WorldWideScience

Sample records for baseline ecology

  1. Baseline ecological risk assessment Salmon Site, Lamar County, Mississippi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    The Salmon Site (SS), formerly the Tatum Dome Test Site, located in Mississippi was the site of two nuclear and two gas explosion tests conducted between 1964 and 1970. A consequence of these testing activities is that radionuclides were released into the salt dome, where they are presently contained. During reentry drilling and other site activities, incidental liquid and solid wastes that contained radioactivity were generated, resulting in some soil, ground water and equipment contamination. As part of the remedial investigation effort, a Baseline Ecological Risk Assessment was conducted at the SS. The purpose is to gauge ecological and other environmental impacts attributable to past activities at the former test facility. The results of this facility-specific baseline risk assessment are presented in this document.

  2. Baseline ecological footprint of Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coplen, Amy K.; Mizner, Jack Harry,; Ubechel, Norion M.

    2009-01-01

    The Ecological Footprint Model is a mechanism for measuring the environmental effects of operations at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico (SNL/NM). This analysis quantifies environmental impact associated with energy use, transportation, waste, land use, and water consumption at SNL/NM for fiscal year 2005 (FY05). Since SNL/NMs total ecological footprint (96,434 gha) is greater than the waste absorption capacity of its landholdings (338 gha), it created an ecological deficit of 96,096 gha. This deficit is equal to 886,470lha, or about 3,423 square miles of Pinyon-Juniper woodlands and desert grassland. 89% of the ecological footprint can be attributed to energy use, indicating that in order to mitigate environmental impact, efforts should be focused on energy efficiency, energy reduction, and the incorporation of additional renewable energy alternatives at SNL/NM.

  3. [Calculation on ecological security baseline based on the ecosystem services value and the food security].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ling; Jia, Qi-jian; Li, Chao; Xu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    The rapid development of coastal economy in Hebei Province caused rapid transition of coastal land use structure, which has threatened land ecological security. Therefore, calculating ecosystem service value of land use and exploring ecological security baseline can provide the basis for regional ecological protection and rehabilitation. Taking Huanghua, a city in the southeast of Hebei Province, as an example, this study explored the joint point, joint path and joint method between ecological security and food security, and then calculated the ecological security baseline of Huanghua City based on the ecosystem service value and the food safety standard. The results showed that ecosystem service value of per unit area from maximum to minimum were in this order: wetland, water, garden, cultivated land, meadow, other land, salt pans, saline and alkaline land, constructive land. The order of contribution rates of each ecological function value from high to low was nutrient recycling, water conservation, entertainment and culture, material production, biodiversity maintenance, gas regulation, climate regulation and environmental purification. The security baseline of grain production was 0.21 kg · m⁻², the security baseline of grain output value was 0.41 yuan · m⁻², the baseline of ecosystem service value was 21.58 yuan · m⁻², and the total of ecosystem service value in the research area was 4.244 billion yuan. In 2081 the ecological security will reach the bottom line and the ecological system, in which human is the subject, will be on the verge of collapse. According to the ecological security status, Huanghua can be divided into 4 zones, i.e., ecological core protection zone, ecological buffer zone, ecological restoration zone and human activity core zone.

  4. Are sawfishes still present in Mozambique? A baseline ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeney, Ruth H

    2017-01-01

    Sawfishes (Pristidae) were formerly abundant in the western Indian Ocean, but current data on sawfish presence and distribution are lacking for most of the region. This paper summarises historical records of sawfishes in Mozambican waters and presents the findings of the first assessment of the presence and status of sawfishes in Mozambique. A countrywide baseline assessment was undertaken between May and July 2014, using interviews with artisanal, semi-industrial and industrial fishers, fish traders and fisheries monitoring staff as the primary source of information on sawfish distribution, recent catches, socio-economic value and cultural importance. Additional interviews were conducted via email or telephone with individuals running sport fishing operations or who otherwise had considerable experience interacting with the fishing sectors or the marine environment in Mozambique. Where encountered, sawfish rostra were photographed and a series of measurements and associated data were collected. In total, 200 questionnaire surveys and seven interviews with recreational fishing and dive operators were conducted, and 19 rostra were documented from museum archives and private collections, belonging to two sawfish species, the Largetooth Sawfish (Pristis pristis) and Green Sawfish (P. zijsron). The most recent captures of sawfishes were reported to have occurred in 2014. Two key sites were identified where both recent encounters were reported and numerous Largetooth Sawfish rostra were documented. Gill nets were the fishing gear most commonly attributed to sawfish catches. Sawfishes did not hold any cultural importance in Mozambique, but they have at least some socio-economic importance to artisanal fishers, primarily through the sale of their fins. The meat did not appear to be held in high regard and was usually consumed locally. Sampling and further research is now required to confirm the presence of sawfishes and to assess the primary threats to sawfishes in those

  5. Re-shifting the ecological baseline for the overexploited Mediterranean red coral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrabou, J.; Sala, E.; Linares, C.; Ledoux, J. B.; Montero-Serra, I.; Dominici, J. M.; Kipson, S.; Teixidó, N.; Cebrian, E.; Kersting, D. K.; Harmelin, J. G.

    2017-02-01

    Overexploitation leads to the ecological extinction of many oceanic species. The depletion of historical abundances of large animals, such as whales and sea turtles, is well known. However, the magnitude of the historical overfishing of exploited invertebrates is unclear. The lack of rigorous baseline data limits the implementation of efficient management and conservation plans in the marine realm. The precious Mediterranean red coral Corallium rubrum has been intensively exploited since antiquity for its use in jewellery. It shows dramatic signs of overexploitation, with no untouched populations known in shallow waters. Here, we report the discovery of an exceptional red coral population from a previously unexplored shallow underwater cave in Corsica (France) harbouring the largest biomass (by more than 100-fold) reported to date in the Mediterranean. Our findings challenge current assumptions on the pristine state of this emblematic species. Our results suggest that, before intense exploitation, red coral lived in relatively high-density populations with a large proportion of centuries-old colonies, even at very shallow depths. We call for the re-evaluation of the baseline for red coral and question the sustainability of the exploitation of a species that is still common but ecologically (functionally) extinct and in a trajectory of further decline.

  6. Establishing Baseline Key Ecological Functions of Fish and Wildlife for Subbasin Planning, Final Report 2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neil, Thomas A.

    2001-08-01

    As we strive to manage the Columbia River Basin for its sustainable, productive, and diverse ecosystems, we are, in fact, managing these systems to provide an a array of ecological functions upon which these systems are based. These ecological functions avail themselves as an important tool with which to assess our historical and current habitat conditions, as well as proposed future or ideal conditions under differing management scenarios. So what are key ecological functions (KEFs) and which ones are involved? Key ecological functions refer to the major ecological roles played by an organism in its ecosystem that can affect environmental conditions for themselves or other species, or that directly influences other organisms (Marcot and Vander Heyden 2001). Currently, 111 KEFs are identified for fish and wildlife species as a result of Task 1 of this project. Even though the assessment phase of this project encompasses the entire Columbia River Basin, only a subset of KEFs (58) that are associated with the lotic systems, which includes 7 anadromous fish, 20 co-occurring resident fish, and 137 wildlife species linked to salmon are addressed. Since the basin has not be systematically surveyed for each fish and wildlife species, baseline conditions for each KEF are determined by developing basin-wide species range maps using the following information: wildlife-habitat type associations, county and ecoprovince occurrence, literature (like individual state atlases), and expert peer review. This approach produced a set of species range maps that depict a species potential for occurrence given the current or historic conditions. It is this potential occurrence that serves as a baseline condition to determine the key ecological functions. The results offer a framework and a set of baseline assessments that can be done with existing databases. Thus, allowing resource managers the ability to assess future management activities against this norm and guide their activities in

  7. Ecological baseline studies at the site of the Barstow 10 MWe pilot solar thermal power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, F.B. (ed.)

    1979-11-01

    Baseline ecological measurements and observations were made in 1978 and 1979 at the site of the Barstow pilot 10 MWe solar thermal power system. The station will be constructed on Southern California Edison's Coolwater property. The climate of the area is typical of the Mojave Desert, with high summer temperatures (monthly means of up to 31/sup 0/C), and low rainfall (annual mean of 94 mm). About 66% of the rain falls in winter and spring. About 75% of winds are from the west-southwest to northwest, and mean monthly wind velocities during spring and summer are around 15 to 20 km hr/sup -1/. Surface soils of the site are sandy, but soils below 3 m are generally well graded sand with some silt and gravel. Some of the soils are highly saline, to an extent precluding plant growth. All soils are alkaline, with pH values as high as 9. Over 130 species of plants have been identified on the site, 18 of which are non-native. Estimated aggregate densities of annual plants range from around 600 to almost 9000 m/sup -2/, depending on sampling locale. Aggregate densities of perennials (including herbaceous species) range from as low as 0.2 to 4.4 m/sup -2/. Creosotebush supports a varied assemblage of sap-feeding and defoliating insects, principally homopterans and orthopterans. Other shrubs are populated with hemipterans, mealybugs, thrips, phytophagous beetles and moth larvae. Common ground-dwelling species are ants, tenebrionid beetles, weevils, various orthopterans, and predatory arachnids. Some 300 different kinds of arthropods were distinguished in samples from the site. The most commonly trapped rodents were kangaroo rats (Dipodomys merriami, D. deserti), pocket mice (Perognathus formosus) and ground squirrels (Spermophilus tereticaudus). Over 60 kinds of birds were observed around the site, many associated with evaporating ponds adjoining the Coolwater Generating Station.

  8. Development Of Regional Climate Mitigation Baseline For A DominantAgro-Ecological Zone Of Karnataka, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudha, P.; Shubhashree, D.; Khan, H.; Hedge, G.T.; Murthy, I.K.; Shreedhara, V.; Ravindranath, N.H.

    2007-06-01

    Setting a baseline for carbon stock changes in forest andland use sector mitigation projects is an essential step for assessingadditionality of the project. There are two approaches for settingbaselines namely, project-specific and regional baseline. This paperpresents the methodology adopted for estimating the land available formitigation, for developing a regional baseline, transaction cost involvedand a comparison of project-specific and regional baseline. The studyshowed that it is possible to estimate the potential land and itssuitability for afforestation and reforestation mitigation projects,using existing maps and data, in the dry zone of Karnataka, southernIndia. The study adopted a three-step approach for developing a regionalbaseline, namely: i) identification of likely baseline options for landuse, ii) estimation of baseline rates of land-use change, and iii)quantification of baseline carbon profile over time. The analysis showedthat carbon stock estimates made for wastelands and fallow lands forproject-specific as well as the regional baseline are comparable. Theratio of wasteland Carbon stocks of a project to regional baseline is1.02, and that of fallow lands in the project to regional baseline is0.97. The cost of conducting field studies for determination of regionalbaseline is about a quarter of the cost of developing a project-specificbaseline on a per hectare basis. The study has shown the reliability,feasibility and cost-effectiveness of adopting regional baseline forforestry sectormitigation projects.

  9. Ecological baseline studies in Los Alamos and Guaje Canyons County of Los Alamos, New Mexico. A two-year study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foxx, T.S. [comp.

    1995-11-01

    During the summers of 1993 and 1994, the Biological Resource Evaluations Team (BRET) of the Environmental Protection Group (ESH-8) conducted baseline studies within two canyon systems, Los Alamos and Guaje Canyons. Biological data was collected within each canyon to provide background and baseline information for Ecological Risk models. Baseline studies included establishment of permanent vegetation plots within each canyon along the elevational gradient. Then, in association with the various vegetation types, surveys were conducted for ground dwelling insects, birds, and small mammals. The stream channels associated with the permanent vegetation plots were characterized and aquatic macroinvertebrates collected within the stream monthly throughout a six-month period. The Geographic Position System (GPS) in combination with ARC INFO was used to map the study areas. Considerable data was collected during these surveys and are summarized in individual chapters.

  10. Acoustic Behavior, Baseline Ecology and Habitat use of Pelagic Odontocete Species of Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    impacts. Information gained will provide a context for evaluating natural behavioral ecology and potential responses to anthropogenic sounds...tags on two sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) and two short-finned pilot whales. Tag # Sa147a Sa147b Sa147c Sa 147d Sa146a...receiver and DTAG positions. RESULTS The DMON-based tools including the towfish and DAWG drifter significantly enhanced our ability to collect

  11. Urbanization and baseline prevalence of genital infections including Candida, Trichomonas, and human papillomavirus and of a disturbed vaginal ecology as established in the Dutch Cervical Screening Program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, ME; Claasen, HHV; Kok, LP

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: An overgrowth of coccoid bacilli in the absence of lactobacilli (bacterial vaginosis) is considered a sign of a "disturbed" vaginal ecologic system. The aim of this study was to establish the baseline prevalence of genital infections and of a disturbed vaginal ecologic system and their re

  12. Simple processes drive unpredictable differences in estuarine fish assemblages: Baselines for understanding site-specific ecological and anthropogenic impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheaves, Marcus

    2016-03-01

    Predicting patterns of abundance and composition of biotic assemblages is essential to our understanding of key ecological processes, and our ability to monitor, evaluate and manage assemblages and ecosystems. Fish assemblages often vary from estuary to estuary in apparently unpredictable ways, making it challenging to develop a general understanding of the processes that determine assemblage composition. This makes it problematic to transfer understanding from one estuary situation to another and therefore difficult to assemble effective management plans or to assess the impacts of natural and anthropogenic disturbance. Although system-to-system variability is a common property of ecological systems, rather than being random it is the product of complex interactions of multiple causes and effects at a variety of spatial and temporal scales. I investigate the drivers of differences in estuary fish assemblages, to develop a simple model explaining the diversity and complexity of observed estuary-to-estuary differences, and explore its implications for management and conservation. The model attributes apparently unpredictable differences in fish assemblage composition from estuary to estuary to the interaction of species-specific, life history-specific and scale-specific processes. In explaining innate faunal differences among estuaries without the need to invoke complex ecological or anthropogenic drivers, the model provides a baseline against which the effects of additional natural and anthropogenic factors can be evaluated.

  13. Ecological baseline study of the Yakima Firing Center proposed land acquisition: A status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, L.E.; Beedlow, P.A.; Eberhardt, L.E.; Dauble, D.D.; Fitzner, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    This report provides baseline environmental information for the property identified for possible expansion of the Yakima Firing Center. Results from this work provide general descriptions of the animals and major plant communities present. A vegetation map derived from a combination of on-site surveillance and remotely sensed imagery is provided as part of this report. Twenty-seven wildlife species of special interest (protected, sensitive, furbearer, game animal, etc.), and waterfowl, were observed on the proposed expansion area. Bird censuses revealed 13 raptorial species (including four of special interest: bald eagle, golden eagle, osprey, and prairie falcon); five upland game bird species (sage grouse, California quail, chukar, gray partridge, and ring-necked pheasant); common loons (a species proposed for state listing as threatened); and five other species of special interest (sage thrasher, loggerhead shrike, mourning dove, sage sparrow, and long-billed curlew). Estimates of waterfowl abundance are included for the Priest Rapids Pool of the Columbia River. Six small mammal species were captured during this study; one, the sagebrush vole, is a species of special interest. Two large animal species, mule deer and elk, were noted on the site. Five species of furbearing animals were observed (coyote, beaver, raccoon, mink, and striped skunk). Four species of reptiles and one amphibian were noted. Fisheries surveys were conducted to document the presence of gamefish, and sensitive-classified fish and aquatic invertebrates. Rainbow trout were the only fish collected within the boundaries of the proposed northern expansion area. 22 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Loss of an ecological baseline through the eradication of oyster reefs from coastal ecosystems and human memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleway, Heidi K; Connell, Sean D

    2015-06-01

    Oyster reefs form over extensive areas and the diversity and productivity of sheltered coasts depend on them. Due to the relatively recent population growth of coastal settlements in Australia, we were able to evaluate the collapse and extirpation of native oyster reefs (Ostrea angasi) over the course of a commercial fishery. We used historical records to quantify commercial catch of O. angasi in southern Australia from early colonization, around 1836, to some of the last recorded catches in 1944 and used our estimates of catch and effort to map their past distribution and assess oyster abundance over 180 years. Significant declines in catch and effort occurred from 1886 to 1946 and no native oyster reefs occur today, but historically oyster reefs extended across more than 1,500 km of coastline. That oyster reefs were characteristic of much of the coastline of South Australia from 1836 to 1910 appears not to be known because there is no contemporary consideration of their ecological and economic value. Based on the concept of a shifted baseline, we consider this contemporary state to reflect a collective, intergenerational amnesia. Our model of generational amnesia accounts for differences in intergenerational expectations of food, economic value, and ecosystem services of nearshore areas. An ecological system that once surrounded much of the coast and possibly the past presence of oyster reefs altogether may be forgotten and could not only undermine progress towards their recovery, but also reduce our expectations of these coastal ecosystems.

  15. Determination of Baseline Periods of Record for Selected Streamflow-Gaging Stations in New Jersey for Determining Ecologically Relevant Hydrologic Indices (ERHI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esralew, Rachel A.; Baker, Ronald J.

    2008-01-01

    Hydrologic changes in New Jersey stream basins resulting from human activity can affect the flow and ecology of the streams. To assess future changes in streamflow resulting from human activity an understanding of the natural variability of streamflow is needed. The natural variability can be classified using Ecologically Relevant Hydrologic Indices (ERHIs). ERHIs are defined as selected streamflow statistics that characterize elements of the flow regime that substantially affect biological health and ecological sustainability. ERHIs are used to quantitatively characterize aspects of the streamflow regime, including magnitude, duration, frequency, timing, and rate of change. Changes in ERHI values can occur as a result of human activity, and changes in ERHIs over time at various stream locations can provide information about the degree of alteration in aquatic ecosystems at or near those locations. New Jersey streams can be divided into four classes (A, B, C, or D), where streams with similar ERHI values (determined from cluster analysis) are assigned the same stream class. In order to detect and quantify changes in ERHIs at selected streamflow-gaging stations, a 'baseline' period is needed. Ideally, a baseline period is a period of continuous daily streamflow record at a gaging station where human activity along the contributing stream reach or in the stream's basin is minimal. Because substantial urbanization and other development had already occurred before continuous streamflow-gaging stations were installed, it is not possible to identify baseline periods that meet this criterion for many reaches in New Jersey. Therefore, the baseline period for a considerably altered basin can be defined as a period prior to a substantial human-induced change in the drainage basin or stream reach (such as regulations or diversions), or a period during which development did not change substantially. Index stations (stations with minimal urbanization) were defined as streamflow

  16. Entropy and the City. GHG Emissions Inventory: a Common Baseline for the Design of Urban and Industrial Ecologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Pezzagno

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available From a thermodynamic point of view, the attribution of the adjective sustainable to an open system like the city is, at least, very problematic. The biosphere is a closed system, kept far from the thermodynamic equilibrium by the flow of energy coming from the sun. The biosphere maintains and increases its internal order dispersing entropy, generated by all the internal processes, as thermal infrared radiation. But then, the elegant picture of sustainability given by thermodynamics can not be applied to open systems, and notably to the city, without raising both theoretical and practical problems. The city is almost by definition a place of consumption and of degradation of potentials, kept in local equilibrium by external flows of matter and energy, but at the same time plays a key role in shaping and maintaining the global flows of matter, energy, and information, and this role must be taken into account when interpreting thermodynamic-based descriptions. The urban capital probably represents the greatest investment made by mankind. Materials have been harvested from the earth crust and from the natural systems, and have been concentrated and ordered in the city. But the "city" is not the infrastructure: it's concept of a different logical type. The city is a further level of organization that produces services of higher level. The urban infrastructure is necessary, but not sufficient to produce the city services. The city is the most important social and health "device". A proper accounting must consider the city-performance of the urban infrastructure, beyond the mere, local energy and carbon efficiency. In this context, local GHG accounting is proposed as a rather simple and useful basis to ground process-wise studies and projects, including the creation of effective local industrial ecologies, in a continuous city-making effort toward higher sustainability.

  17. Ecological change, sliding baselines and the importance of historical data: lessons from Combining [corrected] observational and quantitative data on a temperate reef over 70 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Gatti

    Full Text Available Understanding the effects of environmental change on ecosystems requires the identification of baselines that may act as reference conditions. However, the continuous change of these references challenges our ability to define the true natural status of ecosystems. The so-called sliding baseline syndrome can be overcome through the analysis of quantitative time series, which are, however, extremely rare. Here we show how combining historical quantitative data with descriptive 'naturalistic' information arranged in a chronological chain allows highlighting long-term trends and can be used to inform present conservation schemes. We analysed the long-term change of a coralligenous reef, a marine habitat endemic to the Mediterranean Sea. The coralligenous assemblages of Mesco Reef (Ligurian Sea, NW Mediterranean have been studied, although discontinuously, since 1937 thus making available both detailed descriptive information and scanty quantitative data: while the former was useful to understand the natural history of the ecosystem, the analysis of the latter was of paramount importance to provide a formal measure of change over time. Epibenthic assemblages remained comparatively stable until the 1990s, when species replacement, invasion by alien algae, and biotic homogenisation occurred within few years, leading to a new and completely different ecosystem state. The shift experienced by the coralligenous assemblages of Mesco Reef was probably induced by a combination of seawater warming and local human pressures, the latter mainly resulting in increased water turbidity; in turn, cumulative stress may have favoured the establishment of alien species. This study showed that the combined analysis of quantitative and descriptive historical data represent a precious knowledge to understand ecosystem trends over time and provide help to identify baselines for ecological management.

  18. Ecological Baseline, Fort Hood, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    Meridion circulare 0.9 Synedra delicatissima 1.0 1.9 Synedra rumpens 0.5 Synedra ulna 17.4 2.9 1.9 4:9 9.5 0.4 Achnanthes lanceolata 2.0 Achnanthes ...rninutus 0.5 Stephanodiscus invisitatus aria .05 Synedra delicatissima Synedra rumpens Synedra ulna 7.7 9.1 10.1 5.9 4.1 Achnanthes lanceolata 1.0... Achnanthes microcephala 12.0 43.9 43.4 20.2 47.2 Eunotia, sp. Eunotia. flevuosa 12.5 0.5 0.4 *RhoicospiFenii--c-urvata *Ampiusa pellucida 0.8 Cocconeis

  19. Report on the remedial investigation of Bear Creek Valley at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 6: Appendix G -- Baseline ecological risk assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    This Remedial Investigation (RI) Report characterizes the nature and extent of contamination, evaluates the fate and transport of contaminants, and assesses risk to human health and the environment resulting from waste disposal and other US Department of Energy (DOE) operations in Bear Creek Valley (BCV). BCV, which is located within the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) encompasses multiple waste units containing hazardous and radioactive wastes arising from operations at the adjacent Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The primary waste units discussed in this RI Report are the S-3 Site, Oil Landfarm (OLF), Boneyard/Burnyard (BYBY), Sanitary Landfill 1 (SL 1), and Bear Creek Burial Grounds (BCBG). These waste units, plus the contaminated media resulting from environmental transport of the wastes from these units, are the subject of this RI. This BCV RI Report represents the first major step in the decision-making process for the BCV watershed. The RI results, in concert with the follow-on FS will form the basis for the Proposed Plan and Record of Decision for all BCV sites. This comprehensive decision document process will meet the objectives of the watershed approach for BCV. Appendix G contains ecological risks for fish, benthic invertebrates, soil invertebrates, plants, small mammals, deer, and predator/scavengers (hawks and fox). This risk assessment identified significant ecological risks from chemicals in water, sediment, soil, and shallow ground water. Metals and PCBs are the primary contaminants of concern.

  20. The Ecological Inhibition Effect of Soil Enzyme Activity and Ecological Restoration Baseline Under Cd and Pb Single and Combined Pollution%Cd、Pb单一及复合污染下土壤酶生态抑制效应及生态修复基准研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄云凤; 高扬; 毛亮; 周培; 黄志勇

    2011-01-01

    Soil enzyme activity can effectively reflect the pollution degree of heavy metal on soil. In order to select appropriate soil enzymes as a biomarker for Cd and Pb pollution and provide scientific basis for the establishment of ecological restoration baseline on Cd and Pb pollution, the present study is to research on the change of dehydrogenase, phosphatase, urease, catalase, amylase and sucrase activities under Cd or Pb single and combined pollution. The results indicated that the sensitivity of soil enzyme activities to Cd and Pb pollution were different, and soil enzyme activity exhibited additive effect or antagonistic effect with increasing heavy metal concentration. The effects of single Cd or Pb pollution and combined pollution on the inhibition of urease activity were significant, and urease activity under Cd and Pb combined pollution exhibited additive effect. Therefore, urease can be used to the biomarker for Cd and Pb contaminated soil. Ecological dose model was used to assessing the heavy metal toxicity for Cd and Pb. The results showed that the toxic threshold of 50% ecological dose on inhibition of urease activity under Cd and Pb pollution were 2 273 and 2 703, respectively, and the baseline value of ecological restoration of Cd contaminated soil was 1.33 mg·kg-1 and the baseline value of ecological restoration of Pb contaminated soil was 106 mg·kg-1.%由于土壤酶活性可有效地反映土壤重金属的污染程度,因此,本文通过研究Cd、Pb单一及复合污染对土壤酶(脱氢酶、磷酸酶、脲酶、过氧化氢酶、淀粉酶和蔗糖酶)活性的影响,以期选取合适的土壤酶指标作为Cd、Pb污染的生物标记物,为建立Cd、Pb污染生态修复的基准提供科学依据.研究结果表明,不同的土壤酶活性对Cd、Pb的敏感性各不相同,并且酶活性随土壤重金属浓度增加表现为叠加效应或拮抗效应.Cd、Pb单一及复合污染对脲酶活性抑制作用显著,Cd、Pb复合污染对脲

  1. TAPIR--Finnish national geochemical baseline database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarva, Jaana; Tarvainen, Timo; Reinikainen, Jussi; Eklund, Mikael

    2010-09-15

    In Finland, a Government Decree on the Assessment of Soil Contamination and Remediation Needs has generated a need for reliable and readily accessible data on geochemical baseline concentrations in Finnish soils. According to the Decree, baseline concentrations, referring both to the natural geological background concentrations and the diffuse anthropogenic input of substances, shall be taken into account in the soil contamination assessment process. This baseline information is provided in a national geochemical baseline database, TAPIR, that is publicly available via the Internet. Geochemical provinces with elevated baseline concentrations were delineated to provide regional geochemical baseline values. The nationwide geochemical datasets were used to divide Finland into geochemical provinces. Several metals (Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, V, and Zn) showed anomalous concentrations in seven regions that were defined as metal provinces. Arsenic did not follow a similar distribution to any other elements, and four arsenic provinces were separately determined. Nationwide geochemical datasets were not available for some other important elements such as Cd and Pb. Although these elements are included in the TAPIR system, their distribution does not necessarily follow the ones pre-defined for metal and arsenic provinces. Regional geochemical baseline values, presented as upper limit of geochemical variation within the region, can be used as trigger values to assess potential soil contamination. Baseline values have also been used to determine upper and lower guideline values that must be taken into account as a tool in basic risk assessment. If regional geochemical baseline values are available, the national guideline values prescribed in the Decree based on ecological risks can be modified accordingly. The national geochemical baseline database provides scientifically sound, easily accessible and generally accepted information on the baseline values, and it can be used in various

  2. Magic Baseline Beta Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwalla, Sanjib Kumar; Raychaudhuri, Amitava

    2007-01-01

    We study the physics reach of an experiment where neutrinos produced in a beta-beam facility at CERN are observed in a large magnetized iron calorimeter (ICAL) at the India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO). The CERN-INO distance is close to the so-called "magic" baseline which helps evade some of the parameter degeneracies and allows for a better measurement of the neutrino mass hierarchy and $\\theta_{13}$.

  3. The TDAQ Baseline Architecture

    CERN Multimedia

    Wickens, F J

    The Trigger-DAQ community is currently busy preparing material for the DAQ, HLT and DCS TDR. Over the last few weeks a very important step has been a series of meetings to complete agreement on the baseline architecture. An overview of the architecture indicating some of the main parameters is shown in figure 1. As reported at the ATLAS Plenary during the February ATLAS week, the main area where the baseline had not yet been agreed was around the Read-Out System (ROS) and details in the DataFlow. The agreed architecture has: Read-Out Links (ROLs) from the RODs using S-Link; Read-Out Buffers (ROB) sited near the RODs, mounted in a chassis - today assumed to be a PC, using PCI bus at least for configuration, control and monitoring. The baseline assumes data aggregation, in the ROB and/or at the output (which could either be over a bus or in the network). Optimization of the data aggregation will be made in the coming months, but the current model has each ROB card receiving input from 4 ROLs, and 3 such c...

  4. [Ecology and ecologies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera, Luca

    2011-01-01

    Ecology (from the Greek words οιχοσ, "house" and λογια "study of") is the science of the "house", since it studies the environments where we live. There are three main ways of thinking about Ecology: Ecology as the study of interactions (between humans and the environment, between humans and living beings, between all living beings, etc.), Ecology as the statistical study of interactions, Ecology as a faith, or rather as a science that requires a metaphysical view. The history of Ecology shows us how this view was released by the label of "folk sense" to gain the epistemological status of science, a science that strives to be interdisciplinary. So, the aim of Ecology is to study, through a scientific methodology, the whole natural world, answering to very different questions, that arise from several fields (Economics, Biology, Sociology, Philosophy, etc.). The plurality of issues that Ecology has to face led, during the Twentieth-century, to branch off in several different "ecologies". As a result, each one of these new approaches chose as its own field a more limited and specific portion of reality.

  5. Long Baseline Neutrino Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzetto, Mauro

    2016-05-01

    Following the discovery of neutrino oscillations by the Super-Kamiokande collaboration, recently awarded with the Nobel Prize, two generations of long baseline experiments had been setup to further study neutrino oscillations. The first generation experiments, K2K in Japan, Minos in the States and Opera in Europe, focused in confirming the Super-Kamiokande result, improving the precision with which oscillation parameters had been measured and demonstrating the ντ appearance process. Second generation experiments, T2K in Japan and very recently NOνA in the States, went further, being optimized to look for genuine three neutrino phenomena like non-zero values of θ13 and first glimpses to leptonic CP violation (LCPV) and neutrino mass ordering (NMO). The discovery of leptonic CP violation will require third generation setups, at the moment two strong proposals are ongoing, Dune in the States and Hyper-Kamiokande in Japan. This review will focus a little more in these future initiatives.

  6. Biofuels Baseline 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamelinck, C.; Koper, M.; Berndes, G.; Englund, O.; Diaz-Chavez, R.; Kunen, E.; Walden, D.

    2011-10-15

    The European Union is promoting the use of biofuels and other renewable energy in transport. In April 2009, the Renewable Energy Directive (2009/28/EC) was adopted that set a 10% target for renewable energy in transport in 2020. The directive sets several requirements to the sustainability of biofuels marketed in the frame of the Directive. The Commission is required to report to the European Parliament on a regular basis on a range of sustainability impacts resulting from the use of biofuels in the EU. This report serves as a baseline of information for regular monitoring on the impacts of the Directive. Chapter 2 discusses the EU biofuels market, the production and consumption of biofuels and international trade. It is derived where the feedstock for EU consumed biofuels originally come from. Chapter 3 discusses the biofuel policy framework in the EU and major third countries of supply. It looks at various policy aspects that are relevant to comply with the EU sustainability requirements. Chapter 4 discusses the environmental and social sustainability aspects associated with EU biofuels and their feedstock. Chapter 5 discusses the macro-economic effects that indirectly result from increased EU biofuels consumption, on commodity prices and land use. Chapter 6 presents country factsheets for main third countries that supplied biofuels to the EU market in 2008.

  7. Administrative Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarity, Augustus C., III; Maulding, Wanda

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how all four facets of administrative ecology help dispel the claims about the "impossibility" of the superintendency. These are personal ecology, professional ecology, organizational ecology, and community ecology. Using today's superintendency as an administrative platform, current literature describes a preponderance of…

  8. Hanford Site technical baseline database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, P.E., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-10

    This document includes a cassette tape that contains the Hanford specific files that make up the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database as of May 10, 1996. The cassette tape also includes the delta files that delineate the differences between this revision and revision 3 (April 10, 1996) of the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database.

  9. Hanford Site technical baseline database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, P.E.

    1996-09-30

    This document includes a cassette tape that contains the Hanford specific files that make up the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database as of September 30, 1996. The cassette tape also includes the delta files that dellinate the differences between this revision and revision 4 (May 10, 1996) of the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database.

  10. Plutonium Immobilization Project Baseline Formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebbinghaus, B.

    1999-02-01

    A key milestone for the Immobilization Project (AOP Milestone 3.2a) in Fiscal Year 1998 (FY98) is the definition of the baseline composition or formulation for the plutonium ceramic form. The baseline formulation for the plutonium ceramic product must be finalized before the repository- and plant-related process specifications can be determined. The baseline formulation that is currently specified is given in Table 1.1. In addition to the baseline formulation specification, this report provides specifications for two alternative formulations, related compositional specifications (e.g., precursor compositions and mixing recipes), and other preliminary form and process specifications that are linked to the baseline formulation. The preliminary specifications, when finalized, are not expected to vary tremendously from the preliminary values given.

  11. Oscillation Baselining and Analysis Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-03-27

    PNNL developed a new tool for oscillation analysis and baselining. This tool has been developed under a new DOE Grid Modernization Laboratory Consortium (GMLC) Project (GM0072 - “Suite of open-source applications and models for advanced synchrophasor analysis”) and it is based on the open platform for PMU analysis. The Oscillation Baselining and Analysis Tool (OBAT) performs the oscillation analysis and identifies modes of oscillations (frequency, damping, energy, and shape). The tool also does oscillation event baselining (fining correlation between oscillations characteristics and system operating conditions).

  12. 324 Building Baseline Radiological Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.J. Reeder, J.C. Cooper

    2010-06-24

    This report documents the analysis of radiological data collected as part of the characterization study performed in 1998. The study was performed to create a baseline of the radiological conditions in the 324 Building.

  13. Quivira NWR biological baseline data

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This dataset is biological baseline data for Quivira National Wildlife Refuge as of January 2016. It contains data on species found on the refuge, when and where...

  14. Long-term monitoring of coastal ecosystems at Las Cruces, Chile: Defining baselines to build ecological literacy in a world of change Monitoreo de largo plazo en el ecosistema marino costero de Las Cruces, Chile: Definiendo líneas base para construir alfabetización ecológica en un mundo que cambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERGIO A NAVARRETE

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Marine coastal habitats are being increasingly impacted by human activities. In addition, there are dramatic climatic disruptions that could generate important and irreversible shifts in coastal ecosystems. Long-term monitoring plays a fundamental and irreplaceable role to establish general baselines from which we can better address current and future impacts and distinguish between natural and anthropogenic changes and fluctuations. Here we highlight how over 25 years of monitoring the coastal marine ecosystem within the no-take marine protected area of Las Cruces has provided critical information to understand ecological baselines and build the necessary ecological literacy for marine management and conservation. We argue that this understanding can only be gained with simultaneous monitoring of reserves and human-impacted areas, and the development of complementary experimental studies that test alternative hypothesis about driving processes and mechanisms. In this contribution we selected four examples to illustrate long-term temporal fluctuations at all trophic levels including taxa from algae to sea birds. From these examples we draw a few general lessons: a there is co-occurrence of rapid- and slowly- unfolding ecological responses to the exclusion of humans within the same rocky shore community. The sharp differences in the pace at which depleted populations recover is at least partly related to differences in life history (dispersal capabilities of the targeted species. b Long-term monitoring of the supply-side of marine communities is critical to evaluate the potential feedback effects of local changes in abundance into the arrival of new individuals and to correctly evaluate environmental and human-induced perturbations. c Unexpected changes in local population dynamics can occur in “independent” and apparently non-interactive modules of the marine ecosystem, such as roosting sea birds inside the reserve. In addition we discuss

  15. Re-Creating Missing Population Baselines for Pacific Reef Sharks

    OpenAIRE

    Marc O Nadon; Julia K. Baum; Ivor D Williams; Mcpherson, Jana M; Zgliczynski, Brian J.; Richards, Benjamin L.; Schroeder, Robert E.; Russell E Brainard

    2012-01-01

    Summary Abstract Sharks and other large predators are scarce on most coral reefs, but studies of their historical ecology provide qualitative evidence that predators were once numerous in these ecosystems. Quantifying density of sharks in the absence of humans (baseline) is, however, hindered by a paucity of pertinent time-series data. Recently researchers have used underwater visual surveys, primarily of limited spatial extent or nonstandard design, to infer negative associations between ree...

  16. Baseline Removal From EMG Recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    a time-varying baseline contamination. Acknowledgements: Work funded by the Departamento de Salud del Gobierno de Navarrra and by a Spanish MEC...Name(s) and Address(es) Departamento de Ingenieria Electra y Electronica Universidad Publica de Navarra Pamplona, Spain Performing Organization Report

  17. Mode S Baseline Radar Tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-01

    range units and 20 azimuth units) overlaying the position of the beacon reports. In the cases analyzed where beacon reports were not radar reinforced ...82/53 j~ C ~ 7 C _ _ _ _ _ _ 4. Title end Su.btitle 5. Neget at. November 1982 MDDE S BASELINE RADAR TRACKIN4G 6. Poelin Orgeuianti.. Cede ACT-100...Ground Clutter 33 Mode S/ARTS III 100-Scan False Radar Track Summary 74 34 Percent Beacon Radar Reinforcement 77 vii INTRODUCTION PURPOSE. The purpose of

  18. Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwan, M. V.; Galymov, V.; Qian, X.; Rubbia, A.

    2016-10-01

    We review long-baseline neutrino experiments in which neutrinos are detected after traversing macroscopic distances. Over such distances neutrinos have been found to oscillate among flavor states. Experiments with solar, atmospheric, reactor, and accelerator neutrinos have resulted in a coherent picture of neutrino masses and mixing of the three known flavor states. We summarize the current best knowledge of neutrino parameters and phenomenology, with a focus on the evolution of the experimental technique. We proceed from the first evidence produced by astrophysical neutrino sources to the current open questions and the goals of future research.

  19. Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Diwan, M V; Qian, X; Rubbia, A

    2016-01-01

    We review long-baseline neutrino experiments in which neutrinos are detected after traversing macroscopic distances. Over such distances neutrinos have been found to oscillate among flavor states. Experiments with solar, atmospheric, reactor, and accelerator neutrinos have resulted in a coherent picture of neutrino masses and mixing of the three known flavor states. We will summarize the current best knowledge of neutrino parameters and phenomenology with our focus on the evolution of the experimental technique. We proceed from the first evidence produced by astrophysical neutrino sources to the current open questions and the goals of future research.

  20. Baseline LAW Glass Formulation Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, Albert A. [USDOE Office of River Protection, Richland, WA (United States); Mooers, Cavin [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab.; Bazemore, Gina [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Pegg, Ian L. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Hight, Kenneth [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Lai, Shan Tao [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Buechele, Andrew [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Rielley, Elizabeth [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Gan, Hao [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Muller, Isabelle S. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Cecil, Richard [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab

    2013-06-13

    The major objective of the baseline glass formulation work was to develop and select glass formulations that are compliant with contractual and processing requirements for each of the LAW waste streams. Other objectives of the work included preparation and characterization of glasses with respect to the properties of interest, optimization of sulfate loading in the glasses, evaluation of ability to achieve waste loading limits, testing to demonstrate compatibility of glass melts with melter materials of construction, development of glass formulations to support ILAW qualification activities, and identification of glass formulation issues with respect to contract specifications and processing requirements.

  1. Ecological Inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Gary; Rosen, Ori; Tanner, Martin A.

    2004-09-01

    This collection of essays brings together a diverse group of scholars to survey the latest strategies for solving ecological inference problems in various fields. The last half-decade has witnessed an explosion of research in ecological inference--the process of trying to infer individual behavior from aggregate data. Although uncertainties and information lost in aggregation make ecological inference one of the most problematic types of research to rely on, these inferences are required in many academic fields, as well as by legislatures and the Courts in redistricting, by business in marketing research, and by governments in policy analysis.

  2. FED baseline engineering studies report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sager, P.H.

    1983-04-01

    Studies were carried out on the FED Baseline to improve design definition, establish feasibility, and reduce cost. Emphasis was placed on cost reduction, but significant feasibility concerns existed in several areas, and better design definition was required to establish feasibility and provide a better basis for cost estimates. Design definition and feasibility studies included the development of a labyrinth shield ring concept to prevent radiation streaming between the torus spool and the TF coil cryostat. The labyrinth shield concept which was developed reduced radiation streaming sufficiently to permit contact maintenance of the inboard EF coils. Various concepts of preventing arcing between adjacent shield sectors were also explored. It was concluded that installation of copper straps with molybdenum thermal radiation shields would provide the most reliable means of preventing arcing. Other design studies included torus spool electrical/structural concepts, test module shielding, torus seismic response, poloidal conditions in the magnets, disruption characteristics, and eddy current effects. These additional studies had no significant impact on cost but did confirm the feasibility of the basic FED Baseline concept.

  3. Ecological Modernization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, A.P.J.

    2006-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Globalization provides a thorough understanding of the theoretical underpinnings of globalization as well as the various historical and analytical interpretations. Consisting of over 400 entries, coverage includes key cultural, ecological, economic, geographical, historical, poli

  4. Cognitive ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Edwin

    2010-10-01

    Cognitive ecology is the study of cognitive phenomena in context. In particular, it points to the web of mutual dependence among the elements of a cognitive ecosystem. At least three fields were taking a deeply ecological approach to cognition 30 years ago: Gibson's ecological psychology, Bateson's ecology of mind, and Soviet cultural-historical activity theory. The ideas developed in those projects have now found a place in modern views of embodied, situated, distributed cognition. As cognitive theory continues to shift from units of analysis defined by inherent properties of the elements to units defined in terms of dynamic patterns of correlation across elements, the study of cognitive ecosystems will become an increasingly important part of cognitive science.

  5. Community Ecology

    CERN Document Server

    1988-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of a workshop on community ecology organized at Davis, in April, 1986, sponsored by the Sloan Foundation. There have been several recent symposia on community ecology (Strong et. al., 1984, Diamond and Case, 1987) which have covered a wide range of topics. The goal of the workshop at Davis was more narrow: to explore the role of scale in developing a theoretical approach to understanding communities. There are a number of aspects of scale that enter into attempts to understand ecological communities. One of the most basic is organizational scale. Should community ecology proceed by building up from population biology? This question and its ramifications are stressed throughout the book and explored in the first chapter by Simon Levin. Notions of scale have long been important in understanding physical systems. Thus, in understanding the interactions of organisms with their physical environment, questions of scale become paramount. These more physical questions illustrate the...

  6. Pinellas Plant Environmental Baseline Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1997-06-01

    The Pinellas Plant has been part of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) nuclear weapons complex since the plant opened in 1957. In March 1995, the DOE sold the Pinellas Plant to the Pinellas County Industry Council (PCIC). DOE has leased back a large portion of the plant site to facilitate transition to alternate use and safe shutdown. The current mission is to achieve a safe transition of the facility from defense production and prepare the site for alternative uses as a community resource for economic development. Toward that effort, the Pinellas Plant Environmental Baseline Report (EBR) discusses the current and past environmental conditions of the plant site. Information for the EBR is obtained from plant records. Historical process and chemical usage information for each area is reviewed during area characterizations.

  7. TWRS privatization process technical baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orme, R.M.

    1996-09-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is planning a two-phased program for the remediation of Hanford tank waste. Phase 1 is a pilot program to demonstrate the procurement of treatment services. The volume of waste treated during the Phase 1 is a small percentage of the tank waste. During Phase 2, DOE intends to procure treatment services for the balance of the waste. The TWRS Privatization Process Technical Baseline (PPTB) provides a summary level flowsheet/mass balance of tank waste treatment operations which is consistent with the tank inventory information, waste feed staging studies, and privatization guidelines currently available. The PPTB will be revised periodically as privatized processing concepts are crystallized.

  8. Integrated Baseline Review (IBR) Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Jon F.; Kehrer, Kristen C.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this handbook is intended to be a how-to guide to prepare for, conduct, and close-out an Integrated Baseline Review (IBR). It discusses the steps that should be considered, describes roles and responsibilities, tips for tailoring the IBR based on risk, cost, and need for management insight, and provides lessons learned from past IBRs. Appendices contain example documentation typically used in connection with an IBR. Note that these appendices are examples only, and should be tailored to meet the needs of individual projects and contracts. Following the guidance in this handbook will help customers and suppliers preparing for an IBR understand the expectations of the IBR, and ensure that the IBR meets the requirements for both in-house and contract efforts.

  9. Baseline Behavior of Pilot Whales and their Responses to Playback of Anthropogenic and Natural Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Baseline Behavior of Pilot Whales and their Responses to...N000141210417 LONG-TERM GOALS This project investigated the social ecology and baseline behavior of long-finned pilot whales as part of a broad...noise sources compared to beaked whales . However, studies have been hindered by high inherent variability in acoustic and diving behavior and a lack

  10. Coral reef baselines: how much macroalgae is natural?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, John F; Precht, William F; Vroom, Peter S; Aronson, Richard B

    2014-03-15

    Identifying the baseline or natural state of an ecosystem is a critical step in effective conservation and restoration. Like most marine ecosystems, coral reefs are being degraded by human activities: corals and fish have declined in abundance and seaweeds, or macroalgae, have become more prevalent. The challenge for resource managers is to reverse these trends, but by how much? Based on surveys of Caribbean reefs in the 1970s, some reef scientists believe that the average cover of seaweed was very low in the natural state: perhaps less than 3%. On the other hand, evidence from remote Pacific reefs, ecological theory, and impacts of over-harvesting in other systems all suggest that, historically, macroalgal biomass may have been higher than assumed. Uncertainties about the natural state of coral reefs illustrate the difficulty of determining the baseline condition of even well studied systems.

  11. Atlantic NAD 83 SLA Baseline Tangents

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains baseline tangent lines in ArcGIS shapefile format for the BOEM Atlantic Region. Baseline tangent lines are typically bay or river closing...

  12. Atlantic NAD 83 SLA Baseline Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains baseline points in ArcGIS shapefile format for the BOEM Atlantic Region. Baseline points are the discrete coordinate points along the...

  13. 2016 Annual Technology Baseline (ATB) - Webinar Presentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Wesley; Kurup, Parthiv; Hand, Maureen; Feldman, David; Sigrin, Benjamin; Lantz, Eric; Stehly, Tyler; Augustine, Chad; Turchi, Craig; Porro, Gian; O' Connor, Patrick; Waldoch, Connor

    2016-09-13

    This deck was presented for the 2016 Annual Technology Baseline Webinar. The presentation describes the Annual Technology Baseline, which is a compilation of current and future cost and performance data for electricity generation technologies.

  14. Ecological epigenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilvitis, Holly J; Alvarez, Mariano; Foust, Christy M; Schrey, Aaron W; Robertson, Marta; Richards, Christina L

    2014-01-01

    Biologists have assumed that heritable variation due to DNA sequence differences (i.e., genetic variation) allows populations of organisms to be both robust and adaptable to extreme environmental conditions. Natural selection acts on the variation among different genotypes and ultimately changes the genetic composition of the population. While there is compelling evidence about the importance of genetic polymorphisms, evidence is accumulating that epigenetic mechanisms (e.g., chromatin modifications, DNA methylation) can affect ecologically important traits, even in the absence of genetic variation. In this chapter, we review this evidence and discuss the consequences of epigenetic variation in natural populations. We begin by defining the term epigenetics, providing a brief overview of various epigenetic mechanisms, and noting the potential importance of epigenetics in the study of ecology. We continue with a review of the ecological epigenetics literature to demonstrate what is currently known about the amount and distribution of epigenetic variation in natural populations. Then, we consider the various ecological contexts in which epigenetics has proven particularly insightful and discuss the potential evolutionary consequences of epigenetic variation. Finally, we conclude with suggestions for future directions of ecological epigenetics research.

  15. Information Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ellen Tove

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes a pedagogical didactical paradigm for teaching student-designers how to deal with context issues. Form/context-relationships are conceptualized as information ecologies and described as behavioral settings using a key concept developed by social psychologist R.A. Baker...... in the 1960ties, and chosen here because it integrates cultural and psychological trajectories in a theory of living settings. The pedagogical-didactical paradigm comprises three distinct information ecologies, named after their intended outcome: the problem-setting, the exploration-setting, and the fit......-setting. It is specified how context issues can be treated within each of these information ecologies. The paper concludes by discussing the outcome of applying this paradigm with respect to the student-designers’ competence as reflective practitioners....

  16. 2016 Annual Technology Baseline (ATB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Wesley; Kurup, Parthiv; Hand, Maureen; Feldman, David; Sigrin, Benjamin; Lantz, Eric; Stehly, Tyler; Augustine, Chad; Turchi, Craig; O' Connor, Patrick; Waldoch, Connor

    2016-09-01

    Consistent cost and performance data for various electricity generation technologies can be difficult to find and may change frequently for certain technologies. With the Annual Technology Baseline (ATB), National Renewable Energy Laboratory provides an organized and centralized dataset that was reviewed by internal and external experts. It uses the best information from the Department of Energy laboratory's renewable energy analysts and Energy Information Administration information for conventional technologies. The ATB will be updated annually in order to provide an up-to-date repository of current and future cost and performance data. Going forward, we plan to revise and refine the values using best available information. The ATB includes both a presentation with notes (PDF) and an associated Excel Workbook. The ATB includes the following electricity generation technologies: land-based wind; offshore wind; utility-scale solar PV; concentrating solar power; geothermal power; hydropower plants (upgrades to existing facilities, powering non-powered dams, and new stream-reach development); conventional coal; coal with carbon capture and sequestration; integrated gasification combined cycle coal; natural gas combustion turbines; natural gas combined cycle; conventional biopower. Nuclear laboratory's renewable energy analysts and Energy Information Administration information for conventional technologies. The ATB will be updated annually in order to provide an up-to-date repository of current and future cost and performance data. Going forward, we plan to revise and refine the values using best available information.

  17. Bacterial Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenchel, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial ecology is concerned with the interactions between bacteria and their biological and nonbiological environments and with the role of bacteria in biogeochemical element cycling. Many fundamental properties of bacteria are consequences of their small size. Thus, they can efficiently exploit...

  18. Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico Environmental Baseline update--Revision 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This report provides a baseline update to provide the background information necessary for personnel to prepare clear and consise NEPA documentation. The environment of the Sandia National Laboratories is described in this document, including the ecology, meteorology, climatology, seismology, emissions, cultural resources and land use, visual resources, noise pollution, transportation, and socioeconomics.

  19. Graphic Ecologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brook Weld Muller

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay describes strategic approaches to graphic representation associated with critical environmental engagement and that build from the idea of works of architecture as stitches in the ecological fabric of the city. It focuses on the building up of partial or fragmented graphics in order to describe inclusive, open-ended possibilities for making architecture that marry rich experience and responsive performance. An aphoristic approach to crafting drawings involves complex layering, conscious absence and the embracing of tension. A self-critical attitude toward the generation of imagery characterized by the notion of ‘loose precision’ may lead to more transformative and environmentally responsive architectures.

  20. Life Support Baseline Values and Assumptions Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Molly S.; Ewert, Michael K.; Keener, John F.; Wagner, Sandra A.

    2015-01-01

    The Baseline Values and Assumptions Document (BVAD) provides analysts, modelers, and other life support researchers with a common set of values and assumptions which can be used as a baseline in their studies. This baseline, in turn, provides a common point of origin from which many studies in the community may depart, making research results easier to compare and providing researchers with reasonable values to assume for areas outside their experience. With the ability to accurately compare different technologies' performance for the same function, managers will be able to make better decisions regarding technology development.

  1. Ecological macroeconomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2013-01-01

    of this discussion includes contributions from actors involved with efforts to advance a ‘Green New Deal’ that repeats the idea that the promotion of green innovation and government funding of greener infrastructure would improve competitiveness and increase employment. This time ‘Green Keynesianism’ is accompanied...... to shift resources from consumption to investment and describing the role of consumer-citizens in such a change. The chapter starts by identifying the problems and challenges for an ecological macroeconomics. The next section outlines some of the shortcomings of traditional macroeconomics...... to energy, transport, housing, food and so forth. The fourth section outlines briefly the roles of consumer-citizens in relation to such sustainability transformations and the final section considers the possibilities for initiating the envisioned changes....

  2. NRAO Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) comprises ten radio telescopes spanning 5,351 miles. It's the world's largest, sharpest, dedicated telescope array. With an eye...

  3. SSA FITARA Common Baseline Implementation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This document describes the agency's plan to implement the Federal Information Technology Acquisition Reform Act (FITARA) Common Baseline per OMB memorandum M-15-14.

  4. Breton Island, Louisiana Baseline (Geographic, NAD83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Breton Island, Louisiana Baseline (Geographic, NAD83) consists of vector line data that were input into the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) version 4.0,...

  5. Re-creating missing population baselines for Pacific reef sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadon, Marc O; Baum, Julia K; Williams, Ivor D; McPherson, Jana M; Zgliczynski, Brian J; Richards, Benjamin L; Schroeder, Robert E; Brainard, Russell E

    2012-06-01

    Sharks and other large predators are scarce on most coral reefs, but studies of their historical ecology provide qualitative evidence that predators were once numerous in these ecosystems. Quantifying density of sharks in the absence of humans (baseline) is, however, hindered by a paucity of pertinent time-series data. Recently researchers have used underwater visual surveys, primarily of limited spatial extent or nonstandard design, to infer negative associations between reef shark abundance and human populations. We analyzed data from 1607 towed-diver surveys (>1 ha transects surveyed by observers towed behind a boat) conducted at 46 reefs in the central-western Pacific Ocean, reefs that included some of the world's most pristine coral reefs. Estimates of shark density from towed-diver surveys were substantially lower (sharks observed in towed-diver surveys and human population in models that accounted for the influence of oceanic primary productivity, sea surface temperature, reef area, and reef physical complexity. We used these models to estimate the density of sharks in the absence of humans. Densities of gray reef sharks (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos), whitetip reef sharks (Triaenodon obesus), and the group "all reef sharks" increased substantially as human population decreased and as primary productivity and minimum sea surface temperature (or reef area, which was highly correlated with temperature) increased. Simulated baseline densities of reef sharks under the absence of humans were 1.1-2.4/ha for the main Hawaiian Islands, 1.2-2.4/ha for inhabited islands of American Samoa, and 0.9-2.1/ha for inhabited islands in the Mariana Archipelago, which suggests that density of reef sharks has declined to 3-10% of baseline levels in these areas.

  6. Wordsworthian Ecology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱文宣

    2014-01-01

    Wordsworth devoted himself to the ideal of a harmonious relation between human and nature, between man and soci-ety, between man and the ego. In this sense, Wordsworth improved the development of ecology. This argument will be support-ed by the approach of eco-criticism and Heidegger’s eco-philosophy. And it is supported by the following points.The first part points out that Wordsworth’s love of nature led to his love of man, which was reflected by his care for common people. Part Two shows Wordsworth’s solicitude for dwelling. His notion of dwelling had aspect of poetic dwelling. The harmonious hu-man-nature relationship reveals thee essence of free dwelling. His poetic experiment agreed with Heidegger ’s argument on poet-ic creation. His discussion of free labour was like Heidegger’s interpretation of“merit”. Part Three tells about Wordsworth’s great effort to amend the alienated human nature by treasuring the Child’s nature, imagination and human feelings.In this way, the conclusion can be got:although it would be a huge project to reinterpret Wordsworth with the approaches of eco-criticism and Heidegger’s eco-philosophy, it is still worth making the effort.

  7. Sound Ecologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Duffy

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Discussions about what constitutes ‘the rural’ invariably focus on notions of spatial location – of inhabiting spaces apart from that of the metropolitan. Deeply embedded in our images of what it means to be Australian, nonetheless our intellectual framing of ‘the rural’ as something outback and beyond has significant implications for our relations with these spaces. The relatively recent phenomenon of sea- and tree-changes has struck many unawares, and not simply because a good latté is so hard to find. Although a frivolous remark, such an apparent lack does shift our focus to a bodily scale of the rural; how is rural place re/made through our experiences of it? This article originates out of on-going research that explores the practice of listening and sound and the ways in which the body can draw attention to the intuitive, emotional, and psychoanalytical processes of subjectivity and place-making. Drawing on Nigel Thrift’s concept of an ecology of place, I suggest that contemporary heightened concerns with regards to loss and lack in rural Australia has led to a nascent emotional economy – one in which individual and intimate connections to the rural require a rethinking of how we live community and belonging. In such a terrain, what does it mean to be rural?

  8. Ecological Research Division, Marine Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    This report presents program summaries of the various projects sponsored during 1979 by the Marine Research Program of the Ecological Research Division. Program areas include the effects of petroleum hydrocarbons on the marine environment; a study of the baseline ecology of a proposed OTEC site near Puerto Rico; the environmental impact of offshore geothermal energy development; the movement of radionuclides through the marine environment; the environmental aspects of power plant cooling systems; and studies of the physical and biological oceangraphy of the continental shelves bordering the United States.

  9. Salton Sea sampling program: baseline studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tullis, R.E.; Carter, J.L.; Langlois, G.W.

    1981-04-13

    Baseline data are provided on three species of fish from the Salton Sea, California. The fishes considered were the orange mouth corvina (Cynoscion xanthulus), gulf croaker (Bairdiella icistius) and sargo (Anisotremus davidsonii). Morphometric and meristic data are presented as a baseline to aid in the evaluation of any physiological stress the fish may experience as a result of geothermal development. Analyses were made on muscle, liver, and bone of the fishes sampled to provide baseline data on elemental tissue burdens. The elements measured were: As, Br, Ca, Cu, Fe, Ga, K, Mn, Mi, Pb, Rb, Se, Sr, Zn, and Zr. These data are important if an environmentally sound progression of geothermal power production is to occur at the Salton Sea.

  10. Baseline methodologies for clean development mechanism projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M.K. (ed.); Shrestha, R.M.; Sharma, S.; Timilsina, G.R.; Kumar, S.

    2005-11-15

    The Kyoto Protocol and the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) came into force on 16th February 2005 with its ratification by Russia. The increasing momentum of this process is reflected in more than 100 projects having been submitted to the CDM Executive Board (CDM-EB) for approval of the baselines and monitoring methodologies, which is the first step in developing and implementing CDM projects. A CDM project should result in a net decrease of GHG emissions below any level that would have resulted from other activities implemented in the absence of that CDM project. The 'baseline' defines the GHG emissions of activities that would have been implemented in the absence of a CDM project. The baseline methodology is the process/algorithm for establishing that baseline. The baseline, along with the baseline methodology, are thus the most critical element of any CDM project towards meeting the important criteria of CDM, which are that a CDM should result in 'real, measurable, and long term benefits related to the mitigation of climate change'. This guidebook is produced within the frame work of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) facilitated 'Capacity Development for the Clean Development Mechanism (CD4CDM)' Project. This document is published as part of the projects effort to develop guidebooks that cover important issues such as project finance, sustainability impacts, legal framework and institutional framework. These materials are aimed to help stakeholders better understand the CDM and are believed to eventually contribute to maximize the effect of the CDM in achieving the ultimate goal of UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol. This Guidebook should be read in conjunction with the information provided in the two other guidebooks entitled, 'Clean Development Mechanism: Introduction to the CDM' and 'CDM Information and Guidebook' developed under the CD4CDM project. (BA)

  11. Long-baseline Neutrino Oscillation at DUNE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worcester, Elizabeth; DUNE Collaboration Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment with primary physics goals of determining the neutrino mass hierarchy and measuring δc P with sufficient sensitivity to discover CP violation in neutrino oscillation. CP violation sensitivity in DUNE requires careful understanding of systematic uncertainty, with contributions expected from uncertainties in the neutrino flux, neutrino interactions, and detector effects. In this presentation, we will describe the expected sensitivity of DUNE to long-baseline neutrino oscillation parameters, how various aspects of the experimental design contribute to that sensitivity, and the planned strategy for constraining systematic uncertainty in these measurements.

  12. Neutrino Interactions and Long-Baseline Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Mosel, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    The extraction of neutrino mixing parameters and the CP-violating phase requires knowledge of the neutrino energy. This energy must be reconstructed from the final state of a neutrino-nucleus reaction since all long-baseline experiments use nuclear targets. This reconstruction requires detailed knowledge of the neutrino reactions with bound nucleons and of the final state interactions of hadrons with the nuclear environment. Quantum-kinetic transport theory can be used to build an event generator for this reconstruction that takes basic nuclear properties, such as binding, into account. Some examples are discussed that show the effects of nuclear interactions on observables in long-baseline experiments

  13. 40 CFR 80.90 - Conventional gasoline baseline emissions determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... using the facility's oxygenated individual baseline fuel parameter values for summer and winter (per... using the oxygenated individual baseline fuel parameter values for summer and winter (per § 80.91... baseline NOX emissions shall be determined using the baseline individual baseline fuel parameter values...

  14. Solid Waste Program technical baseline description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, A.B.

    1994-07-01

    The system engineering approach has been taken to describe the technical baseline under which the Solid Waste Program is currently operating. The document contains a mission analysis, function analysis, system definition, documentation requirements, facility and project bases, and uncertainties facing the program.

  15. How Valid Are the Portland Baseline Essays?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Erich

    1991-01-01

    Portland, Oregon's "African-American Baseline Essays," widely used in creating multicultural curricula, inaccurately depicts ancient Egyptians as black people and Olmec civilization as derived from African influences. The authors advance racial theories long abandoned by mainline Africa scholars, attribute mystical powers to pyramids,…

  16. Waste management project technical baseline description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sederburg, J.P.

    1997-08-13

    A systems engineering approach has been taken to describe the technical baseline under which the Waste Management Project is currently operating. The document contains a mission analysis, function analysis, requirement analysis, interface definitions, alternative analysis, system definition, documentation requirements, implementation definitions, and discussion of uncertainties facing the Project.

  17. Guidance on Port Biological Baseline Surveys (PBBS)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Awad, A.; Haag, F.; Anil, A.C.; Abdulla, A.

    This publication has been prepared by GBP, IOI, CSIR-NIO and IUCN in order to serve as guidance to those who are planning to carry out a port biological baseline survey, in particular in the context of Ballast Water Management. It has been drafted...

  18. Rationing in the presence of baselines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    2013-01-01

    We analyze a general model of rationing in which agents have baselines, in addition to claims against the (insufficient) endowment of the good to be allocated. Many real-life problems fit this general model (e.g., bankruptcy with prioritized claims, resource allocation in the public health care...

  19. Preliminary environmental assessment of selected geopressured - geothermal prospect areas: Louisiana Gulf Coast Region. Volume II. Environmental baseline data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newchurch, E.J.; Bachman, A.L.; Bryan, C.F.; Harrison, D.P.; Muller, R.A.; Newman, J.P. Jr.; Smith, C.G. Jr.; Bailey, J.I. Jr.; Kelly, G.G.; Reibert, K.C.

    1978-10-15

    A separate section is presented for each of the six prospect areas studied. Each section includes a compilation and discussion of environmental baseline data derived from existing sources. The data are arranged as follows: geology and geohydrology, air quality, water resources and flood hazards, ecological systems, and land use. When data specific to the prospect were not available, regional data are reported. (MHR)

  20. CASA Uno GPS orbit and baseline experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutz, B. E.; Ho, C. S.; Abusali, P. A. M.; Tapley, B. D.

    1990-01-01

    CASA Uno data from sites distributed in longitude from Australia to Europe have been used to determine orbits of the GPS satellites. The characteristics of the orbits determined from double difference phase have been evaluated through comparisons of two-week solutions with one-week solutions and by comparisons of predicted and estimated orbits. Evidence of unmodeled effects is demonstrated, particularly associated with the orbit planes that experience solar eclipse. The orbit accuracy has been assessed through the repeatability of unconstrained estimated baseline vectors ranging from 245 km to 5400 km. Both the baseline repeatability and the comparison with independent space geodetic methods give results at the level of 1-2 parts in 100,000,000. In addition, the Mojave/Owens Valley (245 km) and Kokee Park/Ft. Davis (5409 km) estimates agree with VLBI and SLR to better than 1 part in 100,000,000.

  1. Dissipative Effect in Long Baseline Neutrino Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, Roberto L N

    2016-01-01

    The propagation of neutrinos in long baselines experiments may be influenced by dissipation effects. Using Lindblad Master Equation we evolve neutrinos taking into account these dissipative effects. The MSW and the dissipative effects may change the probabilities behavior. In this work, we show and explain how the behavior of the probabilities can change due to the decoherence and relaxation effects acting individually with the MSW effect. A new exotic peak appears in this case and we show the difference between the decoherence and relaxation effects in the appearance of this peak. We also adapt the usual approximate expression for survival and appearance probabilities with all possible decoherence effects. We suppose the baseline of DUNE and show how each decoherence parameters change the probabilities analyzing the possible modification using numeric and analytic approach.

  2. Joint Multi-baseline SAR Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tebaldini

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We propose a technique to provide interferometry by combining multiple images of the same area. This technique differs from the multi-baseline approach in literature as (a it exploits all the images simultaneously, (b it performs a spectral shift preprocessing to remove most of the decorrelation, and (c it exploits distributed targets. The technique is mainly intended for DEM generation at centimetric accuracy, as well as for differential interferometry. The problem is framed in the contest of single-input multiple-output (SIMO channel estimation via the cross-relations (CR technique and the resulting algorithm provides significant improvements with respect to conventional approaches based either on independent analysis of single interferograms or multi-baselines phase analysis of single pixels of current literature, for those targets that are correlated in all the images, like for long-term coherent areas, or for acquisitions taken with a short revisit time (as those gathered with future satellite constellations.

  3. The Gambia Impact Evaluation Baseline Report

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The Government of The Gambia is implementing the Maternal and Child Nutrition and Health Results Project (MCNHRP) to increase the utilization of community nutrition and primary maternal and child health services. In collaboration with the Government, the World Bank is conducting an impact evaluation (IE) to assess the impact of the project on key aspects of maternal and child nutrition and health. The baseline survey for the MCNHRP IE took place between November 2014 and February 2015. It c...

  4. Systematic errors in long baseline oscillation experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Deborah A.; /Fermilab

    2006-02-01

    This article gives a brief overview of long baseline neutrino experiments and their goals, and then describes the different kinds of systematic errors that are encountered in these experiments. Particular attention is paid to the uncertainties that come about because of imperfect knowledge of neutrino cross sections and more generally how neutrinos interact in nuclei. Near detectors are planned for most of these experiments, and the extent to which certain uncertainties can be reduced by the presence of near detectors is also discussed.

  5. Efficient Wide Baseline Structure from Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelini, Mario; Mayer, Helmut

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a Structure from Motion approach for complex unorganized image sets. To achieve high accuracy and robustness, image triplets are employed and (an approximate) camera calibration is assumed to be known. The focus lies on a complete linking of images even in case of large image distortions, e.g., caused by wide baselines, as well as weak baselines. A method for embedding image descriptors into Hamming space is proposed for fast image similarity ranking. The later is employed to limit the number of pairs to be matched by a wide baseline method. An iterative graph-based approach is proposed formulating image linking as the search for a terminal Steiner minimum tree in a line graph. Finally, additional links are determined and employed to improve the accuracy of the pose estimation. By this means, loops in long image sequences are implicitly closed. The potential of the proposed approach is demonstrated by results for several complex image sets also in comparison with VisualSFM.

  6. Baseline Response Levels Are a Nuisance in Infant Contingency Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, W. S.; Weir, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The impact of differences in level of baseline responding on contingency learning in the first year was examined by considering the response acquisition of infants classified into baseline response quartiles. Whereas the three lower baseline groups showed the predicted increment in responding to a contingency, the highest baseline responders did…

  7. Ecological, Pedagogical, Public Rhetoric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, Nathaniel A.; Weber, Ryan P.

    2011-01-01

    Public rhetoric pedagogy can benefit from an ecological perspective that sees change as advocated not through a single document but through multiple mundane and monumental texts. This article summarizes various approaches to rhetorical ecology, offers an ecological read of the Montgomery bus boycotts, and concludes with pedagogical insights on a…

  8. Very Long Baseline Interferometry with the SKA

    CERN Document Server

    Paragi, Zsolt; Reynolds, Cormac; Rioja, Maria; Deller, Adam; Zhang, Bo; Gurvits, Leonid; Bietenholz, Michael; Szomoru, Arpad; Bignall, Hayley; Boven, Paul; Charlot, Patrick; Dodson, Richard; Frey, Sandor; Garrett, Michael; Imai, Hiroshi; Lobanov, Andrei; Reid, Mark; Ros, Eduardo; van Langevelde, Huib; Zensus, J Anton; Zheng, Xing Wu; Alberdi, Antxon; Agudo, Ivan; An, Tao; Argo, Megan; Beswick, Rob; Biggs, Andy D; Brunthaler, Andreas; Campbell, Robert M; Cimo, Giuseppe; Colomer, Francisco; Corbel, Stephane; Conway, John; Cseh, David; Deane, Roger; Falcke, Heino; Gabanyi, Krisztina; Gawronski, Marcin; Gaylard, Michael; Giovannini, Gabriele; Giroletti, Marcello; Goddi, Ciriaco; Goedhart, Sharmila; Gomez, Jose L; Gunn, Alastair; Jung, Taehyun; Kharb, Preeti; Klockner, Hans-Rainer; Kording, Elmar; Kovalev, Yurii Yu; Kunert-Bajraszewska, Magdalena; Lindqvist, Michael; Lister, Matt; Mantovani, Franco; Marti-Vidal, Ivan; Mezcua, Mar; McKean, John; Middelberg, Enno; Miller-Jones, James; Moldon, Javier; Muxlow, Tom; O'Brien, Tim; Pérez-Torres, Miguel; Pogrebenko, Sergei; Quick, Jonathan; Rushton, Anthony P; Schilizzi, Richard; Smirnov, Oleg; Sohn, Bong Won; Surcis, Gabriele; Taylor, Greg; Tingay, Steven; Tudose, Valeriu; van der Horst, Alexander; van Leeuwen, Joeri; Venturi, Tiziana; Vermeulen, Rene; Vlemmings, Wouter; de Witt, Aletha; Wucknitz, Olaf; Yang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Adding VLBI capability to the SKA arrays will greatly broaden the science of the SKA, and is feasible within the current specifications. SKA-VLBI can be initially implemented by providing phased-array outputs for SKA1-MID and SKA1-SUR and using these extremely sensitive stations with other radio telescopes, and in SKA2 by realising a distributed configuration providing baselines up to thousands of km, merging it with existing VLBI networks. The motivation for and the possible realization of SKA-VLBI is described in this paper.

  9. Optimization of the CLIC Baseline Collimation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resta-Lopez, Javier; /Oxford U., JAI; Angal-Kalinin, Deepa; /Daresbury; Fernandez-Hernando, Juan; /Daresbury; Jackson, Frank; /Daresbury; Dalena, Barbara; /CERN; Schulte, Daniel; /CERN; Tomas, Rogelio; /CERN; Seryi, Andrei; /SLAC

    2012-07-06

    Important efforts have recently been dedicated to the improvement of the design of the baseline collimation system of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC). Different aspects of the design have been optimized: the transverse collimation depths have been recalculated in order to reduce the collimator wakefield effects while maintaining a good efficiency in cleaning the undesired beam halo; the geometric design of the spoilers have also been reviewed to minimize wakefields; in addition, the optics design have been polished to improve the collimation efficiency. This paper describes the current status of the CLIC collimation system after this optimization.

  10. SRP baseline hydrogeologic investigation, Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bledsoe, H.W.

    1987-11-01

    As discussed in the program plan for the Savannah River Plant (SRP) Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation, this program has been implemented for the purpose of updating and improving the current state of knowledge and understanding of the hydrogeologic systems underlying the Savannah River Plant (SRP). The objective of the program is to install a series of observation well clusters (wells installed in each major water bearing formation at the same site) at key locations across the plant site in order to: (1) provide detailed information on the lithology, stratigraphy, and groundwater hydrology, (2) provide observation wells to monitor the groundwater quality, head relationships, gradients, and flow paths.

  11. SRP Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation, Phase 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bledsoe, H.W.

    1988-08-01

    The SRP Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation was implemented for the purpose of updating and improving the knowledge and understanding of the hydrogeologic systems underlying the SRP site. Phase III, which is discussed in this report, includes the drilling of 7 deep coreholes (sites P-24 through P-30) and the installation of 53 observation wells ranging in depth from approximately 50 ft to more than 970 ft below the ground surface. In addition to the collection of geologic cores for lithologic and stratigraphic study, samples were also collected for the determination of physical characteristics of the sediments and for the identification of microorganisms.

  12. SRP baseline hydrogeologic investigation: Aquifer characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strom, R.N.; Kaback, D.S.

    1992-03-31

    An investigation of the mineralogy and chemistry of the principal hydrogeologic units and the geochemistry of the water in the principal aquifers at Savannah River Site (SRS) was undertaken as part of the Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation. This investigation was conducted to provide background data for future site studies and reports and to provide a site-wide interpretation of the geology and geochemistry of the Coastal Plain Hydrostratigraphic province. Ground water samples were analyzed for major cations and anions, minor and trace elements, gross alpha and beta, tritium, stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon, and carbon-14. Sediments from the well borings were analyzed for mineralogy and major and minor elements.

  13. Environmental Engineering and Ecological Baseline Investigations along the Yukon River-Prudhoe Bay Haul Road.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    20 8. Generalized bedrock types encountered along the Haul Road 22 9. Vegetation classification of sites 44 10. New and interesting bryophytes and...Galbraith Lake to the Sagwon bluffs, and a sedge-meadow type on the Coastal Plain. Differentiation of this region from the Coastal Riparian habitats ...area, tamarack (Larix laric- Coastal Plain. Riparian habitats , late-lying snow- ina) can be an occasional component on wetter beds, rock outcrops and

  14. Ecological hazards of MTBE exposure: A research agenda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsen, T.; Hall, L.; Rice, D.

    1997-03-01

    Fuel oxygenates are used in metropolitan areas across the United States in order to reduce the amount of carbon monoxide released into the atmosphere during the winter. The most commonly used fuel oxygenate is Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). Its widespread use has resulted in releases into the environment. To date there has been only minimal effort to investigate ecological impacts caused by exposure to concentrations of MTBE typically found in environmental media. Research into the potential for MTBE to adversely affect ecological receptors is essential. Acquisition of such baselines data is especially critical in light of continuing inputs and potential accumulation of MTBE in environmental media. A research Agenda is included in this report and addresses: Assessing Ecological Impacts, Potential Ecological Impacts of MTBE (aquatic organisms, terrestrial organisms), Potential Ecological Endpoints, and A Summary of Research Needs.

  15. Philosophy of ecology

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Bryson; Peacock, Kent A

    2011-01-01

    The most pressing problems facing humanity today - over-population, energy shortages, climate change, soil erosion, species extinctions, the risk of epidemic disease, the threat of warfare that could destroy all the hard-won gains of civilization, and even the recent fibrillations of the stock market - are all ecological or have a large ecological component. in this volume philosophers turn their attention to understanding the science of ecology and its huge implications for the human project. To get the application of ecology to policy or other practical concerns right, humanity needs a clear and disinterested philosophical understanding of ecology which can help identify the practical lessons of science. Conversely, the urgent practical demands humanity faces today cannot help but direct scientific and philosophical investigation toward the basis of those ecological challenges that threaten human survival. This book will help to fuel the timely renaissance of interest in philosophy of ecology that is now oc...

  16. Baseline and benchmark model development for hotels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooks, Edward T., Jr.

    The hotel industry currently faces rising energy costs and requires the tools to maximize energy efficiency. In order to achieve this goal a clear definition of the current methods used to measure and monitor energy consumption is made. Uncovering the limitations to the most common practiced analysis strategies and presenting methods that can potentially overcome those limitations is the main purpose. Techniques presented can be used for measurement and verification of energy efficiency plans and retrofits. Also, modern energy modeling tool are introduced to demonstrate how they can be utilized for benchmarking and baseline models. This will provide the ability to obtain energy saving recommendations and parametric analysis to explore energy savings potential. These same energy models can be used in design decisions for new construction. An energy model is created of a resort style hotel that over one million square feet and has over one thousand rooms. A simulation and detailed analysis is performed on a hotel room. The planning process for creating the model and acquiring data from the hotel room to calibrate and verify the simulation will be explained. An explanation as to how this type of modeling can potentially be beneficial for future baseline and benchmarking strategies for the hotel industry. Ultimately the conclusion will address some common obstacles the hotel industry has in reaching their full potential of energy efficiency and how these techniques can best serve them.

  17. Vegetation baseline report : Connacher great divide project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-08-01

    This baseline report supported an application by Connacher Oil and Gas Ltd. to the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB) and Alberta Environment (AENV) for the Great Divide Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) Project. The goal of the report was to document the distribution and occurrence of ecosite phases and wetland classes in the project footprint as well as to document the distribution of rare plants; rare plant communities: and intrusive species and old growth communities, including species of management concern. A methodology of the baseline report was presented, including details of mapping and field surveys. Six vegetation types in addition to the disturbed land unit were identified in the project footprint and associated buffer. It was noted that all vegetation types are common for the boreal forest natural regions. Several species of management concern were identified during the spring rare plant survey, including rare bryophytes and non-native or invasive species. Mitigation was identified through a slight shift of the footprint, transplant of appropriate bryophyte species and implementation of a weed management plan. It was noted that results of future surveys for rare plants will be submitted upon completion. It was concluded that the effects of the project on existing vegetation is expected to be low because of the small footprint, prior disturbance history, available mitigation measures and conservation and reclamation planning. 27 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs.

  18. Tightly coupled long baseline/ultra-short baseline integrated navigation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Pedro; Silvestre, Carlos; Oliveira, Paulo

    2016-06-01

    This paper proposes a novel integrated navigation filter based on a combined long baseline/ultra short baseline acoustic positioning system with application to underwater vehicles. With a tightly coupled structure, the position, linear velocity, attitude, and rate gyro bias are estimated, considering the full nonlinear system dynamics without resorting to any algebraic inversion or linearisation techniques. The resulting solution ensures convergence of the estimation error to zero for all initial conditions, exponentially fast. Finally, it is shown, under simulation environment, that the filter achieves very good performance in the presence of sensor noise.

  19. What is dental ecology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuozzo, Frank P; Sauther, Michelle L

    2012-06-01

    Teeth have long been used as indicators of primate ecology. Early work focused on the links between dental morphology, diet, and behavior, with more recent years emphasizing dental wear, microstructure, development, and biogeochemistry, to understand primate ecology. Our study of Lemur catta at the Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve, Madagascar, has revealed an unusual pattern of severe tooth wear and frequent tooth loss, primarily the result of consuming a fallback food for which these primates are not dentally adapted. Interpreting these data was only possible by combining our areas of expertise (dental anatomy [FC] and primate ecology [MS]). By integrating theoretical, methodological, and applied aspects of both areas of research, we adopted the term "dental ecology"-defined as the broad study of how teeth respond to the environment. Specifically, we view dental ecology as an interpretive framework using teeth as a vehicle for understanding an organism's ecology, which builds upon earlier work, but creates a new synthesis of anatomy and ecology that is only possible with detailed knowledge of living primates. This framework includes (1) identifying patterns of dental pathology and tooth use-wear, within the context of feeding ecology, behavior, habitat variation, and anthropogenic change, (2) assessing ways in which dental development and biogeochemical signals can reflect habitat, environmental change and/or stress, and (3) how dental microstructure and macro-morphology are adapted to, and reflect feeding ecology. Here we define dental ecology, provide a short summary of the development of this perspective, and place our new work into this context.

  20. Pentek concrete scabbling system: Baseline report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-31

    The Pentek scabbling technology was tested at Florida International University (FIU) and is being evaluated as a baseline technology. This report evaluates it for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The Pentek concrete scabbling system consisted of the MOOSE{reg_sign}, SQUIRREL{reg_sign}-I, and SQUIRREL{reg_sign}-III scabblers. The scabblers are designed to scarify concrete floors and slabs using cross-section, tungsten carbide tipped bits. The bits are designed to remove concrete in 318 inch increments. The bits are either 9-tooth or demolition type. The scabblers are used with a vacuum system designed to collect and filter the concrete dust and contamination that is removed from the surface. The safety and health evaluation during the human factors assessment focused on two main areas: noise and dust.

  1. The WITCH Model. Structure, Baseline, Solutions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosetti, V.; Massetti, E.; Tavoni, M.

    2007-07-01

    WITCH - World Induced Technical Change Hybrid - is a regionally disaggregated hard link hybrid global model with a neoclassical optimal growth structure (top down) and an energy input detail (bottom up). The model endogenously accounts for technological change, both through learning curves affecting prices of new vintages of capital and through R and D investments. The model features the main economic and environmental policies in each world region as the outcome of a dynamic game. WITCH belongs to the class of Integrated Assessment Models as it possesses a climate module that feeds climate changes back into the economy. In this paper we provide a thorough discussion of the model structure and baseline projections. We report detailed information on the evolution of energy demand, technology and CO2 emissions. Finally, we explicitly quantifiy the role of free riding in determining the emissions scenarios. (auth)

  2. Octant degeneracy, CPV phase at Long Baseline $\

    CERN Document Server

    Bora, Kalpana; Dutta, Debajyoti

    2015-01-01

    In a recent work by two of us, we have studied, how CP violation discovery potential can be improved at long baseline neutrino experiments (LBNE/DUNE), by combining with its ND (near detector) and reactor experiments. In this work, we discuss how this study can be further analysed to resolve entanglement of the quadrant of CPV phase and Octant of atmospheric mixing angle {\\theta}23, at LBNEs. The study is done for both NH (Normal hierarchy) and IH (Inverted hierarchy). We further show how leptogenesis can enhance this effect of resolving this entanglement. A detailed analytic and numerical study of baryogenesis through leptogenesis is performed in this framework in a model independent way. We then compare our result of the baryon to photon ratio with the the current observational data of the baryon asymmetry.

  3. Intensity interferometry: Optical imaging with kilometer baselines

    CERN Document Server

    Dravins, Dainis

    2016-01-01

    Optical imaging with microarcsecond resolution will reveal details across and outside stellar surfaces but requires kilometer-scale interferometers, challenging to realize either on the ground or in space. Intensity interferometry, electronically connecting independent telescopes, has a noise budget that relates to the electronic time resolution, circumventing issues of atmospheric turbulence. Extents up to a few km are becoming realistic with arrays of optical air Cherenkov telescopes (primarily erected for gamma-ray studies), enabling an optical equivalent of radio interferometer arrays. Pioneered by Hanbury Brown and Twiss, digital versions of the technique have now been demonstrated, reconstructing diffraction-limited images from laboratory measurements over hundreds of optical baselines. This review outlines the method from its beginnings, describes current experiments, and sketches prospects for future observations.

  4. The OPERA long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilquet, G.

    2008-05-01

    OPERA is a long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment designed to observe the appearance of vτ in a pure vμ beam in the parameter space indicated by the atmospheric neutrinos oscillation signal. The detector is situated in the underground LNGS laboratory under 3 800 water meter equivalent at a distance of 730 km from CERN where the CNGS neutrino beam to which it is exposed originates. It consists of two identical 0.68 kilotons lead/nuclear emulsion targets, each instrumented with a tracking device and complemented by a muon spectrometer. The concept and the status of the detector are described and the first results obtained with cosmic rays and during two weeks of beam commissioning in 2006 are reported.

  5. In-Space Manufacturing Baseline Property Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockman, Tom; Schneider, Judith; Prater, Tracie; Bean, Quincy; Werkheiser, Nicki

    2016-01-01

    The In-Space Manufacturing (ISM) project at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center currently operates a 3D FDM (fused deposition modeling) printer onboard the International Space Station. In order to enable utilization of this capability by designer, the project needs to establish characteristic material properties for materials produced using the process. This is difficult for additive manufacturing since standards and specifications do not yet exist for these technologies. Due to availability of crew time, there are limitations to the sample size which in turn limits the application of the traditional design allowables approaches to develop a materials property database for designers. In this study, various approaches to development of material databases were evaluated for use by designers of space systems who wish to leverage in-space manufacturing capabilities. This study focuses on alternative statistical techniques for baseline property development to support in-space manufacturing.

  6. Steganography Based on Baseline Sequential JPEG Compression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Information hiding in Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) compressed images are investigated in this paper. Quantization is the source of information loss in JPEG compression process. Therefore, information hidden in images is probably destroyed by JPEG compression. This paper presents an algorithm to reliably embed information into the JPEG bit streams in the process of JPEG encoding. Information extraction is performed in the process of JPEG decoding. The basic idea of our algorithm is to modify the quantized direct current (DC) coefficients and non-zero alternating current (AC) coefficients to represent one bit information (0 or 1). Experimental results on gray images using baseline sequential JPEG encoding show that the cover images (images without secret information) and the stego-images (images with secret information) are perceptually indiscernible.

  7. Radio sources - Very, Very Long Baseline Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, D. H.

    1983-03-01

    With resolution of a thousandth of an arcsecond, the radio technique of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) provides astronomers with their highest-resolution view of the universe. Data taken with widely-separated antennas are combined, with the help of atomic clocks, to form a Michelson interferometer whose size may be as great as the earth's diameter. Extraordinary phenomena, from the birth of stars as signaled by the brilliant flashes of powerful interstellar masers to the 'faster-than-light' expansion of the cores of distant quasars, are being explored with this technique. However, earth-bound VLBI suffers from several restrictions due to the location of the component antennas at fixed places on the earth's surface. The use of one or more antennas in space in concert with ground-based equipment will greatly expand the technical and scientific capabilities of VLBI, leading to a more complete and even higher resolution view of cosmic phenomena.

  8. Biological baseline data Youngs Bay, Oregon, 1974

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMechan, K.J. (ed.); Higley, D.L.; Holton, R.L.

    1975-04-01

    This report presents biological baseline information gathered during the research project, Physical, Chemical and Biological Studies on Youngs Bay.'' Youngs Bay is a shallow embayment located on the south shore of the Columbia River, near Astoria, Oregon. Research on Youngs Bay was motivated by the proposed construction by Alumax Pacific Aluminum Corporation of an aluminum reduction plant at Warrenton, Oregon. The research was designed to provide biological baseline information on Youngs Bay in anticipation of potential harmful effects from plant effluents. The information collected concerns the kinds of animals found in the Youngs Bay area, and their distribution and seasonal patterns of abundance. In addition, information was collected on the feeding habits of selected fish species, and on the life history and behavioral characteristics of the most abundant benthic amphipod, Corophium salmonis. Sampling was conducted at approximately three-week intervals, using commonly accepted methods of animal collection. Relatively few stations were sampled for fish, because of the need to standardize conditions of capture. Data on fish capture are reported in terms of catch-per-unit effort by a particular sampling gear at a specific station. Methods used in sampling invertebrates were generally more quantitative, and allowed sampling at a greater variety of places, as well as a valid basis for the computation of densities. Checklists of invertebrate species and fish species were developed from these samples, and are referred to throughout the report. The invertebrate checklist is more specific taxonomically than are tables reporting invertebrate densities. This is because the methods employed in identification were more precise than those used in counts. 9 refs., 27 figs., 25 tabs.

  9. Shifting baselines in Antarctic ecosystems; ecophysiological response to warming in Lissarca miliaris at Signy Island, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Adam J; Thatje, Sven; Linse, Katrin

    2012-01-01

    The Antarctic Peninsula has experienced a rapid increase in atmospheric temperature over the last 50 years. Whether or not marine organisms thriving in this cold stenothermal environment are able to cope with warming is of concern. Here, we present changes to the growth and shell characteristics of the ecologically important, small and short lived brooding bivalve Lissarca miliaris from Signy Island, Antarctica. Using material collected from the 1970's to the present day, we show an increase in growth rate and adult shell deterioration accompanied by a decrease in offspring size, associated with an increase in annual average temperatures. Critical changes to the bivalve's ecology seen today evidence the problem of a shift in baseline since the onset of warming recorded in Antarctica. These small bivalves are demonstrating ecophysiological responses to subtle warming that, provided warming continues, could soon surpass a physiological tipping point, adding to warming associated threats such as increased predatory pressure and ocean acidification.

  10. Development of Ecological Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrius Keizikas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents research on ecological buildings and their influence on the constructional sphere. The aim of the paper is to reveal the essence of ecological architecture showing substantial progress and its potential to stimulate architectural and technological growth. The article also describes relations between the ideas of ecological buildings and the ‘passive house’ concepts and aspects of development as well as describes the possibilities of improving building sustainability and energy efficiency. Article in Lithuanian

  11. Social Ecological Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Spash, Clive L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces and explains how ecological economics has developed as a modern movement with its roots in environmentalism and radical environmental economics. Divisions and conflicts within the field are explored to show why material claiming to fall under the title of ecological economics fails to be representative of progress or the vision which drove socio-economic specialists to interact with ecologists in the first place. The argument is then put forward that ecological economics...

  12. Between Design and Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Mona Chor

    such vegetation, based on concepts and theories in plant community ecology. If these communities are based on local forbs there is a continuum in anthropogenic intervention from designed and intensively maintained to semi-natural herbaceous vegetation. Results from a large field experiment show that, after three...... colonised by grasses and eventually woody species. This thesis adds useful basic knowledge in plant community ecology and species-specific growth, which are relevant to research and planning in landscape architecture and ecology....

  13. [Demography and human ecology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazareth, J M

    1993-01-01

    At the end of the 19th century the German biologist Ernest Haekel was the first scientist to use the term ecology, which was defined as the study of relationships of organisms or groups of organisms with the environment and indicated the interdependence of the living world, including plants, animals, and humans. This concept also indicates a continuous process of adaptation of organisms to their external environment. The basic concepts of scientific ecology, which developed at the end of the 19th century, can be attributed to Darwin: the relationships between living beings and the notion of the process of adaptation to their environment. The term human ecology appeared in the early 1920s. Human ecology embodies fundamental ideas: biotype, habitat, community, biocenosis, ecosystem, biomass, interchange and equilibrium, and circulation of energy. The accumulated knowledge about human ecology is broken down using the criteria of topography (ecology of humid forests, deserts, lakes, etc.); followed by the appearance of species; and the variants of classical division: auto ecology (influence of external factors on living beings) and sinecology (the study of groups of associated organisms, i.e., natural, animal, and vegetation communities). The species are considered on the basis of equality or sinecology (all of them have the same interests), while in human ecology a species is determined by its relation to a reference group--autoecology or anthropocentric ecology. In 1911, J. Thompson bridged the gap between biological knowledge and social sciences; in 1921, H. Barrows identified human ecology as a component of geography; in 1925, L. Bernard presented the classification of ecosystems; and in 1936, Ezra Park published his work, Human Ecology, followed in 1945 by the emergence of the Chicago school. Demography and human ecology are intimately connected because population is the result of natural and migratory movements, therefore the two sciences require a methodology

  14. Digital Offshore Cadastre (DOC) - Pacific83 - Baseline Tangent Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains baseline tangent lines and bay closing lines in ESRI Arc/Info export and Arc/View shape file formats for the BOEM Pacific Region. Baseline...

  15. Chemical ecology of fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiteller, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Fungi are widespread in nature and have conquered nearly every ecological niche. Fungi occur not only in terrestrial but also in freshwater and marine environments. Moreover, fungi are known as a rich source of secondary metabolites. Despite these facts, the ecological role of many of these metabolites is still unknown and the chemical ecology of fungi has not been investigated systematically so far. This review intends to present examples of the various chemical interactions of fungi with other fungi, plants, bacteria and animals and to give an overview of the current knowledge of fungal chemical ecology.

  16. The effect of short-baseline neutrino oscillations on LBNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louis, William C. [Physics Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Short-baseline neutrino oscillations can have a relatively big effect on long-baseline oscillations, due to the cross terms that arise from multiple mass scales. The existing short-baseline anomalies suggest that short-baseline oscillations can affect the ν{sub μ} → ν{sub e} appearance probabilities by up to 20-40%, depending on the values of the CP-violating parameters.

  17. The effect of short-baseline neutrino oscillations on LBNE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, William C.

    2015-10-01

    Short-baseline neutrino oscillations can have a relatively big effect on long-baseline oscillations, due to the cross terms that arise from multiple mass scales. The existing short-baseline anomalies suggest that short-baseline oscillations can affect the νμ → νe appearance probabilities by up to 20-40%, depending on the values of the CP-violating parameters.

  18. 10 CFR 850.20 - Baseline beryllium inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Baseline beryllium inventory. 850.20 Section 850.20 Energy... Baseline beryllium inventory. (a) The responsible employer must develop a baseline inventory of the... inventory, the responsible employer must: (1) Review current and historical records; (2) Interview...

  19. Habitat and Population Ecology of Greater Sandhill Cranes on Klamath Marsh National Wildlife Refuge - 1993 Annual Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The goal of the first phase of this study is to obtain baseline data on sandhill crane numbers, breeding population, distribution, home range, nesting ecology, and...

  20. Ecologies of Learning, Ecologies of Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyrup, Helene

    The subject of this project/paper is the challenges that digital media pose to earlier definitions, divisions and conceptions of learning institutions and their activities. It is argued that, in the light of digital media, the idea of institutional co-creation of learning and literacies needs...... in the light of the new Danish school reform. How can different learning institutions contribute to a “joint” ecology of learning? What would the benefits be from this in terms of young people’s literacies? On what theoretical basis can such an ecology and co-creation take place? And what kind of didactics...

  1. Resetting predator baselines in coral reef ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Darcy; Conklin, Eric; Papastamatiou, Yannis P.; McCauley, Douglas J.; Pollock, Kydd; Pollock, Amanda; Kendall, Bruce E.; Gaines, Steven D.; Caselle, Jennifer E.

    2017-01-01

    What did coral reef ecosystems look like before human impacts became pervasive? Early efforts to reconstruct baselines resulted in the controversial suggestion that pristine coral reefs have inverted trophic pyramids, with disproportionally large top predator biomass. The validity of the coral reef inverted trophic pyramid has been questioned, but until now, was not resolved empirically. We use data from an eight-year tag-recapture program with spatially explicit, capture-recapture models to re-examine the population size and density of a key top predator at Palmyra atoll, the same location that inspired the idea of inverted trophic biomass pyramids in coral reef ecosystems. Given that animal movement is suspected to have significantly biased early biomass estimates of highly mobile top predators, we focused our reassessment on the most mobile and most abundant predator at Palmyra, the grey reef shark (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos). We estimated a density of 21.3 (95% CI 17.8, 24.7) grey reef sharks/km2, which is an order of magnitude lower than the estimates that suggested an inverted trophic pyramid. Our results indicate that the trophic structure of an unexploited reef fish community is not inverted, and that even healthy top predator populations may be considerably smaller, and more precarious, than previously thought. PMID:28220895

  2. Gated integrator with signal baseline subtraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xucheng

    1996-01-01

    An ultrafast, high precision gated integrator includes an opamp having differential inputs. A signal to be integrated is applied to one of the differential inputs through a first input network, and a signal indicative of the DC offset component of the signal to be integrated is applied to the other of the differential inputs through a second input network. A pair of electronic switches in the first and second input networks define an integrating period when they are closed. The first and second input networks are substantially symmetrically constructed of matched components so that error components introduced by the electronic switches appear symmetrically in both input circuits and, hence, are nullified by the common mode rejection of the integrating opamp. The signal indicative of the DC offset component is provided by a sample and hold circuit actuated as the integrating period begins. The symmetrical configuration of the integrating circuit improves accuracy and speed by balancing out common mode errors, by permitting the use of high speed switching elements and high speed opamps and by permitting the use of a small integrating time constant. The sample and hold circuit substantially eliminates the error caused by the input signal baseline offset during a single integrating window.

  3. Gated integrator with signal baseline subtraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X.

    1996-12-17

    An ultrafast, high precision gated integrator includes an opamp having differential inputs. A signal to be integrated is applied to one of the differential inputs through a first input network, and a signal indicative of the DC offset component of the signal to be integrated is applied to the other of the differential inputs through a second input network. A pair of electronic switches in the first and second input networks define an integrating period when they are closed. The first and second input networks are substantially symmetrically constructed of matched components so that error components introduced by the electronic switches appear symmetrically in both input circuits and, hence, are nullified by the common mode rejection of the integrating opamp. The signal indicative of the DC offset component is provided by a sample and hold circuit actuated as the integrating period begins. The symmetrical configuration of the integrating circuit improves accuracy and speed by balancing out common mode errors, by permitting the use of high speed switching elements and high speed opamps and by permitting the use of a small integrating time constant. The sample and hold circuit substantially eliminates the error caused by the input signal baseline offset during a single integrating window. 5 figs.

  4. The LOFAR long baseline snapshot calibrator survey

    CERN Document Server

    Moldón, J; Wucknitz, O; Jackson, N; Drabent, A; Carozzi, T; Conway, J; Kapińska, A D; McKean, P; Morabito, L; Varenius, E; Zarka, P; Anderson, J; Asgekar, A; Avruch, I M; Bell, M E; Bentum, M J; Bernardi, G; Best, P; Bîrzan, L; Bregman, J; Breitling, F; Broderick, J W; Brüggen, M; Butcher, H R; Carbone, D; Ciardi, B; de Gasperin, F; de Geus, E; Duscha, S; Eislöffel, J; Engels, D; Falcke, H; Fallows, R A; Fender, R; Ferrari, C; Frieswijk, W; Garrett, M A; Grießmeier, J; Gunst, A W; Hamaker, J P; Hassall, T E; Heald, G; Hoeft, M; Juette, E; Karastergiou, A; Kondratiev, V I; Kramer, M; Kuniyoshi, M; Kuper, G; Maat, P; Mann, G; Markoff, S; McFadden, R; McKay-Bukowski, D; Morganti, R; Munk, H; Norden, M J; Offringa, A R; Orru, E; Paas, H; Pandey-Pommier, M; Pizzo, R; Polatidis, A G; Reich, W; Röttgering, H; Rowlinson, A; Scaife, A M M; Schwarz, D; Sluman, J; Smirnov, O; Stappers, B W; Steinmetz, M; Tagger, M; Tang, Y; Tasse, C; Thoudam, S; Toribio, M C; Vermeulen, R; Vocks, C; van Weeren, R J; White, S; Wise, M W; Yatawatta, S; Zensus, A

    2014-01-01

    Aims. An efficient means of locating calibrator sources for International LOFAR is developed and used to determine the average density of usable calibrator sources on the sky for subarcsecond observations at 140 MHz. Methods. We used the multi-beaming capability of LOFAR to conduct a fast and computationally inexpensive survey with the full International LOFAR array. Sources were pre-selected on the basis of 325 MHz arcminute-scale flux density using existing catalogues. By observing 30 different sources in each of the 12 sets of pointings per hour, we were able to inspect 630 sources in two hours to determine if they possess a sufficiently bright compact component to be usable as LOFAR delay calibrators. Results. Over 40% of the observed sources are detected on multiple baselines between international stations and 86 are classified as satisfactory calibrators. We show that a flat low-frequency spectrum (from 74 to 325 MHz) is the best predictor of compactness at 140 MHz. We extrapolate from our sample to sho...

  5. Arc melter demonstration baseline test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soelberg, N.R.; Chambers, A.G.; Anderson, G.L.; Oden, L.L.; O`Connor, W.K.; Turner, P.C.

    1994-07-01

    This report describes the test results and evaluation for the Phase 1 (baseline) arc melter vitrification test series conducted for the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration program (BWID). Phase 1 tests were conducted on surrogate mixtures of as-incinerated wastes and soil. Some buried wastes, soils, and stored wastes at the INEL and other DOE sites, are contaminated with transuranic (TRU) radionuclides and hazardous organics and metals. The high temperature environment in an electric arc furnace may be used to process these wastes to produce materials suitable for final disposal. An electric arc furnace system can treat heterogeneous wastes and contaminated soils by (a) dissolving and retaining TRU elements and selected toxic metals as oxides in the slag phase, (b) destroying organic materials by dissociation, pyrolyzation, and combustion, and (c) capturing separated volatilized metals in the offgas system for further treatment. Structural metals in the waste may be melted and tapped separately for recycle or disposal, or these metals may be oxidized and dissolved into the slag. The molten slag, after cooling, will provide a glass/ceramic final waste form that is homogeneous, highly nonleachable, and extremely durable. These features make this waste form suitable for immobilization of TRU radionuclides and toxic metals for geologic timeframes. Further, the volume of contaminated wastes and soils will be substantially reduced in the process.

  6. Lorentz symmetry and Very Long Baseline Interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Poncin-Lafitte, C Le; lambert, S

    2016-01-01

    Lorentz symmetry violations can be described by an effective field theory framework that contains both General Relativity and the Standard Model of particle physics called the Standard-Model extension (SME). Recently, post-fit analysis of Gravity Probe B and binary pulsars lead to an upper limit at the $10^{-4}$ level on the time-time coefficient $\\bar s^{TT}$ of the pure-gravity sector of the minimal SME. In this work, we derive the observable of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) in SME and then we implement it into a real data analysis code of geodetic VLBI observations. Analyzing all available observations recorded since 1979, we compare estimates of $\\bar s^{TT}$ and errors obtained with various analysis schemes, including global estimations over several time spans and with various Sun elongation cut-off angles, and with analysis of radio source coordinate time series. We obtain a constraint on $\\bar s^{TT}=(-5\\pm 8)\\times 10^{-5}$, directly fitted to the observations and improving by a factor 5 pr...

  7. Dynamics in artifact ecologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted

    2012-01-01

    artifacts influence the use of others. Understanding this interplay becomes more and more essential for interaction design as our artifact ecologies grow. This paper continues a recent discourse on artifact ecologies. Through interviews with iPhone users, we demonstrate that relationships between artifacts...

  8. RADIOECOLOGY AND ECOLOGICAL IMMUNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Shubik

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The author's investigations results are presented in comparing with literary materials concerning the application of principles and methods of ecological immunology for solving radioecological questions. The data on characteristic of immunity and health of human population affected with radiation factors of the environment is given as well as animals' population state as the links offood ecological chains.

  9. Quantitative plant ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This e-book is written in the Wolfram' CDF format (download free CDF player from Wolfram.com) The objective of this e-book is to introduce the population ecological concepts for measuring and predicting the ecological success of plant species. This will be done by focusing on the measurement......, will not be covered in this e-book....

  10. The ecology of citizenship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coates, Robert; Garmany, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    This article calls into question the relationship between citizenship, space and ecological stability. Drawing on case study research from urban Brazil, we argue that while space may be crucial to Western perspectives of citizenship – particularly in urban areas – the ecological coproduction of thes

  11. Predictive systems ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Matthew R; Bithell, Mike; Cornell, Stephen J; Dall, Sasha R X; Díaz, Sandra; Emmott, Stephen; Ernande, Bruno; Grimm, Volker; Hodgson, David J; Lewis, Simon L; Mace, Georgina M; Morecroft, Michael; Moustakas, Aristides; Murphy, Eugene; Newbold, Tim; Norris, K J; Petchey, Owen; Smith, Matthew; Travis, Justin M J; Benton, Tim G

    2013-11-22

    Human societies, and their well-being, depend to a significant extent on the state of the ecosystems that surround them. These ecosystems are changing rapidly usually in response to anthropogenic changes in the environment. To determine the likely impact of environmental change on ecosystems and the best ways to manage them, it would be desirable to be able to predict their future states. We present a proposal to develop the paradigm of predictive systems ecology, explicitly to understand and predict the properties and behaviour of ecological systems. We discuss the necessary and desirable features of predictive systems ecology models. There are places where predictive systems ecology is already being practised and we summarize a range of terrestrial and marine examples. Significant challenges remain but we suggest that ecology would benefit both as a scientific discipline and increase its impact in society if it were to embrace the need to become more predictive.

  12. Baseline Q-values for streams in intensive agricultural catchments in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melland, Alice; Jordan, Phil; Wall, David; Mellander, Per-Erik; Mechan, Sarah; Shortle, Ger

    2010-05-01

    The effectiveness of regulations introduced in Ireland in 2006 in response to the European Union Nitrates Directives for minimising nutrient loss to waterways from farms is being studied by Teagasc, the Irish Agriculture and Food Development Authority as part of an Agricultural Catchments Programme from 2008 - 2011. The regulations in Ireland require that during winter, green cover is established and maintained on arable farms, manure is stored and not spread, ploughing is not conducted and that chemical fertiliser is not spread. The regulations also require buffer zones between fields and water courses when applying organic or chemical fertilisers and that nutrient application rates and timing match crop requirements. An upper limit for livestock manure loading of 170 kg ha-1 organic N each year is also set. The biophysical research component of the Agricultural Catchments Programme is focussed on quantifying nutrient source availability, surface and subsurface transport pathways and stream chemical water quality. A baseline description of stream ecological quality was also sought. Stream ecology was measured in autumn 2009 at 3-5 locations within four surface water catchments and at the spring emergence of a catchment underlain by karst limestone. Landuse in each catchment is dominated by medium to high intensity grassland or cereal farming and annual average rainfall ranges from 900 - 1200 mm. Surveys were conducted in 1st to 3rd order streams throughout each catchment at locations which had minimal observed point source inputs for 100m upstream, incomplete shade, a hard streambed substrate and riffle conditions suitable for the sampling methods. Benthic macroinvertebrates were identified and quantified and used to calculate the biological indices Small Stream Risk Score, Q-value, Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP), Average Score Per Taxa (ASPT) and EQR (Observed Q-value/Reference Q-value). Diatom community assemblages were identified from samples

  13. The LBNO long-baseline oscillation sensitivities with two conventional neutrino beams at different baselines

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwalla, S.K.; Aittola, M.; Alekou, A.; Andrieu, B.; Antoniou, F.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Autiero, D.; Besida, O.; Balik, A.; Ballett, P.; Bandac, I.; Banerjee, D.; Bartmann, W.; Bay, F.; Biskup, B.; Blebea-Apostu, A.M.; Blondel, A.; Bogomilov, M.; Bolognesi, S.; Borriello, E.; Brancus, I.; Bravar, A.; Buizza-Avanzini, M.; Caiulo, D.; Calin, M.; Calviani, M.; Campanelli, M.; Cantini, C.; Cata-Danil, G.; Chakraborty, S.; Charitonidis, N.; Chaussard, L.; Chesneanu, D.; Chipesiu, F.; Crivelli, P.; Dawson, J.; De Bonis, I.; Declais, Y.; del Amo Sanchez, P.; Delbart, A.; Di Luise, S.; Duchesneau, D.; Dumarchez, J.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Eliseev, A.; Emery, S.; Enqvist, T.; Enqvist, K.; Epprecht, L.; Erykalov, A.N.; Esanu, T.; Franco, D.; Friend, M.; Galymov, V.; Gavrilov, G.; Gendotti, A.; Giganti, C.; Gilardoni, S.; Goddard, B.; Gomoiu, C.M.; Gornushkin, Y.A.; Gorodetzky, P.; Haesler, A.; Hasegawa, T.; Horikawa, S.; Huitu, K.; Izmaylov, A.; Jipa, A.; Kainulainen, K.; Karadzhov, Y.; Khabibullin, M.; Khotjantsev, A.; Kopylov, A.N.; Korzenev, A.; Kosyanenko, S.; Kryn, D.; Kudenko, Y.; Kuusiniemi, P.; Lazanu, I.; Lazaridis, C.; Levy, J.M.; Loo, K.; Maalampi, J.; Margineanu, R.M.; Marteau, J.; Martin-Mari, C.; Matveev, V.; Mazzucato, E.; Mefodiev, A.; Mineev, O.; Mirizzi, A.; Mitrica, B.; Murphy, S.; Nakadaira, T.; Narita, S.; Nesterenko, D.A.; Nguyen, K.; Nikolics, K.; Noah, E.; Novikov, Yu.; Oprima, A.; Osborne, J.; Ovsyannikova, T.; Papaphilippou, Y.; Pascoli, S.; Patzak, T.; Pectu, M.; Pennacchio, E.; Periale, L.; Pessard, H.; Popov, B.; Ravonel, M.; Rayner, M.; Resnati, F.; Ristea, O.; Robert, A.; Rubbia, A.; Rummukainen, K.; Saftoiu, A.; Sakashita, K.; Sanchez-Galan, F.; Sarkamo, J.; Saviano, N.; Scantamburlo, E.; Sergiampietri, F.; Sgalaberna, D.; Shaposhnikova, E.; Slupecki, M.; Smargianaki, D.; Stanca, D.; Steerenberg, R.; Sterian, A.R.; Sterian, P.; Stoica, S.; Strabel, C.; Suhonen, J.; Suvorov, V.; Toma, G.; Tonazzo, A.; Trzaska, W.H.; Tsenov, R.; Tuominen, K.; Valram, M.; Vankova-Kirilova, G.; Vannucci, F.; Vasseur, G.; Velotti, F.; Velten, P.; Venturi, V.; Viant, T.; Vihonen, S.; Vincke, H.; Vorobyev, A.; Weber, A.; Wu, S.; Yershov, N.; Zambelli, L.; Zito, M.

    2014-01-01

    The proposed Long Baseline Neutrino Observatory (LBNO) initially consists of $\\sim 20$ kton liquid double phase TPC complemented by a magnetised iron calorimeter, to be installed at the Pyh\\"asalmi mine, at a distance of 2300 km from CERN. The conventional neutrino beam is produced by 400 GeV protons accelerated at the SPS accelerator delivering 700 kW of power. The long baseline provides a unique opportunity to study neutrino flavour oscillations over their 1st and 2nd oscillation maxima exploring the $L/E$ behaviour, and distinguishing effects arising from $\\delta_{CP}$ and matter. In this paper we show how this comprehensive physics case can be further enhanced and complemented if a neutrino beam produced at the Protvino IHEP accelerator complex, at a distance of 1160 km, and with modest power of 450 kW is aimed towards the same far detectors. We show that the coupling of two independent sub-MW conventional neutrino and antineutrino beams at different baselines from CERN and Protvino will allow to measure ...

  14. Recent Developments in Ecological Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reader with published articles within the field of ecological economics, mostly from 1997 - 2007......Reader with published articles within the field of ecological economics, mostly from 1997 - 2007...

  15. Quantitative plant ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This e-book is written in the Wolfram' CDF format (download free CDF player from Wolfram.com) The objective of this e-book is to introduce the population ecological concepts for measuring and predicting the ecological success of plant species. This will be done by focusing on the measurement...... and statistical modelling of plant species abundance and the relevant ecological processes that control species abundance. The focus on statistical modelling and likelihood function based methods also means that more algorithm based methods, e.g. ordination techniques and boosted regression tress...

  16. Complex adaptive systems ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommerlund, Julie

    2003-01-01

    In the following, I will analyze two articles called Complex Adaptive Systems EcologyI & II (Molin & Molin, 1997 & 2000). The CASE-articles are some of the more quirkyarticles that have come out of the Molecular Microbial Ecology Group - a groupwhere I am currently making observational studies....... They are the result of acooperation between Søren Molin, professor in the group, and his brother, JanMolin, professor at Department of Organization and Industrial Sociology atCopenhagen Business School. The cooperation arises from the recognition that bothmicrobial ecology and sociology/organization theory works...

  17. [Parasitism and ecological parasitology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balashov, Iu S

    2011-01-01

    Parasitism as one of the life modes is a general biological phenomenon and is a characteristic of all viruses, many taxa of bacteria, fungi, protists, metaphytes, and metazoans. Zooparasitology is focused on studies of parasitic animals, particularly, on their taxonomy, anatomy, life cycles, host-parasite relations, biocoenotic connections, and evolution. Ecological parasitology is a component of ecology, as the scientific study of the relation of living organisms with each other and their surroundings. In the present paper, critical analysis of the problems, main postulates, and terminology of the modern ecological parasitology is given.

  18. Ecological investigations at the Pantex Plant Site, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E.; Mazaika, R.R.; Phillips, R.C.

    1993-09-01

    In 1992, Pantex requested that Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conduct a series of ecological surveys to provide baseline information for designing detailed ecological studies on the various ecosystems present at the Pantex plant site near Amarillo, Texas. To this end, PNL scientist and technicians visited the site at different times to conduct investigations and collect samples: July 6--13: birds, small mammals, general habitat assessment; August 10--14: wetland vegetation, birds, small mammals, Playa invertebrates; and September 7--11: birds, small mammals. This report presents the results of these three surveys.

  19. Benthic foraminifera baseline assemblages from a coastal nearshore reef complex on the central Great Barrier Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jamie; Perry, Chris; Smithers, Scott; Morgan, Kyle

    2016-04-01

    Declining water quality due to river catchment modification since European settlement (c. 1850 A.D.) represents a major threat to the health of coral reefs on Australia's Great Barrier Reef (GBR), particularly for those located in the coastal waters of the GBR's inner-shelf. These nearshore reefs are widely perceived to be most susceptible to declining water quality owing to their close proximity to river point sources. Despite this, nearshore reefs have been relatively poorly studied with the impacts and magnitudes of environmental degradation still remaining unclear. This is largely due to ongoing debates concerning the significance of increased sediment yields against naturally high background sedimentary regimes. Benthic foraminifera are increasingly used as tools for monitoring environmental and ecological change on coral reefs. On the GBR, the majority of studies have focussed on the spatial distributions of contemporary benthic foraminiferal assemblages. While baseline assemblages from other environments (e.g. inshore reefs and mangroves) have been described, very few records exist for nearshore reefs. Here, we present preliminary results from the first palaeoecological study of foraminiferal assemblages of nearshore reefs on the central GBR. Cores were recovered from the nearshore reef complex at Paluma Shoals using percussion techniques. Recovery was 100%, capturing the entire Holocene reef sequence of the selected reef structures. Radiocarbon dating and subsequent age-depth modelling techniques were used to identify reef sequences pre-dating European settlement. Benthic foraminifera assemblages were reconstructed from the identified sequences to establish pre-European ecological baselines with the aim of providing a record of foraminiferal distribution during vertical reef accretion and against which contemporary ecological change may be assessed.

  20. Marine Ecological Environment Management Based on Ecological Compensation Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qunzhen Qu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The level of marine environmental management is a key factor in the successful implementation of marine power strategies. The improvement in management levels of marine environments requires innovation in marine management. In other words, the transformation of marine environmental management into marine ecological environment management must be done in order to achieve sustainable development of the marine economy. As an environmental economic policy that combines both administrative and market measures, ecological compensation mechanisms have significant advantages in marine ecological environment management. Based on the study of the current development of ecological compensation mechanisms in China, through the analysis of the connotation of marine ecological civilization, existing marine ecological protection practices and marine environmental management methods, this paper posits that the current marine ecological environment management in China should be established on the basis of ecological compensation mechanisms. At present, a lack of laws and regulations for overall marine ecological environment management is the key factor restricting the practice of marine ecological environment management. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the current path of marine ecological environment management in China from the perspective of the construction of legal system of ecological compensation law, the establishment of ecological compensation fees, ecological taxes and ecological compensation fund systems, and the clear status for a marine ecological management and supervision body.

  1. Green Turtle Trophic Ecology

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — SWFSC is currently conducting a study of green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) trophic ecology in the eastern Pacific. Tissue samples and stable carbon and stable...

  2. Market Squid Ecology Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains ecological information collected on the major adult spawning and juvenile habitats of market squid off California and the US Pacific Northwest....

  3. Ecological Provinces of Minnesota

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This coverage provides information for the first level of the Ecological Classification System. The boundaries of the polygons of this coverage were derived from...

  4. Ecological Subsections of Minnesota

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This coverage provides information for the third level of the Ecological Classification System. The boundaries of the polygons of this coverage were derived from...

  5. Ecological Sections of Minnesota

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This coverage provides information for the second level of the Ecological Classification System. The boundaries of the polygons of this coverage were derived from...

  6. Sraffa and ecological economics

    OpenAIRE

    Verger, Yoann

    2015-01-01

    References to Sraffa and to the neo-Ricardian school is something quite customary in ecological economics. By looking at contributions in this area since the beginning of ecological economics and at contributions on environmental problem from the neo-Ricardian school, we see that a connection between both school still has to be made. This connection should be articulated around the initial aim of Sraffa: to develop a new paradigm, competing against the neoclassical one. Only then it will be p...

  7. Indicators of Ecological Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-03

    Wang et al. (2003) and earlier those of Chapra and Di Toro (1991). Wang et al. (2003) termed their approach the extreme value method and used it to...Thesis, Auburn University, Auburn, AL. 210 pp. Chapra , S. C., Di Toro, D. M., 1991. Delta method for estimating primary production, respiration, and...characteristics, The challenge in using ecological indicators is determining which of the numerous measures of ecological systems best characterize

  8. Urban Sound Ecologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh; Samson, Kristine

    2013-01-01

    of the 1970s while developing them into recent definitions of ecology in urban studies. Finally, we unfold our framing of urban sound ecologies with three case analyses: a sound intervention in Berlin, a symphony for wind instruments in Copenhagen and a video walk in a former railway station in Kassel...... to how artists working with new information and media technologies create inventive ways of inserting sound and image into urban environments....

  9. Ecological Perspectives in HCI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blevis, Eli; Bødker, Susanne; Flach, John;

    The aim of the workshop is to provide a forum for researchers and practitioners to discuss the present and future of ecological perspectives in HCI. The participants will reflect on the current uses and interpretations of “ecology” and related concepts in the field. The workshop will assess...... the potential of ecological perspectives in HCI for supporting rich and meaningful analysis, as well as innovative design, of interactive technologies in real-life contexts...

  10. Developments in numerical ecology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legendre, P.; Legendre, L.

    1987-01-01

    From earlier ecological studies it has become apparent that simple univariate or bivariate statistics are often inappropriate, and that multivariate statistical analyses must be applied. Despite several difficulties arising from the application of multivariate methods, community ecology has acquired a mathematical framework, with three consequences: it can develop as an exact science; it can be applied operationally as a computer-assisted science to the solution of environmental problems; and it can exchange information with other disciplines using the language of mathematics.

  11. Baselines For Land-Use Change In The Tropics: Application ToAvoided Deforestation Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Sandra; Hall, Myrna; Andrasko, Ken; Ruiz, Fernando; Marzoli, Walter; Guerrero, Gabriela; Masera, Omar; Dushku, Aaron; Dejong,Ben; Cornell, Joseph

    2007-06-01

    Although forest conservation activities particularly in thetropics offer significant potential for mitigating carbon emissions,these types of activities have faced obstacles in the policy arena causedby the difficulty in determining key elements of the project cycle,particularly the baseline. A baseline for forest conservation has twomain components: the projected land-use change and the correspondingcarbon stocks in the applicable pools such as vegetation, detritus,products and soil, with land-use change being the most difficult toaddress analytically. In this paper we focus on developing and comparingthree models, ranging from relatively simple extrapolations of pasttrends in land use based on simple drivers such as population growth tomore complex extrapolations of past trends using spatially explicitmodels of land-use change driven by biophysical and socioeconomicfactors. The three models of the latter category used in the analysis atregional scale are The Forest Area Change (FAC) model, the Land Use andCarbon Sequestration (LUCS) model, and the Geographical Modeling (GEOMOD)model. The models were used to project deforestation in six tropicalregions that featured different ecological and socioeconomic conditions,population dynamics, and uses of the land: (1) northern Belize; (2) SantaCruz State, Bolivia; (3) Parana State in Brazil; (4) Campeche, Mexico;(5) Chiapas, Mexico; and (6) Michoacan, Mexico. A comparison of all modeloutputs across all six regions shows that each model produced quitedifferent deforestation baseline. In general, the simplest FAC model,applied at the national administrative-unit scale, projected the highestamount of forest loss (four out of six) and the LUCS model the leastamount of loss (four out of five). Based on simulations of GEOMOD, wefound that readily observable physical and biological factors as well asdistance to areas of past disturbance were each about twice as importantas either sociological/demographic or economic

  12. A Baseline Study of Piermont Marsh as Nekton Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, M.; Bloomfield, F.; Torres, T.; Ward, J.; Sanders, D.; Lobato, A.

    2011-12-01

    Between 2007 and 2011 we have conducted a study of fish populations and water quality in the Piermont Marsh, a brackish tidal wetland about 40 km north of Manhattan. This 5-year period represents the baseline for an ongoing ecological study of the marsh. The marsh, along with similar wetlands between the Federal Dam at Troy and the Battery, is an important refuge for juvenile fish, and it is believed that estuarine wetland dynamics are critical in population recruitment for coastal fisheries. Piermont Marsh has undergone a rapid transition from a primarily Spartina alternaflora and Spartina pattens setting to one dominated by an invasive genotype of common reed Phragmites australis. The impact of this shift on local fish populations, species diversity, and adult recruitment are not well understood. The long term goal of this study is to tease apart factors in by use of the marsh as a nekton habitat. Fish were collected in unbaited minnow gee traps which were deployed at slack tide and left for 24 hours. Samples were preserved in 10% buffered formalin. All organisms were identified to the lowest practical taxonomic level, enumerated, and measured. Gross weight was recorded for each sample set. Water quality measurements such as temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen were collected concurrently with all sampling events. Sample collections were focused on the tidal creeks crossing the marsh, which provide the primary exchange of water and nutrients between the marsh interior and Hudson River estuary. As expected, most minnows captured were Fundulus heteroclitus. However a wide variety of other nekton, including species that are important to commercial and recreational coastal Atlantic fish stocks, was recorded as well. Comparisons are made between habitats such as erosional and depostional banks, rivulets, and exterior and interior marsh settings. Also involved were transient conditions such as temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen levels, and hydroperiod

  13. Benefits of ecological engineering practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brüll, A.; Van Bohemen, H.; Costanza, R.; Mitsch, W.J.

    2011-01-01

    With the intention to further promote the field of ecological engineering and the solutions it provides, a workshop on “Benefits of Ecological Engineering Practices” was held 3 Dec 2009. It was conducted by the International Ecological Engineering Society in Paris at the conference “Ecological Engin

  14. Urban ecology and its Importance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾玛诺

    2015-01-01

    With the development of ecological problems are becoming more and more serious people pay more and more attention on ecological city,, this paper analyzes the sources of city ecological problems from the angle of the city planning, to explore the feasible measures to solve or al eviate the increasingly serious ecological problems.

  15. Benefits of ecological engineering practices

    OpenAIRE

    Brüll, A.; Van Bohemen, H.; Costanza, R.; Mitsch, W.J.

    2011-01-01

    With the intention to further promote the field of ecological engineering and the solutions it provides, a workshop on “Benefits of Ecological Engineering Practices” was held 3 Dec 2009. It was conducted by the International Ecological Engineering Society in Paris at the conference “Ecological Engineering: from Concepts to Application” organized by the Ecological Engineering Applications Group GAIE. This paper presents the results of the workshop related to three key questions: (1) what are t...

  16. Using Baseline Studies in the Investigation of Test Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Dianne; Horak, Tania

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the role of "baseline studies" in investigations of test impact and to illustrate the type of thinking underlying the design and implementation of such studies by reference to a recent study relating to a high-stakes test of English language proficiency. Baseline studies are used to describe an educational…

  17. Digital Offshore Cadastre (DOC) - Pacific83 - Baseline Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains baseline points in ESRI Arc/Info export and Arc/View shape file formats for the BOEM Pacific Region. Baseline points are used by the BOEM to...

  18. Searching for neutrino oscillation parameters in long baseline experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Vihonen, Sampsa

    2016-01-01

    Developing neutrino astronomy requires a good understanding of the neutrino oscillations mechanism. The European strategy for neutrino oscillation physics sets a high priority on future long baseline neutrino experiments with the aim to measure the intrinsic parameters that govern the neutrino oscillations. In this work we take a look at the next generation of long baseline experiments and discuss their prospects in future research.

  19. The 2014 ALMA Long Baseline Campaign : An Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ALMA Partnership, [Unknown; Fomalont, E. B.; Vlahakis, C.; Corder, S.; Remijan, A.; Barkats, D.; Lucas, R.; Hunter, T. R.; Brogan, C. L.; Asaki, Y.; Matsushita, S.; Dent, W. R. F.; Hills, R. E.; Phillips, N.; Richards, A. M. S.; Cox, P.; Amestica, R.; Broguiere, D.; Cotton, W.; Hales, A. S.; Hiriart, R.; Hirota, A.; Hodge, J. A.; Impellizzeri, C. M. V.; Kern, J.; Kneissl, R.; Liuzzo, E.; Marcelino, N.; Marson, R.; Mignano, A.; Nakanishi, K.; Nikolic, B.; Perez, J. E.; Pérez, L. M.; Toledo, I.; Aladro, R.; Butler, B.; Cortes, J.; Cortes, P.; Dhawan, V.; Di Francesco, J.; Espada, D.; Galarza, F.; Garcia-Appadoo, D.; Guzman-Ramirez, L.; Humphreys, E. M.; Jung, T.; Kameno, S.; Laing, R. A.; Leon, S.; Mangum, J.; Marconi, G.; Nagai, H.; Nyman, L.-A.; Radiszcz, M.; Rodón, J. A.; Sawada, T.; Takahashi, S.; Tilanus, R. P. J.; van Kempen, T.; Vila Vilaro, B.; Watson, L. C.; Wiklind, T.; Gueth, F.; Tatematsu, K.; Wootten, A.; Castro-Carrizo, A.; Chapillon, E.; Dumas, G.; de Gregorio-Monsalvo, I.; Francke, H.; Gallardo, J.; Garcia, J.; Gonzalez, S.; Hibbard, J. E.; Hill, T.; Kaminski, T.; Karim, A.; Krips, M.; Kurono, Y.; Lopez, C.; Martin, S.; Maud, L.; Morales, F.; Pietu, V.; Plarre, K.; Schieven, G.; Testi, L.; Videla, L.; Villard, E.; Whyborn, N.; Alves, F.; Andreani, P.; Avison, A.; Barta, M.; Bedosti, F.; Bendo, G. J.; Bertoldi, F.; Bethermin, M.; Biggs, A.; Boissier, J.; Brand, J.; Burkutean, S.; Casasola, V.; Conway, J.; Cortese, L.; Dabrowski, B.; Davis, T. A.; Diaz Trigo, M.; Fontani, F.; Franco-Hernandez, R.; Fuller, G.; Galvan Madrid, R.; Giannetti, A.; Ginsburg, A.; Graves, S. F.; Hatziminaoglou, E.; Hogerheijde, M.; Jachym, P.; Jimenez Serra, I.; Karlicky, M.; Klaasen, P.; Kraus, M.; Kunneriath, D.; Lagos, C.; Longmore, S.; Leurini, S.; Maercker, M.; Magnelli, B.; Marti Vidal, I.; Massardi, M.; Maury, A.; Muehle, S.; Muller, S.; Muxlow, T.; O’Gorman, E.; Paladino, R.; Petry, D.; Pineda, J.; Randall, S.; Richer, J. S.; Rossetti, A.; Rushton, A.; Rygl, K.; Sanchez Monge, A.; Schaaf, R.; Schilke, P.; Stanke, T.; Schmalzl, M.; Stoehr, F.; Urban, S.; van Kampen, E.; Vlemmings, W.; Wang, K.; Wild, W.; Yang, Y.; Iguchi, S.; Hasegawa, T.; Saito, M.; Inatani, J.; Mizuno, N.; Asayama, S.; Kosugi, G.; Morita, K.-I.; Chiba, K.; Kawashima, S.; Okumura, S. K.; Ohashi, N.; Ogasawara, R.; Sakamoto, S.; Noguchi, T.; Huang, Y.-D.; Liu, S.-Y.; Kemper, F.; Koch, P. M.; Chen, M.-T.; Chikada, Y.; Hiramatsu, M.; Iono, D.; Shimojo, M.; Komugi, S.; Kim, J.; Lyo, A.-R.; Muller, E.; Herrera, C.; Miura, R. E.; Ueda, J.; Chibueze, J.; Su, Y.-N.; Trejo-Cruz, A.; Wang, K.-S.; Kiuchi, H.; Ukita, N.; Sugimoto, M.; Kawabe, R.; Hayashi, M.; Miyama, S.; Ho, P. T. P.; Kaifu, N.; Ishiguro, M.; Beasley, A. J.; Bhatnagar, S.; Braatz, J. A., III; Brisbin, D. G.; Brunetti, N.; Carilli, C.; Crossley, J. H.; D’Addario, L.; Donovan Meyer, J. L.; Emerson, D. T.; Evans, A. S.; Fisher, P.; Golap, K.; Griffith, D. M.; Hale, A. E.; Halstead, D.; Hardy, E. J.; Hatz, M. C.; Holdaway, M.; Indebetouw, R.; Jewell, P. R.; Kepley, A. A.; Kim, D.-C.; Lacy, M. D.; Leroy, A. K.; Liszt, H. S.; Lonsdale, C. J.; Matthews, B.; McKinnon, M.; Mason, B. S.; Moellenbrock, G.; Moullet, A.; Myers, S. T.; Ott, J.; Peck, A. B.; Pisano, J.; Radford, S. J. E.; Randolph, W. T.; Rao Venkata, U.; Rawlings, M. G.; Rosen, R.; Schnee, S. L.; Scott, K. S.; Sharp, N. K.; Sheth, K.; Simon, R. S.; Tsutsumi, T.; Wood, S. J.

    2015-01-01

    A major goal of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is to make accurate images with resolutions of tens of milliarcseconds, which at submillimeter (submm) wavelengths requires baselines up to ∼15 km. To develop and test this capability, a Long Baseline Campaign (LBC) was carried

  20. Adapting the M3 Surveillance Metrics for an Unknown Baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, Michael Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Abes, Jeff I. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jaramillo, Brandon Michael Lee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-11-30

    The original M3 surveillance metrics assume that the baseline is known. In this article, adapted M3 metrics are presented when the baseline is not known and estimated by available data. Deciding on how much available data is enough is also discussed.

  1. 77 FR 26535 - Hope Gas, Inc.; Notice of Baseline Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Hope Gas, Inc.; Notice of Baseline Filing Take notice that on April 26, 2012, Hope Gas, Inc. (Hope Gas) submitted a baseline filing of their Statement of Operating Conditions...

  2. 77 FR 31841 - Hope Gas, Inc.; Notice of Baseline Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Hope Gas, Inc.; Notice of Baseline Filing Take notice that on May 16, 2012, Hope Gas, Inc. (Hope Gas) submitted a revised baseline filing of their Statement of...

  3. Urban sound ecologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne Krogh Groth

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Within recent years, there has been a renewed focus on sound in urban environments. From sound installations in public space to sound festivals in alternative settings, we find a common interest in sound art relating to the urban environment. Artworks or interventions presented in such contexts share the characteristics of site specificity. However, this article will consider the artwork in a broader context by re-examining how sound installations relate to the urban environment. For that purpose, this article brings together ecology terms from acoustic ecology of the sound theories of the 1970s while developing them into recent definitions of ecology in urban studies. Finally, we unfold our framing of urban sound ecologies with three case analyses: a sound intervention in Berlin, a symphony for wind instruments in Copenhagen and a video walk in a former railway station in Kassel. The article concludes that the ways in which recent sound installations work with urban ecologies vary. While two of the examples blend into the urban environment, the other transfers the concert format and its mode of listening to urban space. Last, and in accordance with recent soundscape research, we point to how artists working with new information and media technologies create inventive ways of inserting sound and image into urban environments.

  4. How phylogeny and foraging ecology drive the level of chemosensory exploration in lizards and snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeckens, S; Van Damme, R; Cooper, W E

    2017-03-01

    The chemical senses are crucial for squamates (lizards and snakes). The extent to which squamates utilize their chemosensory system, however, varies greatly among taxa and species' foraging strategies, and played an influential role in squamate evolution. In lizards, 'Scleroglossa' evolved a state where species use chemical cues to search for food (active foragers), whereas 'Iguania' retained the use of vision to hunt prey (ambush foragers). However, such strict dichotomy is flawed as shifts in foraging modes have occurred in all clades. Here, we attempted to disentangle effects of foraging ecology from phylogenetic trait conservatism as leading cause of the disparity in chemosensory investment among squamates. To do so, we used species' tongue-flick rate (TFR) in the absence of ecological relevant chemical stimuli as a proxy for its fundamental level of chemosensory investigation, that is baseline TFR. Based on literature data of nearly 100 species and using phylogenetic comparative methods, we tested whether and how foraging mode and diet affect baseline TFR. Our results show that baseline TFR is higher in active than ambush foragers. Although baseline TFRs appear phylogenetically stable in some lizard taxa, that is a consequence of concordant stability of foraging mode: when foraging mode shifts within taxa, so does baseline TFR. Also, baseline TFR is a good predictor of prey chemical discriminatory ability, as we established a strong positive relationship between baseline TFR and TFR in response to prey. Baseline TFR is unrelated to diet. Essentially, foraging mode, not phylogenetic relatedness, drives convergent evolution of similar levels of squamate chemosensory investigation.

  5. ECOLOGICAL ECONOMICS VS ECONOMIC(AL ECOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kharlamova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently world faces the dilemma – ecological economy or economic(al ecology. The researchers produce hundreds of surveys on the topic. However the analyses of recent most cited simulations had shown the diversity of results. Thus, for some states the Kuznets environmental curve has place, for others – no. Same could be said about different years for the same state. It provokes the necessity of drawing new group analyses to reveal the tendencies and relationships between economic and environmental factors. Most flexible and mirror factor of environmental sustainability is the volume of CO2 emissions. The econometric analysis was used for detecting the economic impact on this indicator at the global level and in the spectra of group of states depending on their income. The hypothesis of the existence of environmental Kuznets curve for the analysed data is rejected. Real GDP per capita impact on carbon dioxide emissions is considered only at the global level. The impact of openness of the economy is weak. Rejection happened also to the hypothesis that for the developed countries there is a reverse dependence between the environmental pollution and economic openness. Indicator “energy consumption per capita” impacts on greenhouse gas emissions only in countries with high income. Whereby it should be noted that the more developed a country is, the more elastic is this influence. These results have a potential usage for environmental policy regulation and climate strategy.

  6. Ecological city planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Rueda

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A territory, a city, a neighbourhood are all ecosystems; a mixture of chemico-physical and organic elements related to each other. That which defines an ecological system is the set of rules and characteristics which condition its relationships, and its duration in time is guaranteed by its efficiency and internal organization which applied to the city is translated in the reduction of the use of natural resources and in the increase of social organization. To increase the efficiency of the urban systems is the necessary condition for the formulation of ecological city planning favouring the maximum liveability of sites. Liveability is directly correlated to the optimization of numerous elements (public space, equipment, services, building techniques, innovative technology, social cohesion, biodiversity. To carry out such objectives, ecological city planning proposes a new model of town planning on three levels (subsoil, ground level, and upper level.

  7. Coevolutionary ecological economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallis, Giorgos [ICREA Researcher, ICTA, Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, ETSE, QC/3095, 08193 Bellatera, Barcelona (Spain); Norgaard, Richard B. [Energy and Resources Group, University of California at Berkeley, 310 Barrows Hall, Berkeley, CA, 94720-3050 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    This paper maps a coevolutionary research agenda for ecological economics. At an epistemological level coevolution offers a powerful logic for transcending environmental and social determinisms and developing a cross-disciplinary approach in the study of socio-ecological systems. We identify four consistent stories emerging out of coevolutionary studies in ecological economics, concerning: environmental degradation and development failure in peripheral regions; the lock-in of unsustainable production-consumption patterns; the vicious cycle between human efforts to control undesirable micro-organisms and the evolution of these organisms; and the adaptive advantages of other-regarding, cooperative behaviors and institutions. We identify challenges in the conceptualization of coevolutionary relationships in relation to: the interaction between different hierarchical levels of evolution; the role of space and social power; uneven rates of change and crises. We conclude with the political implications of a coevolutionary perspective based on the premises of pragmatism. (author)

  8. Baseline Risk Assessment Supporting Closure at Waste Management Area C at the Hanford Site Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singleton, Kristin M. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC, Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-01-07

    The Office of River Protection under the U.S. Department of Energy is pursuing closure of the Single-Shell Tank (SST) Waste Management Area (WMA) C under the requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (HFFACO). A baseline risk assessment (BRA) of current conditions is based on available characterization data and information collected at WMA C. The baseline risk assessment is being developed as a part of a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI)/Corrective Measures Study (CMS) at WMA C that is mandatory under Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act and RCRA corrective action. The RFI/CMS is needed to identify and evaluate the hazardous chemical and radiological contamination in the vadose zone from past releases of waste from WMA C. WMA C will be under Federal ownership and control for the foreseeable future, and managed as an industrial area with restricted access and various institutional controls. The exposure scenarios evaluated under these conditions include Model Toxics Control Act (MTCA) Method C, industrial worker, maintenance and surveillance worker, construction worker, and trespasser scenarios. The BRA evaluates several unrestricted land use scenarios (residential all-pathway, MTCA Method B, and Tribal) to provide additional information for risk management. Analytical results from 13 shallow zone (0 to 15 ft. below ground surface) sampling locations were collected to evaluate human health impacts at WMA C. In addition, soil analytical data were screened against background concentrations and ecological soil screening levels to determine if soil concentrations have the potential to adversely affect ecological receptors. Analytical data from 12 groundwater monitoring wells were evaluated between 2004 and 2013. A screening of groundwater monitoring data against background concentrations and Federal maximum concentration levels was used to determine vadose zone

  9. Ecology of gelatious plankton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaspers, Cornelia

    as a result of this invasion and its ecological and economic impacts. In 2005, when M. leidyi was sighted in Northern Europe for the first time, similar consequences were feared. The aim of my PhD project was to understand the potential impact of M. leidyi on the Baltic Sea ecosystem and constrains on its...... in high and intermediate saline areas in Northern Europe. While the ecological impact of M. leidyi in the central Baltic appears to be limited concern, the environment in other European waters should be more favourable to their populations. In these areas, it is suggested that M. leidyi constitutes...

  10. Art, Ecology and Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witzke, Anne Sophie

    2013-01-01

    The discourse of ecology and sustainability has gained critical traction in recent years. But how are these concepts framed within the space, language and idea of the exhibition? This panel discussion, moderated by Steven Lam and conducted by email in July 2012, sought to unpack the claims...... and limits of the ecological, looking specifically at various international case studies, within the practice of curatorial and exhibition studies. The discussion begins with a reflection on ‘DON'T/PANIC’ in Durban and ‘Rethink – Contemporary Art and Climate Change’ in Copenhagen, exhibitions that were...

  11. The MINK methodology: background and baseline. [USA - Midwest Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, N.J.; Crosson, P.R.; Frederick, K.D.; Easterling, W.E. III; McKenney, M.S.; Bowes, M.D.; Sedjo, R.A.; Darmstadter, J.; Katz, L.A.; Lemon, K.M. (Resources for the Future, Washington, DC (United States))

    1993-06-01

    A four step methodology has been developed for study of the regional impacts of climate change and the possible responses thereto. First the region's climate sensitive sectors and total economy are described (Task A, current baseline). Next a scenario of climate change is imposed on the current baseline (Task B, current baseline with climate change). A new baseline describing the climate sensitive sectors and total regional economy is projected for some time in the future (Task C, future baseline, year 2030) in the absence of climate change. Finally, the climate change scenario is reimposed on the future baseline (Task D, future baseline with climate change). Impacts of the climate change scenario on the current and future regional economies are determined by means of simulation models and other appropriate techniques. These techniques are also used to assess the impacts of an elevated CO[sub 2] concentration (450 ppm) and of various forms of adjustments and adaptations. The region chosen for the first test of the methodology is composed of the four U.S. states of Missouri, Iowa, Nebraska and Kansas. The climate change scenario is the actual weather of the 1930s decade in the MINK region. 'Current' climate is the actual weather of the period 1951-1980. 20 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Neutrino oscillations: what is magic about the "magic" baseline?

    CERN Document Server

    Smirnov, A Yu

    2006-01-01

    Physics interpretation of the ``magic'' baseline that can play important role in future oscillation experiments is given. The ``magic'' baseline coincides with the refraction length, $l_0$. The latter, in turn, approximately equals the oscillation length in matter at high energies. Therefore at the baseline $L = l_0$ the oscillation phase is $2\\pi$, and consequently, the ``solar'' amplitude of oscillations driven by the mixing angle $\\theta_{12}$ and mass splitting $\\Delta m^2_{21}$ vanishes. As a result, in the lowest order (i) the interference of amplitudes in the $\

  13. Trinocular Stereo Matching Based on Correlations Between Baselines and Disparities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUANYepeng; GUWeikang

    2004-01-01

    Gray correlation technique is utilized to take the multi-peak feature points with gray correlation coefficients less than a certain range of maximal correlation coefficient as a potential candidate matching set. There exists the maximal correlation between the correct disparities and their corresponding baselines. A trinocular stereo matching algorithm is proposed based on correlations between the baselines and disparities. After computing the correlations between the baselines and disparities, the unique matches can be determined by maximal correlation coefficient. It is proved that the algorithm proposed is valid and credible by 3-D reconstruction on two pairs of actual natural stereo images.

  14. The development of ecological tourism and ecological civilization construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张波

    2014-01-01

    This passage shows us the characters of ecology tourism and reveals the problems in the modern tourism , emphasises that we should develop ecology tourism and make a link between them, then leads to Sustainable Development.

  15. Biodiversity in Benthic Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, Nikolai; Carl, J. D.

    Foreword: This proceeding is based on a set of papers presented at the second Nordic Benthological Meeting held in Silkeborg, November 13-14, 1997. The main theme of the meeting was biodiversity in benthic ecology and the majority of contributions touch on this subject. In addition, the proceeding...

  16. Activity Book: Ocean Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learning, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Presents a collection of activities to help elementary students study ocean ecology. The activities have students investigate ocean inhabitants, analyze animal adaptations, examine how temperature and saltiness affect ocean creatures, and learn about safeguarding the sea. Student pages offer reproducible learning sheets. (SM)

  17. Ecology and Human Destiny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haught, John F.

    1999-01-01

    Examines eschatology as the heart of Christian faith, suggesting that an appreciation of an eschatological interpretation of the cosmos enables acceptance of nature's transience and a grounding for an ecological ethic. Maintains that recent scientific developments present a promising, rather than pessimistic, picture of the universe. Holds that…

  18. Ecology in Urban Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Letitia K.; Ryan, Michael

    In this course guide to the teaching of urban ecology, six learning activities on the following topics are outlined: (1) city location and growth; (2) an in-depth study of New Orleans; (3) city shape and structure; (4) size and spacing of cities; (5) cities with special functions; (6) local community study. Educational objectives for each activity…

  19. Challenges of ecological restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halme, Panu; Allen, Katherine A.; Aunins, Ainars

    2013-01-01

    The alarming rate of ecosystem degradation has raised the need for ecological restoration throughout different biomes and continents. North European forests may appear as one of the least vulnerable ecosystems from a global perspective, since forest cover is not rapidly decreasing and many ecosys...

  20. Metabolomics in chemical ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlisch, Constanze; Pohnert, Georg

    2015-07-01

    Chemical ecology elucidates the nature and role of natural products as mediators of organismal interactions. The emerging techniques that can be summarized under the concept of metabolomics provide new opportunities to study such environmentally relevant signaling molecules. Especially comparative tools in metabolomics enable the identification of compounds that are regulated during interaction situations and that might play a role as e.g. pheromones, allelochemicals or in induced and activated defenses. This approach helps overcoming limitations of traditional bioassay-guided structure elucidation approaches. But the power of metabolomics is not limited to the comparison of metabolic profiles of interacting partners. Especially the link to other -omics techniques helps to unravel not only the compounds in question but the entire biosynthetic and genetic re-wiring, required for an ecological response. This review comprehensively highlights successful applications of metabolomics in chemical ecology and discusses existing limitations of these novel techniques. It focuses on recent developments in comparative metabolomics and discusses the use of metabolomics in the systems biology of organismal interactions. It also outlines the potential of large metabolomics initiatives for model organisms in the field of chemical ecology.

  1. THE AUTOIMMUNE ECOLOGY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan-Manuel eAnaya

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune diseases (ADs represent a heterogeneous group of disorders that affect specific target organs or multiple organ systems. These conditions share common immunopathogenic mechanisms (i.e., the autoimmune tautology, which explain the clinical similarities they have among them as well as their familial clustering (i.e., coaggregation. As part of the autoimmune tautology, the influence of environmental exposure on the risk of developing ADs is paramount (i.e., the autoimmune ecology. In fact, environment, more than genetics, shapes immune system. Autoimmune ecology is akin to exposome, that is all the exposures - internal and external - across the lifespan, interacting with hereditary factors (both genetics and epigenetics to favor or protect against autoimmunity and its outcomes. Herein we provide an overview of the autoimmune ecology, focusing on the immune response to environmental agents in general, and microbiota, cigarette smoking, alcohol and coffee consumption, socioeconomic status, gender and sex hormones, vitamin D, organic solvents and vaccines in particular. Inclusion of the autoimmune ecology in disease etiology and health will improve the way personalized medicine is currently conceived and applied.

  2. Ecology of lianas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnitzer, S.A.; Bongers, F.; Burnham, R.J.; Putz, F.E.

    2015-01-01

    A liana is a long-stemmed, woody vine that is rooted in the soil at ground level and uses trees to climb up to the canopy to get access to well-lit areas of the forest. The main goal of this book is to present the current status of liana ecology in tropical and temperate forests. In essence, it is a

  3. Aspects of Marine Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awkerman, Gary L.

    This publication is designed for use in standard science curricula to develop oceanologic manifestations of certain science topics. Included are teacher guides, student activities, and demonstrations to impart ocean science understanding, specifically, aspects of marine ecology, to high school students. The course objectives include the ability of…

  4. Marine and Island Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Lawrence J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes an ecology course which provides students with an opportunity to observe aquatic and terrestrial life in the Bahamas. States that students learn scientific methodology by measuring physical and chemical aspects of the island habitats. Provides information on the island, course description and objectives, transportation, facilities, and…

  5. The Autoimmune Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Ramirez-Santana, Carolina; Alzate, Maria A; Molano-Gonzalez, Nicolas; Rojas-Villarraga, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases (ADs) represent a heterogeneous group of disorders that affect specific target organs or multiple organ systems. These conditions share common immunopathogenic mechanisms (i.e., the autoimmune tautology), which explain the clinical similarities they have among them as well as their familial clustering (i.e., coaggregation). As part of the autoimmune tautology, the influence of environmental exposure on the risk of developing ADs is paramount (i.e., the autoimmune ecology). In fact, environment, more than genetics, shapes immune system. Autoimmune ecology is akin to exposome, that is all the exposures - internal and external - across the lifespan, interacting with hereditary factors (both genetics and epigenetics) to favor or protect against autoimmunity and its outcomes. Herein, we provide an overview of the autoimmune ecology, focusing on the immune response to environmental agents in general, and microbiota, cigarette smoking, alcohol and coffee consumption, socioeconomic status (SES), gender and sex hormones, vitamin D, organic solvents, and vaccines in particular. Inclusion of the autoimmune ecology in disease etiology and health will improve the way personalized medicine is currently conceived and applied.

  6. A baseline study of metal contamination along the Namibian coastline for Perna perna and Choromytilus meridionalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahms, S; van der Bank, F H; Greenfield, R

    2014-08-15

    The use of bivalves such as the brown mussel (Perna perna) and the black mussel (Choromytilus meridionalis) is common in the study of marine pollution and the effect of these pollutants on ecosystems and are important in both economic and ecological roles. Namibian marine ecosystems are threatened by pollution from mining, commercial fishing and population growth. The aims of this study were to determine baseline metal concentrations, spatial variation and variation between species. Metal levels in C. meridionalis from Guano Platform (GP) are the lowest of all the sites. The most polluted sites are Rocky Point (RP), Halifax Island (HIL) and between Walvis Bay and Swakopmund (WS). The bioaccumulation of metals between P. perna and C. meridionalis were not uniform for all metals. Overall the study indicates the condition of the coastline to be mostly normal, with Cd and Pb levels being of concern.

  7. Molecular ecological network analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Ye

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the interaction among different species within a community and their responses to environmental changes is a central goal in ecology. However, defining the network structure in a microbial community is very challenging due to their extremely high diversity and as-yet uncultivated status. Although recent advance of metagenomic technologies, such as high throughout sequencing and functional gene arrays, provide revolutionary tools for analyzing microbial community structure, it is still difficult to examine network interactions in a microbial community based on high-throughput metagenomics data. Results Here, we describe a novel mathematical and bioinformatics framework to construct ecological association networks named molecular ecological networks (MENs through Random Matrix Theory (RMT-based methods. Compared to other network construction methods, this approach is remarkable in that the network is automatically defined and robust to noise, thus providing excellent solutions to several common issues associated with high-throughput metagenomics data. We applied it to determine the network structure of microbial communities subjected to long-term experimental warming based on pyrosequencing data of 16 S rRNA genes. We showed that the constructed MENs under both warming and unwarming conditions exhibited topological features of scale free, small world and modularity, which were consistent with previously described molecular ecological networks. Eigengene analysis indicated that the eigengenes represented the module profiles relatively well. In consistency with many other studies, several major environmental traits including temperature and soil pH were found to be important in determining network interactions in the microbial communities examined. To facilitate its application by the scientific community, all these methods and statistical tools have been integrated into a comprehensive Molecular Ecological

  8. Valuation of ecological resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, M.J.; Bilyard, G.R.; Link, S.O.; Ricci, P.F.; Seely, H.E.; Ulibarri, C.A.; Westerdahl, H.E.

    1995-04-01

    Ecological resources are resources that have functional value to ecosystems. Frequently, these functions are overlooked in terms of the value they provide to humans. Environmental economics is in search of an appropriate analysis framework for such resources. In such a framework, it is essential to distinguish between two related subsets of information: (1) ecological processes that have intrinsic value to natural ecosystems; and (2) ecological functions that are values by humans. The present study addresses these concerns by identifying a habitat that is being displaced by development, and by measuring the human and ecological values associated with the ecological resources in that habitat. It is also essential to determine which functions are mutually exclusive and which are, in effect, complementary or products of joint production. The authors apply several resource valuation tools, including contingent valuation methodology (CVM), travel cost methodology (TCM), and hedonic damage-pricing (HDP). One way to derive upper-limit values for more difficult-to-value functions is through the use of human analogs, because human-engineered systems are relatively inefficient at supplying the desired services when compared with natural systems. Where data on the relative efficiencies of natural systems and human analogs exist, it is possible to adjust the costs of providing the human analog by the relative efficiency of the natural system to obtain a more realistic value of the function under consideration. The authors demonstrate this approach in an environmental economic case study of the environmental services rendered by shrub-steppe habitats of Benton County, Washington State.

  9. Baseline inventory data recommendations for National Wildlife Refuges

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Baseline Inventory Team recommends that each refuge have available abiotic “data layers” for topography, aerial photography, hydrography, soils, boundaries, and...

  10. Baseline inventory data users guide to abiotic GIS layers

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Baseline Inventory Team was chartered by the Fulfilling the Promises Implementation Team to recommend minimum abiotic and biotic inventories for the National...

  11. Sterile Neutrino Fits to Short-Baseline Neutrino Oscillation Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Conrad

    2013-01-01

    (3 + 2 and (3 + 3 fits, rather than (3 + 1 fits, for future neutrino oscillation phenomenology. These results motivate the pursuit of further short-baseline experiments, such as those reviewed in this paper.

  12. Baseline assessment of fish communities of the Flower Garden Banks

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The work developed baseline information on fish and benthic communities within the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary (FGBNMS). Surveys employed diving,...

  13. Baseline vegetation mapping : Fort Niobrara National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Final report for the baseline vegetation mapping project on Fort Niobrara National Wildlife Refuge. This project aims to create a vegetation map showing the...

  14. Butler Hollow Glades : Baseline assessment and vegetation monitoring establishment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Several sampling and documentation protocols were implemented to establish baseline vegetation data. These data will provide a comparison point for future...

  15. 40 CFR 80.93 - Individual baseline submission and approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...: (i) Refinery block flow diagram, showing principal refining units; (ii) Principal refining unit... parameter for which a baseline value is required, per § 80.91: (i) Narrative of the development of...

  16. Information architecture. Volume 2, Part 1: Baseline analysis summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Information Architecture, Volume 2, Baseline Analysis, is a collaborative and logical next-step effort in the processes required to produce a Departmentwide information architecture. The baseline analysis serves a diverse audience of program management and technical personnel and provides an organized way to examine the Department`s existing or de facto information architecture. A companion document to Volume 1, The Foundations, it furnishes the rationale for establishing a Departmentwide information architecture. This volume, consisting of the Baseline Analysis Summary (part 1), Baseline Analysis (part 2), and Reference Data (part 3), is of interest to readers who wish to understand how the Department`s current information architecture technologies are employed. The analysis identifies how and where current technologies support business areas, programs, sites, and corporate systems.

  17. Seier NWR second year baseline CCP preparation surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Final report for a project to collect baseline biological information on John W. And Louise Seier National Wildlife Refuge, to aid in preparation of 2014...

  18. LBCS: The LOFAR Long-Baseline Calibrator Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, N.; Tagore, A.; Deller, A.; Moldón, J.; Varenius, E.; Morabito, L.; Wucknitz, O.; Carozzi, T.; Conway, J.; Drabent, A.; Kapinska, A.; Orrù, E.; Brentjens, M.; Blaauw, R.; Kuper, G.; Sluman, J.; Schaap, J.; Vermaas, N.; Iacobelli, M.; Cerrigone, L.; Shulevski, A.; ter Veen, S.; Fallows, R.; Pizzo, R.; Sipior, M.; Anderson, J.; Avruch, I. M.; Bell, M. E.; van Bemmel, I.; Bentum, M. J.; Best, P.; Bonafede, A.; Breitling, F.; Broderick, J. W.; Brouw, W. N.; Brüggen, M.; Ciardi, B.; Corstanje, A.; de Gasperin, F.; de Geus, E.; Eislöffel, J.; Engels, D.; Falcke, H.; Garrett, M. A.; Grießmeier, J. M.; Gunst, A. W.; van Haarlem, M. P.; Heald, G.; Hoeft, M.; Hörandel, J.; Horneffer, A.; Intema, H.; Juette, E.; Kuniyoshi, M.; van Leeuwen, J.; Loose, G. M.; Maat, P.; McFadden, R.; McKay-Bukowski, D.; McKean, J. P.; Mulcahy, D. D.; Munk, H.; Pandey-Pommier, M.; Polatidis, A. G.; Reich, W.; Röttgering, H. J. A.; Rowlinson, A.; Scaife, A. M. M.; Schwarz, D. J.; Steinmetz, M.; Swinbank, J.; Thoudam, S.; Toribio, M. C.; Vermeulen, R.; Vocks, C.; van Weeren, R. J.; Wise, M. W.; Yatawatta, S.; Zarka, P.

    2016-11-01

    We outline the LOFAR Long-Baseline Calibrator Survey (LBCS), whose aim is to identify sources suitable for calibrating the highest-resolution observations made with the International LOFAR Telescope, which include baselines >1000 km. Suitable sources must contain significant correlated flux density (≳ 50 - 100 mJy) at frequencies around 110-190 MHz on scales of a few hundred milliarcseconds. At least for the 200-300-km international baselines, we find around 1 suitable calibrator source per square degree over a large part of the northern sky, in agreement with previous work. This should allow a randomly selected target to be successfully phase calibrated on the international baselines in over 50% of cases. Products of the survey include calibrator source lists and fringe-rate and delay maps of wide areas - typically a few degrees - around each source. The density of sources with significant correlated flux declines noticeably with baseline length over the range 200-600 km, with good calibrators on the longest baselines appearing only at the rate of 0.5 per sq. deg. Coherence times decrease from 1-3 min on 200-km baselines to about 1 min on 600-km baselines, suggesting that ionospheric phase variations contain components with scales of a few hundred kilometres. The longest median coherence time, at just over 3 min, is seen on the DE609 baseline, which at 227 km is close to being the shortest. We see median coherence times of between 80 and 110 s on the four longest baselines (580-600 km), and about 2 min for the other baselines. The success of phase transfer from calibrator to target is shown to be influenced by distance, in a manner that suggests a coherence patch at 150-MHz of the order of 1 deg. Although source structures cannot be measured in these observations, we deduce that phase transfer is affected if the calibrator source structure is not known. We give suggestions for calibration strategies and choice of calibrator sources, and describe the access to

  19. Fusion of a Variable Baseline System and a Range Finder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Arnay

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the greatest difficulties in stereo vision is the appearance of ambiguities when matching similar points from different images. In this article we analyze the effectiveness of using a fusion of multiple baselines and a range finder from a theoretical point of view, focusing on the results of using both prismatic and rotational articulations for baseline generation, and offer a practical case to prove its efficiency on an autonomous vehicle.

  20. Ecological zones of California deserts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The dataset delineates ecological zones within California deserts. We derived ecological zones by reclassifying LANDFIRE vegetation biophysical setting types, plus...

  1. The redoubtable ecological periodic table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecological periodic tables are repositories of reliable information on quantitative, predictably recurring (periodic) habitat–community patterns and their uncertainty, scaling and transferability. Their reliability derives from their grounding in sound ecological principle...

  2. Re-Creating Missing Population Baselines for Pacific Reef Sharks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadon, Marc O; Baum, Julia K; Williams, Ivor D; Mcpherson, Jana M; Zgliczynski, Brian J; Richards, Benjamin L; Schroeder, Robert E; Brainard, Russell E

    2012-01-01

    Summary Abstract Sharks and other large predators are scarce on most coral reefs, but studies of their historical ecology provide qualitative evidence that predators were once numerous in these ecosystems. Quantifying density of sharks in the absence of humans (baseline) is, however, hindered by a paucity of pertinent time-series data. Recently researchers have used underwater visual surveys, primarily of limited spatial extent or nonstandard design, to infer negative associations between reef shark abundance and human populations. We analyzed data from 1607 towed-diver surveys (>1 ha transects surveyed by observers towed behind a boat) conducted at 46 reefs in the central-western Pacific Ocean, reefs that included some of the world's most pristine coral reefs. Estimates of shark density from towed-diver surveys were substantially lower (base) es obstaculizada por la falta de datos de series de tiempo pertinentes. Recientemente, los investigadores han utilizado muestreos visuales submarinos, de extensión espacial limitada o de diseño no estándar, para inferir asociaciones negativas entre la abundancia de tiburones de arrecife y las poblaciones humanas. Analizamos datos de 1607 muestreos por remolque de buzos (transectos >1ha muestreados por observadores remolcados por una lancha) realizados en 46 arrecifes en el Océano Pacífico centro-occidental, arrecifes que incluyeron algunos de los más prístinos del mundo. Las estimaciones de densidad de tiburones fue sustancialmente menor (<10%) que estimaciones publicadas a partir de muestreos a lo largo de transectos pequeños (<0.02 ha), lo cual no es consistente con las pirámides de biomasa invertidas (la biomasa de depredadores es mayor que la biomasa de presas) reportadas para arrecifes prístinos por otros autores. Examinamos la relación entre la densidad de tiburones de arrecife observados en los muestreos por remolque de buzos y la población humana en modelos y consideramos la influencia de la productividad

  3. MALDI-TOF Baseline Drift Removal Using Stochastic Bernstein Approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Stochastic Bernstein (SB approximation can tackle the problem of baseline drift correction of instrumentation data. This is demonstrated for spectral data: matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF data. Two SB schemes for removing the baseline drift are presented: iterative and direct. Following an explanation of the origin of the MALDI-TOF baseline drift that sheds light on the inherent difficulty of its removal by chemical means, SB baseline drift removal is illustrated for both proteomics and genomics MALDI-TOF data sets. SB is an elegant signal processing method to obtain a numerically straightforward baseline shift removal method as it includes a free parameter that can be optimized for different baseline drift removal applications. Therefore, research that determines putative biomarkers from the spectral data might benefit from a sensitivity analysis to the underlying spectral measurement that is made possible by varying the SB free parameter. This can be manually tuned (for constant or tuned with evolutionary computation (for .

  4. THE 2014 ALMA LONG BASELINE CAMPAIGN: AN OVERVIEW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Partnership, ALMA [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, IC2, Liverpool Science Park, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF (United Kingdom); Fomalont, E. B.; Vlahakis, C.; Corder, S.; Remijan, A.; Barkats, D.; Dent, W. R. F.; Phillips, N.; Cox, P.; Hales, A. S. [Joint ALMA Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Lucas, R. [Institut de Planétologie et d’Astrophysique de Grenoble (UMR 5274), BP 53, F-38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Hunter, T. R.; Brogan, C. L.; Amestica, R.; Cotton, W. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Asaki, Y. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Matsushita, S. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Hills, R. E. [Astrophysics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Richards, A. M. S. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Broguiere, D., E-mail: efomalon@nrao.edu [Institut de Radioastronomie Millime´trique (IRAM), 300 rue de la Piscine, Domaine Universitaire, F-38406 Saint Martin d’Hères (France); and others

    2015-07-20

    A major goal of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is to make accurate images with resolutions of tens of milliarcseconds, which at submillimeter (submm) wavelengths requires baselines up to ∼15 km. To develop and test this capability, a Long Baseline Campaign (LBC) was carried out from 2014 September to late November, culminating in end-to-end observations, calibrations, and imaging of selected Science Verification (SV) targets. This paper presents an overview of the campaign and its main results, including an investigation of the short-term coherence properties and systematic phase errors over the long baselines at the ALMA site, a summary of the SV targets and observations, and recommendations for science observing strategies at long baselines. Deep ALMA images of the quasar 3C 138 at 97 and 241 GHz are also compared to VLA 43 GHz results, demonstrating an agreement at a level of a few percent. As a result of the extensive program of LBC testing, the highly successful SV imaging at long baselines achieved angular resolutions as fine as 19 mas at ∼350 GHz. Observing with ALMA on baselines of up to 15 km is now possible, and opens up new parameter space for submm astronomy.

  5. Precise baseline determination for the TanDEM-X mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Rolf; Moon, Yongjin; Neumayer, Hans; Wermuth, Martin; Montenbruck, Oliver; Jäggi, Adrian

    The TanDEM-X mission will strive for generating a global precise Digital Elevation Model (DEM) by way of bi-static SAR in a close formation of the TerraSAR-X satellite, already launched on June 15, 2007, and the TanDEM-X satellite to be launched in May 2010. Both satellites carry the Tracking, Occultation and Ranging (TOR) payload supplied by the GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences. The TOR consists of a high-precision dual-frequency GPS receiver, called Integrated GPS Occultation Receiver (IGOR), and a Laser retro-reflector (LRR) for precise orbit determination (POD) and atmospheric sounding. The IGOR is of vital importance for the TanDEM-X mission objectives as the millimeter level determination of the baseline or distance between the two spacecrafts is needed to derive meter level accurate DEMs. Within the TanDEM-X ground segment GFZ is responsible for the operational provision of precise baselines. For this GFZ uses two software chains, first its Earth Parameter and Orbit System (EPOS) software and second the BERNESE software, for backup purposes and quality control. In a concerted effort also the German Aerospace Center (DLR) generates precise baselines independently with a dedicated Kalman filter approach realized in its FRNS software. By the example of GRACE the generation of baselines with millimeter accuracy from on-board GPS data can be validated directly by way of comparing them to the intersatellite K-band range measurements. The K-band ranges are accurate down to the micrometer-level and therefore may be considered as truth. Both TanDEM-X baseline providers are able to generate GRACE baselines with sub-millimeter accuracy. By merging the independent baselines by GFZ and DLR, the accuracy can even be increased. The K-band validation however covers solely the along-track component as the K-band data measure just the distance between the two GRACE satellites. In addition they inhibit an un-known bias which must be modelled in the comparison, so the

  6. The Social-Ecological Ideal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaidamak, A.; Tiittanen, T.

    1992-01-01

    Argues that it is essential for preschool education to explore environmental and ecological values. Discusses cognitive development of socio-ecological knowledge at three age levels. Asserts that folk tales provide good examples of ecological values because beauty usually triumphs over ugliness and good over evil. (CFR)

  7. Hanford Site Ecological Quality Profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilyard, Gordon R.; Sackschewsky, Michael R.; Tzemos, Spyridon

    2002-02-17

    This report reviews the ecological quality profile methodology and results for the Hanford Site. It covers critical ecological assets and terrestrial resources, those in Columbia River corridor and those threatened and engdangered, as well as hazards and risks to terrestrial resources. The features of a base habitat value profile are explained, as are hazard and ecological quality profiles.

  8. Baseline report - tall upland shrubland at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site) is located on the Colorado Piedmont east of the Front Range between Boulder and Golden. At an elevation of approximately 6,000 feet, the Site contains a unique ecotonal mixture of mountain and prairie plant species, resulting from the topography and close proximity to the mountain front. The Buffer Zone surrounding the Industrial Area is one of the largest remaining undeveloped areas of its kind along the Colorado Piedmont. A number of plant communities at the Site have been identified as increasingly rare and unique by Site ecologists and the Colorado Natural Heritage Program (CNHP). These include the xeric tallgrass prairie, tall upland shrubland, wetlands, and Great Plains riparian woodland communities. Many of these communities support populations of increasingly rare animals as well, including the Preble`s meadow jumping mouse, grasshopper sparrow, loggerhead shrike, Merriam`s shrew, black crowned night heron, and Hops blue and Argos skipper butterflies. One of the more interesting and important plant communities at the Site is the tall upland shrubland community. It has been generally overlooked by previous Site ecological studies, probably due to its relatively small size; only 34 acres total. Although mentioned in a plant community ordination study conducted by Clark et al. and also in the Site baseline ecological study, few data were available on this plant community before the present study.

  9. Shark tooth weapons from the 19th Century reflect shifting baselines in Central Pacific predator assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Joshua; Philipp, Christopher; Westneat, Mark W

    2013-01-01

    The reefs surrounding the Gilbert Islands (Republic of Kiribati, Central Pacific), like many throughout the world, have undergone a period of rapid and intensive environmental perturbation over the past 100 years. A byproduct of this perturbation has been a reduction of the number of shark species present in their waters, even though sharks play an important in the economy and culture of the Gilbertese. Here we examine how shark communities changed over time periods that predate the written record in order to understand the magnitude of ecosystem changes in the Central Pacific. Using a novel data source, the shark tooth weapons of the Gilbertese Islanders housed in natural history museums, we show that two species of shark, the Spot-tail (Carcharhinus sorrah) and the Dusky (C. obscurus), were present in the islands during the last half of the 19(th) century but not reported in any historical literature or contemporary ichthyological surveys of the region. Given the importance of these species to the ecology of the Gilbert Island reefs and to the culture of the Gilbertese people, documenting these shifts in baseline fauna represents an important step toward restoring the vivid splendor of both ecological and cultural diversity.

  10. Shark tooth weapons from the 19th Century reflect shifting baselines in Central Pacific predator assemblies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Drew

    Full Text Available The reefs surrounding the Gilbert Islands (Republic of Kiribati, Central Pacific, like many throughout the world, have undergone a period of rapid and intensive environmental perturbation over the past 100 years. A byproduct of this perturbation has been a reduction of the number of shark species present in their waters, even though sharks play an important in the economy and culture of the Gilbertese. Here we examine how shark communities changed over time periods that predate the written record in order to understand the magnitude of ecosystem changes in the Central Pacific. Using a novel data source, the shark tooth weapons of the Gilbertese Islanders housed in natural history museums, we show that two species of shark, the Spot-tail (Carcharhinus sorrah and the Dusky (C. obscurus, were present in the islands during the last half of the 19(th century but not reported in any historical literature or contemporary ichthyological surveys of the region. Given the importance of these species to the ecology of the Gilbert Island reefs and to the culture of the Gilbertese people, documenting these shifts in baseline fauna represents an important step toward restoring the vivid splendor of both ecological and cultural diversity.

  11. Nutrition, ecology and nutritional ecology: towardan integrated framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Steven J.; Mayntz, David

    2009-01-01

    1. The science of nutritional ecology spans a wide range of fields, including ecology, nutrition, behaviour, morphology, physiology, life history and evolutionary biology. But does nutritional ecology have a unique theoretical framework and research program and thus qualify as a field of research...... in its own right? 2. We suggest that the distinctive feature of nutritional ecology is its integrative nature, and that the field would benefit from more attention to formalizing a theoretical and quantitative framework for developing this. 3. Such a framework, we propose, should satisfy three minimal...... requirements: it should be nutritionally explicit, organismally explicit, and ecologically explicit. 4. We evaluate against these criteria four existing frameworks (Optimal Foraging Theory, Classical Insect Nutritional Ecology, the Geometric Framework for nutrition, and Ecological Stoichiometry), and conclude...

  12. Baseline tissue concentrations of metal in aquatic oligochaetes: Field and laboratory approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Fernández, Leire; Martinez-Madrid, Maite; Pardo, Isabel; Rodriguez, Pilar

    2017-04-01

    Metal tissue residue evaluation in benthic macroinvertebrates is an important component of an integrated approach to ecological risk assessment of metals and metalloids in the Nalón River basin (North Spain), where historic mining activities took place. The purpose of this study was to know the baseline tissue concentration of 7 metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn) and one metalloid (As) in aquatic oligochaetes, sediment burrower organisms, representative of the collector-gatherer functional feeding group in the macroinvertebrate community. Metal concentration was measured in sediment and field aquatic oligochaetes at several reference (minimally disturbed) sites of the Nalón River basin, selected following Water Framework Directive criteria. Metal tissue residues were measured separately in field microdriles and lumbricids and compared with tissue concentrations measured in the aquatic oligochaete Tubifex tubifex exposed to reference sediments from the Nalón and other Cantabrian River basins in 28-d chronic laboratory bioassays. Metal tissue residues in bioassay organisms attained usually higher levels than in field worms, in special for As, Cu, Hg and Zn, although metal levels were within the same order of magnitude. The baseline values for metals were calculated from 90(th) percentile (P90) values in field aquatic oligochaetes (microdriles and lumbricids). The P90 for Hg, As and Zn could efficiently discriminate Toxic and Non-Toxic sites, while baseline values calculated for the other metals deserve further research due either to the low range of values found in the present study, or to the regulation of the metal body concentration, as in the case of Cu.

  13. Ecological recovery in ERA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Scientific Committee (Scientific Committee); Topping, Christopher John

    2016-01-01

    EFSA performs environmental risk assessments (ERAs) for single potential stressors such as plant protection products, genetically modified organisms and feed additives and for invasive alien species that are harmful for plant health. In this risk assessment domain, the EFSA Scientific Committee...... recognises the importance of more integrated ERAs considering both the local and landscape scales, as well as the possible co-occurrence of multiple potential stressors that fall under the remit of EFSA, which are important when addressing ecological recovery. In this scientific opinion, the Scientific...... Committee gathered scientific knowledge on the potential for the recovery of non-target organisms for the further development of ERA. Current EFSA guidance documents and opinions were reviewed on how ecological recovery is addressed in ERA schemes. In addition, this scientific opinion is based on expert...

  14. Chasing Ecological Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Basic research on biodiversity has concentrated on individual species—naming new species, studying distribution patterns, and analyzing their evolutionary relationships. Yet biodiversity is more than a collection of individual species; it is the combination of biological entities and processes that support life on Earth. To understand biodiversity we must catalog it, but we must also assess the ways species interact with other species to provide functional support for the Tree of Life. Ecological interactions may be lost well before the species involved in those interactions go extinct; their ecological functions disappear even though they remain. Here, I address the challenges in studying the functional aspects of species interactions and how basic research is helping us address the fast-paced extinction of species due to human activities. PMID:27631692

  15. Fundamental ecology is fundamental.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courchamp, Franck; Dunne, Jennifer A; Le Maho, Yvon; May, Robert M; Thébaud, Christophe; Hochberg, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    The primary reasons for conducting fundamental research are satisfying curiosity, acquiring knowledge, and achieving understanding. Here we develop why we believe it is essential to promote basic ecological research, despite increased impetus for ecologists to conduct and present their research in the light of potential applications. This includes the understanding of our environment, for intellectual, economical, social, and political reasons, and as a major source of innovation. We contend that we should focus less on short-term, objective-driven research and more on creativity and exploratory analyses, quantitatively estimate the benefits of fundamental research for society, and better explain the nature and importance of fundamental ecology to students, politicians, decision makers, and the general public. Our perspective and underlying arguments should also apply to evolutionary biology and to many of the other biological and physical sciences.

  16. Biosemiotics and ecological monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni, Luis Emilio

    2001-01-01

    Through recent decades a global cultural-institutional network has gradually grown up to project, implement and use the enormous technological web that is supposed to observe, monitor, communicate, inventory and asses our environment and its biodiversity in order to implement sustainable management...... models. The majority of “knowledge tools” that have been incorporated in the mainstream of this “techno-web” are amply based on a combination of mechanistic biology, genetic reductionism, economical determinism and neo-Darwinian cultural and biological perspectives. These approaches leave aside many...... of the qualitative and relational aspects that can only be grasped by considering the semiotic networks operative in complex ecological and cultural systems. In this paper, it is suggested that a biosemiotic approach to ecology may prove useful for the modelling process, which in turn will allow the construction...

  17. Editorial: Pedagogical Media Ecologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothee M. Meister

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available From educational gaming through portable e-readers to cell phones, media are interpenetrating educational spaces and activities. Accordingly, understanding media in environmental or ecological terms has become increasingly important for education internationally. In North America, for example, the centenary of McLuhan’s birth has focused attention on approaches to media – whether oral, textual, electronic or digital– as a kind of environment in which education takes place. In parts of Europe, the so-called mediatic turn – following on the linguistic and iconic turns – has similarly emphasized the role of media as a condition for the possibility of educational activities and programs. With a few exceptions1 the papers in this special issue were first presented at the conference «Educational Media Ecologies: International Perspectives» which took place at the University of Paderborn, Germany, on March 27–28, 2012.2 The event was an interdisciplinary and transatlantic endeavor to bring together a wide range of perspectives on various issues relevant to educational media ecologies,3 and on related debates on mediation, medialization, mediatization, and mediality.4 The purpose of this volume, like the conference, is to foster and deepen international dialogue in the area of educational media. Areas of research and scholarship relevant to this dialogue include educational media, media literacy, educational philosophy, and media and cultural studies. The contributions, described below, put conceptual issues as well as social practices and applications at the center of the debate. Klaus Rummler opens the issue by clarifying the concept of ecology itself. Referencing a range of work over the past 50 years, Rummler describes how ecological models have been cast in sociological, semiotic, cultural, mediatic and other terms, and he explains the implications of these various perspectives for the study of educational contexts. Rummler also

  18. To the Ecological Aesthetics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀青

    2014-01-01

    Landscape design is one of the space form and space environment comprehensive planning and design, to im-prove the quality of urban environment, quality of life and urban landscape level play a very important role.It is expounded in this article based on the value of landscape ecological aesthetics under the background of productive landscape, discusses the"bigfoot aesthetics"innovative application in modern landscape design and new thinking.

  19. To the Ecological Aesthetics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀青

    2014-01-01

    Landscape design is one of the space form and space environment comprehensive planning and design, to im- prove the quality of urban environment, quality of life and urban landscape level play a very important role.It is expounded in this article based on the value of landscape ecological aesthetics under the background of productive landscape, discusses the "bigfoot aesthetics" innovative application in modern landscape design and new thinking.

  20. Resilience Through Ecological Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia Brunetta

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the strategic role that urban biodiversity and ecosystem services management, natural infrastructure and adaptive governance approaches can play in making our economies and societies more resilient and in linking human societies and the natural environment. Resilience – a concept that entered the debate on urban governance – means the ability of urban systems, considered as linear-systems, to react to external disturbances by returning to some socio-ecological equilibrium steady-state by overcoming a crisis period (Gunderson & al. 2010, Newman & al. 2009. In this view, green infrastructures can assume a strategic role in restoring and enhancing the ecological and environmental livability in urban areas. Starting from the International and European context, the paper discusses innovative programs and interdisciplinary projects and practices (some cases in Turin Metropolitan Area to demonstrate how green infrastructures can increase the adaptive capacity of urban systems in term of resilience. They can contribute to increase the ability of European cities to adapt to climate change and to reduce their ecological footprints, to enhance security and life quality.

  1. Ecological planning: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Frederick; Brooks, Kenneth

    1981-11-01

    Beginning with the passage of the National Environmental Policy Act in 1969, the federal government of the United States has enacted numerous pieces of legislation intended to protect or conserve the environment. Other national governments have also enacted environmental legislation during the past two decades. State and local governments have also adopted policies concerned with environmental planning and management. Multiple laws and overlapping governmental agency responsibilities have confused development and resource management efforts. A comprehensive methodology that integrates the legal mandates and the agency missions into a common and unified framework is needed. Ecological planning offers such a method. Application of the method allows planners and resource managers to better understand the nature and character of the land and/or resource and therefore make better decisions about its appropriate use or management. The steps taken in an ecological planning process—1) goal setting, 2) inventory and analysis of data, 3) suitability analysis, 4) developing alternatives, 5) implementation, 6) administration, and 7) evaluation—are outlined and explained. Hand-drawn overlays and computer programs as techniques for handling ecological planning information are compared. Observations and suggestions for further research are offered.

  2. Ecological Econophysics for Degrowth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Pueyo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines a synthesis of ecological economics with econophysics and other complexity approaches to economics. Arguably, the resulting “ecological econophysics” will be scientifically sounder than mainstream economics and much better suited to addressing a major challenge of our times: the development of democratically-based policies to reduce economic throughput to an environmentally sustainable level without triggering economic crises and without excluding part of the world’s population, i.e., to implement degrowth. Degrowth will need major structural changes, which leads us to question whether there are limits to the malleability of the economic system’s architecture. A fundamental limit will be encountered if, as suggested by the physics of complexity, long-lasting complex systems always occur midway between an ordered and a disordered state. There is much evidence that this hypothesis holds and that the current economic system satisfies this condition. However, this does not mean that the problems posed by this system should be unavoidable. Ecological econophysics gives clues to identifying alternative economic systems that would also function between order and chaos, but which would have radically different implications for environmental sustainability and social justice.

  3. Research on Ecological Civilization Evaluation Index System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Ecological civilization, which refers to the harmonious development of man and the nature, has the connotation of the ecological material civilization, ecological consciousness civilization, ecological institutional civilization and ecological behavior civilization. The research on ecological civilization evaluation index system is important in that it can provide the guidance for the construction of ecological civilization, and besides it can improve public recognition of the importance of ecological civil...

  4. Statistical ecology comes of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenez, Olivier; Buckland, Stephen T; Morgan, Byron J T; Bez, Nicolas; Bertrand, Sophie; Choquet, Rémi; Dray, Stéphane; Etienne, Marie-Pierre; Fewster, Rachel; Gosselin, Frédéric; Mérigot, Bastien; Monestiez, Pascal; Morales, Juan M; Mortier, Frédéric; Munoz, François; Ovaskainen, Otso; Pavoine, Sandrine; Pradel, Roger; Schurr, Frank M; Thomas, Len; Thuiller, Wilfried; Trenkel, Verena; de Valpine, Perry; Rexstad, Eric

    2014-12-01

    The desire to predict the consequences of global environmental change has been the driver towards more realistic models embracing the variability and uncertainties inherent in ecology. Statistical ecology has gelled over the past decade as a discipline that moves away from describing patterns towards modelling the ecological processes that generate these patterns. Following the fourth International Statistical Ecology Conference (1-4 July 2014) in Montpellier, France, we analyse current trends in statistical ecology. Important advances in the analysis of individual movement, and in the modelling of population dynamics and species distributions, are made possible by the increasing use of hierarchical and hidden process models. Exciting research perspectives include the development of methods to interpret citizen science data and of efficient, flexible computational algorithms for model fitting. Statistical ecology has come of age: it now provides a general and mathematically rigorous framework linking ecological theory and empirical data.

  5. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory radioecology and ecology programs. 1983 progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markham, O. D. [ed.

    1983-06-01

    Progress is reported in research on: the baseline ecology of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), the effects of disturbance on animal and plant communities, and the behavior of radionuclides in the environment surrounding radioactive waste sites. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual reports. (ACR)

  6. Atmospheric pressure loading parameters from very long baseline interferometry observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macmillan, D. S.; Gipson, John M.

    1994-01-01

    Atmospheric mass loading produces a primarily vertical displacement of the Earth's crust. This displacement is correlated with surface pressure and is large enough to be detected by very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) measurements. Using the measured surface pressure at VLBI stations, we have estimated the atmospheric loading term for each station location directly from VLBI data acquired from 1979 to 1992. Our estimates of the vertical sensitivity to change in pressure range from 0 to -0.6 mm/mbar depending on the station. These estimates agree with inverted barometer model calculations (Manabe et al., 1991; vanDam and Herring, 1994) of the vertical displacement sensitivity computed by convolving actual pressure distributions with loading Green's functions. The pressure sensitivity tends to be smaller for stations near the coast, which is consistent with the inverted barometer hypothesis. Applying this estimated pressure loading correction in standard VLBI geodetic analysis improves the repeatability of estimated lengths of 25 out of 37 baselines that were measured at least 50 times. In a root-sum-square (rss) sense, the improvement generally increases with baseline length at a rate of about 0.3 to 0.6 ppb depending on whether the baseline stations are close to the coast. For the 5998-km baseline from Westford, Massachusetts, to Wettzell, Germany, the rss improvement is about 3.6 mm out of 11.0 mm. The average rss reduction of the vertical scatter for inland stations ranges from 2.7 to 5.4 mm.

  7. Detection of abrupt baseline length changes using cumulative sums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Volker

    2009-06-01

    Dynamic processes are usually monitored by collecting a time series of observations, which is then analysed in order to detect any motion or non-standard behaviour. Geodetic examples include the monitoring of dams, bridges, high-rise buildings, landslides, volcanoes and tectonic motion. The cumulative sum (CUSUM) test is recognised as a popular means to detect changes in the mean and/or the standard deviation of a time series and has been applied to various monitoring tasks. This paper briefly describes the CUSUM technique and how it can be utilised for the detection of small baseline length changes by differencing two perpendicular baselines sharing a common site. A simulation is carried out in order to investigate the expected behaviour of the resulting CUSUM charts for a variety of typical deformation monitoring scenarios. This simulation shows that using first differences (between successive epochs) as input, rather than the original baseline lengths, produces clear peaks or jumps in the differenced CUSUM time series when a sudden change in baseline length occurs. These findings are validated by analysing several GPS baseline pairs of a network deployed to monitor the propagation of an active ice shelf rift on the Amery Ice Shelf, East Antarctica.

  8. Combined GPS + BDS for short to long baseline RTK positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odolinski, R.; Teunissen, P. J. G.; Odijk, D.

    2015-04-01

    The BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) has become fully operational in the Asia-Pacific region and it is of importance to evaluate what BDS brings when combined with the Global Positioning System (GPS). In this contribution we will look at the short, medium and long single-baseline real-time kinematic (RTK) positioning performance. Short baseline refers to when the distance between the two receivers is at most a few kilometers so that the relative slant ionospheric and tropospheric delays can be assumed absent, whereas with medium baseline we refer to when the uncertainty of these ionospheric delays can reliably be modeled as a function of the baseline length. With long baseline we refer to the necessity to parameterize the ionospheric delays and (wet) Zenith Tropospheric Delay (ZTD) as completely unknown. The GNSS real data are collected in Perth, Australia. It will be shown that combining the two systems allows for the use of higher than customary elevation cut-off angles. This can be of particular benefit in environments with restricted satellite visibility such as in open pit mines or urban canyons.

  9. LBCS: the LOFAR Long-Baseline Calibrator Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, N; Deller, A; Moldón, J; Varenius, E; Morabito, L; Wucknitz, O; Carozzi, T; Conway, J; Drabent, A; Kapinska, A; Orrù, E; Brentjens, M; Blaauw, R; Kuper, G; Sluman, J; Schaap, J; Vermaas, N; Iacobelli, M; Cerrigone, L; Shulevski, A; ter Veen, S; Fallows, R; Pizzo, R; Sipior, M; Anderson, J; Avruch, M; Bell, M; van Bemmel, I; Bentum, M; Best, P; Bonafede, A; Breitling, F; Broderick, J; Brouw, W; Brüggen, M; Ciardi, B; Corstanje, A; de Gasperin, F; de Geus, E; Eislöffel, J; Engels, D; Falcke, H; Garrett, M; Griessmeier, J; Gunst, A; van Haarlem, M; Heald, G; Hoeft, M; Hörandel, J; Horneffer, A; Intema, H; Juette, E; Kuniyoshi, M; van Leeuwen, J; Loose, G; Maat, P; McFadden, R; McKay-Bukowski, D; McKean, J; Mulcahy, D; Munk, H; Pandey-Pommier, M; Polatidis, A; Reich, W; Röttgering, H; Rowlinson, A; Scaife, A; Schwarz, D; Steinmetz, M; Swinbank, J; Thoudam, S; Toribio, M; Vermeulen, R; Vocks, C; van Weeren, R; Wise, M; Yatawatta, S; Zarka, P

    2016-01-01

    (abridged). We outline LBCS (the LOFAR Long-Baseline Calibrator Survey), whose aim is to identify sources suitable for calibrating the highest-resolution observations made with the International LOFAR Telescope, which include baselines >1000 km. Suitable sources must contain significant correlated flux density (50-100mJy) at frequencies around 110--190~MHz on scales of a few hundred mas. At least for the 200--300-km international baselines, we find around 1 suitable calibrator source per square degree over a large part of the northern sky, in agreement with previous work. This should allow a randomly selected target to be successfully phase calibrated on the international baselines in over 50% of cases. Products of the survey include calibrator source lists and fringe-rate and delay maps of wide areas -- typically a few degrees -- around each source. The density of sources with significant correlated flux declines noticeably with baseline length over the range 200--600~km, with good calibrators on the longest...

  10. The ecology of medical care in Beijing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Shao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We presented the pattern of health care consumption, and the utilization of available resources by describing the ecology of medical care in Beijing on a monthly basis and by describing the socio-demographic characteristics associated with receipt care in different settings. METHODS: A cohort of 6,592 adults, 15 years of age and older were sampled to estimate the number of urban-resident adults per 1,000 who visited a medical facility at least once in a month, by the method of three-stage stratified and cluster random sampling. Separate logistic regression analyses assessed the association between those receiving care in different types of setting and their socio-demographic characteristics. RESULTS: On average per 1,000 adults, 295 had at least one symptom, 217 considered seeking medical care, 173 consulted a physician, 129 visited western medical practitioners, 127 visited a hospital-based outpatient clinic, 78 visited traditional Chinese medical practitioners, 43 visited a primary care physician, 35 received care in an emergency department, 15 were hospitalized. Health care seeking behaviors varied with socio-demographic characteristics, such as gender, age, ethnicity, resident census register, marital status, education, income, and health insurance status. In term of primary care, the gate-keeping and referral roles of Community Health Centers have not yet been fully established in Beijing. CONCLUSIONS: This study represents a first attempt to map the medical care ecology of Beijing urban population and provides timely baseline information for health care reform in China.

  11. Exposure pathways and biological receptors: baseline data for the canyon uranium mine, Coconino County, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinck, Jo E.; Linder, Greg L.; Darrah, Abigail J.; Drost, Charles A.; Duniway, Michael C.; Johnson, Matthew J.; Méndez-Harclerode, Francisca M.; Nowak, Erika M.; Valdez, Ernest W.; Van Riper, Charles; Wolff, S.W.

    2014-01-01

    Recent restrictions on uranium mining within the Grand Canyon watershed have drawn attention to scientific data gaps in evaluating the possible effects of ore extraction to human populations as well as wildlife communities in the area. Tissue contaminant concentrations, one of the most basic data requirements to determine exposure, are not available for biota from any historical or active uranium mines in the region. The Canyon Uranium Mine is under development, providing a unique opportunity to characterize concentrations of uranium and other trace elements, as well as radiation levels in biota, found in the vicinity of the mine before ore extraction begins. Our study objectives were to identify contaminants of potential concern and critical contaminant exposure pathways for ecological receptors; conduct biological surveys to understand the local food web and refine the list of target species (ecological receptors) for contaminant analysis; and collect target species for contaminant analysis prior to the initiation of active mining. Contaminants of potential concern were identified as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, selenium, thallium, uranium, and zinc for chemical toxicity and uranium and associated radionuclides for radiation. The conceptual exposure model identified ingestion, inhalation, absorption, and dietary transfer (bioaccumulation or bioconcentration) as critical contaminant exposure pathways. The biological survey of plants, invertebrates, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and small mammals is the first to document and provide ecological information on .200 species in and around the mine site; this study also provides critical baseline information about the local food web. Most of the species documented at the mine are common to ponderosa pine Pinus ponderosa and pinyon–juniper Pinus–Juniperus spp. forests in northern Arizona and are not considered to have special conservation status by state or federal agencies; exceptions

  12. Functional Testing Protocols for Commercial Building Efficiency Baseline Modeling Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jump, David; Price, Phillip N.; Granderson, Jessica; Sohn, Michael

    2013-09-06

    This document describes procedures for testing and validating proprietary baseline energy modeling software accuracy in predicting energy use over the period of interest, such as a month or a year. The procedures are designed according to the methodology used for public domain baselining software in another LBNL report that was (like the present report) prepared for Pacific Gas and Electric Company: ?Commercial Building Energy Baseline Modeling Software: Performance Metrics and Method Testing with Open Source Models and Implications for Proprietary Software Testing Protocols? (referred to here as the ?Model Analysis Report?). The test procedure focuses on the quality of the software?s predictions rather than on the specific algorithms used to predict energy use. In this way the software vendor is not required to divulge or share proprietary information about how their software works, while enabling stakeholders to assess its performance.

  13. A publication database for optical long baseline interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Malbet, Fabien; Lawson, Peter; Taillifet, Esther; Lafrasse, Sylvain

    2010-01-01

    Optical long baseline interferometry is a technique that has generated almost 850 refereed papers to date. The targets span a large variety of objects from planetary systems to extragalactic studies and all branches of stellar physics. We have created a database hosted by the JMMC and connected to the Optical Long Baseline Interferometry Newsletter (OLBIN) web site using MySQL and a collection of XML or PHP scripts in order to store and classify these publications. Each entry is defined by its ADS bibcode, includes basic ADS informations and metadata. The metadata are specified by tags sorted in categories: interferometric facilities, instrumentation, wavelength of operation, spectral resolution, type of measurement, target type, and paper category, for example. The whole OLBIN publication list has been processed and we present how the database is organized and can be accessed. We use this tool to generate statistical plots of interest for the community in optical long baseline interferometry.

  14. Environmental baselines: preparing for shale gas in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, John; Manamsa, Katya; Bell, Rachel; Darling, George; Dochartaigh, Brighid O.; Stuart, Marianne; Ward, Rob

    2014-05-01

    Groundwater is a vital source of freshwater in the UK. It provides almost 30% of public water supply on average, but locally, for example in south-east England, it is constitutes nearly 90% of public supply. In addition to public supply, groundwater has a number of other uses including agriculture, industry, and food and drink production. It is also vital for maintaining river flows especially during dry periods and so is essential for maintaining ecosystem health. Recently, there have been concerns expressed about the potential impacts of shale gas development on groundwater. The UK has abundant shales and clays which are currently the focus of considerable interest and there is active research into their characterisation, resource evaluation and exploitation risks. The British Geological Survey (BGS) is undertaking research to provide information to address some of the environmental concerns related to the potential impacts of shale gas development on groundwater resources and quality. The aim of much of this initial work is to establish environmental baselines, such as a baseline survey of methane occurrence in groundwater (National methane baseline study) and the spatial relationships between potential sources and groundwater receptors (iHydrogeology project), prior to any shale gas exploration and development. The poster describes these two baseline studies and presents preliminary findings. BGS are currently undertaking a national survey of baseline methane concentrations in groundwater across the UK. This work will enable any potential future changes in methane in groundwater associated with shale gas development to be assessed. Measurements of methane in potable water from the Cretaceous, Jurassic and Triassic carbonate and sandstone aquifers are variable and reveal methane concentrations of up to 500 micrograms per litre, but the mean value is relatively low at 2km. The geological modelling process will be presented and discussed along with maps combining

  15. COMPARISON OF THREE METHODS TO PROJECT FUTURE BASELINE CARBON EMISSIONS IN TEMPERATE RAINFOREST, CURINANCO, CHILE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Gonzalez; Antonio Lara; Jorge Gayoso; Eduardo Neira; Patricio Romero; Leonardo Sotomayor

    2005-07-14

    evaluate the three methods to project future baseline carbon emissions. Extrapolation from Landsat change detection uses the observed rate of change to estimate change in the near future. Geomod is a software program that models the geographic distribution of change using a defined rate of change. FRCA is an integrated spatial analysis of forest inventory, biodiversity, and remote sensing that produces estimates of forest biodiversity and forest carbon density, spatial data layers of future probabilities of reforestation and deforestation, and a projection of future baseline forest carbon sequestration and emissions for an ecologically-defined area of analysis. For the period 1999-2012, extrapolation from Landsat change detection estimated a loss of 5000 ha and 520,000 t carbon from closed natural forest; Geomod modeled a loss of 2500 ha and 250 000 t; FRCA projected a loss of 4700 {+-} 100 ha and 480,000 t (maximum 760,000 t, minimum 220,000 t). Concerning labor time, extrapolation for Landsat required 90 actual days or 120 days normalized to Bachelor degree level wages; Geomod required 240 actual days or 310 normalized days; FRCA required 110 actual days or 170 normalized days. Users experienced difficulties with an MS-DOS version of Geomod before turning to the Idrisi version. For organizations with limited time and financing, extrapolation from Landsat change provides a cost-effective method. Organizations with more time and financing could use FRCA, the only method where that calculates the deforestation rate as a dependent variable rather than assuming a deforestation rate as an independent variable. This research indicates that best practices for the projection of baseline carbon emissions include integration of forest inventory and remote sensing tasks from the beginning of the analysis, definition of an analysis area using ecological characteristics, use of standard and widely used geographic information systems (GIS) software applications, and the use of species

  16. Subtracting Technique of Baselines for Capillary Electrophoresis Signals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ying; MO Jin-yuan; CHEN Zuan-guang; GAO Yan

    2004-01-01

    The drifting baselines of capillary electrophoresis affect the veracity of analysis greatly. This paper presents Threshold Fitting Technique(TFT) so as to subtract the baselines from the original signals and emendate the signals. In TFT, wav elet and curve fitting technique are applied synthetically, thresholds are decided by the computer automatically. Many experiments of signal processing indicate that TFT is simple for being used, there are few man-induced factors, and the results are satisfactory. TFT can be applied for noisy signals without any pre-processing.

  17. EQUIVALENT BASELINE AND INTERFEROMETRIC PHASE OF CLUSTER SATELLITE SAR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gong Min; Zhang Chuanwu; Huang Shunji

    2005-01-01

    The change of the equivalent baseline and interferometric phase of cluster SAR satellites is analyzed when the constellation circles around the Earth and the satellites rotate around the center at the same time. The letter provides assessment of baseline error and phase error which influence the precision of height measurement in the across-track interferometric mode. The mathematical model of cluster satellite movement is built, simulation analyses and the curve of height error are presented. The simulation results show that height measurement error can be compensated by the formulae derived in this letter, therefore, the Digital Elevation Models (DEM's) are recovered accurately.

  18. Intermediate baseline appearance experiments and three-neutrino mixing schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Cardall, C Y; Cline, D; Cardall, Christian Y.; Fuller, George M.; Cline, David

    1997-01-01

    Three-neutrino mixing schemes suggested by Cardall \\& Fuller and Acker \\& Pakvasa are compared and contrasted. Both of these schemes seek to solve the solar and atmospheric neutrino problems {\\em and} to account for the possible neutrino oscillation signal in the LSND experiment. These neutrino oscillation schemes have different atmospheric and solar neutrino signatures that will be discriminated by Super-Kamiokande and SNO. They will also have different signatures in proposed long-baseline accelerator and reactor experiments. In particular, both of these schemes would give dramatic (and dramatically different) signals in an ``intermediate baseline'' experiment, such as the proposed ICARUS detector in the Jura mountains 17 km from CERN.

  19. Hepatitis C treatment response kinetics and impact of baseline predictors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindh, M; Arnholm, B; Eilard, A

    2011-01-01

    Summary. The optimal duration of treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections is highly variable but critical for achieving cure (sustained virological response, SVR). We prospectively investigated the impact of age, fibrosis, baseline viraemia and genotype on the early viral kinetics...... above 400 000 IU/mL were strongly associated with slower second phase declines of HCV RNA. Genotype 2/3 infections responded more rapidly than genotype 1, reaching week 4 negativity (RVR) in 59%vs 22%. We conclude that baseline response predictors such as age, fibrosis and viral load were well reflected...

  20. Solar central electric power generation - A baseline design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    The paper presents the conceptual technical baseline design of a solar electric power plant using the central receiver concept, and derives credible cost estimates from the baseline design. The major components of the plant - heliostats, tower, receiver, tower piping, and thermal storage - are discussed in terms of technical and cost information. The assumed peak plant output is 215 MW(e), over 4000 daylight hours. The contribution of total capital investment to energy cost is estimated to be about 55 mills per kwh in mid-1974 dollars.

  1. Detecting dark energy in long baseline neutrino oscillations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Pei-Hong; BI Xiao-Jun; FENG Bo; YOUNG Bing-Lin; ZHANG Xin-Min

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss a possibility of studying properties of dark energy in long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments. We consider two types of models of neutrino dark energy. For one type of models the scalar field is taken to be quintessence-like and for the other phantom-like. In these models the scalar fields couple to the neutrinos to give rise to spatially varying neutrino masses. We will show that the two types of models predict different behaviors of the spatial variation of the neutrino masses inside the Earth and consequently result in different signals in long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments.

  2. Future long-baseline neutrino oscillations: View from Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayato, Yoshinari [Kamioka Observatory, ICRR, The University of Tokyo (Japan)

    2015-07-15

    Accelerator based long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments have been playing important roles in revealing the nature of neutrinos. However, it turned out that the current experiments are not sufficient to study two major remaining problems, the CP violation in the lepton sector and the mass hierarchy of neutrinos. Therefore, several new experiments have been proposed. Among of them, two accelerator based long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments, the J-PARC neutrino beam and Hyper-Kamiokande, and MOMENT, have been proposed in Asia. These two projects are reviewed in this article.

  3. Ecological quality assessment in the Eastern Mediterranean combining live and dead molluscan assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshno, Yael; Benjamini, Chaim; Edelman-Furstenberg, Yael

    2016-03-15

    The EU directive to quantify ecological quality by deviation from pre-impacted conditions often fails to be implemented because past information is usually incomplete or missing. Molluscan death assemblages, representing long-term accumulation of shells on the sea floor, average out short-term variability and can serve as a baseline for quality assessment. AMBI, Bentix and Shannon-Wiener indices were calculated for live and dead assemblages from polluted and control stations on the highly oligotrophic Levantine shallow shelf of Israel. Bentix successfully tracked deterioration over time, from moderate EcoQS in the dead to poor in the live assemblage. Additional modification of the ecological classification of species by scoring the naturally abundant Corbula gibba as pollution-sensitive improved the utility of the Bentix index in monitoring in this part of the Mediterranean. This adjustment of Bentix, and use of death assemblages for an ecological baseline, should therefore be incorporated in monitoring for compliance with EU directives.

  4. Ecological and general systems an introduction to systems ecology

    CERN Document Server

    Odum, Howard T.

    1994-01-01

    Using an energy systems language that combines energetics, kinetics, information, cybernetics, and simulation, Ecological and General Systems compares models of many fields of science, helping to derive general systems principles. First published as Systems Ecology in 1983, Ecological and General Systems proposes principles of self-organization and the designs that prevail by maximizing power and efficiency. Comparisons to fifty other systems languages are provided. Innovative presentations are given on earth homeostasis (Gaia); the inadequacy of presenting equations without network relationships and energy constraints; the alternative interpretation of high entropy complexity as adaptive structure; basic equations of ecological economics; and the energy basis of scientific hierarchy.

  5. Ecological model of extinctions

    CERN Document Server

    Abramson, G

    1997-01-01

    We present numerical results based on a simplified ecological system in evolution, showing features of extinction similar to that claimed for the biosystem on Earth. In the model each species consists of a population in interaction with the others, that reproduces and evolves in time. Each species is simultaneously a predator and a prey in a food chain. Mutations that change the interactions are supposed to occur randomly at a low rate. Extinctions of populations result naturally from the predator-prey dynamics. The model is not pinned in a fitness variable, and natural selection arises from the dynamics.

  6. Ecology Beyond Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Terri

    2011-01-01

    As the designers of the WWf building in Zeist, The Netherslands a CO2-neutral, self-sufficient office complex, RAU has set the bar for sustainable research and design. Guesteditor Terri Peters visited the firm's studio in Amsterdam to talk to principal Thomas Rau. As Peters relates, Rau prefers t...... to put on the dwindling supply of raw materials rather than the immidiate problems of energy consumption for which there are solutions within reach. With the emphasis on a more far-reaching approach, he places buildings in a wider context of ecological thinking and systems....

  7. Automated baseline change detection phase I. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The Automated Baseline Change Detection (ABCD) project is supported by the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) as part of its ER&WM cross-cutting technology program in robotics. Phase 1 of the Automated Baseline Change Detection project is summarized in this topical report. The primary objective of this project is to apply robotic and optical sensor technology to the operational inspection of mixed toxic and radioactive waste stored in barrels, using Automated Baseline Change Detection (ABCD), based on image subtraction. Absolute change detection is based on detecting any visible physical changes, regardless of cause, between a current inspection image of a barrel and an archived baseline image of the same barrel. Thus, in addition to rust, the ABCD system can also detect corrosion, leaks, dents, and bulges. The ABCD approach and method rely on precise camera positioning and repositioning relative to the barrel and on feature recognition in images. In support of this primary objective, there are secondary objectives to determine DOE operational inspection requirements and DOE system fielding requirements.

  8. An Overview of the 2014 ALMA Long Baseline Campaign

    CERN Document Server

    Partnership, ALMA; Vlahakis, C; Corder, S; Remijan, A; Barkats, D; Lucas, R; Hunter, T R; Brogan, C L; Asaki, Y; Matsushita, S; Dent, W R F; Hills, R E; Phillips, N; Richards, A M S; Cox, P; Amestica, R; Broguiere, D; Cotton, W; Hales, A S; Hiriart, R; Hirota, A; Hodge, J A; Impellizzeri, C M V; Kern, J; Kneissl, R; Liuzzo, E; Marcelino, N; Marson, R; Mignano, A; Nakanishi, K; Nikolic, B; Perez, J E; Pérez, L M; Toledo, I; Aladro, R; Butler, B; Cortes, J; Cortes, P; Dhawan, V; Di Francesco, J; Espada, D; Galarza, F; Garcia-Appadoo, D; Guzman-Ramirez, L; Humphreys, E M; Jung, T; Kameno, S; Laing, R A; Leon, S; Mangum, J; Marconi, G; Nagai, H; Nyman, L -A; Perley, R; Radiszcz, M; Rodón, J A; Sawada, T; Takahashi, S; Tilanus, R P J; van Kempen, T; Vilaro, B Vila; Watson, L C; Wiklind, T; Gueth, F; Tatematsu, K; Wootten, A; Castro-Carrizo, A; Chapillon, E; Dumas, G; de Gregorio-Monsalvo, I; Francke, H; Gallardo, J; Garcia, J; Gonzalez, S; Hibbard, J E; Hill, T; Kaminski, T; Karim, A; Krips, M; Kurono, Y; Lopez, C; Martin, S; Maud, L; Morales, F; Pietu, V; Plarre, K; Schieven, G; Testi, L; Videla, L; Villard, E; Whyborn, N; Zwaan, M A; Alves, F; Andreani, P; Avison, A; Barta, M; Bedosti, F; Bendo, G J; Bertoldi, F; Bethermin, M; Biggs, A; Boissier, J; Brand, J; Burkutean, S; Casasola, V; Conway, J; Cortese, L; Dabrowski, B; Davis, T A; Trigo, M Diaz; Fontani, F; Franco-Hernandez, R; Fuller, G; Madrid, R Galvan; Giannetti, A; Ginsburg, A; Graves, S F; Hatziminaoglou, E; Hogerheijde, M; Jachym, P; Serra, I Jimenez; Karlicky, M; Klaasen, P; Kraus, M; Kunneriath, D; Lagos, C; Longmore, S; Leurini, S; Maercker, M; Magnelli, B; Vidal, I Marti; Massardi, M; Maury, A; Muehle, S; Muller, S; Muxlow, T; O'Gorman, E; Paladino, R; Petry, D; Pineda, J; Randall, S; Richer, J S; Rossetti, A; Rushton, A; Rygl, K; Monge, A Sanchez; Schaaf, R; Schilke, P; Stanke, T; Schmalzl, M; Stoehr, F; Urban, S; van Kampen, E; Vlemmings, W; Wang, K; Wild, W; Yang, Y; Iguchi, S; Hasegawa, T; Saito, M; Inatani, J; Mizuno, N; Asayama, S; Kosugi, G; Morita, K -I; Chiba, K; Kawashima, S; Okumura, S K; Ohashi, N; Ogasawara, R; Sakamoto, S; Noguchi, T; Huang, Y -D; Liu, S -Y; Kemper, F; Koch, P M; Chen, M -T; Chikada, Y; Hiramatsu, M; Iono, D; Shimojo, M; Komugi, S; Kim, J; Lyo, A -R; Muller, E; Herrera, C; Miura, R E; Ueda, J; Chibueze, J; Su, Y -N; Trejo-Cruz, A; Wang, K -S; Kiuchi, H; Ukita, N; Sugimoto, M; Kawabe, R; Hayashi, M; Miyama, S; Ho, P T P; Kaifu, N; Ishiguro, M; Beasley, A J; Bhatnagar, S; Braatz, J A; Brisbin, D G; Brunetti, N; Carilli, C; Crossley, J H; D'Addario, L; Meyer, J L Donovan; Emerson, D T; Evans, A S; Fisher, P; Golap, K; Griffith, D M; Hale, A E; Halstead, D; Hardy, E J; Hatz, M C; Holdaway, M; Indebetouw, R; Jewell, P R; Kepley, A A; Kim, D -C; Lacy, M D; Leroy, A K; Liszt, H S; Lonsdale, C J; Matthews, B; McKinnon, M; Mason, B S; Moellenbrock, G; Moullet, A; Myers, S T; Ott, J; Peck, A B; Pisano, J; Radford, S J E; Randolph, W T; Venkata, U Rao; Rawlings, M; Rosen, R; Schnee, S L; Scott, K S; Sharp, N K; Sheth, K J; Simon, R S; Tsutsumi, T; Wood, S J

    2015-01-01

    A major goal of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is to make accurate images with resolutions of tens of milliarcseconds, which at submillimeter (submm) wavelengths requires baselines up to ~15 km. To develop and test this capability, a Long Baseline Campaign (LBC) was carried out from September to late November 2014, culminating in end-to-end observations, calibrations, and imaging of selected Science Verification (SV) targets. This paper presents an overview of the campaign and its main results, including an investigation of the short-term coherence properties and systematic phase errors over the long baselines at the ALMA site, a summary of the SV targets and observations, and recommendations for science observing strategies at long baselines. Deep ALMA images of the quasar 3C138 at 97 and 241 GHz are also compared to VLA 43 GHz results, demonstrating an agreement at a level of a few percent. As a result of the extensive program of LBC testing, the highly successful SV imaging at long...

  9. Emergency Response Capability Baseline Needs Assessment - Requirements Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharry, J A

    2016-10-04

    This document was prepared by John A. Sharry, LLNL Fire Marshal and LLNL Division Leader for Fire Protection and reviewed by LLNL Emergency Management Department Head James Colson. The document follows and expands upon the format and contents of the DOE Model Fire Protection Baseline Capabilities Assessment document contained on the DOE Fire Protection Web Site, but only addresses emergency response.

  10. Revised SRC-I project baseline. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    The SRC Process Area Design Baseline consists of six volumes. The first four were submitted to DOE on 9 September 1981. The fifth volume, summarizing the Category A Engineering Change Proposals (ECPs), was not submitted. The sixth volume, containing proprietary information on Kerr-McGee's Critical Solvent Deashing System, was forwarded to BRHG Synthetic Fuels, Inc. for custody, according to past instructions from DOE, and is available for perusal by authorized DOE representatives. DOE formally accepted the Design Baseline under ICRC Release ECP 4-1001, at the Project Configuration Control Board meeting in Oak Ridge, Tennessee on 5 November 1981. The documentation was then revised by Catalytic, Inc. to incorporate the Category B and C and Post-Baseline Engineering Change Proposals. Volumes I through V of the Revised Design Baseline, dated 22 October 1982, are nonproprietary and they were issued to the DOE via Engineering Change Notice (ECN) 4-1 on 23 February 1983. Volume VI again contains proprieary information on Kerr-McGee Critical Solvent Deashing System; it was issued to Burns and Roe Synthetic Fuels, Inc. Subsequently, updated process descriptions, utility summaries, and errata sheets were issued to the DOE and Burns and Roe Synthetic Fuels, Inc. on nonproprietary Engineering Change Notices 4-2 and 4-3 on 24 May 1983.

  11. Attendance at Health Promotion Programs: Baseline Predictors and Program Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Catherine J.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    As part of a family cardiovascular health promotion project, 111 Mexican-American and 95 Anglo-American families with fifth or sixth grade children were assigned to either a primary prevention program involving 18 sessions or to a control condition. Correlates of attendance were low baseline scores on physical activity and cardiovascular fitness…

  12. ECG baseline wander reduction using linear phase filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alsté, van J.A.; Eck, van W.; Hermann, O.E.

    1986-01-01

    The continuous real time reduction of baseline wander is a considerable problem in electrocardiography during exercises. Our solution consists of spectral filtering. The legitimacy of high-pass filtering of the ECG by means of digital linear phase filters with a low cut-off frequency as high as the

  13. Moon-Based INSAR Geolocation and Baseline Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guang; Ren, Yuanzhen; Ye, Hanlin; Guo, Huadong; Ding, Yixing; Ruan, Zhixing; Lv, Mingyang; Dou, Changyong; Chen, Zhaoning

    2016-07-01

    Earth observation platform is a host, the characteristics of the platform in some extent determines the ability for earth observation. Currently most developing platforms are satellite, in contrast carry out systematic observations with moon based Earth observation platform is still a new concept. The Moon is Earth's only natural satellite and is the only one which human has reached, it will give people different perspectives when observe the earth with sensors from the moon. Moon-based InSAR (SAR Interferometry), one of the important earth observation technology, has all-day, all-weather observation ability, but its uniqueness is still a need for analysis. This article will discuss key issues of geometric positioning and baseline parameters of moon-based InSAR. Based on the ephemeris data, the position, liberation and attitude of earth and moon will be obtained, and the position of the moon-base SAR sensor can be obtained by coordinate transformation from fixed seleno-centric coordinate systems to terrestrial coordinate systems, together with the Distance-Doppler equation, the positioning model will be analyzed; after establish of moon-based InSAR baseline equation, the different baseline error will be analyzed, the influence of the moon-based InSAR baseline to earth observation application will be obtained.

  14. BASELINE DESIGN/ECONOMICS FOR ADVANCED FISCHER-TROPSCH TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-04-01

    Bechtel, along with Amoco as the main subcontractor, developed a Baseline design, two alternative designs, and computer process simulation models for indirect coal liquefaction based on advanced Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology for the U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC).

  15. Treatment decisions based on scalar and functional baseline covariates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarleglio, Adam; Petkova, Eva; Ogden, R Todd; Tarpey, Thaddeus

    2015-12-01

    The amount and complexity of patient-level data being collected in randomized-controlled trials offer both opportunities and challenges for developing personalized rules for assigning treatment for a given disease or ailment. For example, trials examining treatments for major depressive disorder are not only collecting typical baseline data such as age, gender, or scores on various tests, but also data that measure the structure and function of the brain such as images from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), functional MRI (fMRI), or electroencephalography (EEG). These latter types of data have an inherent structure and may be considered as functional data. We propose an approach that uses baseline covariates, both scalars and functions, to aid in the selection of an optimal treatment. In addition to providing information on which treatment should be selected for a new patient, the estimated regime has the potential to provide insight into the relationship between treatment response and the set of baseline covariates. Our approach can be viewed as an extension of "advantage learning" to include both scalar and functional covariates. We describe our method and how to implement it using existing software. Empirical performance of our method is evaluated with simulated data in a variety of settings and also applied to data arising from a study of patients with major depressive disorder from whom baseline scalar covariates as well as functional data from EEG are available.

  16. Baseline design of an OTEC pilot plantship. Volume C. Specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glosten, L. R.; Bringloe, Thomas; Soracco, Dave; Fenstermacher, Earl; Magura, Donald; Sander, Olof; Richards, Dennis; Seward, Jerry

    1979-05-01

    Volume C is part of a three-volume report that presents a baseline engineering design of an Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) plantship. This volume provides the specifications for the hull, cold-water pipe, ship outfitting and machinery, OTEC power system, electrical system, and folded-tube heat exchangers.

  17. Delta Healthy Sprouts: Participants' Diet and Food Environment at Baseline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Local food environments influence the nutrition and health of area residents. This baseline analysis focuses on the food environments of women who participated in the Delta Healthy Sprouts project, a randomized, controlled, comparative trial designed to test the efficacy of two Maternal, Infant, an...

  18. The Dutch CAFE baseline: In or out of line?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jimmink BA; Folkert RJM; Thomas R; Beck JP; Eerdt MM van; Elzenga HE; Hoek KW van der; Hoen A; Peek CJ; LED; KMD; NMD; LVM; RIM; LDL

    2004-01-01

    The European Commission is constructing a strategy on air pollution within the Clean Air For Europe (CAFE) programme. This strategy will be based on assessments using the RAINS model for different policy ambitions where the CAFE baseline scenario and control strategies are employed. The Netherlands

  19. IEA Wind Task 26: Offshore Wind Farm Baseline Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smart, Gavin [Offshore Renewable Energy Catapult, Blyth, Northumberland (United Kingdom); Smith, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Warner, Ethan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sperstad, Iver Bakken [SINTEF Energy Research, Trondheim (Norway); Prinsen, Bob [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands). TKI Wind Op Zee; Lacal-Arantegui, Roberto [European Commission Joint Research Centre (JRC), Brussels (Belgium)

    2016-06-02

    This document has been produced to provide the definition and rationale for the Baseline Offshore Wind Farm established within IEA Wind Task 26--Cost of Wind Energy. The Baseline has been developed to provide a common starting point for country comparisons and sensitivity analysis on key offshore wind cost and value drivers. The baseline project reflects an approximate average of the characteristics of projects installed between 2012 and 2014, with the project life assumed to be 20 years. The baseline wind farm is located 40 kilometres (km) from construction and operations and maintenance (O&M) ports and from export cable landfall. The wind farm consists of 100 4-megawatt (MW) wind turbines mounted on monopile foundations in an average water depth of 25 metres (m), connected by 33-kilovolt (kV) inter-array cables. The arrays are connected to a single offshore substation (33kV/220kV) mounted on a jacket foundation, with the substation connected via a single 220kV export cable to an onshore substation, 10km from landfall. The wind farm employs a port-based O&M strategy using crew-transfer vessels.

  20. Baseline Gas Turbine Development Program. Eleventh quarterly progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, F.W.; Wagner, C.E.

    1975-07-31

    Progress is reported for a program to demonstrate by 1976 an experimental gas turbine powered automobile which meets the 1978 Federal Emissions Standards, has significantly improved fuel economy, and is competitive in performance, reliability, and potential manufacturing cost with the conventional piston engine powered, standard size American automobile. NASA completed initial heat balance testing of a baseline engine. An additional 450 hours were run on ceramic regenerators and seals. Seal wear rates are very good, and the elastomeric mounting system was satisfactory. An engine/control oil supply system based on the power steering pump is successfully operating in baseline vehicles. The design of the upgraded engine power turbine nozzle actuator was finalized, and layouts of the inlet guide vane actuator are in process. A lock-up torque converter was installed in the free rotor vehicle. Baseline engine and vehicle testing of water injection and variable inlet guide vanes was completed. A thermal analysis of the gas generator is in process. A steady-state, full power analysis was made. A three-dimensional stress analysis of the compressor cover was made. The power turbine nozzle actuating system layout was completed. The analytical studies of the power turbine rotor bearings were completed. MTI completed the design of the gas generator rotor simulation fixture and is starting to build it. Optimized reduction gears were successfully tested in a baseline engine.

  1. Sensory Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Martin STEVENS; Guest Editor

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction Sensory ecology deals with how animals capture in formation from their environment, and the sensory sys tems involved in doing so (Hailman, 1977; Lythgoe, 1979; Dusenbery, 1992; Mappes and Stevens 2010). Although the term sensory ecology itself is compara tively recent, its basis has a long history, in part due to numerous links with subjects such as neurobiology, physiology, ethology, and evolutionary behavioral ecology.

  2. ECOLOGY AFFECTED IN OIL EXPLOITATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Mingren; Zeng Dezhang; Zhang Shiquan; Shi Lifeng

    1997-01-01

    @@ Introduction During the Eighth Five-Year Plan period(1991-1995), a study about crude impacts on ecology in oil exploitation was conducted in seven representative onshore oil fields of China. The study discusses crude pollutant's impacts on ecology in terms of its production,movement, transformation and concentration in the ecological system,as well as its toxicity and damage degree on living things , by means of investigation on the spot, test analysis and analogue test.

  3. [Landscape and ecological genomics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetushkin, E Ia

    2013-10-01

    Landscape genomics is the modern version of landscape genetics, a discipline that arose approximately 10 years ago as a combination of population genetics, landscape ecology, and spatial statistics. It studies the effects of environmental variables on gene flow and other microevolutionary processes that determine genetic connectivity and variations in populations. In contrast to population genetics, it operates at the level of individual specimens rather than at the level of population samples. Another important difference between landscape genetics and genomics and population genetics is that, in the former, the analysis of gene flow and local adaptations takes quantitative account of landforms and features of the matrix, i.e., hostile spaces that separate species habitats. Landscape genomics is a part of population ecogenomics, which, along with community genomics, is a major part of ecological genomics. One of the principal purposes of landscape genomics is the identification and differentiation of various genome-wide and locus-specific effects. The approaches and computation tools developed for combined analysis of genomic and landscape variables make it possible to detect adaptation-related genome fragments, which facilitates the planning of conservation efforts and the prediction of species' fate in response to expected changes in the environment.

  4. ECOLOGICAL GROWTH BOUNDARIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna BLUSZCZ

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The trends of the society for the continuous growth, combined with the demographic changes, today have led to the important ecological problems on a global scale, which include, among others: the increased use of non-renewable natu-ral resources, an increase of the greenhouse gas emissions, contamination of soil, water, air and the progressive degra-dation of ecosystems. In the face of such serious threats the global initiatives of all countries are important to limit the results of the excessive consumption. The aim of the article is to present the methods of measurement of the consump-tion level of natural resources by the societies and the examination of relationships between the level of development of the societies and the use of resources. The popular measure – the ecological footprint – was used as a measurement method for the consumption of the today’s generations in relation to the regenerative possibilities of the natural envi-ronment. On the other hand, as the assessment method for the level of development of societies – the Human Develop-ment Index (HDI, including three basic areas: the life expectancy, GDP level per capita and education was used. The results of the research indicate that the current trend of the unlimited consumption of the highly developed countries takes place at the expense of the future generations.

  5. Ecological Growth Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluszcz, Anna

    2017-03-01

    The trends of the society for the continuous growth, combined with the demographic changes, today have led to the important ecological problems on a global scale, which include, among others: the increased use of non-renewable natural resources, an increase of the greenhouse gas emissions, contamination of soil, water, air and the progressive degradation of ecosystems. In the face of such serious threats the global initiatives of all countries are important to limit the results of the excessive consumption. The aim of the article is to present the methods of measurement of the consumption level of natural resources by the societies and the examination of relationships between the level of development of the societies and the use of resources. The popular measure - the ecological footprint - was used as a measurement method for the consumption of the today's generations in relation to the regenerative possibilities of the natural environment. On the other hand, as the assessment method for the level of development of societies - the Human Development Index (HDI), including three basic areas: the life expectancy, GDP level per capita and education was used. The results of the research indicate that the current trend of the unlimited consumption of the highly developed countries takes place at the expense of the future generations.

  6. ECOLOGICAL BUILDING DESIGN DETERMINANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Vakili-Ardebili

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable building design process is driven on the basis of a range of design eco-indicators. Consideration of a multitude of eco-determinants, such as environment, economy, resources, energy consumption and society values in addition to design characteristics and contexts, makes the process of ecological design even more complex. A large number of eco-drivers are extracted from the literature and current design practices. To gain a better insight on eco-design determinants, a survey focusing on the use of eco-design drivers has been conducted with various architects in the UK. The factor analysis method was used to remove redundant data from the survey. Through the factor analysis approach, 115 eco-determinants are grouped into six main clusters. This article presents the process, analysis and findings of this work. The extracted eco-indicators and their associated clusters can be used to improve the process of ecological building design. DOI: 10.3763/aedm.2008.0096 Source: Architectural Engineering and Design Management, Volume 6, Number 2, 2010 , pp. 111-131(21

  7. Graduate Education in Ecological Economics

    OpenAIRE

    John M. Polimeni

    2004-01-01

    Interest in graduate education in ecological economics is increasing. However, no formal plan of study for a Ph.D. in ecological economics has been disseminated. The lack of a formal plan is problematic as the field of ecological economics matures, interest grows, and new programs are being developed. This paper attempts to fill a void by creating a program of study addressing the proficiencies a graduate student in ecological economics should have upon completion of his/her Ph.D. based on th...

  8. Ecological implications of behavioural syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sih, Andrew; Cote, Julien; Evans, Mara; Fogarty, Sean; Pruitt, Jonathan

    2012-03-01

    Interspecific trait variation has long served as a conceptual foundation for our understanding of ecological patterns and dynamics. In particular, ecologists recognise the important role that animal behaviour plays in shaping ecological processes. An emerging area of interest in animal behaviour, the study of behavioural syndromes (animal personalities) considers how limited behavioural plasticity, as well as behavioural correlations affects an individual's fitness in diverse ecological contexts. In this article we explore how insights from the concept and study of behavioural syndromes provide fresh understanding of major issues in population ecology. We identify several general mechanisms for how population ecology phenomena can be influenced by a species or population's average behavioural type, by within-species variation in behavioural type, or by behavioural correlations across time or across ecological contexts. We note, in particular, the importance of behavioural type-dependent dispersal in spatial ecology. We then review recent literature and provide new syntheses for how these general mechanisms produce novel insights on five major issues in population ecology: (1) limits to species' distribution and abundance; (2) species interactions; (3) population dynamics; (4) relative responses to human-induced rapid environmental change; and (5) ecological invasions.

  9. Ecological Effects of Allelopathic Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, M.; Strandberg, M.; Strandberg, B.

    with the environment through spread of GM-plants or transgenes outside agricultural areas. The last chapter discuss GM-allelopathic plants in relation to the ecological risk assessment. Preface: This report is based on a literature review on allelopathy from an ecological impact point of view carried out in 1999...... on allelopathy in these crops. It discusses the ecological effects of allelopathic plants in natural ecosystems and factors of importance for the effects of these plants are pointed out. Finally the report presents suggestions for an ecological risk assessment of crops with an enhanced release of allelochemicals...

  10. Occurrence of volatile organic compounds in shallow alluvial aquifers of a Mediterranean region: Baseline scenario and ecological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lorenzo, T; Borgoni, R; Ambrosini, R; Cifoni, M; Galassi, D M P; Petitta, M

    2015-12-15

    A regional survey of eight volatile organic compounds (VOCs), namely BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and p-xylene) and four chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs: chloroform, 1,2-dichloroethane, trichloroethene and tetrachloroethene), was carried out at 174 sites, in 17 alluvial aquifers of Abruzzo, a Mediterranean region of southern Italy, from 2004 to 2009. Frequency of detection, concentration range, spatial distribution pattern, and temporal trend of contaminant concentration in each aquifer were analyzed as well as the relationships between VOC concentrations and the total amount of precipitation during the 90days preceding each sampling date. A review of published ecotoxicological data, providing an indication of the biological risk associated with the observed levels of VOC contamination, was presented and discussed. BTEX concentrations were under detection limits in all the investigated aquifers, indicating absence of contamination. In contrast, CAH contamination occurred in 14 out of 17 aquifers. The two most frequently detected compounds were chloroform and tetrachloroethene. No significant temporal trend was observed for chloroform and tetrachloroethene concentrations during the six years of observation, indicating the persistence of stable contaminations, except for some slightly decreasing trends observed in three out of 17 aquifers. In four aquifers chloroform and tetrachloroethene concentrations increased with precipitations in the preceding months. Spatial patterns of contamination differed among aquifers, indicating highly complex contaminant distributions at aquifer scale not related to single-plume geometries. Patterns of contamination by chloroform and tetrachloroethene in the most urbanized aquifers were likely associated with multiple sources of VOCs not clearly detectable at the scale used in this study. In five out of 17 aquifers, chloroform and tetrachloroethene co-occurred at concentrations that are lethal to groundwater-dwelling organisms under a short exposure period (four days). Future studies should therefore consider the possibility that in the other aquifers groundwater-dwelling organisms might be physiologically damaged by sublethal VOC concentrations.

  11. Reinventing the Wheel: Teaching Restoration Ecology without the Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speldewinde, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Restoration ecology is "the process of assisting the recovery of an ecosystem that has been degraded, damaged or destroyed." Restoration can range from returning the system to its "natural" state through to restoring some ecological functionality to a system. The University of Western Australia offers an undergraduate degree in Restoration…

  12. Civic Ecology: Linking Social and Ecological Approaches in Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasny, Marianne E.; Tidball, Keith G.

    2010-01-01

    Civic ecology refers to the philosophy and science of community forestry, community gardening, watershed enhancement, and other volunteer-driven restoration practices in cities and elsewhere. Such practices, although often viewed as initiatives to improve a degraded environment, also foster social attributes of resilient social-ecological systems,…

  13. Reinventing the Wheel: Teaching Restoration Ecology without the Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speldewinde, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Restoration ecology is "the process of assisting the recovery of an ecosystem that has been degraded, damaged or destroyed." Restoration can range from returning the system to its "natural" state through to restoring some ecological functionality to a system. The University of Western Australia offers an undergraduate degree in…

  14. Ecological Research Division Theoretical Ecology Program. [Contains abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-01

    This report presents the goals of the Theoretical Ecology Program and abstracts of research in progress. Abstracts cover both theoretical research that began as part of the terrestrial ecology core program and new projects funded by the theoretical program begun in 1988. Projects have been clustered into four major categories: Ecosystem dynamics; landscape/scaling dynamics; population dynamics; and experiment/sample design.

  15. Statistical physics and ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, Igor

    This work addresses the applications of the methods of statistical physics to problems in population ecology. A theoretical framework based on stochastic Markov processes for the unified neutral theory of biodiversity is presented and an analytical solution for the distribution of the relative species abundance distribution both in the large meta-community and in the small local community is obtained. It is shown that the framework of the current neutral theory in ecology can be easily generalized to incorporate symmetric density dependence. An analytically tractable model is studied that provides an accurate description of beta-diversity and exhibits novel scaling behavior that leads to links between ecological measures such as relative species abundance and the species area relationship. We develop a simple framework that incorporates the Janzen-Connell, dispersal and immigration effects and leads to a description of the distribution of relative species abundance, the equilibrium species richness, beta-diversity and the species area relationship, in good accord with data. Also it is shown that an ecosystem can be mapped into an unconventional statistical ensemble and is quite generally tuned in the vicinity of a phase transition where bio-diversity and the use of resources are optimized. We also perform a detailed study of the unconventional statistical ensemble, in which, unlike in physics, the total number of particles and the energy are not fixed but bounded. We show that the temperature and the chemical potential play a dual role: they determine the average energy and the population of the levels in the system and at the same time they act as an imbalance between the energy and population ceilings and the corresponding average values. Different types of statistics (Boltzmann, Bose-Einstein, Fermi-Dirac and one corresponding to the description of a simple ecosystem) are considered. In all cases, we show that the systems may undergo a first or a second order

  16. ALMA Long Baseline Campaigns: Phase Characteristics of Atmosphere at Long Baselines in the Millimeter and Submillimeter Wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Satoki; Asaki, Yoshiharu; Fomalont, Edward B.; Morita, Koh-Ichiro; Barkats, Denis; Hills, Richard E.; Kawabe, Ryohei; Maud, Luke T.; Nikolic, Bojan; Tilanus, Remo P. J.; Vlahakis, Catherine; Whyborn, Nicholas D.

    2017-03-01

    We present millimeter- and submillimeter-wave phase characteristics measured between 2012 and 2014 of Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array long baseline campaigns. This paper presents the first detailed investigation of the characteristics of phase fluctuation and phase correction methods obtained with baseline lengths up to ∼15 km. The basic phase fluctuation characteristics can be expressed with the spatial structure function (SSF). Most of the SSFs show that the phase fluctuation increases as a function of baseline length, with a power-law slope of ∼0.6. In many cases, we find that the slope becomes shallower (average of ∼0.2–0.3) at baseline lengths longer than ∼1 km, namely showing a turn-over in SSF. These power law slopes do not change with the amount of precipitable water vapor (PWV), but the fitted constants have a weak correlation with PWV, so that the phase fluctuation at a baseline length of 10 km also increases as a function of PWV. The phase correction method using water vapor radiometers (WVRs) works well, especially for the cases where PWV > 1 {mm}, which reduces the degree of phase fluctuations by a factor of two in many cases. However, phase fluctuations still remain after the WVR phase correction, suggesting the existence of other turbulent constituent that cause the phase fluctuation. This is supported by occasional SSFs that do not exhibit any turn-over; these are only seen when the PWV is low (i.e., when the WVR phase correction works less effectively) or after WVR phase correction. This means that the phase fluctuation caused by this turbulent constituent is inherently smaller than that caused by water vapor. Since in these rare cases there is no turn-over in the SSF up to the maximum baseline length of ∼15 km, this turbulent constituent must have scale height of 10 km or more, and thus cannot be water vapor, whose scale height is around 1 km. Based on the characteristics, this large scale height turbulent constituent is

  17. The vegetation of Yucca Mountain: Description and ecology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-29

    Vegetation at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, was monitored over a six-year period, from 1989 through 1994. Yucca Mountain is located at the northern limit of the Mojave Desert and is the only location being studied as a potential repository for high-level nuclear waste. Site characterization consists of a series of multidisciplinary, scientific investigations designed to provide detailed information necessary to assess the suitability of the Yucca Mountain Site as a repository. This vegetation description establishes a baseline for determining the ecological impact of site characterization activities; it porvides input for site characterization research and modeling; and it clarifies vegetation community dynamics and relationships to the physical environment. A companion study will describe the impact of site characterization of vegetation. Cover, density, production, and species composition of vascular plants were monitored at 48 Ecological Study Plots (ESPs) stratified in four vegetation associations. Precipitation, soil moisture, and maximum and minimum temperatures also were measured at each study plot.

  18. Socio-Ecological Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgeman, Rick; Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær

    for Sustainability is (generally) a subset of the enterprise innovation portfolio. Effective and efficient integration of Innovation for Sustainability and Sustainable Innovation aids translation of 3E (equity, ecology, economy) enterprise strategyof the Triple Top Line into 3P (people, planet, profit) Triple Bottom...... Line enterprise results in operationalization of the cradle‐to‐cradle product and service design, delivery, and lifecycle philosophy. While SEI is defined, it must also be assessed. Any serious assessment of SEI requires not only understanding of what it is, but also how it manifests and in what forms......, how developed or mature it is, and how future SEI strategy and results can be improved. As an aid to these efforts, non‐prescriptive approaches to SEI are discussed, maturity scale assessment for SEI is developed and discussed, and a simple assessment report that combines graphic and narrative...

  19. Information Retrieval for Ecological Syntheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, Helen R.; Beyer, Fiona R.

    2015-01-01

    Research syntheses are increasingly being conducted within the fields of ecology and environmental management. Information retrieval is crucial in any synthesis in identifying data for inclusion whilst potentially reducing biases in the dataset gathered, yet the nature of ecological information provides several challenges when compared with…

  20. Beijing Star Lake Ecology Park

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Beijing Star Lake Ecology Park is a Five-star hotel which has developed multi-functions of restaurant, lodge, bath, landscape seeing, leisure,body exercise, recreation, Ecology agriculture,etc. Occupying an area of 500 mu, the park is an environmental friendly five-star hotel.

  1. Coastal Adaptation and Ecological Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, S. M.

    2014-12-01

    Ecological engineering combines ecology and engineering to sustain coastal environment and facilitate adaptation to climate change. This paper discusses how the cases of mangroves, oyster reefs, and marshes help mainstream climate change with ecosystem conservation. It demonstrates the benefits of combining strategies to combat changing climate given the financial and political constraints.

  2. SRS ecology: Environmental information document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wike, L.D.; Shipley, R.W.; Bowers, J.A. [and others

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this Document is to provide a source of ecological information based on the exiting knowledge gained from research conducted at the Savannah River Site. This document provides a summary and synthesis of ecological research in the three main ecosystem types found at SRS and information on the threatened and endangered species residing there.

  3. Ecological Networks in Urban Landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cook, E.A.

    2000-01-01

    This research focuses on the topic of ecological networks in urban landscapes. Analysis and planning of ecological networks is a relatively new phenomenon and is a response to fragmentation and deterioration of quality of natural systems. In agricultural areas and with existing nature preserves this

  4. Molecular ecology of aquatic microbes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Abstracts of reports are presented from a meeting on Molecular Ecology of Aquatic Microbes. Topics included: opportunities offered to aquatic ecology by molecular biology; the role of aquatic microbes in biogeochemical cycles; characterization of the microbial community; the effect of the environment on aquatic microbes; and the targeting of specific biological processes.

  5. The dimensionality of ecological networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eklöf, Anna; Jacob, Ute; Kopp, Jason;

    2013-01-01

    How many dimensions (trait-axes) are required to predict whether two species interact? This unanswered question originated with the idea of ecological niches, and yet bears relevance today for understanding what determines network structure. Here, we analyse a set of 200 ecological networks, incl...

  6. The Future of Urban Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elle, Morten

    1998-01-01

    This article is discusing the basic conditions for a positive development of urban ecology in Denmark. A number of battles has to be won.......This article is discusing the basic conditions for a positive development of urban ecology in Denmark. A number of battles has to be won....

  7. Ecological Monitoring Information System (EMIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiene, Richard John; And Others

    A system for evaluating and monitoring child development projects, with possible computerization capabilities, was developed for the State of Pennsylvania in connection with 26 child development projects funded by the Appalachian Regional Commission. The Ecological Monitoring Information System (EMIS), provides a series of ecological measurement…

  8. Forecasting Sensorimotor Adaptability from Baseline Inter-Trial Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaton, K. H.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2016-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges for sensorimotor adaptation to the spaceflight environment is the large variability in symptoms, and corresponding functional impairments, from one crewmember to the next. This renders preflight training and countermeasure development difficult, as a "one-size-fits-all" approach is inappropriate. Therefore, it would be highly advantageous to know ahead of time which crewmembers might have more difficulty adjusting to the novel g-levels inherent to spaceflight. This information could guide individually customized countermeasures, which would enable more efficient use of crew time and provide better outcomes. The principal aim of this work is to look for baseline performance metrics that relate to locomotor adaptability. We propose a novel hypothesis that considers baseline inter-trial correlations, the trial-to-trial fluctuations ("noise") in motor performance, as a predictor of individual adaptive capabilities.

  9. Forecasting Sensorimotor Adaptability from Baseline Inter­-Trial Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaton, Kara H.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2016-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges for sensorimotor adaptation to the spaceflight environment is the large variability in symptoms, and corresponding functional impairments, from one crewmember to the next. This renders preflight training and countermeasure development difficult, as a one-size-fits-all approach is inappropriate. Therefore it would be highly advantageous to know ahead of time which crewmembers might have more difficulty adjusting to the novel g-levels inherent to spaceflight. This information could guide individually customized countermeasures, which would enable more efficient use of crew time and provide better outcomes. The principal aim of this work is to look for baseline performance metrics that relate to locomotor adaptability. To-date, a strong relationship has been found between baseline inter-trial correlations, the trial-to-trial fluctuations ("noise") in motor performance, and adaptability in two oculomotor systems (see Preliminary Results). We now propose an analogous predictive mechanisms in the locomotor system.

  10. Statistical Mechanics of Node-perturbation Learning with Noisy Baseline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Kazuyuki; Katahira, Kentaro; Okada, Masato

    2017-02-01

    Node-perturbation learning is a type of statistical gradient descent algorithm that can be applied to problems where the objective function is not explicitly formulated, including reinforcement learning. It estimates the gradient of an objective function by using the change in the object function in response to the perturbation. The value of the objective function for an unperturbed output is called a baseline. Cho et al. proposed node-perturbation learning with a noisy baseline. In this paper, we report on building the statistical mechanics of Cho's model and on deriving coupled differential equations of order parameters that depict learning dynamics. We also show how to derive the generalization error by solving the differential equations of order parameters. On the basis of the results, we show that Cho's results are also apply in general cases and show some general performances of Cho's model.

  11. Implementing wide baseline matching algorithms on a graphics processing unit.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothganger, Fredrick H.; Larson, Kurt W.; Gonzales, Antonio Ignacio; Myers, Daniel S.

    2007-10-01

    Wide baseline matching is the state of the art for object recognition and image registration problems in computer vision. Though effective, the computational expense of these algorithms limits their application to many real-world problems. The performance of wide baseline matching algorithms may be improved by using a graphical processing unit as a fast multithreaded co-processor. In this paper, we present an implementation of the difference of Gaussian feature extractor, based on the CUDA system of GPU programming developed by NVIDIA, and implemented on their hardware. For a 2000x2000 pixel image, the GPU-based method executes nearly thirteen times faster than a comparable CPU-based method, with no significant loss of accuracy.

  12. Configurations of the Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Barger, Vernon; Chatterjee, Animesh; Gandhi, Raj; Marfatia, Danny; Masud, Mehedi

    2014-01-01

    We perform a comprehensive study of the ability of the Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) to answer outstanding questions in the neutrino sector. We consider the sensitivities to the mass hierarchy, the octant of $\\theta_{23}$ and to CP violation using data from beam and atmospheric neutrinos. We evaluate the dependencies on the precision with which $\\theta_{13}$ will be measured by reactor experiments, on the detector size, beam power and exposure time, on detector magnetization, and on the systematic uncertainties achievable with and without a near detector. We find that a 35 kt LBNE with a near detector will resolve the eight-fold degeneracy that is intrinsic to long baseline experiments and will meet the primary goals of oscillation physics that it is designed for.

  13. Long-Baseline Neutrino Physics in the U.S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopp, Sacha E. [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1600, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Long-baseline neutrino oscillation physics in the U.S. is centered at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), in particular at the Neutrinos at the Main Injector (NuMI) beamline commissioned in 2004-2005. Already, the MINOS experiment has published its first results confirming the disappearance of {nu}{sub {mu}}'s across a 735 km baseline. The forthcoming NO{nu}A experiment will search for the transition {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub e} and use this transition to understand the mass heirarchy of neutrinos. These, as well as other conceptual ideas for future experiments using the NuMI beam, will be discussed. The turn-on of the NuMI facility has been positive, with over 310 kW beam power achieved. Plans for increasing the beam intensity once the Main Injector accelerator is fully-dedicated to the neutrino program will be presented.

  14. Measurement of baseline and orientation between distributed aerospace platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Qin

    2013-01-01

    Distributed platforms play an important role in aerospace remote sensing, radar navigation, and wireless communication applications. However, besides the requirement of high accurate time and frequency synchronization for coherent signal processing, the baseline between the transmitting platform and receiving platform and the orientation of platform towards each other during data recording must be measured in real time. In this paper, we propose an improved pulsed duplex microwave ranging approach, which allows determining the spatial baseline and orientation between distributed aerospace platforms by the proposed high-precision time-interval estimation method. This approach is novel in the sense that it cancels the effect of oscillator frequency synchronization errors due to separate oscillators that are used in the platforms. Several performance specifications are also discussed. The effectiveness of the approach is verified by simulation results.

  15. Fissile materials disposition program plutonium immobilization project baseline formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebbinghaus, B B; Armantrout, G A; Gray, L; Herman, C C; Shaw, H F; Van Konynenburg, R A

    2000-09-01

    Since 1994 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), with the help of several other laboratories and university groups, has been the lead laboratory for the Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP). This involves, among other tasks, the development of a formulation and a fabrication process for a ceramic to be used in the immobilization of excess weapons-usable plutonium. This report reviews the history of the project as it relates to the development of the ceramic form. It describes the sample test plan for the pyrochlore-rich ceramic formulation that was selected, and it specifies the baseline formulation that has been adopted. It also presents compositional specifications (e.g. precursor compositions and mixing recipes) and other form and process specifications that are linked or potentially linked to the baseline formulation.

  16. The Fermilab Short-Baseline Program: MicroBooNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schukraft, Anne [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The MicroBooNE experiment is the first of three detectors of the Fermilab short-baseline neutrino program that started operation in the Booster Neutrino Beamline in October 2015 [1]. When completed, the three-detector lineup will explore short-baseline neutrino oscillations and will be sensitive to sterile neutrino scenarios. MicroBooNE in itself is now starting its own physics program, with the measurement of neutrino-argon cross sections in the ~1GeV range being one of its main physics goals. These proceedings describe the status of the detector, the start of operation, and the automated reconstruction of the first neutrino events observed with MicroBooNE. Prospects for upcoming cross section measurements are also given.

  17. Degeneracies in long-baseline neutrino experiments from nonstandard interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, Jiajun; Whisnant, Kerry

    2016-01-01

    We study parameter degeneracies that can occur in long-baseline neutrino appearance experiments due to nonstandard interactions (NSI). For a single off-diagonal NSI parameter, and neutrino and antineutrino measurements at a single L/E, there exists a continuous four-fold degeneracy (related to the mass hierarchy and $\\theta_{23}$ octant) that renders the mass hierarchy, octant, and CP phase unknowable. Even with a combination of NO$\

  18. Baseline Gas Turbine Development Program. Fourteenth quarterly progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, F W; Wagner, C E

    1976-04-30

    Progress is reported for a Baseline Gas Turbine Development Program sponsored by the Heat Engine Systems Branch, Division of Transportation Energy Conservation (TEC) of the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA). Structurally, this program is made up of three parts: (1) documentation of the existing automotive gas turbine state-of-the-art; (2) conduction of an extensive component improvement program; and (3) utilization of the improvements in the design, and building of an Upgraded Engine capable of demonstrating program goals.

  19. Tools for NEPA compliance: Baseline reports and compliance guides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, T.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hansen, R.P. [Hansen Environmental Consultants, Englewood, CO (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Environmental baseline documents and NEPA compliance guides should be carried in every NEPA implementation ``tool kit``. These two indispensable tools can play a major role in avoiding repeated violations of NEPA requirements that have occurred over the past 26 years. This paper describes these tools, discusses their contents, and explains how they are used to prepare better NEPA documents more cost-effectively. Focus is on experience at Sandia Laboratories (NM).

  20. Logistics Operations Management Center: Maintenance Support Baseline (LOMC-MSB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurrus, R.; Stump, F.

    1995-01-01

    The Logistics Operations Management Center Maintenance Support Baseline is defined. A historical record of systems, applied to and deleted from, designs in support of future management and/or technical analysis is provided. All Flight elements, Ground Support Equipment, Facility Systems and Equipment and Test Support Equipment for which LOMC has responsibilities at Kennedy Space Center and other locations are listed. International Space Station Alpha Program documentation is supplemented. The responsibility of the Space Station Launch Site Support Office is established.

  1. GPS dynamic cycle slip detection and correction with baseline constraint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Zhenkun; Huang Ahunji

    2009-01-01

    When the cycle slips take place in the attitude determination of a moving platform, the precision of the attitude will be impaired badly. A method of cycle slip detection and correction is proposed, which is suitable to the dynamic measurement using GPS carrier phase: the cycle slips detection is first achieved by triple difference observables, then the cycle slips correction is performed with baseline length constraint. The simulation results show that the proposed method is effective to the dynamic cycle slips problem.

  2. Linking solar and long baseline terrestrial neutrino experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmedov, E K; Branco, G C; Rebelo, M N

    2000-04-17

    We show that, in the framework of three light neutrino species with hierarchical masses and assuming no fine tuning between the entries of the neutrino mass matrix, one can use the solar neutrino data to obtain information on the element U(e3) of the lepton mixing matrix. Conversely, a measurement of U(e3) in atmospheric or long baseline accelerator or reactor neutrino experiments would help discriminate between possible oscillation solutions of the solar neutrino problem.

  3. Challenges of collecting baseline data in emergency settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Schlecht

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the humanitarian community acknowledgesthe need for good quality data in programme design andmonitoring, the challenges and demands of field settingshave too often led to the argument that “we just don’thave time” or “it is too difficult”. Yet without the allocationof time and resources to the collection of baseline andmonitoring data, project activities cannot be groundedin strong evidence from programme evaluation.

  4. Integrated Baseline System (IBS) Version 2.0: User guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, J.C. [Bower Software Services, Kennewick, WA (United States); Burford, M.J.; Downing, T.R.; Matsumoto, S.W.; Schrank, E.E.; Williams, J.R.; Winters, C.; Wood, B.M.

    1994-03-01

    The Integrated Baseline System (IBS) is an emergency management planning and analysis tool being developed under the direction of the Federal Emergency Management Agency. This User Guide explains how to start and use the IBS Program, which is designed to help civilian emergency management personnel to plan for and support their responses to a chemical-releasing event at a military chemical stockpile. The intended audience for this document is all users of the IBS, especially emergency management planners and analysts.

  5. Optimized Two-Baseline Beta-Beam Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Choubey, Sandhya; Donini, Andrea; Fernandez-Martinez, Enrique

    2009-01-01

    We propose a realistic Beta-Beam experiment with four source ions and two baselines for the best possible sensitivity to theta_{13}, CP violation and mass hierarchy. Neutrinos from 18Ne and 6He with Lorentz boost gamma=350 are detected in a 500 kton water Cerenkov detector at a distance L=650 km (first oscillation peak) from the source. Neutrinos from 8B and 8Li are detected in a 50 kton magnetized iron detector at a distance L=7000 km (magic baseline) from the source. Since the decay ring requires a tilt angle of 34.5 degrees to send the beam to the magic baseline, the far end of the ring has a maximum depth of d=2132 m for magnetic field strength of 8.3 T, if one demands that the fraction of ions that decay along the straight sections of the racetrack geometry decay ring (called livetime) is 0.3. We alleviate this problem by proposing to trade reduction of the livetime of the decay ring with the increase in the boost factor of the ions, such that the number of events at the detector remains almost the same....

  6. Gravity sensing with Very Long Baseline Atom Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlippert, Dennis; Albers, Henning; Richardson, Logan L.; Nath, Dipankar; Meiners, Christian; Wodey, Etienne; Schubert, Christian; Ertmer, Wolfgang; Rasel, Ernst M.

    2016-05-01

    Very Long Baseline Atom Interferometry (VLBAI) has applications in high-accuracy absolute gravimetry, gravity-gradiometry, and for tests of fundamental physics. Extending the baseline of atomic gravimeters from tens of centimeters to meters opens the route towards competition with superconducting gravimeters. The VLBAI-test stand will consist of a 10m-baseline atom interferometer allowing for free fall times of seconds. In order to suppress environmental noise, the facility utilizes a state-of-the-art vibration isolation platform and a three-layer magnetic shield. We envisage a resolution of local gravitational acceleration of 5 .10-10 m/ s2 with sub-ppb inaccuracy. Operation as a gradiometer will allow to resolve the gravity gradient at a resolution of 5 .10-10 1/ s2. The operation of VLBAI as a differential dual-species gravimeter using ultracold mixtures of Yb and Rb atoms enables quantum tests of the universality of free fall (UFF) at an unprecedented level, with the potential to surpass the accuracy of the best experiments to date. We report on a quantum test of the UFF using two different chemical elements, 39 K and 87 Rb, reaching a 100 ppb inaccuracy and show the potential of UFF tests in VLBAI at an inaccuracy of 10-13 and beyond.

  7. COMSATCOM service technical baseline strategy development approach using PPBW concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tien M.; Guillen, Andy T.

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents an innovative approach to develop a Commercial Satellite Communications (COMSATCOM) service Technical Baseline (TB) and associated Program Baseline (PB) strategy using Portable Pool Bandwidth (PPBW) concept. The concept involves trading of the purchased commercial transponders' Bandwidths (BWs) with existing commercial satellites' bandwidths participated in a "designated pool bandwidth"3 according to agreed terms and conditions. Space Missile Systems Center (SMC) has been implementing the Better Buying Power (BBP 3.0) directive4 and recommending the System Program Offices (SPO) to own the Program and Technical Baseline (PTB) [1, 2] for the development of flexible acquisition strategy and achieving affordability and increased in competition. This paper defines and describes the critical PTB parameters and associated requirements that are important to the government SPO for "owning" an affordable COMSATCOM services contract using PPBW trading concept. The paper describes a step-by-step approach to optimally perform the PPBW trading to meet DoD and its stakeholders (i) affordability requirement, and (ii) fixed and variable bandwidth requirements by optimizing communications performance, cost and PPBW accessibility in terms of Quality of Services (QoS), Bandwidth Sharing Ratio (BSR), Committed Information Rate (CIR), Burstable Information Rate (BIR), Transponder equivalent bandwidth (TPE) and transponder Net Presence Value (NPV). The affordable optimal solution that meets variable bandwidth requirements will consider the operating and trading terms and conditions described in the Fair Access Policy (FAP).

  8. Wide baseline stereo matching based on double topological relationship consistency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiaohong; Liu, Bin; Song, Xiaoxue; Liu, Yang

    2009-07-01

    Stereo matching is one of the most important branches in computer vision. In this paper, an algorithm is proposed for wide-baseline stereo vision matching. Here, a novel scheme is presented called double topological relationship consistency (DCTR). The combination of double topological configuration includes the consistency of first topological relationship (CFTR) and the consistency of second topological relationship (CSTR). It not only sets up a more advanced model on matching, but discards mismatches by iteratively computing the fitness of the feature matches and overcomes many problems of traditional methods depending on the powerful invariance to changes in the scale, rotation or illumination across large view changes and even occlusions. Experimental examples are shown where the two cameras have been located in very different orientations. Also, epipolar geometry can be recovered using RANSAC by far the most widely method adopted possibly. By the method, we can obtain correspondences with high precision on wide baseline matching problems. Finally, the effectiveness and reliability of this method are demonstrated in wide-baseline experiments on the image pairs.

  9. Forecasting Sensorimotor Adaptability from Baseline Inter-Trial Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaton, K. H.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2014-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges surrounding adaptation to the spaceflight environment is the large variability in symptoms, and corresponding functional impairments, from one crewmember to the next. This renders preflight training and countermeasure development difficult, as a "one-size-fits-all" approach is inappropriate. Therefore, it would be highly advantageous to know ahead of time which crewmembers might have more difficulty adjusting to the novel g-levels inherent to spaceflight. Such knowledge could guide individually customized countermeasures, which would enable more efficient use of crew time, both preflight and inflight, and provide better outcomes. The primary goal of this project is to look for a baseline performance metric that can forecast sensorimotor adaptability without exposure to an adaptive stimulus. We propose a novel hypothesis that considers baseline inter-trial correlations, the trial-to-trial fluctuations in motor performance, as a predictor of individual sensorimotor adaptive capabilities. To-date, a strong relationship has been found between baseline inter-trial correlations and adaptability in two oculomotor systems. For this project, we will explore an analogous predictive mechanism in the locomotion system. METHODS: Baseline Inter-trial Correlations: Inter-trial correlations specify the relationships among repeated trials of a given task that transpire as a consequence of correcting for previous performance errors over multiple timescales. We can quantify the strength of inter-trial correlations by measuring the decay of the autocorrelation function (ACF), which describes how rapidly information from past trials is "forgotten." Processes whose ACFs decay more slowly exhibit longer-term inter-trial correlations (longer memory processes), while processes whose ACFs decay more rapidly exhibit shorterterm inter-trial correlations (shorter memory processes). Longer-term correlations reflect low-frequency activity, which is more easily

  10. Social-Ecological Guilds: Putting People into Marine Historical Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janna M. Shackeroff

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Marine historical ecology provides historic insights into past ocean ecosystems that are crucial to effectively confronting the declining health and resilience in marine ecosystems. A more 'peopled' approach to marine historical ecology is necessary, given the heightened emphasis on human dimensions in marine management. This study examined the historical ecology of Hawaiian coral reef ecosystems through oral histories of diverse ocean experts, representing six traditional, local, and scientific knowledge systems. Based on 61 in-depth interviews with these ocean experts, historical trends, abundance, and distribution over 80 years and a 50-mile region for 271 species emerged. Analyzing trends by ecological guild, e.g., herbivores, proved inappropriate to these data; rather, based on qualitative analyses, five distinct trends encompassing nearly all species emerged in what we term "social-ecological guilds." Ocean expert's observations of change were surprisingly consistent, regardless of their knowledge system, whereas perceptions of change varied widely. The historical picture was far broader and richer when the contributions of six knowledge systems were incorporated, compared to that of any one alone. Social-ecological guilds also matter critically from a management perspective, because understanding how experts from a multiplicity of perspectives observe, interpret, and respond to ecological change can help managers anticipate responses to management activities and perhaps to design better management strategies.

  11. Ecology-driven stereotypes override race stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Keelah E G; Sng, Oliver; Neuberg, Steven L

    2016-01-12

    Why do race stereotypes take the forms they do? Life history theory posits that features of the ecology shape individuals' behavior. Harsh and unpredictable ("desperate") ecologies induce fast strategy behaviors such as impulsivity, whereas resource-sufficient and predictable ("hopeful") ecologies induce slow strategy behaviors such as future focus. We suggest that individuals possess a lay understanding of ecology's influence on behavior, resulting in ecology-driven stereotypes. Importantly, because race is confounded with ecology in the United States, we propose that Americans' stereotypes about racial groups actually reflect stereotypes about these groups' presumed home ecologies. Study 1 demonstrates that individuals hold ecology stereotypes, stereotyping people from desperate ecologies as possessing faster life history strategies than people from hopeful ecologies. Studies 2-4 rule out alternative explanations for those findings. Study 5, which independently manipulates race and ecology information, demonstrates that when provided with information about a person's race (but not ecology), individuals' inferences about blacks track stereotypes of people from desperate ecologies, and individuals' inferences about whites track stereotypes of people from hopeful ecologies. However, when provided with information about both the race and ecology of others, individuals' inferences reflect the targets' ecology rather than their race: black and white targets from desperate ecologies are stereotyped as equally fast life history strategists, whereas black and white targets from hopeful ecologies are stereotyped as equally slow life history strategists. These findings suggest that the content of several predominant race stereotypes may not reflect race, per se, but rather inferences about how one's ecology influences behavior.

  12. Missing ecology: integrating ecological perspectives with the social-ecological system framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Epstein

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The social-ecological systems framework was designed to provide a common research tool for interdisciplinary investigations of social-ecological systems. However, its origin in institutional studies of the commons belies its interdisciplinary ambitions and highlights its relatively limited attention to ecology and natural scientific knowledge. This paper considers the biophysical components of the framework and its epistemological foundations as it relates to the incorporation of knowledge from the natural sciences. It finds that the mixture of inductive and deductive reasoning associated with socially-oriented investigations of these systems is lacking on the ecological side, which relies upon induction alone. As a result the paper proposes the addition of a seventh core sub-system to the social-ecological systems framework, ecological rules, which would allow scholars to explicitly incorporate knowledge from the natural sciences for deductive reasoning. The paper shows, through an instructive case study, how the addition of ecological rules can provide a more nuanced description of the factors that contribute to outcomes in social-ecological systems.

  13. Emergence Unites Ecology and Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald L. Trosper

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The effort to combine analysis of ecosystems and social systems requires a firm theoretical basis. When humans are present in an ecosystem, their actions affect emergent structures; this paper examines forms of emergence that account for the presence of humans. Humans monitor and regulate ecosystems based on their cultural systems. Cultural systems consist of concepts linked in complicated ways that can form consistent world views, can contain inconsistencies, and may or may not accurately model the properties of a social–ecological system. Consequently, human monitoring and regulating processes will differ, depending on cultural systems. Humans, as agents, change or maintain pre-existing material and cultural emergent structures. The presentation is illustrated with a case study of fire-prone forests. The paper shows that explicit attention to emergence serves very well in unifying the following requirements for social–ecological analysis: coherent and observable definitions of sustainability; ways to link ecological and social phenomena; ways to understand cultural reasons for stability and instability in dynamic social–ecological systems; and ways to include human self-evaluation and culture within dynamic models of social–ecological systems. Analysis of cultural emergent structures clarifies many differences in assumptions among the fields of economics, sociology, political science, ecology, and ecological economics. Because it can be readily applied to empirical questions, the framework provides a good way to organize policy analysis that is not dominated by one or another discipline.

  14. Toward ecologically scaled landscape indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, C C; Verboom, J; Opdam, P F; Ter Braak, C J

    2001-01-01

    Nature conservation is increasingly based on a landscape approach rather than a species approach. Landscape planning that includes nature conservation goals requires integrated ecological tools. However, species differ widely in their response to landscape change. We propose a framework of ecologically scaled landscape indices that takes into account this variation. Our approach is based on a combination of field studies of spatially structured populations (metapopulations) and model simulations in artificial landscapes. From these, we seek generalities in the relationship among species features, landscape indices, and metapopulation viability. The concept of ecological species profiles is used to group species according to characteristics that are important in metapopulations' response to landscape change: individual area requirements as the dominant characteristic of extinction risk in landscape patches and dispersal distance as the main determinant of the ability to colonize patches. The ecological profiles and landscape indices are then integrated into two ecologically scaled landscape indices (ESLI): average patch carrying capacity and average patch connectivity. The field data show that the fraction of occupied habitat patches is correlated with the two ESLI. To put the ESLI into a perspective of metapopulation persistence, we determine the viability for six ecological profiles at different degrees of habitat fragmentation using a metapopulation model and computer-generated landscapes. The model results show that the fraction of occupied patches is a good indicator for metapopulation viability. We discuss how ecological profiles, ESLI, and the viability threshold can be applied for landscape planning and design in nature conservation.

  15. Temporal ecology in the Anthropocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkovich, E M; Cook, B I; McLauchlan, K K; Davies, T J

    2014-11-01

    Two fundamental axes - space and time - shape ecological systems. Over the last 30 years spatial ecology has developed as an integrative, multidisciplinary science that has improved our understanding of the ecological consequences of habitat fragmentation and loss. We argue that accelerating climate change - the effective manipulation of time by humans - has generated a current need to build an equivalent framework for temporal ecology. Climate change has at once pressed ecologists to understand and predict ecological dynamics in non-stationary environments, while also challenged fundamental assumptions of many concepts, models and approaches. However, similarities between space and time, especially related issues of scaling, provide an outline for improving ecological models and forecasting of temporal dynamics, while the unique attributes of time, particularly its emphasis on events and its singular direction, highlight where new approaches are needed. We emphasise how a renewed, interdisciplinary focus on time would coalesce related concepts, help develop new theories and methods and guide further data collection. The next challenge will be to unite predictive frameworks from spatial and temporal ecology to build robust forecasts of when and where environmental change will pose the largest threats to species and ecosystems, as well as identifying the best opportunities for conservation.

  16. Ecological economic benefit in sustainable development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Xuemin; Ren Long

    2006-01-01

    From the concept of ecological economic benefit, I put forward the general formula for the benefit of ecological economy and the appraisal methods of the ecological economy, Theory on ecological benefit and economic benefit is the base of the benefits of ecological economy To some extent, the development of ecological economy, theory and practice on eco-agriculture are both the production made from opposition and unify of ecological benefit and economic benefit. This paper discusses the "T" type structure, which will give the theoretical bases for enhancing the ecological and economical benefits.

  17. Ecological periodic tables: Killer apps for translational ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chemical periodic table, the Linnaean system of classification and the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram are information organizing structures that have transformed chemistry, biology and astronomy, respectively. Ecological periodic tables are information organizing structures wit...

  18. Ecology and bioprospecting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, Andrew J; Hay, Mark; Magnusson, Bill; de Nys, Rocky; Smeathers, James; Vincent, Julian F V

    2011-05-01

    Bioprospecting is the exploration of biodiversity for new resources of social and commercial value. It is carried out by a wide range of established industries such as pharmaceuticals, manufacturing and agriculture as well as a wide range of comparatively new ones such as aquaculture, bioremediation, biomining, biomimetic engineering and nanotechnology. The benefits of bioprospecting have emerged from such a wide range of organisms and environments worldwide that it is not possible to predict what species or habitats will be critical to society, or industry, in the future. The benefits include an unexpected variety of products that include chemicals, genes, metabolic pathways, structures, materials and behaviours. These may provide physical blueprints or inspiration for new designs. Criticism aimed at bioprospecting has been addressed, in part, by international treaties and legal agreements aimed at stopping biopiracy and many activities are now funded by agencies that require capacity-building and economic benefits in host countries. Thus, much contemporary bioprospecting has multiple goals, including the conservation of biodiversity, the sustainable management of natural resources and economic development. Ecologists are involved in three vital ways: first, applying ecological principles to the discovery of new resources. In this context, natural history becomes a vast economic database. Second, carrying out field studies, most of them demographic, to help regulate the harvest of wild species. Third, emphasizing the profound importance of millions of mostly microscopic species to the global economy.

  19. Ecological tax reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    An environmental tax reform is seen by many as a possible solution to some crucial problems of modern society - pollution, excessive resource consumption and unemployment. Changes in the system of taxation are here seen as a long term process, one that must cheapen the costs of labour and make the costs of resource use more expensive - a process which can also create major changes in our society as to conceptions of quality, work, consumption etc. The conference presented proposals for an ecological tax and duty system that would contribute to: Changing technology so that it becomes more resource and energy effective. Changing the economic mechanisms so that resource consumption and pollution become more expensive while human resources become cheaper. Changing personal life styles and values so that material consumption becomes less decisive for our choices and priorities. An environmental tax reform is neither without problems nor painless. An economy and an industrial sector based on increasing consumption of energy and raw materials will, in the long run, lead to drawbacks that far outweigh those that are connected with an economic re-orientation whose driving force is another conception of nature. (EG)

  20. Chemical ecology of marine plankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Emily R; Poulin, Remington X; Mojib, Nazia; Kubanek, Julia

    2016-07-28

    Covering: January 2013 to online publication December 2014This review summarizes recent research in the chemical ecology of marine pelagic ecosystems, and aims to provide a comprehensive overview of advances in the field in the time period covered. In order to highlight the role of chemical cues and toxins in plankton ecology this review has been organized by ecological interaction types starting with intraspecific interactions, then interspecific interactions (including facilitation and mutualism, host-parasite, allelopathy, and predator-prey), and finally community and ecosystem-wide interactions.

  1. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Canonsburg, Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This baseline risk assessment evaluates potential impacts to public health and the environment resulting from ground water contamination from past activities at the former uranium processing site in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania. The US Department of Energy Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project has placed contaminated material from this site in an on-site disposal cell. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the UMTRA Ground Water Project. Currently, no domestic or drinking water well tap into contaminated ground water of the two distinct ground water units: the unconsolidated materials and the bedrock. Because there is no access, no current health or environmental risks are associated with the direct use of the contaminated ground water. However, humans and ecological organisms could be exposed to contaminated ground water if a domestic well were to be installed in the unconsolidated materials in that part of the site being considered for public use (Area C). The first step is evaluating ground water data collected from monitor wells at the site. For the Canonsburg site, this evaluation showed the contaminants in ground water exceeding background in the unconsolidated materials in Area C are ammonia, boron, calcium, manganese, molybdenum, potassium, strontium, and uranium.

  2. The elusive baseline of marine disease: are diseases in ocean ecosystems increasing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Jessica R; Lafferty, Kevin D

    2004-04-01

    Disease outbreaks alter the structure and function of marine ecosystems, directly affecting vertebrates (mammals, turtles, fish), invertebrates (corals, crustaceans, echinoderms), and plants (seagrasses). Previous studies suggest a recent increase in marine disease. However, lack of baseline data in most communities prevents a direct test of this hypothesis. We developed a proxy to evaluate a prediction of the increasing disease hypothesis: the proportion of scientific publications reporting disease increased in recent decades. This represents, to our knowledge, the first quantitative use of normalized trends in the literature to investigate an ecological hypothesis. We searched a literature database for reports of parasites and disease (hereafter "disease") in nine marine taxonomic groups from 1970 to 2001. Reports, normalized for research effort, increased in turtles, corals, mammals, urchins, and molluscs. No significant trends were detected for seagrasses, decapods, or sharks/rays (though disease occurred in these groups). Counter to the prediction, disease reports decreased in fishes. Formulating effective resource management policy requires understanding the basis and timing of marine disease events. Why disease outbreaks increased in some groups but not in others should be a priority for future investigation. The increase in several groups lends urgency to understanding disease dynamics, particularly since few viable options currently exist to mitigate disease in the oceans.

  3. The elusive baseline of marine disease: Are diseases in ocean ecosystems increasing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Jessica R.; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2004-01-01

    Disease outbreaks alter the structure and function of marine ecosystems, directly affecting vertebrates (mammals, turtles, fish), invertebrates (corals, crustaceans, echinoderms), and plants (seagrasses). Previous studies suggest a recent increase in marine disease. However, lack of baseline data in most communities prevents a direct test of this hypothesis. We developed a proxy to evaluate a prediction of the increasing disease hypothesis: the proportion of scientific publications reporting disease increased in recent decades. This represents, to our knowledge, the first quantitative use of normalized trends in the literature to investigate an ecological hypothesis. We searched a literature database for reports of parasites and disease (hereafter “disease”) in nine marine taxonomic groups from 1970 to 2001. Reports, normalized for research effort, increased in turtles, corals, mammals, urchins, and molluscs. No significant trends were detected for seagrasses, decapods, or sharks/rays (though disease occurred in these groups). Counter to the prediction, disease reports decreased in fishes. Formulating effective resource management policy requires understanding the basis and timing of marine disease events. Why disease outbreaks increased in some groups but not in others should be a priority for future investigation. The increase in several groups lends urgency to understanding disease dynamics, particularly since few viable options currently exist to mitigate disease in the oceans.

  4. The elusive baseline of marine disease: are diseases in ocean ecosystems increasing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica R Ward

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Disease outbreaks alter the structure and function of marine ecosystems, directly affecting vertebrates (mammals, turtles, fish, invertebrates (corals, crustaceans, echinoderms, and plants (seagrasses. Previous studies suggest a recent increase in marine disease. However, lack of baseline data in most communities prevents a direct test of this hypothesis. We developed a proxy to evaluate a prediction of the increasing disease hypothesis: the proportion of scientific publications reporting disease increased in recent decades. This represents, to our knowledge, the first quantitative use of normalized trends in the literature to investigate an ecological hypothesis. We searched a literature database for reports of parasites and disease (hereafter "disease" in nine marine taxonomic groups from 1970 to 2001. Reports, normalized for research effort, increased in turtles, corals, mammals, urchins, and molluscs. No significant trends were detected for seagrasses, decapods, or sharks/rays (though disease occurred in these groups. Counter to the prediction, disease reports decreased in fishes. Formulating effective resource management policy requires understanding the basis and timing of marine disease events. Why disease outbreaks increased in some groups but not in others should be a priority for future investigation. The increase in several groups lends urgency to understanding disease dynamics, particularly since few viable options currently exist to mitigate disease in the oceans.

  5. Of Fish and Fishermen: Shifting Societal Baselines to Reduce Environmental Harm in Fisheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimi E. Lam

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available If reasonable fishery harvests and environmental harms are specified in new regulations, policies, and laws governing the exploitation of fish for food and livelihoods, then societal baselines can shift to achieve sustainable fisheries and marine conservation. Fisheries regulations can limit the environmental and social costs or harms caused by fishing by requiring the fishing industry to pay for the privilege to fish, via access fees for the opportunity to catch fish and extraction fees for fish caught; both fees can be combined with a progressive environmental tax to discourage overcapitalization and overfishing. Fisheries policies can be sustainable if predicated on an instrumental and ethical harm principle to reduce fishing harm. To protect the public trust in fisheries, environmental laws can identify the unsustainable depletion of fishery resources as ecological damage and a public nuisance to bind private fishing enterprises to a harm principle. Collaborative governance can foster sustainable fisheries if decision-making rights and responsibilities of marine stewardship are shared among government, the fishing industry, and civil society. As global food security and human welfare are threatened by accelerating human population growth and environmental impacts, decisions of how to use and protect the environment will involve collective choices in which all citizens have a stake - and a right.

  6. Meeting the relational challenge of ecological engineering within ecological sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Barot, Sébastien; Lata, J. C.; Lacroix, G.

    2012-01-01

    Due to the current environmental problems human societies have to face and the lack of sustainability of most of their activities, the time of Ecological Engineering (EE) has surely come. To assess the development of EE within the academic world we conducted a literature survey based on an exhaustive count of all articles mentioning EE and related terms since the 1980s, and a classification of all articles published in 2008 and 2009 in the journal Ecological Engineering. This survey reveals t...

  7. Urbanism in the Anthropocene: Ecological urbanism or premium ecological enclaves?

    OpenAIRE

    Hodson, Michael; Marvin, Simon

    2010-01-01

    Earth scientists now argue that the current geological era should be re-named the anthropocene to better reflect the impact of humans in reshaping planetary ecology. Urbanism encompasses the social, economic and political processes most closely linked to the rapid transformation of habitats, destruction of ecologies, over use of materials and resources, and the production of pollutants and carbon emissions that threaten planetary terracide. Consequently, the key concern for 21st-century globa...

  8. Revisiting the relationship between baseline risk and risk under treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nony Patrice

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In medical practice, it is generally accepted that the 'effect model' describing the relationship between baseline risk and risk under treatment is linear, i.e. 'relative risk' is constant. Absolute benefit is then proportional to a patient's baseline risk and the treatment is most effective among high-risk patients. Alternatively, the 'effect model' becomes curvilinear when 'odds ratio' is considered to be constant. However these two models are based on purely empirical considerations, and there is still no theoretical approach to support either the linear or the non-linear relation. Presentation of the hypothesis From logistic and sigmoidal Emax (Hill models, we derived a phenomenological model which includes the possibility of integrating both beneficial and harmful effects. Instead of a linear relation, our model suggests that the relationship is curvilinear i.e. the moderate-risk patients gain most from the treatment in opposition to those with low or high risk. Testing the hypothesis Two approaches can be proposed to investigate in practice such a model. The retrospective one is to perform a meta-analysis of clinical trials with subgroups of patients including a great range of baseline risks. The prospective one is to perform a large clinical trial in which patients are recruited according to several prestratified diverse and high risk groups. Implications of the hypothesis For the quantification of the treatment effect and considering such a model, the discrepancy between odds ratio and relative risk may be related not only to the level of risk under control conditions, but also to the characteristics of the dose-effect relation and the amount of dose administered. In the proposed approach, OR may be considered as constant in the whole range of Rc, and depending only on the intrinsic characteristics of the treatment. Therefore, OR should be preferred rather than RR to summarize information on treatment efficacy.

  9. A baseline algorithm for face detection and tracking in video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manohar, Vasant; Soundararajan, Padmanabhan; Korzhova, Valentina; Boonstra, Matthew; Goldgof, Dmitry; Kasturi, Rangachar

    2007-10-01

    Establishing benchmark datasets, performance metrics and baseline algorithms have considerable research significance in gauging the progress in any application domain. These primarily allow both users and developers to compare the performance of various algorithms on a common platform. In our earlier works, we focused on developing performance metrics and establishing a substantial dataset with ground truth for object detection and tracking tasks (text and face) in two video domains -- broadcast news and meetings. In this paper, we present the results of a face detection and tracking algorithm on broadcast news videos with the objective of establishing a baseline performance for this task-domain pair. The detection algorithm uses a statistical approach that was originally developed by Viola and Jones and later extended by Lienhart. The algorithm uses a feature set that is Haar-like and a cascade of boosted decision tree classifiers as a statistical model. In this work, we used the Intel Open Source Computer Vision Library (OpenCV) implementation of the Haar face detection algorithm. The optimal values for the tunable parameters of this implementation were found through an experimental design strategy commonly used in statistical analyses of industrial processes. Tracking was accomplished as continuous detection with the detected objects in two frames mapped using a greedy algorithm based on the distances between the centroids of bounding boxes. Results on the evaluation set containing 50 sequences (~ 2.5 mins.) using the developed performance metrics show good performance of the algorithm reflecting the state-of-the-art which makes it an appropriate choice as the baseline algorithm for the problem.

  10. Gravity sensing with Very Long Baseline Atom Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlippert, Dennis; Albers, Henning; Richardson, Logan L.; Nath, Dipankar; Meiners, Christian; Wodey, Étienne; Schubert, Christian; Ertmer, Wolfgang; Rasel, Ernst M.

    2016-04-01

    Very Long Baseline Atom Interferometry (VLBAI) represents a new class of atom optics experiments with applications in high-accuracy absolute gravimetry, gravity-gradiometry, and for tests of fundamental physics. Extending the baseline of atomic gravimeters from tens of centimeters to several meters opens the route towards competition with superconducting gravimeters. The VLBAI-test stand will consist of a 10m-baseline atom interferometer allowing for free fall times on the order of seconds, which will implemented in the Hannover Institut für Technologie (HITec) of the Leibniz Universität Hannover. In order to suppress environmental noise, the facility utilizes a state-of-the-art vibration isolation platform and a three-layer magnetic shield. We envisage a resolution of local gravitational acceleration of 5 ṡ 10-10 m/s2 with an inaccuracy < 10-9 m/s2. Operation as a gravity-gradiometer will allow to resolve the first-order gravity gradient with a resolution of 5 ṡ 10-10 1/s2. The operation of VLBAI as a differential dual-species gravimeter using ultracold mixtures of ytterbium and rubidium atoms enables quantum tests of the universality of free fall (UFF) at an unprecedented level [1], with the potential to surpass the accuracy of the best experiments to date [2]. We report on the first quantum test of the UFF using two different chemical elements, 39K and 87Rb [3], reaching a 100 ppb inaccuracy and show the potential of UFF tests in VLBAI at an inaccuracy of 10-13 and beyond. References J. Hartwig et al., New J. Phys. 17, 035011- (2015) S. Schlamminger et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 041101- (2008) D. Schlippert et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 203002 (2014)

  11. Baseline review of the U.S. LHC Accelerator project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Review of the U.S. Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Accelerator project was conducted February 23--26, 1998, at the request of Dr. John R. O`Fallon, Director, Division of High Energy Physics, Office of Energy Research, U.S. DOE. This is the first review of the U.S. LHC Accelerator project. Overall, the Committee found that the U.S. LHC Accelerator project effort is off to a good start and that the proposed scope is very conservative for the funding available. The Committee recommends that the project be initially baselined at a total cost of $110 million, with a scheduled completion data of 2005. The U.S. LHC Accelerator project will supply high technology superconducting magnets for the interaction regions (IRs) and the radio frequency (rf) straight section of the LHC intersecting storage rings. In addition, the project provides the cryogenic support interface boxes to service the magnets and radiation absorbers to protect the IR dipoles and the inner triplet quadrupoles. US scientists will provide support in analyzing some of the detailed aspects of accelerator physics in the two rings. The three laboratories participating in this project are Brookhaven National Laboratory, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The Committee was very impressed by the technical capabilities of the US LHC Accelerator project team. Cost estimates for each subsystem of the US LHC Accelerator project were presented to the Review Committee, with a total cost including contingency of $110 million (then year dollars). The cost estimates were deemed to be conservative. A re-examination of the funding profile, costs, and schedules on a centralized project basis should lead to an increased list of deliverables. The Committee concluded that the proposed scope of US deliverables to CERN can be readily accomplished with the $110 million total cost baseline for the project. The current deliverables should serve as

  12. Integrated Baseline System (IBS) Version 1.03: Utilities guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burford, M.J.; Downing, T.R.; Pottier, M.C.; Schrank, E.E.; Williams, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    The Integrated Baseline System (IBS) is an emergency management planning and analysis tool that was developed under the direction of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). This Utilities Guide explains how to operate utility programs that are supplied as a part of the IBS. These utility programs are chiefly for managing and manipulating various kinds of IBS data and system administration files. Many of the utilities are for creating, editing, converting, or displaying map data and other data that are related to geographic location.

  13. Integrated Baseline System (IBS) Version 2.0: Utilities Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burford, M.J.; Downing, T.R.; Williams, J.R. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Bower, J.C. [Bower Software Services, Kennewick, WA (United States)

    1994-03-01

    The Integrated Baseline System (IBS) is an emergency management planning and analysis tool being developed under the direction of the US Army Nuclear and Chemical Agency. This Utilities Guide explains how you can use the IBS utility programs to manage and manipulate various kinds of IBS data. These programs include utilities for creating, editing, and displaying maps and other data that are referenced to geographic location. The intended audience for this document are chiefly data managers but also system managers and some emergency management planners and analysts.

  14. Scanner baseliner monitoring and control in high volume manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samudrala, Pavan; Chung, Woong Jae; Aung, Nyan; Subramany, Lokesh; Gao, Haiyong; Gomez, Juan-Manuel

    2016-03-01

    We analyze performance of different customized models on baseliner overlay data and demonstrate the reduction in overlay residuals by ~10%. Smart Sampling sets were assessed and compared with the full wafer measurements. We found that performance of the grid can still be maintained by going to one-third of total sampling points, while reducing metrology time by 60%. We also demonstrate the feasibility of achieving time to time matching using scanner fleet manager and thus identify the tool drifts even when the tool monitoring controls are within spec limits. We also explore the scanner feedback constant variation with illumination sources.

  15. Long baseline accelerator neutrino experiments present and future

    CERN Document Server

    Rubbia, André

    2000-01-01

    A nu /sub mu / disappearance effect has been seen in atmospheric neutrino experiments. This has led to the "evidence for neutrino oscillations". The next problem in neutrino physics is to perform the right experiment(s) to elucidate in a comprehensive way the pattern of neutrino masses and mixings. The long baseline experiments will play a fundamental role at settling definitively the question of flavor oscillation and at measuring with good precision the oscillation parameters. The CERN-NGS beam coupled with the proposed ICANOE and OPERA detectors is the only programme capable of sensitive tau and electron appearance searches. (14 refs).

  16. Project W-320 thermal hydraulic model benchmarking and baselining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathyanarayana, K.

    1998-09-28

    Project W-320 will be retrieving waste from Tank 241-C-106 and transferring the waste to Tank 241-AY-102. Waste in both tanks must be maintained below applicable thermal limits during and following the waste transfer. Thermal hydraulic process control models will be used for process control of the thermal limits. This report documents the process control models and presents a benchmarking of the models with data from Tanks 241-C-106 and 241-AY-102. Revision 1 of this report will provide a baselining of the models in preparation for the initiation of sluicing.

  17. Emergency Response Capability Baseline Needs Assessment Compliance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharry, John A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-09-16

    This document is the second of a two-part analysis of Emergency Response Capabilities of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The first part, 2013 Baseline Needs Assessment Requirements Document established the minimum performance criteria necessary to meet mandatory requirements. This second part analyses the performance of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory Emergency Management Department to the contents of the Requirements Document. The document was prepared based on an extensive review of information contained in the 2009 BNA, the 2012 BNA document, a review of Emergency Planning Hazards Assessments, a review of building construction, occupancy, fire protection features, dispatch records, LLNL alarm system records, fire department training records, and fire department policies and procedures.

  18. A FPGA Implementation of JPEG Baseline Encoder for Wearable Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuecheng; Jia, Wenyan; Luan, Bo; Mao, Zhi-Hong; Zhang, Hong; Sun, Mingui

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, an efficient field-programmable gate array (FPGA) implementation of the JPEG baseline image compression encoder is presented for wearable devices in health and wellness applications. In order to gain flexibility in developing FPGA-specific software and balance between real-time performance and resources utilization, A High Level Synthesis (HLS) tool is utilized in our system design. An optimized dataflow configuration with a padding scheme simplifies the timing control for data transfer. Our experiments with a system-on-chip multi-sensor system have verified our FPGA implementation with respect to real-time performance, computational efficiency, and FPGA resource utilization.

  19. Future long-baseline neutrino oscillations: View from Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patzak, T. [APC, AstroParticule et Cosmologie, Université Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 10, rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France)

    2015-07-15

    Since about a decade the european physics community interested in neutrino and neutrino-astrophysics develops a plan to conceive the next generation large underground neutrino observatory. Recently, the LAGUNA-LBNO collaboration made the outcome of the FP7 design study public which shows a clear path for the realization of such experiment. In this paper the LAGUNA and LAGUNA-LBNO Design studies, resulting in a proposal for the LBNO experiment, will be discussed. The author will focus on the long baseline neutrino oscillation search, especially on the potential to discover the neutrino mass ordering and the search for CP violation in the lepton sector.

  20. Implications of 3+1 short-baseline neutrino oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giunti, Carlo, E-mail: giunti@to.infn.it [INFN, Sezione di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Laveder, Marco, E-mail: laveder@pd.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' G. Galilei' ' , Universita di Padova, and INFN, Sezione di Padova, Via F. Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy)

    2011-12-06

    We present an upgrade of the 3+1 global fit of short-baseline neutrino oscillation data obtained with the addition of KARMEN and LSND {nu}{sub e}+{sup 12}C{yields}{sup 12}N{sub g.s.}+e{sup -} scattering data. We discuss the implications for the measurements of the effective neutrino mass in {beta}-decay and neutrinoless double-{beta}-decay experiments. We find respective predicted ranges of about 0.1-0.7 eV and 0.01-0.1 eV.

  1. Organic Contamination Baseline Study on NASA JSC Astromaterial Curation Gloveboxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calaway, Michael J.; Allton, J. H.; Allen, C. C.; Burkett, P. J.

    2013-01-01

    Future planned sample return missions to carbon-rich asteroids and Mars in the next two decades will require strict handling and curation protocols as well as new procedures for reducing organic contamination. After the Apollo program, astromaterial collections have mainly been concerned with inorganic contamination [1-4]. However, future isolation containment systems for astromaterials, possibly nitrogen enriched gloveboxes, must be able to reduce organic and inorganic cross-contamination. In 2012, a baseline study was orchestrated to establish the current state of organic cleanliness in gloveboxes used by NASA JSC astromaterials curation labs that could be used as a benchmark for future mission designs.

  2. Accounting for uncertainty in ecological analysis: the strengths and limitations of hierarchical statistical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cressie, Noel; Calder, Catherine A; Clark, James S; Ver Hoef, Jay M; Wikle, Christopher K

    2009-04-01

    Analyses of ecological data should account for the uncertainty in the process(es) that generated the data. However, accounting for these uncertainties is a difficult task, since ecology is known for its complexity. Measurement and/or process errors are often the only sources of uncertainty modeled when addressing complex ecological problems, yet analyses should also account for uncertainty in sampling design, in model specification, in parameters governing the specified model, and in initial and boundary conditions. Only then can we be confident in the scientific inferences and forecasts made from an analysis. Probability and statistics provide a framework that accounts for multiple sources of uncertainty. Given the complexities of ecological studies, the hierarchical statistical model is an invaluable tool. This approach is not new in ecology, and there are many examples (both Bayesian and non-Bayesian) in the literature illustrating the benefits of this approach. In this article, we provide a baseline for concepts, notation, and methods, from which discussion on hierarchical statistical modeling in ecology can proceed. We have also planted some seeds for discussion and tried to show where the practical difficulties lie. Our thesis is that hierarchical statistical modeling is a powerful way of approaching ecological analysis in the presence of inevitable but quantifiable uncertainties, even if practical issues sometimes require pragmatic compromises.

  3. US Forest Service Ecological Sections

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting ecological section boundaries within the conterminous United States. The map service contains regional geographic delineations for...

  4. Teaching Ecology in Urban Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fail, Joseph, Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the teaching of ecology and environmental education in urban environments by using field trips to city parks, airports, nuclear power plants, water treatment plants, sewage treatment plants, incinerators, foundries, and forests. (MKR)

  5. Ecological studies in Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ With an objective of making clear the ecological conditions in local region and offering countermeasures for its protection, a CAS task force recently visited Alxa League in Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region.

  6. Online ecological and environmental data

    CERN Document Server

    Baldwin, Virginia Ann

    2014-01-01

    Discover important Internet resources for research data made public individually and collectively by researchers from a variety of entities in the fields of environmental studies and ecology Online Ecological and Environmental Data explores innovative projects from a diverse array of institutions that have made environmental and ecological research information freely available online. You will find a wealth of Web site listings with URLs and complete descriptions, data field descriptions, controlled vocabulary examples, and Web screen shots that demonstrate how to use a specific site. The book will help you locate the data, procedures, instruments, notes, and other descriptive information that scientists and engineers need for replicating and building on the research of others. With Online Ecological and Environmental Data, you''ll gain a better understanding of: * the cooperative design, development, and management of interdisciplinary data * cataloging multidisciplinary environmental data * data netw...

  7. Global Ecological Land Units (ELUs)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In response to the need and an intergovernmental commission for a high resolution and data-derived global ecosystem map, land surface elements of global ecological...

  8. Materials Testing - Digital Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Wiley

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Access to credible building product performance information throughout the design and construction process is critical to enable project development, vet product selections, ensure as-built quality, and successfully complete construction. This is common knowledge and part of common practice for nearly all parties involved in design and construction. The sources of such information can range from vernacular to formal – from common practice to special reference. The focus of this paper is one of the more formal or specialized information sources, performance testing, as well as how such performance testing information can be better used. This paper’s goals are to familiarize the reader with performance testing and to depict a new kind of valuable informational tool (digital ecology. Reference to pertinent nomenclature, description of a real world example, and detailed description of such an informational tool’s values will be provided.The major content of this paper was developed during project-based work and firm-funded internal research at point b design, ltd. over approximately the previous 4 years. The phrase ‘digital ecology’ as herein used is a new concept proposed by the author. The analysis contained in this paper could be applied to the field of operations and maintenance as it is herein applied to design and construction; however, operations and maintenance is beyond the scope of this paper and may be addressed in future papers. It is my hope that this paper will contribute to tangible and real improvements of the built environment via continued, positive development within academic and professional practice.

  9. Ecology of playa lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haukos, David A.; Smith, Loren M.

    1992-01-01

    Between 25,000 and 30,000 playa lakes are in the playa lakes region of the southern high plains (Fig. 1). Most playas are in west Texas (about 20,000), and fewer, in New Mexico, Oklahoma, Kansas, and Colorado. The playa lakes region is one of the most intensively cultivated areas of North America. Dominant crops range from cotton in southern areas to cereal grains in the north. Therefore, most of the native short-grass prairie is gone, replaced by crops and, recently, grasses of the Conservation Reserve Program. Playas are the predominant wetlands and major wildlife habitat of the region.More than 115 bird species, including 20 species of waterfowl, and 10 mammal species have been documented in playas. Waterfowl nest in the area, producing up to 250,000 ducklings in wetter years. Dominant breeding and nesting species are mallards and blue-winged teals. During the very protracted breeding season, birds hatch from April through August. Several million shorebirds and waterfowl migrate through the area each spring and fall. More than 400,000 sandhill cranes migrate through and winter in the region, concentrating primarily on the larger saline lakes in the southern portion of the playa lakes region.The primary importance of the playa lakes region to waterfowl is as a wintering area. Wintering waterfowl populations in the playa lakes region range from 1 to 3 million birds, depending on fall precipitation patterns that determine the number of flooded playas. The most common wintering ducks are mallards, northern pintails, green-winged teals, and American wigeons. About 500,000 Canada geese and 100,000 lesser snow geese winter in the playa lakes region, and numbers of geese have increased annually since the early 1980’s. This chapter describes the physiography and ecology of playa lakes and their attributes that benefit waterfowl.

  10. Civic Ecology: A Postmodern Approach to Ecological Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, V. L.

    2013-12-01

    Human agency is transforming the planetary processes at unprecedented rates risking damaging essential life-support systems. Climate change, massive species extinction, land degradation, resources depletion, overpopulation, poverty and social injustice are all the result of human choices and non-sustainable ways of life. The survival of our modern economic systems depends upon insatiable consumption - a simple way of life no longer satisfies most people. Detached, instrumental rationality has created an ideal of liberalism based on individual pursuit of self-interest, leading the way into unprecedented material progress but bringing with it human alienation, social injustice, and ecological degradation. The purpose of this presentation is to introduce a community-based systems response to a growing sense that the interlocked social-ecological crisis is as much a problem of human thought and behavior as it is about identifying carrying capacities and CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere. This approach, referred to here as civic ecology, presents a new and important paradigm shift in sustainability practice that attempts to bring together and integrate ecological ideas and postmodern thinking. As such, it is as much a holistic, dynamic, and synergistic approach to ecological sustainability, as it is a philosophy of life and ethical perspective born of ecological understanding and insight. Civic ecology starts with the proposition that the key factor determining the health of the ecosphere is the behavior of human beings, and therefore many of the most important issues related to sustainability lie in the areas of human thought and culture. Thus, the quest for sustainability must include as a central concern the transformation of psychological and behavioral patterns that have become an imminent danger to planetary health. At the core of this understanding is a fundamental paradigm shift from the basic commitments of modern Western culture to its model of mechanism

  11. Industrial Design and Ecological Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan-Horia Chinda

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the direct link between the Industrial Production process of prodfucts ad the Ecological disaster we are witnessing today. The main contribution is the definition of the industrial designer's role in this process and the multiple ways the designer can influence and avoid the ecological imbalance. From the design concept to materials and processing, from packing and recycling to transportation, the author clearly defines the designer's complex involvement and offers solutions.

  12. The Approach of Ecological Economics

    OpenAIRE

    John M. Gowdy; Jon D Erickson

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the major tenets of ecological economics - including value pluralism, methodological pluralism, and multi-criteria policy assessment. Ecological economics offers viable alternatives to the theoretical foundations and policy recommendations of neoclassical welfare economics. A revolution in neoclassical economics is currently taking place and the core assumptions of welfare economics are being replaced with more realistic models of consumer and firm behavior. But we argue ...

  13. Microbial ecology of coal mine refuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, R. E.; Miller, R. M.

    1977-01-01

    Baseline microbial and ecological studies of samples obtained from two abandoned coal mine refuse sites in the State of Illinois indicate that the unfavorable nature of refuse materials can be a very limiting factor for survival and growth of organisms. Despite the ''foothold'' obtained by some microorganisms, especially acidophilic fungi and some acidotolerant algae, the refuse materials should be amended or ameliorated to raise the pH, provide needed nutrients, especially nitrogen, and provide biodegradable organic matter, both for physical and biological purposes. Finally, the role of microbial populations, responses, and interactions in acid mine wastes must be put into larger perspective. Acid mine drainage amounts to over 4 million tons per year of acidity from active and abandoned mines. Microorganisms appear to be significantly responsible for this problem, but they also can play a beneficial and significant role in the amelioration or alleviation of this detrimental effect as abandoned mines are reclaimed and returned to useful productivity.

  14. The National Ecological Observatory Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michener, W. K.

    2006-05-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a research platform designed to advance understanding of how ecosystems and organisms respond to variations in climate and changes in land use. NEON is the first long-term ecological observatory conceived as a continental-scale network; equipped with standardized sensors, cyberinfrastructure, and data-collection protocols across the network; and designed to simultaneously address a common set of research questions and support investigator-driven ecological research in all regions of the United States. The Observatory focuses on variations in climate and land use because they are primary drivers of the Nation's environmental challenges, as identified by the National Research Council--i.e., biodiversity, biogeochemical cycles, climate change, hydroecology, infectious disease, invasive species, and land use. At the broadest scale, NEON links the complexity of climate variation to the behavior of ecological systems, a core aspect of ecological complexity. At the same time, because of the complexity of the interactions among humans and ecosystems, the network design includes NEON sites in wild, managed and urban systems within climate domains. Observatory data will also be part of a national education program designed to advance ecological science literacy through new programs and activities that develop and promote scientific ways of thinking.

  15. Airborne infection control in India: Baseline assessment of health facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Malik M.; Sachdeva, K.S.; Rade, Kiran; Ghedia, Mayank; Bansal, Avi; Nagaraja, Sharath Burugina; Willis, Matthew D.; Misquitta, Dyson P.; Nair, Sreenivas A.; Moonan, Patrick K.; Dewan, Puneet K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis transmission in health care settings represents a major public health problem. In 2010, national airborne infection control (AIC) guidelines were adopted in India. These guidelines included specific policies for TB prevention and control in health care settings. However, the feasibility and effectiveness of these guidelines have not been assessed in routine practice. This study aimed to conduct baseline assessments of AIC policies and practices within a convenience sample of 35 health care settings across 3 states in India and to assess the level of implementation at each facility after one year. Method A multi-agency, multidisciplinary panel of experts performed site visits using a standardized risk assessment tool to document current practices and review resource capacity. At the conclusion of each assessment, facility-specific recommendations were provided to improve AIC performance to align with national guidelines. Result Upon initial assessment, AIC systems were found to be poorly developed and implemented. Administrative controls were not commonly practiced and many departments needed renovation to achieve minimum environmental standards. One year after the baseline assessments, there were substantial improvements in both policy and practice. Conclusion A package of capacity building and systems development that followed national guidelines substantially improved implementation of AIC policies and practice. PMID:26970461

  16. Baselines for the Pan-Canadian science curriculum framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiufeng

    2013-01-01

    Using a Canadian student achievement assessment database, the Science Achievement Indicators Program (SAIP), and employing the Rasch partial credit measurement model, this study estimated the difficulties of items corresponding to the learning outcomes in the Pan-Canadian science curriculum framework and the latent abilities of students of grades 7, 8, 10, 11, 12 and OAC (Ontario Academic Course). The above estimates serve as baselines for validating the Pan-Canadian science curriculum framework in terms of the learning progression of learning outcomes and expected mastery of learning outcomes by grades. It was found that there was no statistically significant progression in learning outcomes from grades 4-6 to grades 7-9, and from grades 7-9 to grades 10-12; the curriculum framework sets mastery expectation about 2 grades higher than students' potential abilities. In light of the above findings, this paper discusses theoretical issues related to deciding progression of learning outcomes and setting expectation of student mastery of learning outcomes, and highlights the importance of using national assessment data to establish baselines for the above purposes. This paper concludes with recommendations for further validating the Pan-Canadian science curriculum frameworks.

  17. The IUGS/IAGC Task Group on Global Geochemical Baselines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David B.; Wang, Xueqiu; Reeder, Shaun; Demetriades, Alecos

    2012-01-01

    The Task Group on Global Geochemical Baselines, operating under the auspices of both the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) and the International Association of Geochemistry (IAGC), has the long-term goal of establishing a global geochemical database to document the concentration and distribution of chemical elements in the Earth’s surface or near-surface environment. The database and accompanying element distribution maps represent a geochemical baseline against which future human-induced or natural changes to the chemistry of the land surface may be recognized and quantified. In order to accomplish this long-term goal, the activities of the Task Group include: (1) developing partnerships with countries conducting broad-scale geochemical mapping studies; (2) providing consultation and training in the form of workshops and short courses; (3) organizing periodic international symposia to foster communication among the geochemical mapping community; (4) developing criteria for certifying those projects whose data are acceptable in a global geochemical database; (5) acting as a repository for data collected by those projects meeting the criteria for standardization; (6) preparing complete metadata for the certified projects; and (7) preparing, ultimately, a global geochemical database. This paper summarizes the history and accomplishments of the Task Group since its first predecessor project was established in 1988.

  18. Does Baseline Heart Rate Variability Reflect Stable Positive Emotionality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvia, Paul J; Jackson, Bryonna A; Sopko, Rachel S

    2014-11-01

    Several recent studies have found significant correlations, medium in effect size, between baseline heart rate variability (HRV) and measures of positive functioning, such as extraversion, agreeableness, and trait positive affectivity. Other research, however, has suggested an optimal level of HRV and found nonlinear effects. In the present study, a diverse sample of 239 young adults completed a wide range of measures that reflect positive psychological functioning, including personality traits, an array of positive emotions (measured with the Dispositional Positive Emotions Scale), and depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms (measured with the DASS and CESD). HRV was measured with a 6-minute baseline period and quantified using many common HRV metrics (e.g., respiratory sinus arrhythmia, root mean square of successive differences, and others), and potentially confounding behavioral and lifestyle variables (e.g., BMI, caffeine and nicotine use, sleep quality) were assessed. Neither linear nor non-linear effects were found, and the effect sizes were small and near zero. The findings suggest that the cross-sectional relationship between HRV and positive experience deserves more attention and meta-analytic synthesis.

  19. The IUGS/IAGC Task Group on Global Geochemical Baselines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David B.Smith; Shaun Reeder; Alecos Demetriades

    2012-01-01

    The Task Group on Global Geochemical Baselines,operating under the auspices of both the International Union of Geological Sciences(IUGS) and the International Association of Geochemistry(IAGC),has the long-term goal of establishing a global geochemical database to document the concentration and distribution of chemical elements in the Earth's surface or near-surface environment.The database and accompanying element distribution maps represent a geochemical baseline against which future human-induced or natural changes to the chemistry of the land surface may be recognized and quantified.In order to accomplish this long-term goal,the activities of the Task Group include:(1) developing partnerships with countries conducting broad-scale geochemical mapping studies;(2) providing consultation and training in the form of workshops and short courses;(3) organizing periodic international symposia to foster communication among the geochemical mapping community;(4) developing criteria for certifying those projects whose data are acceptable in a global geochemical database;(5) acting as a repository for data collected by those projects meeting the criteria for standardization;(6) preparing complete metadata for the certified projects;and(7) preparing,ultimately,a global geochemical database.This paper summarizes the history and accomplishments of the Task Group since its first predecessor project was established in 1988.

  20. EMD-based GPS baseline solution and validation test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian; GAO Jing-xiang; WANG Jin-ling; XU Chang-hui

    2008-01-01

    A GPS baseline solution model is presented, based on the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD), which has the advantage of eliminating the error effects outside the model. The EMD technique is a new signal processing method for non-linear time series, which decomposes a time series into a finite and often small number of Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs). The decomposition procedure is adaptive and data-driven which is suitable for non-linear data series analysis. A multi-scale decomposition and reconstruction architecture is defined on the basis of the EMD theory and the error mitigation model is demonstrated as well. A standard of the scale selection for the elimination of errors, outside the model, was given in terms of the mean of the accumulated standardized modes. Thereafter, the scheme of the GPS baseline solution based on the EMD is suggested. The float solution residuals of the Double-Difference (DD) observation equation are used to extract the errors outside the model applied to modify the GPS DD measurements. Then the float solution was given again and the fixed solution was obtained by a Lambda algorithm. Three schemes are designed to test the proposed model and the experimental results show that the proposed model dramatically improves the relia- bility of ambiguity resolution after the elimination of errors outside the model.

  1. Study of neutrino oscillations in long-baseline accelerator experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudenko, Yurii G [Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-06-30

    A review of the title subject is given. The phenomenology of neutrino oscillations in the framework of the so-called neutrino Standard Model ({nu}SM) with three active neutrinos is considered. The recently completed long-baseline accelerator experiment K2K and currently in-progress MINOS and OPERA experiments are described in detail. The oscillation parameters obtained from the global analysis of all oscillation data are given. The short-baseline experiment MiniBooNE and its results on the search for light sterile neutrinos are discussed in detail. Considerable attention is given to searching for {nu}{sub {mu}{yields}{nu}e} oscillations and measuring the {theta}{sub 13} angle in muon neutrino experiments. The concept of the off-axis neutrino beam is reviewed. The T2K experiment, collecting statistics since early 2010, is described for its details and objectives. The NO{nu}A experiment under construction and the next-generation beta beam and neutrino factory experiments are also discussed. (reviews of topical problems)

  2. A baseline for the multivariate comparison of resting state networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A Allen

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available As the size of functional and structural MRI datasets expands, it becomes increasingly important to establish a baseline from which diagnostic relevance may be determined, a processing strategy that efficiently prepares data for analysis, and a statistical approach that identifies important effects in a manner that is both robust and reproducible. In this paper, we introduce a multivariate analytic approach that optimizes sensitivity and reduces unnecessary testing. We demonstrate the utility of this mega-analytic approach by identifying the effects of age and gender on the resting state networks of 603 healthy adolescents and adults (mean age: 23.4 years, range: 12 to 71 years. Data were collected on the same scanner, preprocessed using an automated analysis pipeline based in SPM, and studied using group independent component analysis. Resting state networks were identified and evaluated in terms of three primary outcome measures: time course spectral power, spatial map intensity, and functional network connectivity. Results revealed robust effects of age on all three outcome measures, largely indicating decreases in network coherence and connectivity with increasing age. Gender effects were of smaller magnitude but suggested stronger intra-network connectivity in females and more inter-network connectivity in males, particularly with regard to sensorimotor networks. These findings, along with the analysis approach and statistical framework described here, provide a useful baseline for future investigations of brain networks in health and disease.

  3. Verification and optimization of the CFETR baseline scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, D.; Lao, L. L.; Meneghini, O.; Staebler, G. M.; Candy, J.; Smith, S. P.; Snyder, P. B.; Prater, R.; Chen, X.; Chan, V. S.; Li, J.; Chen, J.; Shi, N.; Guo, W.; Pan, C.; Jian, X.

    2016-10-01

    The baseline scenario of China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR) was designed starting from 0D calculations. The CFETR baseline scenario satisfies the minimum goal of Fusion Nuclear Science Facility aimed at bridging the gaps between ITER and DEMO. 1.5D calculations are presented to verify the on-going efforts in higher-dimensional modeling of CFETR. Steady-state scenarios are calculated self-consistently by the OMFIT integrated modeling framework that includes EFIT for equilibrium, ONETWO for sources and current, TGYRO for transport. With 68MW of neutral beam power and 8MW of ECH injected to the plasma, the average ion temperature is maintained at 15keV, while 150MW fusion power is produced. The neutral beams also drive 55% of the plasma current. Modest fast ion diffusion will reduce NBCD and affect the profile substantially. Top-launch ECH will increase the current drive and the power absorption rate. EPED model are being included. Work supported by U.S. DOE under DE-FC02-04ER54698 and the USTC CFETR contract.

  4. 36 CFR 219.20 - Ecological sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ecological sustainability... Sustainability § 219.20 Ecological sustainability. To achieve ecological sustainability, the responsible official... diversity and species diversity are components of ecological sustainability. The planning process...

  5. A social-ecological database to advance research on infrastructure development impacts in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker Lima, Joanna M.; Valle, Denis; Moretto, Evandro Mateus; Pulice, Sergio Mantovani Paiva; Zuca, Nadia Lucia; Roquetti, Daniel Rondinelli; Beduschi, Liviam Elizabeth Cordeiro; Praia, Amanda Salles; Okamoto, Claudia Parucce Franco; da Silva Carvalhaes, Vinicius Leite; Branco, Evandro Albiach; Barbezani, Bruna; Labandera, Emily; Timpe, Kelsie; Kaplan, David

    2016-08-01

    Recognized as one of the world’s most vital natural and cultural resources, the Amazon faces a wide variety of threats from natural resource and infrastructure development. Within this context, rigorous scientific study of the region’s complex social-ecological system is critical to inform and direct decision-making toward more sustainable environmental and social outcomes. Given the Amazon’s tightly linked social and ecological components and the scope of potential development impacts, effective study of this system requires an easily accessible resource that provides a broad and reliable data baseline. This paper brings together multiple datasets from diverse disciplines (including human health, socio-economics, environment, hydrology, and energy) to provide investigators with a variety of baseline data to explore the multiple long-term effects of infrastructure development in the Brazilian Amazon.

  6. Squamation and ecology of thelodonts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botella, Héctor

    2017-01-01

    Thelodonts are an enigmatic group of Paleozoic jawless vertebrates that have been well studied from taxonomical, biostratigraphic and paleogeographic points of view, although our knowledge of their ecology and mode of life is still scant. Their bodies were covered by micrometric scales whose morphology, histology and the developmental process are extremely similar to those of extant sharks. Based on these similarities and on the well-recognized relationship between squamation and ecology in sharks, here we explore the ecological diversity and lifestyles of thelodonts. For this we use classic morphometrics and discriminant analysis to characterize the squamation patterns of a significant number of extant shark species whose ecology is well known. Multivariate analyses have defined a characteristic squamation pattern for each ecological group, thus establishing a comparative framework for inferring lifestyles in thelodonts. We then use this information to study the squamation of the currently described 147 species of thelodonts, known from both articulated and disarticulated remains. Discriminant analysis has allowed recognizing squamation patterns comparable to those of sharks and links them to specific ecological groups. Our results suggest a remarkable ecological diversity in thelodonts. A large number of them were probably demersal species inhabiting hard substrates, within caves and crevices in rocky environments or reefs, taking advantage of the flexibility provided by their micromeric squamations. Contrary to classical interpretations, only few thelodonts were placed among demersal species inhabiting sandy and muddy substrates. Schooling species with defensive scales against ectoparasites could be also abundant suggesting that social interactions and pressure of ectoparasites were present in vertebrates as early the Silurian. The presence of species showing scales suggestive of low to moderate speed and a lifestyle presumably associated with open water

  7. Ecological niche of plant pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecaterina Fodor

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Disease ecology is a new approach to the understanding of the spread and dynamics of pathogens in natural and man-made environments. Defining and describing the ecological niche of the pathogens is one of the major tasks for ecological theory, as well as for practitioners preoccupied with the control and forecasting of established and emerging diseases. Niche theory has been periodically revised, not including in an explicit way the pathogens. However, many progresses have been achieved in niche modeling of disease spread, but few attempts were made to construct a theoretical frame for the ecological niche of pathogens. The paper is a review of the knowledge accumulated during last decades in the niche theory of pathogens and proposes an ecological approach in research. It quest for new control methods in what concerns forest plant pathogens, with a special emphasis on fungi like organisms of the genus Phytophthora. Species of Phytophthora are the most successful plant pathogens of the moment, affecting forest and agricultural systems worldwide, many of them being invasive alien organisms in many ecosystems. The hyperspace of their ecological niche is defined by hosts, environment and human interference, as main axes. To select most important variables within the hyperspace, is important for the understanding of the complex role of pathogens in the ecosystems as well as for control programs. Biotic relationships within ecosystem of host-pathogen couple are depicted by ecological network and specific metrics attached to this. The star shaped network is characterized by few high degree nodes, by short path lengths and relatively low connectivity, premises for a rapid disturbance spread.

  8. A truly ecological epigenetics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossdorf, Oliver; Zhang, Yuanye

    2011-04-01

    Until a few years ago, epigenetics was a field of research that had nothing to do with ecology and that virtually no ecologist had ever heard of. This is now changing, as more and more ecologists learn about epigenetic processes and their potential ecological and evolutionary relevance, and a new research field of ecological epigenetics is beginning to take shape. One question that is particularly intriguing ecologists is to what extent epigenetic variation is an additional, and hitherto overlooked, source of natural variation in ecologically important traits. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Herrera & Bazaga (2011) provide one of the first attempts to truly address this question in an ecological setting. They study variation of DNA methylation in a wild population of the rare, long-lived violet Viola cazorlensis, and they use these data to explore interrelations between environmental, genetic and epigenetic variation, and in particular the extent to which these factors are related to long-term differences in herbivore damage among plants. They find substantial epigenetic variation among plant individuals. Interestingly, this epigenetic variation is significantly correlated with long-term differences in herbivory, but only weakly with herbivory-related DNA sequence variation, which suggests that besides habitat, substrate and genetic variation, epigenetic variation may be an additional, and at least partly independent, factor influencing plant–herbivore interactions in the field. Although the study by Herrera & Bazaga (2011) raises at least as many new questions as it answers, it is a pioneering example of how epigenetics can be incorporated into ecological field studies, and it illustrates the value and potential novel insights to be gained from such efforts.

  9. Interdisciplinary Adventures in Perceptual Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocast, Christopher S.

    A portfolio dissertation that began as acoustic ecology and matured into perceptual ecology, centered on ecomusicology, bioacoustics, and translational audio-based media works with environmental perspectives. The place of music in Western eco-cosmology through time provides a basis for structuring an environmental history of human sound perception. That history suggests that music may stabilize human mental activity, and that an increased musical practice may be essential for the human project. An overview of recent antecedents preceding the emergence of acoustic ecology reveals structural foundations from 20th century culture that underpin modern sound studies. The contextual role that Aldo Leopold, Jacob von Uexkull, John Cage, Marshall McLuhan, and others played in anticipating the development of acoustic ecology as an interdiscipline is detailed. This interdisciplinary aspect of acoustic ecology is defined and defended, while new developments like soundscape ecology are addressed, though ultimately sound studies will need to embrace a broader concept of full-spectrum "sensory" or "perceptual" ecology. The bioacoustic fieldwork done on spawning sturgeon emphasized this necessity. That study yielded scientific recordings and spectrographic analyses of spawning sounds produced by lake sturgeon, Acipenser fulvescens, during reproduction in natural habitats in the Lake Winnebago watershed in Wisconsin. Recordings were made on the Wolf and Embarrass River during the 2011-2013 spawning seasons. Several specimens were dissected to investigate possible sound production mechanisms; no sonic musculature was found. Drumming sounds, ranging from 5 to 7 Hz fundamental frequency, verified the infrasonic nature of previously undocumented "sturgeon thunder". Other characteristic noises of sturgeon spawning including low-frequency rumbles and hydrodynamic sounds were identified. Intriguingly, high-frequency signals resembling electric organ discharges were discovered. These

  10. Health benefits, ecological threats of low-carbon electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibon, Thomas; Hertwich, Edgar G.; Arvesen, Anders; Singh, Bhawna; Verones, Francesca

    2017-03-01

    Stabilizing global temperature will require a shift to renewable or nuclear power from fossil power and the large-scale deployment of CO2 capture and storage (CCS) for remaining fossil fuel use. Non-climate co-benefits of low-carbon energy technologies, especially reduced mortalities from air pollution and decreased ecosystem damage, have been important arguments for policies to reduce CO2 emissions. Taking into account a wide range of environmental mechanisms and the complex interactions of the supply chains of different technologies, we conducted the first life cycle assessment of potential human health and ecological impacts of a global low-carbon electricity scenario. Our assessment indicates strong human health benefits of low-carbon electricity. For ecosystem quality, there is a significant trade-off between reduced pollution and climate impacts and potentially significant ecological impacts from land use associated with increased biopower utilization. Other renewables, nuclear power and CCS show clear ecological benefits, so that the climate mitigation scenario with a relatively low share of biopower has lower ecosystem impacts than the baseline scenario. Energy policy can maximize co-benefits by supporting other renewable and nuclear power and developing biomass supply from sources with low biodiversity impact.

  11. Adapting a Cryogenic Sapphire Oscillator for Very Long Baseline Interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Doeleman, Sheperd; Rogers, Alan; Hartnett, John; Tobar, Michael; Nand, Nitin; 10.1086/660156

    2011-01-01

    Extension of very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) to observing wavelengths shorter than 1.3mm provides exceptional angular resolution (~20 micro arcsec) and access to new spectral regimes for the study of astrophysical phenomena. To maintain phase coherence across a global VLBI array at these wavelengths requires that ultrastable frequency references be used for the heterodyne receivers at all participating telescopes. Hydrogen masers have traditionally been used as VLBI references, but atmospheric turbulence typically limits (sub) millimeter VLBI coherence times to ~1-30 s. Cryogenic Sapphire Oscillators (CSO) have better stability than Hydrogen masers on these time scale and are potential alternatives to masers as VLBI references. Here, We describe the design, implementation and tests of a system to produce a 10 MHz VLBI frequency standard from the microwave (11.2 GHz) output of a CSO. To improve long-term stability of the new reference, the CSO was locked to the timing signal from the Global Positionin...

  12. Short-baseline neutrino oscillations, Planck, and IceCube

    CERN Document Server

    Cherry, John F; Shoemaker, Ian M

    2016-01-01

    We examine a framework with light new physics, which couples to the Standard Model only via neutrino mixing. Taking the hints from the short-baseline anomalies seriously and combining them with modern cosmological data and recent IceCube measurements, we obtain surprisingly effective constraints on the hidden force: keV $\\lesssim M \\lesssim0.3$ GeV for the mediator mass and $g_{h}>10^{-6}-10^{-3}$ for the coupling constant. Flavor equilibration between the hidden and active neutrinos can be delayed until temperatures of $\\sim 1$ MeV, but not below $\\sim 100$ keV. This scenario can be tested with next-generation Cosmic Microwave Background, IceCube, and oscillation experiments.

  13. Compression phase study of the HiPER baseline target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeyre, X; Nicolai, Ph; Schurtz, G; Olazabal-Loume, M; Breil, J; Maire, P H; Feugeas, J L; Hallo, L; Tikhonchuk, V T [Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications, Universite Bordeaux 1, CNRS, CEA, Universite Bordeaux 1, 351, cours de la Liberation, 33405 Talence (France)

    2008-02-15

    The European High Power laser Energy Research (HiPER) project aims at demonstrating the feasibility of high gain inertial confinement fusion using the fast ignitor approach. A baseline target has been recently developed by Atzeni et al (2007 Phys. Plasmas 14 052702). We study here the robustness of this target during the compression phase and define pulse shape tolerances for a successful fuel assembly. The comparison between a standard and a relaxation pulse shows that the latter allows one to reduce both the laser power contrast and the growth of perturbations due to Rayleigh-Taylor instability. We have found that with 95 kJ of absorbed laser energy one can assemble the fuel with a peak density around 500 g cm{sup -2} and a peak areal density of 1.2 g cm{sup -2}. This implies a total target gain of about 60.

  14. Numerical simulations of the HiPER baseline target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeyre, X; Nicolai, P; Schurtz, G; Olazabal-Loume, M; Breil, J; Maire, P H; Feugeas, J L; Hallo, L; Tikhonchuk, V T [Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications, Universite Bordeaux 1, CNRS, CEA, Universite Bordeaux 1, 351, cours de la Liberation, 33405 Talence (France)], E-mail: ribeyre@celia.u-bordeaux1

    2008-05-15

    The European High Power laser Energy Research (HiPER) project aims at demonstrating the feasibility of high gain inertial confinement fusion (ICF) using the fast ignitor approach. A baseline target has been recently developed by Atzeni et al. [Phys. Plasmas 14, 052702 (2007)]. The comparison between a standard and a relaxation pulse shows that the latter one allows to reduce both the laser power contrast and the growth of perturbation under Rayleigh-Taylor instability. We have found that with 95 kJ of absorbed laser energy one can assemble the fuel with to a peak density around 500 g/cm{sup 3} and to a peak areal density of 1.2 g/cm{sup 2}. This implies a total target gain of about 55.

  15. Numerical simulations of the HiPER baseline target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeyre, X.; Nicolai, Ph.; Schurtz, G.; Olazabal-Loume, M.; Breil, J.; Maire, P.H.; Feugeas, J.M.; Hallo, L.; Tikhonchuk, V.T. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications, CNRS, CEA, 33 - Talence (France)

    2009-08-15

    The European High Power laser Energy Research (HiPER) project aims at demonstrating the feasibility of high gain inertial confinement fusion using the fast ignitor approach. A baseline target has been recently developed by Atzeni et al. [Phys. Plasmas 14, 052702 (2007)]. The radiative transport have a minor effect on the peak areal density but decreased by 20% the peak density. We have found that with 95 kJ of absorbed laser energy one can assemble the fuel with a peak density around 500 g/cm{sup 3} and a peak areal density of 1.2 g/cm{sup 2}. This implies a total target gain of about 60. (authors)

  16. Emergency Response Capability Baseline Needs Assessment - Compliance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharry, John A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This document was prepared by John A. Sharry, LLNL Fire Marshal and Division Leader for Fire Protection and was reviewed by LLNL Emergency Management Department Head, James Colson. This document is the second of a two-part analysis on Emergency Response Capabilities of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The first part, 2016 Baseline Needs Assessment Requirements Document established the minimum performance criteria necessary to meet mandatory requirements. This second part analyses the performance of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory Emergency Management Department to the contents of the Requirements Document. The document was prepared based on an extensive review of information contained in the 2016 BNA, a review of Emergency Planning Hazards Assessments, a review of building construction, occupancy, fire protection features, dispatch records, LLNL alarm system records, fire department training records, and fire department policies and procedures. The 2013 BNA was approved by NNSA’s Livermore Field Office on January 22, 2014.

  17. Electricity End Uses, Energy Efficiency, and Distributed Energy Resources Baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Lisa [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wei, Max [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Morrow, William [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Deason, Jeff [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schiller, Steven R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Leventis, Greg [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Smith, Sarah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Leow, Woei Ling [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Levin, Todd [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Plotkin, Steven [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Zhou, Yan [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This report was developed by a team of analysts at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, with Argonne National Laboratory contributing the transportation section, and is a DOE EPSA product and part of a series of “baseline” reports intended to inform the second installment of the Quadrennial Energy Review (QER 1.2). QER 1.2 provides a comprehensive review of the nation’s electricity system and cover the current state and key trends related to the electricity system, including generation, transmission, distribution, grid operations and planning, and end use. The baseline reports provide an overview of elements of the electricity system. This report focuses on end uses, electricity consumption, electric energy efficiency, distributed energy resources (DERs) (such as demand response, distributed generation, and distributed storage), and evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) methods for energy efficiency and DERs.

  18. Laser-Ranging Long Baseline Differential Atom Interferometers for Space

    CERN Document Server

    Chiow, Sheng-wey; Yu, Nan

    2015-01-01

    High sensitivity differential atom interferometers are promising for precision measurements in science frontiers in space, including gravity field mapping for Earth science studies and gravitational wave detection. We propose a new configuration of twin atom interferometers connected by a laser ranging interferometer (LRI-AI) to provide precise information of the displacements between the two AI reference mirrors and a means to phase-lock the two independent interferometer lasers over long distances, thereby further enhancing the feasibility of long baseline differential atom interferometers. We show that a properly implemented LRI-AI can achieve equivalent functionality to the conventional differential atom interferometer measurement system. LRI-AI isolates the laser requirements for atom interferometers and for optical phase readout between distant locations, thus enabling optimized allocation of available laser power within a limited physical size and resource budget. A unique aspect of LRI-AI also enables...

  19. Baseline projections of transportation energy consumption by mode: 1981 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millar, M; Bunch, J; Vyas, A; Kaplan, M; Knorr, R; Mendiratta, V; Saricks, C

    1982-04-01

    A comprehensive set of activity and energy-demand projections for each of the major transportation modes and submodes is presented. Projections are developed for a business-as-usual scenario, which provides a benchmark for assessing the effects of potential conservation strategies. This baseline scenario assumes a continuation of present trends, including fuel-efficiency improvements likely to result from current efforts of vehicle manufacturers. Because of anticipated changes in fuel efficiency, fuel price, modal shifts, and a lower-than-historic rate of economic growth, projected growth rates in transportation activity and energy consumption depart from historic patterns. The text discusses the factors responsible for this departure, documents the assumptions and methodologies used to develop the modal projections, and compares the projections with other efforts.

  20. Baseline Requirements and Architecture for Cloud Computing Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdur Rahim Choudhary

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Government initiatives such as the “Cloud First” policy are bringing the cloud computing services into Federal Agencies. Further, many of the sectors in the Critical Infrastructure of the nation already use cloud computing. Although cloud computing services are slowly coming to age, many issues remain. This paper therefore takes a closer look at the cloud computing services. First it establishes a baseline by specifying high level requirements for cloud computing services. Next it improves upon the current architecture for the cloud computing services by adding new modules to the current architecture. The new modules are gleaned from an analysis of the telecommunications cloud and security in distributed systems. The new modules include a management and control network, a set of trust domains, and a set of proxies. The improved architecture is more ready for primetime use and supports a richer operational model.

  1. Waste Assessment Baseline for the IPOC Second Floor, West Wing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCord, Samuel A [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Waste Management and Pollution Prevention

    2015-04-01

    Following a building-wide waste assessment in September, 2014, and subsequent presentation to Sandia leadership regarding the goal of Zero Waste by 2025, the occupants of the IPOC Second Floor, West Wing contacted the Materials Sustainability and Pollution Prevention (MSP2) team to guide them to Zero Waste in advance of the rest of the site. The occupants are from Center 3600, Public Relations and Communications , and Center 800, Independent Audit, Ethics and Business Conduct . To accomplish this, MSP2 conducted a new limited waste assessment from March 2-6, 2015 to compare the second floor, west wing to the building as a whole. The assessment also serves as a baseline with which to mark improvements in diversion in approximately 6 months.

  2. Baseline patient characteristics and mortality associated with longitudinal intervention compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Julia Y; Ten Have, Thomas R; Bogner, Hillary R; Elliott, Michael R

    2007-12-10

    Lin et al. (http://www.biostatsresearch.com/upennbiostat/papers/, 2006) proposed a nested Markov compliance class model in the Imbens and Rubin compliance class model framework to account for time-varying subject noncompliance in longitudinal randomized intervention studies. We use superclasses, or latent compliance class principal strata, to describe longitudinal compliance patterns, and time-varying compliance classes are assumed to depend on the history of compliance. In this paper, we search for good subject-level baseline predictors of these superclasses and also examine the relationship between these superclasses and all-cause mortality. Since the superclasses are completely latent in all subjects, we utilize multiple imputation techniques to draw inferences. We apply this approach to a randomized intervention study for elderly primary care patients with depression.

  3. Precise geodesy with the Very Long Baseline Array

    CERN Document Server

    Petrov, Leonid; Gipson, John; MacMillan, Dan; Ma, Chopo; Fomalont, Ed; Walker, R Craig; Carabajal, Claudia

    2008-01-01

    We report on a program of regular measurements between 1994 and 2007 which used the Very Long Baseline Array and up to 10 additional stations. One of the goals of these sessions was to monitor positions of the array at 1 millimeter level of accuracy and to tie the VLBA into the International Terrestrial Reference Frame. The large number of stations and the many competing goals made scheduling these sessions manually difficult, and lead to advances in scheduling software. We describe the analysis of these data, which is non-standard, and involves translating the data into a form useful for geodetic VLBI. We also describe several interesting geophysical results including measured station displacement due to crustal motion, earthquakes, and antenna tilt. In terms of both formal errors and observed scatter, these sessions are among the very best geodetic VLBI sessions.

  4. Report of the US long baseline neutrino experiment study

    CERN Document Server

    Barger, V; Bogert, D; Bromberg, C; Curioni, A; Dierckxsens, M; Diwan, M; Dufour, F; Finley, D; Fleming, B T; Gallardo, J; Heim, J; Huber, P; Jung, C K; Kahn, S; Kearns, E; Kirk, H; Kirk, T; Lande, K; Laughton, C; Lee, W Y; Lesko, K; Lewis, C; Litchfield, P J; Mann, A K; Marchionni, A; Marciano, W; Marfatia, D; Marino, A D; Marshak, M; Menary, S; McDonald, K; Messier, M; Pariseau, W; Parsa, Z; Pordes, S; Potenza, R; Rameika, R; Saoulidou, N; Simos, N; Van Berg, R; Viren, B; Whisnant, K; Wilson, R; Winter, W; Yanagisawa, C; Yumiceva, F; Zimmerman, E D; Zwaska, R

    2007-01-01

    This report provides the results of an extensive and important study of the potential for a U.S. scientific program that will extend our knowledge of neutrino oscillations well beyond what can be anticipated from ongoing and planned experiments worldwide. The program examined here has the potential to provide the U.S. particle physics community with world leading experimental capability in this intensely interesting and active field of fundamental research. Furthermore, this capability could be unique compared to anywhere else in the world because of the available beam intensity and baseline distances. The present study was initially commissioned in April 2006 by top research officers of Brookhaven National Laboratory and Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and, as the study evolved, it also provided responses to questions formulated and addressed to the study group by the Neutrino Scientific Advisory Committee (NuSAG) of the U.S. DOE and NSF. The participants in the study, its Charge and history, plus the ...

  5. Direct coal liquefaction baseline design and system analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-04-01

    The primary objective of the study is to develop a computer model for a base line direct coal liquefaction design based on two stage direct coupled catalytic reactors. This primary objective is to be accomplished by completing the following: a base line design based on previous DOE/PETC results from Wilsonville pilot plant and other engineering evaluations; a cost estimate and economic analysis; a computer model incorporating the above two steps over a wide range of capacities and selected process alternatives; a comprehensive training program for DOE/PETC Staff to understand and use the computer model; a thorough documentation of all underlying assumptions for baseline economics; and a user manual and training material which will facilitate updating of the model in the future.

  6. Sandia National Laboratories, California proposed CREATE facility environmental baseline survey.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catechis, Christopher Spyros

    2013-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, Environmental Programs completed an environmental baseline survey (EBS) of 12.6 acres located at Sandia National Laboratories/California (SNL/CA) in support of the proposed Collaboration in Research and Engineering for Advanced Technology and Education (CREATE) Facility. The survey area is comprised of several parcels of land within SNL/CA, County of Alameda, California. The survey area is located within T 3S, R 2E, Section 13. The purpose of this EBS is to document the nature, magnitude, and extent of any environmental contamination of the property; identify potential environmental contamination liabilities associated with the property; develop sufficient information to assess the health and safety risks; and ensure adequate protection for human health and the environment related to a specific property.

  7. Probing Neutrino Properties with Long-Baseline Neutrino Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marino, Alysia [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2015-06-29

    This final report on an Early Career Award grant began in April 15, 2010 and concluded on April 14, 2015. Alysia Marino's research is focussed on making precise measurements of neutrino properties using intense accelerator-generated neutrino beams. As a part of this grant, she is collaborating on the Tokai-to-Kamioka (T2K) long-baseline neutrino experiment, currently taking data in Japan, and on the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) design effort for a future Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) in the US. She is also a member of the NA61/SHINE particle production experiment at CERN, but as that effort is supported by other funds, it will not be discussed further here. T2K was designed to search for the disappearance of muon neutrinos (νμ) and the appearance of electron neutrinos (νe), using a beam of muon neutrino beam that travels 295 km across Japan towards the Super-Kamiokande detector. In 2011 T2K first reported indications of νe appearance, a previously unobserved mode of neutrino oscillations. In the past year, T2K has published a combined analysis of νμ disappearance and νe appearance, and began collecting taking data with a beam of anti-neutrinos, instead of neutrinos, to search for hints of violation of the CP symmetry of the universe. The proposed DUNE experiment has similar physics goals to T2K, but will be much more sensitive due to its more massive detectors and new higher-intensity neutrino beam. This effort will be very high-priority particle physics project in the US over the next decade.

  8. Automated baseline change detection -- Phases 1 and 2. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byler, E.

    1997-10-31

    The primary objective of this project is to apply robotic and optical sensor technology to the operational inspection of mixed toxic and radioactive waste stored in barrels, using Automated Baseline Change Detection (ABCD), based on image subtraction. Absolute change detection is based on detecting any visible physical changes, regardless of cause, between a current inspection image of a barrel and an archived baseline image of the same barrel. Thus, in addition to rust, the ABCD system can also detect corrosion, leaks, dents, and bulges. The ABCD approach and method rely on precise camera positioning and repositioning relative to the barrel and on feature recognition in images. The ABCD image processing software was installed on a robotic vehicle developed under a related DOE/FETC contract DE-AC21-92MC29112 Intelligent Mobile Sensor System (IMSS) and integrated with the electronics and software. This vehicle was designed especially to navigate in DOE Waste Storage Facilities. Initial system testing was performed at Fernald in June 1996. After some further development and more extensive integration the prototype integrated system was installed and tested at the Radioactive Waste Management Facility (RWMC) at INEEL beginning in April 1997 through the present (November 1997). The integrated system, composed of ABCD imaging software and IMSS mobility base, is called MISS EVE (Mobile Intelligent Sensor System--Environmental Validation Expert). Evaluation of the integrated system in RWMC Building 628, containing approximately 10,000 drums, demonstrated an easy to use system with the ability to properly navigate through the facility, image all the defined drums, and process the results into a report delivered to the operator on a GUI interface and on hard copy. Further work is needed to make the brassboard system more operationally robust.

  9. Probing Neutrino Properties with Long-Baseline Neutrino Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marino, Alysia [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2015-06-29

    This is nal report on an Early Career Award grant began in April 15, 2010 and concluded on April 14, 2015. Alysia Marino's research is fo- cussed on making precise measurements of neutrino properties using in- tense accelerator-generated neutrino beams. As a part of this grant, she is collaborating on the Tokai-to-Kamioka (T2K) long-baseline neutrino exper- iment [6], currently taking data in Japan, and on the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) design e ort for a future Long-Baseline Neu- trino Facility (LBNF) in the US.1 She is also a member of the NA61/SHINE particle production experiment at CERN, but as that e ort is supported by other funds, it will not be discussed further here. T2K was designed to search for the disappearance of muon neutrinos ( ) and the appearance of electron neutrinos ( e), using a beam of muon neu- trino beam that travels 295 km across Japan towards the Super-Kamiokande detector. In 2011 T2K rst reported indications of e appearance [2], a pre- viously unobserved mode of neutrino oscillations. In the past year, T2K has published a combined analysis of disappearance and e appearance [1], and began collecting taking data with a beam of anti-neutrinos, instead of neutrinos, to search for hints of violation of the CP symmetry of the uni- verse. The proposed DUNE experiment has similar physics goals to T2K, but will be much more sensitive due to its more massive detectors and new higher-intensity neutrino beam. This e ort will be very high-priority particle physics project in the US over the next decade.

  10. Baseline Gas Turbine Development Program seventh quarterly progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, F.W.

    1974-07-30

    Progress is reported for a program to demonstrate by 1976 an experimental gas turbine powered automobile which meets the 1976 Federal Emissions Standards, has significantly improved fuel economy, and is competitive in performance, reliability, and potential manufacturing cost with the conventional piston engine powered, standard size American automobile. All of the baseline vehicles are now operational and are performing Program tests. Vehicle tests completed in this quarter include noise reduction, heater, air conditioning, and underhood temperature evaluations. Testing was completed on the original endurance engine. Test cell evaluation of the government furnished combustor (Solar) has commenced. Vendor A and Vendor B ceramic regenerator cores were rig tested with an improved elastomeric drive. Vendor A cores with the elastomeric drive are being engine tested. Ceramic regenerator seal wear test rig results are showing promise of achieving a low friction, non-nickel-oxide rubbing surface. The first preprototype integrated control system was delivered and placed in operation on a baseline engine in a test cell. Six ribbed compressor turbine wheels made of IN 792/Hf by the AiResearch Airefrac process were received. Rig testing of the variable inlet guide Vanes was completed and engine testing initiated. Vehicle evaluations of the torque converter lock-up were completed . Specifications for the Upgraded Engine aerodymanic components were made. A subcontract is currently being arranged with Mechanical Technology Inc. (MTI) for design and development of the upgraded engine gas generator bearings and shaft system. An initial feasibility study for gas bearings was completed. Analytical design of the upgraded engine power turbine reduction gears and bearings has commenced. Engine and vehicle accessory drive studies for the upgraded engine are well underway.

  11. Baseline Gas Turbine Development Program eighth quarterly progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, C.E.

    1974-10-31

    Progress is reported for a program to demonstrate by 1976 an experimental gas turbine powered automobile which meets the 1978 Federal Emissions Standards, has significantly improved fuel economy, and is competitive in performance, reliability, and potential manufacturing cost with the conventional piston engine powered, standard size American automobile. Major preparations for engine heat balance tests by NASA were completed. EPA laboratories completed Baseline vehicle emissions, noise, and odor tests. Assembly of the program endurance engine is nearing completion. Test cell evaluation of the government furnished combustor (Solar) verified steady state emissions to be extremely low. Initial engine tests of Vendor A ceramic regenerator cores with an elastomeric drive verified performance predictions. Efforts towards developing a non-nickel oxide regenerator seal show extreme sensitivity to porosity differences between cores of different suppliers. All three preprototype integrated control systems were built. Modifications are being worked out to achieve a stable low speed operation. Two prototype compressor turbine wheels made from the reuseable pattern process are being inspected and processed for testing. The engine housing modified for operation at higher cycle temperatures and pressures was received. The baseline engine converted to free rotor is completing test cell check out. The modified vehicle is ready for engine installation. The upgraded engine characterization was updated to include the latest information on V.I.G.V., rotors, and bearings. The upgraded engine housing is being modeled physically and analytically for design and stress studies. An accessory drive system for the upgraded engine was selected, and a final layout is in process.

  12. GLoBES: General Long Baseline Experiment Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Patrick; Kopp, Joachim; Lindner, Manfred; Rolinec, Mark; Winter, Walter

    2007-09-01

    GLoBES (General Long Baseline Experiment Simulator) is a flexible software package to simulate neutrino oscillation long baseline and reactor experiments. On the one hand, it contains a comprehensive abstract experiment definition language (AEDL), which allows to describe most classes of long baseline experiments at an abstract level. On the other hand, it provides a C-library to process the experiment information in order to obtain oscillation probabilities, rate vectors, and Δχ-values. Currently, GLoBES is available for GNU/Linux. Since the source code is included, the port to other operating systems is in principle possible. GLoBES is an open source code that has previously been described in Computer Physics Communications 167 (2005) 195 and in Ref. [7]). The source code and a comprehensive User Manual for GLoBES v3.0.8 is now available from the CPC Program Library as described in the Program Summary below. The home of GLobES is http://www.mpi-hd.mpg.de/~globes/. Program summaryProgram title: GLoBES version 3.0.8 Catalogue identifier: ADZI_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADZI_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 145 295 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1 811 892 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C Computer: GLoBES builds and installs on 32bit and 64bit Linux systems Operating system: 32bit or 64bit Linux RAM: Typically a few MBs Classification: 11.1, 11.7, 11.10 External routines: GSL—The GNU Scientific Library, www.gnu.org/software/gsl/ Nature of problem: Neutrino oscillations are now established as the leading flavor transition mechanism for neutrinos. In a long history of many experiments, see, e.g., [1], two oscillation frequencies have been identified: The fast atmospheric

  13. Consumptive ecological footprint and productive ecological footprint:a modification on ecological footprint theory to evaluate regional sustainable development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XlONG Deguo; XIAN Xuefu

    2004-01-01

    Ecological footprint theory and its application achievements in global and regional sustainable development systems are studied by consulting the published literature, which finds that the application of ecological footprint theory to regional sustainability evaluation has leaded to a perplexity that the indicated result was inconsistent with the philosophy of sustainable development theory. Illuminated by the mechanical system of the movement of matters, it comes up that ecological footprint based on consumption of biologic production could not tell whether the ecological pressure acts on the specified region, and the original ecological footprint theory also undervalued the development impartiality of a region. A modification on this theory is made by introducing consumptive ecological footprint and productive ecological footprint, in which the latter is taken as the indicator of regional sustainability. The development impartiality can be demonstrated by comparison between the global ecological deficit per capita and regional consumptive ecological deficit per capita.

  14. Interim balance: Ecology. Oekologische Zwischenbilanz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kogon, E.; Jungk, R.

    1981-03-01

    The world wide ecology problem is discussed with examples of energy, transportation, chemistry, agriculture and food industry, and water supply. Destruction of nature and human discord is considered. Conservative in our political parties and their views on environmental protection are presented, including alliance between reds and 'greens''. The Rhine initiative is discussed. Lead respects no borders accounts experiences of citizens' action groups in Lothringia and the Saar district. International airport Munich-II/comments by a protestant. 'Give priority to life is hearing on environmental protection. Other subjects include: 'Green's in the Bremen Senate; policy in a hard-hearing world psychology of citizens' action groups; critical ecological research and scientific establishment; full productivity and ecology; the deluge to follow/hints on how to build an ark; symbiosis is more than coexistence/ecologists' social theory; throwing in two hundred elementary particles/on the way to an ecological concept of science; scientific journals; alternative literature; and a teaching model for a teaching subject' ecology'.

  15. Ecological Challenges for Closed Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Mark; Dempster, William; Allen, John P.

    2012-07-01

    Closed ecological systems are desirable for a number of purposes. In space life support systems, material closure allows precious life-supporting resources to be kept inside and recycled. Closure in small biospheric systems facilitates detailed measurement of global ecological processes and biogeochemical cycles. Closed testbeds facilitate research topics which require isolation from the outside (e.g. genetically modified organisms; radioisotopes) so their ecological interactions and fluxes can be studied separate from interactions with the outside environment. But to achieve and maintain closure entails solving complex ecological challenges. These challenges include being able to handle faster cycling rates and accentuated daily and seasonal fluxes of critical life elements such as carbon dioxide, oxygen, water, macro- and mico-nutrients. The problems of achieving sustainability in closed systems for life support include how to handle atmospheric dynamics including trace gases, producing a complete human diet and recycling nutrients and maintaining soil fertility, the sustaining of healthy air and water and preventing the loss of crucial elements from active circulation. In biospheric facilities the challenge is also to produce analogues to natural biomes and ecosystems, studying processes of self-organization and adaptation in systems that allow specification or determination of state variables and cycles which may be followed through all interactions from atmosphere to soils. Other challenges include the dynamics and genetics of small populations, the psychological challenges for small isolated human groups and measures and options which may be necessary to ensure long-term operation of closed ecological systems.

  16. World-Ecology and Ireland: The Neoliberal Ecological Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharae Deckard

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the collapse of the Celtic Tiger, the socio-economic particularity of neoliberal capitalism in its Irish manifestation has increasingly been critiqued, but little attention has been paid to neoliberalism as ecology within Ireland. This article conducts an exploratory survey of the characteristics of the Irish neoliberal ecological regime during and after the Celtic Tiger, identifying the opening of new commodity frontiers (such as fracking, water, agro-biotechnology, and biopharma constituted in the neoliberal drive to appropriate and financialize nature. I argue for the usefulness of applying not only the tools of world-systems analysis, but also Jason W. Moore’s world-ecological paradigm, to analysis of Ireland as a semi-periphery. What is crucial to a macro-ecological understanding of Ireland’s role in the neoliberal regime of the world-ecology is the inextricability of its financial role as a tax haven and secrecy jurisdiction zone from its environmental function as a semi-peripheral pollution and water haven. We can adapt Jason W. Moore’s slogan that “Wall Street…becomes a way of organizing all of nature, characterized by the financialization of any income-generating activity” (Moore 2011b: 39 to say that to say that the “IFSC is a way of organizing nature,” with pernicious consequences for water, energy, and food systems in Ireland. Financial service centers and pharmaceutical factories, plantations and cattle ranches, tax havens and pollution havens, empires and common markets are all forms of environment-making that constellate human relations and extra-human processes into new ecological regimes. More expansive, dialectical understandings of “ecology” as comprising the whole of socio-ecological relations within the capitalist world-ecology—from farming to pharma to financialization—are crucial to forming configurations of knowledge able not only to take account of Ireland’s role in the environmental

  17. Does the ecological study of managed habitats constitute "real" ecology?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gábor L. L(O)VEI

    2011-01-01

    Ecology is not a very "old" science,with about one hundred years of history.In the early period,the general attitude was that the study of undisturbed ecological systems will provide us with clues of how the world is organised.To understand this world,we should study the regions,ecosystems,habitats that are still in their undisturbed condition,far from settlements,are uncultivated,and unspoilt.From these,we can form a picture how things should be.We can then use this knowledge to wisely manage other habitats,more under the influence

  18. Baseline for Monitoring Water Resources Along Kabul and Indus Rivers of Pakistan for Potential Terrorist Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidullah, S.; Tariq, S.; Shah, M. T.; Bishop, M. P.; Kamp, U.; Olsenholler, J.

    2002-05-01

    Baseline for Monitoring Water Resources Along Kabul and Indus Rivers of Pakistan for Potential Terrorist Contamination Terrorism has temporarily constrained the dynamism of the world it was enjoying before September 11, 2001, but also has opened avenues for people of all ethnicities, creeds, and professions to join hands in combating it. Scientific efforts to combat terrorism are likely to lead to better use of existing scientific knowledge as well as to discoveries that will increase world organization, interconnectivity, and peace promotion. Afghanistan and surrounding regions are major focal points for current anti-terrorist activities of the USA and its allies, including Pakistan. The United States, Pakistan, and Afghanistan have shared many similar political objectives, as well as differences, in cold war and post-cold-war eras, reflected by variable provisions of material aid. It is well recognized that understanding Afghanistan requires comprehension of the Pakistan situation as well, especially for common resources. Water is paramount because it is absolutely vital, but can be contaminated by internal or cross-border terrorism. The Kabul and Indus rivers originate in the Hindu Kush - Himalaya ranges. The Kabul River flows from Afghanistan into Pakistan, and after irrigating Peshawar basin, joins the Indus. The Indus, after its origin in Tibet and flow through the Indian Himalaya, enters Pakistan and flows south as the irrigation lifeblood of the country. Any terroristic addition of radioactive nuclides or contaminants to either river could dramatically impact the dependent riverine ecologies. Monitoring cells thus need to be established at locations in Afghanistan and Pakistan to assess base-line river variances for possible future contamination by terrorists. This paper presents a general view and the physical and chemical parameters of parts of the two rivers, and of the surrounding underground water in Peshawar Basin, including pH, conductivity, total

  19. Estimation of baseline daily mean streamflows for ungaged locations on Pennsylvania streams, water years 1960-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckey, Marla H.; Koerkle, Edward H.; Ulrich, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Water-resource managers use daily mean streamflows to generate streamflow statistics and analyze streamflow conditions. An in-depth evaluation of flow regimes to promote instream ecological health often requires streamflow information obtainable only from a time series hydrograph. Historically, it has been difficult to estimate daily mean streamflow for an ungaged location. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, Susquehanna River Basin Commission, and The Nature Conservancy, has developed the Baseline Streamflow Estimator (BaSE) to estimate baseline streamflow at a daily time scale for ungaged streams in Pennsylvania using data collected during water years 1960–2008. Baseline streamflow is minimally altered by regulation, diversion, or mining, and other anthropogenic activities. Daily mean streamflow is estimated in BaSE using a methodology that equates streamflow as a percentile from a flow duration curve for a particular day at an ungaged location with streamflow as a percentile from the flow duration curve for the same day at a reference streamgage that is considered to be hydrologically similar to the ungaged location. An appropriate reference streamgage is selected using map correlation, in which variogram models are developed that correlate streamflow at one streamgage with streamflows at all other streamgages. The percentiles from a flow duration curve for the ungaged location are converted to streamflow through the use of regression equations. Regression equations used to predict 17 flow-duration exceedance probabilities were developed for Pennsylvania using geographic information system-derived basin characteristics. The standard error of prediction for the regression equations ranged from 11 percent to 92 percent with the mean of 31 percent.

  20. 75 FR 38802 - DCP Raptor Pipeline, LLC; Notice of Baseline Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ...] DCP Raptor Pipeline, LLC; Notice of Baseline Filing June 28, 2010. Take notice that on June 22, 2010, DCP Raptor Pipeline, LLC submitted a baseline filing of its Statement of Operating Conditions...

  1. Baseline (1961-1990) average air temperature (degree C) for Alaska and Western Canada.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — Baseline (1961-1990) average air temperature (degree C) for Alaska and Western Canada. Baseline results for 1961-1990 are derived from Climate Research Unit (CRU)...

  2. Baseline (1961-1990) average air temperature (degree F) for Alaska and Western Canada.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — Baseline (1961-1990) average air temperature (degree F) for Alaska and Western Canada. Baseline results for 1961-1990 are derived from Climate Research Unit (CRU) TS...

  3. Modeling extreme risks in ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgman, Mark; Franklin, James; Hayes, Keith R; Hosack, Geoffrey R; Peters, Gareth W; Sisson, Scott A

    2012-11-01

    Extreme risks in ecology are typified by circumstances in which data are sporadic or unavailable, understanding is poor, and decisions are urgently needed. Expert judgments are pervasive and disagreements among experts are commonplace. We outline approaches to evaluating extreme risks in ecology that rely on stochastic simulation, with a particular focus on methods to evaluate the likelihood of extinction and quasi-extinction of threatened species, and the likelihood of establishment and spread of invasive pests. We evaluate the importance of assumptions in these assessments and the potential of some new approaches to account for these uncertainties, including hierarchical estimation procedures and generalized extreme value distributions. We conclude by examining the treatment of consequences in extreme risk analysis in ecology and how expert judgment may better be harnessed to evaluate extreme risks.

  4. The Ecology of Human Mobility

    KAUST Repository

    Meekan, Mark G.

    2017-02-03

    Mobile phones and other geolocated devices have produced unprecedented volumes of data on human movement. Analysis of pooled individual human trajectories using big data approaches has revealed a wealth of emergent features that have ecological parallels in animals across a diverse array of phenomena including commuting, epidemics, the spread of innovations and culture, and collective behaviour. Movement ecology, which explores how animals cope with and optimize variability in resources, has the potential to provide a theoretical framework to aid an understanding of human mobility and its impacts on ecosystems. In turn, big data on human movement can be explored in the context of animal movement ecology to provide solutions for urgent conservation problems and management challenges.

  5. Ecological modernization of sustainable buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole; Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten

    2008-01-01

    This article will examine how the contemporary development of sustainable buildings has been influenced by the concept of ecological modernisation. Ecological modernisation is a policy concept describing how environmental considerations are increasingly being integrated into modern society......'s institutions through e.g. new types of co-operation and new applications of economic and market dynamics. The article is based on recent examples from politics and practice in the construction sector in Denmark, where sustainable buildings have gone through great changes - from being primarily isolated cases...... driven by enthusiasts and grassroots to being a more widespread, generally obtainable and integrated product. We will discuss to what degree this can be understood within the ideas of ecological modernisation, and then discuss the benefits and drawbacks of this development. Based on the concepts...

  6. Should Studies of Diabetes Treatment Stratification Correct for Baseline HbA1c?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angus G Jones

    Full Text Available Baseline HbA1c is a major predictor of response to glucose lowering therapy and therefore a potential confounder in studies aiming to identify other predictors. However, baseline adjustment may introduce error if the association between baseline HbA1c and response is substantially due to measurement error and regression to the mean. We aimed to determine whether studies of predictors of response should adjust for baseline HbA1c.We assessed the relationship between baseline HbA1c and glycaemic response in 257 participants treated with GLP-1R agonists and assessed whether it reflected measurement error and regression to the mean using duplicate 'pre-baseline' HbA1c measurements not included in the response variable. In this cohort and an additional 2659 participants treated with sulfonylureas we assessed the relationship between covariates associated with baseline HbA1c and treatment response with and without baseline adjustment, and with a bias correction using pre-baseline HbA1c to adjust for the effects of error in baseline HbA1c.Baseline HbA1c was a major predictor of response (R2 = 0.19,β = -0.44,p<0.001.The association between pre-baseline and response was similar suggesting the greater response at higher baseline HbA1cs is not mainly due to measurement error and subsequent regression to the mean. In unadjusted analysis in both cohorts, factors associated with baseline HbA1c were associated with response, however these associations were weak or absent after adjustment for baseline HbA1c. Bias correction did not substantially alter associations.Adjustment for the baseline HbA1c measurement is a simple and effective way to reduce bias in studies of predictors of response to glucose lowering therapy.

  7. A systematic review of the recent ecological literature on cushion plants: champions of plant facilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Reid

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Cushion-forming plant species are found in alpine and polar environments around the world. They modify the microclimate, thereby facilitating other plant species. Similar to the effectiveness of shrubs as a means to study facilitation in arid and semi-arid environments, we explore the potential for cushion plant species to expand the generality of research on this contemporary ecological interaction. A systematic review was conducted to determine the number of publications and citation frequency on relevant ecological topics whilst using shrub literature as a baseline to assess relative importance of cushions as a focal point for future ecological research. Although there are forty times more shrub articles, mean citations per paper is comparable between cushion and shrub literature. Furthermore, the scope of ecological research topics studied using cushions is broad including facilitation, competition, environmental gradients, life history, genetics, reproduction, community, ecosystem and evolution. The preliminary ecological evidence to date also strongly suggests that cushion plants can be keystone species in their ecosystems. Hence, ecological research on net interactions including facilitation and patterns of diversity can be successfully examined using cushion plants, and this is particularly timely given expectations associated with a changing climate in these regions.

  8. Ecological studies on the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) on the Savannah River Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seigel, R.A.; Brandt, L.A.; Knight, J.L.; Novak, S.S.

    1986-06-01

    The American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) is the largest vertebrate of the Savannah River Plant (SRP), reaching a maximum length of 3.7 meters (12 feet) and weighing up to 175 kg (385 pounds). Currently, populations in coastal South Carolina are considered Threatened, whereas populations in inland areas (such as the SRP) are still Endangered. Because of their legal status and economic and ecological importance, it is important to determine the environmental impacts of SRP operations on the local alligator population. The major objectives under the Endangered Species Program of the Comprehensive Cooling Water Study (CCWS) were as follows: (1) document and compare the present status and distribution of alligators on the SRP to previous surveys, in order to determine long-term changes in population abundance; (2) establish baseline population and ecological parameters of the Steel Creek population so that the ecological effects of L-Reactor operations can be determined, and (3) conduct ecological research on the immediate impacts of thermal effluents on American alligators. Gladden et al., (1985) summarized data on previous population surveys, temporal changes in the Par Pond population, preliminary results of the Steel Creek surveys and Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) research on the effects of thermal effluents. This report summarizes the current status of the SRP population, presents data on the abundance, movement patterns and activity cycles of the Steel Creek population, and presents additional data on the effect of cooling water releases on alligator ecology and behavior.

  9. Identifying legal, ecological and governance obstacles and opportunities for adapting to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosens, Barbara; Gunderson, Lance; Allen, Craig R.; Benson, Melinda H.

    2014-01-01

    Current governance of regional scale water management systems in the United States has not placed them on a path toward sustainability, as conflict and gridlock characterize the social arena and ecosystem services continue to erode. Changing climate may continue this trajectory, but it also provides a catalyst for renewal of ecosystems and a window of opportunity for change in institutions. Resilience provides a bridging concept that predicts that change in ecological and social systems is often dramatic, abrupt, and surprising. Adapting to the uncertainty of climate driven change must be done in a manner perceived as legitimate by the participants in a democratic society. Adaptation must begin with the current hierarchical and fragmented social-ecological system as a baseline from which new approaches must be applied. Achieving a level of integration between ecological concepts and governance requires a dialogue across multiple disciplines, including ecologists with expertise in ecological resilience, hydrologists and climate experts, with social scientists and legal scholars. Criteria and models that link ecological dynamics with policies in complex, multi-jurisdictional water basins with adaptive management and governance frameworks may move these social-ecological systems toward greater sustainability.

  10. Identifying Legal, Ecological and Governance Obstacles, and Opportunities for Adapting to Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Cosens

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Current governance of regional scale water management systems in the United States has not placed them on a path toward sustainability, as conflict and gridlock characterize the social arena and ecosystem services continue to erode. Changing climate may continue this trajectory, but it also provides a catalyst for renewal of ecosystems and a window of opportunity for change in institutions. Resilience provides a bridging concept that predicts that change in ecological and social systems is often dramatic, abrupt, and surprising. Adapting to the uncertainty of climate driven change must be done in a manner perceived as legitimate by the participants in a democratic society. Adaptation must begin with the current hierarchical and fragmented social-ecological system as a baseline from which new approaches must be applied. Achieving a level of integration between ecological concepts and governance requires a dialogue across multiple disciplines, including ecologists with expertise in ecological resilience, hydrologists and climate experts, with social scientists and legal scholars. Criteria and models that link ecological dynamics with policies in complex, multi-jurisdictional water basins with adaptive management and governance frameworks may move these social-ecological systems toward greater sustainability.

  11. The chemical ecology of copepods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuschele, Jan; Selander, Erik

    2014-01-01

    for the functioning of the marine food web, much is still unknown. We synthesize current knowledge about chemical ecology of copepods including foraging, survival and reproduction. We also compile information on the sensory apparatus and new analytical approaches that may facilitate the identification of signal...... molecules. The review illustrates the importance of chemical interactions in many aspects of copepod ecology and identifies gaps in our knowledge, such as the lack of identified infochemicals and electrophysiological studies to confirm the function of sensory structures. We suggest approaches...

  12. Coastal adaptation with ecological engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, So-Min; Silliman, Brian; Wong, Poh Poh; van Wesenbeeck, Bregje; Kim, Choong-Ki; Guannel, Greg

    2013-09-01

    The use of combined approaches to coastal adaptation in lieu of a single strategy, such as sea-wall construction, allows for better preparation for a highly uncertain and dynamic coastal environment. Although general principles such as mainstreaming and no- or low-regret options exist to guide coastal adaptation and provide the framework in which combined approaches operate, few have examined the interactions, synergistic effects and benefits of combined approaches to adaptation. This Perspective provides three examples of ecological engineering -- marshes, mangroves and oyster reefs -- and illustrates how the combination of ecology and engineering works.

  13. Ecology through time, an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santangelo, Giovanni; Bramanti, Lorenzo

    2006-01-01

    This brief review is an attempt to condense the major events in the history of Ecology into short 10 sections. In little more than two generations, a new science has emerged and developed into a fundamental part of our lives, spurred on by increasing interest in "natural systems" and concerns over the environmental changes we are witnessing. Ecology, rather neglected until the early decades of last century, flourished and established itself as mature science during the mid-1900s, producing many theories, models, hypothesis and trends of thought. Ecology deals with interacting natural systems and eclectically applies tools drawn from several different sciences (Biology, Mathematics, Statistics, Chemistry, Geology, Physics and so on). The beauty of the subject and its multidisciplinary approach makes Ecology extremely intriguing for researchers. One of the main goals of Ecology is to forecast population, community and ecosystem trends over time. Ecological systems are complex: they are composed of such a large number of different, interacting components that their overall behavior can only be understood in terms of emerging properties. Therefore, some interactions and effects are difficult to predict. However, some insights into population and community trends can be inferred from exhaustive data sets and sufficiently long-term, time-series data and dynamic models. Unfortunately, due to the limited funding of environmental data collection, only a few exhaustive, long-term samplings have been carried out, and systematic record keeping for the purposes of ecological research has only recently become widespread. However, it is still possible to garner some insights from historical reports (proxies), which clearly show how the population structures of most of today's communities have been affected by human activities. This short review is based on a talk given at Arcidosso (Grosseto, Italy) during the September, 2005 workshop: "Scientific research and society during the

  14. The microbial ecology of permafrost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansson, Janet; Tas, Neslihan

    2014-01-01

    Permafrost constitutes a major portion of the terrestrial cryosphere of the Earth and is a unique ecological niche for cold-adapted microorganisms. There is a relatively high microbial diversity in permafrost, although there is some variation in community composition across different permafrost......-gas emissions. This Review describes new data on the microbial ecology of permafrost and provides a platform for understanding microbial life strategies in frozen soil as well as the impact of climate change on permafrost microorganisms and their functional roles....

  15. From Ecological Sounding Artifacts Towards Sonic Artifact Ecologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erkut, Cumhur; Serafin, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    The discipline of sonic interaction design has been focused on the interaction between a single user and an artifact. This strongly limits one of the fundamental aspects of music as a social and interactive experience. In this paper we propose sonic artifact ecologies as a mean to examine...

  16. The LIFE Cognition Study: design and baseline characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sink KM

    2014-08-01

    adults at increased risk for incident mobility disability. One LIFE Study objective is to evaluate the effects of a structured physical activity program on changes in cognitive function and incident all-cause mild cognitive impairment or dementia. Here, we present the design and baseline cognitive data. At baseline, participants completed the modified Mini Mental Status Examination, Hopkins Verbal Learning Test, Digit Symbol Coding, Modified Rey–Osterrieth Complex Figure, and a computerized battery, selected to be sensitive to changes in speed of processing and executive functioning. During follow up, participants completed the same battery, along with the Category Fluency for Animals, Boston Naming, and Trail Making tests. The description of the mild cognitive impairment/dementia adjudication process is presented here. Participants with worse baseline Short Physical Performance Battery scores (prespecified at ≤7 had significantly lower median cognitive test scores compared with those having scores of 8 or 9 with modified Mini Mental Status Examination score of 91 versus (vs 93, Hopkins Verbal Learning Test delayed recall score of 7.4 vs 7.9, and Digit Symbol Coding score of 45 vs 48, respectively (all P<0.001. The LIFE Study will contribute important information on the effects of a structured physical activity program on cognitive outcomes in sedentary older adults at particular risk for mobility impairment. In addition to its importance in the area of prevention of cognitive decline, the LIFE Study will also likely serve as a model for exercise and other behavioral intervention trials in older adults. Keywords: exercise, physical activity, older adults, dementia

  17. Idaho National Laboratory’s Greenhouse Gas FY08 Baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennifer D. Morton

    2011-06-01

    A greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory is a systematic attempt to account for the production and release of certain gasses generated by an institution from various emission sources. The gasses of interest are those which have become identified by climate science as related to anthropogenic global climate change. This document presents an inventory of GHGs generated during fiscal year (FY) 2008 by Idaho National Laboratory (INL), a Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored entity, located in southeastern Idaho. Concern about the environmental impact of GHGs has grown in recent years. This, together with a desire to decrease harmful environmental impacts, would be enough to encourage the calculation of a baseline estimate of total GHGs generated at INL. Additionally, INL has a desire to see how its emissions compare with similar institutions, including other DOE national laboratories. Executive Order 13514 requires that federal agencies and institutions document reductions in GHG emissions in the future, and such documentation will require knowledge of a baseline against which reductions can be measured. INL's FY08 GHG inventory was calculated according to methodologies identified in federal GHG guidance documents using operational control boundaries. It measures emissions generated in three Scopes: (1) INL emissions produced directly by stationary or mobile combustion and by fugitive emissions, (2) the share of emissions generated by entities from which INL purchased electrical power, and (3) indirect or shared emissions generated by outsourced activities that benefit INL (occur outside INL's organizational boundaries but are a consequence of INL's activities). This inventory found that INL generated a total of 113,049 MT of CO2-equivalent emissions during FY08. The following conclusions were made from looking at the results of the individual contributors to INL's baseline GHG inventory: (1) Electricity (including the associated transmission and

  18. Idaho National Laboratory’s Greenhouse Gas FY08 Baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennifer D. Morton

    2010-09-01

    A greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory is a systematic attempt to account for the production and release of certain gasses generated by an institution from various emission sources. The gasses of interest are those which have become identified by climate science as related to anthropogenic global climate change. This document presents an inventory of GHGs generated during fiscal year (FY) 2008 by Idaho National Laboratory (INL), a Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored entity, located in southeastern Idaho. Concern about the environmental impact of GHGs has grown in recent years. This, together with a desire to decrease harmful environmental impacts, would be enough to encourage the calculation of a baseline estimate of total GHGs generated at the INL. Additionally, the INL has a desire to see how its emissions compare with similar institutions, including other DOE-sponsored national laboratories. Executive Order 13514 requires that federally-sponsored agencies and institutions document reductions in GHG emissions in the future, and such documentation will require knowledge of a baseline against which reductions can be measured. INL’s FY08 GHG inventory was calculated according to methodologies identified in Federal recommendations and an as-yet-unpublished Technical and Support Document (TSD) using operational control boundary. It measures emissions generated in three Scopes: (1) INL emissions produced directly by stationary or mobile combustion and by fugitive emissions, (2) the share of emissions generated by entities from which INL purchased electrical power, and (3) indirect or shared emissions generated by outsourced activities that benefit INL (occur outside INL’s organizational boundaries but are a consequence of INL’s activities). This inventory found that INL generated a total of 114,256 MT of CO2-equivalent emissions during fiscal year 2008 (FY08). The following conclusions were made from looking at the results of the individual contributors to INL

  19. Breckinridge Project, initial effort. Report VII, Volume II. Environmental baseline report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc. (ASFI) and Airco Energy Company, Inc. (AECI) have recently formed the Breckinridge Project and are currently conducting a process and economic feasibility study of a commercial scale facility to produce synthetic liquid fuels from coal. The coal conversion process to be used is the H-COAL process, which is in the pilot plant testing stage under the auspices of the US Department of Energy at the H-COAL Pilot Plant Project near Catlettsburg, Kentucky. The preliminary plans for the commercial plant are for a 18,140 metric ton/day (24,000 ton/day) nominal coal assumption capacity utilizing the abundant high sulfur Western Kentucky coals. The Western Kentucky area offers a source of the coal along with adequate water, power, labor, transportation and other factors critical to the successful siting of a plant. Various studies by federal and state governments, as well as private industry, have reached similar conclusions regarding the suitability of such plant sites in western Kentucky. Of the many individual sites evaluated, a site in Breckinridge County, Kentucky, approximately 4 kilometers (2.5 miles) west of the town of Stephensport, has been identified as the plant location. Actions have been taken to obtain options to insure that this site will be available when needed. This report contains an overview of the regional setting and results of the baseline environmental studies. These studies include collection of data on ambient air and water quality, sound, aquatic and terrestrial biology and geology. This report contains the following chapters; introduction, review of significant findings, ambient air quality monitoring, sound, aquatic ecology, vegetation, wildlife, geology, soils, surface water, and ground water.

  20. Estimating resource costs of compliance with EU WFD ecological status requirements at the river basin scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riegels, Niels; Jensen, Roar; Benasson, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Resource costs of meeting EU WFD ecological status requirements at the river basin scale are estimated by comparing net benefits of water use given ecological status constraints to baseline water use values. Resource costs are interpreted as opportunity costs of water use arising from water...... scarcity. An optimization approach is used to identify economically efficient ways to meet WFD requirements. The approach is implemented using a river basin simulation model coupled to an economic post-processor; the simulation model and post-processor are run from a central controller that iterates until...... an allocation is found that maximizes net benefits given WFD requirements. Water use values are estimated for urban/domestic, agricultural, industrial, livestock, and tourism water users. Ecological status is estimated using metrics that relate average monthly river flow volumes to the natural hydrologic regime...

  1. Constraints on New Physics from Long Baseline Neutrino Oscillation Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Honda, Minako; Okamura, Naotoshi; Pronin, Alexey; Takeuchi, Tatsu

    2007-01-01

    New physics beyond the Standard Model can lead to extra matter effects on neutrino oscillation if the new interactions distinguish among the three flavors of neutrino. In a previous paper, we argued that a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment in which the Fermilab-NUMI beam in its high-energy mode is aimed at the planned Hyper-Kamiokande detector would be capable of constraining the size of those extra effects, provided the vacuum value of \\sin^2 2\\theta_{23} is not too close to one. In this paper, we discuss how such a constraint would translate into limits on the coupling constants and masses of new particles in various models. The models we consider are: models with generation distinguishing Z's such as topcolor assisted technicolor, models containing various types of leptoquarks, R-parity violating SUSY, and extended Higgs sector models. In several cases, we find that the limits thus obtained could be competitive with those expected from direct searches at the LHC. In the event that any of the pa...

  2. Pentek concrete scabbling system: Baseline report; Greenbook (chapter)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-31

    The Pentek scabbling technology was tested at Florida International University (FIU) and is being evaluated as a baseline technology. This report evaluates it for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The Pentek concrete scabbling system consisted of the MOOSE, SQUIRREL-I, and SQUIRREL-III scabblers. The scabblers are designed to scarify concrete floors and slabs using cross-section, tungsten carbide tipped bits. The bits are designed to remove concrete in 318 inch increments. The bits are either 9-tooth or demolition type. The scabblers are used with a vacuum system designed to collect and filter the concrete dust and contamination that is removed from the surface. The safety and health evaluation conducted during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure was minimal, but noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each of these exposures is recommended. Because of the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place, results may be inaccurate. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment. Other areas of concern were arm-hand vibration, whole-body vibration, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, machine guarding, and lockout/tagout.

  3. Thermographic patterns of the upper and lower limbs: baseline data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatt, Alfred; Formosa, Cynthia; Cassar, Kevin; Camilleri, Kenneth P; De Raffaele, Clifford; Mizzi, Anabelle; Azzopardi, Carl; Mizzi, Stephen; Falzon, Owen; Cristina, Stefania; Chockalingam, Nachiappan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To collect normative baseline data and identify any significant differences between hand and foot thermographic distribution patterns in a healthy adult population. Design. A single-centre, randomized, prospective study. Methods. Thermographic data was acquired using a FLIR camera for the data acquisition of both plantar and dorsal aspects of the feet, volar aspects of the hands, and anterior aspects of the lower limbs under controlled climate conditions. Results. There is general symmetry in skin temperature between the same regions in contralateral limbs, in terms of both magnitude and pattern. There was also minimal intersubject temperature variation with a consistent temperature pattern in toes and fingers. The thumb is the warmest digit with the temperature falling gradually between the 2nd and the 5th fingers. The big toe and the 5th toe are the warmest digits with the 2nd to the 4th toes being cooler. Conclusion. Measurement of skin temperature of the limbs using a thermal camera is feasible and reproducible. Temperature patterns in fingers and toes are consistent with similar temperatures in contralateral limbs in healthy subjects. This study provides the basis for further research to assess the clinical usefulness of thermography in the diagnosis of vascular insufficiency.

  4. Thermographic Patterns of the Upper and Lower Limbs: Baseline Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Gatt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To collect normative baseline data and identify any significant differences between hand and foot thermographic distribution patterns in a healthy adult population. Design. A single-centre, randomized, prospective study. Methods. Thermographic data was acquired using a FLIR camera for the data acquisition of both plantar and dorsal aspects of the feet, volar aspects of the hands, and anterior aspects of the lower limbs under controlled climate conditions. Results. There is general symmetry in skin temperature between the same regions in contralateral limbs, in terms of both magnitude and pattern. There was also minimal intersubject temperature variation with a consistent temperature pattern in toes and fingers. The thumb is the warmest digit with the temperature falling gradually between the 2nd and the 5th fingers. The big toe and the 5th toe are the warmest digits with the 2nd to the 4th toes being cooler. Conclusion. Measurement of skin temperature of the limbs using a thermal camera is feasible and reproducible. Temperature patterns in fingers and toes are consistent with similar temperatures in contralateral limbs in healthy subjects. This study provides the basis for further research to assess the clinical usefulness of thermography in the diagnosis of vascular insufficiency.

  5. Education Organization Baseline Control Protection and Trusted Level Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasim A. Al-Hamdani

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Many education organizations have adopted for security the enterprise best practices for implementation on their campuses, while others focus on ISO Standard (or/and the National Institution of Standards and Technology.All these adoptions are dependent on IT personal and their experiences or knowledge of the standard. On top of this is the size of the education organizations. The larger the population in an education organization, the more the problem of information and security become very clear. Thus, they have been obliged to comply with information security issues and adopt the national or international standard. The case is quite different when the population size of the education organization is smaller. In such education organizations, they use social security numbers as student ID, and issue administrative rights to faculty and lab managers – or they are not aware of the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA – and release some personal information.The problem of education organization security is widely open and depends on the IT staff and their information security knowledge in addition to the education culture (education, scholarships and services has very special characteristics other than an enterprise or comparative organizationThis paper is part of a research to develop an “Education Organization Baseline Control Protection and Trusted Level Security.” The research has three parts: Adopting (standards, Testing and Modifying (if needed.

  6. A Survey of Astronomical Research: An Astronomy for Development Baseline

    CERN Document Server

    Ribeiro, V A R M; Cardenas-Avendano, A

    2013-01-01

    Measuring scientific development is a difficult task. Different metrics have been put forward to evaluate scientific development; in this paper we explore a metric that uses the number of peer-reviewed research research articles as an indicator of development in the field of astronomy. We analyzed the available publication record, using the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Database System, by country affiliation in the time span between 1950 and 2011 for countries with a Gross National Income of less than 14,365 USD in 2010. This represents 149 countries. We propose that this metric identifies countries in `astronomy development' with a culture of research publishing. We also propose that for a country to develop astronomy it should invest in outside expert visits, send their staff abroad to study and establish a culture of scientific publishing. Furthermore, we propose that this paper may be used as a baseline to measure the success of major international projects, such as the International Year of Astronomy 2009.

  7. Biodiversity baseline of the French Guiana spider fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedel, Vincent; Rheims, Christina; Murienne, Jérôme; Brescovit, Antonio Domingos

    2013-01-01

    The need for an updated list of spiders found in French Guiana rose recently due to many upcoming studies planned. In this paper, we list spiders from French Guiana from existing literature (with corrected nomenclature when necessary) and from 2142 spiders sampled in 12 sites for this baseline study. Three hundred and sixty four validated species names of spider were found in the literature and previous authors' works. Additional sampling, conducted for this study added another 89 identified species and 62 other species with only a genus name for now. The total species of spiders sampled in French Guiana is currently 515. Many other Morphospecies were found but not described as species yet. An accumulation curve was drawn with seven of the sampling sites and shows no plateau yet. Therefore, the number of species inhabiting French Guiana cannot yet be determined. As the very large number of singletons found in the collected materials suggests, the accumulation curve indicates nevertheless that more sampling is necessary to discover the many unknown spider species living in French Guiana, with a focus on specific periods (dry season and wet season) and on specific and poorly studied habitats such as canopy, inselberg and cambrouze (local bamboo monospecific forest).

  8. Fort Stewart integrated resource assessment. Volume 2, Baseline detail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, J.M.; Sullivan, G.P.; Wahlstrom, R.R.; Larson, L.L.

    1993-08-01

    This report documents the assessment of baseline energy use at Fort Stewart, a US Army Forces Command facility located near Savannah, Georgia. This is a companion report to Volume 1, Executive Summary, and Volume 3, Integrated Resource Assessment. The US Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) tasked Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Fort Stewart. PNL, in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), has designed a model program applicable to the federal sector for this purpose. The model program (1) identifies and evaluates all cost-effective energy projects; (2) develops a schedule at each installation for project acquisition considering project type, size, timing, and capital requirements, as well as energy and dollar savings; and (3) targets 100% of the financing required to implement energy efficiency projects. PNL applied this model program to Fort Stewart. The analysis examines the characteristics of electric, natural gas, oil, propane, and wood chip use for fiscal year (FY) 1990. The results include energy-use intensities for the facilities at Fort Stewart by building type, fuel type, and energy end use. A complete energy consumption reconciliation is presented that accounts for the distribution of all major energy uses and losses among buildings, utilities, and central systems.

  9. A Neutrino Apparatus with Improved Capabilities for a short baseline $\

    CERN Document Server

    Gómez-Cadenas, J J; Bueno, A G

    1996-01-01

    We propose the conceptual design of a Neutrino ApparatUS with Improved CApAbilities (NAUSICAA). This detector could be used for a new, short-baseline, high sensitivity \\osc oscillation search experiment at the CERN-SPS neutrino beam, as well as at the future Fermilab Main Injector neutrino beam. The heart of the detector is a finely instrumented target, made of a sandwich of a light Z material and high resolution tracking detectors. Downstream of the target there are tracking detectors for momentum measurement, followed by a compensating calorimeter. All these systems are contained within magnet providing a magnetic field of about 1 Tesla. Following the magnet there is a muon detector. Unlike previous experiments, NAUSICAA would be capable of searching for the \\tau signature using both kinematical and vertex criteria {\\it simultaneously}. Detailed Monte Carlo calculations show that NAUSICAA could improve the sensitivity of the on-going experiments, CHORUS and NOMAD by an order of magnitude in a four-year neut...

  10. Future Long-Baseline Neutrino Facilities and Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milind Diwan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the ongoing effort in the US, Japan, and Europe of the scientific community to study the location and the detector performance of the next-generation long-baseline neutrino facility. For many decades, research on the properties of neutrinos and the use of neutrinos to study the fundamental building blocks of matter has unveiled new, unexpected laws of nature. Results of neutrino experiments have triggered a tremendous amount of development in theory: theories beyond the standard model or at least extensions of it and development of the standard solar model and modeling of supernova explosions as well as the development of theories to explain the matter-antimatter asymmetry in the universe. Neutrino physics is one of the most dynamic and exciting fields of research in fundamental particle physics and astrophysics. The next-generation neutrino detector will address two aspects: fundamental properties of the neutrino like mass hierarchy, mixing angles, and the CP phase, and low-energy neutrino astronomy with solar, atmospheric, and supernova neutrinos. Such a new detector naturally allows for major improvements in the search for nucleon decay. A next-generation neutrino observatory needs a huge, megaton scale detector which in turn has to be installed in a new, international underground laboratory, capable of hosting such a huge detector.

  11. Short baseline neutrino oscillations: when entanglement suppresses coherence

    CERN Document Server

    Boyanovsky, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    For neutrino oscillations to take place the entangled quantum state of a neutrino and a charged lepton produced via charged current interactions must be disentangled. Implementing a non-perturbative Wigner-Weisskopf method we obtain the correct \\emph{entangled} quantum state of neutrinos and charged leptons from the (two-body) decay of a parent particle. The source lifetime and disentanglement length scale lead to a suppression of the oscillation probabilities in short-baseline experiments. The suppression is determined by $\\pi\\, L_d/L_{osc}$ where $L_d$ is the \\emph{smallest} of the decay length of the parent particle or the disentanglement length scale. For $L_d \\geq L_{osc}$ coherence and oscillations are suppressed. These effects are more prominent in \\emph{short base line experiments} and at low neutrino energy. We obtain the corrections to the appearance and disappearance probabilities modified by both the lifetime of the source and the disentanglement scale and discuss their implications for accelerato...

  12. Ultra-high pressure water jet: Baseline report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-31

    The ultra-high pressure waterjet technology was being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The ultra-high pressure waterjet technology acts as a cutting tool for the removal of surface substrates. The Husky{trademark} pump feeds water to a lance that directs the high pressure water at the surface to be removed. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure. These were dust and noise. The dust exposure was found to be minimal, which would be expected due to the wet environment inherent in the technology, but noise exposure was at a significant level. Further testing for noise is recommended because of the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place. In addition, other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, lockout/tagout, fall hazards, slipping hazards, hazards associated with the high pressure water, and hazards associated with air pressure systems.

  13. A very simple baseline restorer for nuclear applications

    CERN Document Server

    Arnaboldi, Claudio

    2003-01-01

    We present a series of Baseline Restorer circuits (BLR) all based on a very simple and compact configuration. The circuits are able to withstand signals shaped as fast as 10ns or as slow as hundreds of ms. These BLRs are improved versions of an already existing solution that has shown outstanding performances. We have now introduced new features to the original configuration capable of improving the operation of the stationary condition of the stage that precedes the BLR output. This way the response of the circuit to the incoming signal is further improved. In addition, special attention has been paid to obtain large speed of response. Signal rates as large as 10MHz with large pile-up percentage are easily supported. This property is particularly suitable for the next generation of experiments at the large hadron colliders at CERN. One version of the described BLRs is presently used in the analog section of the trigger system of the experiment CUORICINO, an array consisting of 70 large mass bolometric detect...

  14. Scientific Opportunities with the Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, C.; et al.

    2013-07-28

    In this document, we describe the wealth of science opportunities and capabilities of LBNE, the Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment. LBNE has been developed to provide a unique and compelling program for the exploration of key questions at the forefront of particle physics. Chief among the discovery opportunities are observation of CP symmetry violation in neutrino mixing, resolution of the neutrino mass hierarchy, determination of maximal or near-maximal mixing in neutrinos, searches for nucleon decay signatures, and detailed studies of neutrino bursts from galactic supernovae. To fulfill these and other goals as a world-class facility, LBNE is conceived around four central components: (1) a new, intense wide-band neutrino source at Fermilab, (2) a fine-grained `near' neutrino detector just downstream of the source, (3) the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, South Dakota at an optimal distance (~1300 km) from the neutrino source, and (4) a massive liquid argon time-projection chamber (LArTPC) deployed there as a 'far' detector. The facilities envisioned are expected to enable many other science opportunities due to the high event rates and excellent detector resolution from beam neutrinos in the near detector and atmospheric neutrinos in the far detector. This is a mature, well developed, world class experiment whose relevance, importance, and probability of unearthing critical and exciting physics has increased with time.

  15. Scientific Opportunities with the Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, C; Andrews, M; Anghel, I; Arrieta-Diaz, E; Artuso, M; Asaadi, J; Bai, X; Baird, M; Balantekin, B; Baller, B; Baptista, B; Barker, D; Barletta, W; Barr, G; Bashyal, A; Bass, M; Bellini, V; Berger, B E; Bergevin, M; Berman, E; Berns, H; Bernstein, A; Bernstein, R; Bhatnagar, V; Bhuyan, B; Bishai, M; Blake, A; Blaufuss, E; Bleakley, B; Blucher, E; Blusk, S; Bocean, V; Bolton, T; Breedon, R; Brandt, A; Bromberg, C; Brown, R; Buchanan, N; Bugg, B; Camilleri, L; Carr, R; Carminati, G; Cavanna, F; Chen, A; Chen, H; Chen, K; Cherdack, D; Chi, C; Childress, S; Choudhary, B; Christofferson, C; Church, E; Cline, D; Coan, T; Coelho, J; Coleman, S; Conrad, J; Convery, M; Corey, R; Corwin, L; Davies, G S; Dazeley, S; de Gouvea, A; de Jong, J K; Escobar, C; De, K; Demuth, D; Diwan, M; Djurcic, Z; Dolph, J; Drake, G; Duyang, H; Dye, S; Edmunds, D; Elliott, S; Eno, S; Enomoto, S; Farbin, A; Falk, L; Felde, J; Feyzi, F; Fields, L; Fleming, B; Fowler, J; Fox, W; Friedland, A; Fujikawa, B; Gallagher, H; Gandhi, R; Garvey, G; Gehman, V M; Geronimo, G; Gill, R; Goodman, M C; Goon, J; Graham, M; Gran, R; Grant, C; Greenlee, H; Greenler, L; Guarino, V; Guardincerri, E; Guenette, R; Habib, S; Habig, A; Hackenburg, R W; Hahn, A; Haines, T; Handler, T; Hans, S; Hartnell, J; Harton, J; Hatcher, R; Hatzikoutelis, A; Hays, S; Hazen, E; Headley, M; Heavey, A; Heeger, K; Heise, J; Hellauer, R; Himmel, A; Hogan, M; Holin, A; Horton-Smith, G; Howell, J; Hurh, P; Huston, J; Hylen, J; Imlay, R; Insler, J; Isvan, Z; Jackson, C; Jaffe, D; James, C; Johnson, M; Johnson, R; Johnson, S; Johnston, W; Johnstone, J; Jones, B; Jostlein, H; Junk, T; Kadel, R; Karagiorgi, G; Kaspar, J; Katori, T; Kayser, B; Kearns, E; Keener, P; Kettell, S H; Kirby, M; Klein, J; Koizumi, G; Kopp, S; Kropp, W; Kudryavtsev, V A; Kumar, A; Kumar, J; Kutter, T; Lande, K; Lane, C; Lang, K; Lanni, F; Lanza, R; Latorre, T; La Zia, F; Learned, J; Lee, D; Lee, K; Li, S; Li, Y; Li, Z; Libo, J; Linden, S; Ling, J; Link, J; Littenberg, L; Liu, H; Liu, Q; Liu, T; Losecco, J; Louis, W; Lundberg, B; Lundin, T; Maesano, C; Magill, S; Mahler, G; Malys, S; Mammoliti, F; Mandal, S; Mann, A; Mantsch, P; Marchionni, A; Marciano, W; Mariani, C; Maricic, J; Marino, A; Marshak, M; Marshall, J; Matsuno, S; Mauger, C; Mayer, N; McCluskey, E; McDonald, K; McFarland, K; McKee, D; McKeown, R; McTaggart, R; Mehdiyev, R; Mei, D; Meng, Y; Mercurio, B; Messier, M D; Metcalf, W; Meyhandan, R; Milincic, R; Miller, W; Mills, G; Mishra, S; Sher, S Moed; Mokhov, N; Montanari, D; Moore, C D; Morfin, J; Morse, W; Mufson, S; Muller, D; Musser, J; Naples, D; Napolitano, J; Newcomer, M; Niner, E; Norris, B; Olson, T; Page, B; Pakvasa, S; Paley, J; Palamara, O; Paolone, V; Papadimitriou, V; Park, S; Parsa, Z; Paulos, B; Partyka, K; Pavlovic, Z; Perch, A; Perkin, J D; Peeters, S; Petti, R; Plunkett, R; Polly, C; Pordes, S; Potenza, R; Prakash, A; Prokofiev, O; Perdue, G; Qian, X; Raaf, J L; Radeka, V; Rajendran, R; Rakhno, I; Rameika, R; Ramsey, J; Rebel, B; Rescia, S; Reitzner, D; Richardson, M; Riesselman, K; Robinson, M; Ronquest, M; Rosen, M; Rosenfeld, C; Rucinski, R; Sahijpal, S; Sahoo, H; Samios, N; Sanchez, M C; Schellman, H; Schmitt, R; Schmitz, D; Schneps, J; Scholberg, K; Seibert, S; Shaevitz, M; Shanahan, P; Sharma, R; Shaw, T; Simos, N; Singh, V; Sinnis, G; Sippach, W; Skwarnicki, T; Smy, M; Sobel, H; Soderberg, M; Sondericker, J; Sondheim, W; Spooner, N J C; Stancari, M; Stancu, I; Stefanik, A; Stewart, J; Stone, S; Strait, J; Strait, M; Striganov, S; Sullivan, G; Suter, L; Svoboda, R; Szczerbinska, B; Szydagis, M; Szelc, A; Talaga, R; Tamsett, M; Tariq, S; Tayloe, R; Taylor, C; Taylor, D; Teymourian, A; Themann, H; Thiesse, M; Thomas, J; Thompson, L F; Thomson, M; Thorn, C; Tian, X; Tiedt, D; Toki, W; Tolich, N; Tripathi, M; Tropin, I; Tzanov, M; Urheim, J; Usman, S; Vagins, M; Van Berg, R; Van de Water, R; Varner, G; Vaziri, K; Velev, G; Viren, B; Wachala, T; Wahl, D; Waldron, A; Walter, C W; Wang, H; Wang, W; Warner, D; Wasserman, R; Watson, B; Weber, A; Wei, W; Wendell, R; Wetstein, M; White, A; White, H; Whitehead, L; Whittington, D; Willhite, J; Willis, W; Wilson, R J; Winslow, L; Worcester, E; Wyman, T; Xin, T; Yarritu, K; Ye, J; Yu, J; Yeh, M; Yu, B; Zeller, G; Zhang, C; Zimmerman, E D; Zwaska, R

    2013-01-01

    In this document, we describe the wealth of science opportunities and capabilities of LBNE, the Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment. LBNE has been developed to provide a unique and compelling program for the exploration of key questions at the forefront of particle physics. Chief among the discovery opportunities are observation of CP symmetry violation in neutrino mixing, resolution of the neutrino mass hierarchy, determination of maximal or near-maximal mixing in neutrinos, searches for nucleon decay signatures, and detailed studies of neutrino bursts from galactic supernovae. To fulfill these and other goals as a world-class facility, LBNE is conceived around four central components: (1) a new, intense wide-band neutrino source at Fermilab, (2) a fine-grained `near' neutrino detector just downstream of the source, (3) the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, South Dakota at an optimal distance (~1300 km) from the neutrino source, and (4) a massive liquid argon time-projection chamber (LArTPC...

  16. Transuranic waste baseline inventory report. Revision No. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    The Transuranic Waste Baseline Inventory Report (TWBIR) establishes a methodology for grouping wastes of similar physical and chemical properties from across the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) transuranic (TRU) waste system into a series of {open_quotes}waste profiles{close_quotes} that can be used as the basis for waste form discussions with regulatory agencies. The purpose of Revisions 0 and 1 of this report was to provide data to be included in the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) performance assessment (PA) processes for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Revision 2 of the document expanded the original purpose and was also intended to support the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA) requirement for providing the total DOE TRU waste inventory. The document included a chapter and an appendix that discussed the total DOE TRU waste inventory, including nondefense, commercial, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB)-contaminated, and buried (predominately pre-1970) TRU wastes that are not planned to be disposed of at WIPP.

  17. GPS survey in long baseline neutrino-oscillation measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Noumi, H; Inagaki, T; Hasegawa, T; Katoh, Y; Kohama, M; Kurodai, M; Kusano, E; Maruyama, T; Minakawa, M; Nakamura, K; Nishikawa, K; Sakuda, M; Suzuki, Y; Takasaki, M; Tanaka, K H; Yamanoi, Y; 10.1109/TNS.2004.836042

    2004-01-01

    We made a series of surveys to obtain neutrino beam line direction toward SuperKamiokande (SK) at a distance of 250 km for the long- baseline neutrino oscillation experiment at KEK. We found that the beam line is directed to SK within 0.03 mr and 0.09 mr (in sigma) in the horizontal and vertical directions, respectively. During beam operation, we monitored the muon distribution from secondary pions produced at the target and collected by a magnetic horn system. We found that the horn system functions like a lens of a point-to- parallel optics with magnification of approximately -100 and the focal length of 2.3 m. Namely, a small displacement of the primary beam position at the target is magnified about a factor -100 at the muon centroid, while the centroid position is almost stable against a change of the incident angle of the primary beam. Therefore, the muon centroid can be a useful monitor of the neutrino beam direction. We could determine the muon centroid within 6 mm and 12 mm in horizontal and vertical ...

  18. National INFOSEC technical baseline: multi-level secure systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, J P

    1998-09-28

    The purpose of this report is to provide a baseline description of the state of multilevel processor/processing to the INFOSEC Research Council and at their discretion to the R&D community at large. From the information in the report, it is hoped that the members of the IRC will be aware of gaps in MLS research. A primary purpose is to bring IRC and the research community members up to date on what is happening in the MLS arena. The review will attempt to cover what MLS products are still available, and to identify companies who still offer MLS products. We have also attempted to identify requirements for MLS by interviewing senior officers of the Intelligence community as well as those elements of DoD and DOE who are or may be interested in procuring MLS products for various applications. The balance of the report consists of the following sections; a background review of the highlights of the developments of MLS, a quick summary of where we are today in terms of products, installations, and companies who are still in the business of supplying MLS systems [or who are developing MLS system], the requirements as expressed by senior members of the Intelligence community and DoD and DOE, issues and unmet R&D challenges surrounding MLS, and finally a set of recommended research topics.

  19. Long baseline neutrino physics: From Fermilab to Kamioka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeJongh, Fritz

    2002-03-01

    We have investigated the physics potential of very long baseline experiments designed to measure nu_mu to nu_e oscillation probabilities. The principles of our design are to tune the beam spectrum to the resonance energy for the matter effect, and to have the spectrum cut off rapidly above this energy. The matter effect amplifies the signal, and the cut-off suppresses backgrounds which feed-down from higher energy. The signal-to-noise ratio is potentially better than for any other conventional nu_mu beam experiment. We find that a beam from Fermilab aimed at the Super-K detector has excellent sensitivity to sin^2(2theta_13) and the sign of Delta M^2. If the mass hierarchy is inverted, the beam can be run in antineutrino mode with a similar signal-to-noise ratio, and event rate 55% as high as for the neutrino mode. Combining the Fermilab beam with the JHF-Kamioka proposal adds very complementary information. We find good sensitivity to maximal CP violation for values of sin^2(2theta_13) ranging from 0.001 to 0.05.

  20. APOC impact assessment studies: baseline ophthalmological findings in Morogoro, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babalola, O E; Maegga, B; Katenga, S; Ogbuagu, F K; Umeh, R E; Seketeli, E; Braide, E

    2008-12-01

    The goal of the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) is to eliminate Onchocerciasis as a disease of public Health significance and an important constraint to socio-economic development in the 19 none OCP (Onchocerciasis Control Project) countries covered through Community-Directed Treatment with Ivermectin, CDTI. In 1998, impact assessment studies were carried out in Morogoro, Tanzania during which baseline ophthalmological parameters were established. The hypothesis being tested is that CDTI will prevent or delay progression of onchocercal eye lesions and blindness. A total of 425 subjects aged 10 years or more from 14 villages within Bwakira district ofMorogoro region in Tanzania were examined for Snellen visual acuity, ocular microfilaria, lens opacities, uveitis and posterior segment disease especially chorioretinitis and optic nerve disease. Motion Sensitivity Screening Test (MSST) was carried out as well. Microfilaria was present in the anterior chamber of nearly half (49.2%) of all subjects examined. Prevalence of blindness was extremely high at 15.2%. Onchocercal lesions were responsible for blindness in 41.5% of these, followed by cataracts (27.7%), glaucoma (10.8%) and trachoma (6.2%). The main pathway to onchocercal blindness in this population was anterior uveitis with or without secondary cataracts. There is an urgent need to get CDTI underway and institute other horizontal primary eye care measures, especially cataract backlog reduction, in order to reduce the excessive burden of avoidable blindness in this community.

  1. Future Long-Baseline Neutrino Oscillations: View from North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, R. J.

    2015-06-01

    In late 2012 the US Department of Energy gave approval for the first phase of the Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE), that will conduct a broad scientific program including neutrino oscillations, neutrino scattering physics, search for baryon violation, supernova burst neutrinos and other related astrophysical phenomena. The project is now being reformulated as an international facility hosted by the United States. The facility will consist of an intense neutrino beam produced at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), a highly capable set of neutrino detectors on the Fermilab campus, and a large underground liquid argon time projection chamber at Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in South Dakota 1300 km from Fermilab. With an intense beam and massive far detector, the experimental program at the facility will make detailed studies of neutrino oscillations, including measurements of the neutrino mass hierarchy and Charge-Parity symmetry violation, by measuring neutrino and anti-neutrino mixing separately. At the near site, the high-statistics neutrino scattering data will allow for many cross section measurements and precision tests of the Standard Model. This presentation will describe the configuration developed by the LBNE collaboration, the broad physics program, and the status of the formation of the international facility.

  2. Subtask 12D2: Baseline impact properties of vanadium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, H.M.; Loomis, B.A.; Smith, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1995-03-01

    The objective of this work is to determine the baseline impact properties of vanadium-base alloys as a function of compositional variables. Up-to-date results on impact properties of unirradiated V, V-Ti, V-Cr-Ti and V-Ti-Si alloys are presented and reviewed in this paper, with an emphasis on the most promising class of alloys, i.e., V-(4-5)Cr-(3-5)Ti containing 400-1000 wppm Si. Database on impact energy and ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) has been established from Charpy impact tests on small laboratory as well as production-scale heats. DBTT is influenced most significantly by Cr contents and, to a lesser extent, by Ti contents of the alloys. When combined contents of Cr and Ti were {le}10 wt.%, V-Cr-Ti alloys exhibit excellent impact properties, i.e., DBTT<-200{degrees}C and upper shelf energies of {approx}120-140 J/cm{sup 2}. Impact properties of the production-scale heat of the U.S. reference alloy V-4Cr- 4Ti were as good as those of the laboratory-scale heats. Optimal impact properties of the reference alloy were obtained after annealing the as-rolled products at 1000{degrees}C-1050{degrees}C for 1-2 h in high-quality vacuum. 17 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. A Survey of Astronomical Research: A Baseline for Astronomical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, V. A. R. M.; Russo, P.; Cárdenas-Avendaño, A.

    2013-12-01

    Measuring scientific development is a difficult task. Different metrics have been put forward to evaluate scientific development; in this paper we explore a metric that uses the number of peer-reviewed, and when available non-peer-reviewed, research articles as an indicator of development in the field of astronomy. We analyzed the available publication record, using the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory/NASA Astrophysics Database System, by country affiliation in the time span between 1950 and 2011 for countries with a gross national income of less than 14,365 USD in 2010. This represents 149 countries. We propose that this metric identifies countries in "astronomical development" with a culture of research publishing. We also propose that for a country to develop in astronomy, it should invest in outside expert visits, send its staff abroad to study, and establish a culture of scientific publishing. Furthermore, we propose that this paper may be used as a baseline to measure the success of major international projects, such as the International Year of Astronomy 2009.

  4. Accelerator-based Short-baseline Neutrino Oscillation Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Gollapinni, Sowjanya

    2015-01-01

    Over the last two decades, several experiments have reported anomalous results that could be hinting at the exciting possibility of sterile neutrino states in the $eV^{2}$ mass scale. Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers (LArTPCs) are a particularly promising technology to explore this physics due to their fine-grained tracking and exceptional calorimetric capabilities. The MicroBooNE experiment, a 170 ton LArTPC scheduled to start taking data very soon with Fermilab's Booster Neutrino Beam (BNB), will combine LArTPC development with the main physics goal of understanding the low-energy electromagnetic anomaly seen by the MiniBooNE experiment. Looking towards the future, MicroBooNE will become a part of the \\textit{short-baseline neutrino} program which expands the physics capabilities of the BNB in many important ways by adding additional LArTPC detectors to search for light sterile neutrinos and bring a definitive resolution to the set of existing experimental anomalies. This paper will give an overview of...

  5. Future long-baseline neutrino oscillations: View from North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Robert J., E-mail: wilson@colostate.edu [Department of Physics, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1875 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    In late 2012 the US Department of Energy gave approval for the first phase of the Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) that will conduct a broad scientific program including neutrino oscillations, neutrino scattering physics, search for baryon violation, supernova burst neutrinos and other related astrophysical phenomena. The project is now being reformulated as an international facility hosted by the United States. The facility will consist of an intense neutrino beam produced at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), a highly capable set of neutrino detectors on the Fermilab campus, and a large underground liquid argon time projection chamber at Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in South Dakota 1300 km from Fermilab. With an intense beam and massive far detector, the experimental program at the facility will make detailed studies of neutrino oscillations, including measurements of the neutrino mass hierarchy and Charge-Parity symmetry violation, by measuring neutrino and anti-neutrino mixing separately. At the near site, the high-statistics neutrino scattering data will allow for many cross section measurements and precision tests of the Standard Model. This presentation will describe the configuration developed by the LBNE collaboration, the broad physics program, and the status of the formation of the international facility.

  6. Baseline ion production dedicated to beta-beams

    CERN Document Server

    Stora, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    Beta-beams, a concept introduced in 1991, require a large facility that produces and accelerates to high energy electron neutrino and antineutrino beams for oscillation experiments. They are produced by b decay of radioactive ion beams in a dedicated ring directed towards underground detectors. This article addresses the production of the 6He and 18Ne baseline ions. Part of the results were obtained within EURISOL-DS, a design study for the next generation OnLine Isotope Separation facility for nuclear physics in Europe. 200 kW, 2 GeV protons on a solid neutron spallation source surrounded by a thick beryllium oxide target produce the required 6He rates, while 18Ne production falls short by more than an order of magnitude. A first alternative might fulfil the objectives with a 30 MeV 3He primary beam onto large solid oxide target disks at several MW. A second 18Ne production alternative is based on a 700 kW proton beam at medium energy (70-160 MeV) and a target made of a circulating molten salt loop.

  7. Updated baseline for a staged Compact Linear Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Boland, M J; Giansiracusa, P J; Lucas, T G; Rassool, R P; Balazs, C; Charles, T K; Afanaciev, K; Emeliantchik, I; Ignatenko, A; Makarenko, V; Shumeiko, N; Patapenka, A; Zhuk, I; Abusleme Hoffman, A C; Diaz Gutierrez, M A; Gonzalez, M Vogel; Chi, Y; He, X; Pei, G; Pei, S; Shu, G; Wang, X; Zhang, J; Zhao, F; Zhou, Z; Chen, H; Gao, Y; Huang, W; Kuang, Y P; Li, B; Li, Y; Shao, J; Shi, J; Tang, C; Wu, X; Ma, L; Han, Y; Fang, W; Gu, Q; Huang, D; Huang, X; Tan, J; Wang, Z; Zhao, Z; Laštovička, T; Uggerhoj, U; Wistisen, T N; Aabloo, A; Eimre, K; Kuppart, K; Vigonski, S; Zadin, V; Aicheler, M; Baibuz, E; Brücken, E; Djurabekova, F; Eerola, P; Garcia, F; Haeggström, E; Huitu, K; Jansson, V; Karimaki, V; Kassamakov, I; Kyritsakis, A; Lehti, S; Meriläinen, A; Montonen, R; Niinikoski, T; Nordlund, K; Österberg, K; Parekh, M; Törnqvist, N A; Väinölä, J; Veske, M; Farabolini, W; Mollard, A; Napoly, O; Peauger, F; Plouin, J; Bambade, P; Chaikovska, I; Chehab, R; Davier, M; Kaabi, W; Kou, E; LeDiberder, F; Pöschl, R; Zerwas, D; Aimard, B; Balik, G; Baud, J-P; Blaising, J-J; Brunetti, L; Chefdeville, M; Drancourt, C; Geoffroy, N; Jacquemier, J; Jeremie, A; Karyotakis, Y; Nappa, J M; Vilalte, S; Vouters, G; Bernard, A; Peric, I; Gabriel, M; Simon, F; Szalay, M; van der Kolk, N; Alexopoulos, T; Gazis, E N; Gazis, N; Ikarios, E; Kostopoulos, V; Kourkoulis, S; Gupta, P D; Shrivastava, P; Arfaei, H; Dayyani, M K; Ghasem, H; Hajari, S S; Shaker, H; Ashkenazy, Y; Abramowicz, H; Benhammou, Y; Borysov, O; Kananov, S; Levy, A; Levy, I; Rosenblat, O; D'Auria, G; Di Mitri, S; Abe, T; Aryshev, A; Higo, T; Makida, Y; Matsumoto, S; Shidara, T; Takatomi, T; Takubo, Y; Tauchi, T; Toge, N; Ueno, K; Urakawa, J; Yamamoto, A; Yamanaka, M; Raboanary, R; Hart, R; van der Graaf, H; Eigen, G; Zalieckas, J; Adli, E; Lillestøl, R; Malina, L; Pfingstner, J; Sjobak, K N; Ahmed, W; Asghar, M I; Hoorani, H; Bugiel, S; Dasgupta, R; Firlej, M; Fiutowski, T A; Idzik, M; Kopec, M; Kuczynska, M; Moron, J; Swientek, K P; Daniluk, W; Krupa, B; Kucharczyk, M; Lesiak, T; Moszczynski, A; Pawlik, B; Sopicki, P; Wojtoń, T; Zawiejski, L; Kalinowski, J; Krawczyk, M; Żarnecki, A F; Firu, E; Ghenescu, V; Neagu, A T; Preda, T; Zgura, I-S; Aloev, A; Azaryan, N; Budagov, J; Chizhov, M; Filippova, M; Glagolev, V; Gongadze, A; Grigoryan, S; Gudkov, D; Karjavine, V; Lyablin, M; Olyunin, A; Samochkine, A; Sapronov, A; Shirkov, G; Soldatov, V; Solodko, A; Solodko, E; Trubnikov, G; Tyapkin, I; Uzhinsky, V; Vorozhtov, A; Levichev, E; Mezentsev, N; Piminov, P; Shatilov, D; Vobly, P; Zolotarev, K; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I; Kacarevic, G; Lukic, S; Milutinovic-Dumbelovic, G; Pandurovic, M; Iriso, U; Perez, F; Pont, M; Trenado, J; Aguilar-Benitez, M; Calero, J; Garcia-Tabares, L; Gavela, D; Gutierrez, J L; Lopez, D; Toral, F; Moya, D; Ruiz-Jimeno, A; Vila, I; Argyropoulos, T; Blanch Gutierrez, C; Boronat, M; Esperante, D; Faus-Golfe, A; Fuster, J; Fuster Martinez, N; Galindo Muñoz, N; García, I; Giner Navarro, J; Ros, E; Vos, M; Brenner, R; Ekelöf, T; Jacewicz, M; Ögren, J; Olvegård, M; Ruber, R; Ziemann, V; Aguglia, D; Alipour Tehrani, N; Aloev, A; Andersson, A; Andrianala, F; Antoniou, F; Artoos, K; Atieh, S; Ballabriga Sune, R; Barnes, M J; Barranco Garcia, J; Bartosik, H; Belver-Aguilar, C; Benot Morell, A; Bett, D R; Bettoni, S; Blanchot, G; Blanco Garcia, O; Bonnin, X A; Brunner, O; Burkhardt, H; Calatroni, S; Campbell, M; Catalan Lasheras, N; Cerqueira Bastos, M; Cherif, A; Chevallay, E; Constance, B; Corsini, R; Cure, B; Curt, S; Dalena, B; Dannheim, D; De Michele, G; De Oliveira, L; Deelen, N; Delahaye, J P; Dobers, T; Doebert, S; Draper, M; Duarte Ramos, F; Dubrovskiy, A; Elsener, K; Esberg, J; Esposito, M; Fedosseev, V; Ferracin, P; Fiergolski, A; Foraz, K; Fowler, A; Friebel, F; Fuchs, J-F; Fuentes Rojas, C A; Gaddi, A; Garcia Fajardo, L; Garcia Morales, H; Garion, C; Gatignon, L; Gayde, J-C; Gerwig, H; Goldblatt, A N; Grefe, C; Grudiev, A; Guillot-Vignot, F G; Gutt-Mostowy, M L; Hauschild, M; Hessler, C; Holma, J K; Holzer, E; Hourican, M; Hynds, D; Inntjore Levinsen, Y; Jeanneret, B; Jensen, E; Jonker, M; Kastriotou, M; Kemppinen, J M K; Kieffer, R B; Klempt, W; Kononenko, O; Korsback, A; Koukovini Platia, E; Kovermann, J W; Kozsar, C-I; Kremastiotis, I; Kulis, S; Latina, A; Leaux, F; Lebrun, P; Lefevre, T; Linssen, L; Llopart Cudie, X; Maier, A A; Mainaud Durand, H; Manosperti, E; Marelli, C; Marin Lacoma, E; Martin, R; Mazzoni, S; Mcmonagle, G; Mete, O; Mether, L M; Modena, M; Münker, R M; Muranaka, T; Nebot Del Busto, E; Nikiforou, N; Nisbet, D; Nonglaton, J-M; Nuiry, F X; Nürnberg, A; Olvegard, M; Osborne, J; Papadopoulou, S; Papaphilippou, Y; Passarelli, A; Patecki, M; Pazdera, L; Pellegrini, D; Pepitone, K; Perez, F; Perez Codina, E; Perez Fontenla, A; Persson, T H B; Petrič, M; Pitters, F; Pittet, S; Plassard, F; Rajamak, R; Redford, S; Renier, Y; Rey, S F; Riddone, G; Rinolfi, L; Rodriguez Castro, E; Roloff, P; Rossi, C; Rude, V; Rumolo, G; Sailer, A; Santin, E; Schlatter, D; Schmickler, H; Schulte, D; Shipman, N; Sicking, E; Simoniello, R; Skowronski, P K; Sobrino Mompean, P; Soby, L; Sosin, M P; Sroka, S; Stapnes, S; Sterbini, G; Ström, R; Syratchev, I; Tecker, F; Thonet, P A; Timeo, L; Timko, H; Tomas Garcia, R; Valerio, P; Vamvakas, A L; Vivoli, A; Weber, M A; Wegner, R; Wendt, M; Woolley, B; Wuensch, W; Uythoven, J; Zha, H; Zisopoulos, P; Benoit, M; Vicente Barreto Pinto, M; Bopp, M; Braun, H H; Csatari Divall, M; Dehler, M; Garvey, T; Raguin, J Y; Rivkin, L; Zennaro, R; Aksoy, A; Nergiz, Z; Pilicer, E; Tapan, I; Yavas, O; Baturin, V; Kholodov, R; Lebedynskyi, S; Miroshnichenko, V; Mordyk, S; Profatilova, I; Storizhko, V; Watson, N; Winter, A; Goldstein, J; Green, S; Marshall, J S; Thomson, M A; Xu, B; Gillespie, W A; Pan, R; Tyrk, M A; Protopopescu, D; Robson, A; Apsimon, R; Bailey, I; Burt, G; Constable, D; Dexter, A; Karimian, S; Lingwood, C; Buckland, M D; Casse, G; Vossebeld, J; Bosco, A; Karataev, P; Kruchinin, K; Lekomtsev, K; Nevay, L; Snuverink, J; Yamakawa, E; Boisvert, V; Boogert, S; Boorman, G; Gibson, S; Lyapin, A; Shields, W; Teixeira-Dias, P; West, S; Jones, R; Joshi, N; Bodenstein, R; Burrows, P N; Christian, G B; Gamba, D; Perry, C; Roberts, J; Clarke, J A; Collomb, N A; Jamison, S P; Shepherd, B J A; Walsh, D; Demarteau, M; Repond, J; Weerts, H; Xia, L; Wells, J D; Adolphsen, C; Barklow, T; Breidenbach, M; Graf, N; Hewett, J; Markiewicz, T; McCormick, D; Moffeit, K; Nosochkov, Y; Oriunno, M; Phinney, N; Rizzo, T; Tantawi, S; Wang, F; Wang, J; White, G; Woodley, M

    2016-01-01

    The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is a multi-TeV high-luminosity linear e+e- collider under development. For an optimal exploitation of its physics potential, CLIC is foreseen to be built and operated in a staged approach with three centre-of-mass energy stages ranging from a few hundred GeV up to 3 TeV. The first stage will focus on precision Standard Model physics, in particular Higgs and top-quark measurements. Subsequent stages will focus on measurements of rare Higgs processes, as well as searches for new physics processes and precision measurements of new states, e.g. states previously discovered at LHC or at CLIC itself. In the 2012 CLIC Conceptual Design Report, a fully optimised 3 TeV collider was presented, while the proposed lower energy stages were not studied to the same level of detail. This report presents an updated baseline staging scenario for CLIC. The scenario is the result of a comprehensive study addressing the performance, cost and power of the CLIC accelerator complex as a function of...

  8. Baseline Gas Turbine Development Program ninth quarterly progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, C.E.

    1975-01-31

    Progress is reported for a program to demonstrate by 1976 an experimental gas turbine powered automobile which meets the 1978 Federal Emissions Standards, has significantly improved fuel economy, and is competitive in performance, reliability, and potential manufacturing cost with the conventional piston engine powered, standard size American automobile. NASA completed the first phase of their baseline engine heat balance tests, and an upgraded engine compressor is being scaled for test. EPA completed their report on vehicle tests including emissions and vehicle performance, and a new endurance engine is on test. Significant development progress was made on both fixed and variable geometry combustors. After 45 hours of engine operation with Vendor A ceramic regenerator, no significant deterioration of the matrix, seals, or elastomeric mount was encountered. Ceramic regenerator stress analysis has commenced. Additional developments in non-nickel oxide regenerator rubbing seals are encouraging. The first preprototype integrated control system is in vehicle operation. Control adaptation for variable inlet guide vanes and water injection is progressing. AiRefrac turbine wheels were verified dimensionally and are being processed for engine testing. Water injection tests with a four nozzle system were run, and additional performance documentation of variable inlet guide vanes was obtained. Linerless insulation is on test in the free rotor engine, the new endurance engine, and a performance engine. The free rotor engine completed test cell checkout and was installed in a vehicle. Vehicle checkout, including a preprototype integrated control, is underway. Detailed specifications of the upgraded engine were written.

  9. Neutrino Oscillation Parameter Sensitivity in Future Long-Baseline Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bass, Matthew [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The study of neutrino interactions and propagation has produced evidence for physics beyond the standard model and promises to continue to shed light on rare phenomena. Since the discovery of neutrino oscillations in the late 1990s there have been rapid advances in establishing the three flavor paradigm of neutrino oscillations. The 2012 discovery of a large value for the last unmeasured missing angle has opened the way for future experiments to search for charge-parity symmetry violation in the lepton sector. This thesis presents an analysis of the future sensitivity to neutrino oscillations in the three flavor paradigm for the T2K, NO A, LBNE, and T2HK experiments. The theory of the three flavor paradigm is explained and the methods to use these theoretical predictions to design long baseline neutrino experiments are described. The sensitivity to the oscillation parameters for each experiment is presented with a particular focus on the search for CP violation and the measurement of the neutrino mass hierarchy. The variations of these sensitivities with statistical considerations and experimental design optimizations taken into account are explored. The effects of systematic uncertainties in the neutrino flux, interaction, and detection predictions are also considered by incorporating more advanced simulations inputs from the LBNE experiment.

  10. Ecological Dimensions of Information Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinerova, Jela

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: We examine relationships between information literacy and information ecology with regard to conceptual innovation in information science. We aim to expand our understanding of human information behaviour and relevance assessment in the electronic environment. Method: Conceptual analysis and conceptual mapping is used and…

  11. Chaos in easter island ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprott, J C

    2011-10-01

    This paper demonstrates that a recently proposed dynamical model for the ecology of Easter Island admits periodic and chaotic attractors, not previously reported. Such behavior may more realistically depict the population dynamics of general ecosystems and illustrates the power of simple models to produce the kind of complex behavior that is ubiquitous in such systems.

  12. Soil Microbiology, Ecology, and Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 4th edition of Soil Microbiology, Ecology, and Biochemistry Edited by Eldor Paul continues in the vein of the 3rd edition by providing an excellent, broad-reaching introduction to soil biology. The new edition improves on the previous by providing extensive supplementary materials, links to outs...

  13. The Ecological Economics of Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge; Reisch, Lucia A.

    In accordance with the transdisciplinary basis of ecological economics, this volume encompasses contributions from different perspectives, often cutting across disciplines. It is divided into three parts that group contributions on · problematizing consumption both as a concept and as an economic...

  14. COMPLEMENTARITY OF ECOLOGICAL GOAL FUNCTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper summarizes, in the framework of network environ analysis, a set of analyses of energy-matter flow and storage in steady state systems. The network perspective is used to codify and unify ten ecological orientors or external principles: maximum power (Lotka), maximum st...

  15. Special issue introduction: Ecological modernization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Massa, Ilmo; Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2000-01-01

    The contributions to this special issue of the Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning stem from an international conference on ecological modernization that took place at the Department of Social Policy of the University of Helsinki, Finland, in late 1998. They have been selected, among other...... and restoring its meaning and justification for the environmental debate....

  16. The chemical ecology of copepods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuschele, Jan; Selander, Erik

    2014-01-01

    for the functioning of the marine food web, much is still unknown. We synthesize current knowledge about chemical ecology of copepods including foraging, survival and reproduction. We also compile information on the sensory apparatus and new analytical approaches that may facilitate the identification of signal...

  17. European ecological networks and greenways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongman, R.H.G.; Külvik, M.; Kristiansen, I.

    2004-01-01

    In the context of European integration, networks are becoming increasingly important in both social and ecological sense. Since the beginning of the 1990s, societal and scientific exchanges are being restructured as the conceptual approaches towards new nature conservation strategies have been renew

  18. Ecological ethics and creation faith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Körtner

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Over past decades a concept of ecological ethics has taken root, which is often equated with environmental ethics. Church and theology have also responded to the environmental crisis. In the last third of the past century an intense discourse about the concerns and extent of a so called creation ethics was conducted. In connection with the question of a creation ethics, and the global responsibility of humans for the biosphere of our planet, the topic of creation has also gained new attention in dogmatics. In this way, ecology has also become a topic of systematic theology. The article focuses on the debate in the German speaking context. Occasionally, a quasi-religious elevation of ecology to the status of a doctrine of salvation is observable. Because theology always also has a function of critique of religion, it must also critically engage the sometimes open and sometimes hidden religious contents and claims of eco-ethical concepts. For this purpose, the first step of the present contribution is to more precisely determine the concepts of creation and nature. Thereafter, the problem of anthropocentrism is analysed. In a further step, the concept of sustainability is analysed. In conclusion, the main features of a responsibility-ethics model of ecological ethics are outlined.

  19. Health Behavior in Ecological Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Health is best understood within an ecological context. Accordingly, health promotion involves processes that foster supportive environments and healthful behavior. Thus, effective health promotion programs are typically multilevel, focusing not only on the population at risk but also on the environmental conditions that contribute so importantly…

  20. Genomics and marine microbial ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrós-Alió, Carlos

    2006-09-01

    Genomics has brought about a revolution in all fields of biology. Before the development of microbial ecology in the 1970s, microbes were not even considered in marine ecological studies. Today we know that half of the total primary production of the planet must be credited to microorganisms. This and other discoveries have changed dramatically the perspective and the focus of marine microbial ecology. The application of genomics-based approaches has provided new challenges and has allowed the discovery of novel functions, an appreciation of the great diversity of microorganisms, and the introduction of controversial ideas regarding the concepts of species, genome, and niche. Nevertheless, thorough knowledge of the traditional disciplines of biology is necessary to explore the possibilities arising from these new insights. This work reviews the different genomic techniques that can be applied to marine microbial ecology, including both sequencing of the complete genomes of microorganisms and metagenomics, which, in turn, can be complemented with the study of mRNAs (transcriptomics) and proteins (proteomics). The example of proteorhodopsin illustrates the type of information that can be gained from these approaches. A genomics perspective constitutes a map that will allow microbiologists to focus their research on potentially more productive aspects.

  1. Reverse genetics in ecological research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Schwachtje

    Full Text Available By precisely manipulating the expression of individual genetic elements thought to be important for ecological performance, reverse genetics has the potential to revolutionize plant ecology. However, untested concerns about possible side-effects of the transformation technique, caused by Agrobacterium infection and tissue culture, on plant performance have stymied research by requiring onerous sample sizes. We compare 5 independently transformed Nicotiana attenuata lines harboring empty vector control (EVC T-DNA lacking silencing information with isogenic wild types (WT, and measured a battery of ecologically relevant traits, known to be important in plant-herbivore interactions: phytohormones, secondary metabolites, growth and fitness parameters under stringent competitive conditions, and transcriptional regulation with microarrays. As a positive control, we included a line silenced in trypsin proteinase inhibitor gene (TPI expression, a potent anti-herbivore defense known to exact fitness costs in its expression, in the analysis. The experiment was conducted twice, with 10 and 20 biological replicates per genotype. For all parameters, we detected no difference between any EVC and WT lines, but could readily detect a fitness benefit of silencing TPI production. A statistical power analyses revealed that the minimum sample sizes required for detecting significant fitness differences between EVC and WT was 2-3 orders of magnitude larger than the 10 replicates required to detect a fitness effect of TPI silencing. We conclude that possible side-effects of transformation are far too low to obfuscate the study of ecologically relevant phenotypes.

  2. Chemical ecology of vertebrate carrion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertebrate carrion is a nutrient-rich, ephemeral resource that is utilized by many different organisms ranging from vertebrate and invertebrate scavengers to microbes. The organisms that consume carrion play an important ecological role, as decomposition is vital to ecosystem function. Without the...

  3. Molecular ecology of microbial mats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Bolhuis; M.S. Cretoiu; L.J. Stal

    2014-01-01

    Phototrophic microbial mats are ideal model systems for ecological and evolutionary analysis of highly diverse microbial communities. Microbial mats are small-scale, nearly closed, and self-sustaining benthic ecosystems that comprise the major element cycles, trophic levels, and food webs. The steep

  4. Education for Today's Ecological Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, S. Fred

    1970-01-01

    Describes the university's role in providing education for the ecological crisis, and divides environmental sciences into two major areas: basic and applied. Proposes a curriculum leading to a B.S. degree in physics consisting of a two-year honor physics program followed by specialization in environmental and planetary sciences (EPS). (PR)

  5. On Science, Ecology and Environmentalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulloch, Lynley

    2013-01-01

    Using ecological science as a backdrop for this discussion, the author applies Michel Foucault's historical genealogical strategy to an analysis of the processes through which sustainable development (SD) gained hegemonic acceptance in the West. She analyses some of the ideological mutations that have seen SD emerge from an environmentalist…

  6. Ecological palaeoecology: a missing link between ecology and evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rull, V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Palaeoecology is more than a palaeoenvironmental discipline; it is a science that is well-suited for supplying the empirical evidence necessary to test ecological hypotheses and contributes to our understanding of the interface of ecology and evolution. A critical time frame in palaeoecology is the often-overlooked Q-time dimension (centuries to millennia, which tends to be the most appropriate time dimension to examine ecology–evolution interactions. This paper discusses these topics from a conceptual perspective and provides examples of the contributions of palaeoecology to the study of ecology–evolution interactions. It also admonishes researchers about the threats of overlooking palaeoecology. Specifically, this paper argues that the neglect of palaeoecology may result in the loss of empirical support for ecology and its interactions with evolution as DNA-based phylogenetic and phylogeographic studies become more and more prevalent. The main concepts discussed are the time continuum, the notion of ecological palaeoecology and the empirical nature of palaeoecology in the face of more hypothetical approaches. More practically speaking, several examples are provided that highlight the utility of ecological palaeoecology for understanding a variety of processes, including ecological succession, community– environment equilibria, community assembly, biotic responses to environmental change, speciation and extinction, and biodiversity conservation. The ecology–evolution interface is analysed using two processes in which these disciplines interact intensively: ecological succession and long-range migration. This work concludes that both ecological palaeoecology (including ancient DNA records and DNA-based phylogenetics and phylogeography are needed to better understand the biosphere ecologically and the processes occurring at the ecology–evolution interface.La paleoecología es más que una disciplina ambiental, ya que proporciona las

  7. Oxygen minimum seafloor ecological (mal) functioning

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Moodley, L.; Nigam, R.; Ingole, B.S.; PrakashBabu, C.; Panchang, R.; Nanajkar, M.; Sivadas, S.; van Breugel, P.; van Ijzerloo, L.; Rutgers, R.; Heip, C.H.R.; Soetaert, K.; Middelburg, J.J.

    under certain oceanic settings such as the oxygen minimum zones (OMZ) where OM accumulates in underlying sediments. A basic question that remains is as to what extent this Corg accumulation reflects ecological ‘malfunctioning’ or a shunting of ecological...

  8. Waianae Ecological Characterization Oahu, Hawaii 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Waianae Ecological Characterization is a digital synthesis of historical and current physical, ecological, and cultural information about the Waianae moku, which...

  9. Regional Ecological Corridors - MLCCS derived 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Identification of potential ecological corridors between the MLCCS derived ecological patches (ear_eco08py3). This was generated using cost / distance analysis,...

  10. Historical ecology: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Péter

    2015-11-01

    The term 'historical ecology' has been used with various meanings since the first half of the 20th century. Studies labelled as historical ecology have been produced in at least four academic disciplines: history, ecology, geography and anthropology. Although all those involved seem to agree that historical ecology concerns the historical interconnectedness of nature and human culture, this field of study has no unified methodology, specialized institutional background and common publication forums. Knowledge of the development of historical ecology is also limited. As a result, the current multitude of definitions of historical ecology is accompanied by divergent opinions as to where the origins of the field are to be sought. In this review, I follow the development of historical ecology from the 18th century to the present. In the first part, I briefly describe some early examples of historical ecological investigations, followed by a description of the various scientific strands in the 20th century that contributed to the formation of historical ecology. In the second part, I discuss the past five decades of historical ecological investigations in more detail, focusing mostly (but not exclusively) on works that their respective authors identified as historical ecology. I also examine the appearance and interconnectedness of the two main trends (ecological and anthropological) in historical ecological research. In the last part, I attempt to outline the future of historical ecology based on common features in existing research. It appears that at present historical ecology is at a crossroads. With rapidly growing interest in historical ecological research, it may move towards institutionalization or remain an umbrella term.

  11. Baseline Profile of Soil Samples from Upian River Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilanfranco Caballero TAYONE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Mines and Geosciences Bureau (MGB in the Philippines is currently mapping out the entire Davao City Watershed Area (DCWA. There are 8 major watershed areas within DCWA that has been identified by the MGB and the largest is the Davao River Watershed Area (DRWA. A smaller sub-watershed within DRWA, the Upian River Watershed Area (URWA, was proposed of which its boundary and soil profile is yet to be established. This study focused on the analyses of the soil samples from URWA. The results for pH, organic matter, cation exchange capacity, N, P, K, Ca and Mg were then compared to the Bureau of Soil standard for its fertility rating. Analysis of lead (Pb was also included as a pollutant indicator for possible soil contamination. There are 4 sampling sites with unfavorable ratings for pH, 3 for both organic matter and phosphorus, and 2 stations for both nitrogen and calcium. Fertility rating is generally good for cation exchange capacity, potassium and magnesium. The Bureau of Soil has no existing standards for micronutrients. However, all sampling sites were found to be too low with micronutrients according to Gershuny and Smillie. No indication of lead contamination or pollution on all sites as far as natural levels of lead in surface soil is concerned. This study will provide baseline information that is useful to all stakeholders, to the people living near the area, farmers, planners, and resource managers. This can also provide inputs to key government agencies in the Philippines like the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR and the City Planning Office of Davao in formulating policies for sustainable management of the resource upon implementation of their programs and projects. Without the aforementioned information, planners would have difficulty in predicting the impact or recommend best management strategies for a specific land use.

  12. Baseline and Lifetime Assessments for DC745U Elastomeric Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, R S; Chinn, S C; Herberg, J; Harvey, C; Alviso, C; Vance, A; Cohenour, R; Wilson, M; Solyom, D

    2004-12-20

    The silicone elastomer Dow Corning DC 745U is used in two major components in the W80. We have investigated a number of issues concerning this material. Our studies have accomplished a baseline study of the chemical composition of DC745 and LLNL now has a good understanding of the chemical composition of this material. DC745 crystallizes within the system STS. Two potential means identified to mitigate the risk associated with this phenomenon are to (1) change material formulation and (2) predose the parts to {approx} 25 MRad {gamma}-radiation. A candidate material identified by Gordon Spellman has been studied for composition and the lack of crystallization within the STS has been verified. A sensitivity study of the effects of relevant aging mechanisms also has been performed. The extent of aging due to radiation exposure or elevated temperatures is minimal over the expected course of the LEP. In addition, since the DC745 parts are expected to be replaced at rebuild, the aging clock is essentially being reset. No significant aging issues seem likely to develop for these parts. DC745 parts are also subject to permanent deformation in service. Our studies have shown that the deformation is likely due to incomplete mixing of the raw gum stock and the curing agent at production. This results in areas of low crosslink density that are subject to a higher degree of compression set in service. We have identified two production diagnostic tools based on Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy to prescreen the parts at production at KCP. These studies are concluded with specific recommendation for changes to core surveillance for this part based on the chemical knowledge we have gained from this study.

  13. Wyner-Ziv to Baseline H.264 Video Transcoder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales-García, Alberto; Martínez, Jose Luis; Fernández-Escribano, Gerardo; Villalon, Jose Miguel; Kalva, Hari; Cuenca, Pedro

    2012-12-01

    Mobile-to-mobile video communications is one of the most requested services which operator networks can offer. However, in a framework where one mobile device sends video information to another, both transmitter and receptor should employ video encoders and decoders with low complexity. On the one hand, traditional video codecs, such as H.264, are based on architectures which have encoders with higher complexity than decoders. On the other hand, Wyner-Ziv (WZ) video coding (a particular case of distributed video coding) is an innovative paradigm, which provides encoders with less complexity than decoders. Taking advantage of both paradigms, in terms of low complexity algorithms, a suitable solution consists in transcoding from WZ to H.264. Nevertheless, the transcoding process should be carried out in an efficient way so as to avoid major delays in communication; in other words, the transcoding process should perform the conversion without requiring the complete process of decoding and re-encoding. Based on all the algorithms and techniques we have proposed before, a low complexity WZ to H.264 Transcoder for the Baseline Profile is proposed in this article. Firstly, the proposed transcoder can efficiently turn every WZ group of pictures into the common H.264 I11P pattern and, secondly, the proposed transcoder is based on the hypothesis that macroblock coding mode decisions in H.264 video have a high correlation with the distribution of the side information residual in WZ video. The proposed algorithm selects one sub-set of the several coding modes in H.264. Moreover, a dynamic motion estimation technique is proposed in this article for use in combination with the above algorithm. Simulation results show that the proposed transcoder reduces the inter prediction complexity in H.264 by up to 93%, while maintaining coding efficiency.

  14. PCANet: A Simple Deep Learning Baseline for Image Classification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Tsung-Han; Jia, Kui; Gao, Shenghua; Lu, Jiwen; Zeng, Zinan; Ma, Yi

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a very simple deep learning network for image classification that is based on very basic data processing components: 1) cascaded principal component analysis (PCA); 2) binary hashing; and 3) blockwise histograms. In the proposed architecture, the PCA is employed to learn multistage filter banks. This is followed by simple binary hashing and block histograms for indexing and pooling. This architecture is thus called the PCA network (PCANet) and can be extremely easily and efficiently designed and learned. For comparison and to provide a better understanding, we also introduce and study two simple variations of PCANet: 1) RandNet and 2) LDANet. They share the same topology as PCANet, but their cascaded filters are either randomly selected or learned from linear discriminant analysis. We have extensively tested these basic networks on many benchmark visual data sets for different tasks, including Labeled Faces in the Wild (LFW) for face verification; the MultiPIE, Extended Yale B, AR, Facial Recognition Technology (FERET) data sets for face recognition; and MNIST for hand-written digit recognition. Surprisingly, for all tasks, such a seemingly naive PCANet model is on par with the state-of-the-art features either prefixed, highly hand-crafted, or carefully learned [by deep neural networks (DNNs)]. Even more surprisingly, the model sets new records for many classification tasks on the Extended Yale B, AR, and FERET data sets and on MNIST variations. Additional experiments on other public data sets also demonstrate the potential of PCANet to serve as a simple but highly competitive baseline for texture classification and object recognition.

  15. Preclinical models for neuroblastoma: establishing a baseline for treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tal Teitz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Preclinical models of pediatric cancers are essential for testing new chemotherapeutic combinations for clinical trials. The most widely used genetic model for preclinical testing of neuroblastoma is the TH-MYCN mouse. This neuroblastoma-prone mouse recapitulates many of the features of human neuroblastoma. Limitations of this model include the low frequency of bone marrow metastasis, the lack of information on whether the gene expression patterns in this system parallels human neuroblastomas, the relatively slow rate of tumor formation and variability in tumor penetrance on different genetic backgrounds. As an alternative, preclinical studies are frequently performed using human cell lines xenografted into immunocompromised mice, either as flank implant or orthtotopically. Drawbacks of this system include the use of cell lines that have been in culture for years, the inappropriate microenvironment of the flank or difficult, time consuming surgery for orthotopic transplants and the absence of an intact immune system. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we characterize and optimize both systems to increase their utility for preclinical studies. We show that TH-MYCN mice develop tumors in the paraspinal ganglia, but not in the adrenal, with cellular and gene expression patterns similar to human NB. In addition, we present a new ultrasound guided, minimally invasive orthotopic xenograft method. This injection technique is rapid, provides accurate targeting of the injected cells and leads to efficient engraftment. We also demonstrate that tumors can be detected, monitored and quantified prior to visualization using ultrasound, MRI and bioluminescence. Finally we develop and test a "standard of care" chemotherapy regimen. This protocol, which is based on current treatments for neuroblastoma, provides a baseline for comparison of new therapeutic agents. SIGNIFICANCE: The studies suggest that use of both the TH-NMYC model of neuroblastoma and the

  16. Single-baseline RTK GNSS Positioning for Hydrographic Surveying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metin Alkan, Reha; Murat Ozulu, I.; Ilçi, Veli; Kahveci, Muzaffer

    2015-04-01

    Positioning with GNSS technique can be carried out in two ways, absolute and relative. It has been possible to reach a few meters absolute point positioning accuracies in real time after disabling SA permanently in May 2000. Today, accuracies obtainable from absolute point positioning using code observations are not sufficient for most surveying applications. Thus to meet higher accuracy requirements, differential methods using single or dual frequency geodetic-grade GNSS receivers that measure carrier phase have to be used. However, this method requires time-cost field and office works and if the measurement is not carried out with conventional RTK method, user needs a GNSS data processing software to estimate the coordinates. If RTK is used, at least two or more GNSS receivers are required, one as a reference and the other as a rover. Moreover, the distance between the receivers must not exceed 15-20 km in order to be able to rapidly and reliably resolve the carrier phase ambiguities. On the other hand, based on the innovations and improvements in satellite geodesy and GNSS modernization studies occurred within the last decade, many new positioning methods and new approaches have been developed. One of them is Network-RTK (or commonly known as CORS) and the other is Single-baseline RTK. These methods are widely used for many surveying applications in many countries. The user of the system can obtain his/her position within a few cm level of accuracy in real-time with only a single GNSS receiver that has Network RTK (CORS) capability. When compared with the conventional differential and RTK methods, this technique has several significant advantages as it is easy to use and it produces accurate, cost-effective and rapid solutions. In Turkey, establishment of a multi-base RTK network was completed and opened for civilian use in 2009. This network is called CORS-TR and consists of 146 reference stations having about 80-100 km interstation distances. It is possible

  17. Ecological Screening Values for Surface Water, Sediment, and Soil: 2005 Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friday, G. P.

    2005-07-18

    One of the principal components of the environmental remediation program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is the assessment of ecological risk. Used to support CERCLA, RCRA, and DOE orders, the ecological risk assessment (ERA) can identify environmental hazards and evaluate remedial action alternatives. Ecological risk assessment is also an essential means for achieving DOE's risk based end state vision for the disposition of nuclear material and waste hazards, the decommissioning of facilities, and the remediation of inactive waste units at SRS. The complexity of an ERA ranges from a screening level ERA (SLERA) to a full baseline ERA. A screening level ecological risk assessments, although abbreviated from a baseline risk assessment, is nonetheless considered a complete risk assessment (EPA, 2001a). One of the initial tasks of any ERA is to identify constituents that potentially or adversely affect the environment. Typically, this is accomplished by comparing a constituent's maximum concentration in surface water, sediment, or soil with an ecological screening value (ESV). The screening process can eliminate many constituents from further consideration in the risk assessment, but it also identifies those that require additional evaluation. This document is an update of a previous compilation (Friday, 1998) and provides a comprehensive listing of ecological screening values for surface water, sediment, and soil. It describes how the screening values were derived and recommends benchmarks that can be used for ecological risk assessment. The sources of these updated benchmarks include the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the State of Florida, the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME), the Dutch Ministry of the Environment (RIVM), and the scientific literature. It

  18. Ecology for the shrinking city (JA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article brings together the concepts of shrinking cities—the hundreds of cities worldwide experiencing long-term population loss—and ecology for the city. Ecology for the city is the application of a social–ecological understanding to shaping urban form and function along su...

  19. Ecology for the shrinking city (JA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article brings together the concepts of shrinking cities—the hundreds of cities worldwide experiencing long-term population loss—and ecology for the city. Ecology for the city is the application of a social–ecological understanding to shaping urban form and...

  20. A universal simulator for ecological models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Software design is an often neglected issue in ecological models, even though bad software design often becomes a hindrance for re-using, sharing and even grasping an ecological model. In this paper, the methodology of agile software design was applied to the domain of ecological models. Thus...

  1. Ecological Environment in Terms of Human Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaogang; CHEN; Dehu; ZHOU; Hui; LIN

    2013-01-01

    In terms of human behavior,company and government policy,it is proposed that the ecological behavior of human being is the basis of influence on the ecological environment construction in Poyang Lake and measures to ensure the sustainable development of ecological environment in Poyang Lake.

  2. The Encyclical Laudato Si': integral ecology, gender and deep ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eustáquio Diniz Alves

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Pope Jorge Mario Bergoglio released the "Encyclical Laudato Si': on the care of common home" on June 18, 2015, the same day that the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA has shown that the temperature of Earth continues increasing and that May of 2015 was Earth's warmest month, since 1880. By endorsing the scientific knowledge in relation to anthropogenic factors on global warming and by defending actions to confront the causes of climate change and ecosystem degradation, the Holy See has taken a key step to put Catholics at the forefront of global ecological struggle and to encourage the signing of the global treaty to replace the Kyoto Protocol at the 21st Conference of the Parties (COP-21, that will take place in December in Paris. But the encyclical of Pope Francis proposes a larger task that is to protect the poorest of the poor countries, addressing jointly the human environment and the natural environment from the perspective of an integral ecology. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the advances and limitations of the propositions of the encyclical Laudato Si ' and to expand the dialogue on gender relations and deep ecology.

  3. Ecological research at the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-05-01

    Research is organized around two major programs: thermal and aquatic stress and mineral cycling. These programs are strengthened by a previously established foundation of basic ecological knowledge. Research in basic ecology continues to be a major component of all SREL environmental programs. Emphasis in all programs has been placed upon field-oriented research relating to regional and local problems having broad ecological significance. For example, extensive research has been conducted in the Par Pond reservoir system and the Savannah River swamp, both of which have received thermal effluent, heavy metals, and low levels of radioisotopes. Furthermore, the availability of low levels of plutonium and uranium in both terrestrial and aquatic environments on the Savannah River Plant (SRP) has provided an unusual opportunity for field research in this area. The studies seek to document the effects, to determine the extent of local environmental problems, and to establish predictable relationships which have general applicability. In order to accomplish this objective it has been imperative that studies be carried out in the natural, environmentally unaffected areas on the SRP as a vital part of the overall program. Progress is reported in forty-nine studies.

  4. 100 Areas CERCLA ecological investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landeen, D.S.; Sackschewsky, M.R.; Weiss, S.

    1993-09-01

    This document reports the results of the field terrestrial ecological investigations conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company during fiscal years 1991 and 1992 at operable units 100-FR-3, 100-HR-3, 100-NR-2, 100-KR-4, and 100-BC-5. The tasks reported here are part of the Remedial Investigations conducted in support of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 studies for the 100 Areas. These ecological investigations provide (1) a description of the flora and fauna associated with the 100 Areas operable units, emphasizing potential pathways for contaminants and species that have been given special status under existing state and/or federal laws, and (2) an evaluation of existing concentrations of heavy metals and radionuclides in biota associated with the 100 Areas operable units.

  5. Water Saving Strategies & Ecological Modernisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Birgitte; Jensen, Jesper Ole; Elle, Morten;

    2005-01-01

    Drawing on case studies of water saving campaigns and new collaborations, the pa-per will serve, on the one hand, as an interpretation of the water saving strategy in Co-penhagen in the light of Ecological Modernisation, and on the other hand, as a critical discussion of Ecological Modernisation...... as a frame for understanding resource manage-ment. The water management in Copenhagen has in recent years undergone a rather radi-cal transition. Along with strong drivers for resource management in the region the mu-nicipal water supplier has tested and implemented a number of initiatives to promote sus...... to 125 l/capita/day in 2002. A series of different strategies, targets and tools have been implemented: Emphasizing demand side instead of supply side, using and communicating indicators, formulating goals for reducing water consumption and developing learning processes in water management. A main...

  6. The microbial ecology of permafrost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Janet K; Taş, Neslihan

    2014-06-01

    Permafrost constitutes a major portion of the terrestrial cryosphere of the Earth and is a unique ecological niche for cold-adapted microorganisms. There is a relatively high microbial diversity in permafrost, although there is some variation in community composition across different permafrost features and between sites. Some microorganisms are even active at subzero temperatures in permafrost. An emerging concern is the impact of climate change and the possibility of subsequent permafrost thaw promoting microbial activity in permafrost, resulting in increased potential for greenhouse-gas emissions. This Review describes new data on the microbial ecology of permafrost and provides a platform for understanding microbial life strategies in frozen soil as well as the impact of climate change on permafrost microorganisms and their functional roles.

  7. Where is behavioural ecology going?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Ian P F

    2006-07-01

    Since the 1990s, behavioural ecologists have largely abandoned some traditional areas of interest, such as optimal foraging, but many long-standing challenges remain. Moreover, the core strengths of behavioural ecology, including the use of simple adaptive models to investigate complex biological phenomena, have now been applied to new puzzles outside behaviour. But this strategy comes at a cost. Replication across studies is rare and there have been few tests of the underlying genetic assumptions of adaptive models. Here, I attempt to identify the key outstanding questions in behavioural ecology and suggest that researchers must make greater use of model organisms and evolutionary genetics in order to make substantial progress on these topics.

  8. Malaria ecology and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCord, G. C.

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the costs that climate change will exact on society is crucial to devising an appropriate policy response. One of the channels through while climate change will affect human society is through vector-borne diseases whose epidemiology is conditioned by ambient ecology. This paper introduces the literature on malaria, its cost on society, and the consequences of climate change to the physics community in hopes of inspiring synergistic research in the area of climate change and health. It then demonstrates the use of one ecological indicator of malaria suitability to provide an order-of-magnitude assessment of how climate change might affect the malaria burden. The average of Global Circulation Model end-of-century predictions implies a 47% average increase in the basic reproduction number of the disease in today's malarious areas, significantly complicating malaria elimination efforts.

  9. Ecological economics and institutional change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krall, Lisi; Klitgaard, Kent

    2011-02-01

    Ecological economics remains unfinished in its effort to provide a framework for transforming the economy so that it is compatible with biophysical limits. Great strides have been made in valuing natural capital and ecosystem services and recognizing the need to limit the scale of economic activity, but the question of how to effectively transform the economy to limit the scale of economic activity remains unclear. To gain clarity about the institutional changes necessary to limit the scale of economic activity, it is essential that ecological economics understands the limitations of its neoclassical roots and expands its theoretical framework to include how markets are embedded in social and institutional structures. This has long been the domain of institutional economics and heterodox political economy.

  10. Advanced Neonatal Medicine in China: A National Baseline Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xiang-Peng; Chipenda-Dansokho, Selma; Lewin, Antoine; Abdelouahab, Nadia; Wei, Shu-Qin

    2017-01-01

    Previous surveys of neonatal medicine in China have not collected comprehensive information on workforce, investment, health care practice, and disease expenditure. The goal of the present study was to develop a national database of neonatal care units and compare present outcomes data in conjunction with health care practices and costs. We summarized the above components by extracting data from the databases of the national key clinical subspecialty proposals issued by national health authority in China, as well as publicly accessible databases. Sixty-one newborn clinical units from provincial or ministerial hospitals at the highest level within local areas in mainland China, were included for the study. Data were gathered for three consecutive years (2008-2010) in 28 of 31 provincial districts in mainland China. Of the 61 newborn units in 2010, there were 4,948 beds (median = 62 [IQR 43-110]), 1,369 physicians (median = 22 [IQR 15-29]), 3,443 nurses (median = 52 [IQR 33-81]), and 170,159 inpatient discharges (median = 2,612 [IQR 1,436-3,804]). During 2008-2010, the median yearly investment for a single newborn unit was US$344,700 (IQR 166,100-585,800), median length of hospital stay for overall inpatient newborns 9.5 (IQR 8.2-10.8) days, median inpatient antimicrobial drug use rate 68.7% (IQR 49.8-87.0), and median nosocomial infection rate 3.2% (IQR1.7-5.4). For the common newborn diseases of pneumonia, sepsis, respiratory distress syndrome, and very low birth weight (capita disposable income, and ratios of hospital cost to per-capita health expenditure, were all significantly different across regions (North China, Northeast China, East China, South Central China, Southwest China, and Northwest China). The survival rate of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants (Birth weight capita disposable income, or 63 times (IQR 40.3-72.1) the average per-capita health expenditure of local urban residents in 2011. Our national database provides baseline data on the

  11. Bayesian Inference: with ecological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, William A.; Barker, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    This text provides a mathematically rigorous yet accessible and engaging introduction to Bayesian inference with relevant examples that will be of interest to biologists working in the fields of ecology, wildlife management and environmental studies as well as students in advanced undergraduate statistics.. This text opens the door to Bayesian inference, taking advantage of modern computational efficiencies and easily accessible software to evaluate complex hierarchical models.

  12. Ecological Theory of Language Acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Lacerda, Francisco; Klintfors, Eeva; Gustavsson, Lisa; Lagerkvist, Lisa; MARKLUND, ELLEN; Sundberg, Ulla

    2004-01-01

    This poster outlines an Ecological Theory of Language Acquisition (ETLA). The theory views the early phases of the language acquisition process as an emergent consequence of the interaction between the infant and its linguistic environment. The newborn infant is considered to be linguistically and phonetically naïve but endowed with the ability to register a wide range of multi-sensory inputs along with the ability to detect similarity between the multi-sensory stimuli it is exposed to. The i...

  13. Need for an Ecological Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohan Wickramasinghe

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The article was published in the Sri Lankan newspaper 'The Island' on the 30th November 2005 after the World Environmental Education Congress (WEEC held in Milan. Author hopes it could provide a base for a project for senior school children or more senior students to devise an Ecological Index and ‘If nothing else, it could help them in thinking out the issues involved!’ Author supposes that could be a form of environmental education.

  14. Agro-ecology: beyond food

    OpenAIRE

    Félix, Georges F.; Timmermann, Cristian

    2013-01-01

    Some may view indigenous communities as being conservative and backwards. However, the Kabekwa in Costa Rica show that such communities can be adaptable and innovative. In response to changing circumstances, this community has been adapting its farming practices constantly, benefiting from it in multiple ways. In this case study we show some of the additional advantages agro-ecology provides to farmers beside food. Using the concept of meaningful work we explore how knowledge-intensive far...

  15. The movement ecology of seagrasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Kathryn; van Dijk, Kor-Jent; Ruiz-Montoya, Leonardo; Kendrick, Gary A; Krauss, Siegfried L; Waycott, Michelle; Verduin, Jennifer; Lowe, Ryan; Statton, John; Brown, Eloise; Duarte, Carlos

    2014-11-22

    A movement ecology framework is applied to enhance our understanding of the causes, mechanisms and consequences of movement in seagrasses: marine, clonal, flowering plants. Four life-history stages of seagrasses can move: pollen, sexual propagules, vegetative fragments and the spread of individuals through clonal growth. Movement occurs on the water surface, in the water column, on or in the sediment, via animal vectors and through spreading clones. A capacity for long-distance dispersal and demographic connectivity over multiple timeframes is the novel feature of the movement ecology of seagrasses with significant evolutionary and ecological consequences. The space-time movement footprint of different life-history stages varies. For example, the distance moved by reproductive propagules and vegetative expansion via clonal growth is similar, but the timescales range exponentially, from hours to months or centuries to millennia, respectively. Consequently, environmental factors and key traits that interact to influence movement also operate on vastly different spatial and temporal scales. Six key future research areas have been identified.

  16. Ecological economics and economic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Peter A

    2010-01-01

    Boulding's 1966 paper on the economics of spaceship Earth established the framework for ecological economics and an understanding of economic growth. In ecological economics, economies are conceptualized as open subsystems of the closed biosphere and are subject to biophysical laws and constraints. Economic growth measured as an increase in real gross domestic product (GDP) has generally been associated with increases in the use of energy and materials and the generation of wastes. Scale, composition, and technology are the proximate determinants of environmental impacts. They are often reduced to two: scale (GDP) and intensity (impact per unit GDP). New work described in this paper defines "green" growth as intensity that declines faster than scale increases. Similarly, "brown" growth occurs when intensity declines more slowly than increases in scale, and "black" growth happens when both scale and intensity increase. These concepts are then related to the environmental Kuznets curve, which can be understood as a transition from brown to green growth. Ecological economics provides a macroperspective on economic growth. It offers broad policy principles, and it challenges the primacy of economic growth as a policy objective, but many important questions remain.

  17. SRS ECOLOGY ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wike, L; Doug Martin, D; Eric Nelson, E; Nancy Halverson, N; John Mayer, J; Michael Paller, M; Rodney Riley, R; Michael Serrato, M

    2006-03-01

    The SRS Ecology Environmental Information Document (EEID) provides a source of information on the ecology of Savannah River Site (SRS). The SRS is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)--owned property on the upper Atlantic Coastal Plain of South Carolina, centered approximately 40 kilometers (25 miles) southeast of Augusta, Georgia. The entire site was designated a National Environmental Research Park in 1972 by the Atomic Energy Commission, the predecessor of DOE. This document summarizes and synthesizes ecological research and monitoring conducted on the three main types of ecosystems found at SRS: terrestrial, wetland and aquatic. It also summarizes the available information on the threatened and endangered species found on the Savannah River Site. SRS is located along the Savannah River and encompasses an area of 80,267 hectares (310 square miles) in three South Carolina counties. It contains diverse habitats, flora, and fauna. Habitats include upland terrestrial areas, wetlands, streams, reservoirs, and the adjacent Savannah River. These diverse habitats support a variety of plants and animals, including many commercially or recreationally valuable species and several rare, threatened, or endangered species. Soils are the basic terrestrial resource, influencing the development of terrestrial biological communities. Many different soils exist on the SRS, from hydric to well-drained, and from sand to clay. In general, SRS soils are predominantly well-drained loamy sands.

  18. Information retrieval for ecological syntheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, Helen R; Beyer, Fiona R

    2015-06-01

    Research syntheses are increasingly being conducted within the fields of ecology and environmental management. Information retrieval is crucial in any synthesis in identifying data for inclusion whilst potentially reducing biases in the dataset gathered, yet the nature of ecological information provides several challenges when compared with medicine that should be considered when planning and undertaking searches. We present ten recommendations for anyone considering undertaking information retrieval for ecological research syntheses that highlight the main differences with medicine and, if adopted, may help reduce biases in the dataset retrieved, increase search efficiency and improve reporting standards. They are as follows: (1) plan for information retrieval at an early stage, (2) identify and use sources of help, (3) clearly define the question to be addressed, (4) ensure that provisions for managing, recording and reporting the search are in place, (5) select an appropriate search type, (6) identify sources to be used, (7) identify limitations of the sources, (8) ensure that the search vocabulary is appropriate, (9) identify limits and filters that can help direct the search, and (10) test the strategy to ensure that it is realistic and manageable. These recommendations may be of value for other disciplines where search infrastructures are not yet sufficiently well developed.

  19. The precarious ecologies of cosmopolitanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsha Meskimmon

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Meskimmon contends that cosmopolitanism might be described as a precarious ecology, a state of dynamic exchange between selves and others, and a corporeal interplay between subjects, objects and ideas in the world. In this sense, cosmopolitanism is not a finished product, but rather a delicate balance reached during the mutual making of subjects and worlds, when that making welcomes difference and encourages ethical encounters with others. Turning to specific works by the artists Joan Brassil, Catherine Bertola and Johanna Hallsten, Meskimmon suggests that one of the ways that contemporary art can play a role in the creation of the precarious ecologies of cosmopolitanism is through its ability to evoke in viewers a state of wonder. Meskimmon explores wonder as a precarious, and precious, affective state that enmeshes us, imaginatively and sensually, with/in the world, and through each of these very different instances she demonstrates how artwork can participate in the production of a tenuous and attenuated moment of balance, a precarious ecology, that has the potential to align us through our shared wonder at the open generosity of the world.

  20. Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy of rectal carcinoma. Baseline hematologic parameters influencing outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodek, Miroslav; Sirak, Igor; Paluska, Petr; Kopecky, Jindrich; Petera, Jiri; Vosmik, Milan [University Hospital in Hradec Kralove, Department of Oncology and Radiotherapy, Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Ferko, Alexander; Oerhalmi, Julius [University Hospital in Hradec Kralove, Department of Surgery, Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Hovorkova, Eva; Hadzi Nikolov, Dimitar [University Hospital in Hradec Kralove, Fingerland Department of Pathology, Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic)

    2016-09-15

    The link between the blood count and a systemic inflammatory response (SIR) is indisputable and well described. Pretreatment hematological parameters may predict the overall clinical outcomes in many types of cancer. Thus, this study aims to systematically evaluate the relationship between baseline blood count levels and treatment response in rectal cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. From 2009-2015, 173 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer were retrospectively enrolled in the study and analyzed. The baseline blood count was recorded in all patients 1 week before chemoradiation. Tumor response was evaluated through pathologic findings. Blood count levels which included RBC (red blood cells), Hb (hemoglobin), PLT (platelet count), neutrophil count, WBC (white blood cells), NLR (neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio), and PLR (platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio) were analyzed in relation to tumor downstaging, pCR (pathologic complete response), OS (overall survival), and DFS (disease-free survival). Hb levels were associated with a response in logistic regression analysis: pCR (p = 0.05; OR 1.04, 95 % CI 1.00-1.07); T downstaging (p = 0.006; OR 1.03, 95 % CI 1.01-1.05); N downstaging (p = 0.09; OR 1.02, 95 % CI 1.00-1.04); T or N downstaging (p = 0.007; OR 1.04, 95 % CI 1.01-1.07); T and N downstaging (p = 0.02; OR 1.02, 95 % CI 1.00-1.04); Hb and RBC were the most significant parameters influencing OS; PLT was a negative prognostic factor for OS and DFS (p = 0.008 for OS); an NLR value of 2.8 was associated with the greatest significance for OS (p = 0.03) and primary tumor downstaging (p = 0.02). Knowledge of pretreatment hematological parameters appears to be an important prognostic factor in patients with rectal carcinoma. (orig.) [German] Die Verbindung zwischen dem Blutbild und der systemischen Entzuendungsreaktion (''systemic inflammatory response'', SIR) ist unbestreitbar und gut beschrieben. Aufgrund der