations due to the large degree of heterogeneity in fracture occurrence and weathering patterns. Point measurements such as borehole testing are, in most cases, insufficient to characterise and quantify those storage variations because borehole sampling density is usually much lower than the scale of heterogeneities. A suite of geophysical and petrographic investigations was implemented in the weathered/fractured micaschist basement of Donegal, NW Ireland. Electrical Resistivity Tomography provided a high resolution 2D distribution of subsurface resistivities. Resistivity variations were transferred into storage properties (i.e. porosities) in the saturated critical zone of the aquifer through application of a petrophysical model derived from Archie's Law. The petrophysical model was calibrated using complementary borehole gamma logging and clay petrographic analysis at multi-depth well clusters distributed along a hillslope transect at the site. The resulting distribution of porosities shows large spatial variations along the studied transect. With depth, porosities rapidly decrease from about a few % in the uppermost, highly weathered basement to less than 0.5% in the deep unweathered basement, which is encountered at depths of between 10 and 50m below the ground surface. Along the hillslope, porosities decrease with distance from the river in the valley floor, ranging between 5% at the river to less than 1% at the top of the hill. Local traces of regional fault zones that intersect the transect are responsible for local increases in porosity in relation to deeper fracturing and weathering. Such degrees of spatial variation in porosity are expected to have a major impact on the modality of the response of

  3. Determining nuclear shape: The role of farnesylated nuclear membrane proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Polychronidou, Maria; Großhans, Jörg

    2011-01-01

    Changes in nuclear morphology are observed in diverse developmental processes as well as in pathological conditions. Modification of nuclear membrane and nuclear lamina protein levels results in altered nuclear shapes, as it has been demonstrated in experimental systems ranging from yeast to human cells. The important role of nuclear membrane components in regulating nuclear morphology is additionally highlighted by the abnormally shaped nuclei observed in diseases where nuclear lamina protei...

  4. Impaired decisional impulsivity in pathological videogamers

    OpenAIRE

    Irvine, Michael A.; Worbe, Yulia; Bolton, Sorcha; Harrison, Neil A.; Bullmore, Edward T.; Voon, Valerie

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Pathological gaming is an emerging and poorly understood problem. Impulsivity is commonly impaired in disorders of behavioural and substance addiction, hence we sought to systematically investigate the different subtypes of decisional and motor impulsivity in a well-defined pathological gaming cohort. Methods Fifty-two pathological gaming subjects and age-, gender- and IQ-matched healthy volunteers were tested on decisional impulsivity (Information Sampling ...

  5. Spiritual Pathology: The Case of Adolf Hitler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. George Scarlett

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Hitler had a noble purpose (to save the world and a strong faith in the laws of Nature as he understood Nature. He was, then, a spiritual person, though his spirituality was pathological and destructive. Here, the example of Hitler, his faith, and his spiritual pathology is given to both understand spiritual pathology in general and, through contrast, to understand positive spiritual development.

  6. Pathology of the region of the knee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aufdermaur, M.

    1981-09-01

    Radiological, clinical and pathologic-anatomical findings seen in four types of disorders of the region of the knee jointare described. An attempt is made to explain the clinical symptomatology on the basis of pathologic-anatomical findings. It is demonstrated that the histology of a giant cell neoplasm does not permit conclusions as to prognosis. Etiology and pathogenesis of villonodular synovitis and of chondrocalcinosis are unexplained. Pathologic-anatomical findings of chondromalacia patellae are those of early osteoarthrosis.

  7. The Notion "Pathology" in Set Theory

    OpenAIRE

    DePauli-Schimanovich, Werner

    2008-01-01

    When we study the paradoxes of set theory we find out that there are mainly 2 types: the pathologies and the antinomies. These 2 notions are made precise and compared with the somehow inductively definable concept "abnormal". (See my paper "Naive Axiomatic Mengenlehre for Experiments" in arXiv.) In the following 5 Patho Theses are discussed in order to formalize this notion of pathology. This allows us to define formally the property "Hereditary-non-Pathological" for well-formed formulas. Wit...

  8. On-Line Full Text Pathology Database

    OpenAIRE

    Fink, Daniel; Clark, Anthony; Sideli, Robert

    1988-01-01

    A free text database for pathology reports has been developed using the BRS/SEARCH free text management software. All pathology reports are stored in the free text pathology database. Standardized section headings make any word searchable both by itself or within the context of a specific part of the report. The free text management software supplies a rich set of Boolean, positional, and relational operators. These operators make an iterative search strategy an effective method of searching ...

  9. Anaerobic membrane bioreactors: Are membranes really necessary?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davila, M.; Kassab, G.; Klapwijk, A.; Lier, van J.B.

    2008-01-01

    Membranes themselves represent a significant cost for the full scale application of anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBR). The possibility of operating an AnMBR with a self-forming dynamic membrane generated by the substances present in the reactor liquor would translate into an important saving. A

  10. Changes in pathological pattern and treatment regimens based on repeat renal biopsy in lupus nephritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Guo-bao; XU Zheng-jin; LIU Hong-fa; ZHOU Qiu-gen; ZHOU Zhan-mei; JIA Nan

    2012-01-01

    Background Relapses occur frequently in patients with lupus nephritis.Renal biopsy is the gold standard for assessing renal activity and hence guiding the treatment.Whether repeat renal biopsy is helpful during flares of lupus nephritis remains inconclusive.In the present study,we retrospectively reviewed the patients with lupus nephritis who had more than one renal biopsy with the hope to find the clinical value of repeat biopsy.Methods Patients who had a diagnosis of lupus nephritis and two or more renal biopsies were selected from the database of the patient pathology registration at this renal division.Renal biopsy was evaluated according to the International Society of Nephrology/Renal Pathology Society (ISN/RPS) classification of lupus nephritis.The pathological patterns and treatment regimens were analyzed after a repeat biopsy.Results We identified 44 systemic lupus erythematosus patients with serial renal biopsies.In total,there were 94 renal biopsies.Overall,the pathological transition occurred in 64% instances according to the ISN/RPS class.When the transition was analyzed according to proliferative,membranous or mix lesions,it showed different profile:35% in patients with proliferative lesion,23.5% patients with mix lesions,100% in patients with pure membranous lesion.The pathological transition could not be predicted by any clinical characteristics.After the repeat renal biopsy,34% of patients had a change in their treatment regimens.Conclusions The pathological conversion was very prevalent in patients with lupus nephritis.However,the transitions became less prevalent when they were analyzed according to pure membranous,proliferative,and mix lesion.Repeat biopsy might be helpful to avoid unnecessary increased immunosuppression therapy.

  11. Glomerular matrix: synthesis, turnover and role in mesangial expansion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R; Beavan, L A; McCarthy, K J

    1994-01-01

    The extracellular matrix has an integral role in development, homeostasis and pathology of the glomerulus. Three spatially distinct matrices are present in the glomerulus: the mesangium, and basement membranes of the capillary loops and Bowman's capsule. Each is dominated by basement membrane com...

  12. Interactions between basement and cover during the evolution of the Salar de Atacama Basin, northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Muñoz

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A reinterpretation of the structural style on the eastern Cordillera Domeyko and the adjacent Salar de Atacama Basin reveals the existence of west-dipping, high-angle, thrust-faults extending below the Cordillera Domeyko and Cordón de Lila, resulting from inversion of Cretaceous extensional faults, that transferred west-ward their displacement into the cover, generating fault-propagation and detachment folds. The most conspicuous of these structures is the Cordillera de la Sal. Contractional structures in the Cordillera Domeyko involved a Paleozoic crystalline, volcanic, and sedimentary, uplifted basement. Seismic reflection sections and available surface geology allows to study the interactions between development of the thick-skinned basement structures, sedimentation within the basin, and the thin-skinned deformation in the sedimentary cover. Geometry of the units in the basin continuously modified. Anticline growth above basement thrust-faults locally controlled syn-thrusting sequences, and generated progressive unconformities. Stratigraphic architecture in the basin seems to have been mainly controlled by tectonic activity. Tectonism generated accommodation space, altered base levels, and controlled source areas. The stratigraphy and geometry of the basin deposits resulted mainly from the succession of the following events: local extensional subsidence during the Early to Late Cretaceous, uplift of the Cordillera Domeyko during the latest Cretaceous to Miocene, uplift of the Puna, and subsidence probably caused by flexural response of the lithosphere during thrust-sheet loading, and sediment accumulationRESUMEN Interacciones entre el basamento y la cobertura durante la evolución de la Cuenca del Salar de Atacama, norte de Chile. La reinterpretación del estilo estructural del borde oriental de la Cordillera Domeyko y de la adyacente cuenca del Salar de Atacama, basada en el análisis de la geología de superficie y de perfiles s

  13. Erythrocyte membrane proteins and membrane skeleton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Yiqin; LIU Junfan

    2007-01-01

    Considerable advances in the research field of erythrocyte membrane were achieved in the recent two decades.New findings in the structure-function correlation and interactions of erythrocyte membrane proteins have attracted extensive attention.Interesting progress was also made in the molecular pathogenesis of erythrocyte membrane disorders.Advances in the composition,function and interaction of erythrocyte membrane proteins,erythrocyte membrane skeleton,and relevant diseases are briefly described and summarized here on the basis of domestic and world literatures.

  14. K-Ar geochronology of basement rocks on the northern flank of the Huancabama deflection, Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feininger, Tomas; Silberman, M.L.

    1982-01-01

    The Huancabamba deflection, a major Andean orocline located at the Ecuador-Peru border, constitutes an important geologic boundary on the Pacific coast of South America. Crust to the north of the deflection is oceanic and the basement is composed of basic igneous rocks of Cretaceous age, whereas crust to the south is continental and felsic rocks of Precambrian to Cretaceous age make up the basement. The northern flank of the Huancabamba Deflection in El Oro Province, Ecuador, is underlain by Precambrian polymetamorphic basic rocks of the Piedras Group; shale, siltstone, sandstone, and their metamorphosed equivalents in the Tahuin Group (in part of Devonian age); concordant syntectonic granitic rocks; quartz diorite and alaskite of the Maroabeli pluton; a protrusion of serpentinized harzburgite that contains a large inclusion of blueschist-facies metamorphic rocks, the Raspas Formation, and metamorphic rocks north of the La Palma fault. Biotite from gneiss of the Tahuin Group yields a Late Triassic K-Ar age (210 ? 8 m.y.). This is interpreted as an uplift age and is consistent with a regional metamorphism of Paleozoic age. A nearby sample from the Piedras Group that yielded a hornblende K-Ar age of 196 ? 8 m.y. was affected by the same metamorphic event. Biotite from quartz diorite of the mesozonal Maroabeli pluton yields a Late Triassic age (214 ? 6 m.y.) which is interpreted as an uplift age which may be only slightly younger than the age of magmatic crystallization. Emplacement of the pluton may postdate regional metamorphism of the Tahuin Group. Phengite from politic schist of the Raspas Formation yields an Early Cretaceous K-Ar age (132 ? 5 m.y.). This age is believed to date the isostatic rise of the encasing serpentinized harzburgite as movement along a subjacent subduction zone ceased, and it is synchronous with the age of the youngest lavas of a coeval volcanic arc in eastern Ecuador. A Late Cretaceous K-Ar age (74.4 ? 1.1 m.y.) from hornblende in

  15. Barents Sea Paleozoic basement and basin configurations: Crustal structure from deep seismic and potential field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarseth, Iselin; Mjelde, Rolf; Breivik, Asbjørn Johan; Huismans, Ritske; Faleide, Jan Inge

    2016-04-01

    The Barents Sea is underlain by at least two different basement domains; the Caledonian in the west and the Timanian in the east. The transition between these two domains is not well constrained and contrasting interpretations have been published recently. Interpretations of new high-quality magnetic data covering most of the SW Barents Sea has challenged the Late Paleozoic basin configurations in the western and central Barents Sea as outlined in previous studies. Two regional ocean bottom seismic (OBS) profiles were acquired in 2014. This new dataset crosses the two major directions of Caledonian deformation proposed by different authors: N-S direction and SW-NE direction. Of particular importance are the high velocity anomalies related to Caledonian eclogites, revealing the location of Caledonian suture zones in the northern Barents Sea. One of the main objectives with this project is to locate the main Caledonian suture in the western Barents Sea, as well as the possible Barentsia-Baltica suture postulated further eastwards. The collapse of the Caledonian mountain range predominantly along these suture zones is expected to be tightly linked to the deposition of large thicknesses of Devonian erosional products, and later rifting is expected to be influenced by inheritance of Caledonian trends. The P-wave travel-time modelling is done by use of a combined ray-tracing and inversion scheme, and gravity- and magnetic modelling will be used to augment the seismic model. The preliminary results indicate high P-wave velocities (mostly over 4 km/s) close to the seafloor as well as high velocity (around 6 km/s) zones at shallow depths which are interpreted as volcanic sills. The crustal transects reveal areas of complex geology and velocity inversions. A low seismic impedance contrast between the sedimentary section and top crystalline basement makes identification of this interface uncertain. Depth to Moho mostly lies around 30 km, except in an area of rapid change in

  16. Practical pathology of aging mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piper M. M. Treuting

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Old mice will have a subset of lesions as part of the progressive decline in organ function that defines aging. External and palpable lesions will be noted by the research, husbandry, or veterinary staff during testing, cage changing, or physical exams. While these readily observable lesions may cause alarm, not all cause undue distress or are life-threatening. In aging research, mice are maintained until near end of life that, depending on strain and genetic manipulation, can be upwards of 33 months. Aging research has unique welfare issues related to age-related decline, debilitation, fragility, and associated pain of chronic diseases. An effective aging research program includes the collaboration and education of the research, husbandry, and veterinary staff, and of the members of the institution animal care and use committee. This collaborative effort is critical to humanely maintaining older mice and preventing excessive censorship due to non-lethal diseases. Part of the educational process is becoming familiar with how old mice appear clinically, at necropsy and histopathologically. This baseline knowledge is important in making the determination of humane end points, defining health span, contributing causes of death and effects of interventions. The goal of this paper is to introduce investigators to age-associated diseases and lesion patterns in mice from clinical presentation to pathologic assessment. To do so, we present and illustrate the common clinical appearances, necropsy and histopathological lesions seen in subsets of the aging colonies maintained at the University of Washington.

  17. Pathologizing sexual deviance: a history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Block, Andreas; Adriaens, Pieter R

    2013-01-01

    This article provides a historical perspective on how both American and European psychiatrists have conceptualized and categorized sexual deviance throughout the past 150 years. During this time, quite a number of sexual preferences, desires, and behaviors have been pathologized and depathologized at will, thus revealing psychiatry's constant struggle to distinguish mental disorder--in other words, the "perversions," "sexual deviations," or "paraphilias"--from immoral, unethical, or illegal behavior. This struggle is apparent in the works of 19th- and early-20th-century psychiatrists and sexologists, but it is also present in the more recent psychiatric textbooks and diagnostic manuals, such as the consecutive editions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). While much of the historical literature revolves around the controversy over homosexuality, this article also reviews the recent medicohistorical and sociohistorical work on other forms of sexual deviance, including the diagnostic categories listed in the latest edition, the DSM-IV-TR: exhibitionism, voyeurism, fetishism, frotteurism, pedophilia, sexual masochism, sexual sadism, and transvestic fetishism. PMID:23480073

  18. A membrane disdrometer based on membrane vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raindrop sizes were indirectly determined through the distinctive vibrations and sounds that occur when raindrops of different sizes impact on a membrane. The relationships between diameter, raindrop kinetic momentum, membrane deflection, and impact force were analyzed. Membrane deflection and vibration models were created, and the optimum membrane diameter and thickness were identified. A prototype membrane disdrometer was developed on the basis of these findings. The relationship between raindrop size and membrane vibration sound pressure was determined experimentally. The fundamental parameter of raindrop size recognition was used. The test results indicate that raindrops 0.4–2.0 mm in diameter can be detected by the proposed membrane disdrometer, and 50 raindrops per second in a zone area of 28.3 cm2 can be detected in natural rain. (paper)

  19. The Family Functioning of Female Pathological Gamblers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Nicki; Smith, David; Thomas, Trang

    2009-01-01

    The available evidence suggests that pathological gambling significantly disrupts family relationships and has a substantial impact on family members. However, these conclusions are based almost exclusively on male pathological gamblers and their female spouses or partners. The current study, which was a secondary study derived from a treatment…

  20. Musculoskeletal ultrasound including definitions for ultrasonographic pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakefield, RJ; Balint, PV; Szkudlarek, Marcin; Filippucci, E; Backhaus, M; D'Agostino, MA; Sanchez, EN; Iagnocco, A; Schmidt, WA; Bruyn, G; Kane, D; O'Connor, PJ; Manger, B; Joshua, F; Koski, J; Grassi, W; Lassere, MN; Swen, N; Kainberger, F; Klauser, A; Østergaard, Mikkel; Brown, AK; Machold, KP; Conaghan, PG

    2005-01-01

    of US pathologies. This article presents the first report from the OMERACT ultrasound special interest group, which has compared US against the criteria of the OMERACT filter. Also proposed for the first time are consensus US definitions for common pathological lesions seen in patients with...

  1. Magnetically controlled permeability membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Kosel, Jurgen

    2013-10-31

    A bioactive material delivery system can include a thermoresponsive polymer membrane and nanowires distributed within the thermoresponsive polymer membrane. Magnetic activation of a thermoresponsive polymer membrane can take place via altering the magnetization or dimensions of nanowires dispersed or ordered within the membrane matrix.

  2. Compositional asynchronous membrane systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cosmin Bonchis; Cornel Izbasa; Gabriel Ciobanu

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithmic way of building complex membrane systems by coupling elementary membranes. Its application seems particularly valuable in the case of asynchronous membrane systems, since the resulting membrane system remains asynchronous. The composition method is based on a handshake mechanism implemented by using antiport rules and promoters.

  3. Composite sensor membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Arun; Satyanarayana, Srinath; Yue, Min

    2008-03-18

    A sensor may include a membrane to deflect in response to a change in surface stress, where a layer on the membrane is to couple one or more probe molecules with the membrane. The membrane may deflect when a target molecule reacts with one or more probe molecules.

  4. Correspondence of ores of silver and gold with basement terranes in the American southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titley, S. R.

    1991-04-01

    The ratios of silver to gold produced from epigenetic ore districts of the American southwest reveal a consistency of value ranges, differing by an order of magnitude, that may be identified with either one or the other of two geologic terranes in which the ores occur. A discriminating value of the ratio is about 17.5∶1, the ratio of crustal abundance given by Ahrens (1965). (No further significance is attributed to this value, at this time, beyond the fact that it appears to establish a reasonable separation of values on the basis of geographic occurrence.) Ores relatively enriched in Ag occur in terranes floored by thick Proterozoic clastic and Paleozoic marine successions, and ores relatively enriched in Au lie above or within a Proterozoic basement dominated by maficfelsic volcanic (arc) successions. Proterozoic granites occur in each region. The values of the ratio are broadly consistent within each terrane, irrespective of the age of ore formation, the ore deposit style, associated igneous rocks, structural control, differing interpreted styles of subduction, and weathering histories. These characteristics and associations support a hypothesis that metallogenic signatures of ore districts in this region are fundamentally related to the crust in which the ores occur.

  5. MORPHOTECTONICS OF THE BASEMENT SURFACE OF THE WEST SIBERIAN BASIN WITHIN NADYM-TAZ INTERFLUVE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DEYEV E. V.; ZINOVIEV S. V.

    2003-01-01

    The map of reflecting horizon A, plotted on the basis of regional geophysical materials, yieldsinformation about the bottom topography of sedimentary cover of the West-Siberian Basin within Nadym-Taz interfluve. Through morphotectonic analysis about this surface, the authors are able tounderstand the distribution characteristics of the main topographic irregularities, with the blockstructure of the lower cover floors and underlying complexes as the focus.The largest irregularities are caused by the presence of three regional altitude steps, which show a regional tendency of basement being submerged in the north-north-east direction. Within these irregularities, the authors have distinguished some regions, which can be divided, based on the characteristics of morphostructural distribution, into two groups, i.e., areal (Nadym, Tol'ka, Urengoy)and belt (Tarko-Sale, Russko-Chasel'ka and Messoyakha). The first ones represent quasihomogeneous blocks, whose surfaces are complicated by irregular low-amplitude elevations and troughs and low-gradient zones with gradient values being up to 0.03, or they submerge stepwise, with the leveled areas being separated by zones with high gradients (0.07-0.15). The morphostructure of the other group of regions is characterized by the en-echelon distribution of contrastingly positive and negative elements with high values of slope gradients (higher than 0.1-0.2).

  6. Impact of climate on groundwater recharge in the crystalline basement rocks aquifer of Northern Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffi, K. V.

    2015-12-01

    Water is the cornerstone of human life and for all economic developments. West Africa and specifically Ghana are no exception to this reality.Northern Ghana is characterized by a semi-arid climate, with prolonged dry season (7 months of very few rainfall) leading to the drying up of many rivers and streams. In addition, rainfall is highly variable in space and time. Therefore, surface water is unreliable and insufficient to meet the water demands for socio-economic development in this area. As a result, the area is heavily dependent on groundwater for domestic water supply as well as for dry season irrigation of vegetables (cash crops).However, aquifers in northern Ghana are dominantly the hard rock type (Crystalline basement rock). This aquifer has no primary porosity and may not be able to sustain the increasing demand on the resource. Further, climate change may worsen the situation as recharge is dependent on rainfall in northern Ghana. Therefore, it is important to understand exactly how climate change will impact on recharge to the groundwater for sustainable development and management of the resource.Previous groundwater studies in Northern Ghana barely analyzed the combined impacts of Climate change on the recharge to the groundwater. This research is aimed at determining the current relationship between groundwater recharge and rainfall and to use the relationships to determine the impacts of changes in climate on the groundwater recharge. The results will inform plans and strategies for sustainably managing groundwater resources in Ghana and the Volta basin.

  7. New Rb-Sr age determinations on the Archaean basement of eastern Sierra Leone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Archaean basement of Sierra Leone is a typical example of granite-greenstone terrains found in ancient continental nuclei. Reconnaissance field mapping showed that the area can be subdivided into old gneiss, which predates the greenstone belts, and young granite which is later than the greenstone belts. New Rb-Sr whole-rock age determinations on two suites of old tonalitic gneiss yield ages of 2786 +- 49 Ma and 2770 +- 137 Ma, which either reflect the time of formation of the original tonalites or their metamorphism. Three new Rb-Sr whole-rock age determinations on young granites yield ages of 2786 +- 143 Ma, 2780 +- 79 Ma and 2770 +- 50 Ma, which are interpreted as the time of emplacement. The widespread occurrence of similar young granites, throughout the Archaean of West Africa, suggests that these results date a major event in the evolution of this segment of the crust. A published Pb-Pb age of the old gneiss and the new ages of the young granite bracket the age of the greenstone belts to 3000-2770 Ma. However, if the Rb-Sr ages of the old gneiss reported in this paper reflect the time of their formation, the age of the greenstone belts is tightly bracketed to ca. 2770 Ma. There is no isotopic evidence for rocks substantially older than 3000 Ma in the West African Archaean. (Auth.)

  8. Trace-element composition of Chicxulub crater melt rock, K/T tektites and Yucatan basement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, A. R.; Gregoire, D. C.; Attrep, M., Jr.; Claeys, P.; Thompson, C. M.; Boynton, W. V.

    1993-01-01

    The Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary Chicxulub impact is the best preserved large impact in the geologic record. The Chicxulub crater has been buried with no apparent erosion of its intracrater deposits, and its ejecta blanket is known and is well preserved at hundreds of localities globally. Although most of the molten material ejected from the crater has been largely altered, a few localities still preserve tektite glass. Availability of intra- and extracrater impact products as well as plausible matches to the targeted rocks allows the comparison of compositions of the different classes of impact products to those of the impacted lithologies. Determination of trace-element compositions of the K/T tektites, Chicxulub melt rock, and the targeted Yucatan silicate basement and carbonate/evaporite lithologies have been made using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Some sample splits were studied with both techniques to ensure that inter-laboratory variation was not significant or could be corrected. The concentration of a few major and minor elements was also checked against microprobe results. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) was used to determine Ir abundances in some samples.

  9. Integrating anatomical pathology to the healthcare enterprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel-Le Bozec, Christel; Henin, Dominique; Fabiani, Bettina; Bourquard, Karima; Ouagne, David; Degoulet, Patrice; Jaulent, Marie-Christine

    2006-01-01

    For medical decisions, healthcare professionals need that all required information is both correct and easily available. We address the issue of integrating anatomical pathology department to the healthcare enterprise. The pathology workflow from order to report, including specimen process and image acquisition was modeled. Corresponding integration profiles were addressed by expansion of the IHE (Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise) initiative. Implementation using respectively DICOM Structured Report (SR) and DICOM Slide-Coordinate Microscopy (SM) was tested. The two main integration profiles--pathology general workflow and pathology image workflow--rely on 13 transactions based on HL7 or DICOM standard. We propose a model of the case in anatomical pathology and of other information entities (orders, image folders and reports) and real-world objects (specimen, tissue samples, slides, etc). Cases representation in XML schemas, based on DICOM specification, allows producing DICOM image files and reports to be stored into a PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication System. PMID:17108550

  10. Common bile duct pathologies at nawabshah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the causes, presentation, management and outcome of Common Bile Duct (CBD) pathologies. All patients who presented with CBD pathologies. Data of all the patients with CBD pathologies was collected and entered on a proforma, including their complaints, positive examination findings, investigations, diagnosis, procedure performed and its outcome. During the study period 45 patients presented with CBD pathology. Amongst them 14 were males and the rest females (31), with a mean age of 36.7 years. Around 67% patients had choledocholithiasis as the commonest cause. Exploration of the CBD with T-tube insertion was the commonest procedure, performed in 69% patients. About 4% patients had retained stones and 20% developed wound infection. Mean hospital stay was 13 days. Most common pathology involving the CBD was secondary stones; 95% patients had associated gall stones also. (author)

  11. Membranous lipodystrophy: skeletal findings on CT and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nwawka, O.K.; Schneider, Robert; Mintz, Douglas N. [Hospital for Special Surgery, Department of Radiology and Imaging, New York, NY (United States); Bansal, Manjula [Hospital for Special Surgery, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Lane, Joseph [Hospital for Special Surgery, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Membranous lipodystrophy, also known as Nasu-Hakola disease, is a rare hereditary condition with manifestations in the nervous and skeletal systems. The radiographic appearance of skeletal lesions has been well described in the literature. However, CT and MRI findings of lesions in the bone have not been documented to date. This report describes the radiographic, CT, MRI, and histopathologic skeletal findings in a case of membranous lipodystrophy. With corroborative pathologic findings, a diagnosis of membranous lipodystrophy on imaging allows for appropriate clinical management of disease manifestations. (orig.)

  12. A Pathogenic Potential of Acinetobacter baumannii-Derived Membrane Vesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Suk Jin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Acinetobacter baumannii secretes outer membrane vesicles (OMVs. A. baumannii OMVs deliver many virulence factors to host cells and then induce cytotoxicity and innate immune response. OMVs secreted from bacteria contribute directly to host pathology during A. baumannii infection.

  13. Role of renal TRP channels in physiology and pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomilin, Viktor; Mamenko, Mykola; Zaika, Oleg; Pochynyuk, Oleh

    2016-05-01

    Kidneys critically contribute to the maintenance of whole-body homeostasis by governing water and electrolyte balance, controlling extracellular fluid volume, plasma osmolality, and blood pressure. Renal function is regulated by numerous systemic endocrine and local mechanical stimuli. Kidneys possess a complex network of membrane receptors, transporters, and ion channels which allows responding to this wide array of signaling inputs in an integrative manner. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channel family members with diverse modes of activation, varied permeation properties, and capability to integrate multiple downstream signals are pivotal molecular determinants of renal function all along the nephron. This review summarizes experimental data on the role of TRP channels in a healthy mammalian kidney and discusses their involvement in renal pathologies. PMID:26385481

  14. Septin functions in organ system physiology and pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolat, Lee; Hu, Qicong; Spiliotis, Elias T

    2014-02-01

    Human septins comprise a family of 13 genes that encode for >30 protein isoforms with ubiquitous and tissue-specific expressions. Septins are GTP-binding proteins that assemble into higher-order oligomers and filamentous polymers, which associate with cell membranes and the cytoskeleton. In the last decade, much progress has been made in understanding the biochemical properties and cell biological functions of septins. In parallel, a growing number of studies show that septins play important roles for the development and physiology of specific tissues and organs. Here, we review the expression and function of septins in the cardiovascular, immune, nervous, urinary, digestive, respiratory, endocrine, reproductive, and integumentary organ systems. Furthermore, we discuss how the tissue-specific functions of septins relate to the pathology of human diseases that arise from aberrations in septin expression. PMID:24114910

  15. The role of antioxidant-protein interactions in biological membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Oxidative damage of cellular membranes has been linked to a variety of disease pathologies, including cardiac disease, Alzheimer's and complications due to diabetes. The oxidation of unsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acid chains found in cellular membranes leads to significant alteration in membrane physical properties, including lipid orientation and membrane permeability, which ultimately affect biological function. Polyphenols are naturally occurring phytochemicals present in a number of fruit and vegetables that are of interest for their anti-oxidative powers. These polyphenols inhibit lipid oxidation in cellular membrane surfaces, although the mechanism of this inhibition is not entirely clear. Moreover, the polyphenols have significant binding affinity for proteins, which can lead to the formation of soluble and insoluble protein-polyphenol complexes Significantly, in the presence of casein proteins the oxidation inhibition the polyphenols in the membrane is significantly enhanced (as assessed by Lipid Peroxidation Inhibition Capacity assays). Thus the antioxidant pathway appears to involve these protein/polyphenol complexes, as well as direct antioxidant action by the polyphenol. Here we discuss neutron and x-ray scattering results from phospholipid membranes, looking at the positioning of two examples of polyphenolic antioxidants in phospholipid membranes, quercetin and phloretin, the antioxidants' impact on the membrane organisation, and the interaction between antioxidant and extra-membranous protein. This information sheds light on the mechanism of antioxidant protection in these systems, which may be used to understand biological responses to oxidative stress.

  16. 3D seismic analysis of gravity-driven and basement influenced normal fault growth in the deepwater Otway Basin, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, A. G.; King, R. C.; Holford, S. P.

    2016-08-01

    We use three-dimensional (3D) seismic reflection data to analyse the structural style and growth of a normal fault array located at the present-day shelf-edge break and into the deepwater province of the Otway Basin, southern Australia. The Otway Basin is a Late Jurassic to Cenozoic, rift-to-passive margin basin. The seismic reflection data images a NW-SE (128-308) striking, normal fault array, located within Upper Cretaceous clastic sediments and which consists of ten fault segments. The fault array contains two hard-linked fault assemblages, separated by only 2 km in the dip direction. The gravity-driven, down-dip fault assemblage is entirely contained within the 3D seismic survey, is located over a basement plateau and displays growth commencing and terminating during the Campanian-Maastrichtian, with up to 1.45 km of accumulated throw (vertical displacement). The up-dip normal fault assemblage penetrates deeper than the base of the seismic survey, but is interpreted to be partially linked along strike at depth to major basement-involved normal faults that can be observed on regional 2D seismic lines. This fault assemblage displays growth initiating in the Turonian-Santonian and has accumulated up to 1.74 km of throw. Our detailed analysis of the 3D seismic data constraints post-Cenomanian fault growth of both fault assemblages into four evolutionary stages: [1] Turonian-Santonian basement reactivation during crustal extension between Australia and Antarctica. This either caused the upward propagation of basement-involved normal faults or the nucleation of a vertically isolated normal fault array in shallow cover sediments directly above the reactivated basement-involved faults; [2] continued Campanian-Maastrichtian crustal extension and sediment loading eventually created gravitational instability on the basement plateau, nucleating a second, vertically isolated normal fault array in the cover sediments; [3] eventual hard-linkage of fault segments in both fault

  17. Proterozoic basement and Palaeozoic sediments in the Ringkøbing–Fyn High characterized by zircon U–Pb ages and heavy minerals from Danish onshore wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivarius, Mette; Friis, Henrik; Kokfelt, Thomas F.;

    2015-01-01

    New data from the Proterozoic basement and scattered Palaeozoic sediments in the Ringkøbing–Fyn High including zircon U–Pb geochronometry, heavy mineral compositions and whole rock geochemistry is presented here to provide a frame of reference for detrital provenance studies. The Ringkøbing......–Fyn High is a WNW–ESE trending structural high including subcropping basement rocks, and the results indicate that it is a southerly extension of the Fennoscandian Shield. The zircon data show matching age distribution patterns in crystalline basement rocks obtained from two drill sites, the Glamsbjerg-1...

  18. Membrane fluids and Dirac membrane fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanov, M G

    2004-01-01

    The relation between two different methods of membrane fluid description is clarified by construction of combined method. Dirac membrane field appears naturally in new approach. It provides a possibility to consider new aspects of electrodynamics-type theories with electric and magnetic sources. The membrane fluid models automatically prohibit simulatenos existence of electric and magnetic currents. Possible applications to the dark energy problem are mentioned.

  19. Integrated Analysis on Gravity and Magnetic Fields of the Hailar Basin, NE China: Implications for Basement Structure and Deep Tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, B.; Wang, L.; Dong, P.; Scientific Team Of Applied Geophysics

    2010-12-01

    The Hailar Basin is one of the most representative basins among the Northeast China Basin Group, which is situated in the east of East Asia Orogene between the Siberia Plate and the North China Plate. Based on the detailed analysis of the Bouguer gravity anomaly, aeromagnetic anomaly as well as petrophysical data, we studied the features of gravity-magnetic fields in the basin and its neighboring areas. A combined approach of Wavelet Multi-scale Decomposition and Power Spectrum Analysis was adopted to quantitatively grade the gravity and magnetic anomalies into four levels. Accordingly, the apparent depths of the source fields can be assessed. The results reveal the crustal density and magnetic structures of the Hailar Basin. Low-order wavelet details of gravity-magnetic anomalies were carried out on studying basin basement structure. Seven major basement faults of the basin were identified, and the basement lithology was discussed and predicted. Three major uplifts and 14 depressions were delineated according to basement depth inversion by the Park method. High-order wavelet approximations of gravity-magnetic anomalies were carried out on studying deep tectonics of the basin. The average Moho depth of the study area is about 40 km, with a mantle uplift located in the northeast of the basin. The average depth of the Curie interface is about 19 km, while the uplift of the Curie interface is in the basin center and its east and west sides are depressions. Finally, inversion of Bouguer gravity anomalies was conducted on an across-basin GGT profile using the Wavelet Multi-scale Decomposition. The inversion results are consistent with those of GGT seismic inversion, suggesting that the Wavelet Multi-scale Decomposition can be applied to distinguish major crustal density interfaces.

  20. Mapping of a buried basement combining aeromagnetic, gravity and petrophysical data: The substratum of southwest Paris Basin, France

    OpenAIRE

    Baptiste, Julien; Martelet, Guillaume; Faure, Michel; Beccaletto, Laurent; Reninger, Pierre-Alexandre; Perrin, José; Chen, Yan

    2016-01-01

    International audience Aeromagnetic and gravity data have proven to be among the most effective methods for mapping deeply buried basin/basement interfaces. However, the data interpretation generally suffers from ambiguities, due to the non-uniqueness of the gravity and magnetic signatures. Here, we tie the gravity and magnetic signatures with a petrophysical characterization of the lithologies outcropping around the French Paris Basin. Our methodology investigates the lithology and struct...

  1. Basement evolution in the Northern Hesperian Massif. A preliminary survey of results obtained by the Leiden research group

    OpenAIRE

    Tex, den, E.

    1981-01-01

    Historical notes on Galician geology, and on the work of the Leiden University petrology team in particular, are first provided. This is followed by an introduction to the geology of Galicia with emphasis on its crystalline basement and upper mantle inliers. Six lithotectonic units are distinguished: 1) the Variscan granitic rocks and migmatites. 2) the Palaeozoic supracrustal rocks and dismembered meta-ophiolites, 3) the blastomylonitic graben between Malpica and Tuy, 4) the Lalin and Forcar...

  2. Petrogenesis and tectonic setting of the mafic-ultramafic rock association from NW Senja, West Troms Basement Complex

    OpenAIRE

    Priyatkina, Nadezda

    2013-01-01

    The studied mafic-ultramafic rock association occurs within Archean tonalitic gneisses and metasupracrustal suites of the Astridal belt belonging to the West Troms Basement Complex in the northwestern part of the Senja Island. The rock association appears in lens-shaped bodies, up to 200 m long, which are oriented conformal to the major metamorphic fabric of the host rock. The rock association is made up by interlayered units of green spinel-bearing olivine orthopyroxene-hornblendite, hornble...

  3. Identification of the fractured basement/cover unconformity on former oil seismic profiles in the Upper Rhine Graben.

    OpenAIRE

    Dezayes, Chrystel; Beccaletto, Laurent; Capar, Laure; Chenin, Pauline

    2011-01-01

    Fluid circulation at fractured basement/cover unconformity is of first importance for geothermal energy exploitation especially in continental rifting as the Upper Rhine Graben. This unconformity presents lot of natural fractures which constitute a large permeable fracture network driving brine movement. That constitutes a reservoir of hot water, which is exploited by several geothermal power projects at great depth with flow rate between 50 and 80 l/s of water produced. On the French territo...

  4. Appraisal of pyrolytic techniques on different forms of organic matter from a Cretaceous basement in Central Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Almendros Martín, Gonzalo; González-Vila, Francisco Javier; Martín Martínez, Francisco; Sanz Perucha, Jesús; Álvarez Ramis, Concepción

    1998-01-01

    Pyrolytic techniques were used to characterize three different forms of fossil organic matter in Cerro de la Mesa (an important Cretaceous palcobotanic basement in Central Spain): two kerogens isolated from carbonaceous marls, and from lignitiferous layers, and well-preserved remains of the fossil Gymnosperm Frenelopsis oligostomala. By conventional flash pyrolysis the Frenelopsis remains released mainly alkyl-substituted phenols and polyaromatic compounds, whereas the organic matter from the...

  5. Impaired decisional impulsivity in pathological videogamers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Irvine

    Full Text Available Pathological gaming is an emerging and poorly understood problem. Impulsivity is commonly impaired in disorders of behavioural and substance addiction, hence we sought to systematically investigate the different subtypes of decisional and motor impulsivity in a well-defined pathological gaming cohort.Fifty-two pathological gaming subjects and age-, gender- and IQ-matched healthy volunteers were tested on decisional impulsivity (Information Sampling Task testing reflection impulsivity and delay discounting questionnaire testing impulsive choice, and motor impulsivity (Stop Signal Task testing motor response inhibition, and the premature responding task. We used stringent diagnostic criteria highlighting functional impairment.In the Information Sampling Task, pathological gaming participants sampled less evidence prior to making a decision and scored fewer points compared with healthy volunteers. Gaming severity was also negatively correlated with evidence gathered and positively correlated with sampling error and points acquired. In the delay discounting task, pathological gamers made more impulsive choices, preferring smaller immediate over larger delayed rewards. Pathological gamers made more premature responses related to comorbid nicotine use. Greater number of hours played also correlated with a Motivational Index. Greater frequency of role playing games was associated with impaired motor response inhibition and strategy games with faster Go reaction time.We show that pathological gaming is associated with impaired decisional impulsivity with negative consequences in task performance. Decisional impulsivity may be a potential target in therapeutic management.

  6. Impaired Decisional Impulsivity in Pathological Videogamers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Michael A.; Worbe, Yulia; Bolton, Sorcha; Harrison, Neil A.; Bullmore, Edward T.; Voon, Valerie

    2013-01-01

    Background Pathological gaming is an emerging and poorly understood problem. Impulsivity is commonly impaired in disorders of behavioural and substance addiction, hence we sought to systematically investigate the different subtypes of decisional and motor impulsivity in a well-defined pathological gaming cohort. Methods Fifty-two pathological gaming subjects and age-, gender- and IQ-matched healthy volunteers were tested on decisional impulsivity (Information Sampling Task testing reflection impulsivity and delay discounting questionnaire testing impulsive choice), and motor impulsivity (Stop Signal Task testing motor response inhibition, and the premature responding task). We used stringent diagnostic criteria highlighting functional impairment. Results In the Information Sampling Task, pathological gaming participants sampled less evidence prior to making a decision and scored fewer points compared with healthy volunteers. Gaming severity was also negatively correlated with evidence gathered and positively correlated with sampling error and points acquired. In the delay discounting task, pathological gamers made more impulsive choices, preferring smaller immediate over larger delayed rewards. Pathological gamers made more premature responses related to comorbid nicotine use. Greater number of hours played also correlated with a Motivational Index. Greater frequency of role playing games was associated with impaired motor response inhibition and strategy games with faster Go reaction time. Conclusions We show that pathological gaming is associated with impaired decisional impulsivity with negative consequences in task performance. Decisional impulsivity may be a potential target in therapeutic management. PMID:24146789

  7. Sheet Membrane Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bue, Grant; Trevino, Luis; Zapata, Felipe; Dillion, Paul; Castillo, Juan; Vonau, Walter; Wilkes, Robert; Vogel, Matthew; Frodge, Curtis

    2013-01-01

    A document describes a sheet membrane spacesuit water membrane evaporator (SWME), which allows for the use of one common water tank that can supply cooling water to the astronaut and to the evaporator. Test data showed that heat rejection performance dropped only 6 percent after being subjected to highly contaminated water. It also exhibited robustness with respect to freezing and Martian atmospheric simulation testing. Water was allowed to freeze in the water channels during testing that simulated a water loop failure and vapor backpressure valve failure. Upon closing the backpressure valve and energizing the pump, the ice eventually thawed and water began to flow with no apparent damage to the sheet membrane. The membrane evaporator also serves to de-gas the water loop from entrained gases, thereby eliminating the need for special degassing equipment such as is needed by the current spacesuit system. As water flows through the three annular water channels, water evaporates with the vapor flowing across the hydrophobic, porous sheet membrane to the vacuum side of the membrane. The rate at which water evaporates, and therefore, the rate at which the flowing water is cooled, is a function of the difference between the water saturation pressure on the water side of the membrane, and the pressure on the vacuum side of the membrane. The primary theory is that the hydrophobic sheet membrane retains water, but permits vapor pass-through when the vapor side pressure is less than the water saturation pressure. This results in evaporative cooling of the remaining water.

  8. Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in the Diagnosis and Management of Vitreoretinal Interface Pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoreh Barak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT has enhanced Vitreoretinal Interface (VRI imaging considerably and facilitated the diagnosis, followup, prognosis determination, and management of VRI-associated pathologies. HR-OCT became a common practical tool seen in almost every ophthalmology practice. Knowledge of SD-OCT image interpretation and recognition of pathologies are required for all ophthalmologists. This paper methodically reviews the normal aging process of the VRI and discusses several commonly encountered VRI pathologies. The role of SD-OCT imaging in VRI-associated disorders such as posterior vitreous detachment, vitreomacular traction syndrome, idiopathic epiretinal membranes, lamellar holes, pseudoholes, and full thickness macular holes is portrayed. Future perspectives of new OCT technologies based on SD-OCT are discussed.

  9. Structural elements and incremental strain history of the basement rocks of Um Had area, central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Um Had area, central Eastern Desert, Egypt shows a regional stretching in the NW-SE and a contraction in the NE-SW direction. Major NW-SE folds, small recumbent folds, and local thrusts and reverse faults were recognized. Complicated relation between folds and boudinage was identified. This stretching amount ranges from 1.282 to 1.309. Earlier coaxial and later non-coaxial strains were inferred. The change from axial to non-coaxial stress regime was gradual and the latter was associated with minor clockwise and anticlockwise rotation of structural elements. During the non-coaxial strain, strain fringes were formed as a consequence of the high circulation of fluids in low temperature and high pressure conditions. Superimposed strain fringes indicating right- and left-lateral senses of movement were recognized. At least three generations of fringes were recognized, implying three stages of non-coaxial stretching. Each generation has about 15 increments which show irregular strain gradient and intensity over the different increments. Eastwards, the strain increments became mature and westwards, the finite strain increases. The strongest finite strain was found in a narrow belt delimiting the basement rocks on the west and underlying the Phanerozoic sediments. Chocolate-tablet structure was recorded and indicates later multidirectional tension. Not all Nubia Sandstone exposures are overlying the basement rocks and some are separated by NW-SE normal faults. Major NW-SE normal faults are cutting basement rocks of different ages. (author)

  10. Uranium deposits in the Beaverlodge area, northern Saskatchewan: their relationship to the Martin Group (Proterozoic) and the underlying basement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rocks of the Martin Group crop out in an area 60 km by 50 km north of Lake Athabasca near Uranium City, northern Saskatchewan. This area has numerous uranium showings within a few kilometres of the unconformity below the Martin Group. Mineralization occurs in fault zones, in basement rocks and in sedimentary and volcanic rocks of the Martin Group. Martin Group sediments accumulated in alluvial fans, braided streams, and ephemeral lakes. The thickest sequence (8 km to 10 km) is preserved in the Beaverlodge area, near Uranium City. The style of sedimentation changed through time as the basin evolved from deposition of conglomeratic detritus along fault scarps to the accumulation of silt in ephemeral lakes. The uneven nature of the sub-Martin unconformity surface, the lithotype of the lowermost conglomerates and breccias (Beaverlodge Formation), and the shape of the basin fill indicate deposition in fault-controlled basins. The earliest economic uranium mineralization in the rocks of the Martin Group was epigenetic. The mineralization was coeval with that in basement rocks. Economic mineralization in basement rocks and in the lowermost formation of the Martin Group is close to the unconformity. Epigenetic uranium mineralization thus appears to have resulted from processes that were related, in time and space, to either the formation of the unconformity or the deposition of the Martin Group or both. (author). 29 refs, 5 figs

  11. Metamorphism of the Basement of the Qilian Fold Belt in the Minhe-Ledu Area, Qinghai Province, NW China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡金郎; 魏光华; 王庆树

    2002-01-01

    The basement of the central Qilian fold belt exposed along the Minhe-Ledu highway consists of psammiticschists, metabasitic rocks, and crystalline limestone. Migmatitic rocks occur sporadically among psammitic schist andmetabasitic rocks. The mineral assemblage of psammitic schist is muscovite + biotite + feldspar + quartz + tourmaline ±titanite ± sillimanite and that of metabasitic rocks is amphibole + plagioclase + biotite ± apatite ± magnetite ± pyroxene ±garnet ± quartz. The migmatitic rock consists of leucosome and restite of various volume proportions; the former consistsof muscovite + alkaline feldspar + quartz ± garnet ± plagioclase while the latter is either fragments of psammitic schist orthose of metabasitic rock. The crystalline limestone consists of calcite that has been partly replaced by olivine. The olivinewas subsequently altered to serpentine. Weak deformations as indicated by cleavages and fractures were imposed promi-nently on the psammitic schists, occasionally on metabasitic rocks, but not on migmatitic rocks. The basement experiencedmetamorphism up to temperature 606-778C and pressure 4.8-6.1 kbar (0.48-0.61 GPa), equivalent to amphibolite-granulite facies. The peak of the metamorphism is marked by a migmatization which occurred at several localities alongthe studied route 587-535 Ma ago. The basement also recorded a retrograde metamorphism of greenschist facies, duringwhich biotite, garnet, amphibole, and pyroxene were partly altered to chlorite.

  12. Kinematics and surface fracture pattern of the Anaran basement fault zone in NW of the Zagros fold-thrust belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joudaki, M.; Farzipour-Saein, A.; Nilfouroushan, F.

    2016-04-01

    The preexisting north-south trending basement faults and their reactivation played an important role during the evolution of the Zagros fold-thrust belt. The Anaran Basement Fault (ABF) in the Lurestan region, NW of the Zagros, has been considered as a N-S trending basement lineament, although its surface structural expression is still debated. In this study, we use satellite images and field observations to identify and analyze the fractures in the sedimentary cover above the ABF. Fracture analysis demonstrates that approaching the ABF, the fracture pattern changes. The fractures association with reactivation of the deep-seated preexisting ABF can be categorized in four sets based on their directions. The mean direction for maximum compressional stress is different between the fault- and fold-related fractures within and around the ABF shear zone. We estimated an orientation of N30° ± 5° for the fault-related fractures and N45° ± 5° for the fold-related fracture sets outside of the ABF shear zone. This difference suggests that the fold-related and fault-related fracture sets have been formed in different two stages of deformation throughout the area. The axial traces of some folds, especially the Anaran anticline, demonstrate a right-lateral offset along the ABF, such that, in central part of the Anaran anticline, the fold axis of this anticline is changed from its original NW-SE trend to approximately north-south trend of the ABF.

  13. Scaling and geometric properties of extensional fracture systems in the proterozoic basement of Yemen. Tectonic interpretation and fluid flow implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Garzic, Edouard; de L'Hamaide, Thibaut; Diraison, Marc; Géraud, Yves; Sausse, Judith; de Urreiztieta, Marc; Hauville, Benoît; Champanhet, Jean-Michel

    2011-04-01

    Multi-scale mappings of fracture systems in the crystalline basement of Yemen are presented. Fracture datasets are described through statistical analyses of direction, length, spacing, density, and spatial distribution. Results are combined with field observations and can be directly used to model the geometry of the fracture networks in analog basement rocks, from multi-kilometric to decametric scales. The fractured reservoir analog is defined with a dual porosity model in which tectonic and joint systems correspond to the basement reservoir "backbone" and "matrix" respectively. These two end-members reveal contrasting geometrical, reservoir, and scaling properties. In tectonic systems, multi-scale geometries are "self-similar", the fracture network shows fractal behavior (power-law length distribution and clustered spacing), and fault zones show hierarchical organization of geometrical parameters such as length, thickness, and spacing. In joint systems, the fracture network is scale dependent with exponential length distribution, and shows anti-clustered spacing. However, these two end-members have both well-connected properties, with fault zones acting as main drain and joint systems acting as the fluid supply.

  14. Hyaline membrane disease or respiratory distress syndrome? A new approach for an old disease

    OpenAIRE

    Lidia Grappone; Francesco Messina

    2014-01-01

    The term “hyaline membrane disease” refers to the histological aspect of the most frequent pulmonary pathology in preterm newborn patients. The lung of the preterm baby is morphologically and functionally immature. Surfactant deficiency in the immature lungs causes alveolar instability and collapse, capillary edema and the formation of hyaline membrane. Thus, the hyaline membranes are epiphenomena and are not the cause of respiratory failure in infants with immature lungs. This definition is ...

  15. Association between maxillary sinus pathologies and healthy teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina D. Roque-Torres

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: The proximity of the roots to the maxillary sinus can create a variety of risks. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between the roots of healthy teeth and the maxillary sinus, as well as the occurrence of sinus pathologies. METHODS: Three radiologists analyzed 109 cone beam computed tomography (CBCT images. The Kappa test was used to assess the intra- and inter-rater agreement. The chi-squared test and prevalence ratio were used to test the hypothesis that roots of healthy teeth in the maxillary sinus favored the occurrence of sinus pathologies ( p = 0.01. RESULTS: Intra- and inter-rater agreement ranged from good to excellent. The chi-squared test demonstrated a statistically significant difference ( p = 0.006 between the tooth roots in diseased maxillary sinuses (6.09% and those in normal sinuses (3.43%. The prevalence ratio test showed a statistically significant higher prevalence of tooth roots in diseased sinuses than in normal sinuses ( p < 0.0001. Roots in the maxillary sinus were 1.82 times more associated with diseased sinuses. CONCLUSION: Dental roots in the maxillary sinus are almost twice as likely to be associated with diseased sinuses than normal sinuses. Healthy teeth whose roots are inside the maxillary sinus may induce an inflammatory response in the sinus membrane. It is suspected that dental procedures may exacerbate the condition.

  16. The first deep heat flow determination in crystalline basement rocks beneath the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majorowicz, Jacek; Chan, Judith; Crowell, James; Gosnold, Will; Heaman, Larry M.; Kück, Jochem; Nieuwenhuis, Greg; Schmitt, Douglas R.; Unsworth, Martyn; Walsh, Nathaniel; Weides, Simon

    2014-05-01

    Heat flow (Q) determined from bottom-hole temperatures measured in oil and gas wells in Alberta show a large scatter with values ranging from 40 to 90 mW m-2. Only two precise measurements of heat flow were previously reported in Alberta, and were made more than half a century ago. These were made in wells located near Edmonton, Alberta, and penetrated the upper kilometre of clastic sedimentary rocks yielding heat flows values of 61 and 67 mW m-2 (Garland & Lennox). Here, we report a new precise heat flow determination from a 2363-m deep well drilled into basement granite rocks just west of Fort McMurray, Alberta (the Hunt Well). Temperature logs acquired in 2010-2011 show a significant increase in the thermal gradient in the granite due to palaeoclimatic effects. In the case of the Hunt Well, heat flow at depths >2200 m is beyond the influence of the glacial-interglacial surface temperatures. Thermal conductivity and temperature measurements in the Hunt Well have shown that the heat flow below 2.2 km is 51 mW m-2 (±3 mW m-2), thermal conductivity measured by the divided bar method under bottom of the well in situ like condition is 2.5 W m-1 K-1, and 2.7 W m-1 K-1 in ambient conditions), and the geothermal gradient was measured as 20.4 mK m-1. The palaeoclimatic effect causes an underestimate of heat flow derived from measurements collected at depths shallower than 2200 m, meaning other heat flow estimates calculated from basin measurements have likely been underestimated. Heat production (A) was calculated from spectral gamma recorded in the Hunt Well granites to a depth of 1880 m and give an average A of 3.4 and 2.9 μW m-3 for the whole depth range of granites down to 2263 m, based on both gamma and spectral logs. This high A explains the relatively high heat flow measured within the Precambrian basement intersected by the Hunt Well; the Taltson Magmatic Zone. Heat flow and related heat generation from the Hunt Well fits the heat flow-heat generation

  17. Rift architecture and evolution: The Sirt Basin, Libya: The influence of basement fabrics and oblique tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdunaser, K. M.; McCaffrey, K. J. W.

    2014-12-01

    The Cretaceous-Tertiary northwest-trending Sirt Basin system, Libya, is a rift/sag basin formed on Pan-African to Paleozoic-aged basement of North Africa. In this study, we investigate the rift-basin architecture and tectonic framework of the western Sirt Basin. Using remote sensed data, supported by borehole data from about 300 deep wells and surface geologic maps, we constructed geological cross sections and surface geology maps. Indication of the relative timing of structures and movement along faults has been determined where possible. Direction statistics for all the interpreted linear features acquired in the study area were calculated and given as a total distribution and then the totals are broken down by the major basin elements of the area. Hundreds of lineaments were recognized. Their lengths, range between a hundred meters up to hundreds of kilometers and the longest of the dominant trends are between N35W-N55W and between N55E-N65E which coincides with Sirt Basin structures. The produced rose diagrams reveal that the majority of the surface linear features in the region have four preferred orientations: N40-50W in the Zallah Trough, N45-55W in the Dur al Abd Trough, N35-55W in the Az Zahrah-Al Hufrah Platform, and in contrast in the Waddan Uplift a N55-65E trend. We recognize six lithostratigraphic sequences (phases) in the area's stratigraphic framework. A Pre-graben (Pre-rift) initiation stage involved the Pre-Cretaceous sediments formed before the main Sirt Basin subsidence. Then followed a Cretaceous to Eocene graben-fill stage that can divided into four structurally-active and structurally-inactive periods, and finally a terminal continental siliciclastics-rich package representing the post-rift stage of the development in post-Eocene time. In general five major fault systems dissect and divide the study area into geomorphological elevated blocks and depressions. Most of the oil fields present in the study area are associated with structural hinge

  18. Interactions between bar dynamics and herbaceous vegetation in gravel bed rivers: numerical simulations using BASEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siviglia, Annunziato; Tettamanti, Stefano; Bertoldi, Walter; Toffolon, Marco; Vetsch, David; Francalanci, Simona

    2014-05-01

    A new 2D morphodynamic model for gravel bed rivers have been used to investigate the interaction between alternate bar dynamics and herbaceous vegetation. In particular, bed topography evolution has been coupled with the growth of vegetation, included as a function of the access to ground water. Numerical simulations were performed using the code BASEMENT (Vetsch et al., 2013), with the addition of a new submodel, dealing with the numerical description of the vegetation. The vegetation was allowed to grow during the dry season on exposed areas, and the vertical distribution of peak biomass was modeled as a function of the bed elevation, using a simple analytical formulation, following Marani et al. (2013). Flow resistance was divided into a component exerted by the bed and a component exerted by vegetation (Crosato and Saleh, 2010; Li and Millar, 2011); in this way we reproduced both the decrease in bed shear stress, reducing the sediment transport capacity of the flow within the plants, and the increase in hydraulic resistance, reducing flow velocity. The model was applied to a hypothetical case study, with grain size, longitudinal slope, and hydrological regime similar to that of the Magra River (Italy). A straight river reach, 125 m wide and 20 km long was simulated. Starting from an initially flat configuration, the river developed its own bar morphology, under steady formative conditions. After reaching a dynamic equilibrium, we allowed the vegetation to grow and interact with the morphodynamic evolution, reproducing a sequence of floods and growing seasons at low flow. We assumed that vegetation can be uprooted only if the bed shear stress exceeds a fixed threshold. Different scenarios were examined, varying the effect of vegetation in terms of increased resistance and threshold for uprooting (i.e. added sediment cohesion). Preliminary results confirmed that the herbaceous vegetation has a stabilizing effect on river morphology. As the density and strength of

  19. Hygrothermal Behavior, Building Pathology and Durability

    CERN Document Server

    Delgado, JMPQ

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this book, Hygrothermal, Building Pathology and Durability, is to provide a collection of recent research works to contribute to the systematization and dissemination of knowledge related to construction pathology, hygrothermal behaviour of buildings, durability and diagnostic techniques and, simultaneously, to show the most recent advances in this domain. It includes a set of new developments in the field of building physics and hygrothermal behaviour, durability approach for historical and old buildings and building pathology vs. durability. The book is divided in several chapters that are a resume of the current state of knowledge for benefit of professional colleagues, scientists, students, practitioners, lecturers and other interested parties to network.

  20. "Slide less pathology": Fairy tale or reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indu, M; Rathy, R; Binu, M P

    2016-01-01

    Pathology practice is significantly advanced in various frontiers. Therefore, "slide less digital" pathology will not be a mere imagination in near future. Digitalization of histopathological slides (whole slide imaging [WSI]) is possible with the help of whole slide scanner. The WSI has a positive impact not only in routine practice but also in research field, medical education and bioindustry. Even if digital pathology has definitive advantages, its widespread use is not yet possible. As it is an upcoming technology in our field, this article is aimed to discussessential aspects of WSI. PMID:27601824

  1. Discussion on Improvement of Toxicological Pathology Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RenJin

    2003-01-01

    Toxicological pathology plays a key role in drug safety assessment. To enhance the research level of toxicological pathology, the following stud-ies should be carried out urgently: setting up a standard operation procedure (SOP) for toxico-logical pathology assessment; emphasizing on immunotoxicology evaluation; adopting a new ex-periment model of replacement, featuring high speed and reliability; introducing new techniques and new models in toxicological mechanism re-search; and establishing a new appraisal system to screen innovative drug and rapid and high pre-cision methods for early security assessment, de-tection and measurement.

  2. The Notion "Pathology" in Set Theory

    CERN Document Server

    DePauli-Schimanovich, Werner

    2008-01-01

    When we study the paradoxes of set theory we find out that there are mainly 2 types: the pathologies and the antinomies. These 2 notions are made precise and compared with the somehow inductively definable concept "abnormal". (See my paper "Naive Axiomatic Mengenlehre for Experiments" in arXiv.) In the following 5 Patho Theses are discussed in order to formalize this notion of pathology. This allows us to define formally the property "Hereditary-non-Pathological" for well-formed formulas. With this property the system NACT* of Naive Axiomatic Class Theory is constructed, which has a "unique maximal" universe (in a special sense).

  3. Gastrointestinal pathology in neonates: new imaging strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, Stephanie; Donoghue, Veronica [Children' s University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Dublin 1 (Ireland)

    2010-06-15

    The mainstay of imaging of gastrointestinal (GI) pathology in infants has always been and still is the plain radiograph of the abdomen and conventional contrast studies. In this review emphasis is placed on the situations where there are new imaging strategies and alternative modalities of imaging, including US, CT, MRI and radionuclide studies. This review will deal with GI pathology in the newborn and in the older neonate. It will also refer to any new approaches to imaging GI pathology in the premature infant. Finally the review will address how antenatal diagnosis of gastrointestinal tract abnormalities has changed the imaging strategy and management of the neonate. (orig.)

  4. Post-orogenic exhumation history of a Variscan mid-crustal basement in Galicia (NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobe, Rene; Alvarez-Marrón, Joaquina; Glasmacher, Ulrich A.; Stuart, Finlay; Castañeda-Zarauz, A.

    2010-05-01

    The present study aims to quantify the complex post-orogenic history of cooling, denudation, and long-term landscape evolution of a mid-crustal section of Variscan basement in Galicia (NW Spain). We use apatite fission-track and apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronological techniques combined with time-temperature (t-T) path modelling using the software code HeFTy©. The topography is characterized by an extensive, low relief area at ~500 m elevation in central Galicia, and a WNW-ESE ridge that reaches up to 1000 m to the North. The area experienced two major tectonic events since the end of the Variscan orogeny in the Late Palaeozoic: 1) continental break-up and Mesozoic rifting leading to the opening of the Atlantic Ocean and the Bay of Biscay, and 2) limited convergence between Iberia and Eurasia since Middle Eocene times. Apatite fission-track ages range from 68.1 ± 5.0 Ma to 174.5 ± 7.7 Ma and apatite (U-Th)/He ages range from 73.6 ± 5.4 to 147.1 ± 16.6 Ma. Age-elevation plots and t-T path modelling suggest a tectonothermal evolution with faster exhumation associated to faulting during Mesozoic rifting. In particular, two major fault systems trending WNW-ESE and NNE-SSW, the As Pontes and the Lugo faults respectively separate areas with the fastest exhumation around 115 Ma from areas with overall slow exhumation since 200-150 Ma. A landscape of subdued topography in central Galicia was acquired prior to Eocene convergence. The higher elevation areas along the northern ridge formed since Middle Eocene times due to fault reactivation and minor exhumation occurred along the fault escarpment.

  5. Evolution of Pre-Jurassic basement beneath northern Gulf of Mexico coastal plain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Siclen, D.C.

    1990-09-01

    Data from the northern Gulf Coast region reveal a late Paleozoic wrench fault system along which North America (NA) moved southeast (present directions) alongside the northeastern edge of future South America (SA), to where collision with that continent converted a broad continental embankment off the Southern Oklahoma aulacogen into the Ouachita thrust belt. At the same time, Africa farther east, to which protruding SA was firmly joined, was continuing to advance the Appalachian thrusts on the opposite side of these faults. This relationship left no space between the American continents for the conventional remnant ocean or microcontinents. By Late Triassic time, however, extension south of the Ouachita Mountains was forming the series of Interior rift basins, at both ends of which new wrench faults transferred the extension southward to the DeSoto Canyon and South Texas rift basins. Genetically, the Ouachita thrusts are part of the subduction zone along the front of a former SA forearc basin, which continued to receive marine sediments into middle Permian. The Wiggins arch southeast of it is a sliver of that continent, left with NA when the Interior basin rifting jumped from that forearc basin southward across bordering outer basement highs to begin opening the deep Gulf of Mexico (GOM) basin. The Late Triassic crustal extension resulted from right-lateral translation of NA around the bulge of northwestern Africa. About 200 mi of this placed Cape Hatteras against Africa's Cap Blanc, in the configuration from which the magnetic data indicate spreading began in the Central North Atlantic Ocean. The reality of this translation is confirmed by widespread rifting at the same time in western North Africa and between all three northern Atlantic continents; this drew the tip of the Tethys sea southward to Cape Hatteras and led to deposition of voluminous Late Triassic red beds and evaporites along it.

  6. Pathological study on the testis of mice irradiated by γ-rays after transfecting pprI gene by in vivo electroporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the effects of pprI gene from Deinococcus radiodurans transferred by in vivo electroporation on γ-ray injury of mice, the morphological changes of testis in the mice were observed. The pCMV-HA-pprI plasmid containing pprI gene was injected into the muscle of mice. The pprI gene was transfected into the cells by in vivo gene electroporation technology. Then the control group and the transferred pCMV-HA-pprI group were exposed to γ-ray radiation of 6 Gy. The muscle tissue at the site of the injection and the testis tissue were taken on days 1, 7, 14, 28 and 35 after radiation. Then total protein was extracted and used to test the expression of PprI with western blotting technology. The testis specimen prepared by hematoxylin-eosin staining was then examined by light microscopy. The expression of PprI is remarkable on the 1 st day after irradiation to prove that the pprI gene was successfully transfected into the mice. On the 1 st day after irradiation there was no obvious pathological change of the testis tissue of the control group. On the 7th day there was degeneration and necrosis of some spermatogonia and spermatocytes in sections of tubules. On the 14th day, the reduction of spermatogonia was generally marked, and there was considerable reduction in the number of primary spermatocytes associated with atrophy of the seminiferous tubules. On the 28th day there was complete depletion of spermatogenic epithelium when spermatocytes and spermatids had largely disappeared, with no regeneration of spermatogonia and only sertoli cells nuclei remaining along the basement membrane. On the 35th day, spermatogonia were actively regenerating in some of the tubules. Compared with the control group, there was also no significant difference on the 1 st after irradiation in the transgenic animal. On the 7th day the degeneration and necrosis of some spermatogonia and spermatocytes in sections of tubules was less than that of the control group. On the 14th day the

  7. Membrane Automata with Priorities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luděk Cienciala; Lucie Ciencialová

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the one-way P automata with priorities are introduced. Such automata are P systemshere the membranes are only allowed to consume objects from parent membranes, under the given conditions. The result of computation of these systems is the set of multiset sequences consumed by skin membrane intc the system. The rules associated in some order with each membrane cannot modify any objects, they can only move them through membrane. We show that P automata with priorities and two membranes can accept every recursively enumerated language.

  8. Curriculum Guidelines for Pathology for Dental Hygienists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Dental Education, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Guidelines for structuring a pathology curriculum for dental hygienists include: definition of the field and its subfields; relationships with other fields; primary educational goals, prerequisites, core content, specific behavioral objectives; and suggestions for sequencing, faculty, facilities, and occupational safety. (MSE)

  9. The plant pathology of native plant restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restoration of ecologically degraded sites will benefit from the convergence of knowledge drawn from such disparate and often compartmentalized (and heretofore not widely considered) areas of research as soil microbial ecology, plant pathology and agronomy. Restoration following biological control w...

  10. MR-pathologic correlation of lung specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of a new MR-pathologic correlation method utilizing a high-resolution MR technique with a 3-inch surface coil and elimination of susceptibility by replacing air in the pulmonary alveoli of lung specimens with water. Inflated cadaver lung specimens of various lung disorders were imaged using a conventional spin echo (SE) sequence in a clinical 1.5T MR scanner. The MR images were correlated with pathologic specimens. In six out of seven specimens, MR revealed detailed images corresponding to pathological changes. MR may provide a non-invasive and non-destructive method for examining lung specimens and for image-pathologic correlation

  11. Latin American forensic pathology: scope and needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel M. Fonseca

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Pathology pertains to the study of a disease; from ancient times it has sought to explain the cause of death through postmortem examination. The advancement of science and technology has led to a greater definition of roles and has favored its development through different subspecialties among which we stands out forensic pathology. This discipline has its own characteristics, scope, case series, procedures and terminology. Likewise, although forensic pathology does not differ substantially from clinical pathology, significant differences can be found between the Anglo American approach and the Latin American approach. Beyond semantics of these alleged differences, the article reviews the concepts involved and discusses the scope and requirements needed to qualify experts, in the understanding that globalizing criteria should establish new paradigms and define the specific roles of the specialty.

  12. Problem and Pathological Gambling among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinchfield, Randy; Hanson, William E.; Olson, Douglas H.

    2006-01-01

    This chapter examines problem and pathological gambling among college students and reports on prevalence rate, risk and protective factors, prevention and intervention, and recommendations for college student personnel and other university administrators.

  13. Forensic veterinary pathology, today's situation and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottinger, T; Rasmusson, B; Segerstad, C H A; Merck, M; Goot, F V D; Olsén, L; Gavier-Widén, D

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the current status of forensic veterinary pathology, a survey was composed directed at pathology laboratories and institutes, mostly in Europe. The questions included number of and type of cases, resources available, level of special training of the investigating pathologists and the general view on the current status and future of the discipline. The surveys were sent to 134 laboratories and were returned by 72 respondents of which 93 per cent work on forensic pathology cases. The results indicate scarcity of training opportunities and special education, and insufficient veterinary-specific reference data and information on forensic analyses. More cooperation with human forensic pathology was desired by many respondents, as was more interaction across country borders. PMID:25013083

  14. Three-dimensional Monte Carlo calculations of the neutron and γ-ray fluences in the TFTR diagnostic basement and comparisons with measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Realistic calculations of the neutron and γ-ray fluences in the TFTR diagnostic basement have been carried out with three-dimensional Monte Carlo models. Comparisons with measurements show that the results are well within the experimental uncertainties

  15. Three-dimensional Monte Carlo calculations of the neutron and. gamma. -ray fluences in the TFTR diagnostic basement and comparisons with measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liew, S.L.; Ku, L.P.; Kolibal, J.G.

    1985-10-01

    Realistic calculations of the neutron and ..gamma..-ray fluences in the TFTR diagnostic basement have been carried out with three-dimensional Monte Carlo models. Comparisons with measurements show that the results are well within the experimental uncertainties.

  16. Two-stage formation model of the Junggar basin basement: Constraints to the growth style of Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dengfa

    2016-04-01

    Junggar Basin is located in the central part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). Its basement nature is a highly controversial scientific topic, involving the basic style and processes of crustal growth. Some researchers considered the basement of the Junggar Basin as a Precambrian continental crust, which is not consistent with the petrological compositions of the adjacent orogenic belts and the crust isotopic compositions revealed by the volcanic rocks in the basin. Others, on the contrary, proposed an oceanic crust basement model that does not match with the crustal thickness and geophysical characteristics of the Junggar area. Additionally, there are several viewponits, such as the duplex basement with the underlying Precambrian crystalline rocks and the overlying pre-Carboniferous folded basement, and the collaged basement by the Precambrian micro-continent block in the central part and the Hercynian accretionary folded belts circling it. Anyway, it is necessary to explain the property of basement rock, its strong inhomogeneous compositions as well as the geophysical features. In this paper, based on the borehole data from more than 300 industry wells drilled into the Carboniferous System, together with the high-resolution gravity and magnetic data (in a scale of 1:50,000), we made a detailed analysis of the basement structure, formation timing and processes and its later evolution on a basis of core geochemical and isotopic analysis. Firstly, we defined the Mahu Pre-Cambrian micro-continental block in the juvenile crust of Junggar Basin according to the Hf isotopic analysis of the Carboniferous volcanic rocks. Secondly, the results of the tectonic setting and basin analysis suggest that the Junggar area incorporates three approximately E-W trending island arc belts (from north to south: Yemaquan- Wulungu-Chingiz, Jiangjunmiao-Luliang-Darbut and Zhongguai-Mosuowan- Baijiahai-Qitai island arcs respectively) and intervened three approximately E-W trending

  17. Clowns Benefit Children Hospitalized for Respiratory Pathologies

    OpenAIRE

    Giuseppe Curcio; Elena Isola; Giuseppe Paolone; Mario Bertini

    2011-01-01

    The study aims at evaluating health-generating function of humor therapy in a hospital ward hosting children suffering from respiratory pathologies. The main scope of this study is to investigate possible positive effects of the presence of a clown on both the clinical evolution of the on-going disease, and on some physiological and pain parameters. Forty-three children with respiratory pathologies participated in the study: 21 of them belonged to the experimental group (EG) and 22 children t...

  18. The interpersonal core of personality pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Hopwood, Christopher J.; Wright, Aidan G. C.; Ansell, Emily B.; Pincus, Aaron L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that personality pathology is, at its core, fundamentally interpersonal. We review the proposed DSM-5 Section 3 redefinition of personality pathology involving self and interpersonal dysfunction, which we regard as a substantial improvement over the DSM-IV (and DSM-5 Section 2) definition. We note similarities between the proposed scheme and contemporary interpersonal theory and interpret the DSM-5 Section 3 definition using the underlying assumptio...

  19. Widespread cytoskeletal pathology characterizes corticobasal degeneration.

    OpenAIRE

    Feany, M B; Dickson, D W

    1995-01-01

    Corticobasal degeneration (CBD) is a rare, progressive neurological disorder characterized by widespread neuronal and glial pathology. Using immunohistochemistry and laser confocal microscopy, we demonstrate that the nonamyloid cortical plaques of CBD are actually collections of abnormal tau in the distal processes of astrocytes. These glial cells express both vimentin and CD44, markers of astrocyte activation. Glial pathology also includes tau-positive cytoplasmic inclusions, here localized ...

  20. Congenital pseudarthrosis of clavicle, differential diagnosis pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The congenital pseudarthrosis of clavicle is a rare entity, frequently appearing without association to other pathologies and does not cause important limitations in the children. It can confuse with other traumatic pathologies like clavicle fracture. Most of the patients complain about the aesthetics and few times for pain. The treatment is generally surgical there is controversy about of carrying out surgery. We reported two clinical cases with pseudoarthrosis of the right clavicle that they received surgical treatment with satisfactory results.