WorldWideScience

Sample records for baseline health survey

  1. Imperial County baseline health survey potential impact of geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deane, M.

    1981-06-01

    The survey purpose, methods, and statistical methods are presented. Results are discussed according to: area differences in background variables, area differences in health variables, area differences in annoyance reactions, and comparison of symptom frequencies with age, smoking, and drinking. Included in appendices are tables of data, enumeration forms, the questionnaire, interviewer cards, and interviewer instructions. (MHR)

  2. Baseline survey of oral health of primary and secondary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Among the issues that determine the performance of a child at school is health. In recognition of this, the Uganda government has embarked on a school health program for the success of universal primary education. Although dental health is an important component of school health there is little information on ...

  3. Baseline reef health surveys at Bangka Island (North Sulawesi, Indonesia reveal new threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Ponti

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide coral reef decline appears to be accompanied by an increase in the spread of hard coral diseases. However, whether this is the result of increased direct and indirect human disturbances and/or an increase in natural stresses remains poorly understood. The provision of baseline surveys for monitoring coral health status lays the foundations to assess the effects of any such anthropogenic and/or natural effects on reefs. Therefore, the objectives of this present study were to provide a coral health baseline in a poorly studied area, and to investigate possible correlations between coral health and the level of anthropogenic and natural disturbances. During the survey period, we recorded 20 different types of coral diseases and other compromised health statuses. The most abundant were cases of coral bleaching, followed by skeletal deformations caused by pyrgomatid barnacles, damage caused by fish bites, general pigmentation response and galls caused by cryptochirid crabs. Instances of colonies affected by skeletal eroding bands, and sedimentation damage increased in correlation to the level of bio-chemical disturbance and/or proximity to villages. Moreover, galls caused by cryptochirid crabs appeared more abundant at sites affected by blast fishing and close to a newly opened metal mine. Interestingly, in the investigated area the percentage of corals showing signs of ‘common’ diseases such as black band disease, brown band disease, white syndrome and skeletal eroding band disease were relatively low. Nevertheless, the relatively high occurrence of less common signs of compromised coral-related reef health, including the aggressive overgrowth by sponges, deserves further investigation. Although diseases appear relatively low at the current time, this area may be at the tipping point and an increase in activities such as mining may irredeemably compromise reef health.

  4. Baseline reef health surveys at Bangka Island (North Sulawesi, Indonesia) reveal new threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponti, Massimo; Fratangeli, Francesca; Dondi, Nicolò; Segre Reinach, Marco; Serra, Clara; Sweet, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide coral reef decline appears to be accompanied by an increase in the spread of hard coral diseases. However, whether this is the result of increased direct and indirect human disturbances and/or an increase in natural stresses remains poorly understood. The provision of baseline surveys for monitoring coral health status lays the foundations to assess the effects of any such anthropogenic and/or natural effects on reefs. Therefore, the objectives of this present study were to provide a coral health baseline in a poorly studied area, and to investigate possible correlations between coral health and the level of anthropogenic and natural disturbances. During the survey period, we recorded 20 different types of coral diseases and other compromised health statuses. The most abundant were cases of coral bleaching, followed by skeletal deformations caused by pyrgomatid barnacles, damage caused by fish bites, general pigmentation response and galls caused by cryptochirid crabs. Instances of colonies affected by skeletal eroding bands, and sedimentation damage increased in correlation to the level of bio-chemical disturbance and/or proximity to villages. Moreover, galls caused by cryptochirid crabs appeared more abundant at sites affected by blast fishing and close to a newly opened metal mine. Interestingly, in the investigated area the percentage of corals showing signs of 'common' diseases such as black band disease, brown band disease, white syndrome and skeletal eroding band disease were relatively low. Nevertheless, the relatively high occurrence of less common signs of compromised coral-related reef health, including the aggressive overgrowth by sponges, deserves further investigation. Although diseases appear relatively low at the current time, this area may be at the tipping point and an increase in activities such as mining may irredeemably compromise reef health.

  5. Assessing health impacts in complex eco-epidemiological settings in the humid tropics: Modular baseline health surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, Mirko S.; Divall, Mark J.; Krieger, Gary R.; Schmidlin, Sandro; Magassouba, Mohamed L.; Knoblauch, Astrid M.; Singer, Burton H.; Utzinger, Jürg

    2012-01-01

    The quantitative assessment of health impacts has been identified as a crucial feature for realising the full potential of health impact assessment (HIA). In settings where demographic and health data are notoriously scarce, but there is a broad range of ascertainable ecological, environmental, epidemiological and socioeconomic information, a diverse toolkit of data collection strategies becomes relevant for the mainly small-area impacts of interest. We present a modular, cross-sectional baseline health survey study design, which has been developed for HIA of industrial development projects in the humid tropics. The modular nature of our toolkit allows our methodology to be readily adapted to the prevailing eco-epidemiological characteristics of a given project setting. Central to our design is a broad set of key performance indicators, covering a multiplicity of health outcomes and determinants at different levels and scales. We present experience and key findings from our modular baseline health survey methodology employed in 14 selected sentinel sites within an iron ore mining project in the Republic of Guinea. We argue that our methodology is a generic example of rapid evidence assembly in difficult-to-reach localities, where improvement of the predictive validity of the assessment and establishment of a benchmark for longitudinal monitoring of project impacts and mitigation efforts is needed.

  6. Climate change and health in Bangladesh: a baseline cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Md Iqbal; Rahman, Md Bayzidur; Smith, Wayne; Lusha, Mirza Afreen Fatima; Milton, Abul Hasnat

    2016-01-01

    Bangladesh is facing the unavoidable challenge of adaptation to climate change. However, very little is known in relation to climate change and health. This article provides information on potential climate change impact on health, magnitude of climate-sensitive diseases, and baseline scenarios of health systems to climate variability and change. A cross-sectional study using multistage cluster sampling framework was conducted in 2012 among 6,720 households of 224 rural villages in seven vulnerable districts of Bangladesh. Information was obtained from head of the households using a pretested, interviewer-administered, structured questionnaire. A total of 6,720 individuals participated in the study with written, informed consent. The majority of the respondents were from the low-income vulnerable group (60% farmers or day labourers) with an average of 30 years' stay in their locality. Most of them (96%) had faced extreme weather events, 45% of people had become homeless and displaced for a mean duration of 38 days in the past 10 years. Almost all of the respondents (97.8%) believe that health care expenditure increased after the extreme weather events. Mean annual total health care expenditure was 6,555 Bangladeshi Taka (BDT) (1 USD=77 BDT in 2015) and exclusively out of pocket of the respondents. Incidence of dengue was 1.29 (95% CI 0.65-2.56) and malaria 13.86 (95% CI 6.00-32.01) per 1,000 adult population for 12 months preceding the data collection. Incidence of diarrhoea and pneumonia among under-five children of the households for the preceding month was 10.3% (95% CI 9.16-11.66) and 7.3% (95% CI 6.35-8.46), respectively. The findings of this survey indicate that climate change has a potential adverse impact on human health in Bangladesh. The magnitude of malaria, dengue, childhood diarrhoea, and pneumonia was high among the vulnerable communities. Community-based adaptation strategy for health could be beneficial to minimise climate change attributed health

  7. Climate change and health in Bangladesh: a baseline cross-sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Md Iqbal; Rahman, Md Bayzidur; Smith, Wayne; Lusha, Mirza Afreen Fatima; Milton, Abul Hasnat

    2016-01-01

    Background Bangladesh is facing the unavoidable challenge of adaptation to climate change. However, very little is known in relation to climate change and health. This article provides information on potential climate change impact on health, magnitude of climate-sensitive diseases, and baseline scenarios of health systems to climate variability and change. Design A cross-sectional study using multistage cluster sampling framework was conducted in 2012 among 6,720 households of 224 rural villages in seven vulnerable districts of Bangladesh. Information was obtained from head of the households using a pretested, interviewer-administered, structured questionnaire. A total of 6,720 individuals participated in the study with written, informed consent. Results The majority of the respondents were from the low-income vulnerable group (60% farmers or day labourers) with an average of 30 years’ stay in their locality. Most of them (96%) had faced extreme weather events, 45% of people had become homeless and displaced for a mean duration of 38 days in the past 10 years. Almost all of the respondents (97.8%) believe that health care expenditure increased after the extreme weather events. Mean annual total health care expenditure was 6,555 Bangladeshi Taka (BDT) (1 USD=77 BDT in 2015) and exclusively out of pocket of the respondents. Incidence of dengue was 1.29 (95% CI 0.65–2.56) and malaria 13.86 (95% CI 6.00–32.01) per 1,000 adult population for 12 months preceding the data collection. Incidence of diarrhoea and pneumonia among under-five children of the households for the preceding month was 10.3% (95% CI 9.16–11.66) and 7.3% (95% CI 6.35–8.46), respectively. Conclusions The findings of this survey indicate that climate change has a potential adverse impact on human health in Bangladesh. The magnitude of malaria, dengue, childhood diarrhoea, and pneumonia was high among the vulnerable communities. Community-based adaptation strategy for health could be

  8. Climate change and health in Bangladesh: a baseline cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Iqbal Kabir

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bangladesh is facing the unavoidable challenge of adaptation to climate change. However, very little is known in relation to climate change and health. This article provides information on potential climate change impact on health, magnitude of climate-sensitive diseases, and baseline scenarios of health systems to climate variability and change. Design: A cross-sectional study using multistage cluster sampling framework was conducted in 2012 among 6,720 households of 224 rural villages in seven vulnerable districts of Bangladesh. Information was obtained from head of the households using a pretested, interviewer-administered, structured questionnaire. A total of 6,720 individuals participated in the study with written, informed consent. Results: The majority of the respondents were from the low-income vulnerable group (60% farmers or day labourers with an average of 30 years’ stay in their locality. Most of them (96% had faced extreme weather events, 45% of people had become homeless and displaced for a mean duration of 38 days in the past 10 years. Almost all of the respondents (97.8% believe that health care expenditure increased after the extreme weather events. Mean annual total health care expenditure was 6,555 Bangladeshi Taka (BDT (1 USD=77 BDT in 2015 and exclusively out of pocket of the respondents. Incidence of dengue was 1.29 (95% CI 0.65–2.56 and malaria 13.86 (95% CI 6.00–32.01 per 1,000 adult population for 12 months preceding the data collection. Incidence of diarrhoea and pneumonia among under-five children of the households for the preceding month was 10.3% (95% CI 9.16–11.66 and 7.3% (95% CI 6.35–8.46, respectively. Conclusions: The findings of this survey indicate that climate change has a potential adverse impact on human health in Bangladesh. The magnitude of malaria, dengue, childhood diarrhoea, and pneumonia was high among the vulnerable communities. Community-based adaptation strategy for health

  9. Baseline results of the first malaria indicator survey in Iran at the health facility level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taghizadeh-Asl Rahim

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria continues to be a global public health challenge, particularly in developing countries. Delivery of prompt and effective diagnosis and treatment of malaria cases, detection of malaria epidemics within one week of onset and control them in less than a month, regular disease monitoring and operational classification of malaria are among the major responsibilities of the national malaria programme. The study was conducted to determine these indicators at the different level of primary health care facilities in malaria-affected provinces of Iran Methods In this survey, data was collected from 223 health facilities including health centres, malaria posts, health houses and hospitals as well as the profile of all 5, 836 recorded malaria cases in these facilities during the year preceding the survey. Descriptive statistics (i.e. frequencies, percentages were used to summarize the results and Chi square test was used to analyse data. Results All but one percent of uncomplicated cases took appropriate and correctly-dosed of anti-malarial drugs in accordance to the national treatment guideline. A larger proportion of patients [85.8%; 95% CI: 84.8 - 86.8] were also given complete treatment including anti-relapse course, in line with national guidelines. About one third [35.0%; 95% CI: 33.6 - 36.4] of uncomplicated malaria cases were treated more than 48 hours after first symptoms onset. Correspondingly, half of severe malaria cases took recommended anti-malarial drugs for severe or complicated disease more than 48 hours of onset of first symptoms. The latter cases had given regular anti-malarial drugs promptly. The majority of malaria epidemics [97%; 95% CI: 90.6 - 100] in study areas were detected within one week of onset, but only half of epidemics were controlled within four weeks of detection. Just half of target districts had at least one health facility/emergency site with adequate supply and equipment stocks. Nevertheless

  10. The California Baseline Methane Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duren, R. M.; Thorpe, A. K.; Hopkins, F. M.; Rafiq, T.; Bue, B. D.; Prasad, K.; Mccubbin, I.; Miller, C. E.

    2017-12-01

    The California Baseline Methane Survey is the first systematic, statewide assessment of methane point source emissions. The objectives are to reduce uncertainty in the state's methane budget and to identify emission mitigation priorities for state and local agencies, utilities and facility owners. The project combines remote sensing of large areas with airborne imaging spectroscopy and spatially resolved bottom-up data sets to detect, quantify and attribute emissions from diverse sectors including agriculture, waste management, oil and gas production and the natural gas supply chain. Phase 1 of the project surveyed nearly 180,000 individual facilities and infrastructure components across California in 2016 - achieving completeness rates ranging from 20% to 100% per emission sector at < 5 meters spatial resolution. Additionally, intensive studies of key areas and sectors were performed to assess source persistence and variability at times scales ranging from minutes to months. Phase 2 of the project continues with additional data collection in Spring and Fall 2017. We describe the survey design and measurement, modeling and analysis methods. We present initial findings regarding the spatial, temporal and sectoral distribution of methane point source emissions in California and their estimated contribution to the state's total methane budget. We provide case-studies and lessons learned about key sectors including examples where super-emitters were identified and mitigated. We summarize challenges and recommendations for future methane research, inventories and mitigation guidance within and beyond California.

  11. Burkina Faso - Roads Baseline Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — NOTE !!!This survey data was not used for any independent evaluation reports!!! Impaq worked with the data collection firms NSCE-MCG-AC3E [the Group] to conduct...

  12. The possibility of previous epidemiological data to serve as baseline for future national oral health surveys--a study in Vietnam.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palenstein Helderman, W.H. van; Truin, G.J.; Can, N.; Khanh, N.D.

    2001-01-01

    AIM: The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent epidemiological data (1985-2000) on dental caries and periodontal diseases in Vietnam in an attempt to obtain a 'baseline' for future national oral health surveys. METHODS: Studies on periodontal diseases and caries were included when CPITN

  13. Lesotho - Health Facility Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The main objective of the 2011 Health Facility Survey (HFS) was to establish a baseline for informing the Health Project performance indicators on health facilities,...

  14. Knowledge and perception about climate change and human health: findings from a baseline survey among vulnerable communities in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Md Iqbal; Rahman, Md Bayzidur; Smith, Wayne; Lusha, Mirza Afreen Fatima; Azim, Syed; Milton, Abul Hasnat

    2016-03-15

    Bangladesh is one of the countries most vulnerable to climate change (CC). A basic understanding of public perception on vulnerability, attitude and the risk in relation to CC and health will provide strategic directions for government policy, adaptation strategies and development of community-based guidelines. The objective of this study was to collect community-based data on peoples' knowledge and perception about CC and its impact on health. In 2012, a cross-sectional survey was undertaken among 6720 households of 224 enumeration areas of rural villages geographically distributed in seven vulnerable districts of Bangladesh, with total population of 19,228,598. Thirty households were selected randomly from each enumeration area using the household listing provided by the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS). Information was collected from all the 6720 research participants using a structured questionnaire. An observation checklist was used by the interviewers to collect household- and community-related information. In addition, we selected the head of each household as the eligible participant for an interview. Evidence of association between sociodemographic variables and knowledge of CC was explored by cross-tabulation and measured using chi-square tests. Logistic regression models were used to further explore the predictors of knowledge. The study revealed that the residents of the rural communities selected for this study largely come from a low socioeconomic background: only 9.6% had postsecondary education or higher, the majority worked as day labourer or farmer (60%), and only 10% earned a monthly income above BDT 12000 (equivalent to US $150 approx.). The majority of the participants (54.2%) had some knowledge about CC but 45.8% did not (p change of climate (83.2%). Among all the respondents (n = 6720), 94.5% perceived change in climate and extreme weather events. Most of them (91.9%) observed change in rainfall patterns in the last 10 years, and 97

  15. Knowledge and perception about climate change and human health: findings from a baseline survey among vulnerable communities in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Iqbal Kabir

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bangladesh is one of the countries most vulnerable to climate change (CC. A basic understanding of public perception on vulnerability, attitude and the risk in relation to CC and health will provide strategic directions for government policy, adaptation strategies and development of community-based guidelines. The objective of this study was to collect community-based data on peoples’ knowledge and perception about CC and its impact on health. Methods In 2012, a cross-sectional survey was undertaken among 6720 households of 224 enumeration areas of rural villages geographically distributed in seven vulnerable districts of Bangladesh, with total population of 19,228,598. Thirty households were selected randomly from each enumeration area using the household listing provided by the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS. Information was collected from all the 6720 research participants using a structured questionnaire. An observation checklist was used by the interviewers to collect household- and community-related information. In addition, we selected the head of each household as the eligible participant for an interview. Evidence of association between sociodemographic variables and knowledge of CC was explored by cross-tabulation and measured using chi-square tests. Logistic regression models were used to further explore the predictors of knowledge. Results The study revealed that the residents of the rural communities selected for this study largely come from a low socioeconomic background: only 9.6 % had postsecondary education or higher, the majority worked as day labourer or farmer (60 %, and only 10 % earned a monthly income above BDT 12000 (equivalent to US $150 approx.. The majority of the participants (54.2 % had some knowledge about CC but 45.8 % did not (p < 0.001. The majority of knowledgeable participants (n = 3645 felt excessive temperature as the change of climate (83.2 %. Among all the

  16. The Well London program - a cluster randomized trial of community engagement for improving health behaviors and mental wellbeing: baseline survey results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillips Gemma

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Well London program used community engagement, complemented by changes to the physical and social neighborhood environment, to improve physical activity levels, healthy eating, and mental wellbeing in the most deprived communities in London. The effectiveness of Well London is being evaluated in a pair-matched cluster randomized trial (CRT. The baseline survey data are reported here. Methods The CRT involved 20 matched pairs of intervention and control communities (defined as UK census lower super output areas (LSOAs; ranked in the 11% most deprived LSOAs in London by the English Indices of Multiple Deprivation across 20 London boroughs. The primary trial outcomes, sociodemographic information, and environmental neighbourhood characteristics were assessed in three quantitative components within the Well London CRT at baseline: a cross-sectional, interviewer-administered adult household survey; a self-completed, school-based adolescent questionnaire; a fieldworker completed neighborhood environmental audit. Baseline data collection occurred in 2008. Physical activity, healthy eating, and mental wellbeing were assessed using standardized, validated questionnaire tools. Multiple imputation was used to account for missing data in the outcomes and other variables in the adult and adolescent surveys. Results There were 4,107 adults and 1,214 adolescent respondents in the baseline surveys. The intervention and control areas were broadly comparable with respect to the primary outcomes and key sociodemographic characteristics. The environmental characteristics of the intervention and control neighborhoods were broadly similar. There was greater between-cluster variation in the primary outcomes in the adult population compared to the adolescent population. Levels of healthy eating, smoking, and self-reported anxiety/depression were similar in the Well London adult population and the national Health Survey for England. Levels of

  17. Methods and baseline results of a repeated cross-sectional survey to assess the public health impact of antiretroviral therapy in Lusaka, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giganti, Mark J; Levy, Jens W; Banda, Yolan; Kusanthan, Thankian; Sinkala, Moses; Stringer, Jeffrey S A; Chi, Benjamin H

    2010-05-01

    Although the individual-level impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is well documented, there are few available data describing the public health impact of services for persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus in resource-constrained settings. We describe the methods and baseline results of a household survey that assessed the population-level impact of the national program for HIV care in Zambia and treatment in the city of Lusaka. The survey was timed with the staggered expansion of services and repeated cross-sectional surveys planned for pre-implementation and post-implementation comparisons made by community. In the initial survey round, which was performed during the early phases of the program (November-December 2004), 18,110 persons were enumerated from 3,600 households surveyed. Respondents were asked questions designed to evaluate community-level mortality and respondent knowledge and attitudes towards HIV. These findings will serve as a reliable reference in the future analysis of the population-level impact of this HIV treatment and care program in Zambia.

  18. Baseline survey for the implementation of insecticide treated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Baseline survey for the implementation of insecticide treated mosquito nets in Malaria control in Ethiopia. Daddi Jima, Gezagegn Tasfaye, Wakgari Deressa, Adugna Woyessa, Daniel Kebede, Desta Alamirew. Abstract. No Abstract Available Ethiop.J.Health Dev. Vol.19 (1) 2005: 16-23. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ...

  19. Disease history and risk of comorbidity in women's life course: a comprehensive analysis of the Japan Nurses' Health Study baseline survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Kazue; Hayashi, Kunihiko; Yasui, Toshiyuki; Katanoda, Kota; Iso, Hiroyasu; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Wakatsuki, Akihiko; Kubota, Toshiro; Mizunuma, Hideki

    2015-03-11

    To classify diseases based on age at peak incidence to identify risk factors for later disease in women's life course. A cross-sectional baseline survey of participants in the Japan Nurses' Health Study. A nationwide prospective cohort study on the health of Japanese nurses. The baseline survey was conducted between 2001 and 2007 (n=49,927). Age at peak incidence for 20 diseases from a survey of Japanese women was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method with the Kernel smoothing technique. The incidence rate and peak incidence for diseases whose peak incidence occurred before the age of 45 years or before the perimenopausal period were selected as early-onset diseases. The OR and 95% CI were estimated to examine the risk of comorbidity between early-onset and other diseases. Four early-onset diseases (endometriosis, anaemia, migraine headache and uterine myoma) were significantly correlated with one another. Late-onset diseases significantly associated (OR>2) with early-onset diseases included comorbid endometriosis with ovarian cancer (3.65 (2.16 to 6.19)), endometrial cancer (2.40 (1.14 to 5.04)) and cerebral infarction (2.10 (1.15 to 3.85)); comorbid anaemia with gastric cancer (3.69 (2.68 to 5.08)); comorbid migraine with transient ischaemic attack (3.06 (2.29 to 4.09)), osteoporosis (2.11 (1.71 to 2.62)), cerebral infarction (2.04 (1.26 to 3.30)) and angina pectoris (2.00 (1.49 to 2.67)); and comorbid uterine myoma with colorectal cancer (2.31 (1.48 to 3.61)). While there were significant associations between four early-onset diseases, women with a history of one or more of the early-onset diseases had a higher risk of other diseases later in their life course. Understanding the history of early-onset diseases in women may help reduce the subsequent risk of chronic diseases in later life. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Webuye Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems Baseline Survey of Soil-Transmitted Helminths and Intestinal Protozoa among Children up to Five Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Obala

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs are globally endemic, and they constitute the greatest cause of illness and disease worldwide. Transmission of IPIs occurs as a result of inadequate sanitation, inaccessibility to potable water, and poor living conditions. Objectives. To determine a baseline prevalence of IPIs among children of five years and below at Webuye Health and Demographic Surveillance (HDSS area in western Kenya. Methods. Cross-sectional survey was used to collect data. Direct saline and formal-ether-sedimentation techniques were used to process the specimens. Descriptive and inferential statistics such as Chi-square statistics were used to analyze the data. Results. A prevalence of 52.3% (417/797 was obtained with the male child slightly more infected than the female (53.5% versus 51%, but this was not significant (χ2=0.482, P>0.05. Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica were the most common pathogenic IPIs with a prevalence of 26.1% (208/797 and 11.2% (89/797, respectively. Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs were less common with a prevalence of 4.8% (38/797, 3.8% (30/797, and 0.13% (1/797 for Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworms, and Trichuris trichiura, respectively. Conclusions. Giardia lamblia and E. histolytica were the most prevalent pathogenic intestinal protozoa, while STHs were less common. Community-based health promotion techniques are recommended for controlling these parasites.

  1. Sandia National Laboratories, California proposed CREATE facility environmental baseline survey.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catechis, Christopher Spyros

    2013-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, Environmental Programs completed an environmental baseline survey (EBS) of 12.6 acres located at Sandia National Laboratories/California (SNL/CA) in support of the proposed Collaboration in Research and Engineering for Advanced Technology and Education (CREATE) Facility. The survey area is comprised of several parcels of land within SNL/CA, County of Alameda, California. The survey area is located within T 3S, R 2E, Section 13. The purpose of this EBS is to document the nature, magnitude, and extent of any environmental contamination of the property; identify potential environmental contamination liabilities associated with the property; develop sufficient information to assess the health and safety risks; and ensure adequate protection for human health and the environment related to a specific property.

  2. Baseline axle load survey in Malawi - 2014

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, M

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available As part of the project to update the Malawian Directorate of Road Transport and Safety Services’ (DRTSS) 2005 Axle Load Control Strategy and to provide a five-year implementation plan, a country-wide axle load survey was undertaken to assess...

  3. Study on the Status of Health Service Utilization among Caregivers of Left-Behind Children in Poor Rural Areas of Hunan Province: A Baseline Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Meimei; Zhang, Yefu; Zou, Jiaojiao; Yuan, Tong; Tang, Amber; Deng, Jing; Yang, Lina; Li, Mingzhi; Chen, Jihua; Qin, Hong; Lin, Qian

    2017-08-12

    The caregivers of left-behind children (CLBC) in China's poor, rural areas are mostly elderly and women. Their health status and access to health services have not been previously characterized. This study aims to explore the status of CLBC in terms of their health service utilization and to provide a scientific basis for guiding effective implementation of health policy in rural Hunan. Random cluster sampling was used to survey CLBC in two rural counties. Face-to-face interviews and questionnaires were used to collect data, including socioeconomic status and health service utilization. The two-week prevalence rate was used to reflect health service needs, while the two-week visiting rate, annual hospitalization rate and participation in basic public health services were used to evaluate health service utilization. Of the 518 respondents in the study, 95.9% were farmers and 88.4% were over 40 years old. The two-week prevalence rate was 36.1%. Furthermore, 40.1% of ill caregivers' activities were partly restricted by illness and 3.7% needed to be on bed rest. The two-week visiting rate was 21.0%. The main reasons for not seeing a doctor were "self-medication" (39.1%) or "financial difficulties" (32.6%). The annual hospitalization rate of the CLBC was 22.6% and the non-hospitalization rate of those who needed hospitalization was 41.5%. "Lack of time" (22.3%) and "financial difficulties" (50.5%) were the major factors affecting the utilization of hospitalization services. In terms of participation in basic public health services, only 35.1% CLBC clearly knew that township hospitals have established health records for them. Only 50.6% of caregivers received free health examinations in village clinics or township hospitals and 81.3% of the caregivers did not participate in health education or lectures organized by local health institutions in 2014. The utilization rate of health services was extremely low, which may affect the quality of care for left-behind children

  4. Forgone care among middle aged and elderly with chronic diseases in China: evidence from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study Baseline Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangjun; Chen, Mingsheng; Wang, Zhonghua; Si, Lei

    2018-01-01

    Objective In general, published studies analyse healthcare utilisation, rather than foregone care, among different population groups. The assessment of forgone care as an aspect of healthcare system performance is important because it indicates the gap between perceived need and actual utilisation of healthcare services. This study focused on a specific vulnerable group, middle-aged and elderly people with chronic diseases, and evaluated the prevalence of foregone care and associated factors among this population in China. Methods Data were obtained from a nationally representative household survey of middle-aged and elderly individuals (≥45 years), the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study, which was conducted by the National School of Development of Peking University in 2013. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse sample characteristics and the prevalence of foregone care. Andersen’s healthcare utilisation and binary logistic models were used to evaluate the determinants of foregone care among middle-aged and elderly individuals with chronic diseases. Results The prevalence of foregone outpatient and inpatient care among middle-aged and elderly people was 10.21% and 6.84%, respectively, whereas the prevalence of foregone care for physical examinations was relatively high (57.88%). Predisposing factors, including age, marital status, employment, education and family size, significantly affected foregone care in this population. Regarding enabling factors, individuals in the highest income group reported less foregone inpatient care or physical examinations compared with those in the lowest income group. Social healthcare insurance could significantly reduce foregone care in outpatient and inpatient situations; however, these schemes (except for urban employee medical insurance) did not appear to have a significant impact on foregone care involving physical examinations. Conclusion In China, policy-makers may need to further adjust healthcare

  5. Forgone care among middle aged and elderly with chronic diseases in China: evidence from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study Baseline Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangjun; Chen, Mingsheng; Wang, Zhonghua; Si, Lei

    2018-03-16

    In general, published studies analyse healthcare utilisation, rather than foregone care, among different population groups. The assessment of forgone care as an aspect of healthcare system performance is important because it indicates the gap between perceived need and actual utilisation of healthcare services. This study focused on a specific vulnerable group, middle-aged and elderly people with chronic diseases, and evaluated the prevalence of foregone care and associated factors among this population in China. Data were obtained from a nationally representative household survey of middle-aged and elderly individuals (≥45 years), the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study, which was conducted by the National School of Development of Peking University in 2013. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse sample characteristics and the prevalence of foregone care. Andersen's healthcare utilisation and binary logistic models were used to evaluate the determinants of foregone care among middle-aged and elderly individuals with chronic diseases. The prevalence of foregone outpatient and inpatient care among middle-aged and elderly people was 10.21% and 6.84%, respectively, whereas the prevalence of foregone care for physical examinations was relatively high (57.88%). Predisposing factors, including age, marital status, employment, education and family size, significantly affected foregone care in this population. Regarding enabling factors, individuals in the highest income group reported less foregone inpatient care or physical examinations compared with those in the lowest income group. Social healthcare insurance could significantly reduce foregone care in outpatient and inpatient situations; however, these schemes (except for urban employee medical insurance) did not appear to have a significant impact on foregone care involving physical examinations. In China, policy-makers may need to further adjust healthcare policies, such as health insurance schemes

  6. Reproductive healthcare utilization in urban poor settlements of Delhi: Baseline survey of ANCHUL (Ante Natal and Child Health care in Urban Slums) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devasenapathy, Niveditha; Ghosh Jerath, Suparna; Allen, Elizebeth; Sharma, Saket; Shankar, Anuraj H; Zodpey, Sanjay

    2015-09-08

    Disparity in utilization of reproductive healthcare services between the urban poor and the urban non-poor households in the developing nations is well known. However, disparity may also exist within urban poor households. Our objective was to document the extent of disparity in reproductive healthcare utilization among the urban poor and to identify the socio-demographic determinants of underutilization with a view to characterizing this vulnerable subpopulation. A survey of 16,221 households was conducted in 39 clusters from two large urban poor settlements in Delhi. From 13,451 consenting households, socio-demographic data and information on births, maternal and child deaths within the previous year was collected. Details of antenatal care (ANC) was collected from 597 pregnant women. Information on ANC and postnatal care was also obtained from 596 recently delivered (within six months) mothers. All data were captured electronically using a customized and validated smart phone application. Households were categorized into quintiles of socio-economic position (SEP) based on dwelling characteristics and possession of durable assets using principal component analysis. Potential socio-demographic determinants of reproductive healthcare utilization were examined using random effects logistic regression. The prevalence of facility based birthing was 77% (n = 596 mothers). Of the 596 recently delivered mothers only 70% had an ANC registration card, 46.3% had ANC in their first trimester, 46% had visited a facility within 4 weeks post-delivery and 27% were using modern contraceptive methods. Low socio-economic position was the most important predictor of underutilization with a clear gradient across SEP quintiles. Compared to the poorest, the least poor women were more likely to be registered for ANC (OR 1.96, 95%CI 0.95-4.15) and more likely to have made ≥ 4 ANC visits (OR 5.86, 95%CI 2.82-12.19). They were more likely to have given birth in a facility (OR 4

  7. Association of daytime napping with prediabetes and diabetes in a Chinese population: Results from the baseline survey of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xin; Liu, Qi; Wei, Jiate; Meng, Xin; Jia, Chongqi

    2018-04-01

    Only a few studies have investigated the effects of daytime napping on diabetes, and these studies have reported conflicting results. The aim of the present study was to examine whether daytime napping is associated with a higher risk of prediabetes and diabetes. The present cross-sectional study of napping duration in relation to prediabetes and diabetes was conducted in 12 277 participants. Data from the first wave (2011) of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study were used. Daytime napping was divided into four groups: no napping (reference) and napping for 1-30, 31-90, and >90 min. Multinomial logistic regression was used to obtain odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Individuals who reported taking daily afternoon naps accounted for 53.39% of all participants. Nappers had a higher prevalence of prediabetes and diabetes than non-nappers. Compared with the reference group, the weighted fully adjusted ORs (95% CI) were 1.36 (1.10-1.68) and 1.61 (1.22-2.13) for napping >90 min in prediabetic and diabetic patients, respectively. Long daytime napping duration was positively associated with prediabetes and diabetes. Further physiological and cohort studies are needed to confirm these results and elucidate potential mechanisms. © 2017 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  8. National Health Care Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    This survey encompasses a family of health care provider surveys, including information about the facilities that supply health care, the services rendered, and the characteristics of the patients served.

  9. Single-baseline RTK GNSS Positioning for Hydrographic Surveying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metin Alkan, Reha; Murat Ozulu, I.; Ilçi, Veli; Kahveci, Muzaffer

    2015-04-01

    Positioning with GNSS technique can be carried out in two ways, absolute and relative. It has been possible to reach a few meters absolute point positioning accuracies in real time after disabling SA permanently in May 2000. Today, accuracies obtainable from absolute point positioning using code observations are not sufficient for most surveying applications. Thus to meet higher accuracy requirements, differential methods using single or dual frequency geodetic-grade GNSS receivers that measure carrier phase have to be used. However, this method requires time-cost field and office works and if the measurement is not carried out with conventional RTK method, user needs a GNSS data processing software to estimate the coordinates. If RTK is used, at least two or more GNSS receivers are required, one as a reference and the other as a rover. Moreover, the distance between the receivers must not exceed 15-20 km in order to be able to rapidly and reliably resolve the carrier phase ambiguities. On the other hand, based on the innovations and improvements in satellite geodesy and GNSS modernization studies occurred within the last decade, many new positioning methods and new approaches have been developed. One of them is Network-RTK (or commonly known as CORS) and the other is Single-baseline RTK. These methods are widely used for many surveying applications in many countries. The user of the system can obtain his/her position within a few cm level of accuracy in real-time with only a single GNSS receiver that has Network RTK (CORS) capability. When compared with the conventional differential and RTK methods, this technique has several significant advantages as it is easy to use and it produces accurate, cost-effective and rapid solutions. In Turkey, establishment of a multi-base RTK network was completed and opened for civilian use in 2009. This network is called CORS-TR and consists of 146 reference stations having about 80-100 km interstation distances. It is possible

  10. National Health Interview Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) is the principal source of information on the health of the civilian noninstitutionalized population of the United States...

  11. GPS survey in long baseline neutrino-oscillation measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Noumi, H; Inagaki, T; Hasegawa, T; Katoh, Y; Kohama, M; Kurodai, M; Kusano, E; Maruyama, T; Minakawa, M; Nakamura, K; Nishikawa, K; Sakuda, M; Suzuki, Y; Takasaki, M; Tanaka, K H; Yamanoi, Y; 10.1109/TNS.2004.836042

    2004-01-01

    We made a series of surveys to obtain neutrino beam line direction toward SuperKamiokande (SK) at a distance of 250 km for the long- baseline neutrino oscillation experiment at KEK. We found that the beam line is directed to SK within 0.03 mr and 0.09 mr (in sigma) in the horizontal and vertical directions, respectively. During beam operation, we monitored the muon distribution from secondary pions produced at the target and collected by a magnetic horn system. We found that the horn system functions like a lens of a point-to- parallel optics with magnification of approximately -100 and the focal length of 2.3 m. Namely, a small displacement of the primary beam position at the target is magnified about a factor -100 at the muon centroid, while the centroid position is almost stable against a change of the incident angle of the primary beam. Therefore, the muon centroid can be a useful monitor of the neutrino beam direction. We could determine the muon centroid within 6 mm and 12 mm in horizontal and vertical ...

  12. Associations of sleep duration and prediabetes prevalence in a middle-aged and elderly Chinese population with regard to age and hypertension: The China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study baseline survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Mingming; Fu, Zhen; Qin, Tingting; Wu, Nanjin; Lv, Yalan; Wei, Qinyun; Jiang, Hongwei; Yin, Ping

    2018-03-24

    The aim of the present study was to examine the age-specific associations between self-reported sleep duration and prevalent prediabetes in middle-aged and elderly Chinese with or without hypertension. In all, 2985 Chinese adults aged ≥45 years from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) baseline survey were selected for analysis. Sleep duration was assessed by structured questionnaires and then categorized into three groups (≤6, 6-8, and >8 h). The prevalence of prediabetes was defined using fasting plasma glucose (100-125 mg/dL) and/or HbA1c (5.7%-6.4%) in conjunction with no previous diabetes diagnosis and no antidiabetic medication. Relationships between self-reported sleep duration and prevalent prediabetes were examined according to age (45-60 years, middle-aged; ≥60 years, elderly) and hypertension groups using Poisson regression models to estimate prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Compared with the reference group of 6-8 h sleep/night, short sleep (≤6 h/night) was associated with an increased risk of prediabetes in the whole sample (PR 1.09, 95% CI 1.01-1.17) after adjusting for confounders. This association was more pronounced in elderly participants without hypertension (PR 1.27, 95% CI 1.07-1.51). This study suggests that participants with a short sleep period are at a moderately increased risk of prediabetes, particularly in elderly subjects without hypertension. Aging and hypertension may be important in the relationship between short sleep and impaired glucose metabolism. © 2018 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. Small mammal baseline surveys, Alaska Peninsula/Becharof NWR, Alaska, Summer 2004, addendum

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — This document supplements the report Small Mammal Baseline Surveys, Alaska Peninsula / Becharof NWR, Alaska – Summer 2004. After completion of that report additional...

  14. Environmental Baseline Survey for Installation of Five New Hydrogeologic Groundwater Monitoring Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catechis, Christopher S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-07-01

    This Phase I Environmental Baseline Survey (EBS) provides the findings of a survey and assessment for termination of an existing easement granted to the Department of Energy (DOE) for the installation of 5 new hydrogeologic groundwater monitoring wells located on KAFB, New Mexico. The purpose of this EBS is to: Document the nature, magnitude, and extent of any environmental contamination of the property. Identify potential environmental contamination liabilities associated with the property. Develop sufficient information to assess the health and safety risks. Ensure adequate protection for human health and the environment related to a specific property. Determine possible effects of contamination on property valuation, and serve as the basis for notice of environmental condition for applicable federal or local real property disclosure requirements.

  15. A baseline survey of tiger nut ( Cyperus esculentus ) production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus) is a minor but important crop in Ghana. In a survey conducted on the production and marketing of the crop at Aduamoa in the Kwahu South District of Ghana, it was observed that tiger nut production was predominantly the work of women, with 70 per cent of farmers being women and 30 per ...

  16. Wildlife Baseline Survey: Illinois Army National Guard, Sparta, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    system for vertebrate recruitment and DNA diversity. The lakes are independent as well, but could well be polluted by inappropriate application of...individual was not observed. Scat can sometimes be used as adequate sign, but without DNA test (which was not performed in this survey) errors are pos... Grasshopper Sparrow X US Ammodramus henslowii Henslow’s Sparrow* RS Ammospiza leconteii LeConte’s Sparrow RT Melospiza lincolnii Lincoln’s

  17. Baseline survey for the implementation of insecticide treated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yemane Berhane

    P.O. Box 1234,Phone150993, E-mail: malaria@telecom.net.et, Ethiopia; 2Department of Community Health, Faculty of Medicine, Addis Ababa ..... Didn't know. 214. 11.0. First visit when sick of malaria. (n=1933). Gov't health care facility. 1270. 67.3. Malaria control laboratory. 399. 21.2. Private clinics. 163. 8.6. Drug vendor/ ...

  18. A SURVEY OF ASTRONOMICAL RESEARCH: A BASELINE FOR ASTRONOMICAL DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, V. A. R. M. [Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Centre, Department of Astronomy, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Russo, P. [EU Universe Awareness, Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, PO 9513 Leiden, 2300 RA (Netherlands); Cárdenas-Avendaño, A., E-mail: vribeiro@ast.uct.ac.za, E-mail: russo@strw.leidenuniv.nl [Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Carrera 45 No 26-85, Edificio Gutierréz, Bogotá, DC (Colombia)

    2013-12-01

    Measuring scientific development is a difficult task. Different metrics have been put forward to evaluate scientific development; in this paper we explore a metric that uses the number of peer-reviewed, and when available non-peer-reviewed, research articles as an indicator of development in the field of astronomy. We analyzed the available publication record, using the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory/NASA Astrophysics Database System, by country affiliation in the time span between 1950 and 2011 for countries with a gross national income of less than 14,365 USD in 2010. This represents 149 countries. We propose that this metric identifies countries in ''astronomical development'' with a culture of research publishing. We also propose that for a country to develop in astronomy, it should invest in outside expert visits, send its staff abroad to study, and establish a culture of scientific publishing. Furthermore, we propose that this paper may be used as a baseline to measure the success of major international projects, such as the International Year of Astronomy 2009.

  19. A SURVEY OF ASTRONOMICAL RESEARCH: A BASELINE FOR ASTRONOMICAL DEVELOPMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, V. A. R. M.; Russo, P.; Cárdenas-Avendaño, A.

    2013-01-01

    Measuring scientific development is a difficult task. Different metrics have been put forward to evaluate scientific development; in this paper we explore a metric that uses the number of peer-reviewed, and when available non-peer-reviewed, research articles as an indicator of development in the field of astronomy. We analyzed the available publication record, using the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory/NASA Astrophysics Database System, by country affiliation in the time span between 1950 and 2011 for countries with a gross national income of less than 14,365 USD in 2010. This represents 149 countries. We propose that this metric identifies countries in ''astronomical development'' with a culture of research publishing. We also propose that for a country to develop in astronomy, it should invest in outside expert visits, send its staff abroad to study, and establish a culture of scientific publishing. Furthermore, we propose that this paper may be used as a baseline to measure the success of major international projects, such as the International Year of Astronomy 2009

  20. Family planning in conflict: results of cross-sectional baseline surveys in three African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee-Jones Louise

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the serious consequences of conflict for reproductive health, populations affected by conflict and its aftermath face tremendous barriers to accessing reproductive health services, due to insecurity, inadequate numbers of trained personnel and lack of supplies. Family planning is often particularly neglected. Methods In six conflict-affected areas in Sudan, northern Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo, household surveys of married or in-union women of reproductive age were conducted to determine baseline measures of family planning knowledge, attitudes and behaviors regarding contraception. Health facility assessments were carried out to assess baseline measures of family planning services availability. Data were double-entered into CSPro 3.2 and exported to SAS 9.2, which was used to calculate descriptive statistics. The studies' purposes were to guide program activities and to serve as a baseline against which program accomplishments could be measured. Results Knowledge of modern contraceptive methods was low relative to other sub-Saharan African countries, and use of modern methods was under 4% in four sites; in two sites with prior family planning services it was 12% and 16.2%. From 30% to 40% of women reported they did not want a child within two years, however, and an additional 12% to 35% wanted no additional children, suggesting a clear need for family planning services. The health facilities assessment showed that at most only one-third of the facilities mandated to provide family planning had the necessary staff, equipment and supplies to do so adequately; in some areas, none of the facilities were prepared to offer such services. Conclusions Family planning services are desired by women living in crisis situations when offered in a manner appropriate to their needs, yet services are rarely adequate to meet these needs. Refugee and internally displaced women must be included in national and donors

  1. Family planning in conflict: results of cross-sectional baseline surveys in three African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, Therese; Austin, Judy; Anfinson, Katherine; Amsalu, Ribka; Casey, Sara E; Fadulalmula, Shihab Ibrahim; Langston, Anne; Lee-Jones, Louise; Meyers, Janet; Mubiru, Frederick Kintu; Schlecht, Jennifer; Sharer, Melissa; Yetter, Mary

    2011-07-13

    Despite the serious consequences of conflict for reproductive health, populations affected by conflict and its aftermath face tremendous barriers to accessing reproductive health services, due to insecurity, inadequate numbers of trained personnel and lack of supplies. Family planning is often particularly neglected. In six conflict-affected areas in Sudan, northern Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo, household surveys of married or in-union women of reproductive age were conducted to determine baseline measures of family planning knowledge, attitudes and behaviors regarding contraception. Health facility assessments were carried out to assess baseline measures of family planning services availability. Data were double-entered into CSPro 3.2 and exported to SAS 9.2, which was used to calculate descriptive statistics. The studies' purposes were to guide program activities and to serve as a baseline against which program accomplishments could be measured. Knowledge of modern contraceptive methods was low relative to other sub-Saharan African countries, and use of modern methods was under 4% in four sites; in two sites with prior family planning services it was 12% and 16.2%. From 30% to 40% of women reported they did not want a child within two years, however, and an additional 12% to 35% wanted no additional children, suggesting a clear need for family planning services. The health facilities assessment showed that at most only one-third of the facilities mandated to provide family planning had the necessary staff, equipment and supplies to do so adequately; in some areas, none of the facilities were prepared to offer such services. Family planning services are desired by women living in crisis situations when offered in a manner appropriate to their needs, yet services are rarely adequate to meet these needs. Refugee and internally displaced women must be included in national and donors' plans to improve family planning in Africa.

  2. ATSDR Marines Health Survey

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-08-30

    This podcast gives an overview of the health survey ATSDR is conducting of more than 300,000 people who lived or worked at Camp Lejeune or Camp Pendleton in the 1970s and 1980s.  Created: 8/30/2011 by Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR).   Date Released: 8/30/2011.

  3. Baseline Survey for an Impact Evaluation of the Greenbelt Transformation Initiative in South Sudan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — This data set is derived from a 2013 household baseline survey in the country's Greenbelt region as part of an impact evaluation of the Food, Agribusiness, and Rural...

  4. Drinking-driving patterns at night : baseline roadside survey of the Fairfax Alcohol Safety Action Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    As part of the Fairfax Alcohol Safety Action Project (ASAP), staff members of the Virginia Highway Research Council, acting in their role as evaluators of the project, conducted a baseline survey of the nighttime drinking-driving patterns in Fairfax,...

  5. The protocol and preliminary baseline survey results of the thyroid ultrasound examination in Fukushima [Rapid Communication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shinichi; Yamashita, Shunichi; Fukushima, Toshihiko; Nakano, Keiichi; Midorikawa, Sanae; Ohtsuru, Akira; Yasumura, Seiji; Hosoya, Mitsunori; Kamiya, Kenji; Shimura, Hiroki; Suzuki, Satoru; Nakamura, Izumi; Abe, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    After the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident on March 11, 2011, the public of Japan became particularly concerned about the possibility of an increased risk of childhood thyroid cancer, similar to what was observed after the Chernobyl's accident. Due to serious public health perception, there was an urgency to evaluate the baseline levels of childhood thyroid status in Fukushima prefecture. Therefore we have commenced a thyroid ultrasound examination (TUE) survey of the approximately 360,000 pediatric inhabitants (0 to 18 years of age) who lived in Fukushima at the time of the accident in October 2011. The subjects were divided into three categories according to the standardized diagnostic criteria of ultrasound findings. Category A contained the subjects whose TUE findings were intact or benign. Category B were recommended a confirmatory TUE. Category C was recommended an immediate confirmatory TUE. The survey of 40,302 subjects in the first year was completed in March, 2013. There were 40,097 (99.5%), 205 (0.50%) and 0 subjects in categories A, B and C, respectively. Of the 82 category B subjects who underwent fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), 12 were diagnosed with a malignant tumor or were suspected to have malignancy. The 12 subjects received thyroid surgery and 11 thyroid cancers and one benign nodule were confirmed histologically after surgery. This is the first large-scaled TUE survey to employ sophisticated ultrasound screening and aim to evaluate the baseline frequency of childhood thyroid nodules and cysts. The results will become the golden standard of future comparative TUE in Fukushima, Japan.

  6. Canadian health surveys, 1950 1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, O; Lipskie, T; MacEachern, S

    1997-01-01

    This paper provides a brief history of Canadian health surveys and a review of health or health-related surveys from the first national household survey in 1950/51 to the present time. Surveys have evolved from collecting information on health care utilization, health status and some risk behaviours to a wider range of health determinants following the 1974 Lalonde report. In addition to the occasional cross-sectional surveys, there are periodic surveys, longitudinal surveys, school-based surveys and surveys based on subgroups in the population or specific topic areas. The survey review is presented in the following four tables: Table 1 summarizes national surveys including such information as the date(s) and frequency of data collection, topic areas, target population, sample size and response rate for each survey; Table 2 provides the same information for provincial surveys; both tables point to Table 3, which supplements the previous information with survey sponsors and contacts; Table 4 provides similar information for commercial surveys. This reference, which will be updated periodically, is intended to act as a source of information and support in the development of new surveys.

  7. A baseline study of the health status of the residents in Kalapana, Hawaii, January--June 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, David B.; Arbeit, William, R.

    1988-08-01

    A community health survey was conducted during the first five months of 1987 in Kalapana, Hawaii. Some 676 residents were interviewed during the study, which represents some 82% of all households in the community. The goal was to obtain base-line data on the health status of all community residents and ambient air quality, in order to evaluate any changes in health status of residents after geothermal development in the area.

  8. Differences in health-related quality of life between HIV-positive and HIV-negative people in Zambia and South Africa: a cross-sectional baseline survey of the HPTN 071 (PopART trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Ranjeeta Thomas, PhD

    2017-11-01

    Funding: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institute of Mental Health, President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, International Initiative for Impact Evaluation, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

  9. 75 FR 48992 - Baseline Safety and Health Practices; Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) Approval of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Occupational Safety and Health Administration [Docket No. OSHA-2010-0033] Baseline Safety and Health Practices; Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) Approval of Information Collection (Paperwork) Requirements AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor...

  10. Baseline environmental survey of proposed uranium mining projects of Domiasiat, Meghalaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khathing, D.T.; Myrboh, B.; Nongkynrih, P.; War, S.A.; Marbaniang, D.G.; Iongwai, P.S.

    2005-01-01

    West Khasi Hills District of Meghalaya is identified as having a large and rich deposits of Uranium. However, actual extraction on a commercial scale that may lead to an increase in the socio-economic development of the state in particular and the country in general, is yet to be undertaken. This is due to lack of any baseline environmental survey giving rise to speculative information and causing a fear psychosis in the minds of the locals populace about the negative effects of Uranium mining. A preoperational survey and environmental monitoring of the proposed mining sites and its adjacent areas would establish the baseline status of the natural radioactivity and some chemical constituents in different environmental matrices via. air, water, soil, biota and aquatic ecosystems. The North Eastern Hill University, Shillong, Meghalaya has undertaken the Project funded by DST and BRNS, Department of Atomic Energy, Govt. of India which aims to provide baseline environmental data on ambient air, water and soil quality in and around the proposed Uranium mining site of Domiasiat, West Khasi Hills in the state of Meghalaya. Trace elements (elements like Mg, Zn, Ca, K, Na, Se, As, Fe, Cu, Co, Cr, Ni, Pb, Cd, Mn etc) and the status of the activity in the samples are determined. (author)

  11. The US Department of Energy hydrogen baseline survey: assessing knowledge and opinions about hydrogen technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christy Cooper; Tykey Truett; R L Schmoyer

    2006-01-01

    To design and maintain its education program, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program conducted a statistically-valid national survey to measure knowledge and opinions of hydrogen among key target audiences. The Hydrogen Baseline Knowledge Survey provides a reference for designing the DOE hydrogen education strategy and will be used in comparisons with future surveys to measure changes in knowledge and opinions over time. The survey sampled four U.S. populations: (1) public; (2) students; (3) state and local government officials; and (4) potential large-scale hydrogen end-users in three business categories. Questions measured technical understanding of hydrogen and opinions about hydrogen safety. Other questions assessed visions of the likelihood of future hydrogen applications and sources of energy information. Several important findings were discovered, including a striking lack of technical understanding across all survey groups, as well as a strong correlation between technical knowledge and opinions about safety: those who demonstrated an understanding of hydrogen technologies expressed the least fear of its safe use. (authors)

  12. Determining a pre-mining radiological baseline from historic airborne gamma surveys: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollhöfer, Andreas; Beraldo, Annamarie; Pfitzner, Kirrilly; Esparon, Andrew; Doering, Che

    2014-01-15

    Knowing the baseline level of radioactivity in areas naturally enriched in radionuclides is important in the uranium mining context to assess radiation doses to humans and the environment both during and after mining. This information is particularly useful in rehabilitation planning and developing closure criteria for uranium mines as only radiation doses additional to the natural background are usually considered 'controllable' for radiation protection purposes. In this case study we have tested whether the method of contemporary groundtruthing of a historic airborne gamma survey could be used to determine the pre-mining radiological conditions at the Ranger mine in northern Australia. The airborne gamma survey was flown in 1976 before mining started and groundtruthed using ground gamma dose rate measurements made between 2007 and 2009 at an undisturbed area naturally enriched in uranium (Anomaly 2) located nearby the Ranger mine. Measurements of (226)Ra soil activity concentration and (222)Rn exhalation flux density at Anomaly 2 were made concurrent with the ground gamma dose rate measurements. Algorithms were developed to upscale the ground gamma data to the same spatial resolution as the historic airborne gamma survey data using a geographic information system, allowing comparison of the datasets. Linear correlation models were developed to estimate the pre-mining gamma dose rates, (226)Ra soil activity concentrations, and (222)Rn exhalation flux densities at selected areas in the greater Ranger region. The modelled levels agreed with measurements made at the Ranger Orebodies 1 and 3 before mining started, and at environmental sites in the region. The conclusion is that our approach can be used to determine baseline radiation levels, and provide a benchmark for rehabilitation of uranium mines or industrial sites where historical airborne gamma survey data are available and an undisturbed radiological analogue exists to groundtruth the data. © 2013.

  13. Daylighting practices of the architectural industry (baseline results of a national survey)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattrup, M.P.

    1990-05-01

    A national survey of over 300 commercial design architects was conducted to develop baseline information on their knowledge, perceptions, and use of daylighting in commercial building designs. Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted the survey for the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Building and Community Systems (BCS). In the survey daylighting was defined as the intentional use of natural light as a partial substitute for artificially generated light. The results suggested that architects need to be educated about the true benefits of daylighting and the impacts it can have on a building's energy performance. Educational programs that will increase the architects' understanding and awareness of modern daylighting technologies and practices should be developed by utilities, stage agencies, and the federal government. If more architects can be made aware of the true effectiveness and positive attributes of daylighting systems and technologies, daylighting may be used in more commercial buildings. The results of the survey show that the more familiar architects feel they are with daylighting, the more they use daylighting. 3 refs., 19 tabs.

  14. Challenges and opportunities of a paperless baseline survey in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knipe, Duleeka W; Pearson, Melissa; Borgstrøm, Rasmus; Pieris, Ravi; Weerasinghe, Manjula; Priyadarshana, Chamil; Eddleston, Michael; Gunnell, David; Metcalfe, Chris; Konradsen, Flemming

    2014-07-15

    Personal digital assistants (PDAs) have been shown to reduce costs associated with survey implementation and digitisation, and to improve data quality when compared to traditional paper based data collection. Few studies, however, have shared their experiences of the use of these devices in rural settings in Asia. This paper reports on our experiences of using a PDA device for data collection in Sri Lanka as part of a large cluster randomised control trial. We found that PDAs were useful for collecting data for a baseline survey of a large randomised control trial (54,000 households). We found that the PDA device and survey format was easy to use by inexperienced field staff, even though the survey was programmed in English. The device enabled the rapid digitisation of survey data, providing a good basis for continuous data quality assurance, supervision of staff and survey implementation. An unexpected advantage was the improved community opinion of the research project as a result of the device, because the use of the technology gave data collectors an elevated status amongst the community. In addition the global positioning system (GPS) functionality of the device allowed precise mapping of households, and hence distinct settlements to be identified as randomisation clusters. Future users should be mindful that to save costs the piloting should be completed before programming. In addition consideration of a local after-care service is important to avoid costs and time delays associated with sending devices back to overseas providers. Since the start of this study, PDA devices have rapidly developed and are increasingly used. The use of PDA or similar devices for research is not without its problems; however we believe that the universal lessons learnt as part of this study are even more important for the effective utilisation of these rapidly developing technologies in resource poor settings.

  15. Health-related baseline Millennium Development Goals indicators ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Malawi Social Action Fund (MASAF) is implementing a 12 year programme to close service gaps in rural communities. These service gaps are primarily those in health, education, household food security, water and sanitation, transport and communications. The impact indicators of the Project are selected Millennium ...

  16. Determining a pre-mining radiological baseline from historic airborne gamma surveys: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollhöfer, Andreas; Beraldo, Annamarie; Pfitzner, Kirrilly; Esparon, Andrew; Doering, Che

    2014-01-01

    Knowing the baseline level of radioactivity in areas naturally enriched in radionuclides is important in the uranium mining context to assess radiation doses to humans and the environment both during and after mining. This information is particularly useful in rehabilitation planning and developing closure criteria for uranium mines as only radiation doses additional to the natural background are usually considered ‘controllable’ for radiation protection purposes. In this case study we have tested whether the method of contemporary groundtruthing of a historic airborne gamma survey could be used to determine the pre-mining radiological conditions at the Ranger mine in northern Australia. The airborne gamma survey was flown in 1976 before mining started and groundtruthed using ground gamma dose rate measurements made between 2007 and 2009 at an undisturbed area naturally enriched in uranium (Anomaly 2) located nearby the Ranger mine. Measurements of 226 Ra soil activity concentration and 222 Rn exhalation flux density at Anomaly 2 were made concurrent with the ground gamma dose rate measurements. Algorithms were developed to upscale the ground gamma data to the same spatial resolution as the historic airborne gamma survey data using a geographic information system, allowing comparison of the datasets. Linear correlation models were developed to estimate the pre-mining gamma dose rates, 226 Ra soil activity concentrations, and 222 Rn exhalation flux densities at selected areas in the greater Ranger region. The modelled levels agreed with measurements made at the Ranger Orebodies 1 and 3 before mining started, and at environmental sites in the region. The conclusion is that our approach can be used to determine baseline radiation levels, and provide a benchmark for rehabilitation of uranium mines or industrial sites where historical airborne gamma survey data are available and an undisturbed radiological analogue exists to groundtruth the data. - Highlights:

  17. The radiologic technologists' health study in South Korea. Study design and baseline results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Jin [Korea Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Preventive Medicine; Ha, Mina [Dankook Univ. College of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Preventive Medicine; Hwang, Seung-sik [Inha Univ. School of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Social and Preventive Medicine; and others

    2015-08-15

    To describe the study design, methods, and baseline results of a prospective cohort of radiologic technologists which we have initiated in South Korea. The cohort participants were enrolled through a self-administered questionnaire survey administered from April 2012 to May 2013. Survey data were linked with radiation dosimetry, a cancer registry, and health insurance data by personal identification numbers. A nationwide representative survey was also conducted using a stratified random sampling design with face-to-face interviews. A total of 12,387 radiologic technologists were enrolled, which accounted for approximately 63 % of all diagnostic radiologic technologists working in South Korea. For nationwide survey, 585 workers were interviewed using the detailed questionnaire, and buccal cells were also collected by scraping the inside of the cheek. The majority of study subjects were under 50-year-old and male workers. The average annual effective dose of radiation declined both men (from 2.75 to 1.43 mSv) and women (from 1.34 to 0.95 mSv) over the period of 1996-2011. A total of 99 cancers (66 cancers in men and 33 in women) were reported from 1992 to 2010. The standardized incidence ratio of all cancer combined was significantly lower in men (SIR = 0.75, 95 % CI 0.58-0.96) than general population, but the ratios for thyroid cancer were significantly higher than expected among both men and women. This cohort provides comprehensive information on work activities and health status of diagnostic radiologic technologists. In addition, the nationwide representative sample provides unique opportunities compared with previous radiologic technologist studies.

  18. The radiologic technologists' health study in South Korea: study design and baseline results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won Jin; Ha, Mina; Hwang, Seung-sik; Lee, Kyoung-Mu; Jin, Young-Woo; Jeong, Meeseon; Jun, Jae Kwan; Cha, Eun Shil; Ko, Yousun; Choi, Kyung-Hwa; Lee, Jung-Eun

    2015-08-01

    To describe the study design, methods, and baseline results of a prospective cohort of radiologic technologists which we have initiated in South Korea. The cohort participants were enrolled through a self-administered questionnaire survey administered from April 2012 to May 2013. Survey data were linked with radiation dosimetry, a cancer registry, and health insurance data by personal identification numbers. A nationwide representative survey was also conducted using a stratified random sampling design with face-to-face interviews. A total of 12,387 radiologic technologists were enrolled, which accounted for approximately 63% of all diagnostic radiologic technologists working in South Korea. For nationwide survey, 585 workers were interviewed using the detailed questionnaire, and buccal cells were also collected by scraping the inside of the cheek. The majority of study subjects were under 50-year-old and male workers. The average annual effective dose of radiation declined both men (from 2.75 to 1.43 mSv) and women (from 1.34 to 0.95 mSv) over the period of 1996-2011. A total of 99 cancers (66 cancers in men and 33 in women) were reported from 1992 to 2010. The standardized incidence ratio of all cancer combined was significantly lower in men (SIR = 0.75, 95% CI 0.58-0.96) than general population, but the ratios for thyroid cancer were significantly higher than expected among both men and women. This cohort provides comprehensive information on work activities and health status of diagnostic radiologic technologists. In addition, the nationwide representative sample provides unique opportunities compared with previous radiologic technologist studies.

  19. The radiologic technologists' health study in South Korea. Study design and baseline results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Won Jin; Ha, Mina; Hwang, Seung-sik

    2015-01-01

    To describe the study design, methods, and baseline results of a prospective cohort of radiologic technologists which we have initiated in South Korea. The cohort participants were enrolled through a self-administered questionnaire survey administered from April 2012 to May 2013. Survey data were linked with radiation dosimetry, a cancer registry, and health insurance data by personal identification numbers. A nationwide representative survey was also conducted using a stratified random sampling design with face-to-face interviews. A total of 12,387 radiologic technologists were enrolled, which accounted for approximately 63 % of all diagnostic radiologic technologists working in South Korea. For nationwide survey, 585 workers were interviewed using the detailed questionnaire, and buccal cells were also collected by scraping the inside of the cheek. The majority of study subjects were under 50-year-old and male workers. The average annual effective dose of radiation declined both men (from 2.75 to 1.43 mSv) and women (from 1.34 to 0.95 mSv) over the period of 1996-2011. A total of 99 cancers (66 cancers in men and 33 in women) were reported from 1992 to 2010. The standardized incidence ratio of all cancer combined was significantly lower in men (SIR = 0.75, 95 % CI 0.58-0.96) than general population, but the ratios for thyroid cancer were significantly higher than expected among both men and women. This cohort provides comprehensive information on work activities and health status of diagnostic radiologic technologists. In addition, the nationwide representative sample provides unique opportunities compared with previous radiologic technologist studies.

  20. China Kadoorie Biobank of 0.5 million people: survey methods, baseline characteristics and long-term follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhengming; Chen, Junshi; Collins, Rory; Guo, Yu; Peto, Richard; Wu, Fan; Li, Liming

    2011-12-01

    Large blood-based prospective studies can provide reliable assessment of the complex interplay of lifestyle, environmental and genetic factors as determinants of chronic disease. The baseline survey of the China Kadoorie Biobank took place during 2004-08 in 10 geographically defined regions, with collection of questionnaire data, physical measurements and blood samples. Subsequently, a re-survey of 25,000 randomly selected participants was done (80% responded) using the same methods as in the baseline. All participants are being followed for cause-specific mortality and morbidity, and for any hospital admission through linkages with registries and health insurance (HI) databases. Overall, 512,891 adults aged 30-79 years were recruited, including 41% men, 56% from rural areas and mean age was 52 years. The prevalence of ever-regular smoking was 74% in men and 3% in women. The mean blood pressure was 132/79 mmHg in men and 130/77 mmHg in women. The mean body mass index (BMI) was 23.4 kg/m(2) in men and 23.8 kg/m(2) in women, with only 4% being obese (>30 kg/m(2)), and 3.2% being diabetic. Blood collection was successful in 99.98% and the mean delay from sample collection to processing was 10.6 h. For each of the main baseline variables, there is good reproducibility but large heterogeneity by age, sex and study area. By 1 January 2011, over 10,000 deaths had been recorded, with 91% of surviving participants already linked to HI databases. This established large biobank will be a rich and powerful resource for investigating genetic and non-genetic causes of many common chronic diseases in the Chinese population.

  1. Vector bionomics and malaria transmission along the Thailand-Myanmar border: a baseline entomological survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwansomboon, N; Chaumeau, V; Kittiphanakun, P; Cerqueira, D; Corbel, V; Chareonviriyaphap, T

    2017-06-01

    Baseline entomological surveys were conducted in four sentinel sites along the Thailand-Myanmar border to address vector bionomics and malaria transmission in the context of a study on malaria elimination. Adult Anopheles mosquitoes were collected using human-landing catch and cow-bait collection in four villages during the rainy season from May-June, 2013. Mosquitoes were identified to species level by morphological characters and by AS-PCR. Sporozoite indexes were determined on head/thoraces of primary and secondary malaria vectors using real-time PCR. A total of 4,301 anopheles belonging to 12 anopheline taxa were identified. Anopheles minimus represented >98% of the Minimus Complex members (n=1,683), whereas the An. maculatus group was composed of two dominant species, An. sawadwongporni and An. maculatus. Overall, 25 Plasmodium-positive mosquitoes (of 2,323) were found, representing a sporozoite index of 1.1% [95%CI 0.66-1.50]. The transmission intensity as measured by the EIR strongly varied according to the village (ANOVA, F=17.67, df=3, PThailand-Myanmar border that represent a formidable challenge for malaria control and elimination. © 2017 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  2. The systemic lupus erythematosus travel burden survey: baseline data among a South Carolina cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Edith M; Ortiz, Kasim; Zhang, Jiajia; Zhou, Jie; Kamen, Diane

    2016-04-29

    Many studies on the impact of systemic lupus erythematosus or lupus have identified patient travel costs as being problematic. We administered a survey that examined the impact of self-rated travel burden on lupus patients. The systemic lupus erythematosus travel burden survey included 41 patients enrolled in the systemic lupus erythematosus database project at the Medical University of South Carolina. Most participants reported that travel caused medications to be discontinued or appointments to be missed. In unadjusted logistic regressions of the relationship between these outcomes and medical travel burden, both distance to rheumatologists and time to lupus medical care were significant. Our findings suggest that more research is needed to examine the influence of travel burden among this population, but data from this report could help to inform physicians, academic researchers, and other health professionals in South Carolina and other areas with significant rural populations on how travel burden may impact patients receiving care for lupus and provide an opportunity for the development of interventions aimed at assisting lupus patients with management of stressors related to travel burden.

  3. National health surveys and health policy: impact of the Jamaica Health and Lifestyle Surveys and the Reproductive Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, T S; Tulloch-Reid, M K; Gordon-Strachan, G; Hamilton, P; Wilks, R J

    2012-07-01

    Over the last six decades, comprehensive national health surveys have become important data-gathering mechanisms to inform countries on their health status and provide information for health policy and programme planning. Developing countries have only recently begun such surveys and Jamaica has been at the forefront of this effort. Jamaica's Reproductive Health Surveys and programme response to their findings have resulted in an almost 50% reduction infertility rates over three decades as well as a 40% reduction in unmet contraceptive needs and a 40% reduction in unplanned pregnancies over the last two decades. The Jamaica Health and Lifestyle Surveys have served to reinforce the major burden that non-communicable diseases place on the society and the extent to which these are driven by unhealthy lifestyles. These surveys have shown that obesity, hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidaemia affect approximately 50%, 25%, 10% and 10% of the adult population, respectively. These surveys have documented low rates of treatment and control for these chronic non-communicable diseases despite two major policy initiatives, the National Programme for the Promotion of Healthy Lifestyles and the creation of the National Health Fund which subsidizes healthcare provision for chronic diseases. In order to maximize the uptake of the findings of future surveys into effective health policy, there will need to be effective collaborations between academia, policy-makers, regional and international health agencies, non-government organizations and civil society. Such collaborations should take into account the social, political and economic issues, thus ensuring a more comprehensive approach to health policy and result in improvement of the nation's health status and by extension national development.

  4. Baseline health conditions in selected communities of northern Sierra Leone as revealed by the health impact assessment of a biofuel project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Mirko S; Knoblauch, Astrid M; Righetti, Aurélie A; Divall, Mark J; Koroma, Manso M; Fofanah, Ibrahim; Turay, Hamid; Hodges, Mary H; Utzinger, Jürg

    2014-09-01

    As biofuel projects may be associated with positive and negative effects on people's health and wellbeing, a health impact assessment was performed for the Addax Bioenergy Sierra Leone (ABSL) project. We present data from the baseline health survey, which will provide a point of departure for future monitoring and evaluation activities. In December 2010, a cross-sectional survey was carried out in eight potentially affected communities. A broad set of clinical and parasitological indicators were assessed using standardised, quality-controlled procedures, including anthropometry and prevalence of anaemia, Plasmodium falciparum and helminth infections. Complete datasets were obtained from 1221 individuals of 194 households and eight schools. Of children aged biofuel project impacts on community health in a rural setting in sub-Saharan Africa. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Aquifers survey in the context of source rocks exploitation: from baseline acquisition to long term monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Bruno; Rouchon, Virgile; Deflandre, Jean-Pierre

    2017-04-01

    Producing hydrocarbons from source rocks (like shales: a mix of clays, silts, carbonate and sandstone minerals containing matured organic matter, i.e. kerogen oil and gas, but also non-hydrocarbon various species of chemical elements including sometimes radioactive elements) requires to create permeability within the rock matrix by at least hydraulically fracturing the source rock. It corresponds to the production of hydrocarbon fuels that have not been naturally expelled from the pressurized matured source rock and that remain trapped in the porosity or/and kerogen porosity of the impermeable matrix. Azimuth and extent of developed fractures can be respectively determined and mapped by monitoring the associated induced microseismicity. This allows to have an idea of where and how far injected fluids penetrated the rock formation. In a geological context, aquifers are always present in the vicinity -or on fluid migration paths- of such shale formations: deep aquifers (near the shale formation) up to sub-surface and potable (surface) aquifers. Our purpose will be to track any unsuitable invasion or migration of chemicals specifies coming from matured shales of production fluids including both drilling and fracturing ones into aquifers. Our objective is to early detect and alarm of any anomaly to avoid any important environmental issue. The approach consists in deploying a specific sampling tool within a well to recover formation fluids and to run a panoply of appropriate laboratory tests to state on fluid characteristics. Of course for deep aquifers, such a characterization process may consider aquifer properties prior producing shale oil and gas, as they may contain naturally some chemical species present in the source rocks. One can also consider that a baseline acquisition could be justified in case of possible previous invasion of non-natural fluids in the formation under survey (due to any anthropogenic action at surface or in the underground). The paper aims

  6. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2000 forward. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a program of studies designed to assess the health and nutritional status of...

  7. Lymphatic filariasis mapping by Immunochromatographic Test cards and baseline microfilaria survey prior to mass drug administration in Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koroma Joseph B

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background National mapping of lymphatic filariasis (LF was conducted using Immunochromatographic tests (ICT in 2005 to determine endemicity and geographic spread of the disease. A baseline microfilaria survey was then conducted to determine LF prevalence and microfilaria intensity. Methods In 2005 1,982 persons of 15 years and over from 14 health districts were selected and fingertip blood samples were tested with ICT cards. In 2007-8 blood samples were taken between 10 p.m. and 2 a.m. and examined for microfilaria (mf from 9,288 persons from 16 sentinel sites representing each district and 2 additional sites for districts with populations over 500,000 (Bo and Kenema. Results The overall LF prevalence by ICT cards was 21% (males 28%, females 15%. All districts had a prevalence of Wuchereria bancrofti antigen > 1%. Distribution of LF prevalence showed a strong spatial correlation pattern with high prevalence in a large area in the northeast gradually decreasing to a relatively low prevalence in the southwest coast. High prevalence was found in the northeast, Bombali (52%, Koinadugu (46%, Tonkolili (37% and Kono (30%. Low prevalence was found in the southwest, Bonthe (3% and Pujehun (4%. The mf prevalence was higher in the northeast: Bombali, 6.7%, Koinadugu 5.7%, Port Loko 4.4% and Kono 2.4%. Overall there was a significant difference in mf prevalence by gender: males 2.9%, females 1.8% (p = 0.0002 and within districts in Kailahun, Kono, Port Loko, Moyamba and Koinadugu (all p 20 years (2.5% than in people ≤ 20 years (1.7% (p = 0.043. The overall arithmetic mean mf density was 50.30 mf/ml among mf-positive individuals and 1.19 mf/ml in the population examined which varied significantly between districts. Conclusions The ICT results showed that LF was endemic nationwide and that preventive chemotherapy (PCT was justified across the country. Both the ICT and microfilaraemia surveys found that prevalence was greater in males than females

  8. Setting the Baseline: The National Literacy Trust's First Annual Survey into Young People's Reading--2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Christina

    2011-01-01

    18,141 young people aged 8 to 17 participated in this online survey in November/December 2010. While the survey focuses on young people's attitudes towards reading, writing, communication skills as well as technology use, this report focuses exclusively on the reading aspect of the survey. More specifically, it explores how much young people enjoy…

  9. Challenges and opportunities of a paperless baseline survey in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knipe, Duleeka W; Pearson, Melissa; Borgstrøm, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    ,000 households). We found that the PDA device and survey format was easy to use by inexperienced field staff, even though the survey was programmed in English. The device enabled the rapid digitisation of survey data, providing a good basis for continuous data quality assurance, supervision of staff and survey...... delays associated with sending devices back to overseas providers. DISCUSSION: Since the start of this study, PDA devices have rapidly developed and are increasingly used. The use of PDA or similar devices for research is not without its problems; however we believe that the universal lessons learnt......BACKGROUND: Personal digital assistants (PDAs) have been shown to reduce costs associated with survey implementation and digitisation, and to improve data quality when compared to traditional paper based data collection. Few studies, however, have shared their experiences of the use...

  10. Analysis of the baseline survey on the prevalence of Salmonella in holdings with breeding pigs in the EU, 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bole-Hribovšek, Vojislava; Chriél, Mariann; Davies, Robert

    Salmonella is a major cause of food-borne illness in humans. Farm animals and foods of animal origin are important sources of human Salmonella infections. This European Union-wide Salmonella baseline survey was conducted in 2008 in holdings with breeding pigs. A total of 1,609 holdings housing...... a Salmonella reduction target for breeding pigs and for assessing the impact of Salmonella transmission originating from holdings with breeding pigs © European Food Safety Authority, 2009...

  11. OER use in the Global South: A baseline survey of higher education instructors

    OpenAIRE

    de Oliveira Neto, José Dutra; Pete, Judith; Daryono; Cartmill, Tess

    2017-01-01

    The research presented here provides baseline data regarding the use of Open Educational Resources (OER) by higher education instructors in the Global South (South America, Sub-Saharan Africa, and South and Southeast Asia). It does so while attending to how such activity (or inactivity) is differentiated across continental regions and associated countries. The chapter addresses two questions: what proportion of instructors in the Global South have used OER, and which variables may account for...

  12. Perceptions and practices of pharmaceutical wholesalers surrounding counterfeit medicines in a developing country: a baseline survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Mohiuddin H

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent investigations by the Ministry of Health of Cambodia suggest that counterfeit medicines have been introduced into the pharmaceutical market in tampered packaging. To further explore this possibility, an interview survey was conducted at the wholesaler level to investigate the medicinal supply chain in Cambodia. Methods Managing executives of 62 (83.8% registered wholesalers of modern medicines in Cambodia were interviewed in 2009 on their knowledge of, perception on, and practices related to counterfeiting issues through a semi-structured questionnaire. Results According to our findings, 12.9% of the wholesalers had encountered counterfeit medicine. However, they demonstrated a variety of perceptions regarding this issue. A majority (59.7% defined counterfeit medicines as medicines without registration, while other definitions included medicines that were fraudulently manufactured, medicines without a batch/lot number, those containing harmful ingredients or a reduced amount of active ingredients, and expired medicines. Additionally, 8.1% responded that they did not know what counterfeit medicines were. During procurement, 66.1% of the wholesalers consider whether the product is registered in Cambodia, while 64.5% consider the credibility and quality of the products and 61.3% consider the reputation of the manufacturers. When receiving a consignment, 80.6% of wholesalers check the intactness of medicines, 72.6% check the specification and amount of medicines, 71% check Cambodian registration, 56.5% check that the packaging is intact, 54.8% check batch and lot numbers, 48.4% check the dates of manufacture and expiration, and 9.7% check analytical certificates. Out of 62 wholesalers, 14.5% had received medicines that arrived without packages or were separated from their packaging and had to be repacked before distribution. Significant statistical association was found between wholesalers who received medicines separately

  13. Perceptions and practices of pharmaceutical wholesalers surrounding counterfeit medicines in a developing country: a baseline survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohiuddin H; Akazawa, Manabu; Dararath, Eav; Kiet, Heng B; Sovannarith, Tey; Nivanna, Nam; Yoshida, Naoko; Kimura, Kazuko

    2011-11-11

    Recent investigations by the Ministry of Health of Cambodia suggest that counterfeit medicines have been introduced into the pharmaceutical market in tampered packaging. To further explore this possibility, an interview survey was conducted at the wholesaler level to investigate the medicinal supply chain in Cambodia. Managing executives of 62 (83.8%) registered wholesalers of modern medicines in Cambodia were interviewed in 2009 on their knowledge of, perception on, and practices related to counterfeiting issues through a semi-structured questionnaire. According to our findings, 12.9% of the wholesalers had encountered counterfeit medicine. However, they demonstrated a variety of perceptions regarding this issue. A majority (59.7%) defined counterfeit medicines as medicines without registration, while other definitions included medicines that were fraudulently manufactured, medicines without a batch/lot number, those containing harmful ingredients or a reduced amount of active ingredients, and expired medicines. Additionally, 8.1% responded that they did not know what counterfeit medicines were.During procurement, 66.1% of the wholesalers consider whether the product is registered in Cambodia, while 64.5% consider the credibility and quality of the products and 61.3% consider the reputation of the manufacturers. When receiving a consignment, 80.6% of wholesalers check the intactness of medicines, 72.6% check the specification and amount of medicines, 71% check Cambodian registration, 56.5% check that the packaging is intact, 54.8% check batch and lot numbers, 48.4% check the dates of manufacture and expiration, and 9.7% check analytical certificates.Out of 62 wholesalers, 14.5% had received medicines that arrived without packages or were separated from their packaging and had to be repacked before distribution. Significant statistical association was found between wholesalers who received medicines separately from their packs/containers and who consider their

  14. Identifiable Data Files - Health Outcomes Survey (HOS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medicare Health Outcomes Survey (HOS) identifiable data files are comprised of the entire national sample for a given 2-year cohort (including both respondents...

  15. Health Outcomes Survey - Limited Data Set

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medicare Health Outcomes Survey (HOS) limited data sets (LDS) are comprised of the entire national sample for a given 2-year cohort (including both respondents...

  16. Colorado School Health Education Survey 1992. Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utah Univ., Salt Lake City. Health Education Dept.

    This report summarizes and interprets the results of the 1992 Colorado School Health Education Survey, which targets public secondary schools with grades 7 through 12. Results provide a basic sketch of the extent of HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) prevention and health education being implemented in Colorado's secondary schools. The survey,…

  17. Fukushima Health Management Survey and Related Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasumura, Seiji; Abe, Masafumi

    2017-03-01

    After the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, the Tokyo Electric Power Company Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident occurred. The Fukushima prefectural government decided to launch the Fukushima Health Management Survey; Fukushima Medical University was entrusted to design and implement the survey. The survey process and development is described from the standpoint of its background and aim. An overview of the basic survey and 4 detailed surveys is briefly provided. Issues related to the survey are discussed from the perspective of supporting the Fukushima residents.

  18. Micronuclei and erythrocytic abnormalities frequencies of freshwater fishes: Establishing a baseline for health status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Debora Batista Pinheiro; Torres, Audalio Rebelo; Oliveira, Suelen Rosana Sampaio; Castro, Jonatas da Silva; Neta, Raimunda Nonata Fortes Carvalho

    2017-11-01

    Majority papers shows that micronucleus test and erythrocyte abnormalities are excellent tools such as tools for monitor fish health and the level of impact in aquatic ecosystems. Nevertheless, still do not know the baseline for those changes in freshwater fishes communities in the Brazilian Northeastern river. In this study, we show the level of basis of two species of freshwater fishes (Colossoma macropomum -tambaqui and Oreochromis niloticus - tilápia) with the aim of establish levels of background these species. The animals were collected from Ambude river in the protected area and blood collected from all fish for analysis. Erythrocyte indices—mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC)—were calculated. Blood samples from all fish were examined for micronuclear changes after Giemsa staining. Micronuclei were found in fish from from Ambude River. The baseline values determined for tambaqui was (micronuclei= 0.0071±0.0026; MCV=0.0073±0.0037; MCHV=0.0071±0.0024) and tilapia (micronuclei= 0.0061±0.0026; MCV=0.0037±0.0017; MCHV=0.056±0.0036). We belive that, we propose using the genotoxic approach for estimating fish health status as the technique allows examination in locus of live fish without the need for animal euthanasia. Besides, baseline level can be to establish levels of background and patterns to pathological and physiological research of these species in future biomonitoring programs.

  19. Environmental Baseline Survey, Fitzsimmons Army Medical Center, Aurora, Colorado. Volume II - Appendices A-G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Department of Health ( CDH ) (currently Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment [CDPHE]). 1991. UST Owner/Operator Guidance Documents for...CENTER Building Name: Child Adolescent Psychiatric Service Building No: 620 Date: 11/13/95 Name of Interviewee: Lisa Allen, X-8091 Job Title

  20. Human health risk comparisons for environmental management baseline program and integration opportunities (discussion draft)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eide, S.A.; Jones, J.L.; Wierman, T.E.

    1998-02-01

    This report documents the process and results of human health risk assessments of the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex-wide programs for high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, mixed low-level waste, and spent nuclear fuel. The DOE baseline programs and alternatives for these five material types were characterized by disposition maps (system flow diagrams) and supporting information in the May 1997 report A Contractor Report to the Department of Energy on Environmental Baseline Programs and Integration Opportunities (Discussion Draft). Risk analyses were performed using the Simplified Risk Model (SRM), developed to support DOE Environmental Management (EM) integration studies. The SRM risk analyses consistently and comprehensively cover the entire programs for the five material types, from initial storage through final disposition. Risk results are presented at several levels: DOE complex-wide, material type program, individual DOE sites, and DOE site activities.

  1. COMMUNITY DENTAL HEALTH SURVEY TRAINING TO DENTAL HEALTH PERSONNEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Fikawati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dentist and dental nurse as dental health personnel in community health center are spearheads in community dental health service. The effectiveness and efficacy of community dental health service needs updated adequate dental health knowledge and skill. One effort to assure the fulfillment of those needs is by providing community dental health survey training. This training aims at improving the skill and capability of dental health personnel to conduct dental health survey. The training consisted of materials on community dental health survey, principles of survey implementation, and field survey activity as an integral part of the training. Survey was conducted among third grade students of Madrasah Ibtidaiyah (MI in Tangerang city. Targeting and sampling part of the survey was implemented by city health office. There were 224 students, 182 parents, and 16 teachers who were successfully examined and/or interviewed. The survey showed that the participant’s knowledge was significantly (p<0.05 improved. The survey also showed that only 34% of the students had good oral hygiene score. There were 46.9% of students who suffered M1 caries and 47.3% had caries on their permanent teeth. Parents’ knowledge and attitude regarding child dental health was quite good and teachers had implemented students dental care effort. In conclusion, the survey-training model was proved to be useful to refresh the community dental health science while simultaneously obtained important data through survey. This model had never been conducted before and new breakthrough in the community dental health science refreshing activity targeted to local dental health personnel.

  2. Baseline seismic survey for the 2nd offshore methane hydrate production test in the Eastern Nankai Trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teranishi, Y.; Inamori, T.; Kobayashi, T.; Fujii, T.; Saeki, T.; Takahashi, H.; Kobayashi, F.

    2017-12-01

    JOGMEC carries out seismic monitoring surveys before and after the 2nd offshore methane hydrate (MH) production test in the Eastern Nankai Trough and evaluates MH dissociation behavior from the time-lapse seismic response. In 2016, JOGMEC deployed Ocean Bottom Cable (OBC) system provided by OCC in the Daini Atsumi Knoll with water depths of 900-1100 m. The main challenge of the seismic survey was to optimize the cable layout for ensuring an effective time-lapse seismic detectability while overcoming the following two issues: 1. OBC receiver lines were limited to only two lines. It was predicted that the imaging of shallow reflectors would suffer from lack of continuity and resolution due to this limitation of receiver lines. 2. The seafloor and shallow sedimentary layers including monitoring target are dipping to the Northwest direction. It was predicted that the refection points would laterally shift to up-dip direction (Southeast direction). In order to understand the impact of the issues above, the seismic survey was designed with elastic wave field simulation. The reflection seismic survey for baseline data was conducted in August 2016. A total of 70 receiver stations distributed along one cable were deployed successfully and a total of 9952 shots were fired. After the baseline seismic survey, the hydrophone and geophone vertical component datasets were processed as outlined below: designaturing, denoising, surface consistent deconvolution and surface consistent amplitude correction. High-frequency imaging with Reverse Time Migration (RTM) was introduced to these data sets. Improvements in imaging from the RTM are remarkable compared to the Kirchhoff migration and the existing Pre-stack time migration with 3D marine surface seismic data obtained and processed in 2002, especially in the following parts. The MH concentrated zone which has complex structures. Below the Bottom Simulating Reflector (BSR) which is present as a impedance-contrast boundary

  3. Public Health Adaptation to Climate Change in Large Cities: A Global Baseline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araos, Malcolm; Austin, Stephanie E; Berrang-Ford, Lea; Ford, James D

    2016-01-01

    Climate change will have significant impacts on human health, and urban populations are expected to be highly sensitive. The health risks from climate change in cities are compounded by rapid urbanization, high population density, and climate-sensitive built environments. Local governments are positioned to protect populations from climate health risks, but it is unclear whether municipalities are producing climate-adaptive policies. In this article, we develop and apply systematic methods to assess the state of public health adaptation in 401 urban areas globally with more than 1 million people, creating the first global baseline for urban public health adaptation. We find that only 10% of the sampled urban areas report any public health adaptation initiatives. The initiatives identified most frequently address risks posed by extreme weather events and involve direct changes in management or behavior rather than capacity building, research, or long-term investments in infrastructure. Based on our characterization of the current urban health adaptation landscape, we identify several gaps: limited evidence of reporting of institutional adaptation at the municipal level in urban areas in the Global South; lack of information-based adaptation initiatives; limited focus on initiatives addressing infectious disease risks; and absence of monitoring, reporting, and evaluation. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. The Agincourt demographic and health study--site description, baseline findings and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollman, S M; Herbst, K; Garenne, M; Gear, J S; Kahn, K

    1999-08-01

    To present baseline results from first-phase demographic and health surveillance in the Agincourt field site, Bushbuckridge. To contrast findings with international data, and comment on their relevance to health development. Multi-round, prospective community-based study. Baseline census, 1992. A subdistrict in South Africa's rural north-east, adjacent to the border with Mozambique. Entire population of the Agincourt subdistrict. Baseline variables for each resident included age, sex, months spent at home during 1991, mother alive/dead, highest educational standard achieved, and refugee status. A full demographic profile was constructed. In 1992 the subdistrict contained 57,609 persons, 26.4% of whom were Mozambican, with a population density of 148 persons per km2. Forty-four per cent were under 15 years of age, and the dependency ratio was 93%. Fertility was declining, along with a moderate decline in adult female mortality. The approximate total fertility rate was 4.0; teenage parenting was common and almost 40% of 19-year-olds had at least one child. Over 60% of men and 14% of women in the 30-49-year age group were migrants, resulting in a high proportion of single-parent households. Despite improvements, most children experienced delays in reaching primary school, and less than half made the transition to secondary school. Educational levels among Mozambican children were lower than those of local children. Agincourt contains a complex mix of communities comprising migrant workers, Mozambicans and a more stable permanent population. The area shares features with sub-Saharan Africa, although the mortality and fertility transitions have progressed further. Reliable, local information is essential for managing decentralised health systems.

  5. Assessing predictors of contraceptive use and demand for family planning services in underserved areas of Punjab province in Pakistan: results of a cross-sectional baseline survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmat, Syed Khurram; Ali, Moazzam; Ishaque, Muhammad; Mustafa, Ghulam; Hameed, Waqas; Khan, Omar Farooq; Abbas, Ghazunfer; Temmerman, Marleen; Munroe, Erik

    2015-03-28

    Although Pakistan was one of the first countries in Asia to launch national family planning programs, current modern contraceptive use stands at only 26% with a method mix skewed toward short-acting and permanent methods. As part of a multiyear operational research study, a baseline survey was conducted to understand the predictors of contraceptive use and demand for family planning services in underserved areas of Punjab province in Pakistan. This paper presents the baseline survey results; the outcomes of the intervention will be presented in a separate paper after the study has been completed. A cross-sectional baseline household survey was conducted with randomly selected 3,998 married women of reproductive age (MWRA) in the Chakwal, Mianwali, and Bhakkar districts of Punjab. The data were analyzed on SPSS 17.0 using simple descriptive and logistic regression. Most of the women had low socio-economic status and were younger than 30 years of age. Four-fifths of the women consulted private sector health facilities for reproductive health services; proximity, availability of services, and good reputation of the provider were the main predicators for choosing the facilities. Husbands were reported as the key decision maker regarding health-seeking and family planning uptake. Overall, the current contraceptive use ranged from 17% to 21% across the districts: condoms and female sterilization were widely used methods. Woman's age, husband's education, wealth quintiles, spousal communication, location of last delivery, and favorable attitude toward contraception have an association with current contraceptive use. Unmet need for contraception was 40.6%, 36.6%, and 31.9% in Chakwal, Mianwali, and Bhakkar, respectively. Notably, more than one fifth of the women across the districts expressed willingness to use quality, affordable long-term family planning services in the future. The baseline results highlight the need for quality, affordable long-term family planning

  6. Carbon and nitrogen isotopic survey of northern peruvian plants: baselines for paleodietary and paleoecological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpak, Paul; White, Christine D; Longstaffe, Fred J; Millaire, Jean-François; Vásquez Sánchez, Víctor F

    2013-01-01

    The development of isotopic baselines for comparison with paleodietary data is crucial, but often overlooked. We review the factors affecting the carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) isotopic compositions of plants, with a special focus on the carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions of twelve different species of cultivated plants (n = 91) and 139 wild plant species collected in northern Peru. The cultivated plants were collected from nineteen local markets. The mean δ(13)C value for maize (grain) was -11.8±0.4 ‰ (n = 27). Leguminous cultigens (beans, Andean lupin) were characterized by significantly lower δ(15)N values and significantly higher %N than non-leguminous cultigens. Wild plants from thirteen sites were collected in the Moche River Valley area between sea level and ∼4,000 meters above sea level (masl). These sites were associated with mean annual precipitation ranging from 0 to 710 mm. Plants growing at low altitude sites receiving low amounts of precipitation were characterized by higher δ(15)N values than plants growing at higher altitudes and receiving higher amounts of precipitation, although this trend dissipated when altitude was >2,000 masl and MAP was >400 mm. For C(3) plants, foliar δ(13)C was positively correlated with altitude and precipitation. This suggests that the influence of altitude may overshadow the influence of water availability on foliar δ(13)C values at this scale.

  7. Carbon and nitrogen isotopic survey of northern peruvian plants: baselines for paleodietary and paleoecological studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Szpak

    Full Text Available The development of isotopic baselines for comparison with paleodietary data is crucial, but often overlooked. We review the factors affecting the carbon (δ(13C and nitrogen (δ(15N isotopic compositions of plants, with a special focus on the carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions of twelve different species of cultivated plants (n = 91 and 139 wild plant species collected in northern Peru. The cultivated plants were collected from nineteen local markets. The mean δ(13C value for maize (grain was -11.8±0.4 ‰ (n = 27. Leguminous cultigens (beans, Andean lupin were characterized by significantly lower δ(15N values and significantly higher %N than non-leguminous cultigens. Wild plants from thirteen sites were collected in the Moche River Valley area between sea level and ∼4,000 meters above sea level (masl. These sites were associated with mean annual precipitation ranging from 0 to 710 mm. Plants growing at low altitude sites receiving low amounts of precipitation were characterized by higher δ(15N values than plants growing at higher altitudes and receiving higher amounts of precipitation, although this trend dissipated when altitude was >2,000 masl and MAP was >400 mm. For C(3 plants, foliar δ(13C was positively correlated with altitude and precipitation. This suggests that the influence of altitude may overshadow the influence of water availability on foliar δ(13C values at this scale.

  8. The 2013 Canadian Forces Mental Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Rachel E.; Boulos, David; Garber, Bryan G.; Jetly, Rakesh; Sareen, Jitender

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The 2013 Canadian Forces Mental Health Survey (CFMHS) collected detailed information on mental health problems, their impacts, occupational and nonoccupational determinants of mental health, and the use of mental health services from a random sample of 8200 serving personnel. The objective of this article is to provide a firm scientific foundation for understanding and interpreting the CFMHS findings. Methods: This narrative review first provides a snapshot of the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF), focusing on 2 key determinants of mental health: the deployment of more than 40,000 personnel in support of the mission in Afghanistan and the extensive renewal of the CAF mental health system. The findings of recent population-based CAF mental health research are reviewed, with a focus on findings from the very similar mental health survey done in 2002. Finally, key aspects of the methods of the 2013 CFMHS are presented. Results: The findings of 20 peer-reviewed publications using the 2002 mental health survey data are reviewed, along with those of 25 publications from other major CAF mental health research projects executed over the past decade. Conclusions: More than a decade of population-based mental health research in the CAF has provided a detailed picture of its mental health and use of mental health services. This knowledge base and the homology of the 2013 survey with the 2002 CAF survey and general population surveys in 2002 and 2012 will provide an unusual opportunity to use the CFMHS to situate mental health in the CAF in a historical and societal perspective. PMID:27270738

  9. Baseline health perceptions, dysphagia and survival in head and neck cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lango, Miriam N.; Egleston, Brian; Fang, Carolyn; Burtness, Barbara; Galloway, Thomas; Liu, Jeffrey; Mehra, Ranee; Ebersole, Barbara; Moran, Kathleen; Ridge, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Baseline dysphagia, more common than abnormalities on formal swallowing testing, is believed to predict survival in untreated head and neck cancer patients. We hypothesized that patient-reported dysphagia impacts multiple domains of quality of life and predicts disease recurrence and disease-related death. Methods The Swal-QOL, a dysphagia-specific measure, and the EuroQOL were administered to 159 patients prior to treatment with curative intent, in this prospective cross-sectional cohort study. Logistic regression evaluated associations among clinical and subjective measures. Multivariable competing risk regression tested the impact of clinical, tumor and patient-reported measures on survival. Results Baseline dysphagia, pain and diminished patient-reported health state (PRHS) were more closely associated with weight loss prior to treatment and advanced T-classification, than any other clinical feature. However, only 56% (23/40) of patients reporting dysphagia had >5% weight loss. Dysphagia was associated with pain and/or diminished PRHS, independent of weight loss. Female patients were more likely to report pain and dysphagia, while males reported dysphagia alone. Dysphagia predicted recurrence and disease related death, adjusting for T and N classification, performance status, smoking and weight loss, and accounting for competing risks of death (RFS: HR 3.8 (95%CI 1.7–8.4), p=.001; DOD HR 4.2 (95%CI 1.04–5), p=.004). Conclusion Baseline dysphagia affects multiple domains of quality of life and general health perceptions in untreated head and neck cancer patients. A dysphagia measure captures the effort of maintaining nutrition with cancer, identifying patients with or at risk for weight loss, and predisposed to disease recurrence and disease-related death. PMID:24352973

  10. Cohort profile: the Boston Area Community Health (BACH) survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccolo, Rebecca S; Araujo, Andre B; Pearce, Neil; McKinlay, John B

    2014-02-01

    The Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey is a community-based, random sample, epidemiologic cohort of n = 5502 Boston (MA) residents. The baseline BACH Survey (2002-05) was designed to explore the mechanisms conferring increased health risks on minority populations with a particular focus on urologic signs/symptoms and type 2 diabetes. To this end, the cohort was designed to include adequate numbers of US racial/ethnic minorities (Black, Hispanic, White), both men and women, across a broad age of distribution. Follow-up surveys were conducted ∼5 (BACH II, 2008) and 7 (BACH III, 2010) years later, which allows for both within- and between-person comparisons over time. The BACH Survey's measures were designed to cover the following seven broad categories: socio-demographics, health care access/utilization, lifestyles, psychosocial factors, health status, physical measures and biochemical parameters. The breadth of measures has allowed BACH researchers to identify disparities and quantify contributions to social disparities in a number of health conditions including urologic conditions (e.g. nocturia, lower urinary tract symptoms, prostatitis), type 2 diabetes, obesity, bone mineral content and density, and physical function. BACH I data are available through the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) Central Repositories (www.niddkrepository.org). Further inquiries can be made through the New England Research Institutes Inc. website (www.neriscience.com/epidemiology).

  11. Multidisciplinary eHealth Survey Evaluation Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karras, Bryant T.; Tufano, James T.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the development process of an evaluation framework for describing and comparing web survey tools. We believe that this approach will help shape the design, development, deployment, and evaluation of population-based health interventions. A conceptual framework for describing and evaluating web survey systems will enable the…

  12. Biodiversity and agriculture in dynamic landscapes: Integrating ground and remotely-sensed baseline surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillison, Andrew N; Asner, Gregory P; Fernandes, Erick C M; Mafalacusser, Jacinto; Banze, Aurélio; Izidine, Samira; da Fonseca, Ambrósio R; Pacate, Hermenegildo

    2016-07-15

    Sustainable biodiversity and land management require a cost-effective means of forecasting landscape response to environmental change. Conventional species-based, regional biodiversity assessments are rarely adequate for policy planning and decision making. We show how new ground and remotely-sensed survey methods can be coordinated to help elucidate and predict relationships between biodiversity, land use and soil properties along complex biophysical gradients that typify many similar landscapes worldwide. In the lower Zambezi valley, Mozambique we used environmental, gradient-directed transects (gradsects) to sample vascular plant species, plant functional types, vegetation structure, soil properties and land-use characteristics. Soil fertility indices were derived using novel multidimensional scaling of soil properties. To facilitate spatial analysis, we applied a probabilistic remote sensing approach, analyzing Landsat 7 satellite imagery to map photosynthetically active and inactive vegetation and bare soil along each gradsect. Despite the relatively low sample number, we found highly significant correlations between single and combined sets of specific plant, soil and remotely sensed variables that permitted testable spatial projections of biodiversity and soil fertility across the regional land-use mosaic. This integrative and rapid approach provides a low-cost, high-return and readily transferable methodology that permits the ready identification of testable biodiversity indicators for adaptive management of biodiversity and potential agricultural productivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Microplastics Baseline Surveys at the Water Surface and in Sediments of the North-East Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Maes

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Microplastic contamination was determined in sediments of the Southern North Sea and floating at the sea surface of North West Europe. Floating concentrations ranged between 0 and 1.5 microplastic/m3, whereas microplastic concentrations in sediments ranged between 0 and 3,146 particles/kg dry weight sediment. In sediments, mainly fibers and spheres were found, whereas at the sea surface fragments were dominant. At the sea surface, concentrations of microplastics are lower and more variable than in sediments, meaning that larger sample sizes and water volumes are required to find detectable concentrations. We have calculated the widths of the confidence intervals (CI for different sample sizes, to give a first indication of the necessary sample size for a microplastic survey at the water surface. Higher concentrations of floating microplastics were found near estuaries. In sediments, estuaries and areas with a high organic carbon content were likely hotspots. Standardization of monitoring methods within marine regions is recommended to compare and assess microplastics pollution over time.

  14. Longitudinal cohort survey of women's smoking behaviour and attitudes in pregnancy: study methods and baseline data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, Sophie; Bowker, Katharine; Cooper, Sue; Naughton, Felix; Ussher, Michael; Pickett, Kate E; Leonardi-Bee, Jo; Sutton, Stephen; Dhalwani, Nafeesa N; Coleman, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To report the methods used to assemble a contemporary pregnancy cohort for investigating influences on smoking behaviour before, during and after pregnancy and to report characteristics of women recruited. Design Longitudinal cohort survey. Setting Two maternity hospitals, Nottingham, England. Participants 3265 women who attended antenatal ultrasound scan clinics were offered cohort enrolment; those who were 8–26 weeks pregnant and were currently smoking or had recently stopped smoking were eligible. Cohort enrollment took place between August 2011 and August 2012. Primary and secondary outcome measures Prevalence of smoking at cohort entry and at two follow-up time points (34–36 weeks gestation and 3 months postnatally); response rate, participants’ sociodemographic characteristics. Results 1101 (33.7%, 95% CI 32.1% to 35.4%) women were eligible for inclusion in the cohort, and of these 850 (77.2%, 95% CI 74.6% to 79.6%) were recruited. Within the cohort, 57.4% (N=488, 95% CI 54.1% to 60.7%) reported to be current smokers. Current smokers were significantly younger than ex-smokers (p<0.05), more likely to have no formal qualifications and to not be in current paid employment compared to recent ex-smokers (p<0.001). Conclusions This contemporary cohort, which seeks very detailed information on smoking in pregnancy and its determinants, includes women with comparable sociodemographic characteristics to those in other UK cross-sectional studies and cohorts. This suggests that future analyses using this cohort and aimed at understanding smoking behaviour in pregnancy may produce findings that are broadly generalisable. PMID:24833689

  15. Health promotion intervention in mental health care: design and baseline findings of a cluster preference randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verhaeghe Nick

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Growing attention is given to the effects of health promotion programs targeting physical activity and healthy eating in individuals with mental disorders. The design of evaluation studies of public health interventions poses several problems and the current literature appears to provide only limited evidence on the effectiveness of such programs. The aim of the study is to examine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a health promotion intervention targeting physical activity and healthy eating in individuals with mental disorders living in sheltered housing. In this paper, the design of the study and baseline findings are described. Methods/design The design consists of a cluster preference randomized controlled trial. All sheltered housing organisations in the Flanders region (Belgium were asked if they were interested to participate in the study and if they were having a preference to serve as intervention or control group. Those without a preference were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. Individuals in the intervention group receive a 10-week health promotion intervention above their treatment as usual. Outcome assessments occur at baseline, at 10 and at 36 weeks. The primary outcomes include body weight, Body Mass Index, waist circumference, and fat mass. Secondary outcomes consist of physical activity levels, eating habits, health-related quality of life and psychiatric symptom severity. Cost-effectiveness of the intervention will be examined by calculating the Cost-Effectiveness ratio and through economic modeling.Twenty-five sheltered housing organisations agreed to participate. On the individual level 324 patients were willing to participate, including 225 individuals in the intervention group and 99 individuals in the control group. At baseline, no statistical significant differences between the two groups were found for the primary outcome variables. Discussion This is the first trial

  16. The Hispanic Americans baseline alcohol survey: alcoholic beverage preference across Hispanic national groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Raul; Vaeth, Patrice A C; Ramisetty-Mikler, Suhasini; Rodriguez, Lori A

    2009-01-01

    U.S. Hispanics come from many countries in Latin America, which can lead to different beverage preferences in the United States. This paper examines choice for drinking wine, beer, and liquor across 4 Hispanic national groups: Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, Cuban Americans, and South/Central Americans. A sample of 5,224 individuals 18 years of age and older was selected using multistage cluster procedures from the household population in 5 metropolitan areas of the United States: Miami, New York, Philadelphia, Houston, and Los Angeles. The survey weighted response rate was 76%. Face-to-face interviews lasting 1 hour on average were conducted in the respondents' homes either in English or Spanish. Among men, beer drinkers consume the highest mean number of drinks per week in all national groups. Among women, this is true only of Puerto Ricans and Mexican Americans. Among men who drink beer, beer drinking constitutes 52 to 72% of total alcohol consumption. Among women who drink beer, beer consumption is associated with 32 to 64% of total consumption. Beer is the beverage most associated with binge drinking among Puerto Rican and Mexican American women, while among Cuban Americans and South/Central Americans this is seen for wine. Regression analyses showed no significant differences by national group in the likelihood of drinking 2 or fewer drinks (vs. no drinks) of wine, beer, or liquor. Puerto Ricans were more likely (OR = 1.47; 95% CI = 1.00-2.14) than Cuban Americans to drink 3 or more drinks (compared with no drinks) of beer. There was no association between the likelihood of binge drinking and Hispanic national group. Beverage preference across Hispanic national groups is similar. Beer is the preferred beverage. Alcohol control policies such as taxation and control of sales availability should apply equally to beer, liquor, and wine. Prevention interventions directed at different Hispanic national groups in the United States can be relatively uniform in

  17. The Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey (HABLAS): Alcoholic beverage preference across Hispanic national groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Raul; Vaeth, Patrice A. C.; Ramisetty-Mikler, Suhasini; Rodriguez, Lori A.

    2009-01-01

    Background U.S. Hispanics come from many countries in Latin America, which can lead to different beverage preferences in the U.S. This paper examines choice for drinking wine, beer, and liquor across 4 Hispanic national groups: Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, Cuban Americans, and South/Central Americans. Methods A sample of 5,224 individuals 18 years of age and older was selected using multistage cluster procedures from the household population in 5 metropolitan areas of the U.S.: Miami, New York, Philadelphia, Houston, and Los Angeles. The survey weighted response rate was 76%. Face-to-face interviews lasting 1 hour on average were conducted in the respondents’ homes either in English or Spanish. Results Among men, beer drinkers consume the highest mean number of drinks per week in all national groups. Among women, this is true only of Puerto Ricans and Mexican Americans. Among men who drink beer, beer drinking constitutes 52% to 72% of total alcohol consumption. Among women who drink beer, beer consumption is associated with 32% to 64% of total consumption. Beer is the beverage most associated with binge drinking among Puerto Rican and Mexican American women, while among Cuban American and South/Central American this is seen for wine. Regression analyses showed no significant differences by national group in the likelihood of drinking 2 or fewer drinks (versus no drinks) of wine, beer, or liquor. Puerto Ricans were more likely (OR=1.47; 95% CI=1.00–2.14) than Cuban Americans to drink 3 or more drinks (compared to no drinks) of beer. There was no association between the likelihood of binge drinking and Hispanic national group. Conclusions Beverage preference across Hispanic national groups is similar. Beer is the preferred beverage. Alcohol control policies such as taxation and control of sales availability should apply equally to beer, liquor, and wine. Prevention interventions directed at different Hispanic national groups in the U.S. can be relatively

  18. Baseline health perceptions, dysphagia, and survival in patients with head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lango, Miriam N; Egleston, Brian; Fang, Carolyn; Burtness, Barbara; Galloway, Thomas; Liu, Jeffrey; Mehra, Ranee; Ebersole, Barbara; Moran, Kathleen; Ridge, John A

    2014-03-15

    In head and neck cancer patients prior to treatment, dysphagia noted by patients is more common than aspiration on formal swallow studies. The authors hypothesized that patient-reported dysphagia impacts multiple domains of quality of life (QOL) and predicts disease recurrence and disease-related death. The Swal-QOL, a dysphagia-specific, swallowing-related, QOL measure, and the EuroQOL-5D-3L were administered to 159 patients before treatment with curative intent in this prospective cohort study. Logistic regression analysis evaluated associations among clinical and subjective measures. Multivariable competing risk regression tested the impact of clinical, tumor, and patient-reported measures on survival. Baseline dysphagia, pain, and diminished patient-reported health state were found to be closely associated with weight loss before treatment and advanced T classification. However, only 58% of patients (23 of 40 patients) reporting dysphagia experienced > 5% weight loss. Dysphagia was found to be associated with pain and/or diminished patient-reported health state, independent of weight loss. Female patients were more likely to report pain and dysphagia, whereas male patients reported dysphagia alone. Dysphagia was found to be predictive of disease recurrence and disease-related death, adjusting for T and N classifications, ECOG performance status, smoking status, and weight loss, and accounting for competing risks of death (recurrence-free survival: hazards ratio, 3.8 [95% confidence interval, 1.7-8.4; P = .001] and disease-related death: hazards ratio, 4.2 [95% confidence interval, 1.04-5; P = .004]). Baseline dysphagia affects multiple domains of QOL and general health perceptions in patients with head and neck cancer prior to treatment. A dysphagia measure captures the effort of maintaining nutrition, and identifies patients predisposed to disease recurrence and disease-related death. © 2013 American Cancer Society.

  19. Baseline assessment of fish and benthic communities of the Flower Garden Banks (2010 - present) using remotely operated vehicle (ROV) survey methods: 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The proposed work develop baseline information on fish and benthic communities within the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary (FGBNMS). Surveys will employ...

  20. MENTAL HEALTH AND UNIVERSITY STUDENTS: SURVEY

    OpenAIRE

    Woodgate, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    We want to learn from university students about your experiences and perspectives on mental health and well-being in the context of being a student. Your input can help us develop evidence-based intervention programs that can help address the mental health needs of students. This survey should take 15-20 minutes to complete.

  1. 76 FR 60084 - Extension Request for Collection of Baseline Information for Green Jobs and Health Care Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ... Baseline Information for Green Jobs and Health Care Impact Evaluation of ARRA-Funded Grants AGENCY... the Green Jobs and Health Care American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA or Recovery Act... supports an evaluation of the impacts of the Green Jobs and Health Care (GJHC) training grants. This...

  2. Baseline rationing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    The standard problem of adjudicating conflicting claims describes a situation in which a given amount of a divisible good has to be allocated among agents who hold claims against it exceeding the available amount. This paper considers more general rationing problems in which, in addition to claims......, there exist baselines (to be interpreted as objective entitlements, ideal targets, or past consumption) that might play an important role in the allocation process. The model we present is able to accommodate real-life rationing situations, ranging from resource allocation in the public health care sector...... to international protocols for the reduction of greenhouse emissions, or water distribution in drought periods. We define a family of allocation methods for such general rationing problems - called baseline rationing rules - and provide an axiomatic characterization for it. Any baseline rationing rule within...

  3. Teens, Health and Technology: A National Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Wartella

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the age of digital technology, as teens seem to be constantly connected online, via social media, and through mobile applications, it is no surprise that they increasingly turn to digital media to answer their health questions. This study is the first of its kind to survey a large, nationally-representative sample of teens to investigate how they use the newest digital technologies, including mobile apps, social networking sites, electronic gaming and wearable devices, to explore health topics. The survey covered the types of health topics teens most frequently search for, which technologies they are most likely to use and how they use them, and whether they report having changed their behaviors due to digital health information. In addition, this survey explores how the digital divide continues to impact adolescents. Results of this study indicate that teens are concerned about many health issues, ranging from fitness, sexual activity, drugs, hygiene as well as mental health and stress. As teens virtually always have a digital device at their fingertips, it is clear that public health interventions and informational campaigns must be tailored to reflect the ways that teens currently navigate digital health information and the health challenges that concern them most.

  4. Job dissatisfaction and the older worker: baseline findings from the Health and Employment After Fifty study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Stefania; Coggon, David; Harris, E Clare; Linaker, Cathy; Sayer, Avan Aihie; Gale, Catharine R; Evandrou, Maria; van Staa, Tjeerd; Cooper, Cyrus; Walker-Bone, Karen; Palmer, Keith T

    2016-08-01

    Demographic changes are requiring people to work longer. Labour force participation might be promoted by tackling sources of job dissatisfaction. We aimed to describe the epidemiology of job dissatisfaction in older British workers, to explore which perceptions of work contribute most importantly, and to assess possible impacts on health. Participants aged 50-64 years were recruited from 24 English general practices. At baseline, those currently in work (N=5437) reported on their demographic and employment circumstances, overall job satisfaction, perceptions of their work that might contribute to dissatisfaction, and their general health, mood and well-being. Associations of job dissatisfaction with risk factors and potential health outcomes were assessed cross-sectionally by logistic regression, and the potential contributions of different negative perceptions to overall dissatisfaction were summarised by population attributable fractions (PAFs). Job dissatisfaction was more common among men, below age 60 years, those living in London and the South East, in the more educated and in those working for larger employers. The main contributors to job dissatisfaction among employees were feeling unappreciated and/or lacking a sense of achievement (PAF 55-56%), while in the self-employed, job insecurity was the leading contributor (PAF 79%). Job dissatisfaction was associated with all of the adverse health outcomes examined (ORs of 3-5), as were most of the negative perceptions of work that contributed to overall dissatisfaction. Employment policies aimed at improving job satisfaction in older workers may benefit from focussing particularly on relationships in the workplace, fairness, job security and instilling a sense of achievement. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. Ideal cardiovascular health score at the ELSA-Brasil baseline and its association with sociodemographic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Lucas B M; Silva, Bianca L S; Garcia, Ana P; Oliveira, Renata A M; Barreto, Sandhi M; Fonseca, Maria de Jesus M; Lotufo, Paulo A; Bensenor, Isabela M; Santos, Itamar S

    2018-03-01

    The American Heart Association's ideal cardiovascular health (ICH) define criteria for seven metrics, four classified as lifestyle factors (diet, physical activity, smoking and body-mass index) and four classified as health factors (smoking, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose and total cholesterol). We aimed to analyze ICH scores at the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) baseline assessment and the associations with sociodemographic characteristics (age, sex, race, educational level, and family income). We analyzed 13,356 ELSA-Brasil participants without cardiovascular disease using quasi-Poisson regression models to study the association between the ICH score and sociodemographic characteristics. Mean ICH scores were 2.5±1.3. Only 1047 (7.8%) participants had 5 or more ICH metrics. In adjusted models, age 65-74years was associated with lower ICH scores (-35.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -37.6% to -33.1%) compared to age 35-44years. Women had higher ICH scores compared to men (+13.8%; 95%CI: +11.8% to +15.7%), mainly due to differences in the health factor ICH metrics. Participants of Black race had lower ICH scores compared to those of White race (-9.4%; 95%CI: -11.8% to -7.0%). Individuals with less than high school education had lower ICH scores than college-educated individuals (-17.2%; 95%CI: -20.0% to -14.2%). Low (<1245 USD) family income was also associated with lower ICH scores compared to those with high (≥3320 USD) family income (-4.4%, 95%CI: -7.2% to -1.6%). We found a low proportion of individuals with 5 or more ICH metrics. Age, sex, race, educational level and income were associated with ICH scores. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Shifting human resources for health in the context of ART provision: qualitative and quantitative findings from the Lablite baseline study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misheck J. Nkhata

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lablite is an implementation project supporting and studying decentralized antiretroviral therapy (ART rollout to rural communities in Malawi, Uganda and Zimbabwe. Task shifting is one of the strategies to deal with shortage of health care workers (HCWs in ART provision. Evaluating Human Resources for Health (HRH optimization is essential for ensuring access to ART. The Lablite project started with a baseline survey whose aim was to describe and compare national and intercountry delivery of ART services including training, use of laboratories and clinical care. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted between October 2011 and August 2012 in a sample of 81 health facilities representing different regions, facility levels and experience of ART provision in Malawi, Uganda and Zimbabwe. Using a questionnaire, data were collected on facility characteristics, human resources and service provision. Thirty three (33 focus group discussions were conducted with HCWs in a subset of facilities in Malawi and Zimbabwe. Results The survey results showed that in Malawi and Uganda, primary care facilities were run by non-physician clinical officers/medical assistants while in Zimbabwe, they were run by nurses/midwives. Across the three countries, turnover of staff was high especially among nurses. Between 10 and 20% of the facilities had at least one clinical officer/medical assistant leave in the 3 months prior to the study. Qualitative results show that HCWs in ART and non-ART facilities perceived a shortage of staff for all services, even prior to the introduction of ART provision. HCWs perceived the introduction of ART as having increased workload. In Malawi, the number of people on ART and hence the workload for HCWs has further increased following the introduction of Option B+ (ART initiation and life-long treatment for HIV positive pregnant and lactating women, resulting in extended working times and concerns that the quality of

  7. Shifting human resources for health in the context of ART provision: qualitative and quantitative findings from the Lablite baseline study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkhata, Misheck J; Muzambi, Margaret; Ford, Deborah; Chan, Adrienne K; Abongomera, George; Namata, Harriet; Mambule, Ivan; South, Annabelle; Revill, Paul; Grundy, Caroline; Mabugu, Travor; Chiwaula, Levison; Hakim, James; Kityo, Cissy; Reid, Andrew; Katabira, Elly; Sodhi, Sumeet; Gilks, Charles F; Gibb, Diana M; Seeley, Janet; Cataldo, Fabian

    2016-11-16

    Lablite is an implementation project supporting and studying decentralized antiretroviral therapy (ART) rollout to rural communities in Malawi, Uganda and Zimbabwe. Task shifting is one of the strategies to deal with shortage of health care workers (HCWs) in ART provision. Evaluating Human Resources for Health (HRH) optimization is essential for ensuring access to ART. The Lablite project started with a baseline survey whose aim was to describe and compare national and intercountry delivery of ART services including training, use of laboratories and clinical care. A cross-sectional survey was conducted between October 2011 and August 2012 in a sample of 81 health facilities representing different regions, facility levels and experience of ART provision in Malawi, Uganda and Zimbabwe. Using a questionnaire, data were collected on facility characteristics, human resources and service provision. Thirty three (33) focus group discussions were conducted with HCWs in a subset of facilities in Malawi and Zimbabwe. The survey results showed that in Malawi and Uganda, primary care facilities were run by non-physician clinical officers/medical assistants while in Zimbabwe, they were run by nurses/midwives. Across the three countries, turnover of staff was high especially among nurses. Between 10 and 20% of the facilities had at least one clinical officer/medical assistant leave in the 3 months prior to the study. Qualitative results show that HCWs in ART and non-ART facilities perceived a shortage of staff for all services, even prior to the introduction of ART provision. HCWs perceived the introduction of ART as having increased workload. In Malawi, the number of people on ART and hence the workload for HCWs has further increased following the introduction of Option B+ (ART initiation and life-long treatment for HIV positive pregnant and lactating women), resulting in extended working times and concerns that the quality of services have been affected. For some HCWs

  8. Yield and bias in defining a cohort study baseline from electronic health record data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassy, Jason L; Ho, Yuk-Lam; Honerlaw, Jacqueline; Cho, Kelly; Gaziano, J Michael; Wilson, Peter W F; Gagnon, David R

    2018-02-01

    Despite growing interest in using electronic health records (EHR) to create longitudinal cohort studies, the distribution and missingness of EHR data might introduce selection bias and information bias to such analyses. We aimed to examine the yield and potential for these healthcare process biases in defining a study baseline using EHR data, using the example of cholesterol and blood pressure (BP) measurements. We created a virtual cohort study of cardiovascular disease (CVD) from patients with eligible cholesterol profiles in the New England (NE) and Southeast (SE) networks of the Veterans Health Administration in the United States. Using clinical data from the EHR, we plotted the yield of patients with BP measurements within an expanding timeframe around an index date of cholesterol testing. We compared three groups: (1) patients with BP from the exact index date; (2) patients with BP not on the index date but within the network-specific 90th percentile around the index date; and (3) patients with no BP within the network-specific 90th percentile. Among 589,361 total patients in the two networks, 146,636 (61.0%) of 240,479 patients from NE and 289,906 (83.1%) of 348,882 patients from SE had BP measurements on the index date. Ninety percent had BP measured within 11 days of the index date in NE and within 5 days of the index date in SE. Group 3 in both networks had fewer available race data, fewer comorbidities and CVD medications, and fewer health system encounters. Requiring same-day risk factor measurement in the creation of a virtual CVD cohort study from EHR data might exclude 40% of eligible patients, but including patients with infrequent visits might introduce bias. Data visualization can inform study-specific strategies to address these challenges for the research use of EHR data. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. mHealth Intervention Promoting Cardiovascular Health Among African-Americans: Recruitment and Baseline Characteristics of a Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Background Mobile health (mHealth) interventions are promising avenues to promote cardiovascular (CV) health among African-Americans (AAs) and culturally tailored technology-based interventions are emerging for this population. Objective The objectives of this study were to use a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach to recruit AAs into a pilot intervention study of an innovative mHealth CV health promotion program and to characterize technology use patterns and eHealth literacy (EHL). Methods Community partners from five predominately AA churches in southeast Minnesota collaborated with our academic institution to recruit AA congregants into the pilot study. Field notes as well as communications between the study team and community partners were used to design the recruitment strategy and its implementation with a goal of enrolling 50 participants. At its core, the recruitment strategy included community kickoff events to detail the state-of-the-art nature of the mHealth intervention components, the utility of CV health assessments (physical examination, laboratory studies and surveys) and the participants’ role in advancing our understanding of the efficacy of mHealth interventions among racial/ethnic minority groups. Detailed recruitment data were documented throughout the study. A self-administered, electronic survey measured sociodemographics, technology use and EHL (eHEALS scale). Results A total of 50 participants (70% women) from five AA churches were recruited over a one-month period. The majority (>90%) of participants reported using some form of mobile technology with all utilizing these technologies within their homes. Greater than half (60% [30/50]) reported being “very comfortable” with mobile technologies. Overall, participants had high EHL (84.8% [39/46] with eHEALS score ≥26) with no differences by sex. Conclusions This study illustrates the feasibility and success of a CBPR approach in recruiting AAs into mHealth

  10. Health Physics Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2006 Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education

    2007-01-01

    This annual survey collects 2006 data on the number of health physics degrees awarded as well as the number of students enrolled in health physics academic programs. Thirty universities offer health physics degrees; all responded to the survey

  11. Assessment of the ecological potential of mine-water treatment wetlands using a baseline survey of macroinvertebrate communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batty, L.C.; Atkin, L.; Manning, D.A.C.

    2005-01-01

    A baseline survey of macroinvertebrate populations in two mine-water treatment wetlands, one treating a net acidic spoil heap discharge and one a net alkaline ferruginous pumped mine water, was undertaken to assess the potential of these systems to provide habitats for faunal communities. Both wetlands were found to be impoverished in comparison to natural wetlands but did sustain a macroinvertebrate community that could support higher organisms. Wetland size and water quality in terms of pH, conductivity and metal concentrations were found to be important factors in determining the quality of the populations supported. Direct toxicity to organisms was unlikely to be the main cause of lower diversity, but the smothering of organisms via the precipitation of iron hydroxides particularly in the early parts of the treatment systems affected macroinvertebrate communities. The presence of areas of open water within the planted systems was found to be important for providing habitats for macroinvertebrates and this should be both a future design and maintenance consideration for environmental managers. - Mine-water treatment wetlands can be engineered to provide habitats for ecological communities

  12. A Model for Evaluating Mental Health Programs: The Functional Baseline System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krowinski, William J.; Fitt, David X.

    1978-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation model for a partial hospitalization program. The evaluation instrument, the Functional Baseline System (FBS), is presented with its use in assessing program effectiveness and efficiency. (Author)

  13. Baseline risk and marginal willingness to pay for health risk reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerking, Shelby; Adamowicz, Wiktor; Dickie, Mark; Veronesi, Marcella

    2017-01-01

    Empirical results presented in this paper suggest that parents' marginal willingness to pay (MWTP) for a reduction in morbidity risk from heart disease is inversely related to baseline risk (i.e., the amount of risk initially faced) both for themselves and for their children. For instance, a 40% reduction from the mean of baseline risk results in an increase in MWTP by 70% or more. Thus, estimates of monetary benefits of public programs to reduce heart disease risk would be understated if the standard practice is followed of evaluating MWTP at initial risk levels and then multiplying this value by the number of cases avoided. Estimates are supported by: (1) unique quantitative information on perceptions of the risk of getting heart disease that allow baseline risk to be defined at an individual level and (2) improved econometric procedures to control for well-known difficulties associated with stated preference data.

  14. Literature survey: health effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tveten, U.; Garder, K.

    This report was originally written as a chapter of a report entitled 'Air pollution effects of electric power generation, a literature survey', written jointly by the Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU) and the Institutt for Atomenergi (IFA). (INIS RN242406). A survey is presented of the health effects of radiation. It has not, however, been the intention of the authors to make a complete list of all the literature relevant to this subject. The NILU/IFA report was meant as a first step towards a method of comparing the health effects of electric power generation by fission, gas and oil. Consequently information relevant to quantification of the health effects on humans has been selected. It is pointed out that quantitative information on the health effects of low radiation and dose rates, as are relevant to routine releases, does not exist for humans. The convention of linear extrapolation from higher doses and dose rates is used worldwide, but it is felt by most that the estimates are conservative. As an example of the use of the current best estimates, a calculation of normal release radiation doses is performed. (Auth.)

  15. [Health services access survey for Colombian households].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrivillaga, Marcela; Aristizabal, Juan Carlos; Pérez, Mauricio; Estrada, Victoria Eugenia

    The aim of this study was to design and validate a health services access survey for households in Colombia to provide a methodological tool that allows the country to accumulate evidence of real-life access conditions experienced by the Colombian population. A validation study with experts and a pilot study were performed. It was conducted in the municipality of Jamundi, located in the department of Valle del Cauca, Colombia. Probabilistic, multistage and stratified cluster sampling was carried out. The final sample was 215 households. The survey was composed of 63 questions divided into five modules: socio-demographic profile of the head of the household or adult informant, household socioeconomic profile, access to preventive services, access to curative and rehabilitative services and household out of pocket expenditure. In descriptive terms, the promotion of preventive services only reached 44%; the use of these services was always highest among children younger than one year old and up to the age of ten. The perceived need for emergency medical care and hospitalisation was between 82% and 85%, but 36% perceived the quality of care to be low or very low. Delays were experienced in medical visits with GPs and specialists. The designed survey is valid, relevant and representative of access to health services in Colombia. Empirically, the pilot showed institutional weaknesses in a municipality of the country, indicating that health coverage does not in practice mean real and effective access to health services. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2003)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) measures the prevalence and correlates of drug...

  17. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2002)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) measures the prevalence and correlates of drug...

  18. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2005)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  19. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  20. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2008)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  1. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  2. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  3. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2007)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  4. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  5. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  6. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2009)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  7. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  8. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  9. National Mental Health Services Survey (N-MHSS-2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Mental Health Services Survey (N-MHSS) is an annual survey designed to collect statistical information on the numbers and characteristics of all known...

  10. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2015)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  11. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2004)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) measures the prevalence and correlates of drug...

  12. Baseline Evaluation of a Participatory Mobile Health Intervention for Dengue Prevention in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwin, May O.; Vijaykumar, Santosh; Lim, Gentatsu; Fernando, Owen Noel Newton; Rathnayake, Vajira Sampath; Foo, Schubert

    2016-01-01

    Challenges posed by infectious disease outbreaks have led to a range of participatory mobile phone-based innovations that use the power of crowdsourcing for disease surveillance. However, the dynamics of participatory behavior by crowds in such interventions have yet to be examined. This article reports results from a baseline evaluation of one…

  13. National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) - National Cardiovascular Disease Surveillance Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2001 forward. The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) has monitored the health of the nation since 1957. NHIS data on a broad range of health topics are...

  14. Baseline Trachoma Surveys in Kaskazini A and Micheweni Districts of Zanzibar: Results of Two Population-Based Prevalence Surveys Conducted with the Global Trachoma Mapping Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Fatma J; Kabona, George; Abdalla, Khalfan M; Mohamed, Saleh J; Ali, Said M; Ame, Shaali M; Ngwalle, Abel; Mbise, Christina; Rotondo, Lisa; Willis, Rebecca; Flueckiger, Rebecca M; Massae, Patrick A; Bakhtiari, Ana; Solomon, Anthony W; Ngondi, Jeremiah M

    2016-12-01

    Based on health care records and trachoma rapid assessments, trachoma was suspected to be endemic in Kaskazini A and Micheweni districts of Zanzibar. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF), and trachomatous trichiasis (TT) in each of those districts. The survey was undertaken in Kaskazini A and Micheweni districts on Unguja and Pemba Islands, respectively. A multi-stage cluster random sampling design was applied, whereby 25 census enumeration areas (clusters) and 30 households per cluster were included. Consenting eligible participants (children aged 1-9 years and people aged 15 years and older) were examined for trachoma using the World Health Organization simplified grading system. A total of 1673 households were surveyed and 6407 participants (98.0% of those enumerated) were examined for trachoma. Examinees included a total of 2825 children aged 1-9 years and 3582 people aged 15 years and older. TF prevalence in 1-9-year-olds was 2.7% (95% confidence interval, CI, 2.7-4.1%) in Kazkazini A and 11.4% (95% CI 6.6-16.5%) in Micheweni. Among people aged 15 years and older, TT prevalence was 0.01% (95% CI 0.00-0.04%) in Kazkazini A and 0.21% (95% CI 0.08-0.39%) in Micheweni. Trachoma is a public health problem in Micheweni district, where implementation of all four components of the SAFE strategy (surgery, antibiotics, facial cleanliness, and environmental improvement), including mass drug administration with azithromycin, is required. These findings will facilitate planning for trachoma elimination.

  15. National Surveys of Population Health: Big Data Analytics for Mobile Health Monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, Bruce R

    2015-12-01

    At the core of the healthcare crisis is fundamental lack of actionable data. Such data could stratify individuals within populations to predict which persons have which outcomes. If baselines existed for all variations of all conditions, then managing health could be improved by matching the measuring of individuals to their cohort in the population. The scale required for complete baselines involves effective National Surveys of Population Health (NSPH). Traditionally, these have been focused upon acute medicine, measuring people to contain the spread of epidemics. In recent decades, the focus has moved to chronic conditions as well, which require smaller measures over longer times. NSPH have long utilized quality of life questionnaires. Mobile Health Monitors, where computing technologies eliminate manual administration, provide richer data sets for health measurement. Older technologies of telephone interviews will be replaced by newer technologies of smartphone sensors to provide deeper individual measures at more frequent timings across larger-sized populations. Such continuous data can provide personal health records, supporting treatment guidelines specialized for population cohorts. Evidence-based medicine will become feasible by leveraging hundreds of millions of persons carrying mobile devices interacting with Internet-scale services for Big Data Analytics.

  16. Smart Health - Potential and Pathways: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulananthan, C.; Hanifa, Sabibullah Mohamed

    2017-08-01

    Healthcare is an imperative key field of research, where individuals or groups can be engaged in the self-tracking of any kind of biological, physical, behavioral, or environmental information. In a massive health care data, the valuable information is hidden. The quantity of the available unstructured data has been expanding on an exponential scale. The newly developing Disruptive Technologies can handle many challenges that face data analysis and ability to extract valuable information via data analytics. Connected Wellness in Healthcare would retrieve patient’s physiological, pathological and behavioral parameters through sensors to perform inner workings of human body analysis. Disruptive technologies can take us from a reactive illness-driven to a proactive wellness-driven system in health care. It is need to be strive and create a smart health system towards wellness-driven instead of being illness-driven, today’s biggest problem in health care. Wellness-driven-analytics application help to promote healthiest living environment called “Smart Health”, deliver empower based quality of living. The contributions of this survey reveals and opens (touches uncovered areas) the possible doors in the line of research on smart health and its computing technologies.

  17. The RHESA-CARE study: an extended baseline survey of the regional myocardial infarction registry of Saxony-Anhalt (RHESA) design and objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Katharina; Bohley, Stefanie; Mau, Wilfried; Schmidt-Pokrzywniak, Andrea

    2016-08-17

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of death in Europe. In Germany, a declining mortality rate from acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has been observed in the last decades. Nevertheless, there are large differences between the federal states when looking at the mortality and morbidity of AMI. Saxony-Anhalt is one of the federal states with the highest mortality rates for AMI in Germany. In 2012, the regional myocardial infarction registry of Saxony-Anhalt (RHESA) was established to investigate the individual, infrastructural, and health care factors with respect to an urban (city of Halle) and rural (region of Altmark) population. For detailed observation the RHESA-CARE study was conducted in 2014. RHESA-CARE focuses on the symptoms during infarction, the behaviour of patients while alerting for infarction, the use of rehabilitation possibilities, and long-term care. RHESA-CARE is an extended baseline survey of AMI patients registered in RHESA who are aged 25 or more, and inhabitants of the city of Halle (Saale) or the district of Altmark in the federal state of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. Detailed information was collected on classical and psychosocial cardiovascular risk factors as well as factors of alerting behaviour, first aid, and utilization of medical and rehabilitation services. High data quality is ensured by a detailed system of quality control. RHESA-CARE has the main objective to investigate factors that influence morbidity and mortality rates due to AMI. Another purpose is the comparison of a rural and urban patient population. It provides an opportunity to serve as a base for improvement of patients' behaviour and health care as well as further research.

  18. Surveys of Health Professions Trainees: Prevalence, Response Rates, and Predictive Factors to Guide Researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Andrew W; Friedman, Benjamin T; Utrankar, Amol; Ta, Andrew Q; Reddy, Shalini T; Durning, Steven J

    2017-02-01

    To establish a baseline overall response rate for surveys of health professions trainees, determine strategies associated with improved response rates, and evaluate for the presence of nonresponse bias. The authors performed a comprehensive analysis of all articles published in Academic Medicine, Medical Education, and Advances in Health Sciences Education in 2013, recording response rates. Additionally, they reviewed nonresponse bias analyses and factors suggested in other fields to affect response rate including survey delivery method, prenotification, and incentives. The search yielded 732 total articles; of these, 356 were research articles, and of these, 185 (52.0%) used at least one survey. Of these, 66 articles (35.6%) met inclusion criteria and yielded 73 unique surveys. Of the 73 surveys used, investigators reported a response rate for 63.0% of them; response rates ranged from 26.6% to 100%, mean (standard deviation) 71.3% (19.5%). Investigators reported using incentives for only 16.4% of the 73 surveys. The only survey methodology factor significantly associated with response rate was single- vs. multi-institutional surveys (respectively, 74.6% [21.2%] vs. 62.0% [12.8%], P = .022). Notably, statistical power for all analyses was limited. No articles evaluated for nonresponse bias. Approximately half of the articles evaluated used a survey as part of their methods. Limited data are available to establish a baseline response rate among health professions trainees and inform researchers which strategies are associated with higher response rates. Journals publishing survey-based health professions education research should improve reporting of response rate, nonresponse bias, and other survey factors.

  19. Implementing the Institute of Medicine’s Recommended Curriculum Content in Schools of Public Health: A Baseline Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortell, Stephen M.; Weist, Elizabeth M.; Sow, Mah-Sere Keita; Foster, Allison; Tahir, Ramika

    2004-01-01

    In September 2003, the Association of Schools of Public Health administered an online survey to representatives of all 33 accredited US schools of public health. The survey assessed the extent to which the schools were offering curriculum content in the 8 areas recommended by the Institute of Medicine: communication, community-based participatory research, cultural competence, ethics, genomics, global health, informatics, and law/policy. Findings indicated that, for the most part, schools of public health are offering content in these areas through many approaches and have incorporated various aspects of a broad-based ecological approach to public health education and training. The findings also suggested the possible need for greater content in genomics, informatics, community-based participatory research, and cultural competence. PMID:15451728

  20. Baseline Assessment of Campus-Wide General Health Status and Mental Health: Opportunity for Tailored Suicide Prevention and Mental Health Awareness Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Lisa D.; MacDonald, Michael G.; Wallace, Erica H.; Smith, Julia; Wummel, Brian; Wren, Patricia A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: A campus-wide assessment examined the physical and mental health status of a midsize midwestern public university. Participants: Two thousand and forty-nine students, faculty, and staff on a single college campus were assessed in March-April 2013. Methods: Participants completed an online survey with sections devoted to demographics,…

  1. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2009-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a program of studies designed to assess the health and nutritional status of adults and children in...

  2. Switching health insurance plans: results from a health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lako, Christiaan J; Rosenau, Pauline; Daw, Chris

    2011-12-01

    The study is designed to provide an informal summary of what is known about consumer switching of health insurance plans and to contribute to knowledge about what motivates consumers who choose to switch health plans. Do consumers switch plans largely on the basis of critical reflection and assessment of information about the quality, and price? The literature suggests that switching is complicated, not always possible, and often overwhelming to consumers. Price does not always determine choice. Quality is very hard for consumers to understand. Results from a random sample survey (n = 2791) of the Alkmaar region of the Netherlands are reported here. They suggest that rather than embracing the opportunity to be active critical consumers, individuals are more likely to avoid this role by handing this activity off to a group purchasing organization. There is little evidence that consumers switch plans on the basis of critical reflection and assessment of information about quality and price. The new data reported here confirm the importance of a group purchasing organizations. In a free-market-health insurance system confidence in purchasing groups may be more important for health insurance choice than health informatics. This is not what policy makers expected and might result a less efficient health insurance market system.

  3. The status of interprofessional education and interprofessional prevention education in academic health centers: a national baseline study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Annette G; Clay, Maria; Blue, Amy; Evans, Clyde H; Garr, David

    2014-05-01

    Given the emphasis on prevention in U.S. health care reform efforts, the importance of interprofessional education (IPE) that prepares health professions students to be part of effective health care teams is greater than ever. This study examined the prevalence and nature of IPE and interprofessional (IP) prevention education in U.S. academic health centers. The authors extracted a 10-item survey from the longer published IPE Assessment and Planning Instrument. In September 2010, they sent the survey to 346 health professions leaders in health sciences schools and colleges at 100 academic health centers. These institutions were identified via the online membership list of the Association of Academic Health Centers. The authors conducted descriptive statistical analysis and cross-tabulations. Surveys were completed by 127 contacts at 68 universities in 31 states and the District of Columbia. IPE was more prevalent than IP prevention education in all categories of measurement. Respondents affirmed existence of IPE in courses (85.0%) and in clinical rotations/internships (80.3%). The majority reported personnel with responsibility for IPE (68.5%) or prevention education (59.8%) at their institutional unit, and 59.8% reported an IPE office or center. This study provides evidence that IPE and IP prevention education exist in academic health centers, but additional attention should be paid to the development of IP prevention education. Sample syllabi, job descriptions, and policies may be available to support adoption of IPE and IP prevention education. Further effort is needed to increase the integration of IP and prevention education into practice.

  4. Variability in baseline laboratory measurements of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladwig, R; Vigo, A; Fedeli, L M G; Chambless, L E; Bensenor, I; Schmidt, M I; Vidigal, P G; Castilhos, C D; Duncan, B B

    2016-08-01

    Multi-center epidemiological studies must ascertain that their measurements are accurate and reliable. For laboratory measurements, reliability can be assessed through investigation of reproducibility of measurements in the same individual. In this paper, we present results from the quality control analysis of the baseline laboratory measurements from the ELSA-Brasil study. The study enrolled 15,105 civil servants at 6 research centers in 3 regions of Brazil between 2008-2010, with multiple biochemical analytes being measured at a central laboratory. Quality control was ascertained through standard laboratory evaluation of intra- and inter-assay variability and test-retest analysis in a subset of randomly chosen participants. An additional sample of urine or blood was collected from these participants, and these samples were handled in the same manner as the original ones, locally and at the central laboratory. Reliability was assessed with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), estimated through a random effects model. Coefficients of variation (CV) and Bland-Altman plots were additionally used to assess measurement variability. Laboratory intra and inter-assay CVs varied from 0.86% to 7.77%. From test-retest analyses, the ICCs were high for the majority of the analytes. Notably lower ICCs were observed for serum sodium (ICC=0.50; 95%CI=0.31-0.65) and serum potassium (ICC=0.73; 95%CI=0.60-0.83), due to the small biological range of these analytes. The CVs ranged from 1 to 14%. The Bland-Altman plots confirmed these results. The quality control analyses showed that the collection, processing and measurement protocols utilized in the ELSA-Brasil produced reliable biochemical measurements.

  5. A health survey of radiologic technologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boice, J.D. Jr.; Mandel, J.S.; Doody, M.M.; Yoder, R.C.; McGowan, R.

    1992-01-01

    A health survey of more than 143,000 radiologic technologists is described. The population was identified from the 1982 computerized files of the American Registry of Radiologic Technologists, which was established in 1926. Inactive members were traced to obtain current addresses or death notifications. More than 6000 technologists were reported to have died. For all registrants who were alive when located, a detailed 16-page questionnaire was sent, covering occupational histories, medical conditions, and other personal and lifestyle characteristics. Nonrespondents were contacted by telephone to complete an abbreviated questionnaire. More than 104,000 responses were obtained. Most technologists were female (76%), white (93%), and employed for an average of 12 years; 37% attended college, and approximately 50% never smoked cigarettes. Radiation exposure information was sought from employer records and commercial dosimetry companies. Technologists employed for the longest times had the highest estimated cumulative exposures, with approximately 9% with exposures greater than 5 cGy. There was a high correlation between cumulative occupational exposure and personal exposure to medical radiographs, related, in part, to the association of both factors with attained age. It is interesting that 10% of all technologists allowed others to practice taking radiographs on them during their training. Nearly 4% of the respondents reported having some type of cancer, mainly of the skin (1517), breast (665), and cervix (726). Prospective surveys will monitor cancer mortality rates through use of the National Death Index and cancer incidence through periodic mailings of questionnaires. This is the only occupational study of radiation employees who are primarily women and should provide new information on the possible risks associated with relatively low levels of exposure

  6. The healthy worker effect: Do health problems predict participation rates in, and the results of, a follow-up survey?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Morten Birkeland; Knardahl, Stein

    2016-02-01

    To determine the impact of the healthy worker effect (HWE) as a bias for the external and internal validity of the follow-up assessment in prospective survey research. Specifically, the study examined (1) whether the health status of respondents at the baseline measurement influenced response at the follow-up survey (external validity) and (2) whether HWE is a threat to internal validity by differential attrition, i.e., whether associations between work and health at baseline differ between stayers and dropouts. In a two-wave questionnaire survey with a 2-year time lag comprising 6283 persons, 4392 responded at both time points (response rate 70%). Mental distress and somatic symptoms served as indicators of health. Role conflict and role clarity were indicators of work factors. There were few differences in response rate at follow-up between persons with and without health complaints at the baseline measurement. As response rate increased incrementally with educational level, there seems to be a socio-educational bias, rather than a HWE bias on survey participation. Baseline relationships between work factors and health indicators were equal in magnitude among stayers and dropouts. The health status of participants at baseline seems to have little impact on the external and internal validity of the follow-up assessment in prospective survey research. Hence, the findings provide little support to the HWE as a potential bias in prospective studies within occupational health research. A limitation of the study is that the findings do not inform about the impact of the HWE on participation in the baseline assessment.

  7. The Canadian Gynaecologic Oncology Perioperative Management Survey: Baseline Practice Prior to Implementation of Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) Society Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Alon D; Nelson, Gregg S

    2016-12-01

    To survey the current practice of Society of Gynecologic Oncology of Canada (GOC) members about preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative phases of care. The survey was carried out prior to publication of the Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) Society gynaecologic/oncology guidelines. A survey was developed by the GOC and distributed to all surgical members between September and December 2015. The survey was completed by 77 of 92 practising gynaecologic oncologists (84%), representing 19 centres in 16 cities across Canada. Only 14.3% of respondents counselled their patients to stop smoking and drinking four weeks before surgery, while 41.6% routinely counselled patients to stop taking oral contraceptive pills. Approximately half of respondents (44.7%) prescribed preoperative mechanical bowel preparation. Over two thirds (67.5%) asked their patients not to eat solid foods after midnight on the day of surgery, and 19.5% recommended carbohydrate loading. Venous thromboembolism prophylaxis was given prior to laparotomy by 85.7% of participants overall, and by 67.6% prior to laparoscopy. The majority of respondents did not routinely use nasogastric tubes or intra-abdominal drains. The preferred modality for postoperative pain control after laparotomy was patient-controlled analgesia with narcotics (66.2%); only 29.9% chose epidural analgesia. Over half of respondents (56.6%) prescribed a progressive diet after surgery, while 42.1% recommended starting on an immediate standard diet postoperatively. The responses to this survey show wide variations in practice in the perioperative phases of surgical care. Implementation of the ERAS Society gynaecologic/oncology guidelines should help integrate evidence-based knowledge into practice, align perioperative care, and minimize practice variations, resulting in improved outcomes for patients. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada/La Société des obstétriciens et gynécologues du

  8. Report on the baseline measurement of the administrative burden from the Department of Health

    OpenAIRE

    Department of Health (Ireland)

    2013-01-01

    The Irish Government in March 2008 set a target to identify measure and reduce the Administrative Burden (AB) of domestic regulation for businesses by 25% by the end of 2012 – on foot of a European Council invitation to all member states in March 2007. As part of a cross-Government process led by the Business Regulation Unit of the Department of Jobs, Enterprise and Innovation (DJEI), the Department of Health carried out a measurement exercise in 2012 on the main Information Obligations...

  9. Burden of cumulative risk factors associated with non-communicable diseases among adults in Uganda: evidence from a national baseline survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesonga, Ronald; Guwatudde, David; Bahendeka, Silver K; Mutungi, Gerald; Nabugoomu, Fabian; Muwonge, James

    2016-12-01

    Modification of known risk factors has been the most tested strategy for dealing with non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The cumulative number of NCD risk factors exhibited by an individual depicts a disease burden. However, understanding the risk factors associated with increased NCD burden has been constrained by scarcity of nationally representative data, especially in the developing countries and not well explored in the developed countries as well. Assessment of key risk factors for NCDs using population data drawn from 3987 participants in a nationally representative baseline survey in Uganda was made. Five key risk factors considered for the indicator variable included: high frequency of tobacco smoking, less than five servings of fruit and vegetables per day, low physical activity levels, high body mass index and raised blood pressure. We developed a composite indicator dependent variable with counts of number of risk factors associated with NCDs per participant. A statistical modeling framework was developed and a multinomial logistic regression model was fitted. The endogenous and exogenous predictors of NCD cumulative risk factors were assessed. A novel model framework for cumulative number of NCD risk factors was developed. Most respondents, 38 · 6% exhibited one or two NCD risk factors each. Of the total sample, 56 · 4% had at least two risk factors whereas only 5.3% showed no risk factor at all. Body mass index, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, consumption of fruit and vegetables, age, region, residence, type of residence and land tenure system were statistically significant predictors of number of NCD risk factors (p non-communicable disease burden is on the increase, with more participants reporting to have at least two risk factors. Our findings imply that, besides endogenous factors, exogenous factors such as region, residence status, land tenure system and behavioral characteristics have significant causal effects on

  10. Veterans Health Administration Survey of Healthcare Experiences of Patients (SHEP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of VHA hospitals with inpatient experience of care survey data. The VA SHEP uses the same questions as the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Health Providers...

  11. Hip-Hop to Health Jr., an obesity prevention program for minority preschool children: baseline characteristics of participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolley, Melinda R; Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Dyer, Alan; Van Horn, Linda; KauferChristoffel, Katherine; Schiffer, Linda

    2003-03-01

    The prevalence of obesity in the United States is a significant public health problem. Many obesity-related risk factors are more prevalent in minority populations. Given the recalcitrant nature of weight loss interventions for adults, prevention of overweight and obesity has become a high priority. The present study reports baseline data from an obesity prevention intervention developed for minority preschool children. Hip-Hop to Health Jr. is a 5-year randomized controlled intervention that targets 3- to 5-year-old minority children enrolled in 24 Head Start programs. Our primary aim is to test the effect of the intervention on change in body mass index. Data were collected on sociodemographic, anthropometric, behavioral, and cognitive variables for the children and parents at baseline. Participants included 416 black children, 337 black parents, 362 Latino children, and 309 Latino parents. Using body mass index for age and sex > or = the 95th percentile as the definition of overweight, 15% of the black children and 28% of the Latino children were overweight. More than 75% of the parents were either overweight or obese. The development of interventions to effectively prevent or control obesity early in life is crucial. These data highlight the escalating problem of weight control in minority populations.

  12. Results of the 2004 Knowledge and Opinions Surveys for the Baseline Knowledge Assessment of the U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmoyer, Richard L [ORNL; Truett, Lorena Faith [ORNL; Cooper, Christy [U.S. Department of Energy

    2006-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program focuses on overcoming critical barriers to the widespread use of hydrogen fuel cell technology. The transition to a new, hydrogen-based energy economy requires an educated human infrastructure. With this in mind, the DOE Hydrogen Program conducted statistical surveys to measure and establish baselines for understanding and awareness about hydrogen, fuel cells, and a hydrogen economy. The baseline data will serve as a reference in designing an education program, and it will be used in comparisons with future survey results (2008 and 2011) to measure changes in understanding and awareness. Scientific sampling was used to survey four populations: (1) the general public, ages 18 and over; (2) students, ages 12-17; (3) state and local government officials; and (4) potential large-scale hydrogen users. It was decided that the survey design should include about 1,000 individuals in each of the general public and student categories, about 250 state and local officials, and almost 100 large-scale end users. The survey questions were designed to accomplish specific objectives. Technical questions measured technical understanding and awareness of hydrogen technology. Opinion questions measured attitudes about safety, cost, the environment, and convenience, as well as the likelihood of future applications of hydrogen technology. For most of the questions, "I don't know" or "I have no opinion" were acceptable answers. Questions about information sources assessed how energy technology information is received. The General Public and Student Survey samples were selected by random digit dialing. Potential large-scale end users were selected by random sampling. The State and Local Government Survey was of the entire targeted population of government officials (not a random sample). All four surveys were administered by computer-assisted telephone interviewing (CATI). For each population, the length of the survey was less than

  13. Personality and Total Health Through Life Project Eye Substudy: Methodology and Baseline Retinal Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijngaarden, Peter Van; Keel, Stuart; Hodgson, Lauren A B; Kumar, Dinesh K; Aliahmad, Behzad; Paim, Cistiane C; Kiely, Kim M; Cherbuin, Nicolas; Anstey, Kaarin J; Dirani, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    To describe the methodology and present the retinal grading findings of an older sample of australians with well-defined indices of neurocognitive function in the Personality and total Health (PATH) through life project. A cross-sectional study. Three hundred twenty-six individuals from the PatH through life project were invited to participate. Participants completed a general questionnaire and 2-field, 45-degree nonmydriatic color digital retinal photography. Photographs were graded for retinal pathology according to established protocols. Two hundred fifty-four (77.9%) subjects, aged 72 to 78 years, agreed to participate in the eye substudy. gradable images of at least 1 eye were acquired in 211 of 254 subjects (83.1%). retinal photographic screening identified 1 or more signs of pathology in 130 of the 174 subjects (74.7%) with gradable images of both eyes. a total of 45 participants (17.7%) had self-reported diabetes and diabetic retinopathy was observed in 22 (48.9%) of these participants. This well-defined sample of older australians provides a unique opportunity to interrogate associations between retinal findings, including retinal vascular geometric parameters, and indices of neurocognitive function. Copyright 2017 Asia-Pacific Academy of Ophthalmology.

  14. National health interview surveys in Europe: an overview.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hupkens, C.L.H.; Berg, J. van den; Zee, J. van der

    1999-01-01

    In order to study the value of national health interview surveys for national and international research and policy activities, this paper examines the existence and content of recent and future health interview surveys in the 15 member states of the European Union (EU), Norway, Iceland and

  15. Health inequalities: survey data compared to doctor defined data.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westert, G.P.; Schellevis, F.G.

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To compare prevalence of conditions and health inequalities in one study population using two methods of data collection: health interview survey and GP registration of consultations. Methods: Data is from the Second Dutch Survey of General Practice, using a multistage sampling design with

  16. Association between Cognitive Status and Physical Activity: Study Profile on Baseline Survey of the My Mind Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Gagliardi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of people with dementia is expected to increase significantly in the coming years, but it seems that there is a relationship between an active lifestyle and cognitive decline. The present study aimed to compare the characteristics and engagement in the physical activity (PA of three groups of Italian elderly with different cognitive statuses at baseline phase. Methods: Data were examined using the results from the “My Mind Project” on 305 community-dwelling Italians. The sample was comprised of 93 subjects with Alzheimer’s disease (AD, 109 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI and 103 healthy elderly (HE. Results: Classification of subjects on the basis of Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE score showed that 47% of HE performed the highest level of physical activity while 40% of AD performed the lowest level. MCI subjects were distributed quite homogeneously across the levels (p < 0.001. Physical activity such as walking and light sports was carried out mainly and more frequently by HE as compared to the others (p < 0.05. As regards functional status, AD presented worse conditions in basic and instrumental activities of daily living than the other groups (p < 0.001. Conclusions: Our results evidenced that subjects with cognitive decline had the tendency to engage in PA less than HE. In particular, age and education negatively affected engagement in PA.

  17. Brief 75 Health Physics Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2014 Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-03-05

    The 2014 survey includes degrees granted between September 1, 2013 and August 31, 2014. Enrollment information refers to the fall term 2014. Twenty-two academic programs were included in the survey universe, with all 22 programs providing data. Since 2009, data for two health physics programs located in engineering departments are also included in the nuclear engineering survey. The enrollments and degrees data includes students majoring in health physics or in an option program equivalent to a major.

  18. Efficiency of workplace surveys conducted by Finnish occupational health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savinainen, Minna; Oksa, Panu

    2011-07-01

    In Finland, workplace surveys are used to identify and assess health risks and problems caused by work and make suggestions for continuous improvement of the work environment. With the aid of the workplace survey, occupational health services can be tailored to a company. The aims of this study were to determine how occupational health professionals gather data via the workplace survey and the effect survey results have on companies. A total of 259 occupational health nurses and 108 occupational health physicians responded to the questionnaire: 84.2% were women and 15.8% were men. The mean age of the respondents was 48.8 years (range, 26 to 65 years). Usually occupational health nurses and foremen and sometimes occupational health physicians and occupational safety and health representatives initiate the workplace survey. More than 90% of the surveys were followed by action proposals, and about 50% of these were implemented. The proposals implemented most often concerned personal protective equipment and less often leadership. Survey respondents should have both the opportunity and the authority to affect resources, the work environment, work arrangements, and tools. Teamwork among occupational health and safety professionals, management, and employees is vital for cost-effectively solving today's complex problems at workplaces around the globe. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. Under-nutrition at baseline and health services utilization and mortality over a one-year period in older adults receiving Medicare home health services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongbin; Brown, Cynthia J.; Burgio, Kathryn L.; Kilgore, Meredith L.; Ritchie, Christine S.; Roth, David L.; West, Delia Smith; Locher, Julie L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Older adults receiving Medicare home health services who experience under-nutrition may be at increased risk of experiencing adverse outcomes. We sought to identify the association between baseline nutritional status and subsequent health service utilization and mortality over a one-year period in older adults receiving Medicare home health services. Design This was a longitudinal study using questionnaires and anthropometric measures designed to assess nutritional status (Mini-Nutritional Assessment [MNA]) at baseline and health services utilization and mortality status at six-month and one-year follow-ups. Setting Participants were evaluated in their homes. Participants 198 older adults who were receiving Medicare home health services. Results Based upon MNA, 12.0% of patients were Malnourished, 51.0% were At Risk for Malnourishment, and 36.9% had Normal Nutrition Status. Based upon body mass index (BMI), 8.1% of participants were underweight, 37.9% were normal weight, 25.3% were overweight, and 28.8% were obese. Using multivariate binary logistic regression analyses, participants who were Malnourished or At Risk for Malnourishment were more likely to experience subsequent hospitalization, emergency room visit, home health aide use, and mortality for the entire sample and hospitalization and nursing home stay for overweight and obese participants. Conclusions Experiencing under-nutrition at the time of receipt of Medicare home health services was associated with increased health services utilization and mortality for the entire sample, and with increased health services utilization only for the overweight and obese subsample. Opportunities exist to address risk of under-nutrition in patients receiving home health services, including those who are overweight or obese, to prevent subsequent adverse health outcomes. PMID:21527170

  20. A national survey (NAP5-Ireland baseline) to estimate an annual incidence of accidental awareness during general anaesthesia in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jonker, W R

    2014-06-29

    As part of the 5th National Audit Project of the Royal College of Anaesthetists and the Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland concerning accidental awareness during general anaesthesia, we issued a questionnaire to every consultant anaesthetist in each of 46 public hospitals in Ireland, represented by 41 local co-ordinators. The survey ascertained the number of new cases of accidental awareness becoming known to them for patients under their care or supervision for a calendar year, as well as their career experience. Consultants from all hospitals responded, with an individual response rate of 87% (299 anaesthetists). There were eight new cases of accidental awareness that became known to consultants in 2011; an estimated incidence of 1:23 366. Two out of the eight cases (25%) occurred at or after induction of anaesthesia, but before surgery; four cases (50%) occurred during surgery; and two cases (25%) occurred after surgery was complete, but before full emergence. Four cases were associated with pain or distress (50%), one after an experience at induction and three after experiences during surgery. There were no formal complaints or legal actions that arose in 2011 related to awareness. Depth of anaesthesia monitoring was reported to be available in 33 (80%) departments, and was used by 184 consultants (62%), 18 (6%) routinely. None of the 46 hospitals had a policy to prevent or manage awareness. Similar to the results of a larger survey in the UK, the disparity between the incidence of awareness as known to anaesthetists and that reported in trials warrants explanation. Compared with UK practice, there appears to be greater use of depth of anaesthesia monitoring in Ireland, although this is still infrequent.

  1. A national survey (NAP5-Ireland baseline) to estimate an annual incidence of accidental awareness during general anaesthesia in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, W R; Hanumanthiah, D; O'Sullivan, E P; Cook, T M; Pandit, J J

    2014-09-01

    As part of the 5th National Audit Project of the Royal College of Anaesthetists and the Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland concerning accidental awareness during general anaesthesia, we issued a questionnaire to every consultant anaesthetist in each of 46 public hospitals in Ireland, represented by 41 local co-ordinators. The survey ascertained the number of new cases of accidental awareness becoming known to them for patients under their care or supervision for a calendar year, as well as their career experience. Consultants from all hospitals responded, with an individual response rate of 87% (299 anaesthetists). There were eight new cases of accidental awareness that became known to consultants in 2011; an estimated incidence of 1:23 366. Two out of the eight cases (25%) occurred at or after induction of anaesthesia, but before surgery; four cases (50%) occurred during surgery; and two cases (25%) occurred after surgery was complete, but before full emergence. Four cases were associated with pain or distress (50%), one after an experience at induction and three after experiences during surgery. There were no formal complaints or legal actions that arose in 2011 related to awareness. Depth of anaesthesia monitoring was reported to be available in 33 (80%) departments, and was used by 184 consultants (62%), 18 (6%) routinely. None of the 46 hospitals had a policy to prevent or manage awareness. Similar to the results of a larger survey in the UK, the disparity between the incidence of awareness as known to anaesthetists and that reported in trials warrants explanation. Compared with UK practice, there appears to be greater use of depth of anaesthesia monitoring in Ireland, although this is still infrequent. © 2014 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  2. Survey nonresponse among ethnic minorities in a national health survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlmark, Nanna; Algren, Maria Holst; Holmberg, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    and incentives to participation. Design. This was a mixed-method study. Logistic regression was used to analyze nonresponse using data from DNHS (N = 177,639 and chi-square tests in item nonresponse analyses. We explored barriers and incentives regarding participation through focus groups and cognitive...... the questionnaire and the cover letter. The sender and setting in which to receive the questionnaire also influenced answering incentives. We observed differences in barriers and incentives between immigrants and descendants. Conclusions. Nonresponse appears related to linguistic and/or educational limitations......, to alienation generated by the questions' focus on disease and cultural assumptions, or mistrust regarding anonymity. Ethnic minorities seem particularly affected by such barriers. To increase survey participation, questions could be sensitized to reflect multicultural traditions, and the impact of sender...

  3. To detect cycle slip for GNSS medium-long baseline in real time marine surveys using fitting method by a selection of the parameter weights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, X.

    2016-12-01

    Distance-related errors complicate the resolution of real-time ambiguity in medium-long baseline marine surveys. Therefore, detection and recovery of cycle slips in real time is required to ensure high accuracy of global navigation satellite system positioning and navigation in marine surveys. To resolve this, an improved method was presented, where linear combinations of the triple-differenced (TD) between carriers L1 and L2 were formed for a wide lane and free ionosphere. To overcome severe ill-conditioned problems of the normal equation, the fitting method by a selection of the parameter weights was used. suggested the construction of a regularized matrix by combining a priori information of known coordinates of reference stations, followed by the determination of the corresponding regularized parameter. A float solution was calculated for the TD ambiguity. The search cycle slip (TD integer ambiguity) was obtained using the least-squares ambiguity decorrelation adjustment (LAMBDA) method. Using our method, cycle slips of several reference station-baselines with lengths of a few hundred to one thousand kilometers were detected in real-time. The results were consistent with professional software, with a success rate of 100%.

  4. Baseline survey for rare plant species and native plant communities within the Kamehameha Schools 'Lupea Safe Harbor Planning Project Area, North Kona District, Island of Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, James; Warshauer, F. R.; Price, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Kamehameha Schools, in conjunction with several federal, state, and private organizations, has proposed to conduct conservation management on approximately 5,340 ha (~13,200 acres) of land they own in the vicinity of Kīpukalupea in the North Kona District on the island of Hawai'i. The goal of this program is to restore and enhance the habitat to benefit native plant and animal populations that are currently, or were formerly, found in this site. The initial phase of this project has been focused on various activities including conducting baseline surveys for bird and plant species so Kamehameha Schools could develop a Safe Harbor Agreement (SHA) for the proposed project lands relative to the habitat management and species reintroduction efforts they would like to conduct in the Lupea Project area. This report summarizes methods that were used to collect field data on plant species and communities within the project area, and the results of that initial survey. The information was used to calculate baseline values for all listed threatened or endangered plant species found, or expected to be found, within the project area, and to design a monitoring program to assess changes in plant communities and rare plant species relative to management activities over the duration of the SHA.

  5. Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey (HABLAS): effects of container size adjustments on estimates of alcohol consumption across Hispanic national groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Raul; Mills, Britain A; Harris, T Robert

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine discrepancies in alcohol consumption estimates between a self-reported standard quantity-frequency measure and an adjusted version based on respondents' typically used container size. Using a multistage cluster sample design, 5,224 Hispanic individuals 18 years of age and older were selected from the household population in five metropolitan areas of the United States: Miami, New York, Philadelphia, Houston, and Los Angeles. The survey-weighted response rate was 76%. Personal interviews lasting an average of 1 hour were conducted in respondents' homes in either English or Spanish. The overall effect of container adjustment was to increase estimates of ethanol consumption by 68% for women (range across Hispanic groups: 17%-99%) and 30% for men (range: 14%-42%). With the exception of female Cuban American, Mexican American, and South/Central American beer drinkers and male Cuban American wine drinkers, all percentage differences between unadjusted and container-adjusted estimates were positive. Second, container adjustments produced the largest change for volume of distilled spirits, followed by wine and beer. Container size adjustments generally produced larger percentage increases in consumption estimates for the higher volume drinkers, especially the upper tertile of female drinkers. Self-reported alcohol consumption based on standard drinks underreports consumption when compared with reports based on the amount of alcohol poured into commonly used containers.

  6. Baseline survey of the fish fauna of a highly eutrophic estuary and evidence for its colonisation by Goldfish (Carassius auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R. Tweedley

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study represents the first quantitative survey of the fish fauna of the highly eutrophic Vasse and Wonnerup estuaries, part of the Ramsar-listed Vasse-Wonnerup Wetland System in south-western Australia. Sampling at five sites in each of these estuaries occurred in January 2012 (austral summer to provide a species inventory and determine whether the number of species, total density and fish community composition differed between the two water bodies. A total of 18,148 fish were recorded, representing six species across four families. Three species that can complete their life cycle within estuaries, i.e. the atherinids Lepthatherina wallacei and Atherinosoma elongata and the gobiid Pseudogobius olorum, dominated the fish fauna, accounting for >99% of all fish collected. No significant inter-estuary differences were observed in the mean number of species, mean total density or fish community composition. Although the fish community was depauperate in terms of the number of species, total density was high, reflecting the presence of permanent and seasonal barriers to the immigration of marine species into these estuaries and the highly productive nature of this system, respectively. Two introduced freshwater species, i.e. the Eastern Gambusia Gambusia holbrooki and the Goldfish, Carassius auratus, were recorded in the Vasse Estuary. As C. auratus was found in mesohaline conditions, individuals may be able to use the estuary as a ‘saltbridge’ to gain access to other tributaries and/or the Wonnerup Estuary, and thus expand their distribution. These findings are of concern given the potential deleterious biological and ecological effects of these alien species.

  7. Survey on patient safety culture in the Republic of Moldova: a baseline study in three healthcare settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tereanu, Carmen; Sampietro, Giuseppe; Sarnataro, Francesco; Siscanu, Dumitru; Palaria, Rodica; Savin, Victor; Cliscovscaia, Tatiana; Pislaru, Valentina; Oglinda, Valeriu; Capmare, Larisa; Ghelase, Mugurel Stefan; Turcanu, Tamara

    2018-01-01

    The Republic of Moldova is a small ex-soviet country in the Central Eastern European group of states, whose official language is Romanian. In countries with limited resources, quality improvement in healthcare and patient safety are very challenging. This study aims to identify which areas of the patient safety culture (PSC) need prompt intervention. A cross-sectional study was conducted in three Moldovan healthcare settings, using the Romanian translation of the US Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture HSOPSC. Descriptive statistics were carried out, based on the responses from n. 929 staff. Percentages of positive responses (PPRs) by item (41 items) and composite (12 PSC areas) were computed. Most respondents were nurses (53%), followed by doctors (35%). The main work areas were: primary care (27%), medical specialties (20%), gynecology and obstetrics (16%), and general surgery (11%). The highest composite PPRs were for: teamwork within units (80%), feedback & communication about error, organizational learning-continuous improvement and supervisor/manager expectations & actions promoting patient safety (78%), and management support for patient safety (75%). The lowest composites were for: frequency of events reported (57%), non-punitive response to errors (53%), communication openness (51%) and staffing (37%). Our results suggest that staffing issues should be tackled to provide safe care. Staff avoid to openly report adverse events and/or discuss errors, likely because a poor understanding of the potential of these events for learning and because of fear of blame or punitive actions. Future research should check psychometrics of the Romanian version of the HSOPSC applied to Moldovan staff.

  8. Examining domains of community health nurse satisfaction and motivation: results from a mixed-methods baseline evaluation in rural Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Emma; Alva, Soumya; Magalona, Sophia; Vesel, Linda

    2015-10-08

    A strong health system requires a competent and caring workforce. A more satisfied and motivated health workforce should be more willing to serve in difficult areas, have lower turnover, and theoretically provide better care to patients. This paper examines the motivation, satisfaction, and correlation with clinical knowledge, of community health nurses (CHNs), a cadre of provider focused on maternal, newborn and child health in rural Ghana. This study employed three methods of evaluation. Two quantitative measurements were used: (1) a survey of health worker satisfaction and motivation and (2) a clinical knowledge assessment focusing on maternal, newborn and child health. Both were administered to all rostered CHNs working in the five sampled districts in the Greater Accra and Volta regions in Eastern Ghana (N = 205). Qualitative interviews (N = 29) and focus group discussions (N = 4) were held with selected CHNs in the same districts. These data were analysed using NVivo (Version 10) and Stata (Version 13.0) based on domains of extrinsic and intrinsic motivation including general satisfaction, work environment and access to resources, respect and recognition received and opportunities for advancement. CHNs desired more training, especially those who were posted at the community level (a Community-based Health Planning and Services post or "CHPS") versus at a health facility. CHNs working at CHPS believed their work to be more difficult than those posted at health facilities, due to challenges associated with foot travel to visit patients at home, and they were more likely to report having insufficient resources to do their jobs (48% vs 36%). However, CHNs posted at health facilities were more likely to report insufficient opportunities for career advancement than the CHPS nurses (49% vs 33%). CHNs generally reported good relationships with colleagues and being respected by patients but desired more respect from supervisors. The median score on the

  9. The Physical and Mental Health of A Large Military Cohort: Baseline Functional Health Status of the Millennium Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-26

    irritable bowel syndrome [51], fibromyalgia [52], and chronic fatigue syndrome [53,54]. Women serving inPage 8 of 13 (page number not for citation purposes...University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA. 4Analytic Services, Inc. (ANSER), Arlington, VA, USA. 5 Seattle Epidemiologic Research and Information Center...Millennium Cohort; validation and measures of health. Am J Prev Med 2007, 32(4):347-353. 28. Smith B, Smith TC, Gray GC, Ryan MA: When Epidemiology Meets

  10. Post-polio syndrome and risk factors in korean polio survivors: a baseline survey by telephone interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Hyun; Suh, Jee Hyun; Lee, Seung Yeol; Kim, Keewon; Yang, Eun Joo; Jung, Se Hee; Jang, Soong-Nang; Han, Soo Jeong; Kim, Wan-Ho; Oh, Min-Gyun; Kim, Jeong-Hwan; Lee, Sam-Gyu; Lim, Jae-Young

    2014-10-01

    To obtain information on the socioeconomic, medical, and functional status of polio survivors, and to use these results as the preliminary data for establishing the middle-aged cohort of polio survivors. The subjects were recruited based on the medical records of multiple hospitals and centers. They were assessed through a structured questionnaire over the phone. Post-poliomyelitis syndrome (PPS) was identified according to the specified diagnostic criteria. Differences between polio survivors with or without PPS were evaluated, and the risk factors for PPS were analyzed by the odds ratio (OR). Majority of polio survivors were middle-aged and mean age was 51.2±8.3 years. A total of 188 out of 313 polio survivors met the adopted criteria for PPS based on the symptoms, yielding a prevalence of 61.6%. Mean interval between acute poliomyelitis and the development of PPS was 38.5±11.6 years. Female gender (OR 1.82; confidence interval [CI] 1.09-3.06), the age at onset of poliomyelitis (OR 1.75; CI 1.05-2.94), the use of orthoses or walking aids (OR 2.46; CI 1.44-4.20), and the history of medical treatment for paralysis, pain or gait disturbance (OR 2.62; CI 1.52-4.51) represented independent risk factors for PPS. We found that the majority of Korean polio survivors entered middle age with many medical, functional, and social problems. Female gender, early age of onset of poliomyelitis, the use of orthoses or walking aids, and the history of medical treatment for paralysis, pain or gait disturbance were identified as the significant risk factors for PPS. A comprehensive and multidisciplinary plan should be prepared to manage polio survivors considering their need for health care services and the risk factors for late effects, such as PPS.

  11. Data on subgroup specific baseline characteristics and serum sphingosine-1-phosphate concentrations in the Study of Health in Pomerania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen Moritz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this data article, we provide subgroup specific baseline characteristics and serum sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P concentrations for healthy individuals within the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-TREND cohort. After exclusion of subjects with cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, elevated liver enzymes and/or chronic kidney disease stadium III or IV, four subgroups were defined according to different limits for body mass index (BMI, alterations in blood lipid levels and smoking status. Tables show respective clinical and laboratory parameters stratified by gender. Serum S1P concentrations are also stratified by age groups. The data presented herein is related to the research article entitled “Reference intervals for serum sphingosine-1-phosphate in the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania” (E. Moritz, D. Wegner, S. Groß, M. Bahls, M. Dörr, S.B. Felix, T. Ittermann, S. Oswald, M. Nauck, N. Friedrich, R.H. Böger, G. Daum, E. Schwedhelm, B.H. Rauch, Clin Chim Acta. 468 (2017 25–31 [1].

  12. Data on subgroup specific baseline characteristics and serum sphingosine-1-phosphate concentrations in the Study of Health in Pomerania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Eileen; Wegner, Danilo; Groß, Stefan; Bahls, Martin; Dörr, Marcus; Felix, Stephan B; Ittermann, Till; Oswald, Stefan; Nauck, Matthias; Friedrich, Nele; Böger, Rainer H; Daum, Günter; Schwedhelm, Edzard; Rauch, Bernhard H

    2017-06-01

    In this data article, we provide subgroup specific baseline characteristics and serum sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) concentrations for healthy individuals within the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP)-TREND cohort. After exclusion of subjects with cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, elevated liver enzymes and/or chronic kidney disease stadium III or IV, four subgroups were defined according to different limits for body mass index (BMI), alterations in blood lipid levels and smoking status. Tables show respective clinical and laboratory parameters stratified by gender. Serum S1P concentrations are also stratified by age groups. The data presented herein is related to the research article entitled "Reference intervals for serum sphingosine-1-phosphate in the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania" (E. Moritz, D. Wegner, S. Groß, M. Bahls, M. Dörr, S.B. Felix, T. Ittermann, S. Oswald, M. Nauck, N. Friedrich, R.H. Böger, G. Daum, E. Schwedhelm, B.H. Rauch, Clin Chim Acta. 468 (2017) 25-31) [1].

  13. Common mental disorders and sociodemographic characteristics: baseline findings of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Maria A; Pinheiro, Andréa P; Bessel, Marina; Brunoni, André R; Kemp, Andrew H; Benseñor, Isabela M; Chor, Dora; Barreto, Sandhi; Schmidt, Maria I

    2016-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of common mental disorders (CMD) and the association of CMD with sociodemographic characteristics in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) cohort. We analyzed data from the cross-sectional baseline assessment of the ELSA-Brasil, a cohort study of 15,105 civil servants from six Brazilian cities. The Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised (CIS-R) was used to investigate the presence of CMD, with a score ≥ 12 indicating a current CMD (last week). Specific diagnostic algorithms for each disorder were based on the ICD-10 diagnostic criteria. Prevalence ratios (PR) of the association between CMD and sociodemographic characteristics were estimated by Poisson regression. CMD (CIS-R score ≥ 12) was found in 26.8% (95% confidence intervals [95%CI] 26.1-27.5). The highest burden occurred among women (PR 1.9; 95%CI 1.8-2.0), the youngest (PR 1.7; 95%CI 1.5-1.9), non-white individuals, and those without a university degree. The most frequent diagnostic category was anxiety disorders (16.2%), followed by depressive episodes (4.2%). The burden of CMD was high, particularly among the more socially vulnerable groups. These findings highlight the need to strengthen public policies aimed to address health inequities related to mental disorders.

  14. Behavioral Health and the Comprehensive Primary Care (CPC) Initiative: findings from the 2014 CPC behavioral health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivin, Kara; Miller, Benjamin F; Finke, Bruce; Bitton, Asaf; Payne, Perry; Stowe, Edith C; Reddy, Ashok; Day, Timothy J; Lapin, Pauline; Jin, Janel L; Sessums, Laura L

    2017-08-29

    Incorporating behavioral health care into patient centered medical homes is critical for improving patient health and care quality while reducing costs. Despite documented effectiveness of behavioral health integration (BHI) in primary care settings, implementation is limited outside of large health systems. We conducted a survey of BHI in primary care practices participating in the Comprehensive Primary Care (CPC) initiative, a four-year multi-payer initiative of the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). We sought to explore associations between practice characteristics and the extent of BHI to illuminate possible factors influencing successful implementation. We fielded a survey that addressed six substantive domains (integrated space, training, access, communication and coordination, treatment planning, and available resources) and five behavioral health conditions (depression, anxiety, pain, alcohol use disorder, and cognitive function). Descriptive statistics compared BHI survey respondents to all CPC practices, documented the availability of behavioral health providers, and primary care and behavioral health provider communication. Bivariate relationships compared provider and practice characteristics and domain scores. One hundred sixty-one of 188 eligible primary care practices completed the survey (86% response rate). Scores indicated basic to good baseline implementation of BHI in all domains, with lowest scores on communication and coordination and highest scores for depression. Higher scores were associated with: having any behavioral health provider, multispecialty practice, patient-centered medical home designation, and having any communication between behavioral health and primary care providers. This study provides useful data on opportunities and challenges of scaling BHI integration linked to primary care transformation. Payment reform models such as CPC can assist in BHI promotion and development.

  15. Health sciences library building projects, 1998 survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, V M

    1999-10-01

    Twenty-eight health sciences library building projects are briefly described, including twelve new buildings and sixteen additions, remodelings, and renovations. The libraries range in size from 2,144 square feet to 190,000 gross square feet. Twelve libraries are described in detail. These include three hospital libraries, one information center sponsored by ten institutions, and eight academic health sciences libraries.

  16. Study protocol for the Fukushima health management survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasumura, Seiji; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Yamashita, Shunichi; Kamiya, Kenji; Abe, Masafumi; Akashi, Makoto; Kodama, Kazunori; Ozasa, Kotaro

    2012-01-01

    The accidents that occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant after the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011 have resulted in long-term, ongoing anxiety among the residents of Fukushima, Japan. Soon after the disaster, Fukushima Prefecture launched the Fukushima Health Management Survey to investigate long-term low-dose radiation exposure caused by the accident. Fukushima Medical University took the lead in planning and implementing this survey. The primary purposes of this survey are to monitor the long-term health of residents, promote their future well-being, and confirm whether long-term low-dose radiation exposure has health effects. This report describes the rationale and implementation of the Fukushima Health Management Survey. This cohort study enrolled all people living in Fukushima Prefecture after the earthquake and comprises a basic survey and 4 detailed surveys. The basic survey is to estimate levels of external radiation exposure among all 2.05 million residents. It should be noted that internal radiation levels were estimated by Fukushima Prefecture using whole-body counters. The detailed surveys comprise a thyroid ultrasound examination for all Fukushima children aged 18 years or younger, a comprehensive health check for all residents from the evacuation zones, an assessment of mental health and lifestyles of all residents from the evacuation zones, and recording of all pregnancies and births among all women in the prefecture who were pregnant on 11 March. All data have been entered into a database and will be used to support the residents and analyze the health effects of radiation. The low response rate (<30%) to the basic survey complicates the estimation of health effects. There have been no cases of malignancy to date among 38 114 children who received thyroid ultrasound examinations. The importance of mental health care was revealed by the mental health and lifestyle survey and the pregnancy and birth survey. This long

  17. Study protocol for the Fukushima Health Management Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasumura, Seiji; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Yamashita, Shunichi; Kamiya, Kenji; Abe, Masafumi; Akashi, Makoto; Kodama, Kazunori; Ozasa, Kotaro

    2012-01-01

    The accidents that occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant after the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011 have resulted in long-term, ongoing anxiety among the residents of Fukushima, Japan. Soon after the disaster, Fukushima Prefecture launched the Fukushima Health Management Survey to investigate long-term low-dose radiation exposure caused by the accident. Fukushima Medical University took the lead in planning and implementing this survey. The primary purposes of this survey are to monitor the long-term health of residents, promote their future well-being, and confirm whether long-term low-dose radiation exposure has health effects. This report describes the rationale and implementation of the Fukushima Health Management Survey. This cohort study enrolled all people living in Fukushima Prefecture after the earthquake and comprises a basic survey and 4 detailed surveys. The basic survey is to estimate levels of external radiation exposure among all 2.05 million residents. It should be noted that internal radiation levels were estimated by Fukushima Prefecture using whole-body counters. The detailed surveys comprise a thyroid ultrasound examination for all Fukushima children aged 18 years or younger, a comprehensive health check for all residents from the evacuation zones, an assessment of mental health and lifestyles of all residents from the evacuation zones, and recording of all pregnancies and births among all women in the prefecture who were pregnant on 11 March. All data have been entered into a database and will be used to support the residents and analyze the health effects of radiation. The low response rate (<30%) to the basic survey complicates the estimation of health effects. There have been no cases of malignancy to date among 38 114 children who received thyroid ultrasound examinations. The importance of mental health care was revealed by the mental health and lifestyle survey and the pregnancy and birth survey. This long

  18. DairyBISS Baseline report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buizer, N.N.; Berhanu, Tinsae; Murutse, Girmay; Vugt, van S.M.

    2015-01-01

    This baseline report of the Dairy Business Information Service and Support (DairyBISS) project presents the findings of a baseline survey among 103 commercial farms and 31 firms and advisors working in the dairy value chain. Additional results from the survey among commercial dairy farms are

  19. Environmental Baseline Survey Report for the Title Transfer of Parcel ED-9 at the East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SAIC

    2010-05-01

    This environmental baseline survey (EBS) report documents the baseline environmental conditions of the U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Parcel ED-9 at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP). Parcel ED-9 consists of about 13 acres that DOE proposes to transfer to Heritage Center, LLC (hereafter referred to as 'Heritage Center'), a subsidiary of the Community Reuse Organization of East Tennessee (CROET). The 13 acres include two tracts of land, referred to as ED-9A (7.06 acres) and ED-9B (5.02 acres), and a third tract consisting of about 900 linear feet of paved road and adjacent right-of-way, referred to as ED-9C (0.98 acres). Transfer of the title to ED-9 will be by deed under a Covenant Deferral Request (CDR) pursuant to Section 120(h)(3)(C) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). This report provides a summary of information to support the transfer of this government-owned property at ETTP to a non-federal entity.

  20. The incorporation of gender perspective into Spanish health surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohlfs, Izabella; Borrell, Carme; Artazcoz, Lucia; Escribà-Agüir, Vicenta

    2007-12-01

    Most studies into social determinants of health conducted in Spain based on data from health surveys have focused on social class inequalities. This paper aims to review the progressive incorporation of gender perspective and sex differences into health surveys in Spain, and to suggest design, data collection and analytical proposals as well as to make policy proposals. Changes introduced into health surveys in Spain since 1995 to incorporate gender perspective are examined, and proposals for the future are made, which would permit the analysis of differences in health between women and men as a result of biology or because of gender inequalities. The introduction of gender perspective in health surveys requires the incorporation of questions related to family setting and reproductive work, workplace and society in general to detect gender differences and inequalities (for example, domestic work, intimate partner violence, discrimination, contract type or working hours). Health indicators reflecting differential morbidity and taking into account the different life cycle stages must also be incorporated. Analyses ought to be disaggregated by sex and interpretation of results must consider the complex theoretical frameworks explaining the differences in health between men and women based on sex differences and those related to gender. Analysis of survey data ought to consider the impact of social, political and cultural constructs of each society. Any significant modification in procedures for collection of data relevant to the study of gender will require systematic coordination between institutions generating the data and researchers who are trained in and sensitive to the topic.

  1. Baseline health-related quality of life and 10-year all-cause mortality among 1739 Chinese adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaoqiang Xie

    Full Text Available Health-related quality of life (HRQOL may be associated with the longevity of patients; yet it is not clear whether this association holds in a general population, especially in low- and middle-income countries. The objective of this study was to determine whether baseline HRQOL was associated with 10-year all-cause mortality in a Chinese general population.A prospective cohort study was conducted from 2002 to 2012 on 1739 participants in 11 villages of Beijing. Baseline data on six domains of HRQOL, chronic diseases and cardiovascular risk factors were collected in either 2002 (n = 1290 or 2005 (n = 449. Subjects were followed through the end of the study period, or until they were censored due to death or loss to follow-up, whichever came first.A multivariable Cox model estimated that Total HRQOL score (bottom 50% versus top 50% was associated with a 44% increase in all-cause mortality (Hazard Ratio [HR] = 1.44; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.00-2.06, after adjusting for sex, age, education levels, occupation, marital status, smoking status, fruit intake, vegetable intake, physical exercise, hypertension, history of a stroke, myocardial infarction, chronic respiratory disease, and kidney disease. Among the six HRQOL domains, the Independence domain had the largest fully adjusted HR (HR = 1.66; 95% CI: 1.13-2.42, followed by Psychological (HR = 1.47; 95% CI: 1.03-2.09, Environmental (HR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.003-2.03, Physical (HR = 1.38; 95% CI: 0.97-1.95, General (HR = 1.37; 95% CI: 0.97-1.94, and the Social domain (HR = 1.15; 95% CI: 0.81-1.65.Lower HRQOL, especially the inability to live independently, was associated with a significantly increased risk of 10-year all-cause mortality. The inclusion of HRQOL measures in clinical assessment may improve diagnostic accuracy to improve clinical outcomes and better target public health promotions.

  2. Baseline glycemic status and mortality in 241,499 Korean metropolitan subjects: A Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Eun-Jung; Park, Se Eun; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Lee, Won-Young

    2016-02-01

    Diabetes and prediabetes subjects have increased risk for mortality. We analyzed the mortality risk due to all causes, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer in Korean subjects participating in a health-screening program according to baseline glycemic status and HbA1c levels. Among 241,499 participants of a health-screening program between 2005 and 2012, the risk of death from all causes, CVD, and cancer was calculated based on the baseline glycemic status (normoglycemia, prediabetes, and diabetes) and HbA1c levels. Uncontrolled diabetes was defined as HbA1c≥7.0%. Vital status and confirmation of the cause of death were based on the analysis of death certificate records from the National Death Index. During 923,343.1 person-years of follow-up, 877 participants died. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of subjects with controlled and uncontrolled diabetes to normoglycemic subjects for all-cause mortality were 1.58 (95% CI 1.24-2.03) and 2.26 (95% CI 1.78-2.86), respectively. The HRs of subjects with controlled and uncontrolled diabetes to normoglycemic subjects for mortality due to cancer were 1.75 (95% CI 1.23-2.48) and 1.67 (95% CI 1.13-2.45). However, glycemic status was not significantly associated with the risk of mortality due to CVD. The subjects with HbA1c higher than 6.5% showed more than 2-fold increased risk for all-cause mortality and the subjects with HbA1c lower than 5.2% showed increased HR (1.45, 95% CI 1.06-1.97) compared with those with HbA1c of 5.5% in subjects not taking anti-diabetic medications. Mortality risk from all causes and cancer significantly increased in diabetes subjects regardless of the glucose control status. In subjects not taking anti-diabetic medications, both high and low HbA1c resulted in increased risk for all-cause mortality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Public health questions on physical disabilities and musculoskeletal conditions : studies using health surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Picavet, H.S.J.

    2001-01-01

    For population-based information on physical disability and musculoskeletal conditions health surveys are the most important source of information. In this thesis studies are presented on the methods of the health survey and on public health questions concerning physical disabilities and

  4. Baseline demographic profile and general health influencing the post-radiotherapy health related quality-of-life in women with gynaecological malignancy treated with pelvic irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourav Sau

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cancer specific survival and quality-of-life (QOL assessment are important in evaluating cancer treatment outcomes. Baseline demographic profiles have significant effects on follow-up health related QOL (HRQOL and affect the outcome of treatments. Materials and Methods: Post-operative gynaecological cancer patients required adjuvant pelvic radiation enrolled longitudinal assessment study. Patients had completed the short form-36 (SF-36 questionnaire before the adjuvant radiotherapy and functional assessments of cancer therapy-general module at 6 th month′s follow-up period to assess the HRQOL. Baseline variables were race, age, body mass index (BMI, education, marital status, type of surgery, physical composite scores (PCS and mental composite scores (MCS summary scores of the SF-36. Univariate and multivariate regression analysis used to determine the influence of these variables on post-radiotherapy HRQOL domains. Results: Baseline PCS, MCS, age, education and marital status had positively correlation with post-radiotherapy HRQOL while higher BMI had a negative impact in univariate analysis. In multivariate regression analysis, education and MCS had a positive correlation while higher BMI had a negative correlation with HRQOL domains. Conclusion: Enhance our ability to detect demographic variables and modify those factors and develops new treatment aimed at improving all aspect of gynaecological cancer including good QOL.

  5. The "Medicine in Australia: Balancing Employment and Life (MABEL" longitudinal survey - Protocol and baseline data for a prospective cohort study of Australian doctors' workforce participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witt Julia

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While there is considerable research on medical workforce supply trends, there is little research examining the determinants of labour supply decisions for the medical workforce. The "Medicine in Australia: Balancing Employment and Life (MABEL" study investigates workforce participation patterns and their determinants using a longitudinal survey of Australian doctors. It aims to generate evidence to support developing effective policy responses to workforce issues such as shortages and maldistribution. This paper describes the study protocol and baseline cohort, including an analysis of response rates and response bias. Methods/Design MABEL is a prospective cohort study. All Australian doctors undertaking clinical work in 2008 (n = 54,750 were invited to participate, and annual waves of data collections will be undertaken until at least 2011. Data are collected by paper or optional online version of a questionnaire, with content tailored to four sub-groups of clinicians: general practitioners, specialists, specialists in training, and hospital non-specialists. In the baseline wave, data were collected on: job satisfaction, attitudes to work and intentions to quit or change hours worked; a discrete choice experiment examining preferences and trade-offs for different types of jobs; work setting; workload; finances; geographic location; demographics; and family circumstances. Discussion The baseline cohort includes 10,498 Australian doctors, representing an overall response rate of 19.36%. This includes 3,906 general practitioners, 4,596 specialists, 1,072 specialists in training, and 924 hospital non-specialists. Respondents were more likely to be younger, female, and to come from non-metropolitan areas, the latter partly reflecting the effect of a financial incentive on response for doctors in remote and rural areas. Specialists and specialists in training were more likely to respond, whilst hospital non-specialists were less

  6. Health survey in gypsum mines in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandi Subroto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mining is a hazardous occupation in which workers are exposed to adverse conditions. In India, gypsum mining is mainly carried out in the state of Rajasthan, which contributes about 99% of the total production. Objective: The present study was carried out in 12 different gypsum mines in Rajasthan state to determine the health status of the miners. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty workers engaged in mining activities were included in the study and their health status was compared with that of 83 office staff of the same mines. The health status of the employees was evaluated using a standardized medical questionnaire and pulmonary function testing. Statistical Analysis: The unpaired ′t′ test was used to determine whether there was any significant difference between the miners and the controls and the chi-square test to compare the prevalences of various respiratory impairments in workers with that in controls; we also examined the differences between smokers and nonsmokers. Results: Our findings show that the literacy rate is low (42% among the miners. Pulmonary restrictive impairment was significantly higher amongst smokers as compared to nonsmokers in both miners and controls. Hypertension (22.6%, diabetes (8.8%, and musculoskeletal morbidity (8% were the common diseases in miners. Conclusion: This study shows that there is high morbidity amongst miners, thus indicating the need for regular health checkups, health education, use of personal protective devices, and engineering measures for control of the workplace environment.

  7. Pain, psychological distress and health-related quality of life at baseline and 3 months after radical prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansson Fannie

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inadequate management of postoperative pain is common, and postoperative pain is a risk factor for prolonged pain. In addition to medical and technical factors, psychological factors may also influence the experience of postoperative pain. Methods Pain was measured postoperatively at 24, 48, and 72 hr in hospital and after 3 months at home in 140 patients undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP. Patients answered questionnaires about anxiety and depression (HAD scale and health-related quality of life (SF-36 at baseline and 3 months after surgery. Results In the first 3 postoperative days, mild pain was reported by 45 patients (32%, moderate pain by 64 (45%, and severe pain by 31 (22% on one or more days. High postoperative pain scores were correlated with length of hospital stay and with high pain scores at home. Forty patients (29% reported moderate (n = 35 or severe (n = 5 pain after discharge from hospital. Patients who experienced anxiety and depression preoperatively had higher postoperative pain scores and remained anxious and depressed 3 months after surgery. The scores for the physical domains in the SF-36 were decreased, while the mental health scores were increased at 3 months. Anxiety and depression were negatively correlated with all domains of the SF-36. Conclusion There is a need for nurses to be aware of the psychological status of RP patients and its impact upon patients' experience of postoperative pain and recovery. The ability to identify patients with psychological distress and to target interventions is an important goal for future research.

  8. The rationale, design, and baseline characteristics of the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study of Younger Women (WHIMS-Y).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Leslie; Espeland, Mark A; Snively, Beverly; Shumaker, Sally A; Rapp, Stephen R; Shupe, Jill; Robinson, Jennifer G; Sarto, Gloria E; Resnick, Susan M

    2013-06-13

    The Women's Health Initiative Memory Study-Younger (WHIMS-Y) was designed to assess the effect of prior random assignment to hormone therapy (HT) (conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) alone or CEE plus medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA)) on global cognitive function in younger middle-aged women relative to placebo. WHIMS-Y was an ancillary study to the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) HT trial and enrolled 1361 women who were aged 50-55 years and postmenopausal at WHI enrollment. WHIMS-Y will examine whether an average of 5.4 years of HT during early menopause has longer term protective effects on global cognitive function and if these effects vary by regimen, time between menopause and study initiation, and prior use of HT. We present the study rationale and design. We describe enrollment, adherence to assigned WHI therapy, and compare risk factor characteristics of the WHIMS-Y cohort at the time of WHI enrollment to similar aged women in the WHI HT who did not enroll in WHIMS-Y. Challenges of WHIMS-Y include lower than expected and differential enrollment. Strengths of WHIMS-Y include balance in baseline risk factors between treatment groups, standardized and masked data collection, and high rates of retention and on-trial adherence and exposure. In addition, the telephone-administered cognitive battery showed adequate construct validity. WHIMS-Y provided an unprecedented chance to examine the hypothesis that HT may have protective effects on cognition in younger postmenopausal women aged 50-55 years. Integrated into the WHI, WHIMS-Y optimized the experience of WHI investigators to ensure high retention and excellent quality assurance across sites. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Hormone Therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. ADHD and Health Services Utilization in the National Health Interview Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuffe, Steven P.; Moore, Charity G.; McKeown, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Describe the general health, comorbidities and health service use among U.S. children with ADHD. Method: The 2001 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) contained the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ; used to determine probable ADHD), data on medical problems, overall health, and health care utilization. Results: Asthma…

  10. Job loss from poor health, smoking and obesity: a national prospective survey in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusot, F; Khlat, M; Rochereau, T; Serme, C

    2008-01-01

    Background and objectives: Health selection into unemployment may be either direct or operate by reference to health-related behaviours rather than health per se (indirect selection). Panel data are desirable to investigate selection effects, and the two types of selection processes may be concurrent. We examine jointly the roles of health and health-related behaviours as precursors of unemployment, in order to disentangle direct from indirect selection processes. Design: The data of a multi-round nationally representative health survey in France were analysed longitudinally, based on three data collection rounds: 1992–5, 1996–8 and 2000–2. Following employees salaried in the private sector and aged 30–54 years at baseline, we explored through logistic regression the influence of non-optimal self-rated health, smoking and obesity on the risk of being found unemployed 4 years later. Results: After adjustment for self-rated health, obesity was found to be a significant precursor of unemployment in women, and heavy smoking had that role in men. After adjustment for smoking and obesity, poor health at baseline was found to be a significant precursor of unemployment in both genders. Conclusion: Those findings confirm the intrinsic role of poor health and of health-related behaviours as precursors of unemployment, with gender-specific patterns for the latter. Public policy prescriptions regarding employees’ protection from job insecurities should integrate appropriate accommodations of health limitations, and the personal factors underlying unfavourable work and health behaviours should be investigated, in order to thwart indirect selection phenomena. PMID:18339826

  11. Demographic and health surveys indicate limited impact of condoms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Condom promotion and HIV testing for the general population have been major components of HIV prevention efforts in sub-Saharan Africa's high prevalence HIV epidemics, although little evidence documents their public health impact. Recent enhancements to the large, population-based demographic and health surveys ...

  12. The Teaching of Undergraduate Health Psychology: A National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panjwani, Aliza A.; Gurung, Regan A. R.; Revenson, Tracey A.

    2017-01-01

    We conducted an online national survey to examine how undergraduate health psychology is taught, offer information about course design and content, and provide a needs analysis. Health psychology instructors (N = 126) answered questions about course format, teaching tools, importance of covering specific topics, and needed resources. A principal…

  13. Baseline Survey of the Neuroradiology Work Environment in the United States with Reported Trends in Clinical Work, Nonclinical Work, Perceptions of Trainees, and Burnout Metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J Y; Lexa, F J

    2017-07-01

    Neuroradiologists have faced continuously increasing clinical workloads. Our aim was to establish and report a baseline survey of the current neuroradiology work environment in the United States and of experiential changes in recent years. A voluntary survey was sent to practicing and out-of-training members of the American Society of Neuroradiology in the United States. Selected measures included workday volume and length, burnout symptoms, participation in academic and practice-building duties; effects on perceived interpretation quality, communication of abnormal results, and consideration of early retirement or career changes, among others. Four hundred thirty-two respondents across a broad range of experience reported the following: 52.8% (224/424) with teaching responsibilities; 93% (399/430) with workdays extending at least 1 hour past expected, in 45% (193/430) frequently or always; 71.9% (309/430) reading more cases per hour compared to previous years; 79.5% (341/429) sometimes-to-always interpreting cases faster than comfortable for optimal interpretation; and 67.8% (292/431) sometimes or more often with inadequate time to discuss abnormal results. Burnout symptoms ranged between 49% and 75% (211/428 to 322/428) across 4 indices. For academic activities of teaching, mentoring, and research/publications, a mean of 94.3% reported cut-backs during the past few years. For practice-building activities, 92% reported cut-backs, 51.6% (222/429) considered early retirement, and 38.8% (167/429) considered changing careers. Increasing clinical demands have coincided with destructive effects in the work environment and the ability and desire of neuroradiologists in the United States to perform academic or practice-building duties with a substantial incidence of burnout symptoms. While this survey does not prove causation, the trends and the correlations should be concerning to the leaders of radiology and warrant further monitoring. © 2017 by American Journal of

  14. Commonality of Risk Factors for Mothers' Poor Oral Health and General Health: Baseline Analysis of a Population-Based Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Diep H; Spencer, A John; Thomson, W Murray; Scott, Jane A; Do, Loc G

    2018-04-01

    Objective The association between and commonality of risk factors for poor self-rated oral health (SROH) and general health (SRGH) among new mothers has not been reported. The purpose of this paper is to assess the commonality of risk factors for poor SROH and SRGH, and self-reported obesity and dental pain, among a population-based sample of new mothers in Australia. It also investigated health conditions affecting new mothers' general health. Methods Data collected at baseline of a population-based birth cohort was used. Mothers of newborns in Adelaide were approached to participate. Mothers completed a questionnaire collecting data on socioeconomic status (SES), health behaviours, dental pain, SROH, self-reported height and weight and SRGH. Analysis was conducted sequentially from bivariate to multivariable regression to estimate prevalence rate (PR) of reporting poor/fair SROH and SRGH. Results of the 1895 new mothers, some 21 and 6% rated their SROH and SRGH as poor/fair respectively. Dental pain was associated with low income and smoking status, while being obese was associated with low SES, low education and infrequent tooth brushing. SROH and SRGH was associated with low SES, smoking, and dental pain. SROH was also associated with SRGH [PR: 3.06 (2.42-3.88)]. Conclusion for practice There was a commonality of factors associated with self-rated oral health and general health. Strong associations between OH and GH were also observed. Given the importance of maternal health for future generations, there would be long-term societal benefit from addressing common risk factors for OH and GH in integrated programs.

  15. Job satisfaction survey among health centers staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahnazi, Hossein; Daniali, Seyede Shahrbanoo; Sharifirad, Gholamreza

    2014-01-01

    Due to the importance of health care organizations with significant responsibility for prevention and care, assessment of job satisfaction among health care staff is essential. Quality of health services will be decreased provided they are not satisfied. This study was a cross-sectional analysis of health care staff in Khomeinishahr (centers, buildings, and networks) If they had at least 6 months work experience, they could enter the study. Data included a two-part questionnaire with a standardized questionnaire, demographic variables, and Smith job descriptive index, which is a questionnaire with six domains. Reliability was obtained for each domain and its validity was reported 0.93. The results showed an overall satisfaction score averages 43.55 ± 12.8 (from 100). Job satisfaction score was not significantly different between the sexes. However, within the current attitude toward job satisfaction, men scores was better than women (P = 0.001). Highest score in job satisfaction was related to relationships with colleagues and lowest score was related to the income, benefits, and job promotion. The more the years of work, the less the job satisfaction was. The attitude toward the current job had a direct relationship with income (P = 0.01). There was a significant inverse relationship between educational level and job satisfaction in domains promotion, income, and benefits (P = 0.01). The staff with higher education levels was less satisfied with income and job promotion qualification. Managers should focus on job qualification to increase job satisfaction and improve the quality of work.

  16. Simple neck pain questions used in surveys, evaluated in relation to health outcomes: a cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The high prevalence of pain reported in many epidemiological studies, and the degree to which this prevalence reflects severe pain is under discussion in the literature. The aim of the present study was to evaluate use of the simple neck pain questions commonly included in large epidemiological survey studies with respect to aspects of health. We investigated if and how an increase in number of days with pain is associated with reduction in health outcomes. Methods A cohort of university students (baseline age 19–25 years) were recruited in 2002 and followed annually for 4 years. The baseline response rate was 69% which resulted in 1200 respondents (627 women, 573 men). Participants were asked about present and past pain and perceptions of their general health, sleep disturbance, stress and energy levels, and general performance. The data were analyzed using a mixed model for repeated measurements and a random intercept logistic model. Results When reporting present pain, participants also reported lower prevalence of very good health, higher stress and sleep disturbance scores and lower energy score. Among those with current neck pain, additional questions characterizing the pain such as duration (categorized), additional pain sites and decreased general performance were associated with lower probability of very good health and higher amounts of sleep disturbance. Knowing about the presence or not of pain explains more of the variation in health between individuals, than within individuals. Conclusion This study of young university students has demonstrated that simple neck pain survey questions capture features of pain that affect aspects of health such as perceived general health, sleep disturbance, mood in terms of stress and energy. Simple pain questions are more useful for group descriptions than for describing or following pain in an individual. PMID:23102060

  17. Simple neck pain questions used in surveys, evaluated in relation to health outcomes: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grimby-Ekman Anna

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The high prevalence of pain reported in many epidemiological studies, and the degree to which this prevalence reflects severe pain is under discussion in the literature. The aim of the present study was to evaluate use of the simple neck pain questions commonly included in large epidemiological survey studies with respect to aspects of health. We investigated if and how an increase in number of days with pain is associated with reduction in health outcomes. Methods A cohort of university students (baseline age 19–25 years were recruited in 2002 and followed annually for 4 years. The baseline response rate was 69% which resulted in 1200 respondents (627 women, 573 men. Participants were asked about present and past pain and perceptions of their general health, sleep disturbance, stress and energy levels, and general performance. The data were analyzed using a mixed model for repeated measurements and a random intercept logistic model. Results When reporting present pain, participants also reported lower prevalence of very good health, higher stress and sleep disturbance scores and lower energy score. Among those with current neck pain, additional questions characterizing the pain such as duration (categorized, additional pain sites and decreased general performance were associated with lower probability of very good health and higher amounts of sleep disturbance. Knowing about the presence or not of pain explains more of the variation in health between individuals, than within individuals. Conclusion This study of young university students has demonstrated that simple neck pain survey questions capture features of pain that affect aspects of health such as perceived general health, sleep disturbance, mood in terms of stress and energy. Simple pain questions are more useful for group descriptions than for describing or following pain in an individual.

  18. Public health financial management needs: report of a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costich, Julia F; Honoré, Peggy A; Scutchfield, F Douglas

    2009-01-01

    The work reported here builds on the identification of public health financial management practice competencies by a national expert panel. The next logical step was to provide a validity check for the competencies and identify priority areas for educational programming. We developed a survey for local public health finance officers based on the public health finance competencies and field tested it with a convenience sample of officials. We asked respondents to indicate the importance of each competency area and the need for training to improve performance; we also requested information regarding respondent education, jurisdiction size, and additional comments. Our local agency survey sample drew on the respondent list from the National Association of County and City Health Officials 2005 local health department survey, stratified by agency size and limited to jurisdiction populations of 25,000 to 1,000,000. Identifying appropriate respondents was a major challenge. The survey was fielded electronically, yielding 112 responses from 30 states. The areas identified as most important and needing most additional training were knowledge of budget activities, financial data interpretation and communication, and ability to assess and correct the organization's financial status. The majority of respondents had some postbaccalaureate education. Many provided additional comments and recommendations. Health department finance officers demonstrated a high level of general agreement regarding the importance of finance competencies in public health and the need for training. The findings point to a critical need for additional training opportunities that are accessible, cost-effective, and targeted to individual needs.

  19. Dual pricing of health sciences periodicals: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D R; Jensen, J E

    1980-01-01

    A survey of dual pricing practices among publishers of health-related journals identified 281 periodicals with an average price differential of over 100% between individual and institutional subscription rates. Both the practice itself and the amount of the differential are increasing, indicating that journal subscriptions of health sciences libraries increasingly provide the financial support necessary for the publication of health sciences journals. Dual pricing is also correlated with copyright royalties. The problems that dual pricing creates for health sciences libraries' budgets are due in part to uncritical purchasing by libraries. Increased consumerism on the part of health science librarians is recommended. PMID:7437588

  20. [Vaginal citology. Prevention and good health. Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordonez Gomez, M

    1995-06-01

    A 1993 survey of knowledge, attitudes and practices related to sexually transmitted diseases and other conditions included a series of questions for women on vaginal cytology. The survey was based on a subsample of the PROFAMILIA master sample. 15,080 persons were interviewed, including 6949 women 18-69 years old. The section on vaginal cytology began with a description of the procedure before the questions were asked. Among the total sample, 66.2% reported having undergone cervical cytology while 33.8% had not. 4.8% did not request the results. For the 61.4% of the sample that requested the results, 49.4% were normal, 11.1% were abnormal, and 0.9% did not know or were not given their results. Of those with abnormal results, 9.3% returned for another consultation and 1.8% did not. The proportion of women having cervical cytology exceeded 80% for women 30-49 years old. 69.9% of urban and 54.2% of rural women had been tested. 28.9% underwent the most recent test due to a personal decision, 24.7% on medical recommendation, 23.2% because of symptoms, 12.0% to prevent cancer, 3.2% for safety, 2.0% because a year had passed since the last test, 2.0% in response to a campaign, 1.6% because a friend suggested it, and 1.1% because they had never had it done. The symptoms that motivated the test were a discharge for 31.4%, pain for 30.0%, bleeding for 11.8%, itching for 5.5%, postpartum problems for 2.8%, burning for 2.5%, and cyst for 1.9%. Abnormal results were obtained in 40% of the women who had the test because of symptoms. The average number of times in the past 5 years that the test was done was 2.8. 9% of respondents had not had a test in the past 5 years, 26% had 1, 18% had 2, 12% had 3, 7% had 4, 16% had 5, and 11% had 6 or more. 64.4% of women under 25 and 39% over 60 had never had vaginal cytology. Rural women and the less educated were less likely to have had the procedure.

  1. Basic survey method according to World Health Organization (WHO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmidar Samad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2013, World Health Organization (WHO released its fifth and latest manual guideline of basic survey method for oral health survey. Therefore aim of this paper is to sosialized/inform the manual guideline to dentist. The manual not only provide reliable information on survey of oral health status and also on self-assessment regarding oral health and risk factors for dentist but also emphasizes Stepwise Approach of Surveillance (STEPS that acquired both subjective data in the form of questionnaire and objective data such as clinical assessment and biochemical analysis. The manual is divided into three sections in and starts with detailed explanation on planning oral health surveys and insights on clinical examination on major oral conditions such as caries, periodontitis, and other oral mucosal lesions. assessment of oral health status comprises of the standard forms, standard codes, oral health assessment form, and clinical examinations such as dentition status, periodontal statusin the form of Community Periodontal Index (CPI, loss of attachment, enamel fluorosis, etc., including steps to be taken when intervention urgency or emergency occurs.Since self-assessment of oral health and risks is an integral part of the STEPS, the second section discusses about oral health questionnaires from both patient’s and surveyor’s standpoint together with the importance of training and supervision of interviewers. The manual has specific questionnaire and the clinical examination guideline for both adults and children. The third section concludes with information on obtaining assistance from the WHO and on reporting of the survey.

  2. Terrestrial gamma radiation dose study to determine the baseline for environmental radiological health practices in Melaka state, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramli, Ahmad Termizi; Sahrone, Sallehudin; Wagiran, Husin

    2005-01-01

    Environmental terrestrial gamma radiation dose rates were measured throughout Melaka, Malaysia, over a period of two years, with the objective of establishing baseline data on the background radiation level. Results obtained are shown in tabular, graphic and cartographic form. The values of terrestrial gamma radiation dose rate vary significantly over different soil types and for different underlying geological characteristics present in the study area. The values ranged from 54 ± 5 to 378 ± 38 nGy h -1 . The highest terrestrial gamma dose rates were measured over soil types of granitic origin and in areas with underlying geological characteristics of an acid intrusive (undifferentiated) type. An isodose map of terrestrial gamma dose rate in Melaka was drawn by using the GIS application 'Arc View'. This was based on data collected using a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector survey meter. The measurements were taken at 542 locations. Three small 'hot spots' were found where the dose rates were more than 350 nGy h -1 . The mean dose rates in the main population areas in the mukims (parishes) of Bukit Katil, Sungai Udang, Batu Berendam, Bukit Baru and Bandar Melaka were 154 ± 15, 161 ± 16, 160 ± 16, 175 ± 18 and 176 ± 18 nGy h -1 , respectively. The population-weighted mean dose rate throughout Melaka state is 172 ± 17 nGy h -1 . This is lower than the geographical mean dose rate of 183 ± 54 nGy h -1 . The lower value arises from the fact that most of the population lives in the central area of the state where the lithology is dominated by sedimentary rocks consisting of shale, mudstone, phyllite, slate, hornfels, sandstone and schist of Devonian origin which have lower associated dose rates. The mean annual effective dose to the population from outdoor terrestrial gamma radiation was estimated to be 0.21 mSv. This value is higher than the world average of 0.07 mSv

  3. Expanding roles: a survey of public health genetic counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Karen Potter; Hasegawa, Lianne; McWalter, Kirsty

    2010-12-01

    According to the 2008 National Society of Genetic Counselors (NSGC) Professional Status Survey (PSS), 31 genetic counselor respondents reported spending at least 50% of their time in the area of public health. The NSGC Public Health Special Interest Group (PHSIG) had 49 dues-paying members in 2009. The purpose of this study was to identify the work settings and public health activities in which genetic counselors participate. A novel online survey was disseminated over the NSGC PHSIG Listserv. Forty-one percent (n = 13) of public health genetic counselor respondents worked in a university medical system, while 53% (n = 17) were grant-funded and held a non-clinical appointment. The most common public health activities included educating healthcare professionals (82%) and community members (61%), research (55%), grant writing (55%) and grant administration (36%). Most respondents (82%) reported learning certain public health skills outside of their genetic counseling training programs. Differences in work settings were found, with a significantly greater percentage of public health genetic counselors working in government agencies. Genetic counselors have opportunities to become involved in public health activities as the scope of public health genetics grows. Furthermore, genetic counseling competencies are compatible with the Institute of Medicine's "10 Essential Public Health Services." The NSGC and genetic counseling training programs are encouraged to offer more public health learning opportunities for genetic counselors and genetic counseling students interested in this specialty area.

  4. Global health in general surgery residency: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, Sudha P; Ayzengart, Alexander L; Goetz, Laura H; Ozgediz, Doruk; Farmer, Diana L

    2009-03-01

    Interest in global health during postgraduate training is increasing across disciplines. There are limited data from surgery residency programs on their attitudes and scope of activities in this area. This study aims to understand how global health education fits into postgraduate surgical training in the US. In 2007 to 2008, we conducted a nationwide survey of program directors at all 253 US general surgery residencies using a Web-based questionnaire modified from a previously published survey. The goals of global health activities, type of activity (ie, clinical versus research), and challenges to establishing these programs were analyzed. Seventy-three programs responded to the survey (29%). Of the respondents, 23 (33%) offered educational activities in global health and 86% (n = 18) of these offered clinical rotations abroad. The primary goals of these activities were to prepare residents for a career in global health and to improve resident recruitment. The greatest barriers to establishing these activities were time constraints for faculty and residents, lack of approval from the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and Residency Review Committee, and funding concerns. Lack of interest at the institution level was listed by only 5% of program directors. Of the 47 programs not offering such activities, 57% (n = 27) were interested in establishing them. Few general surgery residency programs currently offer clinical or other educational opportunities in global health. Most residencies that responded to our survey are interested in such activities but face many barriers, including time constraints, Residency Review Committee restrictions, and funding.

  5. Methodological design of the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Romero-Martínez; Teresa Shamah-Levy; Lucia Cuevas-Nasu; Ignacio Méndez Gómez-Humarán; Elsa Berenice Gaona-Pineda; Luz María Gómez-Acosta; Juan Ángel Rivera-Dommarco; Mauricio Hernández-Ávila

    2017-01-01

    Objective. Describe the design methodology of the halfway health and nutrition national survey (Ensanut-MC) 2016. Materials and methods. The Ensanut-MC is a national probabilistic survey whose objective population are the in­habitants of private households in Mexico. The sample size was determined to make inferences on the urban and rural areas in four regions. Describes main design elements: target population, topics of study, sampling procedure, measurement procedure and logistics organizat...

  6. [Colombia 2015 National Mental Health Survey. Study Protocol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; de Santacruz, Cecilia; Rodriguez, María Nelcy; Rodriguez, Viviana; Tamayo Martínez, Nathalie; Matallana, Diana; Gonzalez, Lina M

    2016-12-01

    The 2015 National Mental Health Survey (NMHS) is the fourth mental survey conducted in Colombia, and is part of the National System of Surveys and Population Studies for health. A narrative description is used to explain the background, references, the preparation, and characteristics of the 2015 NMHS. The 2015 NMHS and its protocol emerge from the requirements that support the national and international policies related to mental health. Together with the Ministry of Health and Social Protection, the objectives, the collection tools, the sample, and the operational plan are defined. The main objective was to obtain updated information about the mental health, mental problems and disorders, accessibility to health services, and an evaluation of health conditions. Participants were inhabitants from both urban and rural areas, over 7 years old, and in whom the comprehension of social determinants and equity were privileged. An observational cross-sectional design with national, regional and age group representativity, was used. The age groups selected were 7-11, 12-17, and over 18 years old. The regions considered were Central, Orient, Atlantic, Pacific, and Bogota. The calculated sample had a minimum of 12,080 and a maximum of 14,496 participants. A brief summary of the protocol of the 2015 NMHS is presented. The full document with all the collection tools can be consulted on the Health Ministry webpage. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier España.

  7. A survey of health professions students for knowledge, attitudes, and confidence about tuberculosis, 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catanzaro Antonino

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2003 the NIH perceived a need to strengthen teaching about tuberculosis (TB to health professions students. The National Tuberculosis Curriculum Consortium (NTCC was funded to meet this need. The purpose of this study was to survey students enrolled in NTCC schools prior to NTCC-developed educational materials being made available to faculty. Methods A self-administered survey for students in NTCC schools to establish a baseline level of knowledge, attitudes, and confidence about tuberculosis. Results 1480/2965 (50% students in 28 programs in 20 NTCC schools completed the survey. If public health students are eliminated from totals (only 61 respondents of 765 public health students, the overall response proportion for the seven clinically-related disciplines was 64.5%. The majority (74% were in schools of medicine (MD/DO, undergraduate nursing (BSN, and pharmacy (PharmD; others were in programs for physician assistants (PA, advanced practice nursing (NP/APN, respiratory therapy (RT, clinical laboratory sciences (MT/CLS, and public health (MPH. Almost 90% had attended at least one lecture about TB. Although 91.4% knew TB was transmitted via aerosols, about one-third did not know the method for administering tuberculin, or that Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG vaccine was not a contraindication to TB skin testing. Fewer than two-thirds knew that about 10% of people in the U.S.A. who have latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI and a normal immune system will develop TB disease, or that BCG is not part of the routine vaccination program in the U.S.A. because it complicates surveillance for new TB infection. Conclusion There is room for improvement in knowledge, attitudes, and confidence about TB by health professions students surveyed. The NTCC-developed educational products may be used by faculty to improve student performance to be assessed with future surveys.

  8. Brief 77 Health Physics Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2015 Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-03-15

    The 2015 Health Physics Enrollments and Degrees Survey reports degrees granted between September 1, 2014 and August 31, 2015. Enrollment information refers to the fall term 2015. Twenty-two academic programs were included in the survey universe, with all 22 programs providing data. The enrollments and degrees information comprises students majoring in health physics or in an option program equivalent to a major. The report includes enrollment information on undergraduate students and graduate students and information by degree level for post-graduation plans.

  9. Sanitation facilities, hygienic conditions, and prevalence of acute diarrhea among under-five children in slums of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Baseline survey of a longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengistie, Bezatu; Kloos, Helmut; Medhin, Girmay; Mulat, Worku

    2017-01-01

    Background In developing countries, children under the age of five years who live in slums are highly vulnerable to diarrhea. However, there is a paucity of information on the relationship between sanitation facilities and hygienic conditions to acute diarrhea among under-five children in slum areas of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Therefore, this study examines the sanitation facilities and hygienic conditions in the slums of Addis Ababa and identifies the main factors significantly associated with acute diarrhea among children aged 0–50 months in those slums. Methods A community-based cross-sectional household survey was carried out between September and November 2014, that then served as the baseline survey of a longitudinal study. For this survey, 697 children aged 0–50 months were recruited from two slum districts in Addis Ababa. A pre-tested structured questionnaire and an observational checklist were used for data collection. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify sanitation facilities and hygiene-related factors that were significantly associated with acute diarrhea by controlling potential confounding effects of selected socio-demographic factors. Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to quantify the strength of association. Main findings The prevalence of acute diarrhea among children aged 0–50 months in the study area was 11.9% and 94.6% of the sanitation facilities were unimproved. Sharing of a sanitation facility by six or more households (AOR = 4.7; 95% CI: 2.4–9.4), proximity of sanitation facilities within 15 meters of homes (AOR = 6.6; 95% CI: 2.5–17.0), presence of feces (AOR = 3.9; 95% CI: 1.5–10.3) and flies (AOR = 2.5; 95% CI: 1.3–5.0) on the floor of and/or around sanitation facilities, and presence of uncollected garbage inside house compounds (AOR = 3.2; 95% CI: 1.2–8.4) were significantly associated with acute diarrhea. Conclusion This study reveals the slum

  10. Oral health survey and oral health questionnaire for high school students in Tibet, China

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Rui; Mi, Yong; Xu, Quanhong; Wu, Fang; Ma, Yuanyuan; Xue, Peng; Xiao, Gao; Zhang, Yan; Wei, Yinhua; Yang, Wenbing

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to identify the oral health status as well as oral health practices and access for care of graduating senior high school Tibetan students in Shannan prefecture of Tibet. Methods Based on standards of the 3rd Chinese National Oral Epidemiological Survey and WHO Oral Health Surveys, 1907 graduating students from three senior high schools were examined for caries, periodontitis, dental fluorosis, and oral hygiene status. The questionnaire to the students addre...

  11. Health and human rights: a statistical measurement framework using household survey data in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesonga, Ronald; Owino, Abraham; Ssekiboobo, Agnes; Atuhaire, Leonard; Jehopio, Peter

    2015-05-03

    Health is intertwined with human rights as is clearly reflected in the right to life. Promotion of health practices in the context of human rights can be accomplished if there is a better understanding of the level of human rights observance. In this paper, we evaluate and present an appraisal for a possibility of applying household survey to study the determinants of health and human rights and also derive the probability that human rights are observed; an important ingredient into the national planning framework. Data from the Uganda National Governance Baseline Survey were used. A conceptual framework for predictors of a hybrid dependent variable was developed and both bivariate and multivariate statistical techniques employed. Multivariate post estimation computations were derived after evaluations of the significance of coefficients of health and human rights predictors. Findings, show that household characteristics of respondents considered in this study were statistically significant (p human rights observance. For example, a unit increase of respondents' schooling levels results in an increase of about 34% level of positively assessing human rights observance. Additionally, the study establishes, through the three models presented, that household assessment of health and human rights observance was 20% which also represents how much of the entire continuum of human rights is demanded. Findings propose important evidence for monitoring and evaluation of health in the context human rights using household survey data. They provide a benchmark for health and human rights assessments with a focus on international and national development plans to achieve socio-economic transformation and health in society.

  12. Overweight in Southeastern Pennsylvania children: 2002 household health survey data.

    OpenAIRE

    Rappaport, Elizabeth B.; Robbins, Jessica M.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors sought to estimate the prevalence of overweight and risk for overweight and to examine relationships between body mass index (BMI) and socioeconomic and demographic characteristics among children in Philadelphia and four neighboring counties. METHODS: Data from the 2002 Philadelphia Health Management Corporation Household Health Survey was examined. RESULTS: Of 2,621 children aged 2 to 17 years, 36% were overweight or at risk for overweight and 23% were overweight. Prev...

  13. The prisoner as patient - a health services satisfaction survey

    OpenAIRE

    Bjørngaard, Johan; Rustad, Åse-Bente; Kjelsberg, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Background: There is evidence for higher morbidity among prison inmates than in the general population. Despite this, patient satisfaction with the prison health services is scarcely investigated. The aim of the present study was to investigate patient satisfaction with prison health services in Norway and to analyze possible patient and service effects. Methods: The survey took part in 29 prisons in the southern and central part of Norway, representing 62% of the total prison capac...

  14. Creating a Screening Measure of Health Literacy for the Health Information National Trends Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champlin, Sara; Mackert, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Create a screening measure of health literacy for use with the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS). Participants completed a paper-based survey. Items from the survey were used to construct a health literacy screening measure. A population-based survey conducted in geographic areas of high and low minority frequency and in Central Appalachia. Two thousand nine hundred four English-speaking participants were included in this study: 66% white, 93% completed high school, mean age = 52.53 years (SD = 16.24). A health literacy screening measure was created using four items included in the HINTS survey. Scores could range from 0 (no questions affirmative/correct) to 4 (all questions answered affirmatively/correctly). Multiple regression analysis was used to determine whether demographic variables known to predict health literacy were indeed associated with the constructed health literacy screening measure. The weighted average health literacy score was 2.63 (SD = 1.00). Those who were nonwhite (p = .0005), were older (p literacy screening measure scores. This study highlights the need to assess health literacy in national surveys, but also serves as evidence that screening measures can be created within existing datasets to give researchers the ability to consider the impact of health literacy. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Environmental Baseline Survey Report for the Title Transfer of Land Parcel ED-4 at the East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SAIC

    2008-05-01

    This environmental baseline survey (EBS) report documents the baseline environmental conditions of a land parcel referred to as 'ED-4' (ED-4) at the U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP). DOE is proposing to transfer the title of this land to the Heritage Center, LLC. Parcel ED-4 is a land parcel that consists of two noncontiguous areas comprising a total of approximately 18 acres located east of the ETTP. The western tract of ED-4 encompasses approximately 8.5 acres in the northeastern quadrant of the intersection of Boulevard Road and Highway 58. The eastern tract encompasses an area of approximately 9.5 acres in the northwestern quadrant of the intersection of Blair Road and Highway 58 (the Oak Ridge Turnpike). Aerial photographs and site maps from throughout the history of the ETTP, going back to its initial development in the 1940s as the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP), indicate that this area has been undeveloped woodland with the exception of three support facilities for workers constructing the ORGDP since federal acquisition in 1943. These three support facilities, which were located in the western tract of ED-4, included a recreation hall, the Town Hall Camp Operations Building, and the Property Warehouse. A railroad spur also formerly occupied a portion of Parcel ED-4. These former facilities only occupied approximately 5 percent of the total area of Parcel ED-4. This report provides supporting information for the transfer of this government-owned property at ETTP to a non-federal entity. This EBS is based upon the requirements of Sect. 120(h) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). In order to support a Clean Parcel Determination (CPD) in accordance with CERCLA Sect. 120(h)(4)(d), groundwater and sediment samples were collected within, and adjacent to, the Parcel ED-4 study area. The potential for DOE to make a CPD for ED-4 is

  16. Environmental baseline survey report for West Black Oak Ridge, East Black Oak Ridge, McKinney Ridge, West Pine Ridge and parcel 21D in the vicinity of the East Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, David A. [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Independent Environmental Assessment and Verification Program

    2012-11-29

    This environmental baseline survey (EBS) report documents the baseline environmental conditions of five land parcels located near the U.S. Department of Energy?s (DOE?s) East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), including West Black Oak Ridge, East Black Oak Ridge, McKinney Ridge, West Pine Ridge, and Parcel 21d. Preparation of this report included the detailed search of federal government records, title documents, aerial photos that may reflect prior uses, and visual inspections of the property and adjacent properties. Interviews with current employees involved in, or familiar with, operations on the real property were also conducted to identify any areas on the property where hazardous substances and petroleum products, or their derivatives, and acutely hazardous wastes may have been released or disposed. In addition, a search was made of reasonably obtainable federal, state, and local government records of each adjacent facility where there has been a release of any hazardous substance or any petroleum product or their derivatives, including aviation fuel and motor oil, and which is likely to cause or contribute to a release of any hazardous substance or any petroleum product or its derivatives, including aviation fuel or motor oil, on the real property. A radiological survey and soil/sediment sampling was conducted to assess baseline conditions of Parcel 21d that were not addressed by the soils-only no-further-investigation (NFI) reports. Groundwater sampling was also conducted to support a Parcel 21d decision. Based on available data West Black Oak Ridge, East Black Oak Ridge, McKinney Ridge, and West Pine Ridge are not impacted by site operations and are not subject to actions per the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA). This determination is supported by visual inspections, records searches and interviews, groundwater conceptual modeling, approved NFI reports, analytical data, and risk analysis results. Parcel 21d data, however, demonstrate impacts from site

  17. Assessing outcomes of large-scale public health interventions in the absence of baseline data using a mixture of Cox and binomial regressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Large-scale public health interventions with rapid scale-up are increasingly being implemented worldwide. Such implementation allows for a large target population to be reached in a short period of time. But when the time comes to investigate the effectiveness of these interventions, the rapid scale-up creates several methodological challenges, such as the lack of baseline data and the absence of control groups. One example of such an intervention is Avahan, the India HIV/AIDS initiative of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. One question of interest is the effect of Avahan on condom use by female sex workers with their clients. By retrospectively reconstructing condom use and sex work history from survey data, it is possible to estimate how condom use rates evolve over time. However formal inference about how this rate changes at a given point in calendar time remains challenging. Methods We propose a new statistical procedure based on a mixture of binomial regression and Cox regression. We compare this new method to an existing approach based on generalized estimating equations through simulations and application to Indian data. Results Both methods are unbiased, but the proposed method is more powerful than the existing method, especially when initial condom use is high. When applied to the Indian data, the new method mostly agrees with the existing method, but seems to have corrected some implausible results of the latter in a few districts. We also show how the new method can be used to analyze the data of all districts combined. Conclusions The use of both methods can be recommended for exploratory data analysis. However for formal statistical inference, the new method has better power. PMID:24397563

  18. Environmental Baseline Survey Report for the Title Transfer of the K-792 Switchyard Complex at the East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SAIC

    2009-12-01

    This environmental baseline survey (EBS) documents the baseline environmental conditions of the U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) K-792 Switchyard Complex, which includes the former K-792 Switchyard, the K-79 1-B building, the K-796-A building, and the K-792 Northern Expansion Area located in the northwestern portion of the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP). The total area of the property is approximately 19.91 acres. DOE is proposing to transfer the title of this land area and buildings to the Heritage Center, LLC (Heritage Center), a subsidiary corporation of the Community Reuse Organization of East Tennessee (CROET). This report provides supporting information for the transfer of this government-owned facility at ETTP to a non-federal entity. The area proposed for title transfer includes the former K-792 Switchyard, the K-792 Northern Expansion Area, Bldg. K-791-B, Bldg. K-796-A, and the underlying property known as the underlying fee. Located within the K-792 Switchyard footprint but not included in the transfer are Bldg. K-131 0-MP and Bldg. K- 131 0-MQ, two buildings owned by a private company that leases space in the northern portion of the Switchyard. The transfer footprint is bounded by Perimeter Road to the north and west, the parking area for Portal 8 to the south, and primarily the former K-792 Powerhouse Complex and Avenue 'U' North to the east; however, the eastern boundary along the Northern Expansion area has no physical features associated with it. Zone 2 remedial action objectives were developed by the DVS to support the future use of ETTP as a mixed-use commercial and industrial park. Therefore, remediation criteria were designed for the protection of the future industrial worker under the assumption the worker normally would not have the potential for exposure to soils at depths below 10 ft below ground surface (bgs). Accordingly, land use controls (LUCs) have been established to restrict disturbance of soils below 10

  19. The Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey: The First National Survey of State Health Agency Employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Katie; Leider, Jonathon P; Harper, Elizabeth; Castrucci, Brian C; Bharthapudi, Kiran; Liss-Levinson, Rivka; Jarris, Paul E; Hunter, Edward L

    2015-01-01

    Public health practitioners, policy makers, and researchers alike have called for more data on individual worker's perceptions about workplace environment, job satisfaction, and training needs for a quarter of a century. The Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey (PH WINS) was created to answer that call. Characterize key components of the public health workforce, including demographics, workplace environment, perceptions about national trends, and perceived training needs. A nationally representative survey of central office employees at state health agencies (SHAs) was conducted in 2014. Approximately 25,000 e-mail invitations to a Web-based survey were sent out to public health staff in 37 states, based on a stratified sampling approach. Balanced repeated replication weights were used to account for the complex sampling design. A total of 10,246 permanently employed SHA central office employees participated in PH WINS (46% response rate). Perceptions about training needs; workplace environment and job satisfaction; national initiatives and trends; and demographics. Although the majority of staff said they were somewhat or very satisfied with their job (79%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 78-80), as well as their organization (65%; 95% CI, 64-66), more than 42% (95% CI, 41-43) were considering leaving their organization in the next year or retiring before 2020; 4% of those were considering leaving for another job elsewhere in governmental public health. The majority of public health staff at SHA central offices are female (72%; 95% CI, 71-73), non-Hispanic white (70%; 95% CI, 69-71), and older than 40 years (73%; 95% CI, 72-74). The greatest training needs include influencing policy development, preparing a budget, and training related to the social determinants of health. PH WINS represents the first nationally representative survey of SHA employees. It holds significant potential to help answer previously unaddressed questions in public health

  20. Health-promoting factors in medical students and students of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics: design and baseline results of a comparative longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kötter, Thomas; Tautphäus, Yannick; Scherer, Martin; Voltmer, Edgar

    2014-07-04

    The negative impact of medical school on students' general and mental health has often been reported. Compared to students of other subjects, or employed peers, medical students face an increased risk of developing depression, anxiety and burnout. While pathogenetic factors have been studied extensively, less is known about health-promoting factors for medical students' health. This longitudinal study aims to identify predictors for maintaining good general and mental health during medical education. We report here the design of the study and its baseline results. We initiated a prospective longitudinal cohort study at the University of Lübeck, Germany. Two consecutive classes of students, entering the university in 2011 and 2012, were recruited. Participants will be assessed annually for the duration of their course. We use validated psychometric instruments covering health outcomes (general and mental health) and personality traits, as well as self-developed, pre-tested items covering leisure activities and sociodemographic data. At baseline, compared to students of STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) subjects (n = 531; 60.8% response rate), a larger proportion of medical students (n = 350; 93.0% response rate) showed good general health (90.9% vs. 79.7%) and a similar proportion was in good mental health (88.3% vs. 86.3%). Medical students scored significantly higher in the personality traits of extraversion, conscientiousness, openness to experience and agreeableness. Neuroticism proved to be a statistically significant negative predictor for mental health in the logistic regression analyses. Satisfaction with life as a dimension of study-related behaviour and experience predicted general health at baseline. Physical activity was a statistically significant predictor for general health in medical students. Baseline data revealed that medical students reported better general and similar mental health compared to STEM students. The annual

  1. A Survey of Health Care Models that Encompass Multiple Departments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanberkel, Peter T.; Boucherie, Richardus J.; Hans, Elias W.; Hurink, Johann L.; Litvak, Nelli

    2009-01-01

    In this survey we review quantitative health care models to illustrate the extent to which they encompass multiple hospital departments. The paper provides general overviews of the relationships that exists between major hospital departments and describes how these relationships are accounted for by

  2. A survey of health care models that encompass multiple departments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanberkel, P.T.; Boucherie, Richardus J.; Hans, Elias W.; Hurink, Johann L.; Litvak, Nelli

    2010-01-01

    In this survey we review quantitative health care models to illustrate the extent to which they encompass multiple hospital departments. The paper provides general overviews of the relationships that exists between major hospital departments and describes how these relationships are accounted for by

  3. A survey of health care models that encompass multiple departments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanberkel, P.T.; Boucherie, Richardus J.; Hans, Elias W.; Hurink, Johann L.; Litvak, Nelli

    In this survey we review quantitative health care models to illustrate the extent to which they encompass multiple hospital departments. The paper provides general overviews of the relationships that exists between major hospital departments and describes how these relationships are accounted for by

  4. Health sciences libraries building survey, 1999–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Logan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: A survey was conducted of health sciences libraries to obtain information about newer buildings, additions, remodeling, and renovations. Method: An online survey was developed, and announcements of survey availability posted to three major email discussion lists: Medical Library Association (MLA), Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries (AAHSL), and MEDLIB-L. Previous discussions of library building projects on email discussion lists, a literature review, personal communications, and the author's consulting experiences identified additional projects. Results: Seventy-eight health sciences library building projects at seventy-three institutions are reported. Twenty-two are newer facilities built within the last ten years; two are space expansions; forty-five are renovation projects; and nine are combinations of new and renovated space. Six institutions report multiple or ongoing renovation projects during the last ten years. Conclusions: The survey results confirm a continuing migration from print-based to digitally based collections and reveal trends in library space design. Some health sciences libraries report loss of space as they move toward creating space for “community” building. Libraries are becoming more proactive in using or retooling space for concentration, collaboration, contemplation, communication, and socialization. All are moving toward a clearer operational vision of the library as the institution's information nexus and not merely as a physical location with print collections. PMID:20428277

  5. Health sciences libraries building survey, 1999-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Logan

    2010-04-01

    A survey was conducted of health sciences libraries to obtain information about newer buildings, additions, remodeling, and renovations. An online survey was developed, and announcements of survey availability posted to three major email discussion lists: Medical Library Association (MLA), Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries (AAHSL), and MEDLIB-L. Previous discussions of library building projects on email discussion lists, a literature review, personal communications, and the author's consulting experiences identified additional projects. Seventy-eight health sciences library building projects at seventy-three institutions are reported. Twenty-two are newer facilities built within the last ten years; two are space expansions; forty-five are renovation projects; and nine are combinations of new and renovated space. Six institutions report multiple or ongoing renovation projects during the last ten years. The survey results confirm a continuing migration from print-based to digitally based collections and reveal trends in library space design. Some health sciences libraries report loss of space as they move toward creating space for "community" building. Libraries are becoming more proactive in using or retooling space for concentration, collaboration, contemplation, communication, and socialization. All are moving toward a clearer operational vision of the library as the institution's information nexus and not merely as a physical location with print collections.

  6. Health impact assessment – A survey on quantifying tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehr, Rainer, E-mail: rainer.fehr@uni-bielefeld.de [Fakultaet fuer Gesundheitswissenschaften, Universitaet Bielefeld, Universitaetsstr. 25, 33615 Bielefeld (Germany); Mekel, Odile C.L., E-mail: odile.mekel@lzg.nrw.de [Gesundheitsdaten und analysen, Versorgungsstrukturen, Landeszentrum Gesundheit Nordrhein-Westfalen (LZG.NRW), Westerfeldstr. 35-37, 33611 Bielefeld (Germany); Fintan Hurley, J., E-mail: fintan.hurley@iom-world.org [Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM), Research Avenue North, Riccarton, Edinburgh EH14 4AP, Scotland (United Kingdom); Mackenbach, Johan P., E-mail: j.mackenbach@erasmusmc.nl [Department of Public Health, Erasmus MC, P.O. Box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-02-15

    Integrating human health into prospective impact assessments is known to be challenging. This is true for both approaches: dedicated health impact assessments (HIA) as well as inclusion of health into more general impact assessments. Acknowledging the full range of participatory, qualitative, and quantitative approaches, this study focuses on the latter, especially on computational tools for quantitative health modelling. We conducted a survey among tool developers concerning the status quo of development and availability of such tools; experiences made with model usage in real-life situations; and priorities for further development. Responding toolmaker groups described 17 such tools, most of them being maintained and reported as ready for use and covering a wide range of topics, including risk & protective factors, exposures, policies, and health outcomes. In recent years, existing models have been improved and were applied in new ways, and completely new models emerged. There was high agreement among respondents on the need to further develop methods for assessment of inequalities and uncertainty. The contribution of quantitative modeling to health foresight would benefit from building joint strategies of further tool development, improving the visibility of quantitative tools and methods, and engaging continuously with actual and potential users. - Highlights: • A survey investigated computational tools for health impact quantification. • Formal evaluation of such tools has been rare. • Handling inequalities and uncertainties are priority areas for further development. • Health foresight would benefit from tool developers and users forming a community. • Joint development strategies across computational tools are needed.

  7. Health impact assessment – A survey on quantifying tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehr, Rainer; Mekel, Odile C.L.; Fintan Hurley, J.; Mackenbach, Johan P.

    2016-01-01

    Integrating human health into prospective impact assessments is known to be challenging. This is true for both approaches: dedicated health impact assessments (HIA) as well as inclusion of health into more general impact assessments. Acknowledging the full range of participatory, qualitative, and quantitative approaches, this study focuses on the latter, especially on computational tools for quantitative health modelling. We conducted a survey among tool developers concerning the status quo of development and availability of such tools; experiences made with model usage in real-life situations; and priorities for further development. Responding toolmaker groups described 17 such tools, most of them being maintained and reported as ready for use and covering a wide range of topics, including risk & protective factors, exposures, policies, and health outcomes. In recent years, existing models have been improved and were applied in new ways, and completely new models emerged. There was high agreement among respondents on the need to further develop methods for assessment of inequalities and uncertainty. The contribution of quantitative modeling to health foresight would benefit from building joint strategies of further tool development, improving the visibility of quantitative tools and methods, and engaging continuously with actual and potential users. - Highlights: • A survey investigated computational tools for health impact quantification. • Formal evaluation of such tools has been rare. • Handling inequalities and uncertainties are priority areas for further development. • Health foresight would benefit from tool developers and users forming a community. • Joint development strategies across computational tools are needed.

  8. Characterizing Informatics Roles and Needs of Public Health Workers: Results From the Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Brian E; McFarlane, Timothy D; Dearth, Shandy; Grannis, Shaun J; Gibson, P Joseph

    2015-01-01

    To characterize public health workers who specialize in informatics and to assess informatics-related aspects of the work performed by the public health workforce. Using the nationally representative Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey (PH WINS), we characterized and compared responses from informatics, information technology (IT), clinical and laboratory, and other public health science specialists working in state health agencies. Demographics, income, education, and agency size were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Weighted medians and interquartile ranges were calculated for responses pertaining to job satisfaction, workplace environment, training needs, and informatics-related competencies. Of 10,246 state health workers, we identified 137 (1.3%) informatics specialists and 419 (4.1%) IT specialists. Overall, informatics specialists are younger, but share many common traits with other public health science roles, including positive attitudes toward their contributions to the mission of public health as well as job satisfaction. Informatics specialists differ demographically from IT specialists, and the 2 groups also differ with respect to salary as well as their distribution across agencies of varying size. All groups identified unmet public health and informatics competency needs, particularly limited training necessary to fully utilize technology for their work. Moreover, all groups indicated a need for greater future emphasis on leveraging electronic health information for public health functions. Findings from the PH WINS establish a framework and baseline measurements that can be leveraged to routinely monitor and evaluate the ineludible expansion and maturation of the public health informatics workforce and can also support assessment of the growth and evolution of informatics training needs for the broader field. Ultimately, such routine evaluations have the potential to guide local and national informatics workforce development

  9. A survey of health promotion at international schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curless, Melanie; Burns, Sharyn

    2003-04-01

    This study investigated health promotion efforts at international schools serving the education needs of expatriate communities abroad. Factors supporting the implementation of whole-school approaches to health promotion also were examined. Self-completed questionnaires were distributed by a combination of electronic and conventional mail. International school staff in 93 countries (n = 205) completed an adapted version of an instrument used for evaluating the Western Australian School Health Project (WASHP). This survey demonstrated usefulness of the WASHP instrument cross-culturally in a variety of school settings. The level of whole-school approaches to health promotion in the participating international schools varied but tended to be low. Demographic characteristics of schools were not associated with differences in the level of health promotion, with the exception school size. School organizational factors support implementation of health promotion programs.

  10. Profiling health-care accreditation organizations: an international survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Charles D; Braithwaite, Jeffrey; Moldovan, Max; Nicklin, Wendy; Grgic, Ileana; Fortune, Triona; Whittaker, Stuart

    2013-07-01

    To describe global patterns among health-care accreditation organizations (AOs) and to identify determinants of sustainability and opportunities for improvement. Web-based questionnaire survey. Organizations offering accreditation services nationally or internationally to health-care provider institutions or networks at primary, secondary or tertiary level in 2010. s) External relationships, scope and activity public information. Forty-four AOs submitted data, compared with 33 in a survey 10 years earlier. Of the 30 AOs that reported survey activity in 2000 and 2010, 16 are still active and stable or growing. New and old programmes are increasingly linked to public funding and regulation. While the number of health-care AOs continues to grow, many fail to thrive. Successful organizations tend to complement mechanisms of regulation, health-care funding or governmental commitment to quality and health-care improvement that offer a supportive environment. Principal challenges include unstable business (e.g. limited market, low uptake) and unstable politics. Many organizations make only limited information available to patients and the public about standards, procedures or results.

  11. Supplemental Environmental Baseline Survey for Proposed Land Use Permit Modification for Expansion of the Dynamic Explosive Test Site (DETS) 9940 Main Complex Parking Lot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peek, Dennis W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The “subject property” is comprised of a parcel of land within the Kirtland Military Reservation, Bernalillo County, New Mexico, as shown on the map in Appendix B of this document. The land requirement for the parking lot addition to the 9940 Main Complex is approximately 2.7 acres. The scope of this Supplemental Environmental Baseline Survey (SEBS) is for the parking lot addition land transfer only. For details on the original 9940 Main Complex see Environmental Baseline Survey, Land Use Permit Request for the 9940 Complex PERM/0-KI-00-0001, August 21, 2003, and for details on the 9940 Complex Expansion see Environmental Baseline Survey, Proposed Land Use Permit Expansion for 9940 DETS Complex, June 24, 2009. The 2.7-acre parcel of land for the new parking lot, which is the subject of this EBS (also referred to as the “subject property”), is adjacent to the southwest boundary of the original 12.3- acre 9940 Main Complex. No testing is known to have taken place on the subject property site. The only activity known to have taken place was the burial of overhead utility lines in 2014. Adjacent to the subject property, the 9940 Main Complex was originally a 12.3-acre site used by the Department of Energy (DOE) under a land use permit from the United States Air Force (USAF). Historical use of the site, dating from 1964, included arming, fusing, and firing of explosives and testing of explosives systems components. In the late 1970s and early 1980s experiments at the 9940 Main Complex shifted toward reactor safety issues. From 1983 to 1988, fuel coolant interaction (FCI) experiments were conducted, as were experiments with conventional high explosives (HE). Today, the land is used for training of the Nuclear Emergency Response community and for research on energetic materials. In 2009, the original complex was expanded to include four additional 20-acre areas: 9940 Training South, 9940 Training East, T-Range 6, and Training West Landing Zone. The proposed use of

  12. A continuing education preference survey of public health graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, S J; Perkocha, V A; Novotny, T E

    1995-01-01

    Continuing education (CE) is a vital component in strengthening the public health work force, and its importance has been emphasized by the Institute of Medicine and the Council for Education in Public Health. A CE preference survey was undertaken of alumni of the University of California, Berkeley, School of Public Health (UCB-SPH). Questionnaires were mailed to a one-third random sample of 1,500 graduates from 1981-1992 who currently reside in U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Region IX. A response rate of 57% was achieved. Results of the survey show that CE activities are highly desired among respondents. Overall, 58% of respondents prefer a half-day to one-day seminar format during regular business hours, as opposed to night classes. They prefer a traditional didactic classroom presentation that is within one hour's automobile travel. The optimal setting for CE courses would be at the University of California, Berkeley, or in-house at their institution. Subject areas of interest noted by respondents are health policy development, communication in public health, community involvement, and research. Schools of public health may respond to the CE needs of their alumni through a variety of channels, including the mainstreaming of CE as part of a school's teaching responsibility, special seminars or institutes, extension courses through the larger university system, distance-based learning, and through a separately funded for-profit CE activity.

  13. Receipt of health care transition counseling in the national survey of adult transition and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicki, Gregory S; Whitworth, Ruth; Gunn, Laura; Butterfield, Ryan; Lukens-Bull, Katryne; Wood, David

    2011-09-01

    The goal of this study was to examine factors associated with receiving health care transition counseling services as reported by young adults. We analyzed data from the 2007 Survey of Adult Transition and Health, a nationwide survey of young adults aged 19 to 23 years conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics, to explore self-reported receipt of services to support transition from pediatric to adult health care. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify whether sociodemographic characteristics, health status, or markers of provider-youth health communication were associated with the receipt of 3 key transition counseling services. Among the 1865 Survey of Adult Transition and Health respondents, 55% reported that their physicians or other health care providers had discussed how their needs would change with age, 53% reported that their physicians or other health care providers had discussed how to obtain health insurance as an adult, and 62% reported having participated in a transition plan in school. Only 24% reported receiving all 3 transition counseling services. In multivariate logistic regression analyses, although gender, age, and race were not associated with increased receipt of the transition-related outcomes, markers of strong communication with the health system were associated with increased rates of receiving transition guidance. Many young adults reported not having received health care transition counseling. Provider-youth communication was associated with increased health care transition guidance, and suggests that a medical home model that promotes anticipatory guidance for health care transition could promote improvements in the transition process.

  14. Health survey of employees regularly using 3D printers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, F L; House, R; Kudla, I; Lipszyc, J C; Rajaram, N; Tarlo, S M

    2018-03-10

    3D printers emit potentially hazardous ultrafine particles and volatile organic compounds. Workers using 3D printing technologies may be at risk of respiratory illness from occupational exposure. To assess whether 3D printing is associated with health effects in occupational users. This was a preliminary survey. Workers in 17 companies using 3D printing, including commercial prototyping businesses, educational institutions and public libraries, in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada, were asked to complete survey questionnaires concerning demographic, occupational and health information. Associations between self-reported health history variables and occupational characteristics were examined by chi-square and Fisher's exact tests. Among 46 surveyed workers, 27 (59% of participants) reported having respiratory symptoms at least once per week in the past year. Working more than 40 h per week with 3D printers was significantly associated with having been given a respiratory-related diagnosis (asthma or allergic rhinitis) (P < 0.05). We observed a wide variation in occupational hygiene practices in the 17 printing workplaces that we surveyed. Our finding of frequently reported respiratory symptoms suggests a need for additional studies on exposed workers in this field.

  15. Examining the Durability of Colorectal Cancer Screening Awareness and Health Beliefs Among Medically Underserved Patients: Baseline to 12 months Post-Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christy, Shannon M; Sutton, Steven K; Gwede, Clement K; Chavarria, Enmanuel A; Davis, Stacy N; Abdulla, Rania; Schultz, Ida; Roetzheim, Richard; Shibata, David; Meade, Cathy D

    2017-11-25

    The current study examines changes in awareness and health beliefs from baseline to 12 months post-intervention following receipt of one of two colorectal cancer (CRC) educational interventions that aimed to promote CRC screening among a racially and ethnically diverse and medically underserved population. Participants (N = 270) were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial to increase CRC screening and completed both baseline and 12-month follow-up assessments. Participants were aged 50-75, at average CRC risk, not up-to-date with CRC screening guidelines, and receiving care at one of three community-based clinics. Participants were randomized to receive either a targeted, low-literacy intervention informed by the Preventive Health Model [PHM] (photonovella and DVD plus fecal immunochemical test [FIT]) or a non-targeted intervention (standard educational brochure plus FIT). Changes in CRC awareness and health beliefs from baseline to 12 months were examined both within and between intervention groups using Student's t tests. Participants in both intervention conditions demonstrated an increase in CRC awareness, PHM social influence, and trust in the healthcare system (all p's < .0001), with no significant between-group differences. Among those receiving the targeted intervention, there also was an increase in PHM salience (p < .05). Among individuals receiving the non-targeted intervention, there was an increase in PHM response efficacy (p < .01) and PHM self-efficacy (p < .0001). Both CRC screening interventions promoted positive changes in awareness and several health beliefs from baseline to 12 months, suggesting important benefits of CRC education. Regardless of whether education was targeted or non-targeted, providing CRC screening education successfully promoted durable changes in awareness and health beliefs.

  16. A survey of health-related activities on second life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, Leslie; Wilson, Kumanan; Morra, Dante; Keelan, Jennifer

    2009-05-22

    Increasingly, governments, health care agencies, companies, and private groups have chosen Second Life as part of their Web 2.0 communication strategies. Second Life offers unique design features for disseminating health information, training health professionals, and enabling patient education for both academic and commercial health behavior research. This study aimed to survey and categorize the range of health-related activities on Second Life; to examine the design attributes of the most innovative and popular sites; and to assess the potential utility of Second Life for the dissemination of health information and for health behavior change. We used three separate search strategies to identify health-related sites on Second Life. The first used the application's search engine, entering both generic and select illness-specific keywords, to seek out sites. The second identified sites through a comprehensive review of print, blog, and media sources discussing health activities on Second Life. We then visited each site and used a snowball method to identify other health sites until we reached saturation (no new health sites were identified). The content, user experience, and chief purpose of each site were tabulated as well as basic site information, including user traffic data and site size. We found a wide range of health-related activities on Second Life, and a diverse group of users, including organizations, groups, and individuals. For many users, Second Life activities are a part of their Web 2.0 communication strategy. The most common type of health-related site in our sample (n = 68) were those whose principle aim was patient education or to increase awareness about health issues. The second most common type of site were support sites, followed by training sites, and marketing sites. Finally, a few sites were purpose-built to conduct research in SL or to recruit participants for real-life research. Studies show that behaviors from virtual worlds can

  17. Barriers to global health development: An international quantitative survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahr Weiss

    Full Text Available Global health's goal of reducing low-and-middle-income country versus high-income country health disparities faces complex challenges. Although there have been discussions of barriers, there has not been a broad-based, quantitative survey of such barriers.432 global health professionals were invited via email to participate in an online survey, with 268 (62% participating. The survey assessed participants' (A demographic and global health background, (B perceptions regarding 66 barriers' seriousness, (C detailed ratings of barriers designated most serious, (D potential solutions.Thirty-four (of 66 barriers were seen as moderately or more serious, highlighting the widespread, significant challenges global health development faces. Perceived barrier seriousness differed significantly across domains: Resource Limitations mean = 2.47 (0-4 Likert scale, Priority Selection mean = 2.20, Corruption, Lack of Competence mean = 1.87, Social and Cultural Barriers mean = 1.68. Some system-level predictors showed significant but relatively limited relations. For instance, for Global Health Domain, HIV and Mental Health had higher levels of perceived Social and Cultural Barriers than other GH Domains. Individual-level global health experience predictors had small but significant effects, with seriousness of (a Corruption, Lack of Competence, and (b Priority Selection barriers positively correlated with respondents' level of LMIC-oriented (e.g., weeks/year spent in LMIC but Academic Global Health Achievement (e.g., number of global health publications negatively correlated with overall barrier seriousness.That comparatively few system-level predictors (e.g., Organization Type were significant suggests these barriers may be relatively fundamental at the system-level. Individual-level and system-level effects do have policy implications; e.g., Priority Selection barriers were among the most serious, yet effects on seriousness of how LMIC-oriented a professional

  18. Barriers to global health development: An international quantitative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Bahr; Pollack, Amie Alley

    2017-01-01

    Global health's goal of reducing low-and-middle-income country versus high-income country health disparities faces complex challenges. Although there have been discussions of barriers, there has not been a broad-based, quantitative survey of such barriers. 432 global health professionals were invited via email to participate in an online survey, with 268 (62%) participating. The survey assessed participants' (A) demographic and global health background, (B) perceptions regarding 66 barriers' seriousness, (C) detailed ratings of barriers designated most serious, (D) potential solutions. Thirty-four (of 66) barriers were seen as moderately or more serious, highlighting the widespread, significant challenges global health development faces. Perceived barrier seriousness differed significantly across domains: Resource Limitations mean = 2.47 (0-4 Likert scale), Priority Selection mean = 2.20, Corruption, Lack of Competence mean = 1.87, Social and Cultural Barriers mean = 1.68. Some system-level predictors showed significant but relatively limited relations. For instance, for Global Health Domain, HIV and Mental Health had higher levels of perceived Social and Cultural Barriers than other GH Domains. Individual-level global health experience predictors had small but significant effects, with seriousness of (a) Corruption, Lack of Competence, and (b) Priority Selection barriers positively correlated with respondents' level of LMIC-oriented (e.g., weeks/year spent in LMIC) but Academic Global Health Achievement (e.g., number of global health publications) negatively correlated with overall barrier seriousness. That comparatively few system-level predictors (e.g., Organization Type) were significant suggests these barriers may be relatively fundamental at the system-level. Individual-level and system-level effects do have policy implications; e.g., Priority Selection barriers were among the most serious, yet effects on seriousness of how LMIC-oriented a professional was

  19. The Medicare Health Outcomes Survey program: Overview, context, and near-term prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller Nancy A

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In 1996, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS initiated the development of the Medicare Health Outcomes Survey (HOS. It is the first national survey to measure the quality of life and functional health status of Medicare beneficiaries enrolled in managed care. The program seeks to gather valid and reliable health status data in Medicare managed care for use in quality improvement activities, public reporting, plan accountability and improving health outcomes based on competition. The context that led to the development of the HOS was formed by the convergence of the following factors: 1 a recognized need to monitor the performance of managed care plans, 2 technical expertise and advancement in the areas of quality measurement and health outcomes assessment, 3 the existence of a tested functional health status assessment tool (SF-36®1, which was valid for an elderly population, 4 CMS leadership, and 5 political interest in quality improvement. Since 1998, there have been six baseline surveys and four follow up surveys. CMS, working with its partners, performs the following tasks as part of the HOS program: 1 Supports the technical/scientific development of the HOS measure, 2 Certifies survey vendors, 3 Collects Health Plan Employer Data and Information Set(HEDIS®2 HOS data, 4 Cleans, scores, and disseminates annual rounds of HOS data, public use files and reports to CMS, Quality Improvement Organizations (QIOs, Medicare+Choice Organizations (M+COs, and other stakeholders, 5 Trains M+COs and QIOs in the use of functional status measures and best practices for improving care, 6 Provides technical assistance to CMS, QIOs, M+COs and other data users, and 7 Conducts analyses using HOS data to support CMS and HHS priorities. CMS has recently sponsored an evaluation of the HOS program, which will provide the information necessary to enhance the future administration of the program. Information collected to date reveals that the

  20. Implementation of the European health interview survey (EHIS) into the German health update (GEDA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, C; Finger, J D; Allen, J; Born, S; Hoebel, J; Kuhnert, R; Müters, S; Thelen, J; Schmich, P; Varga, M; von der Lippe, E; Wetzstein, M; Ziese, T

    2017-01-01

    This methodological paper describes the integration of the 'European Health Interview Survey wave 2' (EHIS 2) into the 'German Health Update' 2014/2015 (GEDA 2014/2015-EHIS). GEDA 2014/2015-EHIS is a cross-sectional health survey. A two-stage stratified cluster sampling approach was used to recruit persons aged 15 years and older with permanent residence in Germany. Two different modes of data collection were used, self-administered web questionnaire and self-administered paper questionnaire. The survey instrument implemented the EHIS 2 modules on health status, health care use, health determinants and social background variables and additional national questions. Data processing was conducted according to the quality and validation rules specified by Eurostat. In total, 24,824 questionnaires were completed. The response rate was 27.6%. The two-stage cluster sample method seems to have been successful in achieving a sample with high representativeness. The final micro data file was inspected, approved and certified by Eurostat. Access to micro data of the EHIS 2 can be provided by Eurostat via research contract and to the GEDA 2014/2015-EHIS public use file by the Research Data Centre of the Robert Koch Institute. First EHIS 2 results are available at the Eurostat website. Integrating a multinational health survey into an existing national health monitoring system was a challenge in Germany. The national survey methodology for conducting the survey had to be further developed in order to meet the overarching goal of harmonizing the health information from national statistical offices and public health research institutes across the European Union. The harmonized EHIS 2 data source will profoundly impact international public health research in the near future. The next EHIS wave 3 will be conducted around 2019.

  1. Measuring health system strengthening: application of the balanced scorecard approach to rank the baseline performance of three rural districts in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutale, Wilbroad; Godfrey-Fausset, Peter; Mwanamwenge, Margaret Tembo; Kasese, Nkatya; Chintu, Namwinga; Balabanova, Dina; Spicer, Neil; Ayles, Helen

    2013-01-01

    There is growing interest in health system performance and recently WHO launched a report on health systems strengthening emphasising the need for close monitoring using system-wide approaches. One recent method is the balanced scorecard system. There is limited application of this method in middle- and low-income countries. This paper applies the concept of balanced scorecard to describe the baseline status of three intervention districts in Zambia. The Better Health Outcome through Mentoring and Assessment (BHOMA) project is a randomised step-wedged community intervention that aims to strengthen the health system in three districts in the Republic of Zambia. To assess the baseline status of the participating districts we used a modified balanced scorecard approach following the domains highlighted in the MOH 2011 Strategic Plan. Differences in performance were noted by district and residence. Finance and service delivery domains performed poorly in all study districts. The proportion of the health workers receiving training in the past 12 months was lowest in Kafue (58%) and highest in Luangwa district (77%). Under service capacity, basic equipment and laboratory capacity scores showed major variation, with Kafue and Luangwa having lower scores when compared to Chongwe. The finance domain showed that Kafue and Chongwe had lower scores (44% and 47% respectively). Regression model showed that children's clinical observation scores were negatively correlated with drug availability (coeff -0.40, p = 0.02). Adult clinical observation scores were positively association with adult service satisfaction score (coeff 0.82, p = 0.04) and service readiness (coeff 0.54, p = 0.03). The study applied the balanced scorecard to describe the baseline status of 42 health facilities in three districts of Zambia. Differences in performance were noted by district and residence in most domains with finance and service delivery performing poorly in all study districts. This tool could

  2. Measuring health system strengthening: application of the balanced scorecard approach to rank the baseline performance of three rural districts in Zambia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilbroad Mutale

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: There is growing interest in health system performance and recently WHO launched a report on health systems strengthening emphasising the need for close monitoring using system-wide approaches. One recent method is the balanced scorecard system. There is limited application of this method in middle- and low-income countries. This paper applies the concept of balanced scorecard to describe the baseline status of three intervention districts in Zambia. METHODOLOGY: The Better Health Outcome through Mentoring and Assessment (BHOMA project is a randomised step-wedged community intervention that aims to strengthen the health system in three districts in the Republic of Zambia. To assess the baseline status of the participating districts we used a modified balanced scorecard approach following the domains highlighted in the MOH 2011 Strategic Plan. RESULTS: Differences in performance were noted by district and residence. Finance and service delivery domains performed poorly in all study districts. The proportion of the health workers receiving training in the past 12 months was lowest in Kafue (58% and highest in Luangwa district (77%. Under service capacity, basic equipment and laboratory capacity scores showed major variation, with Kafue and Luangwa having lower scores when compared to Chongwe. The finance domain showed that Kafue and Chongwe had lower scores (44% and 47% respectively. Regression model showed that children's clinical observation scores were negatively correlated with drug availability (coeff -0.40, p = 0.02. Adult clinical observation scores were positively association with adult service satisfaction score (coeff 0.82, p = 0.04 and service readiness (coeff 0.54, p = 0.03. CONCLUSION: The study applied the balanced scorecard to describe the baseline status of 42 health facilities in three districts of Zambia. Differences in performance were noted by district and residence in most domains with finance and service

  3. Association of Baseline Depressive Symptoms with Prevalent and Incident Pre-Hypertension and Hypertension in Postmenopausal Hispanic Women: Results from the Women's Health Initiative.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth E Zambrana

    Full Text Available Depression and depressive symptoms are risk factors for hypertension (HTN and cardiovascular disease (CVD. Hispanic women have higher rates of depressive symptoms compared to other racial/ethnic groups yet few studies have investigated its association with incident prehypertension and hypertension among postmenopausal Hispanic women. This study aims to assess if an association exists between baseline depression and incident hypertension at 3 years follow-up among postmenopausal Hispanic women.Prospective cohort study, Women's Health Initiative (WHI, included 4,680 Hispanic women who participated in the observational and clinical trial studies at baseline and at third-year follow-up. Baseline current depressive symptoms and past depression history were measured as well as important correlates of depression-social support, optimism, life events and caregiving. Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate prevalent and incident prehypertension and hypertension in relation to depressive symptoms.Prevalence of current baseline depression ranged from 26% to 28% by hypertension category and education moderated these rates. In age-adjusted models, women with depression were more likely to be hypertensive (OR = 1.25; 95% CI 1.04-1.51, although results were attenuated when adjusting for covariates. Depression at baseline in normotensive Hispanic women was associated with incident hypertension at year 3 follow-up (OR = 1.74; 95% CI 1.10-2.74 after adjustment for insurance and behavioral factors. However, further adjustment for clinical covariates attenuated the association. Analyses of psychosocial variables correlated with depression but did not alter findings. Low rates of antidepressant medication usage were also reported.In the largest longitudinal study to date of older Hispanic women which included physiologic, behavioral and psychosocial moderators of depression, there was no association between baseline depressive symptoms and prevalent nor

  4. Increased Risk of Progression of Coronary Artery Calcification in Male Subjects with High Baseline Waist-to-Height Ratio: The Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyung Geun; Nallamshetty, Shriram; Rhee, Eun Jung

    2016-02-01

    The waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) is an easy and inexpensive adiposity index that reflects central obesity. In this study, we examined the association of baseline WHtR and progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC) over 4 years of follow-up in apparently healthy Korean men. A total of 1,048 male participants (mean age, 40.9 years) in a health-screening program in Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Seoul, Korea who repeated a medical check-up in 2010 and 2014 were recruited. Baseline WHtR was calculated using the value for the waist in 2010 divided by the value for height in 2010. The CAC score (CACS) of each subject was measured by multi-detector computed tomography in both 2010 and 2014. Progression of CAC was defined as a CACS change over 4 years greater than 0. During the follow-up period, progression of CAC occurred in 278 subjects (26.5%). The subjects with CAC progression had slightly higher but significant baseline WHtR compared to those who did not show CAC progression (0.51±0.04 vs. 0.50±0.04, P<0.01). The proportion of subjects with CAC progression significantly increased as the baseline WHtR increased from the 1st quartile to 4th quartile groups (18.3%, 18.7%, 28.8%, and 34.2%; P<0.01). The risk for CAC progression was elevated with an odds ratio of 1.602 in the 4th quartile group of baseline WHtR even after adjustment for confounding variables (95% confidence interval, 1.040 to 2.466). Increased baseline WHtR was associated with increased risk for CAC progression. WHtR might be a useful screening tool to identify individuals at high risk for subclinical atherosclerosis.

  5. Bolivia 1998: results from the Demographic and Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-09-01

    This document presents the results of the Bolivia Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), or Encuesta Nacional de Demografia y Salud 1998, conducted by the Instituto Nacional de Estadistica, La Paz, Bolivia, within the framework of the DHS Program of Macro International. Data were collected from 12,109 households and complete interviews were conducted with 11,187 women aged 15-49. A male survey was also conducted, which collected data from 3780 men aged 15-64. The information collected include the following: 1) general characteristics of the population, 2) fertility, 3) fertility preferences, 4) current contraceptive use, 5) contraception, 6) marital and contraceptive status, 7) postpartum variables, 8) infant mortality, 9) health: disease prevention and treatment, and 10) nutritional status: anthropometric measures.

  6. A Vocal Health Survey Among Amateur and Professional Voice Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weekly, Edrie Means; Carroll, Linda M; Korovin, Gwen S; Fleming, Rachelle

    2017-09-22

    An international survey was conducted to provide insights into current practices related to vocal health among amateur and professional voice users. Vocalists of various genres completed an online survey related to their practice in seeking medical care for vocal health concerns, and their preferences for the type of medical help they seek. Specific vocal symptoms or conditions which the subjects feel would warrant evaluation was also queried, as well as their preference for voice use and management should laryngeal pathology be diagnosed during a medical examination. Participants were knowledgeable in both traditional and alternative medical approaches but showed a preference for those options most readily available, as opposed to those best suited for a vocal issue. Ideally, a combination of traditional and alternative management would appear to be the best long-term strategy for professional and amateur voice users. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Methodological design of the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2016].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Martínez, Martín; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Cuevas-Nasu, Lucía; Gómez-Humarán, Ignacio Méndez; Gaona-Pineda, Elsa Berenice; Gómez-Acosta, Luz María; Rivera-Dommarco, Juan Ángel; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio

    2017-01-01

    Describe the design methodology of the halfway health and nutrition national survey (Ensanut-MC) 2016. The Ensanut-MC is a national probabilistic survey whose objective population are the inhabitants of private households in Mexico. The sample size was determined to make inferences on the urban and rural areas in four regions. Describes main design elements: target population, topics of study, sampling procedure, measurement procedure and logistics organization. A final sample of 9 479 completed household interviews, and a sample of 16 591 individual interviews. The response rate for households was 77.9%, and the response rate for individuals was 91.9%. The Ensanut-MC probabilistic design allows valid statistical inferences about interest parameters for Mexico´s public health and nutrition, specifically on overweight, obesity and diabetes mellitus. Updated information also supports the monitoring, updating and formulation of new policies and priority programs.

  8. A survey on management perspectives of the state of workplace health and safety practices in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbakaya, C F; Onyoyo, H A; Lwaki, S A; Omondi, O J

    1999-07-01

    A baseline survey was conducted in 1995 on management perspectives of occupational health and safety (OHS) structures and practices in Kenya. This was achieved by interviewing management and supervisory staff attending 1 week multi-disciplinary courses that were organized by the Federation of Kenya Employers (FKE) and the International Labour Office (ILO) at hotel venues in Kenya. The purpose of the survey was to gain some insight into work safety conditions in Kenya and to assess the potential for a new OHS manual to meet existing knowledge gaps. The manual was locally developed in 1993/4 by Kenyan OHS experts in collaboration with colleagues from the Swedish National Institute for Working Life. Results of the survey from 65 participants indicated that most workplace managers were not familiar with the Kenyan work safety legislation. Work injuries were largely attributable to working with dangerous machinery. Occupational diseases and HIV/AIDS were cited as other causes of workplace morbidity and mortality. Although most respondents (70%) were satisfied with their work safety conditions, only 37% said their workplaces were annually audited by labour inspectors while 45% said injured workers were not treated well by management. Many workplaces (65%) violated the mandatory legal requirement on the establishment of health and safety committees. The OHS resource person and course content were rated highly by most respondents (96%). The foregoing results provided the basis of a needs analysis for future OHS programs in Kenya.

  9. Methodology of the National School-based Health Survey in Malaysia, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, Fadhli; Saari, Riyanti; Naidu, Balkish M; Ahmad, Noor Ani; Omar, Azahadi; Aris, Tahir

    2014-09-01

    The National School-Based Health Survey 2012 was a nationwide school health survey of students in Standard 4 to Form 5 (10-17 years of age), who were schooling in government schools in Malaysia during the period of data collection. The survey comprised 3 subsurveys: the Global School Health Survey (GSHS), the Mental Health Survey, and the National School-Based Nutrition Survey. The aim of the survey was to provide data on the health status of adolescents in Malaysia toward strengthening the adolescent health program in the country. The design of the survey was created to fulfill the requirements of the 3 subsurveys. A 2-stage stratified sampling method was adopted in the sampling. The methods for data collection were via questionnaire and physical examination. The National School-Based Health Survey 2012 adopted an appropriate methodology for a school-based survey to ensure valid and reliable findings. © 2014 APJPH.

  10. Self-rated health in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease: baseline data from the Danish Alzheimer Intervention Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldorff, Frans Boch; Nielsen, Anni B S; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2010-01-01

    , but the validity and the influence on other factors on SRH among cognitively impaired persons remain unknown. This study reports how patients with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) report SRH and which factors influence SRH. The study was based on baseline data from 321 home living patients with mild AD who...... participated in the Danish Alzheimer Intervention Study (DAISY). Analysis using the generalized estimating equation (GEE) models revealed that good/excellent SRH among patients with mild AD were associated with longer education, lack of other chronic conditions, higher scores of quality of life (QOL), lower...

  11. The prisoner as patient - a health services satisfaction survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rustad Åse-Bente

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence for higher morbidity among prison inmates than in the general population. Despite this, patient satisfaction with the prison health services is scarcely investigated. The aim of the present study was to investigate patient satisfaction with prison health services in Norway and to analyze possible patient and service effects. Methods The survey took part in 29 prisons in the southern and central part of Norway, representing 62% of the total prison capacity in Norway. A total of 1,150 prison inmates with prison health services experiences completed a satisfaction questionnaire (90% response rate. The patients' satisfaction was measured on a 12-item index. Multilevel analyses were used to analyze both patient and service characteristics as predictors of satisfaction. Results The study revealed high levels of dissatisfaction with prison health services. There were substantial differences between services, with between-service-variance accounting for 9% of the total variance. Satisfaction was significantly associated with a senior staff member's evaluation of the health services possessing adequate resources and the quality of drug abuse treatment. At the patient level, satisfaction was significantly associated with older age, frequent consultations and better self-perceived health. Conclusion Prison inmates' satisfaction with the health services provided are low compared with patient satisfaction measured in other health areas. The substantial differences observed between services - even when adjusting for several known factors associated with patient satisfaction - indicate a potential for quality improvement.

  12. The prisoner as patient - a health services satisfaction survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon; Rustad, Ase-Bente; Kjelsberg, Ellen

    2009-09-28

    There is evidence for higher morbidity among prison inmates than in the general population. Despite this, patient satisfaction with the prison health services is scarcely investigated. The aim of the present study was to investigate patient satisfaction with prison health services in Norway and to analyze possible patient and service effects. The survey took part in 29 prisons in the southern and central part of Norway, representing 62% of the total prison capacity in Norway. A total of 1,150 prison inmates with prison health services experiences completed a satisfaction questionnaire (90% response rate). The patients' satisfaction was measured on a 12-item index. Multilevel analyses were used to analyze both patient and service characteristics as predictors of satisfaction. The study revealed high levels of dissatisfaction with prison health services. There were substantial differences between services, with between-service-variance accounting for 9% of the total variance. Satisfaction was significantly associated with a senior staff member's evaluation of the health services possessing adequate resources and the quality of drug abuse treatment. At the patient level, satisfaction was significantly associated with older age, frequent consultations and better self-perceived health. Prison inmates' satisfaction with the health services provided are low compared with patient satisfaction measured in other health areas. The substantial differences observed between services - even when adjusting for several known factors associated with patient satisfaction - indicate a potential for quality improvement.

  13. Evidence based practice in population health: a regional survey to inform workforce development and organisational change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adily, A; Ward, J

    2004-06-01

    To assess current capacity to implement evidence based practice (EBP) in population health. Postal survey of a regional population health workforce in Sydney, Australia. Division of Population Health, South Western Sydney Area Health Service. 104 population health staff (response rate: 73%). In the sample of regional population health practitioners, views about the current promotion of EBP were positive. Non-medical respondents with less that Masters degree were more likely to report "high self assessed need" to increase their capacity in EBP (p = 0.022). Confidence in understanding of EBP terminology was not associated with seniority but with highest level of education reached (pskills" or "need to increase their capacity in EBP" in their current position. The proportion of participants "strongly" supporting implementation of a colorectal cancer screening programme whose benefit was expressed as relative risk reduction was greater than that so supporting a programme whose benefit was expressed as number needed to screen (p = 0.008). Most respondents referred to their immediate managers when seeking support for EBP. The findings provide a quantitative baseline for capacity building through workplace programmes. Managerial commitment has been increased and performance development is now underway.

  14. Our Environment, Our Health: A Community-Based Participatory Environmental Health Survey in Richmond, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Alison; Lopez, Andrea; Malloy, Nile; Morello-Frosch, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    This study presents a health survey conducted by a community-based participatory research partnership between academic researchers and community organizers to consider environmental health and environmental justice issues in four neighborhoods of Richmond, California, a low-income community of color living along the fence line of a major oil…

  15. Rat Models of Cardiometabolic Diseases: Baseline Clinical Chemistries, and Rationale for their Use in Examining Air Pollution Health Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the first of a series of 8 papers examining susceptibility of various rodent cardiometabolic disease models to ozone induced health effects. Individuals with cardiovascular and metabolic diseases (CVD) are shown to be more susceptible to adverse health effects o...

  16. Revised Draft Human Health Baseline Risk Assessment for Upland Soils (Operable Unit 3) LCP Chemicals Site, Brunswick, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    July 2011 report prepared by Environmental Planning Specialists, Inc. of on-site threats to human health posed by post removal action levels of chemicals in the soil of the LCP Chemicals Superfund site in Brunswick, Georgia.

  17. Health survey on cancers about the Tricastin nuclear site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This survey aims at describing the health status of the population around the Tricastin site, and more particularly at determining whether there is a difference between death or cancer occurrence frequencies observed around this site with respect to reference frequencies. It does not aim at assessing the health impact of the site industrial installations. Cancer mortality data, cancer diagnosis data, demographic data, child cancer data, data related to hospital stays in relationship with cancer, long duration hospital stay data, and mortality data are used. Several indicators are defined and used: standardised mortality ratio, standardised hospitalisation ratio. Data are also analysed in terms of location, and socio-demographic categories. It appears that there is no specific health situation for the considered area, except for pancreas cancer for women

  18. [Survey of the state of health and health behavior among medical students in Hungary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bíró, Eva; Balajti, Ilona; Adány, Róza; Kósa, Karolina

    2008-11-16

    Medical doctors are not only highly trained professionals but also role models in matters of health and disease. That is what makes the health behaviour of future doctors an important research issue. A health behaviour survey was conducted among a representative sample of medical students of a university in Hungary by a standardized self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire related to demographic data, health status and health behaviour using validated items from previous surveys. Self-perceived (subjective) health was found to be good/very good in more than three-quarters of the students; nearly all of them thought that they can do much/very much for their health. Nearly two-thirds of the students are non-smokers, but 15% smoke daily. More than four-fifth of the students drink alcohol, mainly occasionally. One-quarter had already tried some drugs, mostly marijuana and non-prescription narcotics and sedatives. Comparison of our data to the same age-group of the general population revealed that the proportion of smokers, daily smokers, and weekly alcohol drinkers is lower among medical students. The prevalence of risk behaviour does not seem to have risen in the past years based on comparing our data to those of earlier surveys conducted among medical students in Hungary. However, students had a significantly higher mean score in the general health questionnaire compared to the mean of the same age group of the general population indicating mental health problems that deserve attention.

  19. American Thoracic Society Member Survey on Climate Change and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloodhart, Brittany; Ewart, Gary; Thurston, George D.; Balmes, John R.; Guidotti, Tee L.; Maibach, Edward W.

    2015-01-01

    The American Thoracic Society (ATS), in collaboration with George Mason University, surveyed a random sample of ATS members to assess their perceptions of, clinical experiences with, and preferred policy responses to climate change. An e-mail containing an invitation from the ATS President and a link to an online survey was sent to 5,500 randomly selected U.S. members; up to four reminder e-mails were sent to nonrespondents. Responses were received from members in 49 states and the District of Columbia (n = 915); the response rate was 17%. Geographic distribution of respondents mirrored that of the sample. Survey estimates’ confidence intervals were ±3.5% or smaller. Results indicate that a large majority of ATS members have concluded that climate change is happening (89%), that it is driven by human activity (68%), and that it is relevant to patient care (“a great deal”/“a moderate amount”) (65%). A majority of respondents indicated they were already observing health impacts of climate change among their patients, most commonly as increases in chronic disease severity from air pollution (77%), allergic symptoms from exposure to plants or mold (58%), and severe weather injuries (57%). A larger majority anticipated seeing these climate-related health impacts in the next 2 decades. Respondents indicated that physicians and physician organizations should play an active role in educating patients, the public, and policy makers on the human health effects of climate change. Overall, ATS members are observing that human health is already adversely affected by climate change and support responses to address this situation. PMID:25535822

  20. American Thoracic Society member survey on climate change and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarfaty, Mona; Bloodhart, Brittany; Ewart, Gary; Thurston, George D; Balmes, John R; Guidotti, Tee L; Maibach, Edward W

    2015-02-01

    The American Thoracic Society (ATS), in collaboration with George Mason University, surveyed a random sample of ATS members to assess their perceptions of, clinical experiences with, and preferred policy responses to climate change. An e-mail containing an invitation from the ATS President and a link to an online survey was sent to 5,500 randomly selected U.S. members; up to four reminder e-mails were sent to nonrespondents. Responses were received from members in 49 states and the District of Columbia (n = 915); the response rate was 17%. Geographic distribution of respondents mirrored that of the sample. Survey estimates' confidence intervals were ±3.5% or smaller. Results indicate that a large majority of ATS members have concluded that climate change is happening (89%), that it is driven by human activity (68%), and that it is relevant to patient care ("a great deal"/"a moderate amount") (65%). A majority of respondents indicated they were already observing health impacts of climate change among their patients, most commonly as increases in chronic disease severity from air pollution (77%), allergic symptoms from exposure to plants or mold (58%), and severe weather injuries (57%). A larger majority anticipated seeing these climate-related health impacts in the next 2 decades. Respondents indicated that physicians and physician organizations should play an active role in educating patients, the public, and policy makers on the human health effects of climate change. Overall, ATS members are observing that human health is already adversely affected by climate change and support responses to address this situation.

  1. Measuring youth health engagement: development of the youth engagement with health services survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Rachel A; Ramos, Mary M; Stumbo, Scott; McGrath, Jane; Fairbrother, Gerry

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to create and validate a survey instrument designed to measure Youth Engagement with Health Services (YEHS!). A 61-item YEHS! survey was created through a multistaged process, which included literature review, subject matter expert opinion, review of existing validated measures, and cognitive interviewing with 41 adolescents in Colorado and New Mexico. The YEHS! was then pilot tested with a diverse group of high school students (n = 354) accessing health services at one of eight school-based health centers in Colorado and New Mexico. We conducted psychometric analyses and examined correlations between the youth health engagement scales and measures of quality of care. We created scales to measure two domains of youth health engagement: health access literacy and health self-efficacy. The youth health engagement scales demonstrated strong reliability (Cronbach's α .76 and .82) and construct validity (mean factor loading .71 and .76). Youth health engagement scores predicted higher experiences of care scores (p engagement among adolescents using school-based health centers. We demonstrate an association between youth health engagement and two quality of care measures. Additional testing is needed to ensure the reliability and validity of the instrument in diverse adolescent populations. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. National Survey on Drug Use and Health: 4-Year R-DAS (NSDUH-2002-2005)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This file includes data from the 2002 through 2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) survey. The only variables included in the data file are ones that...

  3. National Survey on Drug Use and Health: 2-Year R-DAS (NSDUH-2002-2003)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This file includes data from the 2002 through 2011 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) survey. The only variables included in the data file are ones that...

  4. National Survey on Drug Use and Health: 8-Year R-DAS (NSDUH-2002-2009)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This file includes data from the 2002 through 2009 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) survey. The only variables included in the 8-year 2002-2009 data...

  5. [A health survey in riverine communities in Amazonas State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, Abel Santiago Muri; Fernandes, Tiótrefis Gomes; Parente, Rosana Cristina Pereira; Secoli, Silvia Regina

    2018-02-19

    Population-based health surveys are important tools for identifying disease determinants, especially in regions with widely dispersed populations and low health system coverage. The aim of this study was to describe the principal methodological aspects and to describe the socioeconomic, demographic, and health characteristics of the riverine populations of Coari, Amazonas State, Brazil. This was a population-based cross-sectional study in river-dwelling communities in the rural area of Coari, from April to July 2015. The probabilistic cluster sample consisted of 492 individuals. The results showed that the majority of the river-dwellers were females (53%), had up to 9 years of schooling (68.5%), and earned a monthly family income equivalent to one-third the minimum wage. The health problems reported in the previous 30 days featured conditions involving pain (45.2%). The main healthcare resources were allopathic medicines (70.3%), exceeding herbal remedies (44.3%). The river-dwellers travel an average of 60.4km and take some 4.2 hours to reach the urban area of Coari. The riverine population generally presents low economic status and limited access to the urban area. Health problems are mostly solved with allopathic medicines. Geographic characteristics, as barriers to access to health services and to improvements in living conditions for the riverine population, can limit the collection of epidemiological data on these populations.

  6. Status of simulation in health care education: an international survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qayumi, Karim; Pachev, George; Zheng, Bin; Ziv, Amitai; Koval, Valentyna; Badiei, Sadia; Cheng, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Simulation is rapidly penetrating the terrain of health care education and has gained growing acceptance as an educational method and patient safety tool. Despite this, the state of simulation in health care education has not yet been evaluated on a global scale. In this project, we studied the global status of simulation in health care education by determining the degree of financial support, infrastructure, manpower, information technology capabilities, engagement of groups of learners, and research and scholarly activities, as well as the barriers, strengths, opportunities for growth, and other aspects of simulation in health care education. We utilized a two-stage process, including an online survey and a site visit that included interviews and debriefings. Forty-two simulation centers worldwide participated in this study, the results of which show that despite enormous interest and enthusiasm in the health care community, use of simulation in health care education is limited to specific areas and is not a budgeted item in many institutions. Absence of a sustainable business model, as well as sufficient financial support in terms of budget, infrastructure, manpower, research, and scholarly activities, slows down the movement of simulation. Specific recommendations are made based on current findings to support simulation in the next developmental stages. PMID:25489254

  7. Status of simulation in health care education: an international survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qayumi, Karim; Pachev, George; Zheng, Bin; Ziv, Amitai; Koval, Valentyna; Badiei, Sadia; Cheng, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Simulation is rapidly penetrating the terrain of health care education and has gained growing acceptance as an educational method and patient safety tool. Despite this, the state of simulation in health care education has not yet been evaluated on a global scale. In this project, we studied the global status of simulation in health care education by determining the degree of financial support, infrastructure, manpower, information technology capabilities, engagement of groups of learners, and research and scholarly activities, as well as the barriers, strengths, opportunities for growth, and other aspects of simulation in health care education. We utilized a two-stage process, including an online survey and a site visit that included interviews and debriefings. Forty-two simulation centers worldwide participated in this study, the results of which show that despite enormous interest and enthusiasm in the health care community, use of simulation in health care education is limited to specific areas and is not a budgeted item in many institutions. Absence of a sustainable business model, as well as sufficient financial support in terms of budget, infrastructure, manpower, research, and scholarly activities, slows down the movement of simulation. Specific recommendations are made based on current findings to support simulation in the next developmental stages.

  8. Strategy utilized for assessing baseline risks to human health from K-65 and metal oxide residues stored at the Fernald Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, J.E. [FERMCO, Cincinnati, OH (United States). Fernald Environmental Management Project; Janke, R.C.

    1995-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for cleanup activities at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) site in southwestern Ohio. The 425-hectare site consists of a former 55-hectare Production Area, an adjacent Waste Storage Area and various support facilities. From 1952 until 1989, the FEMP processed uranium into metallic {open_quotes}feed{close_quotes} materials for other DOE facilities in the nation`s defense program. In accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), the FEMP site is currently listed on the National Priorities List (NPL). To facilitate an expeditious cleanup effort, environmental issues associated with site cleanup are being managed under five operable units. This paper summarizes the risk assessment strategy employed to determine baseline human health risks associated with K-65 and metal oxide residues currently stored in Operable Unit 4. The K-65 and metal oxide residues were generated during the 1950s as a result of the extraction of uranium from uranium-bearing ores and concentrates. These residues are currently stored within Operable Unit 4 in concrete silos. Silos I and 2 contain approximately 6,120 cubic meters [m{sup 3}] (8,005 cubic yards [yd{sup 3}]) of K-65 residues, while silos 3 contains approximately 3890 m{sup 3} (5,080 yd{sup 3}) of cold metal oxides. These concrete silos are beyond their design life and require remedial action. The risk assessment conducted for Operable Unit 4 constitutes the first detailed human health risk assessment to be approved by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the CERCLA clean-up effort at the FEMP Site. This paper discusses the FEMP`s use of a Risk Information Quality Objective process in concert with the traditional risk assessment approach to determine baseline risk to human health and the environment posed by Operable Unit 4. A summary of the baseline risks to human health is also presented.

  9. Dental health status and patient-reported outcomes at baseline in patients participating in the osteonecrosis of the jaw registry study, SWOG S0702.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Poznak, Catherine H; Darke, Amy; Moinpour, Carol M; Bagramian, Robert A; Schubert, Mark M; Gralow, Julie R; Wade, James L; Unger, Joseph M

    2017-04-01

    SWOG S0702 was a cohort study of patients with cancer with bone metastases due to any cancer. Using baseline data from S0702, this report characterizes the oral health and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of patients with advanced cancer. S0702 case report forms captured dental assessment and patient-reported outcome (PRO) data. This analysis compares PRO dental discomfort with selected clinical assessments of dental health. This analysis focuses on the 2294 patients who underwent baseline dental examination prior to study registration, but also reports on the 1235 patients for whom only OHRQol data are available. Dental characteristics including the number of teeth and the presence of gingivitis and periodontal disease were examined for correlation with PRO of oral pain, interference with eating, smiling, speech, or quality of life. The median age of the study participants was 62. Greater than 60% of the 2294 patients with baseline dental assessments had none to mild plaque, calculus, gingivitis, or periodontal disease, suggesting that most of this cohort had good oral hygiene. However, in each of these same categories, approximately 6% had dental findings classified as severe conditions (poor oral hygiene). There was strong evidence that the presence of periodontal disease, gingivitis, and number of teeth was correlated with lower OHRQoL across multiple domains, including pain (mouth or jaw), interference with eating, smiling and speech, and overall quality of life. This report characterizes the oral health and OHRQoL of patients with advanced bone metastases receiving palliative therapy. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00874211.

  10. Health literacy and barriers to health information seeking: A nationwide survey in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seok Hee; Kim, Hyun Kyung

    2016-11-01

    To identify the level of health literacy and barriers to information seeking and to explore the predictors of health literacy. A cross-sectional descriptive design was used. A total of 1000 Korean adults were recruited through proportional quota sampling. Health literacy, barriers to health information seeking, sociodemographics, and health-related characteristics were surveyed. Descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression were performed for data analysis. About 61% of participants were classified as inadequately health literate. "No health fairs/activities near home" was the most frequently reported barrier. Older age, lower education, living in the capital city, barriers regarding how to get information and access to expensive books and magazines were predictors of inadequate health literacy. Strategies for improving health literacy and reducing barriers to health information seeking should be designed. Education on how to access health-related information with easily accessible sources either free or inexpensive could be a way to help adults with limited health literacy. Health care professionals should assess clients' health literacy levels, particularly amongst those who are older or have less education. They should provide clients with information on how to access credible and readily available sources of health-related information, considering their health literacy level. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Five Percent Post Survey Check Of National Family Health Survey (NFHS In ORISSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Benera Sudhir

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research questions: How well a post survey sample check of NFHS correlates with the findings of NFHS? Objective: Post survey check of National Family Health Survey carried out in 1992-93. Study design: Multistage sampling method with 5 percent sample of original NFHS sample. Setting: Study covered 5 percent sample of original NFHS sample. Subjects: Five percent household sample (1093 members of original NFHS sample was studied and compared with NFHS data. Method: Information from five percent house-holds of NFHS in which either there likely to be no change was likely to be only in one direction such as age group, sex-ratio, literacy, family planning knowledge and adoption etc. were collected in a predesigned questionnaire and compared with NFHS data. Results: The demographic characteristics were similar to those of NFHS. TFR and number of children ever borne were also found to be same. The awareness of FP methods and its uses were within acceptable margin of error. Thus on comparison of data of post survey check and NFHS sample error was within acceptable margin.

  12. Advantages and limitations of web-based surveys: evidence from a child mental health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiervang, Einar; Goodman, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Web-based surveys may have advantages related to the speed and cost of data collection as well as data quality. However, they may be biased by low and selective participation. We predicted that such biases would distort point-estimates such as average symptom level or prevalence but not patterns of associations with putative risk-factors. A structured psychiatric interview was administered to parents in two successive surveys of child mental health. In 2003, parents were interviewed face-to-face, whereas in 2006 they completed the interview online. In both surveys, interviews were preceded by paper questionnaires covering child and family characteristics. The rate of parents logging onto the web site was comparable to the response rate for face-to-face interviews, but the rate of full response (completing all sections of the interview) was much lower for web-based interviews. Full response was less frequent for non-traditional families, immigrant parents, and less educated parents. Participation bias affected point estimates of psychopathology but had little effect on associations with putative risk factors. The time and cost of full web-based interviews was only a quarter of that for face-to-face interviews. Web-based surveys may be performed faster and at lower cost than more traditional approaches with personal interviews. Selective participation seems a particular threat to point estimates of psychopathology, while patterns of associations are more robust.

  13. The longitudinal association from obesity to depression: results from the 12-year National Population Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gariepy, Genevieve; Wang, JianLi; Lesage, Alain D; Schmitz, Norbert

    2010-05-01

    Prior observational studies have investigated the association between obesity and depression but evidence remains weak and mixed. There has been a call for high-quality longitudinal studies to elucidate the etiologic relationship from obesity to depression. The main objective of this study was therefore to investigate whether obesity was a risk factor for depression in a nationally representative sample followed for 12 years. Seven waves of data collection (1994-1995 to 2006-2007) were obtained from the National Population Health Survey (NPHS). Our analyses included 10,545 adults without depression at baseline. Past-year major depression episode (MDE) was assessed from the Composite International Diagnostic Interview-Short Form for Major Depression (CIDI-SFMD). Obesity was estimated using baseline BMI from self-reported weight and height (obesity: BMI > or =30 kg/m(2)). Kaplan-Meier survival curves were generated and Cox proportional hazard regression modeling was used to estimate the risk of MDE by obesity status, controlling for sociodemographic and health and lifestyle variables. We found that obesity at baseline did not significantly predict subsequent MDE in women (adjusted hazard ratio (AHR): 1.03, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.84-1.26) and negatively predicted MDE in men (HR: 0.71, CI 0.51-0.98), after adjusting for important confounders. In summary, our findings suggest that obesity is a significant (negative) predictor of depression in adult men but not in women. These results moderate prior evidence supporting a positive link from obesity to depression.

  14. The Building Wealth and Health Network: methods and baseline characteristics from a randomized controlled trial for families with young children participating in temporary assistance for needy families (TANF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Sun

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Families with children under age six participating in the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families Program (TANF must participate in work-related activities for 20 h per week. However, due to financial hardship, poor health, and exposure to violence and adversity, families may experience great difficulty in reaching self-sufficiency. The purpose of this report is to describe study design and baseline findings of a trauma-informed financial empowerment and peer support intervention meant to mitigate these hardships. Methods We conducted a randomized controlled trial of a 28-week intervention called Building Wealth and Health Network to improve financial security and maternal and child health among caregivers participating in TANF. Participants, recruited from County Assistance offices in Philadelphia, PA, were randomized into two intervention groups (partial and full and one control group. Participants completed questionnaires at baseline to assess career readiness, economic hardship, health and wellbeing, exposure to adversity and violence, and interaction with criminal justice systems. Results Baseline characteristics demonstrate that among 103 participants, there were no significant differences by group. Mean age of participants was 25 years, and youngest child was 30 months. The majority of participants were women (94.2 %, never married (83.5 %, unemployed (94.2 %, and without a bank account (66.0 %. Many reported economic hardship (32.0 % very low household food secure, 65.0 % housing insecure, and 31.1 % severe energy insecure, and depression (57.3 %. Exposure to adversity was prevalent, where 38.8 % reported four or more Adverse Childhood Experiences including abuse, neglect and household dysfunction. In terms of community violence, 64.7 % saw a seriously wounded person after an incident of violence, and 27.2 % had seen someone killed. Finally, 14.6 % spent time in an adult correctional institution, and 48

  15. Demographic patterns and trends in Central Ghana: baseline indicators from the Kintampo Health and Demographic Surveillance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Owusu-Agyei

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The dearth of health and demographic data in sub-Saharan Africa from vital registration systems and its impact on effective planning for health and socio-economic development is widely documented. Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems have the capacity to address the dearth of quality data for policy making in resource-poor settings. Objective: This article demonstrates the utility of the Kintampo Health and Demographic Surveillance System (KHDSS by showing the patterns and trends of population change from 2005 to 2009 in the Kintampo North Municipality and Kintampo South districts of Ghana through data obtained from the KHDSS biannual update rounds. Design: Basic demographic rates for fertility, mortality, and migration were computed by year. School enrolment was computed as a percentage in school by age and sex for 6–18 year-olds. Socio-economic status was derived by use of Principal Components Analysis on household assets. Results: Over the period, an earlier fertility decline was reversed in 2009; mortality declined slightly for all age-groups, and a significant share of working-age population was lost through out-migration. Large minorities of children of school-going age are not in school. Socio-economic factors are shown to be important determinants of fertility and mortality. Conclusion : Strengthening the capacity of HDSSs could offer added value to evidence-driven policymaking at local level.

  16. The change in lifestyle data during 9 years: the reliability and continuity of baseline health practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koetaka, Hanayo; Ohno, Yuko; Morimoto, Kanehisa

    2013-07-01

    To reveal change patterns in self-reported lifestyle data for 9 years, and examine the characteristics of changes by type of lifestyle and ageing. The authors used the lifestyle data of 7,080 male workers aged 20-59 who received checkups for 9 years. The proportions of change patterns during the 9 years were determined in seven health practices; smoking, eating breakfast, sleeping hours, working hours, physical exercise, eating nutritional balanced diets, and mental stress. Among seven health practices, the keep rate of good health practice was highest for the non-smoking (90.8 %), followed by eating breakfast (69.0 %);and the lowest was physical exercise (13.7 %). The keep rate of poor health practice was highest for smoking (73.8 %), followed by non-physical exercise (67.1 %). The lowest rate of multiple changes during 10 years was smoking (7.1 %); the highest was mental stress (68.5 %). As for the life style on smoking and eating breakfast seemed to be stable, using the data obtained at a specific point in time wouldn't much affect the results. On the contrary, for other life styles, they showed poor continuity during 9 years, so it would be necessary to take into consideration the time point of data collection.

  17. Health literacy in Europe: comparative results of the European health literacy survey (HLS-EU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Kristine; Pelikan, Jürgen M; Röthlin, Florian; Ganahl, Kristin; Slonska, Zofia; Doyle, Gerardine; Fullam, James; Kondilis, Barbara; Agrafiotis, Demosthenes; Uiters, Ellen; Falcon, Maria; Mensing, Monika; Tchamov, Kancho; van den Broucke, Stephan; Brand, Helmut

    2015-12-01

    Health literacy concerns the capacities of people to meet the complex demands of health in modern society. In spite of the growing attention for the concept among European health policymakers, researchers and practitioners, information about the status of health literacy in Europe remains scarce. This article presents selected findings from the first European comparative survey on health literacy in populations. The European health literacy survey (HLS-EU) was conducted in eight countries: Austria, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Ireland, the Netherlands, Poland and Spain (n = 1000 per country, n = 8000 total sample). Data collection was based on Eurobarometer standards and the implementation of the HLS-EU-Q (questionnaire) in computer-assisted or paper-assisted personal interviews. The HLS-EU-Q constructed four levels of health literacy: insufficient, problematic, sufficient and excellent. At least 1 in 10 (12%) respondents showed insufficient health literacy and almost 1 in 2 (47%) had limited (insufficient or problematic) health literacy. However, the distribution of levels differed substantially across countries (29-62%). Subgroups within the population, defined by financial deprivation, low social status, low education or old age, had higher proportions of people with limited health literacy, suggesting the presence of a social gradient which was also confirmed by raw bivariate correlations and a multivariate linear regression model. Limited health literacy represents an important challenge for health policies and practices across Europe, but to a different degree for different countries. The social gradient in health literacy must be taken into account when developing public health strategies to improve health equity in Europe. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  18. The Consumer Assessment of Health Plan Study (CAHPS) survey of children's health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homer, C J; Fowler, F J; Gallagher, P M; Shaul, J; Uyeda, M; Zaslavsky, A; Wilson, V; Cleary, P

    1999-07-01

    Little is known about the experience of children and families with pediatric care. Asking parents about their experiences and the treatment of their children in health care plans can yield important information about selected aspects of medical care quality. Such data can be used to motivate, focus, and evaluate quality improvement efforts. Development of the Child Core Survey followed the survey development principles of the Consumer Assessment of Health Plan Study (CAHPS) project, starting with assembly of existing instruments, consultation with experts, focus groups, and cognitive testing. A field test of the survey was conducted by mail among members enrolled in 1 of 25 plans originally identified as providing health care services to the public employees of the state of Washington (response rate, 52%). The 3,083 respondents rated personal doctors most highly, with overall care and specialty care rated nearly as well, and plan administration rated lowest. Parent-clinician and child-clinician communication, as well as spending sufficient time with the child were the strongest correlates of assessments of overall care and of personal doctors. Plans differed significantly in their performance along all the dimensions of child health care assessed in the survey except for aspects of access ("getting the care you need"). The Child Core Survey from the CAHPS provides a readily accessible method to assess the interpersonal care of children. Such data could be used to make plans accountable to the needs of children, to focus specific improvement initiatives, or both.

  19. Oral health survey and oral health questionnaire for high school students in Tibet, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Rui; Mi, Yong; Xu, Quanhong; Wu, Fang; Ma, Yuanyuan; Xue, Peng; Xiao, Gao; Zhang, Yan; Wei, Yinhua; Yang, Wenbing

    2014-05-19

    The aim of this study is to identify the oral health status as well as oral health practices and access for care of graduating senior high school Tibetan students in Shannan prefecture of Tibet. Based on standards of the 3rd Chinese National Oral Epidemiological Survey and WHO Oral Health Surveys, 1907 graduating students from three senior high schools were examined for caries, periodontitis, dental fluorosis, and oral hygiene status. The questionnaire to the students addressed oral health practices and present access to oral medical services. Dental caries prevalence (39.96%) and mean DMFT (0.97) were high in Tibetan students. In community periodontal indexes, the detection rate of gingivitis and dental calculus were 59.50% and 62.64%, respectively. Oral hygiene index-simplified was 0.69, with 0.36 and 0.33 in debris index-simplified and calculus index-simplified, respectively. Community dental fluorosis index was 0.29, with 8.13% in prevalence rate. The questionnaire showed students had poor oral health practices and unawareness for their needs for oral health services. It was also noted that the local area provides inadequate oral medical services. Tibetan students had higher prevalence of dental diseases and lower awareness of oral health needs. The main reasons were geographical environment, dietary habit, students' attitude to oral health, and lack of oral health promotion and education. Oral health education and local dentists training should be strengthened to get effective prevention of dental diseases.

  20. U.S. Geological Survey Science at the Intersection of Health and Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, S. M.; Plumlee, G. S.

    2016-12-01

    People worldwide worry about how their environment affects their health, and expect scientists to help address these concerns. The OneHealth concept recognizes the crucial linkages between environment, human health, and health of other organisms. Many US Geological Survey science activities directly examine or help inform how the Earth and the environment influence toxicological and infectious diseases. Key is our ability to bring to bear a collective expertise in environmental processes, geology, hydrology, hazards, microbiology, analytical chemistry, ecosystems, energy/mineral resources, geospatial technologies, and other disciplines. Our science examines sources, environmental transport and fate, biological effects, and human exposure pathways of many microbial (e.g. bacteria, protozoans, viruses, fungi), inorganic (e.g. asbestos, arsenic, lead, mercury) and organic (e.g. algal toxins, pesticides, pharmaceuticals) contaminants from geologic, anthropogenic, and disaster sources. We develop new laboratory, experimental, and field methods to analyze, model, and map contaminants, to determine their baseline and natural background levels, and to measure their biological effects. We examine the origins, environmental persistence, wildlife effects, and potential for transmission to humans of pathogens that cause zoonotic or vector-borne diseases (e.g., avian influenza or West Nile virus). Collaborations with human health scientists from many organizations are essential. For example, our work with epidemiologists and toxicologists helps understand the exposure pathways and roles of geologically sourced toxicants such as arsenic (via drinking water) and asbestos (via dusts) in cancer. Work with pulmonologists and pathologists helps clarify the sources and fate of inhaled mineral particles in lungs. Wildlife health scientists help human health scientists assess animals as sentinels of human disease. Such transdisciplinary science is essential at the intersection of health

  1. Integrating systematic screening for gender-based violence into sexual and reproductive health services: results of a baseline study by the International Planned Parenthood Federation, Western Hemisphere Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, A; Bott, S; Cuca, Y

    2002-09-01

    Three Latin American affiliates of the International Planned Parenthood Federation, Western Hemisphere Region, Inc. (IPPF/WHR) have begun to integrate gender-based violence screening and services into sexual and reproductive health programs. This paper presents results of a baseline study conducted in the affiliates. Although most staff support integration and many had already begun to address violence in their work, additional sensitization and training, as well as institution-wide changes are needed to provide services effectively and to address needs of women experiencing violence. Copyright 2002 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics

  2. Physical exercise in adults and mental health status findings from the Netherlands mental health survey and incidence study (NEMESIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Have, Margreet; de Graaf, Ron; Monshouwer, Karin

    2011-11-01

    To establish associations between physical exercise during leisure time and prevalence, incidence and course of mental disorders. Data were derived from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study, a 3-wave cohort study in a representative sample (N=7,076) of Dutch adults. Mental disorders were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Physical activity was established by the number of hours per week people spent on taking physical exercise. Physical exercise was negatively associated with presence and first-onset of mood and anxiety disorders after adjustment for confounders. Evidence for a dose-response relationship between exercise levels and mental health was not found. Among those with mental disorder at baseline, exercise participants were more likely to recover from their illness (OR=1.47) compared to their counterparts who did not take exercise. Physical exercise is beneficial to mental health, but it remains uncertain whether this association truly reflects a causal effect of exercise. 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Increased risk of coronary artery calcification progression in subjects with high baseline Lp(a) levels: The Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jung Hwan; Lee, Da Young; Lee, Eun Seo; Kim, Jihyun; Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Lee, Won-Young; Oh, Ki-Won; Park, Sung-Woo; Rhee, Eun-Jung

    2016-11-01

    Results from previous studies support the association of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] levels and coronary artery disease risk. In this study, we analyzed the association between baseline Lp(a) levels and future progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC) in apparently healthy Korean adults. A total of 2611 participants (mean age: 41years, 92% mend) who underwent a routine health check-up in 2010 and 2014 were enrolled. Coronary artery calcium score (CACS) were measured by multi-detector computed tomography. Baseline Lp(a) was measured by high-sensitivity immunoturbidimetric assay. Progression of CAC was defined as a change in CACS >0 over four years. Bivariate correlation analyses with baseline Lp(a) and other metabolic parameters revealed age, total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C and CACS to have a significant positive correlation, while body weight, fasting glucose level, blood pressure and triglyceride level were negatively correlated with baseline Lp(a) level. After four years of follow-up, 635 subjects (24.3%) had CAC progression. The participants who had CAC progression were older, composed of more men, more obese, and had higher fasting glucose levels and worse baseline lipid profiles compared to those who did not have CAC progression. The mean serum Lp(a) level was significantly higher in subjects who had CAC progression compared to those who did not (32.5 vs. 28.9mg/dL, p<0.01). When the risk for CAC progression according to baseline Lp(a) was calculated, those with Lp(a) level≥50mg/dL had an odds ratio of 1.333 (95% CI 1.027-1.730) for CAC progression compared to those with Lp(a)<50mg/dL after adjusting for confounding factors. In this study, the subjects who had higher Lp(a) were at significantly higher risk for CAC progression after four years of follow-up, suggesting the role of high Lp(a) in CAC progression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Systems thinking in practice: the current status of the six WHO building blocks for health system strengthening in three BHOMA intervention districts of Zambia: a baseline qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutale, Wilbroad; Bond, Virginia; Mwanamwenge, Margaret Tembo; Mlewa, Susan; Balabanova, Dina; Spicer, Neil; Ayles, Helen

    2013-08-01

    The primary bottleneck to achieving the MDGs in low-income countries is health systems that are too fragile to deliver the volume and quality of services to those in need. Strong and effective health systems are increasingly considered a prerequisite to reducing the disease burden and to achieving the health MDGs. Zambia is one of the countries that are lagging behind in achieving millennium development targets. Several barriers have been identified as hindering the progress towards health related millennium development goals. Designing an intervention that addresses these barriers was crucial and so the Better Health Outcomes through Mentorship (BHOMA) project was designed to address the challenges in the Zambia's MOH using a system wide approach. We applied systems thinking approach to describe the baseline status of the Six WHO building blocks for health system strengthening. A qualitative study was conducted looking at the status of the Six WHO building blocks for health systems strengthening in three BHOMA districts. We conducted Focus group discussions with community members and In-depth Interviews with key informants. Data was analyzed using Nvivo version 9. The study showed that building block specific weaknesses had cross cutting effect in other health system building blocks which is an essential element of systems thinking. Challenges noted in service delivery were linked to human resources, medical supplies, information flow, governance and finance building blocks either directly or indirectly. Several barriers were identified as hindering access to health services by the local communities. These included supply side barriers: Shortage of qualified health workers, bad staff attitude, poor relationships between community and health staff, long waiting time, confidentiality and the gender of health workers. Demand side barriers: Long distance to health facility, cost of transport and cultural practices. Participating communities seemed to lack the capacity

  5. Fiber intake and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in type 2 diabetes: Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) trial findings at baseline and year 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belalcazar, L Maria; Anderson, Andrea M; Lang, Wei; Schwenke, Dawn C; Haffner, Steven M; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Rushing, Julia; Vitolins, Mara Z; Reeves, Rebecca; Pi-Sunyer, F Xavier; Tracy, Russell P; Ballantyne, Christie M

    2014-11-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) is elevated in obese individuals with type 2 diabetes and may contribute, independently of traditional factors, to increased cardiovascular disease risk. Fiber intake may decrease PAI-1 levels. We examined the associations of fiber intake and its changes with PAI-1 before and during an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) for weight loss in 1,701 Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) participants with dietary, fitness, and PAI-1 data at baseline and 1 year. Look AHEAD was a randomized cardiovascular disease trial in 5,145 overweight/obese patients with type 2 diabetes, comparing ILI (goal of ≥7% reduction in baseline weight) with a control arm of diabetes support and education. ILI participants were encouraged to consume vegetables, fruits, and grain products low in sugar and fat. At baseline, median fiber intake was 17.9 g/day. Each 8.3 g/day higher fiber intake was associated with a 9.2% lower PAI-1 level (P=0.008); this association persisted after weight and fitness adjustments (P=0.03). Higher baseline intake of fruit (P=0.019) and high-fiber grain and cereal (P=0.029) were related to lower PAI-1 levels. Although successful in improving weight and physical fitness at 1 year, the ILI in Look AHEAD resulted in small increases in fiber intake (4.1 g/day, compared with -2.35 g/day with diabetes support and education) that were not related to PAI-1 change (P=0.34). Only 31.3% of ILI participants (39.8% of women, 19.1% of men) met daily fiber intake recommendations. Increasing fiber intake in overweight/obese individuals with diabetes interested in weight loss is challenging. Future studies evaluating changes in fiber consumption during weight loss interventions are warranted. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. National Survey of US Long-Haul Truck Driver Health and Injury: health behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdsey, Jan; Sieber, W Karl; Chen, Guang X; Hitchcock, Edward M; Lincoln, Jennifer E; Nakata, Akinori; Robinson, Cynthia F; Sweeney, Marie H

    2015-02-01

    To compare selected health behaviors and body mass index (modifiable risk factors) of US long-haul truck drivers to the US working population by sex. The National Survey of US Long-Haul Truck Driver Health and Injury interviewed a nationally representative sample of long-haul truck drivers (n = 1265) at truck stops. Age-adjusted results were compared with national health surveys. Compared with US workers, drivers had significantly higher body mass index, current cigarette use, and pack-years of smoking; lower prevalence of annual influenza vaccination; and generally lower alcohol consumption. Physical activity level was low for most drivers, and 25% had never had their cholesterol levels tested. Working conditions common to long-haul trucking may create significant barriers to certain healthy behaviors; thus, transportation and health professionals should address the unique work environment when developing interventions for long-haul drivers.

  7. Private Health Care Coverage in the Brazilian population, according to the 2013 Brazilian National Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Stopa, Sheila Rizzato; Pereira, Cimar Azeredo; Szwarcwald, Célia Landmann; Oliveira, Martha; Reis, Arthur Chioro Dos

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to present the percentages of the Brazilian population holding health insurance plans, itemized by social-demographic characteristics, based on the data of the National Health Survey carried out in 2013, and to compare this information with the administrative data of the National Supplementary Health Agency for the same year. Data from the National Health Survey, and from the Beneficiaries Information System of the National Health Agency for the year 2013, were used. The percentage of people having a health plan was described according to stratification for: all of Brazil, urban/rural, Brazilian official Regions, Brazilian States and state capitals, gender, age group, level of schooling, position in the workforce, ethnic classification, and self-assessed state of health. Results include the following: The percentage of people saying they had some health plan in Brazil was 27.9% (CI 95%: 27.1-28.8). A significant difference was found relating to level of schooling - the percentage being highest for those who stated they had complete secondary education (68.8% CI 95%: 67.2-70.4) and for those who said they were currently in work (32.5% CI 95%: 31.5-33.5). The increase in health plan coverage in the Brazilian population reflects the improvement of the suply of employment and the growth in the country's economy.

  8. International survey of occupational health nurses' roles in multidisciplinary teamwork in occupational health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Bonnie; Kono, Keiko; Marziale, Maria Helena Palucci; Peurala, Marjatta; Radford, Jennifer; Staun, Julie

    2014-07-01

    Access to occupational health services for primary prevention and control of work-related injuries and illnesses by the global workforce is limited (World Health Organization [WHO], 2013). From the WHO survey of 121 (61%) participating countries, only one-third of the responding countries provided occupational health services to more than 30% of their workers (2013). How services are provided in these countries is dependent on legal requirements and regulations, population, workforce characteristics, and culture, as well as an understanding of the impact of workplace hazards and worker health needs. Around the world, many occupational health services are provided by occupational health nurses independently or in collaboration with other disciplines' professionals. These services may be health protection, health promotion, or both, and are designed to reduce health risks, support productivity, improve workers' quality of life, and be cost-effective. Rantanen (2004) stated that basic occupational health services must increase rather than decline, especially as work becomes more complex; workforces become more dynamic and mobile, creating new models of work-places; and jobs become more precarious and temporary. To better understand occupational health services provided by occupational health nurses globally and how decisions are made to provide these services, this study examined the scope of services provided by a sample of participating occupational health nurses from various countries. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Socioeconomic inequality in domains of health: results from the World Health Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseinpoor Ahmad

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In all countries people of lower socioeconomic status evaluate their health more poorly. Yet in reporting overall health, individuals consider multiple domains that comprise their perceived health state. Considered alone, overall measures of self-reported health mask differences in the domains of health. The aim of this study is to compare and assess socioeconomic inequalities in each of the individual health domains and in a separate measure of overall health. Methods Data on 247,037 adults aged 18 or older were analyzed from 57 countries, drawn from all national income groups, participating in the World Health Survey 2002-2004. The analysis was repeated for lower- and higher-income countries. Prevalence estimates of poor self-rated health (SRH were calculated for each domain and for overall health according to wealth quintiles and education levels. Relative socioeconomic inequalities in SRH were measured for each of the eight health domains and for overall health, according to wealth quintiles and education levels, using the relative index of inequality (RII. A RII value greater than one indicated greater prevalence of self-reported poor health among populations of lower socioeconomic status, called pro-rich inequality. Results There was a descending gradient in the prevalence of poor health, moving from the poorest wealth quintile to the richest, and moving from the lowest to the highest educated groups. Inequalities which favor groups who are advantaged either with respect to wealth or education, were consistently statistically significant in each of the individual domains of health, and in health overall. However the size of these inequalities differed between health domains. The prevalence of reporting poor health was higher in the lower-income country group. Relative socioeconomic inequalities in the health domains and overall health were higher in the higher-income country group than the lower-income country group

  10. Lakehurst Naval Air Engineering Station (NAES) Radiological Baseline Survey in Support of USAF BOMARC Missile Accident Site Remediation Waste Transportation Plan, New Jersey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rademacher, Steven

    2002-01-01

    .... This report documents a background radiological survey conducted in support of the truck transport and rail transfer of radiological waste from the USAF Boeing Michigan Aeronautical Research Center (BOMARC), Fort Dix, N.J...

  11. Baseline marine biological survey at the Peacock Point outfall and other point-source discharges on Wake Atoll, Pacific Ocean in 1998-06 (NODC Accession 0000247)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Army Space and Missile Defense Command (SMDC) in support of the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) sponsored a marine biological survey at Wake...

  12. Evaluation of case management of uncomplicated malaria in Haiti: a national health facility survey, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landman, Keren Z; Jean, Samuel E; Existe, Alexandre; Akom, Eniko E; Chang, Michelle A; Lemoine, Jean Frantz; Mace, Kimberly E

    2015-10-09

    Malaria is a public health concern in Haiti, although there are limited data on its burden and case management. National malaria guidelines updated in 2012 recommend treatment with chloroquine and primaquine. In December 2012, a nationally-representative cross-sectional survey of health facilities (HFs) was conducted to determine malaria prevalence among febrile outpatients and malaria case management quality at baseline before scale-up of diagnostics and case management training. Among all 833 HFs nationwide, 30 were selected randomly, in proportion to total HFs per region, for 2-day evaluations. Survey teams inventoried HF material and human resources. Outpatients of all ages were screened for temperature >37.5 °C or history of fever; those without severe symptoms were consented and enrolled. Providers evaluated and treated enrolled patients according to HF standards; the survey teams documented provider-ordered diagnostic tests and treatment decisions. Facility-based test results [microscopy and malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs)] were collected from HF laboratories. Blood smears for gold-standard microscopy, and dried blood spots for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were obtained. Malaria diagnostic capacity, defined as completing a test for an enrolled patient or having adequate resources for RDTs or microscopy, was present in 11 (37 %) HFs. Among 459 outpatients screened, 257 (56 %) were febrile, of which 193 (75 %) were eligible, and 153 (80 %) were enrolled. Among 39 patients with facility-level malaria test results available on the survey day, 11 (28 %) were positive, of whom 6 (55 %) were treated with an anti-malarial. Twenty-seven (95 %) of the 28 patients testing negative were not treated with an anti-malarial. Of 114 patients without test results available, 35 (31 %) were presumptively treated for malaria. Altogether, 42 patients were treated with an anti-malarial, one (2 %) according to Haiti's 2012 guidelines. Of 140 gold-standard smears, none

  13. Methodological design of the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Romero-Martínez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Describe the design methodology of the halfway health and nutrition national survey (Ensanut-MC 2016. Materials and methods. The Ensanut-MC is a national probabilistic survey whose objective population are the in­habitants of private households in Mexico. The sample size was determined to make inferences on the urban and rural areas in four regions. Describes main design elements: target population, topics of study, sampling procedure, measurement procedure and logistics organization. Results. A final sample of 9 479 completed household interviews, and a sample of 16 591 individual interviews. The response rate for households was 77.9%, and the response rate for individuals was 91.9%. Conclusions. The Ensanut-MC probabilistic design allows valid statistical inferences about interest parameters for Mexico´s public health and nutrition, specifically on over­weight, obesity and diabetes mellitus. Updated information also supports the monitoring, updating and formulation of new policies and priority programs.

  14. [Results from the First National School Health Survey: Argentina, 2007].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linetzky, Bruno; Morello, Paola; Virgolini, Mario; Ferrante, Daniel

    2011-04-01

    The Global School Health Survey (EMSE, in Spanish) has been implemented globally since 2003 to estimate the prevalence of mayor risk behaviours and protective factors among teenagers aged 13 to 15 year old. In 2007, the first EMSE was implemented in Argentina. To describe the prevalence of certain risk factors among youth attending high school in Argentina. A low stage probabilistic sampling was used to select 50 schools nationwide. All students in randomly selected classes were invited to fill the self-administered questionnaire including 75 questions on demographics, alcohol, tobacco and other drugs use, eating habits, hygiene, violence, mental health, physical activity, sexual activity and protective factors. Overall, the survey was answered by 1980 students from 47 schools. We include in this report data related to alcohol, tobacco and other drugs, weight, physical and sexual activity. In the last 30 days, 56,8% had consumed alcohol and 25,5% cigarettes. Overall, 11,7% had tried an illegal drug in their lifetime. Nineteen percent is overweight and less than 81% has completed the minimum required exercise for their age. Also, 33,6% had already had sex; 10,4% before age 13 and less than half of them always use a contraceptive method. A high prevalence of sedentarism, overweight and substances use, like alcohol, tobacco and illegal drugs, was shown. The rate of condom use was low.

  15. Interdependencies of Health, Education & Poverty in Egypt, Morocco and Turkey Using Demographic and Health Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Driouchi, Ahmed; Baijou, Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    The interdependencies of health, education and poverty that are common knowledge to individuals are also present at the aggregate levels of countries and internationally. The assessment of these interdependencies is the central task of this research but based on the Demographic Health Surveys (DHS) of Egypt, Morocco and Turkey. The results attained through dependency tests and probit models, confirm the existence of major interdependencies at the levels of households. These findings support t...

  16. [Reliability of information from proxy respondents in health surveys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardim, Renata; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Giatti, Luana

    2010-08-01

    The use of proxy respondents in household surveys can be a source of information bias in epidemiological studies. This study assesses the agreement, reliability, magnitude, and direction of possible biases as well as the influence of proxy characteristics on the disagreements between self-report and proxy reports among 710 pairs of primary-secondary respondents. The influence of the proxy perspective on pair-agreement was also assessed, by comparing proxies' answers using their own perspective and that of primary respondents. Reliability was investigated in relation to lifestyle, health assessment, morbidity, and health care use. In general, the results showed good agreement and reliability. Disagreements were statistically associated with the following characteristics of proxy respondents: older age, lower schooling, and the proxy's knowledge of the primary respondent's health. Adults agreed more in evaluating the health of elderly when they used the elderly primary informant's perspective to respond. The results confirm the presence of bias when proxy respondents are used for hypertension and medical consultations.

  17. Understanding Spanish-Language Response in a National Health Communication Survey: Implications for Health Communication Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, A Susana; Willis, Gordon; Rutten, Lila Finney

    2017-05-01

    Spanish-speaking Latinos account for 13% of the U.S. population yet are chronically under-represented in national surveys; additionally, the response quality suffers from low literacy rates and translation challenges. These are the same issues that health communicators face when understanding how best to communicate important health information to Latinos. The Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) offers a unique opportunity to understand the health communication landscape and information needs of the U.S. We describe the challenges in recruiting Spanish-speaking HINTS respondents and strategies used to improve rates and quality of responses among Spanish-speaking Latinos. Cognitive interviewing techniques helped to better understand how Spanish-speaking Latinos were interpreting the survey questions, and the extent to which these interpretations matched English-speaking respondents' interpretations. Some Spanish-speaking respondents had difficulty with the questions because of a lack of access to health care. Additionally, Spanish-speaking respondents had a particularly hard time answering questions that were presented in a grid format. We describe the cognitive interview process, and consider the impact of format changes on Spanish-speaking people's responses and response quality. We discuss challenges that remain in understanding health information needs of non-English-speakers.

  18. Transfer of information from personal health records: a survey of veterans using My HealtheVet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turvey, Carolyn L; Zulman, Donna M; Nazi, Kim M; Wakefield, Bonnie J; Woods, Susan S; Hogan, Timothy P; Weaver, Frances M; McInnes, Keith

    2012-03-01

    Personal health records provide patients with ownership of their health information and allow them to share information with multiple healthcare providers. However, the usefulness of these records relies on patients understanding and using their records appropriately. My HealtheVet is a Web-based patient portal containing a personal health record administered by the Veterans Health Administration. The goal of this study was to explore veterans' interest and use of My HealtheVet to transfer and share information as well as to identify opportunities to increase veteran use of the My HealtheVet functions. Two waves of data were collected in 2010 through an American Customer Satisfaction Index Web-based survey. A random sample of veterans using My HealtheVet was invited to participate in the survey conducted on the My HealtheVet portal through a Web-based pop-up browser window. Wave One results (n=25,898) found that 41% of veterans reported printing information, 21% reported saving information electronically, and only 4% ever sent information from My HealtheVet to another person. In Wave Two (n=18,471), 30% reported self-entering medication information, with 18% sharing this information with their Veterans Affairs (VA) provider and 9.6% sharing with their non-VA provider. Although veterans are transferring important medical information from their personal health records, increased education and awareness are needed to increase use. Personal health records have the potential to improve continuity of care. However, more research is needed on both the barriers to adoption as well as the actual impact on patient health outcomes and well-being.

  19. The role of religious advisors in mental health care in the World Mental Health surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovess-Masfety, Vivianne; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Andrade, Laura Helena; Benjet, Corina; Ten Have, Margreet; Wardenaar, Klaas; Karam, Elie G; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Abdumalik, Jibril; Haro Abad, Josep Maria; Florescu, Silvia; Wu, Benjamin; De Jonge, Peter; Altwaijri, Yasmina; Hinkov, Hristo; Kawakami, Norito; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; Bromet, Evelyn; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Posada-Villa, José; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Huang, Yueqin; Hu, Chiyi; Viana, Maria Carmen; Fayyad, John; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Demyttenaere, Koen; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Murphy, Samuel; Xavier, Miguel; Takeshima, Tadashi; Gureje, Oye

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the role of religious advisors in mental health care (MHC) according to disorder severity, socio-demographics, religious involvement and country income groups. METHODS: Face to face household surveys in ten high income (HI), six upper-middle income (UMI) and five

  20. A health and safety survey of Irish funeral industry workers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, N

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Those handling deceased individuals, including the funeral industry, face a variety of health and safety hazards including occupationally acquired infectious disease. AIMS: To identify the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of Irish funeral industry workers towards occupational hazards and infectious disease in 2009. METHODS: The sample analysed consisted of all listed member premises of the Irish Association of Funeral Directors as at 1 July 2009. A postal survey was sent to each premises in July 2009, with two rounds of follow-up reviews sent to non-responders. Four main areas were covered--occupational hazards, embalming, industry expertise and demographics. The quantitative and qualitative results were analysed to assess knowledge, attitudes and beliefs. Data collection was completed on 31 December 2009. RESULTS: Two hundred and thirty listed member premises were contacted. Twenty-two were unsuitable for the survey. One hundred and thirty-eight valid replies were received from 130 premises, representing a premises response rate of 63% (130\\/208). Seventy-three premises (56%) identified themselves as embalmers. Embalmers had variable vaccine uptake and variable knowledge, attitude and beliefs towards embalming those with blood-borne viruses. Fifteen per cent of respondents reported a work-related injury, back injury being the most common. Splash and sharps injuries were reported as a work-related injury, and infections believed to be work related were also reported. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates widespread occupational health concerns among this professional group. It confirms the need for occupational health advice and services. There is also a strong desire for regulation of this profession in Ireland.

  1. Comparing two survey methods of measuring health-related indicators: Lot Quality Assurance Sampling and Demographic Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anoke, Sarah C; Mwai, Paul; Jeffery, Caroline; Valadez, Joseph J; Pagano, Marcello

    2015-12-01

    Two common methods used to measure indicators for health programme monitoring and evaluation are the demographic and health surveys (DHS) and lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS); each one has different strengths. We report on both methods when utilised in comparable situations. We compared 24 indicators in south-west Uganda, where data for prevalence estimations were collected independently for the two methods in 2011 (LQAS: n = 8876; DHS: n = 1200). Data were stratified (e.g. gender and age) resulting in 37 comparisons. We used a two-sample two-sided Z-test of proportions to compare both methods. The average difference between LQAS and DHS for 37 estimates was 0.062 (SD = 0.093; median = 0.039). The average difference among the 21 failures to reject equality of proportions was 0.010 (SD = 0.041; median = 0.009); among the 16 rejections, it was 0.130 (SD = 0.010, median = 0.118). Seven of the 16 rejections exhibited absolute differences of 0.10 and 0.20 (mean = 0.261, SD = 0.083). There is 75.7% agreement across the two surveys. Both methods yield regional results, but only LQAS provides information at less granular levels (e.g. the district level) where managerial action is taken. The cost advantage and localisation make LQAS feasible to conduct more frequently, and provides the possibility for real-time health outcomes monitoring. © 2015 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Integrative health care - What are the relevant health outcomes from a practice perspective? A survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kania-Richmond, Ania; Metcalfe, Amy

    2017-12-22

    Integrative health care (IHC) is an innovative approach to health care delivery. There is increasing focus on and demand for the evaluation of IHC practices. To ensure such evaluations capture their full scope, a clear understanding of the types of outcomes relevant to an IHC approach is needed. The objective was to describe the health domains and health outcomes relevant to IHC practices in Canada. An online survey of Canadian IHC clinics. Survey questions were informed by the IN-CAM Health Outcomes Database. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the data. Chi square tests were used to compare responses between clinic types and patient groups served. Surveys were completed by 21 clinics (response rate: 50%). Physical, psychological, social, individualized and holistic were identified as applicable health domains by more than 90% of the clinics. Spiritual domain was the least relevant (70% of clinics). A number of relevant outcomes within each domain were identified. A core set of outcomes were identified and included: fatigue, anxiety, stress, and patient-provider relationship, and quality of life. Clinics with primarily conventional health practitioners were less likely to address overall well-being (p = 0.04), while clinics that provided care to a specialized patient population (i.e. cancer patients) or a mix of general and specialized patients were less likely to address religious practices (p = 0.04) or spiritual experiences (p = 0.007). Outcomes across health domains should be considered in the evaluation of IHC models to generate an understanding of the full scope of effectiveness of IHC approaches. The core set of outcomes identified may facilitate this task. Ethics approval (Ethics ID REB14-0495) was received from the Conjoint Health Research Ethics Board at the University of Calgary.

  3. BASELINE PARAMETER UPDATE FOR HUMAN HEALTH INPUT AND TRANSFER FACTORS FOR RADIOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENTS AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coffield, T; Patricia Lee, P

    2007-01-31

    The purpose of this report is to update parameters utilized in Human Health Exposure calculations and Bioaccumulation Transfer Factors utilized at SRS for Performance Assessment modeling. The reason for the update is to utilize more recent information issued, validate information currently used and correct minor inconsistencies between modeling efforts performed in SRS contiguous areas of the heavy industrialized central site usage areas called the General Separations Area (GSA). SRS parameters utilized were compared to a number of other DOE facilities and generic national/global references to establish relevance of the parameters selected and/or verify the regional differences of the southeast USA. The parameters selected were specifically chosen to be expected values along with identifying a range for these values versus the overly conservative specification of parameters for estimating an annual dose to the maximum exposed individual (MEI). The end uses are to establish a standardized source for these parameters that is up to date with existing data and maintain it via review of any future issued national references to evaluate the need for changes as new information is released. These reviews are to be added to this document by revision.

  4. Baseline of the sexual and reproductive health project for adolescents in Medellín: the qualitative component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy E. Gallo R

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To approach the perception of adolescents and adults opinion makers on teenage pregnancy, sexual and reproductive health (s r h, use of birth control (b c and use of s r h services. Methodology: a descriptive study ethnographic with focused interviews and semi-structured guide. The convenience sample consisted of 80 young people (men and women between 14 and 19 years old and 6 adult women opinion makers. Eight focus groups were conducted with youth and six interviews. Results:in intergenerational encounters are explanatory reasons on teenage pregnancy in the city of Medellin The construction of the process of trust-distrust in the conquest and the adolescent partner life affects the use of b c, including the condom. The main barrier to adolescents’ access to s r h services is the lack of credibility in them. Conclusions: The break with the ideal of the adult world, the ideas they have about love, relationships, cultural precepts that designate the gender behavior and credibility they have about s r h services are fields of analysis that are directly linked to the issue of teenage pregnancy in the city of Medellin.

  5. Baseline prostate-specific antigen measurements and subsequent prostate cancer risk in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Signe Benzon; Brasso, Klaus; Iversen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    AIM: Although prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening reduces mortality from prostate cancer, substantial over-diagnosis and subsequent overtreatment are concerns. Early screening of men for PSA may serve to stratify the male population by risk of future clinical prostate cancer. METHODS...... AND MATERIAL: Case-control study nested within the Danish 'Diet, Cancer and Health' cohort of 27,179 men aged 50-64 at enrolment. PSA measured in serum collected at cohort entry in 1993-1997 was used to evaluate prostate cancer risk diagnosed up to 14years after. We identified 911 prostate cancer cases...... in the Danish Cancer Registry through 31st December 2007 1:1 age-matched with cancer-free controls. Aggressive cancer was defined as ⩾T3 or Gleason score ⩾7 or N1 or M1. Statistical analyses were based on conditional logistic regression with age as underlying time axis. RESULTS: Total PSA and free-to-total PSA...

  6. Domestic violence and women’s health in India: evidence from health survey

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, Manoj K.; Singh, Prakash; Yadav, Ram Ashish

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of domestic violence on the health of ever-married women of reproductive age group in India. Micro-level National Family Health Survey (NFHS-III) data for the year 2005-06 has been used in the study. We employ disease, body mass index, under nutrition level and anemia as the measures of health and physical, emotional and sexual forms of domestic violence are used as indicators of domestic violence at both national and state levels. We find that domestic violence...

  7. Psychometric Confirmation of the Sexual Health Survey as a Useful Tool for College Health Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastman-Mueller, Heather P; Gomez-Scott, Jessica; Jung, Ae-Kyung; Oswalt, Sara B

    2015-01-01

    To conduct a confirmatory factor analysis on the 17-item Sexual Health Survey (SHS), a comprehensive instrument designed to be used with college students. College students (N = 515) aged 18 to 26 years enrolled at a Midwest public university October 2009. Confirmatory factor analysis with maximum likelihood estimation was performed to test the stability of the constructs. All factor loadings were significant (p sexual health overall and 5 distinct areas. College health professionals should consider use of this scale for assessment purposes and evaluation of programmatic efforts.

  8. Agricultural Health and Safety Survey in Friuli Venezia Giulia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirio Rossano Secondo Cividino

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The work in the agricultural sector has taken on a fundamental role in the last decades, due to the still too high rate of fatal injuries, workplace accidents, and dangerous occurrences reported each year. The average old age of agricultural machinery is one of the main issues at stake in Italy. Numerous safety problems stem from that; therefore, two surveys were conducted in two different periods, on current levels of work safety in agriculture in relation to agricultural machinery’s age and efficiency, and to show the levels of actual implementation of the Italian legislation on safety and health at work in the agricultural sector. The surveys were carried out, considering a sample of 161 farms located in the region Friuli Venezia Giulia (North-East of Italy. The research highlights the most significant difficulties the sample of farms considered have in enforcing the law. One hand, sanitary surveillance and workers’ information and training represent the main deficiencies and weakest points in family farms. Moreover, family farms do not generally provide the proper documentation concerning health and safety at workplaces, when they award the contract to other companies. On the other hand, lack of maintenance program for machinery and equipment, and of emergency plans and participation of workers’ health and safety representative, are the most common issues in farms with employees. Several difficulties are also evident in planning workers’ training programs. Furthermore, the company physician’s task is often limited to medical controls, so that he is not involved in risk assessment and training. Interviews in heterogeneous samples of farms have shown meaningful outcomes, which have subsequently been used to implement new databases and guidelines for Health and Safety Experts and courses in the field of Work Safety in agriculture. In conclusion, although the legislation making training courses for tractor operators and tractor

  9. Are health centers in Thailand ready for health information technology? : a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijsanayotin, Boonchai; Speedie, Stuart

    2006-01-01

    The Thailand universal health care coverage scheme was instituted in 2001 and The Thailand Ministry of Public Health (MOPH) is restructuring its information systems to support this reform. The MOPH anticipates developing computerized health information systems which can provide information for administration tasks and can improve both healthcare delivery and public health services. To achieve these target goals, knowledge about users and organizations is vital. The knowledge of how health center workers currently use information technology (IT), their knowledge of IT, and acceptance of IT are not only beneficial to policy makers but also to system designers and implementers. The primary objective of this study is to learn how health centers in Thailand use IT, the level of basic IT knowledge among their workers, and their acceptance of health IT. We surveyed a random cross sectional sample of 1,607 health centers representing the total of 9,806 in Thailand in 2005. With an 82% response rate, the preliminary results indicate that information technology usage is pervasive in health centers. The respondents showed a moderately high degree of health information technology acceptance with a modest level of basic IT knowledge. There were no differences in degrees of acceptance among the four geographic regions. The mean score of "intention to use IT" was 5.6 on a scale of 7 and the average basic IT knowledge score was 13 out of 20. These results suggests the possibility of project success if the national health center information system projects are developed and implemented.

  10. Health behaviour advice from health professionals to Canadian adults with hypertension: results from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robin L; Gee, Marianne E; Bancej, Christina; Nolan, Robert P; Kaczorowski, Janusz; Joffres, Michel; Bienek, Asako; Gwadry-Sridhar, Femida; Campbell, Norman R C

    2011-01-01

    Health professionals play an important role in providing health information to patients. The objectives of this study were to examine the type of advice that Canadians with hypertension recall receiving from health professionals to manage their condition, and to assess if there is an association between health behaviour advice provided by health professionals and self-reported engagement in health behaviour modification. Respondents of the 2009 Survey on Living with Chronic Diseases in Canada (N = 6142) were asked about sociodemographic characteristics, health care utilization, and health behaviour modification to control hypertension. Association between receipt of advice from health professional and ever engaging, continuing to engage, and not engaging in health behaviour modification was quantified by prevalence rate ratios. Most participants (90.9%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 89.6-92.2) reported that the health professional most responsible for treating their high blood pressure was their general practitioner. Approximately 9% reported that they had not received or do not recall receiving any advice for blood pressure control. The most commonly reported advice received from a health professional was to participate in physical activity or exercise (70.0%). Respondents who had received advice on health behaviour change to manage their high blood pressure were more likely to report engaging in the behaviour compared with those who did not receive such advice. Many Canadians with hypertension receive health behaviour change advice from their health professionals. Receiving this advice was associated with a greater likelihood of attempting health behaviour change and attempting to sustain that change. Copyright © 2011 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Health assessment and seroepidemiologic survey of potential pathogens in wild Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Sulzner

    Full Text Available The Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus, a subspecies of the West Indian manatee, inhabits fresh, brackish, and warm coastal waters distributed along the eastern border of Central America, the northern coast of South America, and throughout the Wider Caribbean Region. Threatened primarily by human encroachment, poaching, and habitat degradation, Antillean manatees are listed as endangered by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature. The impact of disease on population viability remains unknown in spite of concerns surrounding the species' ability to rebound from a population crash should an epizootic occur. To gain insight on the baseline health of this subspecies, a total of 191 blood samples were collected opportunistically from wild Antillean manatees in Belize between 1997 and 2009. Hematologic and biochemical reference intervals were established, and antibody prevalence to eight pathogens with zoonotic potential was determined. Age was found to be a significant factor of variation in mean blood values, whereas sex, capture site, and season contributed less to overall differences in parameter values. Negative antibody titers were reported for all pathogens surveyed except for Leptospira bratislava, L. canicola, and L. icterohemorrhagiae, Toxoplasma gondii, and morbillivirus. As part of comprehensive health assessment in manatees from Belize, this study will serve as a benchmark aiding in early disease detection and in the discernment of important epidemiologic patterns in the manatees of this region. Additionally, it will provide some of the initial tools to explore the broader application of manatees as sentinel species of nearshore ecosystem health.

  12. Health assessment and seroepidemiologic survey of potential pathogens in wild Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulzner, Kathryn; Kreuder Johnson, Christine; Bonde, Robert K; Auil Gomez, Nicole; Powell, James; Nielsen, Klaus; Luttrell, M Page; Osterhaus, A D M E; Aguirre, A Alonso

    2012-01-01

    The Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus), a subspecies of the West Indian manatee, inhabits fresh, brackish, and warm coastal waters distributed along the eastern border of Central America, the northern coast of South America, and throughout the Wider Caribbean Region. Threatened primarily by human encroachment, poaching, and habitat degradation, Antillean manatees are listed as endangered by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature. The impact of disease on population viability remains unknown in spite of concerns surrounding the species' ability to rebound from a population crash should an epizootic occur. To gain insight on the baseline health of this subspecies, a total of 191 blood samples were collected opportunistically from wild Antillean manatees in Belize between 1997 and 2009. Hematologic and biochemical reference intervals were established, and antibody prevalence to eight pathogens with zoonotic potential was determined. Age was found to be a significant factor of variation in mean blood values, whereas sex, capture site, and season contributed less to overall differences in parameter values. Negative antibody titers were reported for all pathogens surveyed except for Leptospira bratislava, L. canicola, and L. icterohemorrhagiae, Toxoplasma gondii, and morbillivirus. As part of comprehensive health assessment in manatees from Belize, this study will serve as a benchmark aiding in early disease detection and in the discernment of important epidemiologic patterns in the manatees of this region. Additionally, it will provide some of the initial tools to explore the broader application of manatees as sentinel species of nearshore ecosystem health.

  13. A Survey on Ambient Intelligence in Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acampora, Giovanni; Cook, Diane J; Rashidi, Parisa; Vasilakos, Athanasios V

    2013-12-01

    Ambient Intelligence (AmI) is a new paradigm in information technology aimed at empowering people's capabilities by the means of digital environments that are sensitive, adaptive, and responsive to human needs, habits, gestures, and emotions. This futuristic vision of daily environment will enable innovative human-machine interactions characterized by pervasive, unobtrusive and anticipatory communications. Such innovative interaction paradigms make ambient intelligence technology a suitable candidate for developing various real life solutions, including in the health care domain. This survey will discuss the emergence of ambient intelligence (AmI) techniques in the health care domain, in order to provide the research community with the necessary background. We will examine the infrastructure and technology required for achieving the vision of ambient intelligence, such as smart environments and wearable medical devices. We will summarize of the state of the art artificial intelligence methodologies used for developing AmI system in the health care domain, including various learning techniques (for learning from user interaction), reasoning techniques (for reasoning about users' goals and intensions) and planning techniques (for planning activities and interactions). We will also discuss how AmI technology might support people affected by various physical or mental disabilities or chronic disease. Finally, we will point to some of the successful case studies in the area and we will look at the current and future challenges to draw upon the possible future research paths.

  14. Morale in the English mental health workforce: questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sonia; Osborn, David P J; Araya, Ricardo; Wearn, Elizabeth; Paul, Moli; Stafford, Mai; Wellman, Nigel; Nolan, Fiona; Killaspy, Helen; Lloyd-Evans, Brynmor; Anderson, Emma; Wood, Stephen J

    2012-09-01

    High-quality evidence on morale in the mental health workforce is lacking. To describe staff well-being and satisfaction in a multicentre UK National Health Service (NHS) sample and explore associated factors. A questionnaire-based survey (n = 2258) was conducted in 100 wards and 36 community teams in England. Measures included a set of frequently used indicators of staff morale, and measures of perceived job characteristics based on Karasek's demand-control-support model. Staff well-being and job satisfaction were fairly good on most indicators, but emotional exhaustion was high among acute general ward and community mental health team (CMHT) staff and among social workers. Most morale indicators were moderately but significantly intercorrelated. Principal components analysis yielded two components, one appearing to reflect emotional strain, the other positive engagement with work. In multilevel regression analyses factors associated with greater emotional strain included working in a CMHT or psychiatric intensive care unit (PICU), high job demands, low autonomy, limited support from managers and colleagues, age under 45 years and junior grade. Greater positive engagement was associated with high job demands, autonomy and support from managers and colleagues, Black or Asian ethnic group, being a psychiatrist or service manager and shorter length of service. Potential foci for interventions to increase morale include CMHTs, PICUs and general acute wards. The explanatory value of the demand-support-control model was confirmed, but job characteristics did not fully explain differences in morale indicators across service types and professions.

  15. The 2003 Australian Breast Health Survey: survey design and preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favelle Simone

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Breast Health Surveys, conducted by the National Breast Cancer Centre (NBCC in 1996 and 2003, are designed to gain insight into the knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of a nationally representative sample of Australian women on issues relevant to breast cancer. In this article, we focus on major aspects of the design and present results on respondents' knowledge about mammographic screening. Methods The 2003 BHS surveyed English-speaking Australian women aged 30–69 without a history of breast cancer using computer-assisted telephone interviewing. Questions covered the following themes: knowledge and perceptions about incidence, mortality and risk; knowledge and behaviour regarding early detection, symptoms and diagnosis; mammographic screening; treatment; and accessibility and availability of information and services. Respondents were selected using a complex sample design involving stratification. Sample weights against Australian population benchmarks were used in all statistical analyses. Means and proportions for the entire population and by age group and area of residence were calculated. Statistical tests were conducted using a level of significance of 0.01. Results Of the 3,144 respondents who consented to being interviewed, 138 (4.4% had a previous diagnosis of breast cancer and were excluded leaving 3,006 completed interviews eligible for analysis. A majority of respondents (61.1% reported ever having had a mammogram and 29.1% identified mammography as being the best way of finding breast cancer. A majority of women (85.9% had heard of the BreastScreen Australia (BSA program, the national mammographic screening program providing free biennial screening mammograms, with 94.5% believing that BSA attendance was available regardless of the presence or absence of symptoms. There have been substantial gains in women's knowledge about mammographic screening over the seven years between the two surveys. Conclusion The

  16. The use of autecological and environmental parameters for establishing the status of lichen vegetation in a baseline study for a long-term monitoring survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gombert, S.; Asta, J.; Seaward, M.R.D.

    2005-01-01

    In 1997 the ecological characteristics of the epiphytic species (83 lichens and two algae) of an urban area (Grenoble, France) were determined. Seven autecological indices were used to characterize the lichen ecology: illumination index, humidity index, pH of bark, nutrient status of substratum, ecological index of IAP and frequency. Six clusters (A1-A6) were defined using cluster analysis and principal component analysis. Seven environmental parameters characterizing the stations and the lichen releves were also used: elevation, parameters of artificiality (urbanization, traffic and local land use), IAP, and the percentage of nitrophytic and acidophytic species. Six clusters (B1-B6) were defined using cluster analysis and canonical correspondence analysis. Four clusters (C1-C4) were finally defined using an empirical integrated method combining the autecological and environmental parameters. This final clustering which established the status of the lichen vegetation in 1997 can be reliably used as a baseline study to effectively monitor environmental changes in this urban area. - Ecological clustering which establishes the status of lichen vegetation can be reliably used as a baseline study to monitor environmental changes

  17. The use of autecological and environmental parameters for establishing the status of lichen vegetation in a baseline study for a long-term monitoring survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gombert, S. [Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, Departement RDDM, USM 505 Case 39, 57 rue Cuvier, 75005 Paris (France)]. E-mail: sgombert@mnhn.fr; Asta, J. [Laboratoire d' Ecologie Alpine, UMR 5553, Equipe Perturbations Environnementales et Xenobiotiques, Universite Joseph Fourier, 38041 Grenoble cedex 9 (France)]. E-mail: juliette.asta@ujf-grenoble.fr; Seaward, M.R.D. [Department of Environmental Science, University of Bradford, Bradford BD7 1DP (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: m.r.d.seaward@bradford.ac.uk

    2005-06-15

    In 1997 the ecological characteristics of the epiphytic species (83 lichens and two algae) of an urban area (Grenoble, France) were determined. Seven autecological indices were used to characterize the lichen ecology: illumination index, humidity index, pH of bark, nutrient status of substratum, ecological index of IAP and frequency. Six clusters (A1-A6) were defined using cluster analysis and principal component analysis. Seven environmental parameters characterizing the stations and the lichen releves were also used: elevation, parameters of artificiality (urbanization, traffic and local land use), IAP, and the percentage of nitrophytic and acidophytic species. Six clusters (B1-B6) were defined using cluster analysis and canonical correspondence analysis. Four clusters (C1-C4) were finally defined using an empirical integrated method combining the autecological and environmental parameters. This final clustering which established the status of the lichen vegetation in 1997 can be reliably used as a baseline study to effectively monitor environmental changes in this urban area. - Ecological clustering which establishes the status of lichen vegetation can be reliably used as a baseline study to monitor environmental changes.

  18. Racial and ethnic disparities in children's oral health: the National Survey of Children's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Thomas; Culler, Corinna; Garcia, Raul I; Henshaw, Michelle M

    2008-11-01

    The authors evaluated racial/ethnic differences and their socioeconomic determinants in the oral health status of U.S. children, as reported by parents. The authors used interview data from the 2003 National Survey of Children's Health, a large representative survey of U.S. children. They calculated weighted, nationally representative prevalence estimates for non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics, and they used logistic regression to explore the association between parents' reports of fair or poor oral health and various socioeconomic determinants of oral health. The results showed significant racial/ethnic differences in parental reports of fair or poor oral health, with prevalences of 6.5 percent for non-Hispanic whites, 12.0 percent for non-Hispanic blacks and 23.4 percent for Hispanics. Although adjustments for family socioeconomic status (poverty level and education) partially explained these racial/ethnic disparities, Hispanics still were twice as likely as non-Hispanic whites to report their children's oral health as fair or poor, independent of socioeconomic status. The authors did find differences in preventive-care attitudes among groups. However, in multivariate models, such differences did not explain the disparities. Significant racial/ethnic disparities exist in parental reports of their children's oral health, with Hispanics being the most disadvantaged group. Disparities appear to exist independent of preventive-care attitudes and socioeconomic status.

  19. The global burden of mental disorders : An update from the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessler, Ronald C.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Chatterji, Somnath; Lee, Sing; Ormel, Johan; Uestuen, T. Bedirhan; Wang, Philip S.

    2009-01-01

    Aims - The paper reviews recent findings from the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) surveys oil the global burden of mental disorders. Methods - The WMH surveys are representative community surveys in 28 countries throughout the world aimed at providing information to mental health policy makers about

  20. Explaining discrepancies in reproductive health indicators from population-based surveys and exit surveys: a case from Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meekers, D; Ogada, E A

    2001-06-01

    Reproductive health programmes often need exit surveys and population-based surveys for monitoring and evaluation. This study investigates why such studies produce discrepant estimates of condom use, sexual behaviour and condom brand knowledge, and discusses the implications for future use of exit surveys for programme monitoring. Logistic regression is used to explain differences between a household survey of 1295 persons and an exit survey among a random sample of 2550 consumers at retail outlets in RWANDA: Discrepancies in ever use of condoms and risky sexual behaviours are due to differences in socioeconomic status of the two samples. After controls, exit surveys at most outlet types have the same results as the household survey. Only exit surveys at bars, nightclubs and hotels yield significantly different estimates. However, the above-average knowledge of Prudence Plus condoms in the exit interviews is not attributable to socioeconomic or demographic variables, most likely because respondents have seen the product at the outlets. Information about condom use and sexual behaviour obtained from exit surveys appears as accurate as that obtained through household surveys. Nevertheless, exit surveys must be used cautiously. Because exit surveys may include wealthier and better-educated respondents, they are not representative of the general population. The composition of exit survey samples should be validated through existing household surveys. Comparisons across survey types are generally unadvisable, unless they control for sample differences. When generalizing to the population at large is not needed (e.g. for studies aimed at identifying the characteristics and behaviour of users of particular products or services), exit surveys can provide an appropriate alternative to household surveys.

  1. Baseline characteristics of a school based intervention to prevent non communicable diseases risk factors: Project "together in Health".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maatoug Maaloul, Jihene; Harrabi, Imed; Ghammem, Rim; Hmad, Sonia; Belkacem, Mylene; Slama, Slim; Ben Mabrouk, Faouzia; Boughammoura, Lamia; Ghannem, Hassen

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco use, unhealthy diet, and physical inactivity are among the leading causes of the major non communicable diseases. So, prevention should take place early in childhood. In this paper, we will present an overview of project "Together in health" in schools, a component of a community based intervention. It consists on a school based intervention with the aim to improve knowledge, attitudes and behaviors concerning the main chronic disease risk factors such as unhealthy diet, physical inactivity and smoking. We conducted a quasi experimental design with intervention and control groups. The study concerned pupils of colleges of Sousse aged 11 to 16 years old in 7th and 9th grade. The pre-assessment concerned a randomized sample of schoolchildren. The proportional and stratified sample was composed of 4003 schoolchildren with 1929 and 2074 respectively in intervention and control groups. We used chi square test to compare percentages with 0.05 level of significance. The sex ration was been 1 in the intervention group and 0.87 in control group. The mean age of our population was been 13.48±1.29 and 13.24±1.25 respectively in intervention and control groups with significant difference (pfoods and beverages included respectively in the intervention and control group: vegetables 3.9 days/week and 4.81 days/week, fruits 5.41 days/week and 5.7 days/week, high fat food 2.49 days/week and 2.48 days/week, sweetened beverage 3.84 days/week and 3.3 days/week, sweets 4.33 days/week and 4.57 days/week. The proportion of irregular smokers was been respectively 6.8% and 2.2% among boys and girls in the intervention group and 11.3% and 0.9% in control group. Integrated and sustainable interventions against non communicable disease risk factors in this region are needed to prevent these diseases early in childhood.

  2. Workplace health and safety intervention for child care staff: Rationale, design, and baseline results from the CARE cluster randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Dianne S; Vaughn, Amber E; Hales, Derek; Viera, Anthony J; Gizlice, Ziya; Bateman, Lori A; Grummon, Anna H; Arandia, Gabriela; Linnan, Laura A

    2018-03-01

    Low-wage workers suffer disproportionately high rates of chronic disease and are important targets for workplace health and safety interventions. Child care centers offer an ideal opportunity to reach some of the lowest paid workers, but these settings have been ignored in workplace intervention studies. Caring and Reaching for Health (CARE) is a cluster-randomized controlled trial evaluating efficacy of a multi-level, workplace-based intervention set in child care centers that promotes physical activity and other health behaviors among staff. Centers are randomized (1:1) into the Healthy Lifestyles (intervention) or the Healthy Finances (attention control) program. Healthy Lifestyles is delivered over six months including a kick-off event and three 8-week health campaigns (magazines, goal setting, behavior monitoring, tailored feedback, prompts, center displays, director coaching). The primary outcome is minutes of moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA); secondary outcomes are health behaviors (diet, smoking, sleep, stress), physical assessments (body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, blood pressure, fitness), and workplace supports for health and safety. In total, 56 centers and 553 participants have been recruited and randomized. Participants are predominately female (96.7%) and either Non-Hispanic African American (51.6%) or Non-Hispanic White (36.7%). Most participants (63.4%) are obese. They accumulate 17.4 (±14.2) minutes/day of MVPA and consume 1.3 (±1.4) and 1.3 (±0.8) servings/day of fruits and vegetables, respectively. Also, 14.2% are smokers; they report 6.4 (±1.4) hours/night of sleep; and 34.9% are high risk for depression. Baseline data demonstrate several serious health risks, confirming the importance of workplace interventions in child care. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Health risk behavior among Thai youth: national survey 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirirassamee, Tawima; Sirirassamee, Buppha

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to establish the prevalence of risky health behaviors among Thai youth and to characterize the prevalence of these behaviors by gender, age group, educational status, and region. We analyzed data from a population-based, nationally representative, cross-sectional survey of 938 youth aged between 13 and 24 years, sampled from Bangkok and 4 regions of Thailand. The 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System questionnaire was used to measure youth risk behaviors. This study finds that 15.9% of respondents had engaged in physical fights, and 8.1% had been cyber bullied. The prevalence of current cigarette smoking, alcohol, and marijuana use were 22.3%, 27.9%, and 2.3%, respectively. The prevalence of risky behaviors among Thai youth were found to be high, including behaviors that contribute to unintentional injuries and violence, unsafe sexual behaviors, and cigarette and alcohol consumption. © 2014 APJPH.

  4. Social Media in Health Science Education: An International Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Elizabeth; Cutts, Emily; Kavikondala, Sushma; Salcedo, Alejandra; D'Souza, Karan; Hernandez-Torre, Martin; Anderson, Claire; Tiwari, Agnes; Ho, Kendall; Last, Jason

    2017-01-04

    Social media is an asset that higher education students can use for an array of purposes. Studies have shown the merits of social media use in educational settings; however, its adoption in health science education has been slow, and the contributing reasons remain unclear. This multidisciplinary study aimed to examine health science students' opinions on the use of social media in health science education and identify factors that may discourage its use. Data were collected from the Universitas 21 "Use of social media in health education" survey, distributed electronically among the health science staff and students from 8 universities in 7 countries. The 1640 student respondents were grouped as users or nonusers based on their reported frequency of social media use in their education. Of the 1640 respondents, 1343 (81.89%) use social media in their education. Only 462 of the 1320 (35.00%) respondents have received specific social media training, and of those who have not, the majority (64.9%, 608/936) would like the opportunity. Users and nonusers reported the same 3 factors as the top barriers to their use of social media: uncertainty on policies, concerns about professionalism, and lack of support from the department. Nonusers reported all the barriers more frequently and almost half of nonusers reported not knowing how to incorporate social media into their learning. Among users, more than one fifth (20.5%, 50/243) of students who use social media "almost always" reported sharing clinical images without explicit permission. Our global, interdisciplinary study demonstrates that a significant number of students across all health science disciplines self-reported sharing clinical images inappropriately, and thus request the need for policies and training specific to social media use in health science education. ©Elizabeth O'Sullivan, Emily Cutts, Sushma Kavikondala, Alejandra Salcedo, Karan D'Souza, Martin Hernandez-Torre, Claire Anderson, Agnes Tiwari, Kendall

  5. Status of simulation in health care education: an international survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qayumi K

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Karim Qayumi,1 George Pachev,2 Bin Zheng,3 Amitai Ziv,4 Valentyna Koval,1 Sadia Badiei,5 Adam Cheng6 1Center of Excellence for Simulation Education and Innovation, Department of Surgery, 2Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 3Surgical Simulation Research Laboratory, Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada; 4Israel Center for Medical Simulation, Chaim Sheba Medical Center and Sackler Medical School, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel; 5Centre of Excellence for Simulation Education and Innovation, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 6KidSIM-ASPIRE Simulation Research Program, Alberta Children’s Hospital, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, CanadaAbstract: Simulation is rapidly penetrating the terrain of health care education and has gained growing acceptance as an educational method and patient safety tool. Despite this, the state of simulation in health care education has not yet been evaluated on a global scale. In this project, we studied the global status of simulation in health care education by determining the degree of financial support, infrastructure, manpower, information technology capabilities, engagement of groups of learners, and research and scholarly activities, as well as the barriers, strengths, opportunities for growth, and other aspects of simulation in health care education. We utilized a two-stage process, including an online survey and a site visit that included interviews and debriefings. Forty-two simulation centers worldwide participated in this study, the results of which show that despite enormous interest and enthusiasm in the health care community, use of simulation in health care education is limited to specific areas and is not a budgeted item in many institutions. Absence of a sustainable business model, as well as sufficient financial support in terms of budget, infrastructure

  6. Peru 1996: results from the Demographic and Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-03-01

    This report presents findings of the 1996 Peru Demographic and Health Survey among 28,951 women 15-49 years old and 2487 men 15-59 years old. Fertility was 3.5 children/woman (5.6 in rural and 2.8 in urban areas). Fertility ranged from 2.1 among higher educated women to 6.9 among women with no formal education. 41.7% wanted the births in the 5 years preceding the survey. 23.2% wanted the birth later. 34.8% wanted no more births. A high percentage of women with 3 or more children wanted no more children. 22.9% currently used modern contraceptive methods. 41.3% used traditional methods. Contraceptive prevalence peaked at ages 35-39 years at 72.9%. Prevalence was 46.0% at 15-19 years old and 40.9% at 45-49 years old. 12% used the IUD. 18% used periodic abstinence. 42.7% of nonusers were menopausal. 12.4% were subfecund. 7.5% feared side effects. The median age at first birth was 21.5 years. Infant mortality was 43/100,000. Infant mortality was very high among rural and uneducated women. Only 1.1% were moderately to severely undernourished, but 25.8% were moderately to severely chronically undernourished.

  7. [Storytelling in Health Journalism: Online Survey of Health Journalists on Definition and Use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimes, S

    2016-12-01

    Background: Although health information is of great interest and plays an important role in almost all media, there are very few studies on the actual work of health journalists. Methods: A quantitative online survey with qualitative elements on the definition and use of storytelling in health journalism was carried out among members of various professional journalists' associations (n=86). Results: The results suggest that health journalists understand storytelling especially as a term used when an article has a dramatic construction, and the story is about real people. As reasons for using storytelling, health journalists primarily name the understandable and clear presentation of medical issues. They see better chances for identification and establishing a relationship to the readers' lives. Of particular importance seems to be that narrative elements do not distort the facts and protect the privacy rights of persons mentioned in case reports. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Relaxation practice for health in the United States: findings from the National Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Kyoung Othelia; Yeo, Younsook

    2013-06-01

    Despite the popularity of relaxation practices as mind-body therapy in the United States, little is known about those who practice these techniques. Using cross-sectional data from the 2007 National Health Interview Survey Alternative Medicine Supplement, this study examined potential correlates of engagement in relaxation practices, including sociodemographic characteristics, health behaviors, medical conditions, physical activity, drinking, smoking, and prayer for health. Individuals who engaged in relaxation practices were less likely to be older, male, Hispanic, high income, or residents in the South and Midwest. They were more likely to be college-educated, uninsured, and have one to two chronic conditions. Those with higher psychological distress and with asthma and pulmonary diseases practiced relaxation techniques more than individuals without these conditions. Findings suggest that relaxation practice is associated with lifestyles habits such as regular physical activity and prayer for health. Thus, relaxation practice has the potential to enhance health behaviors and lifestyle change.

  9. First outline and baseline data of a randomized, controlled multicenter trial to evaluate the health economic impact of home telemonitoring in chronic heart failure - CardioBBEAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Reiner; Völler, Heinz; Nagels, Klaus; Bindl, Dominik; Vettorazzi, Eik; Dittmar, Ronny; Wohlgemuth, Walter; Neumann, Till; Störk, Stefan; Bruder, Oliver; Wegscheider, Karl; Nagel, Eckhard; Fleck, Eckart

    2015-08-11

    Evidence that home telemonitoring for patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) offers clinical benefit over usual care is controversial as is evidence of a health economic advantage. Between January 2010 and June 2013, patients with a confirmed diagnosis of CHF were enrolled and randomly assigned to 2 study groups comprising usual care with and without an interactive bi-directional remote monitoring system (Motiva®). The primary endpoint in CardioBBEAT is the Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Ratio (ICER) established by the groups' difference in total cost and in the combined clinical endpoint "days alive and not in hospital nor inpatient care per potential days in study" within the follow-up of 12 months. A total of 621 predominantly male patients were enrolled, whereof 302 patients were assigned to the intervention group and 319 to the control group. Ischemic cardiomyopathy was the leading cause of heart failure. Despite randomization, subjects of the control group were more often in NYHA functional class III-IV, and exhibited peripheral edema and renal dysfunction more often. Additionally, the control and intervention groups differed in heart rhythm disorders. No differences existed regarding risk factor profile, comorbidities, echocardiographic parameters, especially left ventricular and diastolic diameter and ejection fraction, as well as functional test results, medication and quality of life. While the observed baseline differences may well be a play of chance, they are of clinical relevance. Therefore, the statistical analysis plan was extended to include adjusted analyses with respect to the baseline imbalances. CardioBBEAT provides prospective outcome data on both, clinical and health economic impact of home telemonitoring in CHF. The study differs by the use of a high evidence level randomized controlled trial (RCT) design along with actual cost data obtained from health insurance companies. Its results are conducive to informed political and economic

  10. A survey of oral health in a Sudanese population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalifa Nadia

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We aimed to assess the oral health status and risk factors for dental caries and periodontal disease among Sudanese adults resident in Khartoum State. To date, this information was not available to health policy planners in Sudan. Methods A descriptive population-based survey of Sudanese adults aged ≥ 16 years was conducted. After stratified sampling, 1,888 adult patients from public dental hospitals and dental health centres scattered across Khartoum State, including different ethnic groups present in Sudan, were examined in 2009-10. Data were collected using patient interviews and clinical examinations. Dental status was recorded using the DMFT index, community periodontal index (CPI, and a validated tooth wear index. Results Caries prevalence was high, with 87.7% of teeth examined having untreated decay. Periodontal disease increased in extent and severity with age. For 25.8% of adults, tooth wear was mild; 8.7% had moderate and 1% severe toothwear. Multivariate analysis revealed that decay was less prevalent in older age groups but more prevalent in southern tribes and frequent problem based attenders; western tribes and people with dry mouths who presented with less than18 sound, untreated natural teeth (SUNT. Older age groups were more likely to present with tooth wear; increasing age and gender were associated with having periodontal pocketing ≥ 4 mm. Conclusions The prevalence of untreated caries and periodontal disease was high in this population. There appear to be some barriers to restorative dental care, with frequent use of dental extractions to treat caries and limited use of restorative dentistry. Implementation of population-based strategies tailored to the circumstances of Sudanese population is important to improve oral health status in Sudan.

  11. Does mentoring matter: results from a survey of faculty mentees at a large health sciences university

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Mitchell D.; Arean, Patricia A.; Marshall, Sally J.; Lovett, Mark; O'Sullivan, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Background To determine the characteristics associated with having a mentor, the association of mentoring with self-efficacy, and the content of mentor–mentee interactions at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), we conducted a baseline assessment prior to implementing a comprehensive faculty mentoring program. Method We surveyed all prospective junior faculty mentees at UCSF. Mentees completed a web-based, 38-item survey including an assessment of self-efficacy and a needs assessment. We used descriptive and inferential statistics to determine the association between having a mentor and gender, ethnicity, faculty series, and self-efficacy. Results Our respondents (n=464, 56%) were 53% female, 62% white, and 7% from underrepresented minority groups. More than half of respondents (n=319) reported having a mentor. There were no differences in having a mentor based on gender or ethnicity (p≥0.05). Clinician educator faculty with more teaching and patient care responsibilities were statistically significantly less likely to have a mentor compared with faculty in research intensive series (pmentor was associated with greater satisfaction with time allocation at work (pmentor, 5.33 (sd = 1.35, pmentors, but rated highest requiring mentoring assistance with issues of promotion and tenure. Conclusion Findings from the UCSF faculty mentoring program may assist other health science institutions plan similar programs. Mentoring needs for junior faculty with greater teaching and patient care responsibilities must be addressed. PMID:20431710

  12. Use of health care by young Asian New Zealanders: findings from a national youth health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameratunga, Shanthi; Tin, Sandar Tin; Rasanathan, Kumanan; Robinson, Elizabeth; Watson, Peter

    2008-11-01

    To examine the use of health services and perceived barriers to accessing health care among young Asian New Zealanders. Secondary analysis of data from Youth2000, a cross-sectional survey of secondary school students in New Zealand (NZ) conducted in 2001. Of the 9567 survey participants (aged 12-18 years), this study was restricted to students who identified with an 'Asian' ethnic category (n = 922). Chinese and Indian students (the largest Asian ethnic groups in NZ) reported levels of overall health comparable to NZ European (NZE) students. However, relative to NZE students, Chinese students were more likely to report (i) not having a usual location for health care (adjusted OR 3.28; 95% CI: 2.51-4.43); and (ii) having problems getting health care when they needed it (adjusted OR 1.61; 95% CI: 1.32-1.96). Asian students who had been in NZ for 5 years or less (compared with NZ-born students), as well as those who did not speak English at home (compared with those who did) were less likely to report having a usual source of health care, even after adjusting for their overall health (adjusted OR 2.13, 95% CI: 1.27-3.56; and adjusted OR 1.69, 95% CI: 1.11-2.56, respectively). Young Asian New Zealanders are less likely to access health care than their NZE counterparts. The perceived barriers require explicit attention within the broader platforms of health-care quality, and professional and cultural competence of health-care services.

  13. Oral health survey and oral health questionnaire for high school students in Tibet, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to identify the oral health status as well as oral health practices and access for care of graduating senior high school Tibetan students in Shannan prefecture of Tibet. Methods Based on standards of the 3rd Chinese National Oral Epidemiological Survey and WHO Oral Health Surveys, 1907 graduating students from three senior high schools were examined for caries, periodontitis, dental fluorosis, and oral hygiene status. The questionnaire to the students addressed oral health practices and present access to oral medical services. Results Dental caries prevalence (39.96%) and mean DMFT (0.97) were high in Tibetan students. In community periodontal indexes, the detection rate of gingivitis and dental calculus were 59.50% and 62.64%, respectively. Oral hygiene index-simplified was 0.69, with 0.36 and 0.33 in debris index-simplified and calculus index-simplified, respectively. Community dental fluorosis index was 0.29, with 8.13% in prevalence rate. The questionnaire showed students had poor oral health practices and unawareness for their needs for oral health services. It was also noted that the local area provides inadequate oral medical services. Conclusions Tibetan students had higher prevalence of dental diseases and lower awareness of oral health needs. The main reasons were geographical environment, dietary habit, students’ attitude to oral health, and lack of oral health promotion and education. Oral health education and local dentists training should be strengthened to get effective prevention of dental diseases. PMID:24884668

  14. Quality improvement in local health departments: results of the NACCHO 2008 survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beitsch, Leslie M; Leep, Carolyn; Shah, Gulzar; Brooks, Robert G; Pestronk, Robert M

    2010-01-01

    To assess the current status of quality improvement (QI) within local health departments (LHDs) and examine the characteristics associated with such QI efforts. A QI module was administered to a representative sample of 545 LHDs along with the core instrument in the 2008 NACCHO Profile survey of all LHDs nationally. Using the Profile survey data set, a quantitative approach was employed to determine the current status of QI within LHDs. Statistical analysis was performed to identify characteristics of LHDs associated with QI. The response rate to the QI module was 82 percent. Of the 448 LHDs that responded to the QI Module, 55 percent reported conducting formal QI efforts during the previous 2 years. Forty-four percent of these LHDs used a specific framework for QI, 56 percent used at least one of four commonly employed QI tools or techniques, and customer focus and satisfaction was the most frequently reported area (76%) of QI efforts. LHDs with large size of jurisdiction population and those with centralized governance were more likely to have engaged in quality or performance improvement, have managers who received formal QI training, and have provided QI training to staff. The 2008 NACCHO Profile QI module furnishes an excellent baseline for measuring progress of health department QI activities as accreditation and other related activities intensify. A clear definition of QI in public health that is understood by practitioners will greatly increase our ability to measure the adoption of QI by LHDs. Further research is necessary to identify and explore some of the predictors and possible barriers to increasing the application of QI by LHDs.

  15. Sedimentary heavy metal(loid) contamination in the Veracruz shelf, Gulf of Mexico: A baseline survey from a rapidly developing tropical coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celis-Hernandez, Omar; Rosales-Hoz, Leticia; Cundy, Andrew B; Carranza-Edwards, Arturo

    2017-06-30

    This study examines sediment texture, geochemistry and sediment accumulation in cores from four sites in the Veracruz shelf area of the Gulf of Mexico, to assess the inputs of heavy metal(loid)s (and their potential biological impacts) in this carbonate-dominated shelf system, and to examine the rate of sedimentation near to the mouths of the La Antigua and Jamapa Rivers. The use of different pollution indices showed enrichment with Pb in all cores studied, although based on sediment quality guidelines As was the only element that has potential to occasionally cause damage to the benthic organisms present in the area. Heavy metal(loid) and sediment input from terrestrial and coastal sources is limited compared to more proximal, near-shore areas. The sediment core data presented however give a baseline dataset for heavy metal(loid) concentrations in the Veracruz shelf, against which future anthropogenic inputs can be assessed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Baseline knowledge survey of restaurant food handlers in suburban Chicago: do restaurant food handlers know what they need to know to keep consumers safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manes, Mindi R; Liu, Li C; Dworkin, Mark S

    2013-01-01

    In the U.S., foodborne disease causes millions of illnesses annually, resulting in thousands of deaths. To reduce food poisoning, restaurant food handlers need accurate knowledge of food safety principles as a starting point for the outcome of optimal food safety behavior. The study described in this article determined food safety knowledge gaps among suburban Chicago restaurant food handlers. A cross-sectional survey of 729 food handlers at 211 suburban Chicago restaurants was conducted from June 2009 through February 2010. A 50-question survey was administered by a trained interviewer in either English or Spanish. Mixed-effects regression analysis identified risk factors associated with an overall food safety knowledge score. The mean overall knowledge score was only 72% and substantial knowledge gaps related to cross contamination, cooking, and holding and storage of food were identified. Spanish-speaking food handlers scored significantly lower than English-speaking food handlers (p restaurants.

  17. The effectiveness of medical assistant health coaching for low-income patients with uncontrolled diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia: protocol for a randomized controlled trial and baseline characteristics of the study population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard-Grace, Rachel; DeVore, Denise; Chen, Ellen H; Hessler, Danielle; Bodenheimer, Thomas; Thom, David H

    2013-02-23

    Many patients with chronic disease do not reach goals for management of their conditions. Self-management support provided by medical assistant health coaches within the clinical setting may help to improve clinical outcomes, but most studies to date lack statistical power or methodological rigor. Barriers to large scale implementation of the medical assistant coach model include lack of clinician buy-in and the absence of a business model that will make medical assistant health coaching sustainable. This study will add to the evidence base by determining the effectiveness of health coaching by medical assistants on clinical outcomes and patient self-management, by assessing the impact of health coaching on the clinician experience, and by examining the costs and potential savings of health coaching. This randomized controlled trial will evaluate the effectiveness of clinic-based medical assistant health coaches to improve clinical outcomes and self-management skills among low-income patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes, hypertension, or hyperlipidemia. A total of 441 patients from two San Francisco primary care clinics have been enrolled and randomized to receive a health coach (n = 224) or usual care (n = 217). Patients participating in the health coaching group will receive coaching for 12 months from medical assistants trained as health coaches. The primary outcome is a change in hemoglobin A1c, systolic blood pressure, or LDL cholesterol among patients with uncontrolled diabetes, hypertension and hyperlipidemia, respectively. Self-management behaviors, perceptions of the health care team and clinician, BMI, and chronic disease self-efficacy will be measured at baseline and after 12 months. Clinician experience is being assessed through surveys and qualitative interviews. Cost and utilization data will be analyzed through cost-predictive models. Medical assistants are an untapped resource to provide self-management support for patients with uncontrolled

  18. Perception of Radiation Risk as a Predictor of Mid-Term Mental Health after a Nuclear Disaster: The Fukushima Health Management Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Itaru; Nagai, Masato; Maeda, Masaharu; Harigane, Mayumi; Fujii, Senta; Oe, Misari; Yabe, Hirooki; Suzuki, Yuriko; Takahashi, Hideto; Ohira, Tetsuya; Yasumura, Seiji; Abe, Masafumi

    2017-09-15

    Predictive factors including risk perception for mid-term mental health after a nuclear disaster remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between perceived radiation risk and other factors at baseline and mid-term mental health after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster of 2011 in Japan. A mail-based questionnaire survey was conducted in January 2012 and January 2013. Mental health status was assessed using the K6 scale. Psychological distress over the 2-year period was categorized into the following four groups: chronic, recovered, resistant, or worsened. Most participants (80.3%) were resistant to the disaster. A positive association was found between the radiation risk perception regarding immediate effects and the worsened group in women. Baseline post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or a history of psychiatric disease predicted being in the chronic or worsened group in mid-term course. These results suggest that evacuees who believed that their health was substantially affected by the nuclear disaster were at an increased risk of having poor mid-term mental health in women. Careful assessment of risk perception after a nuclear disaster, including the presence of PTSD or a history of psychiatric disease, is needed for appropriate interventions.

  19. Development and implementation of a community health survey for public health accreditation: Case study from a rural county in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Kevin; Do-Reynoso, Van; Zarate-Gonzalez, Gilda; Goldman-Mellor, Sidra

    2018-04-01

    To describe the planning, development, pilot testing, fielding, and outcomes of a community health survey in a rural California county pursuing public health accreditation. Community partners helped the local health department develop the community health survey. Extensive English- and Spanish-language pilot testing was conducted over a period of four months. Final survey fielding was conducted online and at 20 community sites. 2189 completed surveys were collected. Total costs for developing and fielding the survey were approximately $25,000. Survey results indicated that alcoholism/drug abuse, breathing problems, and obesity were the primary health concerns of county residents. Benefits of conducting the community survey included strengthening inter-organizational partnerships between community partners, engaging a large and diverse respondent sample, and gathering information on a nuanced set of health indicators. Challenges included an unexpectedly high number of respondents and managing the needs of respondents with disabilities or poor literacy. The information gathered from the community health survey was used in the implementation of a county-wide multi-agency strategic plan to address health priorities identified in the CHA. Engaging a broad set of community partners throughout the survey process was critical for ensuring the project's relevance and long-term regional impact. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Health literacy in rural areas of China: hypertension knowledge survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xia; Ning, Ning; Hao, Yanhua; Sun, Hong; Gao, Lijun; Jiao, Mingli; Wu, Qunhong; Quan, Hude

    2013-03-18

    We conducted this study to determine levels and correlates of hypertension knowledge among rural Chinese adults, and to assess the association between knowledge levels and salty food consumption among hypertensive and non-hypertensive populations. This face-to-face cross sectional survey included 665 hypertensive and 854 non-hypertensive respondents in the rural areas of Heilongjiang province, China. Hypertension knowledge was assessed through a 10-item test; respondents received 10 points for each correct answer. Among respondents, the average hypertension knowledge score was 26 out of a maximum of 100 points for hypertensive and 20 for non-hypertensive respondents. Hypertension knowledge was associated with marital status, education, health status, periodically reading books, newspapers or other materials, history of blood pressure measurement, and attending hypertension educational sessions. Hypertension knowledge is extremely low in rural areas of China. Hypertension education programs should focus on marginal populations, such as individuals who are not married or illiterate to enhance their knowledge levels. Focusing on educational and literacy levels in conjunction with health education is important given illiteracy is still a prominent issue for the Chinese rural population.

  1. Health Literacy in Rural Areas of China: Hypertension Knowledge Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hude Quan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We conducted this study to determine levels and correlates of hypertension knowledge among rural Chinese adults, and to assess the association between knowledge levels and salty food consumption among hypertensive and non-hypertensive populations. This face-to-face cross sectional survey included 665 hypertensive and 854 non-hypertensive respondents in the rural areas of Heilongjiang province, China. Hypertension knowledge was assessed through a 10-item test; respondents received 10 points for each correct answer. Among respondents, the average hypertension knowledge score was 26 out of a maximum of 100 points for hypertensive and 20 for non-hypertensive respondents. Hypertension knowledge was associated with marital status, education, health status, periodically reading books, newspapers or other materials, history of blood pressure measurement, and attending hypertension educational sessions. Hypertension knowledge is extremely low in rural areas of China. Hypertension education programs should focus on marginal populations, such as individuals who are not married or illiterate to enhance their knowledge levels. Focusing on educational and literacy levels in conjunction with health education is important given illiteracy is still a prominent issue for the Chinese rural population.

  2. Health Status and Health Care Experiences among Homeless Patients in Federally Supported Health Centers: Findings from the 2009 Patient Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebrun-Harris, Lydie A; Baggett, Travis P; Jenkins, Darlene M; Sripipatana, Alek; Sharma, Ravi; Hayashi, A Seiji; Daly, Charles A; Ngo-Metzger, Quyen

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine health status and health care experiences of homeless patients in health centers and to compare them with their nonhomeless counterparts. Data Sources/Study Setting Nationally representative data from the 2009 Health Center Patient Survey. Study Design Cross-sectional analyses were limited to adults (n = 2,683). We compared sociodemographic characteristics, health conditions, access to health care, and utilization of services among homeless and nonhomeless patients. We also examined the independent effect of homelessness on health care access and utilization, as well as factors that influenced homeless patients' health care experiences. Data Collection Computer-assisted personal interviews were conducted with health center patients. Principal Findings Homeless patients had worse health status—lifetime burden of chronic conditions, mental health problems, and substance use problems—compared with housed respondents. In adjusted analyses, homeless patients had twice the odds as housed patients of having unmet medical care needs in the past year (OR = 1.98, 95 percent CI: 1.24–3.16) and twice the odds of having an ED visit in the past year (OR = 2.00, 95 percent CI: 1.37–2.92). Conclusions There is an ongoing need to focus on the health issues that disproportionately affect homeless populations. Among health center patients, homelessness is an independent risk factor for unmet medical needs and ED use. PMID:23134588

  3. Relationship between Health Literacy, Health-Related Behaviors and Health Status: A Survey of Elderly Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong-Bing; Liu, Liu; Li, Yan-Fei; Chen, Yan-Li

    2015-08-18

    Despite the large volume of research dedicated to health-related behavior change, chronic disease costs continue to rise, thus creating a major public health burden. Health literacy, the ability to seek, understand, and utilize health information, has been identified as an important factor in the course of chronic conditions. Little research has been conducted on the relationship between health literacy and health-related behaviors and health status in elderly Chinese. The aim of this study was to elucidate the relationship between health literacy and health-related behaviors and health status in China. The subjects enrolled in this study were selected based on a stratified cluster random sampling design. Information involving >4500 older adults in 44 pension institutions in Urumqi, Changji, Karamay, and Shihezi of Xinjiang between September 2011 and June 2012 was collected. The Chinese Citizen Health Literacy Questionnaire (China Health Education Centre, 2008) and a Scale of the General Status were administered and the information was obtained through face-to-face inquiries by investigators. A total of 1452 respondents met the inclusion criteria. A total of 1452 questionnaires were issued and the valid response rate was 96.14% (1396 of 1452). Factors affecting health literacy and the relationship to health literacy were identified by one-way ANOVA and a multiple linear regression model. The average health literacy level of the elderly in nursing homes was relatively low (71.74 ± 28.35 points). There were significant differences in the health literacy score among the factors of age, gender, race, education level, household income, marital conditions, and former occupation (p literacy score was significantly associated with smoking, drinking, physical exercise, and health examination (p literacy scores were significantly less likely to have risky behaviors (smoking, regular drinking, and lack of physical exercise), and in turn significantly more likely to undergo

  4. Questionnaire surveys on health and working conditions: development of an instrument for risk assessment in companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weel, A. N.; Broersen, J. P.; van Dijk, F. J.

    2000-01-01

    Periodic Occupational Health Surveys (POHS) are frequently used by occupational health and safety services in the Netherlands as a risk assessment instrument. These surveys include a questionnaire on work and health. Systematic attention is paid in this questionnaire to a broad range of working

  5. Health equity in the New Zealand health care system: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Nicolette F; Kenealy, Timothy W; Connolly, Martin J; Mahony, Faith; Barber, P Alan; Boyd, Mary Anne; Carswell, Peter; Clinton, Janet; Devlin, Gerard; Doughty, Robert; Dyall, Lorna; Kerse, Ngaire; Kolbe, John; Lawrenson, Ross; Moffitt, Allan

    2011-10-20

    In all countries people experience different social circumstances that result in avoidable differences in health. In New Zealand, Māori, Pacific peoples, and those with lower socioeconomic status experience higher levels of chronic illness, which is the leading cause of mortality, morbidity and inequitable health outcomes. Whilst the health system can enable a fairer distribution of good health, limited national data is available to measure health equity. Therefore, we sought to find out whether health services in New Zealand were equitable by measuring the level of development of components of chronic care management systems across district health boards. Variation in provision by geography, condition or ethnicity can be interpreted as inequitable. A national survey of district health boards (DHBs) was undertaken on macro approaches to chronic condition management with detail on cardiovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart failure, stroke and diabetes. Additional data from expert informant interviews on program reach and the cultural needs of Māori and Pacific peoples was sought. Survey data were analyzed on dimensions of health equity relevant to strategic planning and program delivery. Results are presented as descriptive statistics and free text. Interviews were transcribed and NVivo 8 software supported a general inductive approach to identify common themes. Survey responses were received from the majority of DHBs (15/21), some PHOs (21/84) and 31 expert informants. Measuring, monitoring and targeting equity is not systematically undertaken. The Health Equity Assessment Tool is used in strategic planning but not in decisions about implementing or monitoring disease programs. Variable implementation of evidence-based practices in disease management and multiple funding streams made program implementation difficult. Equity for Māori is embedded in policy, this is not so for other ethnic groups or by geography. Populations

  6. BASELINE HEALTH AND NUTRITION EVALUATION OF TWO SYMPATRIC NOCTURNAL LEMUR SPECIES (AVAHI LANIGER AND LEPILEMUR MUSTELINUS) RESIDING NEAR AN ACTIVE MINE SITE AT AMBATOVY, MADAGASCAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junge, Randall E; Williams, Cathy V; Rakotondrainibe, Hajanirina; Mahefarisoa, Karine L; Rajaonarivelo, Tsiky; Faulkner, Charles; Mass, Vanessa

    2017-09-01

    Extractive industries can have significant impacts on ecosystems through loss of habitat, degradation of water quality, and direct impact on floral and faunal biodiversity. When operations are located in sensitive regions with high biodiversity containing endangered or threatened species, it is possible to minimize impact on the environment by developing programs to scientifically monitor the impact on resident flora and fauna species in the early phases of operation so that effects can be mitigated whenever possible. This report presents the baseline health, nutrition, and trace mineral evaluation for 33 Avahi laniger (Eastern wooly lemur) and 15 Lepilemur mustelinus (greater sportive lemur) captured and given complete health evaluations that included the measurement of fat-soluble vitamins and trace minerals in addition to routine complete blood counts, serum chemistries, and parasite evaluations. All lemurs appeared healthy on physical examination despite the presence of minor wounds consistent with interspecies aggression in some individuals. Serum chemistry values were within expected ranges for other lemur species; however, A. laniger erythrocytes were significantly smaller than those of L. mustelinus. Serum nickel values were markedly higher than expected in both species, and selenium, copper, and cobalt levels were higher in L. mustelinus compared with A. laniger at the study site, as well as values for I. indri or P. diadema reported from other locations. Endoparasites and ectoparasites were typical of those reported in other wild lemur species, but load and diversity varied between A. laniger and L. mustelinus despite inhabiting the same forest ecosystem. This baseline assessment provides the foundation for ongoing monitoring.

  7. Health and behavioral survey of over 8000 Finnish cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katariina Vapalahti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive feline health survey was conducted to reveal breed-specific inheritable diseases in Finnish pedigree cats for genetic research. Prevalences of 19 disease categories and 227 feline diseases were defined in a study population of 8175 cats belonging to 30 breeds. Dental and oral diseases with a prevalence of 28% and dental calculus and gingivitis (21% and 8%, respectively were the most prevalent disease category and diseases among all cats and in most of the breeds. An exception was Korats, which were more often affected by the diseases of the respiratory tract (23% and asthma (19%. Other prevalent disease categories affected various organ systems such as the skin (12%, the urinary system (12%, the digestive tract (11%, eyes, (10%, the musculoskeletal system (10%, and genitals of female cats (17%. Prevalent health or developmental issues included repetitive vomiting (4%, tail kink (4%, feline odontoclastic resorption lesion (FORL (4%, urinary tract infections (4%, as well as caesarean section (6% and stillborn kittens (6% among female cats. We found 57 breed-specific conditions by Fisher’s exact tests and logistic regression analyses, including 32 previously described and 19 new breed-specific diseases. The genetic defect has already been found in six of them: polycystic kidney disease (PKD, progressive retinal atrophy (PRA, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM and three types of tail malformations. Behavioral profiling revealed breed-specific traits, such as an increased human avoidance in British Short and Longhairs and a higher level of aggression in Turkish vans. Our epidemiological study reveals the overall health profile in Finnish pure and mixed breed cats and identifies many breed-specific conditions without molecular identity for genetic research.

  8. Environmental Baseline Survey, Real Property Transaction Between Nellis Air Force Base and the City of North Las Vegas for Construction of a Wastewater Treatment Facility, Clark County, Nevada. Phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-06

    NWI Electronic Data CoverageNWI Quad at Target Property 32003C2180DAdditional Panels in search area: 32003C2200DFlood Plain Panel at Target Property...Response Plan. July 2006. Nellis AFB. 2006c. Environmental Baseline Survey for Leasing Nellis AFB Land for Construction & Operation of a Solar ...aeknowledsed thoy QXOcuted onme a.e their own f-ree and voluntary ~ct . .. .. • • II It" H • I II I~ .. I ,.,. o.c ll J 2v nl ’II APPENDIX G Terms and

  9. Promoting Staff Health: A Survey of the Health and Wellbeing Division

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Evans, David S.

    2016-01-01

    n order to gain a measure of the health and wellbeing of staff in the Health and Wellbeing Division a survey was undertaken in late 2015 with results contained in this report. It highlights the areas that we are doing well in and identifies a number of areas where improvements are needed. The results and suggestions given provide a benchmark as to the current health and wellbeing status of those in our Division and pave the way for a set of recommendations which will be delivered through the action plan currently being developed. As a starting point and in recognition of the fact that many of our staff are based in other cross divisional worksites, the Staff Health and Wellbeing Funding Initiative 2016 was introduced.

  10. Psychological stress and health in undergraduate dental students: fifth year outcomes compared with first year baseline results from five European dental schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorter, R; Freeman, R; Hammen, S; Murtomaa, H; Blinkhorn, A; Humphris, G

    2008-05-01

    Psychological stress in undergraduate dental students: fifth year outcomes compared with first year baseline results from five European dental schools. To compare the levels of a series of health-related indicators from a cohort of fifth year dental students from five European schools with their first year scores, and to investigate the relationship between these follow-up measures. Burnout was measured using the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), consisting of three scales: Emotional Exhaustion (EE, alpha = 0.90), Depersonalisation (alpha = 0.80) and Personal Accomplishment (alpha = 0.72). Physical health was measured by the Physical Symptoms Questionnaire (alpha = 0.82), psychological distress was measured using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ, alpha = 0.89) and student stress was captured using seven subscales of the Dental Environment Stress questionnaire (DES, alpha = 0.92). A total of 132 fifth year students responded from five dental schools (Manchester, Belfast, Cork, Helsinki and Amsterdam), a 51% response. Fifth year students showed relatively high mean MBI scores when compared with first year results, especially on EE; 39% could be labelled 'high scorers'; 44% of the students met the criteria for 'cases' on the GHQ. Highest mean scores on the DES were obtained on the subscales: Study Obligations, Patient-Related Aspects and Study Pressure respectively. Between schools interesting differences were detected on all variables. As hypothesised, a clear direct effect of stress on both burnout and physical symptoms was shown. An indirect effect of stress on mental health via burnout was shown. Dental students showed a negative development through the years from first to fifth year with regard to EE and psychological distress. Both burnout constructs related to physical and mental health. It is recommended that dental faculty focus on the importance of prevention and intervention of stress amongst undergraduates.

  11. Health system responsiveness after health sector evolution plan (HSEP): An inpatient survey in Kermanshah in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Farid; Karami-Matin, Behzad; Rezaei, Satar; Rajabi-Gilan, Nader; Soofi, Moslem

    2016-01-01

    Responsiveness is one of the three main goals of the health system introduced by World Health Organization. This study aimed at examining health system responsiveness after Health Sector Evolution Plan in Kermanshah, Western Iran. A sample of 335 hospitalized patients was selected using proportionate allocation to population size method in the city of Kermanshah (Iran) in 2015. World Health Survey (WHS) questionnaire was used to collect data. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and principal component analysis by STATA 12. The overall health system responsiveness score was 72.6. The best and worst performance for domains of dignity and autonomy were 82.2 and 62.5, respectively. Socio-demographic variables of the patients had no significant effect on the total health system responsiveness score. The principal component analysis findings indicated that 68% of the variance of the overall responsiveness score was explained by four components. The overall responsiveness score of each of the domains was higher than that of other similar previous studies in Iran. Although it is difficult to reach a conclusion, our findings may show better responsiveness of the health system compared to the previous reports.

  12. Women's childhood and adult adverse experiences, mental health, and binge drinking: The California Women's Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavao Joanne

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined sociodemographic, physical and mental health, and adult and childhood adverse experiences associated with binge drinking in a representative sample of women in the State of California. Materials and methods Data were from the 2003 to 2004 (response rates of 72% and 74%, respectively California Women's Health Survey (CWHS, a population-based, random-digit-dial annual probability survey sponsored by the California Department of Health Services. The sample was 6,942 women aged 18 years or older. Results The prevalence of binge drinking was 9.3%. Poor physical health, and poorer mental health (i.e., symptoms of PTSD, anxiety, and depression, feeling overwhelmed by stress, were associated with binge drinking when demographics were controlled, as were adverse experiences in adulthood (intimate partner violence, having been physically or sexually assaulted, or having experienced the death of someone close and in childhood (living with someone abusing substances or mentally ill, or with a mother vicimized by violence, or having been physically or sexually assaulted. When adult mental health and adverse experiences were also controlled, having lived as a child with someone who abused substances or was mentally ill was associated with binge drinking. Associations between childhood adverse experiences and binge drinking could not be explained by women's poorer mental health status in adulthood. Conclusion Identifying characteristics of women who engage in binge drinking is a key step in prevention and intervention efforts. Binge drinking programs should consider comprehensive approaches that address women's mental health symptoms as well as circumstances in the childhood home.

  13. Older women's health priorities and perceptions of care delivery: results of the WOW health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, Cara; Mayo, Nancy; Ducharme, Francine

    2005-07-19

    As women get older, their health priorities change. We surveyed a sample of older Canadian women to investigate what health priorities are of concern to them, their perceptions about the care delivered to address these priorities and the extent to which priorities and perceptions of care differ across age groups and provinces. The WOW (What Older women Want) cross-sectional health survey was mailed in October 2003 to 5000 community-dwelling women aged 55-95 years from 10 Canadian provinces. Women were asked questions on 26 health priorities according to the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, and their perceptions of whether these priorities were being addressed by health care providers through screening or counselling. Differences in priorities and perceptions of care delivery were examined across age groups and provinces. The response rate was 52%. The mean age of the respondents was 71 (standard deviation 7) years. The health priorities identified most frequently by the respondents were preventing memory loss (88% of the respondents), learning about the side effects of medications (88%) and correcting vision impairment (86%). Items least frequently selected were counselling about community programs (28%), counselling about exercise (33%) and pneumonia vaccination (33%). Up to 97% of the women recalled being adequately screened for heart disease and stroke risk factors, but as little as 11% reported receiving counselling regarding concerns about memory loss or end-of-life issues. Women who stated that specific priorities were of great concern or importance to them were more than twice as likely as those who stated that they were not of great concern or importance to perceive that these priorities were being addressed: osteoporosis (odds ratio [OR] 2.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.1- 3.2), end-of-life care (OR 2.6, 95% CI 2.0-3.4), anxiety reduction (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.8-2.6), fall prevention (OR 2.1, 95

  14. Analysis of College Students' Personal Health Information Activities: Online Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sujin; Sinn, Donghee; Syn, Sue Yeon

    2018-04-20

    With abundant personal health information at hand, individuals are faced with a critical challenge in evaluating the informational value of health care records to keep useful information and discard that which is determined useless. Young, healthy college students who were previously dependents of adult parents or caregivers are less likely to be concerned with disease management. Personal health information management (PHIM) is a special case of personal information management (PIM) that is associated with multiple interactions among varying stakeholders and systems. However, there has been limited evidence to understand informational or behavioral underpinning of the college students' PHIM activities, which can influence their health in general throughout their lifetime. This study aimed to investigate demographic and academic profiles of college students with relevance to PHIM activities. Next, we sought to construct major PHIM-related activity components and perceptions among college students. Finally, we sought to discover major factors predicting core PHIM activities among college students we sampled. A Web survey was administered to collect responses about PHIM behaviors and perceptions among college students from the University of Kentucky from January through March 2017. A total of 1408 college students were included in the analysis. PHIM perceptions, demographics, and academic variations were used as independent variables to predict diverse PHIM activities using a principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical regression analyses (SPSS v.24, IBM Corp, Armonk, NY, USA). Majority of the participants were female (956/1408, 67.90%), and the age distribution of this population included an adequate representation of college students of all ages. The most preferred health information resources were family (612/1408, 43.47%), health care professionals (366/1408, 26.00%), friends (27/1408, 1.91%), and the internet (157/1408, 11.15%). Organizational or

  15. Public attitudes toward depression and help-seeking in four European countries baseline survey prior to the OSPI-Europe intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppens, E.C.; van Audenhove, C.; Scheerder, G.; Arensman, E.; Coffey, C.; Costa, S.; Koburger, N.; Gottlebe, K.; Gusmão, R.; O'Connor, R.; Postuvan, V.; Sarchiapone, M.; Sisask, M.; Székely, A.; van der Feltz-Cornelis, C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Stigmatizing attitudes toward depression and toward help-seeking are important barriers for people with mental health problems to obtain adequate professional help. This study aimed to examine: (1) population attitudes toward depression and toward seeking professional help in four

  16. Relationship between Health Literacy, Health-Related Behaviors and Health Status: A Survey of Elderly Chinese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Bing Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the large volume of research dedicated to health-related behavior change, chronic disease costs continue to rise, thus creating a major public health burden. Health literacy, the ability to seek, understand, and utilize health information, has been identified as an important factor in the course of chronic conditions. Little research has been conducted on the relationship between health literacy and health-related behaviors and health status in elderly Chinese. The aim of this study was to elucidate the relationship between health literacy and health-related behaviors and health status in China. Methods: The subjects enrolled in this study were selected based on a stratified cluster random sampling design. Information involving >4500 older adults in 44 pension institutions in Urumqi, Changji, Karamay, and Shihezi of Xinjiang between September 2011 and June 2012 was collected. The Chinese Citizen Health Literacy Questionnaire (China Health Education Centre, 2008 and a Scale of the General Status were administered and the information was obtained through face-to-face inquiries by investigators. A total of 1452 respondents met the inclusion criteria. A total of 1452 questionnaires were issued and the valid response rate was 96.14% (1396 of 1452. Factors affecting health literacy and the relationship to health literacy were identified by one-way ANOVA and a multiple linear regression model. Results: The average health literacy level of the elderly in nursing homes was relatively low (71.74 ± 28.35 points. There were significant differences in the health literacy score among the factors of age, gender, race, education level, household income, marital conditions, and former occupation (p < 0.001. The health literacy score was significantly associated with smoking, drinking, physical exercise, and health examination (p < 0.001. The elderly with higher health literacy scores were significantly less likely to have risky behaviors

  17. Utilization of health services in relation to mental health problems in adolescents: A population based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rödje Kjetil

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Only a minority of adolescents reporting symptoms above case-levels on screenings for mental health seeks and receives help from specialist health services. The objective of this study was to a examine help-seeking for symptoms of anxiety and depression in relation to symptom load dimensionally, b identify the level of specialization in mental health among service-providers, and c identify associations between mental health problems and contact with different types of health services. Methods This cross-sectional school-based study (response-rate 88%, n = 11154 is based on Norwegian health surveys among 15 and 16 year olds. Results We found a dose-response association between symptom-load and help seeking. Only 34% of individuals with mental symptom-load above 99th percentile reported help-seeking in the last 12 months. Forty percent of help seekers were in contact with specialists (psychiatrists or psychologists, the remaining were mainly in contact with GPs. Mental health problems increased help seeking to all twelve service providers examined. Conclusion It might not be reasonable to argue that all adolescents with case-level mental health problems are in need of treatment. However, concerning the 99th percentile, claiming treatment need is less controversial. Even in the Norwegian context where mental health services are relatively available and free of charge, help-seeking in individuals with the highest symptom-loads is still low. Most help seekers achieved contact with health care providers, half of them at a non specialized level. Our results suggest that adolescents' recognition of mental health problems or intention to seek help for these are the major "filters" restricting treatment.

  18. Health Physics Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2008 Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The survey includes degrees granted between September 1, 2007 and August 31, 2008. Enrollment information refers to the fall term 2008. Twenty-six academic programs were included in the survey universe, and all 26 programs provided data

  19. Health Physics Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2003 Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education

    2004-01-01

    The survey includes degrees granted between September 1, 2002 and August 31, 2003. Enrollment information refers to the fall term 2003. Thirty-four academic programs at 33 different institutions were included in the survey universe with all responding (100% response rate). Several of the programs did not have any degrees awarded during the time period. Two programs included in the 2002 survey were either discontinued or out-of-scope and not included in 2003 survey

  20. Global Health Education in Gastroenterology Fellowship: A National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirapinyo, Pichamol; Hunt, Rachel S; Tabak, Ying P; Proctor, Deborah D; Makrauer, Frederick L

    2016-12-01

    Interest in global health (GH) education is increasing across disciplines. To assess exposure to and perception of GH training among gastroenterology fellows and program directors across the USA. Design: Electronic survey study. The questionnaire was circulated to accredited US gastroenterology fellowship programs, with the assistance of the American Gastroenterological Association. Gastroenterology program directors and fellows. The questionnaire was returned by 127 respondents (47 program directors, 78 fellows) from 55 training programs (36 % of all training programs). 61 % of respondents had prior experience in GH. 17 % of programs offered GH curriculum with international elective (13 %), didactic (9 %), and research activity (7 %) being the most common. Fellows had adequate experience managing hepatitis B (93 %), cholangiocarcinoma (84 %), and intrahepatic duct stones (84 %). 74, 69 and 68 % reported having little to no experience managing hepatitis E, tuberculosis mesenteritis, or epidemic infectious enteritis, respectively. Most fellows would participate in an elective in an underserved area locally (81 %) or a 4-week elective abroad (71 %), if available. 44 % of fellows planned on working or volunteering abroad after fellowship. Barriers to establishing GH curriculum included funding (94 %), scheduling (88 %), and a lack of standardized objectives (78 %). Lack of interest, however, was not a concern. Fellows (49 %), more than faculty (29 %) (χ 2  = 21.9; p = 0.03), believed that GH education should be included in fellowship curriculum. Program directors and trainees recognize the importance of GH education. However, only 17 % of ACGME-approved fellowship programs offer the opportunity. Global health curriculum may enhance gastroenterology training.

  1. Health Care Access and Use by Urban American Indians and Alaska Natives: Findings from the National Health Interview Survey (2006-09).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutman, Shira; Phillips, Leslie; Sparck, Aren

    2016-01-01

    Health disparities between American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) and non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs) may be partially explained in terms of health care access and utilization. We examined access to and utilization of health care for urban AI/ANs and NHWs in National Health Interview Survey data (2006-09). Significant disparities exist for urban AI/ANs compared with urban NHWs. More AI/ANs are uninsured than NHWs, and more cited cost as the reason. More AI/ANs cannot afford needed medical care and more AI/ANs had not talked with a health care professional in the past year plus. Urban AI/ANs have decreased health care utilization and greater barriers to access compared with NHWs. Study data on the magnitude of disparity between urban AI/ANs and NHWs provides needed information to improve health care access and use in this population and can serve as a baseline for understanding the impact of health care reform.

  2. Is housing a public health issue? A survey of directors of public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roderick, P; Victor, C; Connelly, J

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the views of directors of public health on the importance of housing for public health and their departments' and health authorities' participation in housing issues. DESIGN--Postal self administered questionnaire survey. SETTING--All district health authorities in England and health boards in Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland. SUBJECTS--All 221 district directors of public health in England and chief administrative medical officers in Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Response to questionnaire consisting of fixed and open ended questions on housing issues. RESULTS--The response rate was 89% (196/221). Housing was perceived as a major health problem by 33% (65/196) of directors. Positive responses were most likely from inner city districts. In 47% (93/196) of departments there was a formal time commitment to housing issues with a median time of one session/week (range one per month to 10 per week). The main function was allocation of medical priority for public sector rehousing. Overall, 73% (144/196) reported some participation in this process. Reported participation in joint care planning and links with non-statutory housing organisations were uncommon. 53% (104/196) of directors had included housing issues in their annual health report. In 16% (32/196) of districts specific services for the homeless had been set up. CONCLUSIONS--Although concern about the impact of current housing policy on public health was shown by a substantial number of directors, the main activity was still allocation of medical priority despite a background of increasing housing need and homelessness. The underlying need is for greater advocacy to produce a healthy housing policy for all, and the annual public health report could be used to promote this objective. PMID:1995137

  3. Migration and social determinants of mental health: Results from the Canadian Health Measures Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salami, Bukola; Yaskina, Maryna; Hegadoren, Kathleen; Diaz, Esperanza; Meherali, Salima; Rammohan, Anu; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav

    2017-11-09

    Studies worldwide point to increased risk of mental health problems among immigrants. However, the data on Canadian immigrants' mental health are ambiguous. To address this, we examined the relationship of both self-perceived mental health and reported diagnosis of mood disorders with age, gender, migration status, time since migration, and social determinants of health factors. We analyzed three cycles of the Canadian Health Measures Survey. Our outcome variables were self-perceived mental health and reported diagnosis of mood disorders. We used weighted logistic regression to model time since migration conditional on age, gender, income, community belonging, education, and employment status for 12 160 participants aged 15-79 years. Recent (within 5 years) migrants reported better self-perceived mental health (odds ratio 3.98, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.06-7.70) but this effect disappeared with longer time since immigration. Other predictors were older age, higher income, better sense of community belonging, and being employed. Similarly, diagnosis of mood disorders was less likely to be reported in recent migrants (odds ratio 0.23, 95% CI: 0.10-0.53) with some weak evidence that this was also seen among longer-term migrant residents (>10 years). Diagnosis was also associated with older age, being a woman, lower income, weak sense of community belonging, and being unemployed. Our findings indicate that migrants to Canada do not have worse mental health in general, though health and social policies need to attend to the socio-economic determinants, such as low income, unemployment, and a poor sense of community belonging, which contribute to population health outcomes.

  4. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Mental Health of Adult Population: Serbian National Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Santric Milicevic

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The global burden of mental disorders is rising. In Serbia, anxiety is the leading cause of disability-adjusted life years. Serbia has no mental health survey at the population level. The information on prevalence of mental disorders and related socioeconomic inequalities are valuable for mental care improvement. Aims: То explore the prevalence of mental health disorders and socioeconomic inequalities in mental health of adult Serbian population, and to explore whether age years and employment status interact with mental health in urban and rural settlements. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: This study is an additional analysis of Serbian Health Survey 2006 that was carried out with standardized household questionnaires at the representative sample of 7673 randomly selected households – 15563 adults. The response rate was 93%. A multivariate logistic regression modeling highlighted the predictors of the 5 item Mental Health Inventory (MHI-5, and of chronic anxiety or depression within eight independent variables (age, gender, type of settlement, marital status and self-perceived health, education, employment status and Wealth Index. The significance level in descriptive statistics, chi square analysis and bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions was set at p<0.05. Results: Chronic anxiety or depression was seen in 4.9% of the respondents, and poor MHI-5 in 47% of respondents. Low education (Odds Ratios 1.32; 95% confidence intervals=1.16-1.51, unemployment (1.36; 1.18-1.56, single status (1.34; 1.23-1.45, and Wealth Index middle class (1.20; 1.08-1.32 or poor (1.33; 1.21-1.47 were significantly related with poor MHI-5. Unemployed persons in urban settlements had higher odds for poormMHI-5 than unemployed in rural areas (0.73; 0.59-0.89. Single (1.50; 1.26-1.78, unemployed (1.39; 1.07-1.80 and inactive respondents (1.42; 1.10-1.83 had a higher odds of chronic anxiety or depression than married individuals, or

  5. Calcium intake by adolescents: a population-based health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Assumpção, Daniela; Dias, Marcia Regina Messaggi Gomes; de Azevedo Barros, Marilisa Berti; Fisberg, Regina Mara; de Azevedo Barros Filho, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    To analyze calcium intake in adolescents according to sociodemographic variables, health-related behaviors, morbidities, and body mass index. This was a cross-sectional population-based study, with a two-stage cluster sampling that used data from a survey conducted in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, between 2008 and 2009. Food intake was assessed using a 24-hour dietary recall. The study included 913 adolescents aged 10-19 years. Average nutrient intake was significantly lower in the segment with lower education of the head of the family and lower per capita family income, in individuals from other cities or states, those who consumed fruit less than four times a week, those who did not drink milk daily, those who were smokers, and those who reported the occurrence of headaches and dizziness. Higher mean calcium intake was found in individuals that slept less than seven hours a day. The prevalence of calcium intake below the recommendation was 88.6% (95% CI: 85.4-91.2). The results alert to an insufficient calcium intake and suggest that certain subgroups of adolescents need specific strategies to increase the intake of this nutrient. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. Abortion practice in Mexico: a survey of health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayananda, Ila; Walker, Dilys; Atienzo, Erika E; Haider, Sadia

    2012-03-01

    Little is known about abortion practice in Mexico postlegalization of abortion in Mexico City in 2007. In 2009, we anonymously surveyed 418 Mexican health care providers at the Colegio Mexicano de Especialistas en Ginecologia y Obstetricia meeting using audio computer-assisted self-interview technology. The majority of respondents were obstetrician gynecologists (376, 90%), Catholic (341, 82%), 35-60 years old (332, 79%) and male (222, 53%) and worked with trainees (307, 74%). Prior to 2007, 11% (46) and 17% (71) provided medical and surgical abortions; now, 15% (62) and 21% (86) provide these services, respectively. Practitioners from Mexico City were more likely to provide services than those from other areas. Most medical abortion providers (50, 81%) used ineffective protocols. Surgical abortion providers mainly used either manual vacuum aspiration (39, 45%) or sharp curettage (27, 32%). Most abortion providers were trained in residency and wanted more training in medical (54, 87%) and surgical (59, 69%) abortion. Among nonproviders, 49% (175) and 27% (89) expressed interest in learning to perform medical and surgical abortion, respectively. Given the interest in learning to provide safe abortion services and the prevalent use of ineffective medical abortion regimens and sharp curettage, abortion training in Mexico should be strengthened. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Mpumalanga Men's Study (MPMS: results of a baseline biological and behavioral HIV surveillance survey in two MSM communities in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Lane

    Full Text Available The Mpumalanga Men's Study (MPMS is the assessment of the Project Boithato HIV prevention intervention for South African MSM. Boithato aims to increase consistent condom use, regular testing for HIV-negative MSM, and linkage to care for HIV-positive MSM. The MPMS baseline examined HIV prevalence and associated risk behaviors, and testing, care, and treatment behaviors among MSM in Gert Sibande and Ehlanzeni districts in Mpumalanga province, South Africa in order to effectively target intervention activities. We recruited 307 MSM in Gert Sibande and 298 in Ehlanzeni through respondent-driven sampling (RDS between September 2012-March 2013. RDS-adjusted HIV prevalence estimates are 28.3% (95% CI 21.1%-35.3% in Gert Sibande, and 13.7% (95% CI 9.1%-19.6% in Ehlanzeni. Prevalence is significantly higher among MSM over age 25 [57.8% (95% CI 43.1%-72.9% vs. 17.9% (95% CI 10.6%-23.9%, P<0.001 in Gert Sibande; 34.5% (95%CI 20.5%-56.0% vs. 9.1% (95% CI 4.6%-13.9%, P<0.001 in Ehlanzeni]. In Gert Sibande, prevalence is higher among self-identified gay and transgender MSM vs. other MSM [39.3% (95%CI, 28.3%-47.9%, P<0.01], inconsistent condom users [38.1% (18.1%-64.2%, P<0.05], those with a current regular male partner [35.0% (27.1%-46.4%, P<0.05], and those with lifetime experience of intimate partner violence with men [40.4%, (95%CI 28.9%-50.9%, P<0.05]. Prevalence of previous HIV testing was 65.8% (95%CI 58.8%-74.0% in Gert Sibande, and 69.3% (95%CI 61.9%-76.8% in Ehlanzeni. Regular HIV testing was uncommon [(34.6%, (95%CI 27.9%-41.4% in Gert Sibande; 31.0% (95%CI 24.9%-37.8% in Ehlanzeni]. Among HIV-positive participants, few knew their status (28.1% in Gert Sibande and 14.5% in Ehlanzeni, or were appropriately linked to care (18.2% and 11.3%, respectively, or taking antiretroviral therapy (13.6% and 9.6% respectively. MPMS results demonstrate the importance of implementing interventions for MSM to increase consistent condom use, regular HIV testing, and

  8. Visual impairment at baseline is associated with future poor physical functioning among middle-aged women: The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation, Michigan Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Navasuja; Harlow, Sioban; Moroi, Sayoko; Musch, David; Peng, Qing; Karvonen-Gutierrez, Carrie

    2017-02-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that the prevalence rates of poor functioning and of disability are increasing among middle-aged individuals. Visual impairment is associated with poor functioning among older adults but little is known about the impact of vision on functioning during midlife. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of visual impairment on future physical functioning among middle-aged women. In this longitudinal study, the sample consisted of 483 women aged 42 to 56 years, from the Michigan site of the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. At baseline, distance and near vision were measured using a Titmus vision screener. Visual impairment was defined as visual acuity worse than 20/40. Physical functioning was measured up to 10 years later using performance-based measures, including a 40-foot timed walk, timed stair climb and forward reach. Women with impaired distance vision at baseline had 2.81 centimeters less forward reach distance (95% confidence interval (CI): -4.19, -1.42) and 4.26s longer stair climb time (95% CI: 2.73, 5.79) at follow-up than women without impaired distance vision. Women with impaired near vision also had less forward reach distance (2.26 centimeters, 95% CI: -3.30, -1.21) than those without impaired near vision. Among middle-aged women, visual impairment is a marker of poor physical functioning. Routine eye testing and vision correction may help improve physical functioning among midlife individuals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Adolescents and parental caregivers as lay health advisers in a community-based risk reduction intervention for youth: baseline data from Teach One, Reach One.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchwood, Tiarney D; Dave, Gaurav; Carthron, Dana L; Isler, Malika Roman; Blumenthal, Connie; Wynn, Mysha; Odulana, Adebowale; Lin, Feng-Chang; Akers, Aletha Y; Corbie-Smith, Giselle

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to describe the demographic, behavioral, and psychosocial characteristics of adolescent and caregiver lay health advisers (LHAs) participating in an intervention designed to reduce risk behaviors among rural African-American adolescents. Teach One, Reach One integrates constructs from the Theory of Planned Behavior and Social Cognitive Theory. It acknowledges that changing the sexual behaviors of African-American adolescents requires changing one's knowledge, attitudes, normative beliefs about the behavior of peers, and self-efficacy regarding adolescent sexual behavior, parent-teen communication about sex, and healthy dating relations among adolescents. Study participants completed baseline questionnaires assessing demographics and psychosocial determinants (knowledge, attitudes, perceived social norms, and self-efficacy) of sexual behaviors. Sixty-two adolescent and caregiver dyads participated. Caregivers included biological parents, legal guardians, or other parental figures. Strengths and areas in need of improvement were determined using median splits. Few adolescents had initiated sex. Their strengths included high levels of open parent-teen communication; positive attitudes and normative beliefs regarding both sex communication and healthy dating relationships; and high knowledge and self-efficacy for healthy dating behaviors. Areas needing improvement included low knowledge, unfavorable attitudes, poor normative beliefs, and low self-efficacy regarding condom use. Caregiver strengths included positive attitudes, normative beliefs, and self-efficacy for sex communication; positive attitudes and self-efficacy for condom use; and low acceptance of couple violence. Areas needing improvement included low levels of actual communication about sex and low knowledge about effective communication strategies and condom use. The current study highlights the value of assessing baseline characteristics of LHAs prior to intervention

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL BASELINE SURVEY REPORT FOR WEST BLACK OAK RIDGE, EAST BLACK OAK RIDGE, MCKINNEY RIDGE, WEST PINE RIDGE, AND PARCEL 21D IN THE VICINITY OF THE EAST TENNESSEE TECHNOLOGY PARK, OAK RIDGE, TENNESSEE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. King

    2012-11-29

    This environmental baseline survey (EBS) report documents the baseline environmental conditions of five land parcels located near the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), including West Black Oak Ridge, East Black Oak Ridge, McKinney Ridge, West Pine Ridge, and Parcel 21d. The goal is to obtain all media no-further-investigation (NFI) determinations for the subject parcels considering existing soils. To augment the existing soils-only NFI determinations, samples of groundwater, surface water, soil, and sediment were collected to support all media NFI decisions. The only updates presented here are those that were made after the original issuance of the NFI documents. In the subject parcel where the soils NFI determination was not completed for approval (Parcel 21d), the full process has been performed to address the soils as well. Preparation of this report included the detailed search of federal government records, title documents, aerial photos that may reflect prior uses, and visual inspections of the property and adjacent properties. Interviews with current employees involved in, or familiar with, operations on the real property were also conducted to identify any areas on the property where hazardous substances and petroleum products, or their derivatives, and acutely hazardous wastes may have been released or disposed. In addition, a search was made of reasonably obtainable federal, state, and local government records of each adjacent facility where there has been a release of any hazardous substance or any petroleum product or their derivatives, including aviation fuel and motor oil, and which is likely to cause or contribute to a release of any hazardous substance or any petroleum product or its derivatives, including aviation fuel or motor oil, on the real property. A radiological survey and soil/sediment sampling was conducted to assess baseline conditions of Parcel 21d that were not addressed by the soils-only NFI

  11. The FAA Health Awareness Program: Results of the 1998 Customer Service Assessment Survey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hilton, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    This report presents the results of an agency-wide survey of employee health and wellness to determine workforce involvement in and satisfaction with the Federal Aviation Administration's Health Awareness Program (HAP...

  12. National Pregnancy and Health Survey: Drug Use Among Women Delivering Live Births (NPHS-1992)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The primary objective of the National Pregnancy and Health Survey (NPHS) was to produce national annual estimates of the percentages and numbers of mothers of live...

  13. Measuring population health: costs of alternative survey approaches in the Nouna Health and Demographic Surveillance System in rural Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrike Lietz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are more than 40 Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS sites in 19 different countries. The running costs of HDSS sites are high. The financing of HDSS activities is of major importance, and adding external health surveys to the HDSS is challenging. To investigate the ways of improving data quality and collection efficiency in the Nouna HDSS in Burkina Faso, the stand-alone data collection activities of the HDSS and the Household Morbidity Survey (HMS were integrated, and the paper-based questionnaires were consolidated into a single tablet-based questionnaire, the Comprehensive Disease Assessment (CDA. Objective: The aims of this study are to estimate and compare the implementation costs of the two different survey approaches for measuring population health. Design: All financial costs of stand-alone (HDSS and HMS and integrated (CDA surveys were estimated from the perspective of the implementing agency. Fixed and variable costs of survey implementation and key cost drivers were identified. The costs per household visit were calculated for both survey approaches. Results: While fixed costs of survey implementation were similar for the two survey approaches, there were considerable variations in variable costs, resulting in an estimated annual cost saving of about US$45,000 under the integrated survey approach. This was primarily because the costs of data management for the tablet-based CDA survey were considerably lower than for the paper-based stand-alone surveys. The cost per household visit from the integrated survey approach was US$21 compared with US$25 from the stand-alone surveys for collecting the same amount of information from 10,000 HDSS households. Conclusions: The CDA tablet-based survey method appears to be feasible and efficient for collecting health and demographic data in the Nouna HDSS in rural Burkina Faso. The possibility of using the tablet-based data collection platform to improve the quality

  14. Measuring population health: costs of alternative survey approaches in the Nouna Health and Demographic Surveillance System in rural Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lietz, Henrike; Lingani, Moustapha; Sié, Ali; Sauerborn, Rainer; Souares, Aurelia; Tozan, Yesim

    2015-01-01

    There are more than 40 Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) sites in 19 different countries. The running costs of HDSS sites are high. The financing of HDSS activities is of major importance, and adding external health surveys to the HDSS is challenging. To investigate the ways of improving data quality and collection efficiency in the Nouna HDSS in Burkina Faso, the stand-alone data collection activities of the HDSS and the Household Morbidity Survey (HMS) were integrated, and the paper-based questionnaires were consolidated into a single tablet-based questionnaire, the Comprehensive Disease Assessment (CDA). The aims of this study are to estimate and compare the implementation costs of the two different survey approaches for measuring population health. All financial costs of stand-alone (HDSS and HMS) and integrated (CDA) surveys were estimated from the perspective of the implementing agency. Fixed and variable costs of survey implementation and key cost drivers were identified. The costs per household visit were calculated for both survey approaches. While fixed costs of survey implementation were similar for the two survey approaches, there were considerable variations in variable costs, resulting in an estimated annual cost saving of about US$45,000 under the integrated survey approach. This was primarily because the costs of data management for the tablet-based CDA survey were considerably lower than for the paper-based stand-alone surveys. The cost per household visit from the integrated survey approach was US$21 compared with US$25 from the stand-alone surveys for collecting the same amount of information from 10,000 HDSS households. The CDA tablet-based survey method appears to be feasible and efficient for collecting health and demographic data in the Nouna HDSS in rural Burkina Faso. The possibility of using the tablet-based data collection platform to improve the quality of population health data requires further exploration.

  15. Methodological Issues Surrounding the Use of Baseline Health-Related Quality of Life Data to Inform Trial-Based Economic Evaluations of Interventions Within Emergency and Critical Care Settings: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dritsaki, Melina; Achana, Felix; Mason, James; Petrou, Stavros

    2017-05-01

    Trial-based cost-utility analyses require health-related quality of life data that generate utility values in order to express health outcomes in terms of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Assessments of baseline health-related quality of life are problematic where trial participants are incapacitated or critically ill at the time of randomisation. This review aims to identify and critique methods for handling non-availability of baseline health-related quality of life data in trial-based cost-utility analyses within emergency and critical illness settings. A systematic literature review was conducted, following PRISMA guidelines, to identify trial-based cost-utility analyses of interventions within emergency and critical care settings. Databases searched included the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Journals Library (1991-July 2016), Cochrane Library (all years); National Health Service (NHS) Economic Evaluation Database (all years) and Ovid MEDLINE/Embase (without time restriction). Strategies employed to handle non-availability of baseline health-related quality of life data in final QALY estimations were identified and critiqued. A total of 4224 published reports were screened, 19 of which met the study inclusion criteria (mean trial size 1670): 14 (74 %) from the UK, four (21%) from other European countries and one (5%) from India. Twelve studies (63%) were based in emergency departments and seven (37%) in intensive care units. Only one study was able to elicit patient-reported health-related quality of life at baseline. To overcome the lack of baseline data when estimating QALYs, eight studies (42%) assigned a fixed utility weight corresponding to either death, an unconscious health state or a country-specific norm to patients at baseline, four (21%) ignored baseline utilities, three (16%) applied values from another study, one (5%) generated utility values via retrospective recall and one (5%) elicited utilities from experts. A preliminary

  16. Oral Health and Risk of Arthritis in the Scottish Population: Results from the Scottish Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadeel Mohammed Abbood

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the link between self-reported oral health and arthritis in the Scottish population using data from the Scottish Health Survey. Material and Methods: Data were available from 2008 to 2013 on self-reported arthritis, oral health conditions and oral hygiene habits from the Scottish Health Survey. Arthritis was defined in this survey by self-reported long standing illness, those who reported having arthritis, rheumatism and/or fibrositis. Oral conditions were defined by self-reported bleeding gums, toothache, biting difficulties and/or edentulousness. Oral hygiene habits were defined by self-reported brushing teeth and/or using dental floss on daily basis. Logistic regression was used for statistical analysis adjusted for age, gender, qualification, smoking and body mass index. Results: Prevalence of self-reported arthritis was 9.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 9.03 to 9.57. Those who reported having bleeding gums (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.63; 95% CI = 1.35 to 1.96, toothache (OR = 1.32; 95% CI = 1.16 to 1.5, biting difficulties (OR = 1.95; 95% CI = 1.62 to 2.34, and being edentulous (OR = 1.22; 95% CI = 1.08 to 1.37 had an increased risk of arthritis. Brushing teeth (OR = 1.25; 95% CI = 0.74 to 2.12, and using dental floss (OR = 1.11; 95% CI = 0.89 to 1.39 were not associated with arthritis. Conclusions: Self-reported oral conditions were associated with increased risk of self-reported arthritis. Oral hygiene habits were not associated with self-reported arthritis. Further investigation is required to assess the causal association between oral hygiene, oral disease and arthritis.

  17. Occupational exposures and 20-year incidence of COPD: the European Community Respiratory Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytras, Theodore; Kogevinas, Manolis; Kromhout, Hans; Carsin, Anne-Elie; Antó, Josep M; Bentouhami, Hayat; Weyler, Joost; Heinrich, Joachim; Nowak, Dennis; Urrutia, Isabel; Martinez-Moratalla, Jesús; Gullón, José Antonio; Pereira-Vega, Antonio; Raherison-Semjen, Chantal; Pin, Isabelle; Demoly, Pascal; Leynaert, Bénédicte; Villani, Simona; Gislason, Thorarinn; Svanes, Cecilie; Holm, Mathias; Forsberg, Bertil; Norbäck, Dan; Mehta, Amar J; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Benke, Geza; Jogi, Rain; Torén, Kjell; Sigsgaard, Torben; Schlünssen, Vivi; Olivieri, Mario; Blanc, Paul D; Vermeulen, Roel; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Jarvis, Deborah; Zock, Jan-Paul

    2018-03-24

    Occupational exposures have been associated with an increased risk of COPD. However, few studies have related objectively assessed occupational exposures to prospectively assessed incidence of COPD, using postbronchodilator lung function tests. Our objective was to examine the effect of occupational exposures on COPD incidence in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey. General population samples aged 20-44 were randomly selected in 1991-1993 and followed up 20 years later (2010-2012). Spirometry was performed at baseline and at follow-up, with incident COPD defined using a lower limit of normal criterion for postbronchodilator FEV1/FVC. Only participants without COPD and without current asthma at baseline were included. Coded job histories during follow-up were linked to a Job-Exposure Matrix, generating occupational exposure estimates to 12 categories of agents. Their association with COPD incidence was examined in log-binomial models fitted in a Bayesian framework. 3343 participants fulfilled the inclusion criteria; 89 of them had COPD at follow-up (1.4 cases/1000 person-years). Participants exposed to biological dust had a higher incidence of COPD compared with those unexposed (relative risk (RR) 1.6, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.3), as did those exposed to gases and fumes (RR 1.5, 95% CI 1.0 to 2.2) and pesticides (RR 2.2, 95% CI 1.1 to 3.8). The combined population attributable fraction for these exposures was 21.0%. These results substantially strengthen the evidence base for occupational exposures as an important risk factor for COPD. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Towards Development of OER Derived Custom-Built Open Textbooks: A Baseline Survey of University Teachers at the University of the South Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Prasad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Textbook prices have soared over the years, with several studies revealing many university students are finding it difficult to afford textbooks. Fortunately, two innovations – open educational resources (OER and open textbooks – hold the potential to increase textbook affordability. Experts, though, have stated the obvious: that students can save money through open textbooks only if teachers are willing to develop and use them. Considering both the high price of textbooks and the benefits offered by OER and open textbooks, the aim of this study was to assess the University of the South Pacific (USP teachers’ willingness towards development of custom-built OER derived open textbooks for their courses with a focus on providing a foundation for strategies to promote open textbook development at USP. This paper reports the findings of an online survey of 39 USP teachers. The results show that 17 teachers were willing to develop OER derived custom-built open textbooks for their courses. Besides this, there are findings relating to six important areas: teachers’ motivation to develop open textbooks; the frequency of more than one prescribed textbook per course; teachers’ awareness of the costs of the prescribed textbooks; the average cost of prescribed textbooks in a course; teachers’ awareness and utilization of OER and open textbooks; and teachers’ perceived barriers to using OER and types of challenges they encounter while using OER. These findings have been discussed in relation to research studies on OER and open textbooks.

  19. Self-rated health in Pakistan: results of a national health survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Tazeen H

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-rated health (SRH is a robust predictor of mortality. In UK, migrants of South Asian descent, compared to native Caucasian populations, have substantially poorer SRH. Despite its validation among migrant South Asian populations and its popularity in developed countries as a useful public health tool, the SRH scale has not been used at a population level in countries in South Asia. We determined the prevalence of and risk factors for poor/fair SRH among individuals aged ≥15 years in Pakistan (n = 9442. Methods The National Health Survey of Pakistan was a cross-sectional population-based survey, conducted between 1990 and 1994, of 18 135 individuals aged 6 months and above; 9442 of them were aged ≥15 years. Our main outcome was SRH which was assessed using the question: "Would you say your health in general is excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor?" SRH was dichotomized into poor/fair, and good (excellent, very good, or good. Results Overall 65.1% respondents – 51.3 % men vs. 77.2 % women – rated their health as poor/fair. We found a significant interaction between sex and age (p Conclusion This is the first study reporting on poor/fair SRH at a population-level in a South Asian country. The prevalence of poor/fair health in Pakistan, especially amongst women, is one of the worst ever reported, warranting immediate attention. Further research is needed to explain why women in Pakistan have, at all ages, poorer SRH than men.

  20. The effectiveness of an intervention in increasing community health clinician provision of preventive care: a study protocol of a non-randomised, multiple-baseline trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McElwaine Kathleen M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The primary behavioural risks for the most common causes of mortality and morbidity in developed countries are tobacco smoking, poor nutrition, risky alcohol use, and physical inactivity. Evidence, guidelines and policies support routine clinician delivery of care to prevent these risks within primary care settings. Despite the potential afforded by community health services for the delivery of such preventive care, the limited evidence available suggests it is provided at suboptimal levels. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of a multi-strategic practice change intervention in increasing clinician's routine provision of preventive care across a network of community health services. Methods/Design A multiple baseline study will be conducted involving all 56 community health facilities in a single health district in New South Wales, Australia. The facilities will be allocated to one of three administratively-defined groups. A 12 month practice change intervention will be implemented in all facilities in each group to facilitate clinician risk assessment of eligible clients, and clinician provision of brief advice and referral to those identified as being 'at risk'. The intervention will be implemented in a non-random sequence across the three facility groups. Repeated, cross-sectional measurement of clinician provision of preventive care for four individual risks (smoking, poor nutrition, risky alcohol use, and physical inactivity will occur continuously for all three facility groups for 54 months via telephone interviews. The interviews will be conducted with randomly selected clients who have visited a community health facility in the last two weeks. Data collection will commence 12 months prior to the implementation of the intervention in the first group, and continue for six months following the completion of the intervention in the last group. As a secondary source of data, telephone interviews will be undertaken

  1. Mental Health Status of Double Minority Adolescents: Findings from National Cross-Sectional Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Szu-Ying; Fleming, Theresa; Lucassen, Mathijs; Fenaughty, John; Clark, Terryann; Denny, Simon

    2017-06-01

    Little population-based work has been published about the mental health of adolescents with both sexual/gender (SG) and ethnic minority (i.e. double minority) status. This study aimed to provide an overview on their mental health. Analysis of data from a total of 17,607 high school students from New Zealand's 2007 and 2012 cross-sectional nationally representative Adolescent Health Surveys, including a total of 1306 (7.4%) SG minority participants, of whom 581 (3.3%) were also an ethnic minority. SG minority status, minority ethnicity, and female sex were associated with higher mental distress and poorer well-being. Generally speaking, double minority students reported poorer mental health than SG majority students of the same ethnicity, but reported better mental health than SG minority New Zealand European students. Explanations and future directions for research were suggested to further explore how double minority students negotiate mental health in the context of their communities/cultures in New Zealand.

  2. Burnout, role conflict, job satisfaction and psychosocial health among Hungarian health care staff: a questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piko, Bettina F

    2006-03-01

    There is a growing interest in the psychosocial work environment of health care staff since they are at high risk for burnout, role conflict and job dissatisfaction. Burnout, as a type of prolonged response to chronic job-related stressors, has a special significance in health care where staff experience both psychological-emotional and physical stress. Burnout and the other negative aspects of the job of health care staff have major behavioural and health implications. The present study investigated the interrelationships among burnout, role conflict and job satisfaction in a sample of Hungarian health care staff. The study also investigated how these indicators of psychosocial work climate influence respondents' frequency of psychosomatic symptoms. A questionnaire survey (anonymous questionnaires) has been carried out to detect these interrelationships. Two major hospitals in Szeged, Hungary. Questionnaires were distributed to 450 health care staff among whom 55.7% were registered nurses. All together, 201 questionnaires were returned and analyzed, giving a response rate of 44.6%. Questionnaire contained items on work and health-related information (i.e., burnout, job satisfaction, role conflict, and psychosomatic symptoms) and on some basic sociodemographics. Beyond descriptive statistics, correlation and multiple regression analyses were computed. Findings show that emotional exhaustion and depersonalization scores were higher, while scores on personal accomplishment was lower as compared to Canadian, Norwegian or US samples. Burnout, particularly emotional exhaustion (pjob dissatisfaction. Schooling was inversely related to satisfaction with the job (pjob satisfaction was a negative predictor of each type of burnout subscale (pimportance of the role of psychosocial work environment and the interrelationships among burnout, role conflict, job satisfaction and psychosomatic health among Hungarian health care staff.

  3. Economic hardships in adulthood and mental health in Sweden. the Swedish National Public Health Survey 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahnquist Johanna

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Possible accumulative effects of a combined economic hardship's measure, including both income and non-income related economic hardships measures, on mental health has not been well investigated. The aim of this paper was to investigate; (i independent associations between multiple measures of economic hardships and mental health problems, and (ii associations between a combined economic hardships measure and mental health problems. Methods We analysed data from the 2009 Swedish National Survey of Public Health comprising a randomly selected representative national sample combined with a randomly selected supplementary sample from four county councils and three municipalities consisting of 23,153 men and 28,261 women aged 16-84 years. Mental health problems included; psychological distress (GHQ-12, severe anxiety and use of antidepressant medication. Economic hardship was measured by a combined economic hardships measure including low household income, inability to meet expenses and lacking cash reserves. Results The results from multivariate adjusted (age, country of birth, educational level, occupational status, employment status, family status and long term illness logistic regression analysis indicate that self-reported current economic difficulties (inability to pay for ordinary bills and lack of cash reserves, were significantly associated with both women's and men's mental health problems (all indicators, while low income was not. In addition, we found a statistically significant graded association between mental health problems and levels of economic hardships. Conclusions The findings indicate that indicators of self-reported current economic difficulties seem to be more strongly associated with poor mental health outcomes than the more conventional measure low income. Furthermore, the likelihood of mental health problems differed significantly in a graded fashion in relation to levels of economic hardships.

  4. A survey of the governance capacity of national public health associations to enhance population health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Chauvin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background National public health associations (PHAs are key partners with governments and communities to improve, protect and promote the public’s health. Governance and organizational capacity are among the key determinants of a PHA’s effectiveness as an advocate for appropriate public health policies and practice. Methods During 2014, the World Federation of Public Health Associations (WFPHA conducted an on-line survey of its 82 PHA members, to identify the state of organizational governance of national public health associations, as well as the factors that influence optimal organizational governance. The survey consisted of 13 questions and focused on the main elements of organizational governance: cultivating accountability; engaging stakeholders; setting shared direction; stewarding resources; and, continuous governance enhancement. Four questions included a qualitative open-ended response for additional comments. The survey data were analyzed using Microsoft Excel. The qualitative data was analyzed using thematic content analysis Results Responses were received from 62 PHAs, constituting a 75.6 % response rate. The two most important factors that support governance effectiveness were a high degree of integrity and ethical behavior of the PHA’s leaders (77 % and the competence of people serving on the PHA’s governing body (76 %. The lack of financial resources was considered as the most important factor that negatively affected organizational governance effectiveness (73 %. The lack of mentoring for future PHA leaders; ineffective or incompetent leadership; lack of understanding about good governance practices; and lack of accurate information for strategic planning were identified as factors influencing PHA governance effectiveness. Critical elements for PHA sustainability included diversity, gender-responsiveness and inclusive governance practices, and strategies to build the future generation of public health

  5. A survey of the governance capacity of national public health associations to enhance population health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvin, James; Shukla, Mahesh; Rice, James; Rispel, Laetitia

    2016-03-11

    National public health associations (PHAs) are key partners with governments and communities to improve, protect and promote the public's health. Governance and organizational capacity are among the key determinants of a PHA's effectiveness as an advocate for appropriate public health policies and practice. During 2014, the World Federation of Public Health Associations (WFPHA) conducted an on-line survey of its 82 PHA members, to identify the state of organizational governance of national public health associations, as well as the factors that influence optimal organizational governance. The survey consisted of 13 questions and focused on the main elements of organizational governance: cultivating accountability; engaging stakeholders; setting shared direction; stewarding resources; and, continuous governance enhancement. Four questions included a qualitative open-ended response for additional comments. The survey data were analyzed using Microsoft Excel. The qualitative data was analyzed using thematic content analysis Responses were received from 62 PHAs, constituting a 75.6 % response rate. The two most important factors that support governance effectiveness were a high degree of integrity and ethical behavior of the PHA's leaders (77 %) and the competence of people serving on the PHA's governing body (76 %). The lack of financial resources was considered as the most important factor that negatively affected organizational governance effectiveness (73 %). The lack of mentoring for future PHA leaders; ineffective or incompetent leadership; lack of understanding about good governance practices; and lack of accurate information for strategic planning were identified as factors influencing PHA governance effectiveness. Critical elements for PHA sustainability included diversity, gender-responsiveness and inclusive governance practices, and strategies to build the future generation of public health leaders. National PHA have a responsibility to put into place

  6. Baseline comparison of three health utility measures and the feeling thermometer among participants in the action to control cardiovascular risk in diabetes trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raisch Dennis W

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health utility (HU measures are used as overall measures of quality of life and to determine quality adjusted life years (QALYs in economic analyses. We compared baseline values of three HUs including Short Form 6 Dimensions (SF-6D, and Health Utilities Index, Mark II and Mark III (HUI2 and HUI3 and the feeling thermometer (FT among type 2 diabetes participants in the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD trial. We assessed relationships between HU and FT values and patient demographics and clinical variables. Methods ACCORD was a randomized clinical trial to test if intensive controls of glucose, blood pressure and lipids can reduce the risk of major cardiovascular disease (CVD events in type 2 diabetes patients with high risk of CVD. The health-related quality of life (HRQOL sub-study includes 2,053 randomly selected participants. Interclass correlations (ICCs and agreement between measures by quartile were used to evaluate relationships between HU’s and the FT. Multivariable regression models specified relationships between patient variables and each HU and the FT. Results The ICCs were 0.245 for FT/SF-6D, 0.313 for HUI3/SF-6D, 0.437 for HUI2/SF-6D, 0.338 for FT/HUI2, 0.337 for FT/HUI3 and 0.751 for HUI2/HUI3 (P P P  Conclusions The agreements between the different HUs were poor except for the two HUI measures; therefore HU values derived different measures may not be comparable. The FT had low agreement with HUs. The relationships between HUs and demographic and clinical measures demonstrate how severity of diabetes and other clinical and demographic factors are associated with HUs and FT measures. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00000620

  7. Good Health Is Not the Same as a Good Life: Survey Results from Brandon, Manitoba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalos, Alex C.; Ramsey, Douglas; Eberts, Derrek; Kahlke, P. Maurine

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to obtain some baseline self-reported data on the health status and overall quality of life of a sample of residents of the city of Brandon, Manitoba aged 18 years or older, and to measure the impact of a set of designated health determinants, comparison standards and satisfaction with diverse domains of life on…

  8. A 6-year Follow-up survey of health status in middle-aged women with Turner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjermestad, Krister W; Naess, Eva E; Bahr, David; Gravholt, Claus H

    2016-09-01

    Studies suggest younger women with Turner syndrome (TS) have good quality of life. Less is known about everyday functioning in adults with TS. In a 6-year follow-up study, multiple areas of functioning were compared between TS women and controls. Women with TS and controls were mailed a self-report survey 6 years after a baseline study. Fifty-seven women with TS (M age 40·6 ± 11·1 years) and 101 controls (M age 38·8 ± 10·6 years, ns) responded. Measures of background information, experienced life strain and presence/impact of health conditions were developed for this study. The QPS Nordic measured perceived workload challenges. The LiSat-9 measured life satisfaction. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale measured self-esteem. More TS women lived alone, fewer had biological children, and more had adoptive children. TS women reported fewer sex partners and less sexual confidence. Controls had higher education. There was no difference in employment status. More TS women received disability pensions. TS women reported their work as more physically challenging, less positively challenging and requiring less knowledge skills. TS women experienced more life strain in school, adolescence and late working life. Controls reported higher overall life satisfaction, with no difference between samples on specific domains. TS women reported lower self-esteem. For TS women only, physical health at baseline predicted length of education and mental health at baseline predicted self-esteem. Women with TS face more challenges than controls on several domains of functioning. Early physical and mental health may influence later educational achievement and self-esteem for women with TS. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. 2009 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Highlights. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of National Drug Control Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) is the primary source of information on the prevalence, patterns, and consequences of substance abuse among people age 12 and older. The survey is conducted every year by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). The 2009 NSDUH, released September 16, 2010, shows…

  10. Mental Health and Firearms in Community-Based Surveys: Implications for Suicide Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Susan B.; Vittes, Katherine A.

    2008-01-01

    Suicide rates are higher among those who own or live in a household with a hand gun. This article examines the association between hand gun ownership and mental health, another risk factor for suicide. Data from the General Social Survey, a series of surveys of U.S. adults, are analyzed to compare general emotional and mental health, sadness and…

  11. Social inequalities in health behaviors among Brazilian adults: National Health Survey, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azevedo Barros, Marilisa Berti; Lima, Margareth Guimarães; Medina, Lhais de Paula Barbosa; Szwarcwald, Celia Landman; Malta, Deborah Carvalho

    2016-11-17

    Considering the high socioeconomic inequalities prevailing in Brazil and lifestyle as a strong determinant of morbidity and premature mortality, our purpose was to evaluate the degree of socioeconomic disparities in the prevalence of health behaviors among Brazilian adult population using data from the 2013 Brazilian National Health Survey. Based on a sample of 49,025 individuals aged 20 to 59 years, we estimated the prevalence of several health behaviors and a score of unhealthy behaviors according to gender, education, race/color and possession of private health insurance. The prevalence ratios adjusted by age and gender were estimated by means of multiple Poisson regression and the analyses took into account the sampling design. Significant social inequalities were identified in the Brazilian adults. Higher prevalence of current smoking, leisure-time physical inactivity, sedentary lifestyle, whole milk consumption and low ingestion of greens, vegetables, and fruits were observed among the less educated, in the non-white population, and among those without private health insurance. Higher prevalence of heavy episodic drinking was found in the non-white population, but no difference in the consumption of fatty meat was found according to skin color. Score of unhealthy behavior higher than 6 was more frequent in lower educational strata (PR = 3.74) in the non-white population (PR = 1.39) and among those without private health insurance (PR = 1.78). Compared to women, men had higher prevalence rates of smoking, hazardous alcohol consumption, and fatty meat consumption and lower consumption of greens, vegetables and fruits. The results of the study emphasize the importance of monitoring social inequalities in health as part of national health policies and the urgent need to prioritize actions to promote healthy behaviors, especially among the most socially vulnerable segments of society.

  12. A survey of self-reported oral health practices, behaviour and oral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To assess the self-reported oral health practices, behaviour and oral health status of pregnant women attending traditional birth attendant (TBA) clinics in a rural community. Methods: A cross sectional survey of the oral health practices and oral health status of sixty-two pregnant women attending traditional birth ...

  13. How do government health departments in Australia access health economics advice to inform decisions for health? A survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Lynne; King, Lesley; Shiell, Alan

    2009-04-09

    Government anticipates that health economic analysis will contribute to evidence-based policy development. Early examples in Australia where this expectation has been met include the economic evaluations of breast and cervical screening. However, the level of integration of health economics within health services that require this advice appears uneven. We sought to describe how government health departments in Australia use specialist health economic advice to inform policy and planning and the mechanisms through which they access this advice. Information describing the arrangements for gaining health economics input into health decision-making was sought through interviews with a purposeful sample of economists and non-economists employed by all departments of health in Australia (state, territories and national). The survey was undertaken in August 2004. To aid interpretation of the results eight health economic functions were identified. As a comparison, four other government departments in NSW provided information about their access to economic advice. All health departments except one reported being current users of health economics expertise. A variety of arrangements were described to source this, from building organisational capacity with self-sufficient in-house units to forging links with external sources. However, specialist positions for economists or health economists employed within health were few. A framework mapping these arrangements for sourcing advice with the eight common health economic functions to be met is presented. All other non-health government departments approached accessed economic advice, with three having in-house units. A small health economics capacity in Australia has been established over the past 30 years through a variety of structural and strategic mechanisms. Health departments value health economic advice and use a variety of arrangements to obtain this. These arrangements have strengths and weaknesses depending upon the

  14. Using Smartphones and Health Apps to Change and Manage Health Behaviors: A Population-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernsting, Clemens; Dombrowski, Stephan U; Oedekoven, Monika; O Sullivan, Julie L; Kanzler, Melanie; Kuhlmey, Adelheid; Gellert, Paul

    2017-04-05

    Chronic conditions are an increasing challenge for individuals and the health care system. Smartphones and health apps are potentially promising tools to change health-related behaviors and manage chronic conditions. The aim of this study was to explore (1) the extent of smartphone and health app use, (2) sociodemographic, medical, and behavioral correlates of smartphone and health app use, and (3) associations of the use of apps and app characteristics with actual health behaviors. A population-based survey (N=4144) among Germans, aged 35 years and older, was conducted. Sociodemographics, presence of chronic conditions, health behaviors, quality of life, and health literacy, as well as the use of the Internet, smartphone, and health apps were assessed by questionnaire at home visit. Binary logistic regression models were applied. It was found that 61.25% (2538/4144) of participants used a smartphone. Compared with nonusers, smartphone users were younger, did more research on the Internet, were more likely to work full-time and more likely to have a university degree, engaged more in physical activity, and less in low fat diet, and had a higher health-related quality of life and health literacy. Among smartphone users, 20.53% (521/2538) used health apps. App users were younger, less likely to be native German speakers, did more research on the Internet, were more likely to report chronic conditions, engaged more in physical activity, and low fat diet, and were more health literate compared with nonusers who had a smartphone. Health apps focused on smoking cessation (232/521, 44.5%), healthy diet (201/521, 38.6%), and weight loss (121/521, 23.2%). The most common app characteristics were planning (264/521, 50.7%), reminding (188/521, 36.1%), prompting motivation (179/521 34.4%), and the provision of information (175/521, 33.6%). Significant associations were found between planning and the health behavior physical activity, between feedback or monitoring and physical

  15. [Organizational well-being in public health. Climate survey in a Piedmont public health organization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnelli, Ileana; Saglietti, Daniele; Zotti, Anna Maria

    2010-01-01

    More and more Italian and European directives refers to organizational health promotion in work placements. As a matter of fact, organization well-being implies important benefits for individuals and improves business efficiency/efficacy. Improving factors involve listening tools aimed to analyze critical situations and needs, focus on working teams and communication development. In this respect, in a public health organization in Piedmont a research was devised for planning interventions of organizational health promotion and improvement, relying on climate analysis. The research process was supported by General Direction and involved the head of physicians and the departments CPSE (Coordinatore Professionale Sanitario Esperto: Professional Health Coordinator). The survey was carried out on the organizational population, focusing on teambuilding, which is the core of daily work life. Team Climate Inventory Questionnaire (TCI) was employed and administered on-line. Beyond the 5 original factorial scales, 6 item groups related to the individuals feeling in working team and consistent with the research interests were identified. 75.42% (n=1264) of employees answered the provided questionnaire. The data highlighted average scores--expressing organizational climate--over other public health organization data. The subjects also showed a good organizational climate perception. Elderly workers appeared more satisfied than the young ones. Furthermore, higher educated subjects took more advantage of technical and organizational supports.

  16. [Socioeconomic differentials in health and health related behaviors: findings from the Korea Youth Panel Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khang, Young-Ho; Cho, Sung-Il; Yang, Seungmi; Lee, Moo-Song

    2005-11-01

    This study examined the socioeconomic differentials for the health and health related behaviors among South Korean middle school students. A nationwide cross-sectional interview survey of 3,449 middle school second-grade students and their parents was conducted using a stratified multi-stage cluster sampling method. The response rate was 93.3%. The socioeconomic position indicators were based on self-reported information from the students and their parents: parental education, father's occupational class, monthly family income, out-of-pocket expenditure for education, housing ownership, educational expectations, educational performance and the perceived economic hardships. The outcome variables that were measured were also based on the self-reported information from the students. The health measures included self-rated health conditions, psychological or mental problems, the feelings of loneliness at school, the overall satisfaction of life and the perceived level of stress. The health related behaviors included were smoking, alcohol drinking, sexual intercourse, violence, bullying and verbal and physical abuse by parents. Socioeconomic differences for the health and health related behaviors were found among the eighth grade boys and girls of South Korea. However, the pattern varied with gender, the socioeconomic position indicators and the outcome measures. The prevalence rates of the overall dissatisfaction with life for both genders differed according to most of the eight socioeconomic position indicators. All the health measures were significantly different according to the perceived economic hardship. However, the socioeconomic differences in the self-rated health conditions and the psychosocial or mental problems were not clear. The students having higher socioeconomic position tended to be a perpetrator of bullying while those students with lower socioeconomic position were more likely to be a victim. The perceived economic hardships predicted the health

  17. Dyslipidemia prevalence, treatment, control, and awareness in the Canadian Health Measures Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffres, Michel; Shields, Margot; Tremblay, Mark S; Connor Gorber, Sarah

    2013-04-24

    The most recent Canadian population-level data on lipid levels are from 1992. This study presents current estimates of Canadians with dyslipidemia, the proportion aware of their condition, and the proportion being treated and below target values. The Canadian Health Measures Survey (2007-2009) assessed the prevalence, awareness and treatment of dyslipidemia. Dyslipidemia was defined as TC/HDL-C ratio ≥5; measured LDL-C ≥3.5 mmol/L; or taking lipid-modifying medications. The 2009 guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of dyslipidemia were used to define low, moderate or high cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and treatment initiation and targets. Forty-five percent of Canadians aged 18-79 years have dyslipidemia. Fifty-seven percent of respondents were not aware of their condition. Lipid-modifying therapy was initiated in individuals where treatment would be recommended in 49%, 20% and 54% of those at high, moderate, and low risk levels, respectively. The majority (81%) of those taking medication had their lipid levels under desirable levels, however, only 24% of those with dyslipidemia reported medication use. Overall, only 19% of those with dyslipidemia had their lipids under recommended levels. Only 41% of those taking lipid-modifying medication reached a recommended target of LDL-C dyslipidemia, who are not being treated to recommended levels. These data need to be integrated into CVD reduction recommendations and represent an important baseline for assessing progress.

  18. World Health Organization approaches for surveys of health behaviour among schoolchildren and for health-promoting schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkala, Sisko

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents make up about one-sixth of the world's population. Most of the healthy and detrimental habits are adopted during childhood and adolescence. In the mid 1980s, a cross-national Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) survey was created to increase information about the well-being, health behaviours and social context of young people by using standard school-based questionnaires adopted by the World Health Organization (WHO) European office. The European Network of Health-Promoting Schools (HPS) was commenced in 1992, followed by the establishment of the WHO Global School Health Initiative in 1995. The initiative aims to improve the health of students, school personnel, families and other members of the community through schools by mobilizing and strengthening health promotion and educational activities at local, national, regional and global levels. The HBSC and HPS programmes have been accepted as activity areas for the WHO Collaborating Centre for Primary Oral Health Care in Kuwait. This article describes the HBSC and the HPS programmes and discusses the importance of establishing these programmes in Kuwait. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Are patient surveys valuable as a service-improvement tool in health services? An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patwardhan A

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Anjali Patwardhan,1 Charles H Spencer21Nationwide Children’s Hospital Columbus, 2Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USAAbstract: Improving the quality of care in international health services was made a high priority in 1977. The World Health Assembly passed a resolution to greatly improve “Health for all” by the year 2000. Since 1977, the use of patient surveys for quality improvement has become a common practice in the health-care industry. The use of surveys reflects the concept that patient satisfaction is closely linked with that of organizational performance, which is in turn closely linked with organizational culture. This article is a review of the role of patient surveys as a quality-improvement tool in health care. The article explores the characteristics, types, merits, and pitfalls of various patient surveys, as well as the impact of their wide-ranging application in dissimilar scenarios to identify gaps in service provision. It is demonstrated that the conducting of patient surveys and using the results to improve the quality of care are two different processes. The value of patient surveys depends on the interplay between these two processes and several other factors that can influence the final outcome. The article also discusses the business aspect of the patient surveys in detail. Finally, the authors make future recommendations on how the patient survey tool can be best used to improve the quality of care in the health-care sector.Keywords: patient surveys, quality improvement, service gaps 

  20. Health and management improvements of family poultry production in Africa - Survey results from Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Njue, S.W.; Kasiiti, J.L.; Macharia, M.J.; Gacheru, S.G.; Mbugua, H.C.W.

    2002-01-01

    In Kenya the poultry population is about 25 million, 80% of which comprises local chicken and the rest, improved breeds. With the ever-increasing prices of red meat, local chicken has become the main source of animal protein in the form of meat and eggs for the rural population. Both egg production and egg size varies with season as the quantity and availability of feed varies. This paper describes work done during the wet season to identify constraints of family chicken production in the study area. The study was repeated on the same farms that were identified in work done earlier during the dry season. Data were gathered from 24 family poultry farms located in Kangundo and Kikuyu divisions. Through the Veterinary Officers and the Animal Health Assistants who assisted in the dry season fieldwork the farmers were contacted a week before the intended f m visits. Baseline and disease survey forms were administered again. The baseline survey achieved 100% response rate. During the farm visits, serum samples, blood and faecal samples were collected. Post mortem examination was also done on sick birds. The flock size in the two ecological zones decreased during the wet season, most probably due to the Christmas festivities. The percentage deaths in Ecological Zone III (ECZIII) were high because most farmers in this zone set their chicken free thus predisposing them to predators, disease and harsh weather conditions. Disease control information was scanty as most farmers were not keen about it. Worm infestation was not as prevalent in the wet season as compared to the dry season. Except for three farms, all the other twenty-one farms had been exposed to Salmonellosis at one time or another. Women were involved in aspects of poultry management, while the men were significantly involved in shelter construction. The local birds were free-range feeding on green grass, leafy vegetables and insects. Occasionally, the birds were supplemented with crushed maize grains or

  1. Self-reported health assessments in the 2002 World Health Survey : how do they correlate with education?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subramanian, S.V.; Huijts, T.; Avendano, M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess the value of self-rated health assessments by examining the association between education and self-rated poor health. Methods We used the globally representative population-based sample from the 2002 World Health Survey, composed of 219 713 men and women aged 25 and over in 69

  2. Self-reported health assessments in the 2002 World Health Survey: how do they correlate with education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subramanian, S.V.; Huijts, T.H.M.; Avendano, M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess the value of self-rated health assessments by examining the association between education and self-rated poor health. Methods We used the globally representative population-based sample from the 2002 World Health Survey, composed of 219 713 men and women aged 25 and over in 69

  3. Does mentoring matter: results from a survey of faculty mentees at a large health sciences university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell D. Feldman

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: To determine the characteristics associated with having a mentor, the association of mentoring with self-efficacy, and the content of mentor–mentee interactions at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF, we conducted a baseline assessment prior to implementing a comprehensive faculty mentoring program. Method: We surveyed all prospective junior faculty mentees at UCSF. Mentees completed a web-based, 38-item survey including an assessment of self-efficacy and a needs assessment. We used descriptive and inferential statistics to determine the association between having a mentor and gender, ethnicity, faculty series, and self-efficacy. Results: Our respondents (n=464, 56% were 53% female, 62% white, and 7% from underrepresented minority groups. More than half of respondents (n=319 reported having a mentor. There were no differences in having a mentor based on gender or ethnicity (p≥0.05. Clinician educator faculty with more teaching and patient care responsibilities were statistically significantly less likely to have a mentor compared with faculty in research intensive series (p<0.001. Having a mentor was associated with greater satisfaction with time allocation at work (p<0.05 and with higher academic self-efficacy scores, 6.07 (sd = 1.36 compared with those without a mentor, 5.33 (sd = 1.35, p<0.001. Mentees reported that they most often discussed funding with the mentors, but rated highest requiring mentoring assistance with issues of promotion and tenure. Conclusion: Findings from the UCSF faculty mentoring program may assist other health science institutions plan similar programs. Mentoring needs for junior faculty with greater teaching and patient care responsibilities must be addressed.

  4. Online Learning for Mobile Technology Applications in Health Surveys

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In light of the increased use of personal digital assistants (PDIs) in data collection and management, HealthBridge Foundation of Canada (HealthBridge) is developing online training for mobile technology applications in health research. Earlier support to HealthBridge (104618) allowed the foundation to acquire PDA skills ...

  5. Sample selection, recruitment and participation rates in health examination surveys in Europe--experience from seven national surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindell, Jennifer S; Giampaoli, Simona; Goesswald, Antje; Kamtsiuris, Panagiotis; Mann, Charlotte; Männistö, Satu; Morgan, Karen; Shelton, Nicola J; Verschuren, W M Monique; Tolonen, Hanna

    2015-10-05

    Health examination surveys (HESs), carried out in Europe since the 1950's, provide valuable information about the general population's health for health monitoring, policy making, and research. Survey participation rates, important for representativeness, have been falling. International comparisons are hampered by differing exclusion criteria and definitions for non-response. Information was collected about seven national HESs in Europe conducted in 2007-2012. These surveys can be classified into household and individual-based surveys, depending on the sampling frames used. Participation rates of randomly selected adult samples were calculated for four survey modules using standardised definitions and compared by sex, age-group, geographical areas within countries, and over time, where possible. All surveys covered residents not just citizens; three countries excluded those in institutions. In two surveys, physical examinations and blood sample collection were conducted at the participants' home; the others occurred at examination clinics. Recruitment processes varied considerably between surveys. Monetary incentives were used in four surveys. Initial participation rates aged 35-64 were 45% in the Netherlands (phase II), 54% in Germany (new and previous participants combined), 55% in Italy, and 65% in Finland. In Ireland, England and Scotland, household participation rates were 66%, 66% and 63% respectively. Participation rates were generally higher in women and increased with age. Almost all participants attending an examination centre agreed to all modules but surveys conducted in the participants' home had falling responses to each stage. Participation rates in most primate cities were substantially lower than the national average. Age-standardized response rates to blood pressure measurement among those aged 35-64 in Finland, Germany and England fell by 0.7-1.5 percentage points p.a. between 1998-2002 and 2010-2012. Longer trends in some countries show a more

  6. Childhood adversity and subsequent mental health status in adulthood: screening for associations using two linked surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, S B; Wilkes, T C R; Williams, J V A; Lavorato, D H; El-Guebaly, N; Wild, T C; Colman, I; Bulloch, A G M

    2016-04-01

    Accumulating evidence links childhood adversity to negative health outcomes in adulthood. However, most of the available evidence is retrospective and subject to recall bias. Published reports have sometimes focused on specific childhood exposures (e.g. abuse) and/or specific outcomes (e.g. major depression). Other studies have linked childhood adversity to a large and diverse number of adult risk factors and health outcomes such as cardiovascular disease. To advance this literature, we undertook a broad examination of data from two linked surveys. The goal was to avoid retrospective distortion and to provide a descriptive overview of patterns of association. A baseline interview for the Canadian National Longitudinal Study of Children and Youth collected information about childhood adversities affecting children aged 0-11 in 1994. The sampling procedures employed in a subsequent study called the National Population Health Survey (NPHS) made it possible to link n = 1977 of these respondents to follow-up data collected later when respondents were between the ages of 14 and 27. Outcomes included major depressive episodes (MDE), some risk factors and educational attainment. Cross-tabulations were used to examine these associations and adjusted estimates were made using the regression models. As the NPHS was a longitudinal study with multiple interviews, for most analyses generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used. As there were multiple exposures and outcomes, a statistical procedure to control the false discovery rate (Benjamini-Hochberg) was employed. Childhood adversities were consistently associated with a cluster of potentially related outcomes: MDE, psychotropic medication use and smoking. These outcomes may be related to one another since psychotropic medications are used in the treatment of major depression, and smoking is strongly associated with major depression. However, no consistent associations were observed for other outcomes examined: physical

  7. Oral Health Status and Behavior among Cancer Survivors in Korea Using Nationwide Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Mi Ah

    2017-01-01

    Cancer survivors remain at life-long risk of developing oral complications. This study investigated the oral health status and behavior among cancer survivors in comparison to subjects without a history of cancer using a nationwide survey. Cancer survivors and control subjects were selected from the sixth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2013–2015). Survivors reported chewing (34.8%) and speaking difficulties (15.3%) resulting from oral health problems. More than 36% o...

  8. Analysis of the baseline survey on the prevalence of Campylobacter in broiler batches and of Campylobacter and Salmonella on broiler carcasses in the EU, 2008, Part A: Campylobacter and Salmonella prevalence estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine

    A European Union-wide baseline survey on Campylobacter in broiler batches and on Campylobacter and Salmonella on broiler carcasses was carried out in 2008. A total of 10,132 broiler batches were sampled from 561 slaughterhouses in 26 European Union Member States and two countries not belonging......-contaminated broiler carcasses was 75.8%. The Member State prevalence varied from 2.0% to 100.0% and from 4.9% to 100.0%, for caecal contents and carcasses, respectively. The results of the counts of Campylobacter on broiler carcasses showed substantial variation among the countries in contamination levels. About two......-thirds of the Campylobacter isolates from the pooled caecal contents as well as from the broiler carcasses were identified as Campylobacter jejuni, while one-third was Campylobacter coli. Twenty-two Member States and one non-Member State isolated Salmonella on the broiler carcasses, with a Community prevalence of 15...

  9. Mental disorders among college students in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, R P; Alonso, J; Axinn, W G; Cuijpers, P; Ebert, D D; Green, J G; Hwang, I; Kessler, R C; Liu, H; Mortier, P; Nock, M K; Pinder-Amaker, S; Sampson, N A; Aguilar-Gaxiola, S; Al-Hamzawi, A; Andrade, L H; Benjet, C; Caldas-de-Almeida, J M; Demyttenaere, K; Florescu, S; de Girolamo, G; Gureje, O; Haro, J M; Karam, E G; Kiejna, A; Kovess-Masfety, V; Lee, S; McGrath, J J; O'Neill, S; Pennell, B-E; Scott, K; Ten Have, M; Torres, Y; Zaslavsky, A M; Zarkov, Z; Bruffaerts, R

    2016-10-01

    Although mental disorders are significant predictors of educational attainment throughout the entire educational career, most research on mental disorders among students has focused on the primary and secondary school years. The World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys were used to examine the associations of mental disorders with college entry and attrition by comparing college students (n = 1572) and non-students in the same age range (18-22 years; n = 4178), including non-students who recently left college without graduating (n = 702) based on surveys in 21 countries (four low/lower-middle income, five upper-middle-income, one lower-middle or upper-middle at the times of two different surveys, and 11 high income). Lifetime and 12-month prevalence and age-of-onset of DSM-IV anxiety, mood, behavioral and substance disorders were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). One-fifth (20.3%) of college students had 12-month DSM-IV/CIDI disorders; 83.1% of these cases had pre-matriculation onsets. Disorders with pre-matriculation onsets were more important than those with post-matriculation onsets in predicting subsequent college attrition, with substance disorders and, among women, major depression the most important such disorders. Only 16.4% of students with 12-month disorders received any 12-month healthcare treatment for their mental disorders. Mental disorders are common among college students, have onsets that mostly occur prior to college entry, in the case of pre-matriculation disorders are associated with college attrition, and are typically untreated. Detection and effective treatment of these disorders early in the college career might reduce attrition and improve educational and psychosocial functioning.

  10. A snapshot of U.S. physicians: key findings from the 2008 Health Tracking Physician Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukus, Ellyn; Cassil, Alwyn; O'Malley, Ann S

    2009-09-01

    This Data Bulletin presents findings from the Center for Studying Health System Change (HSC) 2008 Health Tracking Physician Survey, a nationally representative mail survey of U.S. physicians providing at least 20 hours per week of direct patient care. The sample of physicians was drawn from the American Medical Association master file and included active, nonfederal, office- and hospital-based physicians. Residents and fellows were excluded, as well as radiologists, anesthesiologists and pathologists. The survey includes responses from more than 4,700 physicians, and the response rate was 62 percent. Estimates from this survey should not be compared to estimates from HSC's previous Community Tracking Study (CTS) Physician Surveys because of changes in the survey administration mode from telephone to mail, question wording, skip patterns, sample structure and population represented. More detailed information on survey content and methodology can be found at www.hschange.org.

  11. Using Text Message Surveys to Evaluate a Mobile Sexual Health Question-and-Answer Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Jessica Fitts; L'Engle, Kelly Ladin; Jackson, Kennon; Brickman, Jared

    2018-01-01

    Text message programs for sexual health are becoming increasingly popular as practitioners aim to meet youth on media they use frequently. Two-way mobile health (mHealth) interventions allow for feedback solicitation from participants. This study explores the use of a text message survey to assess demographics and program feedback from users of an adolescent sexual health text message question-and-answer service. Development and feasibility of the short-message service survey are discussed. The text message survey achieved a 43.9% response rate, which is comparable to response rates of surveys conducted via other methods. When compared to respondents who used the service and completed an online in-school questionnaire, text survey respondents were more likely to be female and older. They also reported higher service satisfaction. Results have implications for text message service providers and researchers. This article examines a community application of a new intervention strategy and research methodology.

  12. Designing and conducting health surveys: a comprehensive guide

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aday, Lu Ann; Cornelius, Llewellyn Joseph

    2006-01-01

    ... and Carrying Out the Survey 311 14 Preparing the Data for Analysis 340 15 Planning and Implementing the Analysis of the Data 360 16 Writing the Research Report 391 Resource A: Personal Interview Sur...

  13. Sex Education, First Sex and Sexual Health Outcomes in Adulthood: Findings from a Nationally Representative Sexual Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Ashling; Boduszek, Daniel; Kelleher, Caroline; McBride, Orla; Morgan, Karen

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between school sex education and sexual health behaviours at first sex and later in adulthood, using nationally representative data. Respondents were adults from the 2010 Irish Contraception and Crisis Pregnancy Survey, a cross-sectional survey designed to assess knowledge, attitudes and behaviours relating…

  14. A Global Oral Health Survey of professional opinion using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougall, Alison; Molina, Gustavo F; Eschevins, Caroline; Faulks, Denise

    2015-06-01

    The concept of oral health is frequently reduced to the absence of disease, despite existing conceptual models exploring the wider determinants of oral health and quality of life. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) (WHO) is designed to qualify functional, social and environmental aspects of health. This survey aimed to reach a consensual description of adult oral health, derived from the ICF using international professional opinion. The Global Oral Health Survey involved a two-round, online survey concerning factors related to oral health including functioning, participation and social environment. Four hundred eighty-six oral health professionals from 74 countries registered online. Professionals were pooled into 18 groups of six WHO world regions and three professional groups. In a randomised stratification process, eight professionals from each pool (n=144) completed the survey. The first round consisted of eight open-ended questions. Open expression replies were analysed for meaningful concepts and linked using established rules to the ICF. In Round 2, items were rated for their relevance to oral health (88% response rate). Eighty-nine ICF items and 30 other factors were considered relevant by at least 80% of participants. International professionals reached consensus on a holistic description of oral health, which could be qualified and quantified using the ICF. These results represent the first step towards developing an ICF Core Set in Oral Health, which would provide a practical tool for reporting outcome measures in clinical practice, for research and epidemiology, and for the improvement of interdisciplinary communication regarding oral health. Professional consensus reached in this survey is the foundation stone for developing an ICF Core Set in Oral Health, allowing the holistic aspects of oral health to be qualified and quantified. This tool is necessary to widen our approach to clinical decision making

  15. Mode differences in a mixed-mode health interview survey among adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoebel, Jens; von der Lippe, Elena; Lange, Cornelia; Ziese, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Health interview surveys are important data sources for empirical research in public health. However, the diversity of methods applied, such as in the mode of data collection, make it difficult to compare results across surveys, time, or countries. The aim of this study was to explore whether the prevalence rates of health-related indicators amongst adults differ when self-administered paper mail questionnaires (SAQ-Paper), self-administered web surveys (SAQ-Web), and computer-assisted telephone interviews (CATI) are used for data collection in a health survey. Data were obtained from a population-based mixed-mode health interview survey of adults in Germany carried out within the 'German Health Update' (GEDA) study. Data were collected either by SAQ-Paper (n = 746), SAQ-Web (n = 414), or CATI (n = 411). Predictive margins from logistic regression models were used to estimate the prevalence rates of chronic conditions, subjective health, mental health, psychosocial factors, and health behaviours, adjusted for the socio-demographic characteristics of each mode group. Socio-demographic characteristics were found to differ significantly between study participants who responded by SAQ-Paper, SAQ-Web, and CATI. Crude prevalence rates for health-related indicators also showed significant variation across all three survey modes. After adjusting for socio-demographic factors though, significant differences in prevalence rates between the two self-administered modes (SAQ-Paper and SAQ-Web) were found in only 2 out of the 19 health-related indicators studied. The differences between CATI and the two self-administered modes remained significant however, especially for indicators of mental and psychosocial health and self-reported sporting activity. The findings of this study indicate that prevalence rates obtained from health interview surveys can vary with the mode of data collection, primarily between interviewer and self-administered modes. Hence, the type of

  16. An overview of human biomonitoring of environmental chemicals in the Canadian Health Measures Survey: 2007-2019.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Douglas A; Saravanabhavan, Gurusankar; Werry, Kate; Khoury, Cheryl

    2017-03-01

    Human biomonitoring (HBM) is used to indicate and quantify exposure by measuring environmental chemicals, their metabolites or reaction products in biological specimens. The biomonitoring component of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) is the most comprehensive initiative providing general population HBM data in Canada. The CHMS is an ongoing cross-sectional direct measures survey implemented in 2-year cycles. It provides nationally-representative data on health, nutritional status, environmental exposures, and related risks and protective characteristics. The survey follows a robust planning, design and sampling protocol as well as a comprehensive quality assurance and quality control regime implemented for all aspect of the survey to ensure the validity of the HBM results. HBM blood and urine data are available for CHMS cycles 1 (2007-2009), 2 (2009-2011) and 3 (2012-2013). Field collection has been completed for cycle 4 (2014-2015), with cycle 5 (2016-2017) in progress and cycle 6 planning (2018-2019) being finalized. Biomonitoring results for 279 chemicals are expected over the six cycles of the CHMS (220 in individual blood, urine or hair samples, and 59 in pooled serum samples). The chemicals include metals and trace elements, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorines, flame retardants, perfluoroalkyl substances, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and metabolites, environmental phenols, triclocarban, acrylamide, pesticides (e.g., triazines, carbamates, organophosphates, phenoxy, pyrethroids) and/or their metabolites, chlorophenols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolites, phthalates and alternate plasticizer metabolites, and tobacco biomarkers. Approximately one half of the chemicals measured in individual blood and urine samples over the first three cycles were detected in more than 60% of samples. CHMS biomonitoring data have been used to establish baseline HBM concentrations in Canadians; inform public health, regulatory risk

  17. Health literacy of Dutch adults: a cross sectional survey.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heide, I. van der; Rademakers, J.; Schipper, M.; Droomers, M.; Sorensen, K.; Uiters, E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Relatively little knowledge is available to date about health literacy among the general population in Europe. It is important to gain insights into health literacy competences among the general population, as this might contribute to more effective health promotion and help clarify

  18. Health Physics Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2005 Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education

    2006-01-01

    This annual report details the number of health physics bachelor's, master's, and postdoctoral degrees awarded at a sampling of academic programs from 1998-2005. It also looks at health physics degrees by curriculum and the number of students enrolled in health physics degree programs at 30 U.S. universities in 2005

  19. Health literacy of Dutch adults: a cross sectional survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, Iris; Rademakers, Jany; Schipper, Maarten; Droomers, Mariël; Sørensen, Kristine; Uiters, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Relatively little knowledge is available to date about health literacy among the general population in Europe. It is important to gain insights into health literacy competences among the general population, as this might contribute to more effective health promotion and help clarify socio-economic

  20. Health status of school children during questionnaire survey in Ogun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    that school children in Ogun State do not perceive themselves to be healthy and suggest the use of school health questionnaire to assess and identify common health problems in school children. Keywords: School-age children, common health problems, questionnaire, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Parasitology Vol.

  1. Impact of the 2008 global financial crisis on the health of Canadians: repeated cross-sectional analysis of the Canadian Community Health Survey, 2007-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nour, Sabrina; Labonté, Ronald; Bancej, Christina

    2017-04-01

    Despite a clear impact on the Canadian economy, little is known about the subsequent health impacts of the 2008 global financial crisis (GFC) in this country. This study fills this gap in knowledge by conducting a repeated cross-sectional analysis of the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS). Data from 7 cycles (2007-2013) of the CCHS were combined to form a large data set representative of the Canadian working-age population (15-64 years) residing in 1 of 10 provinces. A logistic regression model was used to determine whether exposure to various periods of the GFC resulted in increased odds of reporting poor mental health. Exposure was categorised into 4 periods based on political and economic indicators, as follows: precrisis period (baseline), initial crisis period, stimulus period and austerity period. Other outcomes investigated included: anxiety disorders (AD), mood disorders (MD), poor physical health and health-related behaviours (heavy alcohol drinking (HAD) and decreased fruit/vegetable consumption (FVC)). A significant increased odds of reporting poor mental health was observed during the austerity period compared with the precrisis period (OR=1.26 (1.16 to 1.32)); findings remain significant when adjusted for sex, marital status and education. Exposure to the austerity period was also significantly associated with increased odds of reporting AD, MD, HAD and decreased odds of FVC. No significant associations were observed for the poor self-perceived physical health variable. Statistically significant associations were observed between several negative health outcomes and the austerity period when compared with the precrisis period. Austerity has been linked to worsening health in other studies and represents an example of how the policy response can have greater detrimental impact on health than the financial crisis itself. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  2. Econometric studies in health economics. A survey of the British literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, A

    1989-03-01

    This paper provides a survey of British applied econometric work in the field of health economics. As well as reviewing the literature, it suggests some avenues for future research. It covers six main areas: the supply of health care; the demand for health care; non-medical influences on health; market and non-price rationing; evaluation of health care systems; and planning, budgeting and monitoring mechanisms.

  3. Measuring inequalities in health from survey data using self-assessed social class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacak, Valerio

    2018-03-01

    Asking participants to assess their social class may be an efficient approach to examining inequalities in heath from survey data. The present study investigated this possibility empirically by testing whether subjective class identification is related to overall health. I used pooled cross-sectional data from the 2012 and the 2014 General Social Survey, a nationally representative survey carried out among adults in the United States. The association between health and class was estimated separately by gender, race and age. The association follows a gradient pattern where health deteriorates with lower class position even after controlling for indicators typically used in research that examines class differences in health-educational attainment, family income and occupational prestige. The results largely hold when the data are stratified by gender, race and age. These findings demonstrate the empirical value of subjective class identification for assessing social inequalities in health from survey data.

  4. Life stress and suicidal ideation in Australian men – cross-sectional analysis of the Australian longitudinal study on male health baseline data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne Currier

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suicide is a leading cause of death in Australian males aged 18 to 55. Non-fatal suicidal behaviours and thoughts are indicators of increased risk for future suicide. Suicidal behaviour is complex and multi-determined. Research supports the involvement of stressful life events in suicide and suicidal behaviour, however the evidence regarding suicidal thoughts is less developed. This study investigates stressful life events in relation to suicidal ideation in a large cohort of adult males recruited into Ten to Men, the Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health. Methods Baseline data from a national cohort of 13, 884 males aged 18–55 years on suicidal behaviour, psychiatric disorder and life events was used. Multivariable logistic regressions were conducted with current suicidal ideation as the outcome and 12 month life events, 12 month depression, anxiety and harmful/hazardous alcohol use, and socio-demographics as covariates. Further logistic regression models investigated the relative risk of life stress alone, depression/alcohol/anxiety alone and co-occurring life stress and depression/alcohol/anxiety. Results In multivariable models there was an independent contribution to suicidal ideation for six of 24 life events (ORs 1.27–1.95, 12 month depression (OR 4.49 harmful alcohol use (OR 1.38 and anxiety disorders (OR 1.27. Life events co-occurring with depression (OR 10.3 was higher risk than either alone (depression OR 6.6; life stress OR 2.6. There was a lesser effect for co-occurrence in the anxiety and harmful alcohol use models. Conclusion Life events appear to be related to suicidal ideation independent of depression, anxiety and harmful alcohol use in adult males, however if life events occur in the context of depression that risk is substantially increased.

  5. Lack of association between depression and C-reactive protein level in the baseline of Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Menezes, Sara Teles; de Figueiredo, Roberta Carvalho; Goulart, Alessandra Carvalho; Nunes, Maria Angélica; M Benseñor, Isabela; Viana, Maria Carmen; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2017-01-15

    Depression has been linked to increased levels of inflammatory markers in clinical studies, but results from general population samples are inconsistent. We aimed to investigate whether depression was associated with serum CRP levels in a cross-sectional analysis of a large cohort from a middle-income country. We analyzed baseline data from 14,821 participants (35-74 years) of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Current depression (last 7 days) was assessed by the Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised (CIS-R). Because individuals on antidepressants could be negative on CIS-R due to their therapeutic effect, the explanatory variable had three categories: (1) negative on CIS-R and not using antidepressant (reference); (2) negative on CIS-R but using antidepressant; (3) positive on CIS-R with/without antidepressant use. Associations with CRP were investigated by general linear model (GLM). After adjustments for confounders, neither current depression, nor antidepressant use was statistically associated with elevated CRP levels. Additionally, analyzes stratified by gender, type and severity of depression did not change the results. The reference group in our analysis might include participants with a lifetime history of depression. Additionally, the exclusion of questions on weight fluctuation and appetite from the CIS-R applied in ELSA-Brasil may have slightly underestimated the prevalence of depression, as well as limited our ability to assess the presence of somatic symptoms. This study found no association between current depression, use of antidepressants, and serum CRP levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Predicting cardiometabolic disturbances from waist-to-height ratio: findings from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) baseline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanheira, Marcelo; Chor, Dóra; Braga, José Uéleres; Cardoso, Letícia de Oliveira; Griep, Rosane Härter; Molina, Maria Del Carmen Bisi; Fonseca, Maria de Jesus Mendes da

    2018-04-01

    To evaluate the performance of waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) in predicting cardiometabolic outcomes and compare cut-off points for Brazilian adults. Cross-sectional study. WHtR areas under the curve (AUC) were compared with those for BMI, waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR). The outcomes of interest were hypertension, diabetes, hypertriacylglycerolaemia and presence of at least two components of metabolic syndrome (≥2 MetS). Cut-offs for WHtR were compared and validity measures were estimated for each point. Teaching and research institutions in six Brazilian state capitals, 2008-2010. Women (n 5026) and men (n 4238) aged 35-54 years who participated in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) at baseline. WHtR age-adjusted AUC ranged from 0·68 to 0·72 in men and 0·69 to 0·75 in women, with smaller AUC for hypertriacylglycerolaemia and the largest for ≥2 MetS. WHtR performed better than BMI for practically all outcomes; better than WHR for hypertension in both sexes; and displayed larger AUC than WC in predicting diabetes mellitus. It also offered better discriminatory power for ≥2 MetS in men; and was better than WC, but not WHR, in women. Optimal cut-off points of WHtR were 0·55 (women) and 0·54 (men), but they presented high false-negative rate compared with 0·50. We recommend using WHtR (which performed similarly to, or better than, other available indices of adiposity) as an anthropometric index with good discriminatory power for cardiometabolic outcomes in Brazilian adults, indicating the already referenced limit of WHtR≥0·50.

  7. Guidance on Port Biological Baseline Surveys (PBBS)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Awad, A.; Haag, F.; Anil, A.C.; Abdulla, A.

    Environment Facility (GEF), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the International Maritime Organization (IMO) to assist developing countries to reduce the transfer of harmful aquatic organisms and pathogens in ships’ ballast water... and sediments and to assist the countries in implementing the International Convention on Ballast Water Management. For more information, please visit http://globallast.imo.org. The International Ocean Institute (IOI) was founded in 1972 by Professor Elisabeth...

  8. Mozambique Cell Phone Savings Project: Baseline Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Smallholders in rural Mozambique are typically characterized by low agricultural productivity, which is in part caused by very low levels of input usage. In the...

  9. Correlates of time spent walking and cycling to and from work: baseline results from the commuting and health in Cambridge study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panter Jenna

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose Environmental perceptions and psychological measures appear to be associated with walking and cycling behaviour; however, their influence is still unclear. We assessed these associations using baseline data from a quasi-experimental cohort study of the effects of major transport infrastructural developments in Cambridge, UK. Methods Postal surveys were sent to adults who travel to work in Cambridge (n = 1582. Questions asked about travel modes and time spent travelling to and from work in the last week, perceptions of the route, psychological measures regarding car use and socio-demographic characteristics. Participants were classified into one of two categories according to time spent walking for commuting ('no walking' or 'some walking' and one of three categories for cycling ('no cycling', '1-149 min/wk' and ' ≥ 150 min/wk'. Results Of the 1164 respondents (68% female, mean (SD age: 42.3 (11.4 years 30% reported any walking and 53% reported any cycling to or from work. In multiple regression models, short distance to work and not having access to a car showed strong positive associations with both walking and cycling. Furthermore, those who reported that it was pleasant to walk were more likely to walk to or from work (OR = 4.18, 95% CI 3.02 to 5.78 and those who reported that it was convenient to cycle on the route between home and work were more likely to do so (1-149 min/wk: OR = 4.60, 95% CI 2.88 to 7.34; ≥ 150 min/wk: OR = 3.14, 95% CI 2.11 to 4.66. Positive attitudes in favour of car use were positively associated with time spent walking to or from work but negatively associated with cycling to or from work. Strong perceived behavioural control for car use was negatively associated with walking. Conclusions In this relatively affluent sample of commuters, a range of individual and household characteristics, perceptions of the route environment and psychological measures relating to car use were associated with

  10. Fukushima health management survey. What can we do for the health of our children?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtsuru, Akira; Yasumura, Seiji; Suzuki, Shinichi

    2013-01-01

    Various emergent medical measures taken soon after the Tohoku earthquake/tsunami disaster and Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident (Mar. 2011), and the consequent, long term Survey in the title for residents of Fukushima prefecture are described. In addition to the early estimation of the effective external exposure dose, the survey involves the programs of thyroid examination for children, of health examination for expectant and nursing mothers, and for residents in evacuation area with mental and life-style medicare. The thyroid examination of 0-18 years old, 360 thousands children at the Accident is to be conducted by ultrasonography once 2 years until their age of 20 y and once 5 years thereafter. Preceding examinations in 2011 and 2012 are conceived helpful to detect the early change, if any, of the tissue in the Survey afterward. At Mar. 2013, the preceding test is finished for 170 thousands children, in 40% and 0.5% of whom, cyst(s) and nodule(s), respectively, are found. Results are rapidly reported to the examinee with concerned information. For maternity, questionnaire had been done to 15,954 expectant and nursing mothers in 2011, and 9,266 answers were obtained, 1,393 of whom are judged to be necessary for help of health consultation. Mental situation stands on questionnaire in 2011 and is evaluated by post traumatic stress disorder-checklist stressor specific version (PCL) in adult, by Kessler 6 in >15 years old residents and by Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in children of 4-15 y age. Children with > SDQ cutoff-value are found to amount to 21.5% in contrast to Japanese control 9.5%, suggesting that they feel mental stress and load. Life-style medicare for 210 thousands residents in the evacuation area is continued: 75 thousands have received the health examination: and abnormal cases possibly related with life-style change are recognized increased. Medicare and support are to be continued further in future. (T.T.)

  11. Women's Health in the Dental School Curriculum: Report of a Survey & Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverton, Susan; Sinkford, Jeanne; Inglehart, Marita; Tedesco, Lisa; Valachovic, Richard

    This report presents the analytical results of a survey of U.S. and Canadian dental schools conducted during 1997 by the American Association of Dental Schools. It documents how women's health and oral health issues are addressed in the curriculum. It also presents an annotated bibliography of research involving oral and craniofacial health and…

  12. The role of religious advisors in mental health care in the World Mental Health surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovess-Masfety, Vivianne; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Williams, David; Andrade, Laura Helena; Benjet, Corina; Ten Have, Margreet; Wardenaar, Klaas; Karam, Elie G; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Abdumalik, Jibril; Haro Abad, Josep Maria; Florescu, Silvia; Wu, Benjamin; De Jonge, Peter; Altwaijri, Yasmina; Hinkov, Hristo; Kawakami, Norito; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; Bromet, Evelyn; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Posada-Villa, José; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Huang, Yueqin; Hu, Chiyi; Viana, Maria Carmen; Fayyad, John; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Demyttenaere, Koen; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Murphy, Samuel; Xavier, Miguel; Takeshima, Tadashi; Gureje, Oye

    2017-03-01

    To examine the role of religious advisors in mental health care (MHC) according to disorder severity, socio-demographics, religious involvement and country income groups. Face to face household surveys in ten high income (HI), six upper-middle income (UMI) and five low/lower-middle (LLMI) income countries totalling 101,258 adults interviewed with the WMH CIDI plus questions on use of care for mental health problems and religiosity. 1.1% of participants turned to religious providers for MHC in the past year. Among those using services, 12.3% used religious services; as much as 30% in some LLMI countries, around 20% in some UMI; in the HI income countries USA, Germany, Italy and Japan are between 15 and 10% whenever the remaining countries are much lower. In LLMI 20.9% used religious advisors for the most severe mental disorders compared to 12.3 in UMI and 9.5% in HI. For severe cases most of religious providers use occurred together with formal care except in Nigeria, Iraq and Ukraine where, respectively, 41.6, 25.7 and 17.7% of such services are outside any formal care. Frequency of attendance at religious services was a strong predictor of religious provider usage OR 6.5 for those who attended over once a week (p mental health care and require appropriate training and collaboration with formal mental healthcare systems. Religious attitudes are strong predictors of religious advisors usage.

  13. Barriers to Mental Health Treatment: Results from the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, L. H.; Alonso, J.; Mneimneh, Z.; Wells, J. E.; Al-Hamzawi, A.; Borges, G.; Bromet, E.; Bruffaerts, R.; de Girolamo, G.; de Graaf, R.; Florescu, S.; Gureje, O.; Hinkov, H. R.; Hu, C.; Huang, Y.; Hwang, I.; Jin, R.; Karam, E. G.; Kovess-Masfety, V.; Levinson, D.; Matschinger, H.; O’Neill, S.; Posada-Villa, J.; Sagar, R.; Sampson, N. A.; Sasu, C.; Stein, D.; Takeshima, T.; Viana, M. C.; Xavier, M.; Kessler, R. C.

    2014-01-01

    Background To examine barriers to initiation and continuation of mental health treatment among individuals with common mental disorders. Methods Data are from the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys. Representative household samples were interviewed face-to-face in 24 countries. Reasons to initiate and continue treatment were examined in a subsample (n= 63,678) and analyzed at different levels of clinical severity. Results Among those with a DSM-IV disorder in the past twelve months, low perceived need was the most common reason for not initiating treatment and more common among moderate and mild than severe cases. Women and younger people with disorders were more likely to recognize a need for treatment. Desire to handle the problem on one’s own was the most common barrier among respondents with a disorder who perceived a need for treatment (63.8%). Attitudinal barriers were much more important than structural barriers both to initiating and continuing treatment. However, attitudinal barriers dominated for mild-moderate cases and structural barriers for severe cases. Perceived ineffectiveness of treatment was the most commonly reported reason for treatment dropout (39.3%) followed by negative experiences with treatment providers (26.9% of respondents with severe disorders). Conclusions Low perceived need and attitudinal barriers are the major barriers to seeking and staying in treatment among individuals with common mental disorders worldwide. Apart from targeting structural barriers, mainly in countries with poor resources, increasing population mental health literacy is an important endeavor worldwide. PMID:23931656

  14. Objectively measured secondhand smoke exposure and mental health in children: evidence from the Scottish Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamer, Mark; Ford, Tamsin; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Dockray, Samantha; Batty, G David

    2011-04-01

    To examine the association between objectively assessed secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure and mental health in a representative sample of British children. Cross-sectional study. Community-based population sample from the 2003 Scottish Health Survey. Nine hundred one nonsmoking children (mean [SD] age, 8.3 [2.5] years). Exposure to SHS was determined from salivary cotinine level and self-report. Psychological distress assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Forty percent of the sample demonstrated high SHS exposure (cotinine level >0.70 ng/mL). Children with higher cotinine levels were more likely to live in areas of greater socioeconomic deprivation. Participants in the highest cotinine quartile (>0.70 ng/mL) had significantly higher total SDQ scores compared with those in the lowest quartile (age- and sex-adjusted mean difference = 2.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.6 to 3.9). There was evidence of a dose-response effect across the cotinine group (P trend = .001). Of the SDQ subscales, the strongest associations with cotinine levels emerged for hyperactivity and conduct disorder. These associations remained statistically significant after adjustment for possible confounders including social deprivation, single-parent status, body mass index, chronic illness, and physical activity. Objectively assessed SHS exposure was associated with poorer mental health among children.

  15. Noncommunicable diseases and the use of health services: analysis of the National Health Survey in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Bernal, Regina Tomie Ivata; Lima, Margareth Guimarães; Araújo, Silvânia Suely Caribé de; Silva, Marta Maria Alves da; Freitas, Maria Imaculada de Fátima; Barros, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo

    2017-06-01

    To assess whether sex, education level, and health insurance affect the use of health services among the adult Brazilian population with chronic noncommunicable diseases (NCD). Data from a cross-sectional survey were analyzed, the National Health Survey (PNS). Frequency of use of services in the population that referred at least one NCD were compared with the frequency from a population that did not report NCD, according to sex, education level, health insurance, and NCD number (1, 2, 3, 4, or more). The prevalence and prevalence ratios were calculated crude and adjusted for sex, age, region, and 95% confidence intervals. The presence of a noncommunicable disease was associated with increase in hospitalizations in the last 12 months, in 1.7 times (95%CI 1.53-1.9). Failing to perform usual activities in the last two weeks for health reasons was 3.1 times higher in NCD carriers (95%CI 2.78-3.46); while the prevalence of medical consultation in the last 12 months was 1.26 times higher (95%CI 1.24-1.28). NCD carriers make more use of health services, as well as women, people with higher number of comorbidities, with health insurance, and higher education level. NCD carriers make more use of health services, as well as women, people with higher number of comorbidities, with health insurance, and higher education level. Analisar se sexo, escolaridade e posse de plano de saúde influenciam a utilização de serviços de saúde entre a população adulta brasileira portadora de doenças crônicas não transmissíveis (DCNT). Foram analisados dados de inquérito transversal, a Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde (PNS). Foram comparadas as frequências de uso de serviços na população que referiu pelo menos uma DCNT, com aquelas que não relatam DCNT, segundo sexo, escolaridade, posse de plano de saúde e número de DCNT (1, 2, 3, 4 ou mais). Foram calculadas as prevalências e razões de prevalência (RP) brutas e ajustadas por sexo, idade e região e respectivos intervalos de

  16. National Survey on Drug Use and Health: 10-Year Substate R-DAS (NSDUH-2002-2011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This file includes data from the 2002 through 2011 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) survey. The only variables included in the data file are ones that...

  17. Environmental health science at the U.S. Geological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, Herbert T.; Bright, Patricia R.

    2013-01-01

    USGS environmental health science focuses on the environment-health interface. Research characterizes the processes that affect the interaction among the physical environment, the living environment, and people, as well as the factors that affect ecological and human exposure to disease agents and the resulting toxicologic or infectious disease. The mission of USGS in environmental health science is to contribute scientific information to environmental, natural resource, agricultural, and public-health managers, who use that information to support sound decisionmaking. Coordination with partners and stakeholders will enable USGS to focus on the highest priority environmental health issues, to make relevant, timely, and useable contributions, and to become a “partner of first choice” for environmental health science.

  18. Subthreshold posttraumatic stress disorder in the world health organization world mental health surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A; Koenen, Karestan C; Friedman, Matthew J; Ruscio, Ayelet Meron; Karam, Elie G; Shahly, Victoria; Stein, Dan J; Hill, Eric D; Petukhova, Maria; Alonso, Jordi; Andrade, Laura Helena; Angermeyer, Matthias C; Borges, Guilherme; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Demyttenaere, Koen; Florescu, Silvia E; Mladenova, Maya; Posada-Villa, Jose; Scott, Kate M; Takeshima, Tadashi; Kessler, Ronald C

    2015-02-15

    Although only a few people exposed to a traumatic event (TE) develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), symptoms that do not meet full PTSD criteria are common and often clinically significant. Individuals with these symptoms sometimes have been characterized as having subthreshold PTSD, but no consensus exists on the optimal definition of this term. Data from a large cross-national epidemiologic survey are used in this study to provide a principled basis for such a definition. The World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys administered fully structured psychiatric diagnostic interviews to community samples in 13 countries containing assessments of PTSD associated with randomly selected TEs. Focusing on the 23,936 respondents reporting lifetime TE exposure, associations of approximated DSM-5 PTSD symptom profiles with six outcomes (distress-impairment, suicidality, comorbid fear-distress disorders, PTSD symptom duration) were examined to investigate implications of different subthreshold definitions. Although consistently highest outcomes for distress-impairment, suicidality, comorbidity, and PTSD symptom duration were observed among the 3.0% of respondents with DSM-5 PTSD rather than other symptom profiles, the additional 3.6% of respondents meeting two or three of DSM-5 criteria B-E also had significantly elevated scores for most outcomes. The proportion of cases with threshold versus subthreshold PTSD varied depending on TE type, with threshold PTSD more common following interpersonal violence and subthreshold PTSD more common following events happening to loved ones. Subthreshold DSM-5 PTSD is most usefully defined as meeting two or three of DSM-5 criteria B-E. Use of a consistent definition is critical to advance understanding of the prevalence, predictors, and clinical significance of subthreshold PTSD. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Program reference schedule baseline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-07-01

    This Program Reference Schedule Baseline (PRSB) provides the baseline Program-level milestones and associated schedules for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. It integrates all Program-level schedule-related activities. This schedule baseline will be used by the Director, Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), and his staff to monitor compliance with Program objectives. Chapter 1 includes brief discussions concerning the relationship of the PRSB to the Program Reference Cost Baseline (PRCB), the Mission Plan, the Project Decision Schedule, the Total System Life Cycle Cost report, the Program Management Information System report, the Program Milestone Review, annual budget preparation, and system element plans. Chapter 2 includes the identification of all Level 0, or Program-level, milestones, while Chapter 3 presents and discusses the critical path schedules that correspond to those Level 0 milestones

  20. Long Baseline Observatory (LBO)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Long Baseline Observatory (LBO) comprises ten radio telescopes spanning 5,351 miles. It's the world's largest, sharpest, dedicated telescope array. With an eye...

  1. A survey of hypertensive practices at two community health centres ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lifestyle changes, and avoidance of NSAIDs and tricyclic antidepressants. Major deficiencies were identified in BP measurement, assessment of target organ damage, risk stratification and the reduction of overall cardiovascular risk. S Afr Med J 2007; 97: 280-284. control. In a previous survey done by Steyn et aZ.S in a CHC.

  2. U.S. Naval Unit Behavioral Health Needs Assessment Survey, Overview of Survey Items and Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-20

    other psychological distress, please seek help immediately. We encourage you to contact your unit’s chaplain or a mental health professional. If you...Divorce or breakup • Infidelity or unfaithfulness by you or your spouse, fiancé, boyfriend, or girlfriend • Problems with money • Problems with... psychological health of service members. Consequently, preserving the psychological health of U.S. service members is of paramount concern to military leaders

  3. A survey on the participation of optometric practices in health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optometric services are well integrated in health insurance programs in the developed world. This study was designed to assess the level of participation of optometric practices in health insurance systems in Nigeria. By convenience, 40 optometric practices in the country were interviewed directly, or by telephone or email ...

  4. Empirical Survey of Oral Health Information Exposure to Obafemi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information about tooth brushing had the highest score with inadequate information about tooth decay and gum diseases. Oral health information received showed no gender variation. Television shows had the highest score. Information received from medical doctors, dentists and health talks were perceived to be most ...

  5. International survey on attitudes toward ethics in health technology assessment: An exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arellano, L.E.; Willett, J.M.; Borry, P.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this exploratory study was to survey international health technology assessment (HTA) professionals to determine attitudes toward ethics in HTA. Methods: An exploratory, quantitative, cross-sectional study design was developed. The sample population (n = 636) was

  6. 2005 Department of Defense Survey of Health Related Behaviors among Active Duty Military Personnel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bray, Robert M; Hourani, Laurel L; Rae Olmsted, Kristine L; Witt, Michael; Brown, Janice M; Pemberton, Michael R; Marsden, Mary Ellen; Marriott, Bernadette; Scheffler, Scott; Vandermaas-Peeler, Russ

    2006-01-01

    ... Secretary of Defense (Health Affairs). All of the surveys investigated the prevalence of alcohol use, illicit drug use, and tobacco use, as well as negative consequences associated with substance use...

  7. 76 FR 22714 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Health Information National Trends Survey 4 (HINTS 4) (NCI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... Request; Health Information National Trends Survey 4 (HINTS 4) (NCI) SUMMARY: In compliance with the... Trends Survey 4 (HINTS 4) (OMB 0925-0538, Exp 11/30/2008). Type of Information Collection Request... and/or suggestions from the public and affected agencies are invited on one or more of the following...

  8. Consumers' health perceptions of three types of milk: a survey in Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bus, A.E.M.; Worsley, A.

    2003-01-01

    A survey was conducted among 345 randomly selected shoppers in Melbourne, Australia, to identify their perceptions of the healthiness of whole milk, reduced fat milk and soy milk and to investigate demographic influences on health perceptions and types of milk consumption. The survey revealed major

  9. Health and safety risks at the workplace: a joint analysis of three major surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtman, I.L.D.; Eekhout, I.; Venema, A.; Bakhuys Roozeboom, M.; Buuren, S. van

    2017-01-01

    This report presents the key findings of a joint analysis of EU-OSHA’s second European Survey of Enterprises on New and Emerging Risks (ESENER-2), Eurostat’s Labour Force Survey (LFS) 2013 ad hoc module on accidents at work and other work-related health problems, and Eurofound’s 6th European Working

  10. Trends in self-reported oral health of US adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kar Yan; Okunseri, Christopher E; McGrath, Colman; Wong, May C M

    2018-04-01

    Single-item self-reported oral health (SROH) is a convenient and reliable measure for the assessment of population-based oral health. However, little is known about trends and its associations among US adults. This study investigated trends in SROH (aged 20+ years) and the associated factors among adults living in the United States. Self-reported oral health data for 41 621 adults aged 20+ years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999 to 2014 were analysed. Survey-weighted descriptive statistics were computed to provide nationally representative estimates. Multivariable logistic regression was performed separately for each survey period with SROH as the primary outcome. Independent variables included were age, gender, race/ethnicity, education level and family poverty income ratio or PIR. Pooled survey-weighted multivariable logistic regression was also performed to consider possible time-changing effects. The survey-weighted proportions of "excellent or very good" in SROH increased from 27% in 1999-2000 (n = 4873) to 38% in 2013-2014 (n = 5765). Separate multivariable logistic analyses for each survey period suggested that females, Whites (vs Mexican and Black Americans) as well as respondents from high family PIR had higher odds of reporting their oral health as "excellent or very good" (P Self-reported oral health improved from 1999 to 2014. In general, respondents who were young, female, White, had higher education or higher income or were surveyed in more recent years reported excellent or very good oral health. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Inspiring health worker motivation with supportive supervision: a survey of lady health supervisor motivating factors in rural Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbani, Fauziah; Shipton, Leah; Aftab, Wafa; Sangrasi, Kashif; Perveen, Shagufta; Zahidie, Aysha

    2016-08-17

    Community health worker motivation is an important consideration for improving performance and addressing maternal, newborn, and child health in low and middle-income countries. Therefore, identifying health system interventions that address motivating factors in resource-strained settings is essential. This study is part of a larger implementation research project called Nigraan, which is intervening on supportive supervision in the Lady Health Worker Programme to improve community case management of pneumonia and diarrhea in rural Pakistan. This study explored the motivation of Lady Health Supervisors, a cadre of community health workers, with particular attention to their views on supportive supervision. Twenty-nine lady health supervisors enrolled in Nigraan completed open-ended structured surveys with questions exploring factors that affect their motivation. Thematic analysis was conducted using a conceptual framework categorizing motivating factors at individual, community, and health system levels. Supportive supervision, recognition, training, logistics, and salaries are community and health system motivating factors for lady health supervisors. Lady health supervisors are motivated by both their role in providing supportive supervision to lady health workers and by the supervisory support received from their coordinators and managers. Family support, autonomy, and altruism are individual level motivating factors. Health system factors, including supportive supervision, are crucial to improving lady health supervisor motivation. As health worker motivation influences their performance, evaluating the impact of health system interventions on community health worker motivation is important to improving the effectiveness of community health worker programs.

  12. Validation of the Oral Survey-B System for Electronic Data Capture in National Oral Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, J C; Declerck, D; De Vos, E; Kellen, J; Van Nieuwenhuysen, J P; Vanobbergen, J; Bottenberg, P; Declerck, C

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to incorporate and to validate the electronic capture of participant-related outcomes into the Oral Survey-B System, which was originally developed for the electronic capture of clinical data. The validation process compared the performances of electronic and handwritten data captures. The hypothesis of noninferiority would be established if participants performed electronic data capture of the questionnaire survey with an effectiveness of at least 95% of that of handwritten data capture. In this multicenter, randomized, one-period crossover study design, participants (n = 261) were allocated to start with either electronic or handwritten data capture. The incorporation of the electronic self-completed questionnaire into the Oral Survey-B System was successful. The validation of the electronic questionnaire was performed by participants aged from 18 to 75 years. The interrater reliability of participants performing electronic and handwritten data capture of nonclinical assessments per questionnaire and per entry showed a kappa value of 0.72 (95% CI: 0.53-0.94). The noninferiority of electronic data capture in relation to that of the handwritten data capture and transfer was shown (p capture of participant-related outcomes with the Oral Survey-B System, originally designed for capture of clinical data, was validated. The electronic data capture was accurate and limited the number of errors. The participants were able to perform electronic data capture effectively, supporting its implementation in further National Oral Health Surveys. With the consideration of participant preference and time savings, this could lead to the implementation of electronic data capture worldwide in National Oral Health Surveys. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Oral health need and access to dental services: evidence from the National Survey of Children's Health, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Janice F; Huebner, Colleen E; Reed, Sarah C

    2012-04-01

    This study examines associations between parents' report of their children's oral health and receipt of a dental visit for preventive care. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of oral health status and receipt of a preventive dental visit among US children and youth, ages 1-17 years, using data from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health (n = 86,764). Survey-weighted logistic regression was used to estimate associations between perceived oral health status and receipt of a preventive dental health visit in the prior 12 months. Overall, 78 % of children and youth received at least one preventive dental health visit in the prior year. Among the youngest children, lower oral health status was associated with higher odds of receiving a preventive dental visit; among older children, lower oral health status was associated with lower odds of receiving a dental visit for preventive care. Use of preventive dental health care is below national target goals. Younger children in worse oral health are more likely, and older youth less likely, to receive preventive dental care. Public health efforts to educate parents to seek early and ongoing preventive oral health care, rather than services in response to problems, may yield oral health benefits later in childhood and over the life course.

  14. Job satisfaction among public health nurses: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Elizabeth A; Glacken, Michele

    2014-07-01

    Despite increasing interest in nurses' job satisfaction relatively few studies have investigated job satisfaction among public health nurses. To establish current level of job satisfaction among public health nurses and identify the main contributing variables/factors to job satisfaction among this population. Quantitative descriptive design. A simple random sample of 1000 public health nurses was conducted yielding a response rate of 35.1% (n = 351). Data was collected using the Index of Work Satisfaction Questionnaire. Descriptive and inferential statistics were deployed. Low levels of job satisfaction among public health nurses emerged. Professional status, interaction and autonomy contributed most to job satisfaction while pay and task-related activities contributed least. Age and tenure were the only biographic factors that correlated significantly with job satisfaction. Public health nurse managers/leaders need to find creative ways of improving the factors that contribute to job satisfaction and address robustly those factors that result in low job satisfaction. The critical issue for public health nurse managers is to determine how job satisfaction can be improved. Greater collaboration and consultation between managers and public health nurses can be regarded as a useful way to begin this process, especially if contemporary nursing is to embrace a responsive approach within the profession. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Use of and access to health services in Brazil, 2013 National Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stopa, Sheila Rizzato; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Monteiro, Camila Nascimento; Szwarcwald, Célia Landmann; Goldbaum, Moisés; Cesar, Chester Luiz Galvão

    2017-06-01

    To analyze the use of health services in the Brazilian population by sociodemographic factors, according to data from the 2013 Brazilian National Health Survey. The study analyzed data from 205,000 Brazilian citizens in all age groups who participated in the Brazilian National Health Survey, a cross-sectional study carried out in 2013. Prevalence and confidence intervals were estimated for indicators related to access to and use of health services according to age group, level of education of head of household, and Brazilian macroregions. Among individuals who sought health services in the two weeks prior to the survey, 95.3% (95%CI 94.9-95.8) received care in their first visit. Percentages were higher in the following groups: 60 years of age and over; head of household with complete tertiary education; living in the South and Southeast regions. In addition, 82.5% (95%CI 81.2-83.7) of individuals who received health care and prescriptions were able to obtain all the necessary medicines, 1/3 of them from SUS. Less than half the Brazilian population (44.4%; 95%CI 43.8-45.1) visited a dentist in the 12 months prior to the survey, with smaller percentages among the following groups: 60 years of age or older; head of household with no education or up to incomplete elementary; living in the North region of Brazil. People living in the South and Southeast regions still have greater access to health services, as do those whose head of household has a higher level of education. The (re)formulation of health policies to reduce disparities should consider differences encountered between regions and social levels. Descrever o uso de serviços de saúde na população brasileira segundo fatores sociodemográficos, de acordo com dados da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde, 2013. Foram analisados dados referentes a 205 mil brasileiros, de todas as faixas etárias, que participaram da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde, estudo transversal conduzido em 2013. Calcularam-se as prevalências e seus

  16. Nurse Practitioners' Use of Communication Techniques: Results of a Maryland Oral Health Literacy Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Koo, Laura W.; Horowitz, Alice M.; Radice, Sarah D.; Wang, Min Q.; Kleinman, Dushanka V.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We examined nurse practitioners? use and opinions of recommended communication techniques for the promotion of oral health as part of a Maryland state-wide oral health literacy assessment. Use of recommended health-literate and patient-centered communication techniques have demonstrated improved health outcomes. Methods A 27-item self-report survey, containing 17 communication technique items, across 5 domains, was mailed to 1,410 licensed nurse practitioners (NPs) in Maryland in 2...

  17. Diagnostic validity of self-reported oral health outcomes in population surveys: literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos,Renato Quirino; Bastos,João Luiz; Peres,Marco Aurélio

    2013-01-01

    Population-based health surveys are increasingly including self-reported oral health measures. However, their validity is frequently questioned. This study aimed to review the diagnostic validity of self-reported oral health measures - regarding periodontal conditions, number of remaining teeth and use and need of prostheses - and to present prototypes of oral health items to assess periodontal conditions. Papers published between 1991 and 2011 were identified through PubMed database. The sam...

  18. The First National Survey of Indigenous People’s Health and Nutrition in Brazil: rationale, methodology, and overview of results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Although case studies indicate that indigenous peoples in Brazil often suffer from higher morbidity and mortality rates than the national population, they were not included systematically in any previous national health survey. Reported here for the first time, the First National Survey of Indigenous People’s Health and Nutrition in Brazil was conducted in 2008–2009 to obtain baseline information based on a nationwide representative sample. This paper presents the study’s rationale, design and methods, and selected results. Methods The survey sought to characterize nutritional status and other health measures in indigenous children less than 5 years of age and indigenous women from 14 to 49 years of age on the basis of a survey employing a representative probabilistic sample of the indigenous population residing in villages in Brazil, according to four major regions (North, Northeast, Central-West, and South/Southeast). Interviews, clinical measurements, and secondary data collection in the field addressed the major topics: nutritional status, prevalence of hypertension and diabetes mellitus in women, child hospitalization, prevalence of tuberculosis and malaria in women, access to health services and programs, and characteristics of the domestic economy and diet. Results The study obtained data for 113 villages (91.9% of the planned sample), 5,305 households (93.5%), 6,692 women (101.3%), and 6,128 children (93.1%). Multiple household variables followed a pattern of greater economic autonomy and lower socioeconomic status in the North as compared to other regions. For non-pregnant women, elevated prevalence rates were encountered for overweight (30.3%), obesity (15.8%), anemia (32.7%), and hypertension (13.2%). Among children, elevated prevalence rates were observed for height-for-age deficit (25.7%), anemia (51.2%), hospitalizations during the prior 12 months (19.3%), and diarrhea during the prior week (23.6%). Conclusions The clinical

  19. Racial, Ethnic, and Nativity Differences in Mental Health Visits to Primary Care and Specialty Mental Health Providers: Analysis of the Medical Expenditures Panel Survey, 2010-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Audrey L; Cochran, Susan D; Leibowitz, Arleen; Wells, Kenneth B; Kominski, Gerald; Mays, Vickie M

    2018-03-22

    Black and Latino minorities have traditionally had poorer access to primary care than non-Latino Whites, but these patterns could change with the Affordable Care Act (ACA). To guide post-ACA efforts to address mental health service disparities, we used a nationally representative sample to characterize baseline race-, ethnicity-, and nativity-associated differences in mental health services in the context of primary care. Data were obtained from the Medical Expenditures Panel Survey (MEPS), a two-year panel study of healthcare use, satisfaction with care, and costs of services in the United States (US). We pooled data from six waves (14-19) of participants with serious psychological distress to examine racial, ethnic, and nativity disparities in medical and mental health visits to primary care (PC) and specialty mental health (SMH) providers around the time of ACA reforms, 2010-2015. Of the 2747 respondents with serious psychological distress, 1316 were non-Latino White, 632 non-Latino Black, 532 identified as Latino with Mexican, Central American, or South American (MCS) origins, and 267 as Latino with Caribbean island origins; 525 were foreign/island born. All racial/ethnic groups were less likely than non-Latino Whites to have any PC visit. Of those who used PC, non-Latino Blacks were less likely than Whites to have a PC mental health visit, while foreign born MCS Latinos were less likely to visit an SMH provider. Conditional on any mental health visit, Latinos from the Caribbean were more likely than non-Latino Whites to visit SMH providers versus PC providers only, while non-Latino Blacks and US born MCS Latinos received fewer PC mental health visits than non-Latino Whites. Racial-, ethnic-, and nativity-associated disparities persist in PC provided mental health services.

  20. Multidimensional profiles of health status: an application of the grade of membership model to the world health survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Andreotti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO conducted the World Health Survey (WHS between 2002 and 2004 in 70 countries to provide cross-population comparable data on health, health-related outcomes and risk factors. The aim of this study was to apply Grade of Membership (GoM modelling as a means to condense extensive health information from the WHS into a set of easily understandable health profiles and to assign the degree to which an individual belongs to each profile. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This paper described the application of the GoM models to summarize population health status using World Health Survey data. Grade of Membership analysis is a flexible, non-parametric, multivariate method, used to calculate health profiles from WHS self-reported health state and health conditions. The WHS dataset was divided into four country economic categories based on the World Bank economic groupings (high, upper-middle, lower-middle and low income economies for separate GoM analysis. Three main health profiles were produced for each of the four areas: I. Robust; II. Intermediate; III. Frail; moreover population health, wealth and inequalities are defined for countries in each economic area as a means to put the health results into perspective. CONCLUSIONS: These analyses have provided a robust method to better understand health profiles and the components which can help to identify healthy and non-healthy individuals. The obtained profiles have described concrete levels of health and have clearly delineated characteristics of healthy and non-healthy respondents. The GoM results provided both a useable way of summarising complex individual health information and a selection of intermediate determinants which can be targeted for interventions to improve health. As populations' age, and with limited budgets for additional costs for health care and social services, applying the GoM methods may assist with identifying higher risk profiles for decision

  1. Effects of Charitable Versus Monetary Incentives on the Acceptance of and Adherence to a Pedometer-Based Health Intervention: Study Protocol and Baseline Characteristics of a Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowatsch, Tobias; Kramer, Jan-Niklas; Kehr, Flavius; Wahle, Fabian; Elser, Niklas; Fleisch, Elgar

    2016-09-13

    Research has so far benefited from the use of pedometers in physical activity interventions. However, when public health institutions (eg, insurance companies) implement pedometer-based interventions in practice, people may refrain from participating due to privacy concerns. This might greatly limit the applicability of such interventions. Financial incentives have been successfully used to influence both health behavior and privacy concerns, and may thus have a beneficial effect on the acceptance of pedometer-based interventions. This paper presents the design and baseline characteristics of a cluster-randomized controlled trial that seeks to examine the effect of financial incentives on the acceptance of and adherence to a pedometer-based physical activity intervention offered by a health insurance company. More than 18,000 customers of a large Swiss health insurance company were allocated to a financial incentive, a charitable incentive, or a control group and invited to participate in a health prevention program. Participants used a pedometer to track their daily physical activity over the course of 6 months. A Web-based questionnaire was administered at the beginning and at the end of the intervention and additional data was provided by the insurance company. The primary outcome of the study will be the participation rate, secondary outcomes will be adherence to the prevention program, physical activity, and health status of the participants among others. Baseline characteristics indicate that residence of participants, baseline physical activity, and subjective health should be used as covariates in the statistical analysis of the secondary outcomes of the study. This is the first study in western cultures testing the effectiveness of financial incentives with regard to a pedometer-based health intervention offered by a large health insurer to their customers. Given that the incentives prove to be effective, this study provides the basis for powerful health

  2. Multinational surveys for monitoring eHealth policy implementations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilstad, Heidi; Faxvaag, Arild; Hyppönen, Hannele

    2014-01-01

    Development of multinational variables for monitoring eHealth policy implementations is a complex task and requires multidisciplinary, knowledgebased international collaboration. Experts in an interdisciplinary wo