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Sample records for baseline blood pressure

  1. DIASTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE OR ACTUALLY IT IS BASELINE SYSTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Vinodh Rajkumar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Blood pressure measuring represents a routine investigation in general medicine. Nokolai Korotkoff was only 31 years old when he made a short presentation to the Scientific Meeting of the Military Hospital of the Academy on 5 November 1905 concerning an easy non-invasive method of blood pressure (BP measurement, entitled ‘Concerning the problems of the methods of blood pressure measurement’. If the pressure in the cuff is relieved, blood starts coming through the compressed arterial segment during systole and causes auscultatory sound and, the first sound, which, in Korotkoff’s opinion, is a measurement of systolic blood pressure. In the same BP measurement, when normal blood flow is fully restored, the auscultatory sounds disappear and, the last sound, which, in Korotkoff's opinion is a measurement of diastolic blood pressure. Listening to Korotkoff sounds (K-sounds to determine systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP has been the standard for noninvasive BP measurement in medical practices for nearly 100 years and it is the essential tool used for evaluation and assessment of patients with hypertension and risks of cardiovascular diseases (CVD by physicians and nurses despite limited understanding of the nature of K-sounds. This article focuses particularly on the cardiovascular biomechanics of the first and last auscultatory sound and suggests two new terminologies; Highest systolic blood pressure and Baseline systolic blood pressure to represent the systolic pressure and diastolic pressure, respectively. Experimenting blood pressures on the basis of these two new suggested terminologies may reveal various additional undiscovered aspects of normal BP and abnormal BP. KEY WORDS: Highest systolic blood pressure, Baseline systolic blood pressure, Korotkoff sounds

  2. DIASTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE OR ACTUALLY IT IS BASELINE SYSTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE?

    OpenAIRE

    R.Vinodh Rajkumar

    2015-01-01

    Blood pressure measuring represents a routine investigation in general medicine. Nokolai Korotkoff was only 31 years old when he made a short presentation to the Scientific Meeting of the Military Hospital of the Academy on 5 November 1905 concerning an easy non-invasive method of blood pressure (BP) measurement, entitled ‘Concerning the problems of the methods of blood pressure measurement’. If the pressure in the cuff is relieved, blood starts coming through the compressed arterial segment...

  3. Blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the walls of the arteries is called blood pressure. Blood pressure is measured both as the heart contracts, which ... as it relaxes, which is called diastole. Normal blood pressure is considered to be a systolic blood pressure ...

  4. Baseline Systolic Blood Pressure Response to Exercise Stress Test Can Predict Exercise Indices following Cardiac Rehabilitation Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Sardari

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Systolic blood pressure recovery (rSBP is of prognostic value for predicting the survival and co-morbidity rate in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD. This study investigated the association between rSBP and exercise indices after complete cardiac rehabilitation program (CR in a population-based sample of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG.Methods: The sample population consisted of 352 patients who underwent pure CABG. The patients underwent standard symptom-limited exercise testing immediately before and also after the completion of the CR sessions. rSBP was defined as the ratio of the systolic blood pressure at 3 minutes in recovery to the systolic blood pressure at peak exercise.Results: An abnormal baseline rSBP after exercise was a strong predictor of exercise parameters in the last session, including metabolic equivalents (β = -0.617, SE = 0.127, p value < 0.001 and peak O2 consumption (β = -1.950, SE = 0.363, p value < 0.001 measured in the last session adjusted for baseline exercise characteristics, demographics, function class, and left ventricular ejection fraction.Conclusion: The current study strongly emphasizes the predictive role of baseline rSBP after exercise in evaluating exercise parameters following CR. This baseline index can predict abnormal METs value, peak O2 consumption, post-exercise heart rate, and heart rate recovery after a 24-session CR program.

  5. Correlation between baseline blood pressure and the brainstem FMRI response to isometric forearm contraction in human volunteers: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulson, J M; Murphy, K; Harris, A D; Fjodorova, M; Cockcroft, J R; Wise, R G

    2015-07-01

    It has been shown previously that changes in brainstem neural activity correlate with changes in both mean arterial pressure (MAP) and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during static handgrip (SHG). However, the relationship between baseline MAP and brainstem neural activity is unclear. We investigated changes in blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal induced by SHG in 12 young adults using BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI). An estimation of the blood pressure response to SHG was obtained in seven subjects during a session outside the MRI scanner and was used to model the blood pressure response to SHG inside the scanner. SHG at 40% of maximum grip increased MAP (mean ± s.d.) at the end of the 180-s squeeze from 85 ± 6 mm Hg to 108 ± 15 mm Hg, P = 0.0001. The brainstem BOLD signal change associated with SHG was localised to the ventrolateral medulla. This regional BOLD signal change negatively correlated with baseline MAP, r = -0.61, P = 0.01. This relationship between baseline MAP and brainstem FMRI responses to forearm contraction is suggestive of a possible role for brainstem activity in the control of MAP and may provide mechanistic insights into neurogenic hypertension. PMID:25391759

  6. The effects of blood pressure reduction and of different blood pressure-lowering regimens on major cardiovascular events according to baseline blood pressure : meta-analysis of randomized trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czernichow, Sebastien; Zanchetti, Alberto; Turnbull, Fiona; Barzi, Federica; Ninomiya, Toshiaru; Kengne, Andre-Pascal; Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J.; Perkovic, Vlado; Huxley, Rachel; Arima, Hisatomi; Patel, Anushka; Chalmers, John; Woodward, Mark; MacMahon, Stephen; Neal, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Background The benefits of reducing blood pressure are well established, but there remains uncertainty about whether the magnitude of the effect varies with the initial blood pressure level. The objective was to compare the risk reductions achieved by different blood pressure-lowering regimens among

  7. Antihypertensive medications and sexual function in women: Baseline data from the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Holly N.; Evans, Gregory W.; Berlowtiz, Dan R.; Chertow, Glenn M.; Conroy, Molly B.; Foy, Capri G.; Glasser, Stephen P.; Lewis, Cora E.; Riley, William T.; Russell, Laurie; Williams, Olubunmi; Hess, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Hypertension is a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular and kidney disease, but treatment can substantially reduce risks. Many patients avoid antihypertensive medications due to fear of side effects. While associations between antihypertensives and sexual dysfunction in men have been documented, it remains unclear whether antihypertensives are associated with sexual dysfunction in women. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from women in the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) to evaluate the relations among class of antihypertensive medication and the outcomes (a) sexual activity and (b) sexual function. Methods SPRINT enrolled individuals 50 and older with hypertension at high risk for cardiovascular disease. A subset of participants completed questionnaires regarding quality of life (QoL), including sexual function. Antihypertensive class was determined by medications taken at baseline. Results Of 690 women in the QoL subset of SPRINT, 183 (26.5%) were sexually active. There were no significant differences in sexual activity among women taking one or more antihypertensives and women not taking any. Women taking an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker (ACEI/ARB) had higher odds of sexual activity [OR 1.66 (1.12-4.27), p=0.011]. Among sexually active women, the prevalence of sexual dysfunction was high (52.5%). No class of medication was associated with sexual dysfunction in the multivariable model. Conclusions ACEI/ARB use was associated with higher odds of sexual activity. While prevalence of sexual dysfunction was high, no single class of antihypertensive medication was associated with sexual dysfunction. PMID:27032074

  8. The Relationship Between Baseline Blood Pressure and Computed Tomography Findings in Acute Stroke Data From the Tinzaparin in Acute Ischaemic Stroke Trial (TAIST)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sare, G.M.; Bath, P.M.W.; Gray, L.J.;

    2009-01-01

    Background and Purpose-High blood pressure (BP) is present in approximate to 80% of patients with acute ischemic stroke and is independently associated with poor outcome. There are few data examining the relationship between admission BP and acute CT findings. Methods-TAIST was a randomized...... associated with baseline BP. Conclusion-Although high baseline BP is independently associated with a poor outcome after stroke, this was not shown to be through an association with increased hemorrhagic transformation, cerebral edema, or mass effect; trial design may be suboptimal to detect this. Higher SBP...

  9. Blood Pressure Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: High Blood Pressure Blood Pressure Quiz Past Issues / Fall 2011 Table of Contents ... About High Blood Pressure / Treatment: Types of Blood Pressure Medications / Blood Pressure Quiz Fall 2011 Issue: Volume 6 Number ...

  10. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... right away. continue How Do Doctors Measure Blood Pressure? Blood pressure readings are fast and painless. Blood pressure ... same age, height, and gender have lower blood pressure. Blood pressure between 90% and 95% of the normal ...

  11. Blood pressure measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diastolic blood pressure; Systolic blood pressure; Blood pressure reading; Measuring blood pressure ... or your health care provider will wrap the blood pressure cuff snugly around your upper arm. The ...

  12. Baseline Systolic Blood Pressure Response to Exercise Stress Test Can Predict Exercise Indices following Cardiac Rehabilitation Program

    OpenAIRE

    Akram Sardari; Mostafa Nejatian; Mehrdad Sheikhvatan

    2010-01-01

    Background: Systolic blood pressure recovery (rSBP) is of prognostic value for predicting the survival and co-morbidity rate in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). This study investigated the association between rSBP and exercise indices after complete cardiac rehabilitation program (CR) in a population-based sample of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG).Methods: The sample population consisted of 352 patients who underwent pure CABG. The patients underwent sta...

  13. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your doctor prescribes it, medicine. What Is Blood Pressure? Blood pressure is the force of blood flow inside ... Will I Know if I Have High Blood Pressure? High blood pressure is a silent problem — you won't ...

  14. Understanding Blood Pressure Readings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What is the AHA recommendation for healthy blood pressure? This blood pressure chart reflects categories defined by the American ... unusually low blood pressure readings. How is high blood pressure diagnosed? Your healthcare providers will want to get ...

  15. High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Connected Home » High Blood Pressure Heath and Aging High Blood Pressure What Is Blood Pressure? Do ... high blood pressure increases as you get older. Gender. Before age 55, men have a greater chance ...

  16. High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pressure and should be taken seriously. Over time, consistently high blood pressure weakens and damages ... of landmark NIH blood pressure study confirm that lower blood pressure target can reduce ...

  17. Aliskiren in combination with losartan reduces albuminuria independent of baseline blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Frederik; Lewis, Julia B; Lewis, Edmund J;

    2011-01-01

    Elevated BP contributes to development and progression of proteinuria and decline in renal function in patients with type 2 diabetes. Our post hoc analysis assessed the baseline BP influence on the antiproteinuric effect in the Aliskiren in the Evaluation of Proteinuria in Diabetes (AVOID) study....

  18. Medications and Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Medications and Blood Pressure Updated:Jul 6,2016 When your blood pressure ... was last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...

  19. High blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you are at risk for: Bleeding from the aorta, the large blood vessel that supplies blood to ... tests Blood pressure check Blood pressure References American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes-2015 ...

  20. High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... normal blood pressure 140/90 or higher is high blood pressure Between 120 and 139 for the top number, ... prehypertension. Prehypertension means you may end up with high blood pressure, unless you take steps to prevent it. High ...

  1. High blood pressure - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group on High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents. The fourth report on the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure in children and adolescents. Pediatrics . ...

  2. High Blood Pressure Facts

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    ... Heart Disease Cholesterol Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN High Blood Pressure Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... facts about high blood pressure [PDF-255K] . High Blood Pressure in the United States About 70 million ...

  3. LEADER-4: blood pressure control in patients with type 2 diabetes and high cardiovascular risk: baseline data from the LEADER randomized trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, John R.; Marso, Steven P.; Bain, Stephen C.; Franek, Edward; Jacob, Stephan; Masmiquel, Luis; Leiter, Lawrence A.; Haluzik, Martin; Satman, Ilhan; Omar, Mohamed; Shestakova, Marina; Van Gaal, Luc; Mann, Johannes F.; Baeres, Florian M.M.; Zinman, Bernard; Poulter, Neil R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: As glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists lower blood pressure (BP) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), we examined BP control in relation to targets set by international bodies prior to randomization in the Liraglutide Effect and Action in Diabetes: Evaluation of cardiovascular outcome Results (LEADER) trial. Methods: We analyzed baseline data from LEADER (NCT01179048), an ongoing phase 3B, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cardiovascular outcomes trial examining the cardiovascular safety of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist liraglutide in 9340 people with T2DM from 32 countries [age (all mean ± SD) 64 ± 7.2 years, BMI 32.5 ± 6.3 kg/m2, duration of diabetes 12.7 ± 8.0 years], all of whom were at high risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Results: A total of 81% (n = 7592) of participants had prior CVD and 90% (n = 8408) had a prior history of hypertension. Despite prescription of multiple antihypertensive agents at baseline, only 51% were treated to a target BP of less than 140/85 mmHg and only 26% to the recommended baseline BP target of less than 130/80 mmHg. In univariate analyses, those with prior CVD were prescribed more agents (P < 0.001) and had lower BP than those without (137 ± 18.8/78 ± 10.6 mmHg versus 140 ± 17.7/80 ± 9.9 mmHg; P < 0.001). In logistic regression analyses, residency in North America (64% treated to <140/85 mmHg; 38% treated to <130/80 mmHg) was the strongest predictor of BP control. Conclusion: These contemporary data confirm that BP remains insufficiently controlled in a large proportion of individuals with T2DM at high cardiovascular risk, particularly outside North America. Longitudinal data from the LEADER trial may provide further insights into BP control in relation to cardiovascular outcomes in this condition. PMID:26855018

  4. High blood pressure medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007484.htm High blood pressure medicines To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Treating high blood pressure will help prevent problems such as heart disease, ...

  5. Blood Pressure Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    High blood pressure, also called hypertension, usually has no symptoms. But it can cause serious problems such as stroke, heart ... kidney failure. If you cannot control your high blood pressure through lifestyle changes such as losing weight and ...

  6. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood pressure with the development of a practical method to measure it. Physicians began to note associations between hypertension and risk of heart failure, stroke, and kidney failure. Although scientists had yet to prove that lowering blood pressure ...

  7. Baseline blood pressure, low- and high-density lipoproteins, and triglycerides and the risk of vascular events in the Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amarenco, Pierre; Goldstein, Larry B; Callahan, Alfred;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the relative contributions of baseline systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and lipoproteins on the risk of recurrent stroke or first major cardiovascular event (MCVE) and their potential impact on the benefit of statin treatment. METHODS AND...... cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglyceride levels. After 4.9 years of follow-up, there were 575 primary end points (fatal and nonfatal stroke), including 491 ischemic strokes, and 740 MCVEs (stroke plus myocardial infarction and vascular death). Cox regression...

  8. Controlling your high blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that is healthy for you. Checking Your Blood Pressure Your blood pressure can be measured at many places, including: ... Alternative Names Controlling hypertension Images Taking your blood pressure at home Blood pressure check Low sodium diet References American Diabetes ...

  9. What Is High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also known as blood vessels and capillaries. The pressure --- blood pressure --- is the result of two forces. The ... was last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) Introduction What ...

  10. High Blood Pressure Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... much alcohol. Signs and Symptoms of High Blood Pressure High blood pressure usually has no warning signs or symptoms , ... they are at high risk for high blood pressure . Blood Pressure Levels Normal systolic: less than 120 mmHg ...

  11. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ...

  12. ORANGE JUICE AND BLOOD PRESSURE

    OpenAIRE

    M. F. VALIM; Barros, S.

    2009-01-01

    Blood pressure is the force of blood against artery walls. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) and recorded as two numbers: systolic pressure (as the heart contracts) over diastolic pressure (as the heart relaxes between beats). High blood pressure (hypertension) is defined as chronically elevated high blood pressure, with systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 140 mm Hg or greater, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of 90 mm Hg or greater. High blood pressure ...

  13. Preventing High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Heart Disease Cholesterol Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Preventing High Blood Pressure: Healthy Living Habits Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... meal and snack options can help you avoid high blood pressure and its complications. Be sure to eat plenty ...

  14. What Causes High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... whether imbalances in this system cause high blood pressure. Blood Vessel Structure and Function Changes in the structure ... can affect blood pressure. Genetic Causes of High Blood Pressure Much of the understanding of the body systems ...

  15. Home monitoring of blood pressure

    OpenAIRE

    McGrath, Barry P

    2015-01-01

    Home blood pressure monitoring is the self-measurement of blood pressure by patients. In the diagnosis and management of high blood pressure it is complementary to 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and clinic blood pressure measurements. Home monitoring can also help to identify white-coat and masked hypertension.

  16. Blood Pressure vs. Heart Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Blood Pressure vs. Heart Rate Updated:Aug 30,2016 Blood ... was last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) Introduction What ...

  17. Prevention of High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Prevention of High Blood Pressure Healthy lifestyle habits, proper use of medicines, and ... high blood pressure or its complications. Preventing High Blood Pressure Onset Healthy lifestyle habits can help prevent high ...

  18. Medications for High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dangerous as elevations of both systolic and diastolic pressure. Blood pressure is elevated for two main reasons: too ... and Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), reduce blood pressure by relaxing blood vessels Beta blockers, which also cause the heart ...

  19. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of High Blood Pressure For most patients, health care providers diagnose high blood pressure when blood pressure ... painless and can be done in a health care provider’s office or clinic. To prepare for the ...

  20. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... providers diagnose high blood pressure when blood pressure readings are consistently 140/90 mmHg or above. Confirming ... minutes before the test. To track blood pressure readings over a period of time, the health care ...

  1. Types of Blood Pressure Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Types of Blood Pressure Medications Updated:Aug 26,2016 Many medications known ... was last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...

  2. High Blood Pressure and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More High Blood Pressure and Women Updated:Aug 13,2014 Many people ... was last reviewed on 08/04/14. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...

  3. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Clinical Trials What Are Clinical Trials? Children & Clinical Studies NHLBI ... providers diagnose high blood pressure when blood pressure readings are consistently 140/90 mmHg or above. Confirming High Blood ...

  4. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Trials What Are Clinical Trials? Children & Clinical Studies NHLBI ... providers diagnose high blood pressure when blood pressure readings are consistently 140/90 mmHg or above. Confirming High Blood ...

  5. Questions and Answers about High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Pressure Page Content What is high blood pressure? Blood pressure is the force of blood against the ... do I know if I have high blood pressure? High blood pressure is often called "the silent killer" because ...

  6. Blood pressure and atherosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    2010319 Effects of combined application of Xuezhikang capsule with hypotensive drugs on arterial compliance and smoothness of the dynamic blood pressure. ZHU Zongtao(朱宗涛),et al. Dept Cardiol, Centr People’s Hosp, Tengzhou 277500.Chin J Integr Tradit & West Med 2010;30

  7. Blood Pressure Measurement Guidelines for Physical Therapists

    OpenAIRE

    Frese, Ethel M; Fick, Ann; Sadowsky, H. Steven

    2011-01-01

    Vital sign measurement and assessment are important components of the review of systems in a physical therapy examination for individuals with and without documented cardiopulmonary disease. The measurement of blood pressure gives the therapist information regarding the patient's baseline cardiovascular status, response to exercise/activity, and guides exercise prescription. Accurate measurement of blood pressure is critical for making appropriate clinical decisions especially if physical the...

  8. Stroke and High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Stroke and High Blood Pressure Updated:Jan 6,2015 Stroke is a leading ... heart disease and stroke. Start exploring today ! High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...

  9. Potassium and High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Potassium and High Blood Pressure Updated:Mar 1,2016 A diet that includes ... was last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...

  10. Myths about High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Myths About High Blood Pressure Updated:Aug 12,2014 You CAN manage your ... was last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) Introduction What ...

  11. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pressure. Using the results of your blood pressure test, your health care provider will diagnose prehypertension or high blood pressure ... same age, gender, and height . Once your health care provider ... he or she can order additional tests to determine if your blood pressure is due ...

  12. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless and can be done ... provider’s office or clinic. To prepare for the test: Don’t drink coffee or smoke cigarettes for ...

  13. High blood pressure and diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007483.htm High blood pressure and diet To use the sharing features on ... diet is a proven way to help control high blood pressure . These changes can also help you lose weight ...

  14. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... track blood pressure readings over a period of time, the health care provider may ask you to ... the office on different days and at different times to take your blood pressure. The health care ...

  15. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... visit the health care provider, he or she should tell you what your blood pressure numbers are; if he or she does not, you should ask for your readings. Blood Pressure Severity and ...

  16. High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the baby. Controlling your blood pressure during pregnancy and getting regular prenatal care are important for ... your baby. Treatments for high blood pressure in pregnancy may include close monitoring of the baby, lifestyle ...

  17. Genes That Influence Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Matters NIH Research Matters September 26, 2011 Genes that Influence Blood Pressure In one of the ... 16 previously unknown variations. Six were found in genes already suspected of regulating blood pressure. The remaining ...

  18. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure For most patients, health care providers diagnose high blood pressure when blood pressure ... and painless and can be done in a health care provider’s office or clinic. To prepare for the ...

  19. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure For most patients, health care providers diagnose high ... are consistently 140/90 mmHg or above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless ...

  20. Living with High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With High Blood Pressure If you have high blood pressure, the best thing to do is to talk ... care provider and take steps to control your blood pressure by making healthy lifestyle changes and taking medications, ...

  1. High Blood Pressure and Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Remember Clinical Trials What is high blood pressure? Blood pressure is the force of blood pushing against ... filtering units called nephrons. [ Top ] How does high blood pressure affect the kidneys? High blood pressure can damage ...

  2. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lead an active, normal life. What Is Blood Pressure? Blood pressure is the force that blood puts on ... and medications. continue Long-Term Effects of High Blood Pressure When someone has high blood pressure, the heart ...

  3. Blood Pressure Matters: Keep Hypertension in Check

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cuff, or an automatic device may measure the pressure. Blood pressure is given as 2 numbers. The first ... described above. High Blood Pressure NIHSeniorHealth: High Blood Pressure High Blood Pressure and Kidney Disease Heart and Vascular Diseases ...

  4. ORANGE JUICE AND BLOOD PRESSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. VALIM

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Blood pressure is the force of blood against artery walls. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg and recorded as two numbers: systolic pressure (as the heart contracts over diastolic pressure (as the heart relaxes between beats. High blood pressure (hypertension is defined as chronically elevated high blood pressure, with systolic blood pressure (SBP of 140 mm Hg or greater, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP of 90 mm Hg or greater. High blood pressure (HBP, smoking, abnormal blood lipid levels, obesity and diabetes are risk factors for coronary heart disease, the leading cause of death in the US. Lifestyle modifications such as engaging in regular physical activity, quitting smoking and eating a healthy diet (limiting intake of saturated fat and sodium and increasing consumption of fiber, fruits and vegetables are advocated for the prevention, treatment, and control of HBP. As multiple factors influence blood pressure, the effects of each factor are typically modest, particularly in normotensive subjects, yet the combined effects can be substantial. Nutrition plays an important role in influencing blood pressure. Orange juice should be included as part of any low sodium diet and/or any blood pressure reducing eating plan, as it is sodium free, fat-free and can help meet recommended levels of potassium intake that may contribute to lower BP.

  5. Risk Factors for High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. Risk Factors for High Blood Pressure Anyone can develop high blood pressure; however, age, ... can increase your risk for developing high blood pressure. Age Blood pressure tends to rise with age. About 65 ...

  6. Healthy Blood Pressure: "It's Worth the Effort!"

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn Javascript on. Special Section: Healthy Blood Pressure Healthy Blood Pressure: "It's worth the effort!" Past Issues / Winter 2010 ... Numbers: What They Mean / Treatment: Types of Blood Pressure Medications / Healthy Blood Pressure: "It's worth the effort!" / Keep the Beat ...

  7. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... does not, you should ask for your readings. Blood Pressure Severity and Type Your health care provider usually takes 2–3 ... any other location. Health care providers diagnose this type of high blood pressure by reviewing readings in the office and ...

  8. Diabetes and blood pressure (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    People with diabetes have a higher risk for heart attacks and strokes. Your doctor or nurse should check your blood pressure ... People with diabetes have a higher risk for heart attacks and strokes. Your doctor or nurse should check your blood pressure ...

  9. Association of maternal blood pressure in pregnancy with blood pressure of their offspring through adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royal-Thomas, Tamika; McGee, Daniel; Sinha, Debajyoti; Osmond, Clive; Forrester, Terrence

    2015-11-01

    This article looks at the association of maternal blood pressure with the blood pressure of the offspring from birth to childhood. The Barker hypothesis states that maternal and "in utero" attributes during pregnancy affect a child's cardiovascular health throughout life. We present an analysis of a unique dataset that consists of three distinct developmental processes: maternal cardiovascular health during pregnancy; fetal development; and child's cardiovascular health from birth to 14 years. This study explored whether a mother's blood pressure reading in pregnancy predicts fetal development and determines if this in turn is related to the future cardiovascular health of the child. This article uses data that have been collected prospectively from a Jamaican cohort which involves the following three developmental processes: (1) maternal cardiovascular health during pregnancy which is the blood pressure and anthropometric measurements at seven time-points on the mother during pregnancy; (2) fetal development which consists of ultrasound measurements of the fetus taken at six time-points during pregnancy; and (3) child's cardiovascular health which consists of the child's blood pressure measurements at 24 time-points from birth to 14 years. The inter-relationship of these three processes was examined using linear mixed effects models. Our analyses indicated that attributes later in childhood development, such as child's weight, child's baseline systolic blood pressure (SBP), age and sex, predict the future cardiovascular health of children. The results also indicated that maternal attributes in pregnancy, such as mother's baseline SBP and SBP change, predicted significantly child's SBP over time. PMID:25178900

  10. High Blood Pressure Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your blood to pass through more easily. Alpha-beta blockers not only reduce nerve impulses, but also make ... with less force. They combine the effects of beta blockers and alpha blockers. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (also ...

  11. Low Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... failure . Your heart may not be able to circulate enough blood to meet your body's needs. Endocrine ... related to heart disease and stroke. Start exploring today ! Related Tools HBP Risk Calculator HBP Trackers Videos ...

  12. Atmospheric pressure loading parameters from very long baseline interferometry observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macmillan, D. S.; Gipson, John M.

    1994-01-01

    Atmospheric mass loading produces a primarily vertical displacement of the Earth's crust. This displacement is correlated with surface pressure and is large enough to be detected by very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) measurements. Using the measured surface pressure at VLBI stations, we have estimated the atmospheric loading term for each station location directly from VLBI data acquired from 1979 to 1992. Our estimates of the vertical sensitivity to change in pressure range from 0 to -0.6 mm/mbar depending on the station. These estimates agree with inverted barometer model calculations (Manabe et al., 1991; vanDam and Herring, 1994) of the vertical displacement sensitivity computed by convolving actual pressure distributions with loading Green's functions. The pressure sensitivity tends to be smaller for stations near the coast, which is consistent with the inverted barometer hypothesis. Applying this estimated pressure loading correction in standard VLBI geodetic analysis improves the repeatability of estimated lengths of 25 out of 37 baselines that were measured at least 50 times. In a root-sum-square (rss) sense, the improvement generally increases with baseline length at a rate of about 0.3 to 0.6 ppb depending on whether the baseline stations are close to the coast. For the 5998-km baseline from Westford, Massachusetts, to Wettzell, Germany, the rss improvement is about 3.6 mm out of 11.0 mm. The average rss reduction of the vertical scatter for inland stations ranges from 2.7 to 5.4 mm.

  13. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Budget, Planning, & Legislative Advisory Committees Contact Us FAQs Home » Health Information for the Public » Health Topics » High ... also may ask you to check readings at home or at other locations that have blood pressure ...

  14. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Explore High Blood Pressure What Is... Other Names Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments ... stress, which can occur during the medical appointment, causes white coat hypertension. Rate This Content: NEXT >> Updated: ...

  15. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are consistently higher than 120/80 mmHg. Your child’s blood pressure numbers are outside average numbers for children of the same age, gender, and height . Once your health care provider ...

  16. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Explore High Blood Pressure What Is... Other Names Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Prevention Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Atherosclerosis DASH Eating Plan Overweight and Obesity Smoking and Your Heart ...

  17. High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Talk to your doctor about any over-the-counter medications you are taking or are thinking about taking. Does Hypertension or Preeclampsia During Pregnancy Cause Long-Term Heart and Blood Vessel Problems? The effects of high blood pressure during pregnancy vary depending on the disorder and ...

  18. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Entire Site Health Topics News & Resources Intramural Research Public Health Topics Education & Awareness Resources Contact The Health Information ... Contact Us FAQs Home » Health Information for the Public » Health Topics » High Blood Pressure » Diagnosis of High Blood ...

  19. High blood pressure and eye disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000999.htm High blood pressure and eye disease To use the sharing features ... are sent to the brain. Causes High blood pressure can damage blood vessels in the retina. The higher the blood ...

  20. How Is High Blood Pressure Treated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is High Blood Pressure Treated? Based on your diagnosis, health care providers ... the medicine suspected of causing your high blood pressure. If high blood pressure persists or is first diagnosed as primary ...

  1. Avoid the Consequences of High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Stroke More Avoid the Consequences of High Blood Pressure Infographic Updated:Jun 19,2014 View a downloadable version of this infographic High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...

  2. Questions and Answers about High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Training & Career Development Grant programs for students, postdocs, and faculty Research at NIDDK Labs, faculty, and ... you have high blood pressure. How can I control or prevent high blood pressure? High blood pressure ...

  3. Night time blood pressure dip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dennis; Bloomfield; Alex; Park

    2015-01-01

    The advent of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring permitted examination of blood pressures during sleep and recognition of the associated circadian fall in pressure during this period. The fall in pressure,called the "dip",is defined as the difference between daytime mean systolic pressure and nighttime mean systolic pressure expressed as a percentage of the day value. Ten percent to 20% is considered normal. Dips less than 10%,referred to as blunted or absent,have been considered as predicting an adverse cardiovascular event. This view and the broader concept that white coat hypertension itself is a forerunner of essential hypertension is disputable. This editorial questions whether mean arterial pressures over many hours accurately represent the systolic load,whether nighttime dipping varies from measure to measure or is a fixed phenomenon,whether the abrupt morning pressure rise is a risk factor or whether none of these issues are as important as the actual night time systolic blood pressure itself. The paper discusses the difference between medicated and nonmedicated white coat hypertensives in regard to the cardiovascular risk and suggests that further work is necessary to consider whether the quality and duration of sleep are important factors.

  4. High Blood Pressure: Medicines to Help You

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women High Blood Pressure--Medicines to Help You Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... is your pressure when your heart relaxes ( diastolic pressure ). High Blood Pressure Medicines Use this guide to help you ...

  5. Interarm difference in blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, Jesper; Wiinberg, Niels

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed at examining the interarm difference in blood pressure and its use as an indicator of peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Data were included from consecutive patients referred from their general practitioner to our vascular laboratory for possible PAD aged 50 years or older...... without known cardiac disease, renal disease, or diabetes mellitus. 824 patients (453 women) with mean age of 72 years (range: 50-101) were included. 491 patients had a diagnosis of hypertension and peripheral arterial disease (PAD) was present in 386 patients. Systolic blood pressure was 143 ± 24 mm......Hg and 142 ± 24 mmHg on the right and left arm, respectively (P = 0.015). The interarm difference was greater in patients with hypertension (P = 0.002) and PAD (P < 0.0005). 443 patients were measured on two separate occasions and the interarm difference for systolic blood pressure was reproducible for...

  6. DASH diet to lower high blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patientinstructions/000770.htm DASH diet to lower high blood pressure To use the sharing features on this page, ... Hypertension. The DASH diet can help lower high blood pressure and cholesterol and other fats in your blood. ...

  7. High Blood Pressure: Keep the Beat Recipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: High Blood Pressure Keep the Beat Recipes Past Issues / Fall 2011 ... National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute To Improve Blood Pressure, Try the DASH Diet If you're one ...

  8. Vital Signs - High Blood Pressure

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-10-02

    In the U.S., nearly one third of the adult population have high blood pressure, the leading risk factor for heart disease and stroke - two of the nation's leading causes of death.  Created: 10/2/2012 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/17/2012.

  9. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Explore High Blood Pressure What Is... Other Names Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Prevention Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Atherosclerosis DASH Eating Plan Overweight and Obesity Smoking and Your Heart Stroke Send a link ...

  10. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Technology Transfer Clinical Trials What Are Clinical Trials? Children & Clinical Studies NHLBI Trials Clinical Trial Websites News & ... are consistently higher than 120/80 mmHg. Your child’s blood pressure numbers are outside average numbers for ...

  11. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Topics Education & Awareness Resources Contact The Health Information Center Health Professionals Systematic Evidence Reviews & Clinical Practice ... Legislative Advisory Committees Contact Us FAQs Home » Health Information for the Public » Health Topics » High Blood Pressure » ...

  12. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Related Topics Atherosclerosis DASH Eating Plan Overweight and Obesity Smoking and Your Heart Stroke Send a link ... are consistently higher than 120/80 mmHg. Your child’s blood pressure numbers are outside average numbers for ...

  13. Automatic blood pressure measuring system (M092)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    The Blood Pressure Measuring System is described. It measures blood pressure by the noninvasive Korotkoff sound technique on a continual basis as physical stress is imposed during experiment M092, Lower Body Negative Pressure, and experiment M171, Metabolic Activity.

  14. Blood Pressure Patterns May Predict Stroke Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pressure from normal systolic blood pressure (120 mm Hg) in middle age to high (160 mm Hg). Normal blood pressure in middle age but a steep rise to very high (200 mm Hg). Moderately high blood pressure (140 mm Hg) in ...

  15. Preeclampsia and High Blood Pressure During Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ034 PREGNANCY Preeclampsia and High Blood Pressure During Pregnancy • What is high blood pressure? • What is chronic hypertension? • What is gestational hypertension? • ...

  16. High Blood Pressure: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z High Blood Pressure Hypertension Unique to Older Adults This section provides ... care and improve or maintain quality of life. Blood Pressure Targets are Different for Very Old Adults High ...

  17. Blood Pressure Patterns May Predict Stroke Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood pressure reading) of more than 6,700 Dutch adults. Participants were ages 55 to 106 and ... stroke or death from other blood pressure-related diseases up to age 80, the study found. Moderately ...

  18. HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE: DOES THIS CONCERN ME?

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    To find out, the Medical Service's nurses are organising A HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE SCREENING AND PREVENTION CAMPAIGN from Monday, 26th to Thursday, 29th March 2007 at the Infirmary - Building 57 - ground floor A blood pressure test, advice, information and, if necessary, referral for specialist medical treatment will be offered to any person working on the CERN site. High blood pressure is a silent threat to health. So come and get your blood pressure checked.

  19. HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE: DOES THIS CONCERN ME?

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    To find out, the Medical Service's nurses are organising A HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE SCREENING AND PREVENTION CAMPAIGN from Monday, 26th to Thursday, 29th March 2007 at the Infirmary - Building 57 - ground floor A blood pressure test, advice, information and, if necessary, referral for specialist medical treatment will be offered to any person working on the CERN site. High blood pressure is a stealth threat to health. So come and get your blood pressure checked.

  20. Automated postoperative blood pressure control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hang ZHENG; Kuanyi ZHU

    2005-01-01

    It is very important to maintain the level of mean arterial pressure (MAP).The MAP control is applied in many clinical situations,including limiting bleeding during cardiac surgery and promoting healing for patient's post-surgery.This paper presents a fuzzy controller-based multiple-model adaptive control system for postoperative blood pressure management.Multiple-model adaptive control (MMAC) algorithm is used to identify the patient model,and it is a feasible system identification method even in the presence of large noise.Fuzzy control (FC) method is used to design controller bank.Each fuzzy controller in the controller bank is in fact a nonlinear proportional-integral (PI) controller,whose proportional gain and integral gain are adjusted continuously according to error and rate of change of error of the plant output,resulting in better dynamic and stable control performance than the regular PI controller,especially when a nonlinear process is involved.For demonstration,a nonlinear,pulsatile-flow patient model is used for simulation,and the results show that the adaptive control system can effectively handle the changes in patient's dynamics and provide satisfactory performance in regulation of blood pressure of hypertension patients.

  1. Ultra-high pressure water jet: Baseline report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ultra-high pressure waterjet technology was being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU's evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The ultra-high pressure waterjet technology acts as a cutting tool for the removal of surface substrates. The Husky trademark pump feeds water to a lance that directs the high pressure water at the surface to be removed. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure. These were dust and noise. The dust exposure was found to be minimal, which would be expected due to the wet environment inherent in the technology, but noise exposure was at a significant level. Further testing for noise is recommended because of the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place. In addition, other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, lockout/tagout, fall hazards, slipping hazards, hazards associated with the high pressure water, and hazards associated with air pressure systems

  2. Murata - A Pressure Sensor Based Blood Pressure : Preliminary Reliability Study

    OpenAIRE

    Nummelin, Elina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the reliability of a blood pressure sensor developed by Murata as a blood pressure monitoring tool compared to an automatic blood pressure monitor, Omron M6. Blood pressure is one of the principal vital signs and is utilized for monitoring both short-term and long-term health of the cardiovascular system and thereby the health of the patient. Therefore there is a need for a non-invasive blood pressure monitor for accurate, continuous and comfortab...

  3. Blood Pressure Percentiles for School Children

    OpenAIRE

    İsmail Özanli; Sebahat Tülpar; Yunus Yılmaz; Fatih Yıldız

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The prevalence of hypertension in childhood and adolescence is gradually increasing. We aimed to in­vestigate the blood pressure (BP) values of children aged 7-18 years. Methods: This study was conducted in a total of 3375 (1777 females, 1598 males) children from 27 schools. Blood pressures of children were measured using sphyg­momanometer appropriate to arm circumference. Results: A positive relationship was found between sys­tolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pr...

  4. Home blood pressure monitoring for mild hypertensives.

    OpenAIRE

    Midanik, L T; Resnick, B; Hurley, L B; Smith, E J; Mccarthy, M.

    1991-01-01

    A clinical trial of 204 untreated patients with mild hypertension was conducted to assess the effect of home blood pressure monitoring on blood pressure level, pharmacologic treatment, reduction of risk factors, and use of health services. After 1 year, no statistically significant differences were found between the treatment and control groups. The findings indicate that, while home blood pressure monitoring may be useful, it has no measurable short-term impact on these aspects of blood pres...

  5. Influence of genetic variance on sodium sensitivity of blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luft, F C; Miller, J Z; Weinberger, M H; Grim, C E; Daugherty, S A; Christian, J C

    1987-02-01

    To examine the effect of genetic variance on blood pressure, sodium homeostasis, and its regulatory determinants, we studied 37 pairs of monozygotic twins and 18 pairs of dizygotic twins under conditions of volume expansion and contraction. We found that, in addition to blood pressure and body size, sodium excretion in response to provocative maneuvers, glomerular filtration rate, the renin-angiotensin system, and the sympathetic nervous system are influenced by genetic variance. To elucidate the interaction of genetic factors and an environmental influence, namely, salt intake, we restricted dietary sodium in 44 families of twin children. In addition to a modest decrease in blood pressure, we found heterogeneous responses in blood pressure indicative of sodium sensitivity and resistance which were normally distributed. Strong parent-offspring resemblances were found in baseline blood pressures which persisted when adjustments were made for age and weight. Further, mother-offspring resemblances were observed in the change in blood pressure with sodium restriction. We conclude that the control of sodium homeostasis is heritable and that the change in blood pressure with sodium restriction is familial as well. These data speak to the interaction between the genetic susceptibility to hypertension and environmental influences which may result in its expression. PMID:3553721

  6. Accuracy of the blood pressure measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbia, F; Del Colle, S; Testa, E; Naso, D; Veglio, F

    2006-08-01

    Blood pressure measurement is the cornerstone for the diagnosis, the treatment and the research on arterial hypertension, and all of the decisions about one of these single aspects may be dramatically influenced by the accuracy of the measurement. Over the past 20 years or so, the accuracy of the conventional Riva-Rocci/Korotkoff technique of blood pressure measurement has been questioned and efforts have been made to improve the technique with automated devices. In the same period, recognition of the phenomenon of white coat hypertension, whereby some individuals with an apparent increase in blood pressure have normal, or reduced, blood pressures when measurement is repeated away from the medical environment, has focused attention on methods of measurement that provide profiles of blood pressure behavior rather than relying on isolated measurements under circumstances that may in themselves influence the level of blood pressure recorded. These methodologies have included repeated measurements of blood pressure using the traditional technique, self-measurement of blood pressure in the home or work place, and ambulatory blood pressure measurement using innovative automated devices. The purpose of this review to serve as a source of practical information about the commonly used methods for blood pressure measurement: the traditional Riva-Rocci method and the automated methods. PMID:17016412

  7. Let's Talk about High Blood Pressure and Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tools & Resources Stroke More Let's Talk About High Blood Pressure and Stroke Updated:Dec 9,2015 What is ... Blood Pressure? How Can I Reduce High Blood Pressure? High Blood Pressure and Stroke What Is Diabetes and How ...

  8. Biofeedback With Implanted Blood-Pressure Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rischell, Robert E.

    1988-01-01

    Additional uses found for equipment described in "Implanted Blood-Pressure-Measuring Device" (GSC-13042). Implanted with device electronic circuitry that measures, interprets, and transmits data via inductive link through patient's skin to external receiver. Receiver includes audible alarm generator activated when patient's blood pressure exceeds predetermined threshold. Also included in receiver a blood-pressure display, recorder, or both, for use by patient or physician.

  9. Life style as a blood pressure determinant.

    OpenAIRE

    Staessen, J A; Bieniaszewski, L; Pardaens, K; V. Petrov; Thijs, L.; Fagard, R.

    1996-01-01

    In Belgium, an affluent Western European country, participation in sports, alcohol intake, and living in a working class area were identified as the life style factors with the closest associations with the blood pressure level. Obesity was another important blood pressure correlate. Sodium intake, determined from the 24 h urinary output, and smoking were not associated with blood pressure. Controlled intervention studies have proven that weight reduction, endurance training and alcohol absti...

  10. [Ambulatory invasive and noninvasive blood pressure monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, K; Wortmann, A; Engels, G

    1989-08-01

    Indirect arterial blood pressure measurement has not changed substantially since its introduction by Riva-Rocci in 1986, Korotkoff in 1905 and Recklinghausen in 1906. Random measurements in the clinic or practice reflect only incompletely the dynamic nature of the blood pressure. Blood pressure recordings by patients themselves have provided more information through better temporal resolution, however, exact characterization of the pressure response throughout the entire day and, in particular, during physical exertion are not enabled; the latter are especially important with regard to diagnosis and treatment of hypertension. In 1966, therefore, radiotelemetric transmission of direct, continuously-measured arterial blood pressure was developed which enabled beat-to-beat registration of blood pressure, outside the laboratory, during normal daily life and sport activities. The initial results showed a marked variability of the blood pressure during the course of the day (Figure 1). Excessive blood pressure increases were observed during exposure to cold, static and dynamic exercise and to a lesser degree during automobile driving and exposure to heat (Figure 3). Recording of the pressure curves via transmission by radiotelemetry shows a high degree of accuracy and temporal resolution, spatial and situational freedom but is invasive and costly in terms of personnel. The same holds true for direct continuous blood pressure registration and storage on a portable tape recorder. Portable, automatic blood pressure measuring units for ambulatory monitoring employ indirect auscultatory or oscillometric recording with a cuff. As compared with the radiotelemetric direct continuous blood pressure measuring method, the indirect method has subordinate temporal resolution, that is, the measurements are only intermittent.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2676813

  11. Effects on blood pressure in patients with refractory angina pectoris after enhanced external counterpulsation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondesson, Susanne; Pettersson, Thomas; Ohlsson, Børje Ola Mattias;

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP) is a non-invasive technique that has been shown to reduce the frequency and severity of angina pectoris. Little is known how EECP affects the blood pressure. METHODS: 153 patients with refractory angina were treated with either EECP or retained...... on their pharmacological treatment (reference group). Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and heart rate were measured pre- and post-treatment and at 12 months follow-up. RESULTS: EECP treatment altered the blood pressure in patients with...... refractory angina pectoris. A decrease in the blood pressure was more common in the EECP group compared with the reference group. In the reference group, an increase in the blood pressure was more common. A correlation between a decrease in blood pressure after EECP treatment and a higher baseline MAP, SBP...

  12. Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring and Circadian Rhythm of Blood Pressure in Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Matteucci; Ottavio Giampietro

    2013-01-01

    Systolic and diastolic blood pressures display a circadian rhythmicity that can be assessed by 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and analysed using the cosinor procedure. Altered characteristics to the circadian rhythm of blood pressure, which may result in adverse health outcomes, have been observed in both prediabetes and diabetes. We have investigated the circadian variability of blood pressure in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Chronobiologically interpreted ambulator...

  13. Palpatory method of measuring diastolic blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Sahu

    2010-01-01

    Conclusion: The palpatory method would be very useful where frequent blood pressure measurement are being done manually like in wards, in busy OPD, patient on treadmill and also whenever stethoscope is not available. The blood pressure can be measured in noisy environment too.

  14. CIRCADIAN BLOOD PRESSURE VARIABILITY AND EXERCISE THERAPY

    OpenAIRE

    HAVELKOVÁ, A.; SIEGELOVÁ, J.; FIŠER, B.; MÍFKOVÁ, L.; CHLUDILOVÁ, V.; POCHMONOVÁ, J.; VANK, P.; POHANKA, M.; DUŠEK, J.; Cornélissen, G.; Halberg, F.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to find if there was a relationship between the time when cardiovascular rehabilitation was running in the patients after myocardial infarction and an average daily value of systolic and diastolic blood pressure at 7-day ambulatory blood pressure monitoring.

  15. Segmental blood pressure after total hip replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebuhr, Peter Henrik; Soelberg, M; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-nine patients due to have a total hip replacement had their systemic systolic and segmental blood pressures measured prior to operation and 1 and 6 weeks postoperatively. No patients had signs of ischemia. The segmental blood pressure was measured at the ankle and at the toes. A significant...... drop was found in all pressures 1 week postoperatively. The decrease followed the systemic pressure and was restored to normal after 6 weeks. In a group of six patients with preoperatively decreased ankle pressure, a significant transient further decrease in the ankle-toe gradient pressure was found...

  16. Effect of citicoline on blood pressure variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. D. Ostroumova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors give the results of their investigation dealing with citicoline therapy in patients with hypertension and cognitive impairments.Objective: to determine the efficiency of citicoline therapy on the level and variability of both systolic and diastolic blood pressures (BP (SBP and DBP.Patients and methods. The investigation covered 60 patients with Stage II hypertension and a goal BP of < 140/90 mm Hg within ≥3 months before their inclusion. The patients were randomized into 2 groups: 30 patients in the study group were assigned to receive a cycle of 10 injections of citicoline in a daily dose of 1000 mg dropwise intravenously, then 1000 mg/day orally for as long as 3 months. 30 patients comprised the control group.Results and discussion. 24-hour BP monitoring indicated that during 4-week citicoline therapy there were significant (p<0.05 reductions in average nocturnal SBP (by 4.1±2.24 mm Hg, average daytime (-1.5±0.39 mm Hg and average nighttime (-1.5±0.37 mm Hg BP variabilities; such changes were not found in the control group. In the study group, normal daytime SBP variability at baseline (≤15 mm Hg was seen in 15 (50% patients; that after citicoline treatment was in 21 (70%; in the control group, this was in 15 (50% and 14 (46.7% patients before and after 4-week therapy, respectively. In the study group, normal nocturnal SBP variability at baseline (≤ 15 mm Hg was seen in 15 (50% patients; that after citicoline treatment was in 23 (76.7%; in the control group, this was in 15 (50% and 16 (53.3% patients, respectively.Twenty-one (70% patients in each group had baseline normal daytime DBP variability (<14 mm Hg; following 4 weeks of treatment, the number of patients with normal daytime DBP variability remained unchanged in the control group and that increased by one patient (n = 22 (73.3% in the citicoline group. Normal nocturnal DBP variability at baseline (<12 mm Hg was observed in 19 (63.3% patients in each group

  17. Blood pressure regulation in diabetic autonomic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J

    1985-01-01

    Defective blood pressure responses to standing, exercise and epinephrine infusions have been demonstrated in diabetic patients with autonomic neuropathy. The circulatory mechanisms underlying blood pressure responses to exercise and standing up in these patients are well characterized: In both...... which may contribute to exercise hypotension in these patients. During hypoglycemia, blood pressure regulation seems intact in patients with autonomic neuropathy. This is probably due to release of substantial amounts of catecholamines during these experiments. During epinephrine infusions a substantial...... blood pressure fall ensues in patients with autonomic neuropathy, probably due to excessive muscular vasodilation. It is unresolved why blood pressure regulation is intact during hypoglycemia and severely impaired--at similar catecholamine concentrations--during epinephrine infusions....

  18. Converting enzyme inhibition and blood pressure reactivity to psychological stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimsdale, J E; Mills, P; Ziegler, M; Leitz, K; Nelesen, R

    1992-08-01

    There is considerable interest in blood pressure reactivity to psychological stressors. Because the sympathetic nervous system and the renin-angiotensin system are so responsive to stressors and are themselves the targets of many antihypertensive medications, many investigators have wondered if such medications decrease the blood pressure response to stressful stimuli. We studied 25 normotensive and 21 hypertensive men in a double-blind crossover study during which they received either placebo for 4 days or captopril (25 mg b.i.d.) for 4 days while they were hospitalized in a clinical research center. Patients were studied at resting baseline, while performing a mathematics task, and while reading out loud a disturbing newspaper article. Although captopril lowered the resting blood pressure levels, it had no effect on the amplitude of reactivity to stressors. PMID:1639462

  19. Blood pressure 2 years after a chronic disease management intervention study

    OpenAIRE

    Tobe, Sheldon; Vincent, Lloyd; Wentworth, Joan; Hildebrandt, Denise; Kiss, Alexander; Perkins, Nancy; Hartman, Susan; Ironstand, Laurie; Hoppe, Jacquie; Hunter, Katie; Pylypchuk, George

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To follow blood pressure change over time in participants who had participated in a 1- year chronic disease management program focused on blood pressure reduction. The expectation was that blood pressure would return back to the baseline once the study was completed. Study design. Prospective, single-arm observational study. Methods. Study participants were Status Indians living on-reserve with type 2 diabetes and persistent hypertension who had participated in the DREAM3 study. B...

  20. Does chocolate reduce blood pressure? A meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ried Karin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dark chocolate and flavanol-rich cocoa products have attracted interest as an alternative treatment option for hypertension, a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Previous meta-analyses concluded that cocoa-rich foods may reduce blood pressure. Recently, several additional trials have been conducted with conflicting results. Our study summarises current evidence on the effect of flavanol-rich cocoa products on blood pressure in hypertensive and normotensive individuals. Methods We searched Medline, Cochrane and international trial registries between 1955 and 2009 for randomised controlled trials investigating the effect of cocoa as food or drink compared with placebo on systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP for a minimum duration of 2 weeks. We conducted random effects meta-analysis of all studies fitting the inclusion criteria, as well as subgroup analysis by baseline blood pressure (hypertensive/normotensive. Meta-regression analysis explored the association between type of treatment, dosage, duration or baseline blood pressure and blood pressure outcome. Statistical significance was set at P Results Fifteen trial arms of 13 assessed studies met the inclusion criteria. Pooled meta-analysis of all trials revealed a significant blood pressure-reducing effect of cocoa-chocolate compared with control (mean BP change ± SE: SBP: -3.2 ± 1.9 mmHg, P = 0.001; DBP: -2.0 ± 1.3 mmHg, P = 0.003. However, subgroup meta-analysis was significant only for the hypertensive or prehypertensive subgroups (SBP: -5.0 ± 3.0 mmHg; P = 0.0009; DBP: -2.7 ± 2.2 mm Hg, P = 0.01, while BP was not significantly reduced in the normotensive subgroups (SBP: -1.6 ± 2.3 mmHg, P = 0.17; DBP: -1.3 ± 1.6 mmHg, P = 0.12. Nine trials used chocolate containing 50% to 70% cocoa compared with white chocolate or other cocoa-free controls, while six trials compared high- with low-flavanol cocoa products. Daily flavanol dosages ranged from 30

  1. Health Behavior Change after Blood Pressure Feedback.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Pu

    Full Text Available Better understanding is needed for antihypertensive medication initiation and lifestyle modification among younger populations with elevated blood pressure. This study aimed to assess health behavior change after receiving a report of elevated blood pressure among African Americans and Caucasians younger than 50 years old. We used the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA repository dataset. By examination year twenty, 424 out of 2,478 Caucasian and 2,637 African American participants had received feedback from the CARDIA study due to elevated blood pressure readings. Blood pressure was measured by trained CARDIA researchers at the participant's home and was repeatedly recorded at seven examinations over twenty years. A feedback/referral letter was sent to participants with an elevated blood pressure reading. On average, participants first had an elevated blood pressure reading at the age of 34. After receiving the feedback letter, 44% of the previously undiagnosed participants received a formal diagnosis. In addition, 23% initiated the use of antihypertensive medication if they had not received medication treatment before. Among the participants with at-risk lifestyle behaviors, 40% reduced alcohol consumption, 14% increased exercise level, 11% stopped smoking, and 8% reached normal weight. While none of the studied patient factors were associated with lifestyle modification, age had a positive impact on antihypertensive medication initiation (p<0.05. We found no evidence of differences in health behavior change between African American and Caucasian participants after receiving the feedback letter. This research is one of the first to study what followed after receiving a feedback letter about elevated blood pressure outside of healthcare settings. Although additional referral care and behavior interventions are needed to facilitate medication initiation and lifestyle modification, our observations suggest that providing

  2. Health Behavior Change after Blood Pressure Feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Jia; Chewning, Betty A; Johnson, Heather M; Vanness, David J; Young, Henry N; Kreling, David H

    2015-01-01

    Better understanding is needed for antihypertensive medication initiation and lifestyle modification among younger populations with elevated blood pressure. This study aimed to assess health behavior change after receiving a report of elevated blood pressure among African Americans and Caucasians younger than 50 years old. We used the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) repository dataset. By examination year twenty, 424 out of 2,478 Caucasian and 2,637 African American participants had received feedback from the CARDIA study due to elevated blood pressure readings. Blood pressure was measured by trained CARDIA researchers at the participant's home and was repeatedly recorded at seven examinations over twenty years. A feedback/referral letter was sent to participants with an elevated blood pressure reading. On average, participants first had an elevated blood pressure reading at the age of 34. After receiving the feedback letter, 44% of the previously undiagnosed participants received a formal diagnosis. In addition, 23% initiated the use of antihypertensive medication if they had not received medication treatment before. Among the participants with at-risk lifestyle behaviors, 40% reduced alcohol consumption, 14% increased exercise level, 11% stopped smoking, and 8% reached normal weight. While none of the studied patient factors were associated with lifestyle modification, age had a positive impact on antihypertensive medication initiation (pbehavior change between African American and Caucasian participants after receiving the feedback letter. This research is one of the first to study what followed after receiving a feedback letter about elevated blood pressure outside of healthcare settings. Although additional referral care and behavior interventions are needed to facilitate medication initiation and lifestyle modification, our observations suggest that providing blood pressure feedback may have promise as part of a multi-method approach

  3. Home and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring: when? who?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantarci, Gülçin

    2013-12-01

    Blood pressure measurement in the diagnosis and management of hypertension, including the technique required for ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and home blood pressure monitoring, will be reviewed in this article. Home and ambulatory measurements are widely used, both to confirm the diagnosis and to improve adherence to therapy. The major advantage of out-of-office blood pressure monitoring is that it provides a large number of blood pressure measurements away from the medical environment, which represents a more reliable assessment of actual blood pressure than office blood pressure. The advantage of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring is its unique ability to measure nocturnal blood pressure. Although not fully validated in large-scale clinical trials, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring appears to correlate best with prognosis. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and home blood pressure monitoring provide somewhat different information on the subject's blood pressure status, and the two methods should thus be regarded as complementary, rather than competitive or alternative. PMID:25019016

  4. Segmental blood pressure after total hip replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebuhr, Peter Henrik; Soelberg, M; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-nine patients due to have a total hip replacement had their systemic systolic and segmental blood pressures measured prior to operation and 1 and 6 weeks postoperatively. No patients had signs of ischemia. The segmental blood pressure was measured at the ankle and at the toes. A significant...... drop was found in all pressures 1 week postoperatively. The decrease followed the systemic pressure and was restored to normal after 6 weeks. In a group of six patients with preoperatively decreased ankle pressure, a significant transient further decrease in the ankle-toe gradient pressure was found on...... the operated side. None of the patients had symptoms from the lowered pressure. We conclude that in patients without signs of ischemia, the postoperative segmental pressure decrease is reversible and therefore not dangerous....

  5. BLOOD PRESSURE CHANGE WITH AGE IN SALT-SENSITIVE TEENAGERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Ye; Zhi-quan Liu; Jian-jun Mu; Xi-han Fu; Jun Yang; Bao-lin Gao; Xiao-hong Zhang

    2004-01-01

    Objective To observe blood pressure change with age in salt-sensitive teenagers whose salt sensitivity were determined by repeated testing.Methods Salt sensitivity was determined through intravenous infusion of normal saline combined with volume-depletion by oral diuretic furosemide in 55 teenagers. After five years, salt sensitivity was re-examined and subject blood pressure was followed up. Blood pressure changes in salt-sensitive teenagers were compared to that of non-salt sensitive teenagers over five years.Results After 5 years, the repetition rate of salt sensitivity determined by intravenous saline loading is 92.7%. In teenagers with salt sensitivity on the baseline, both the systolic blood pressure increments and increment rates were much higher than non-salt sensitive teenagers (12.7±12.1 mmHg vs. 2.8±5.2 mmHg, P< 0.01; 12.2%± 12.0% vs. 2.5% ±4.4%, P< 0.001,respectively). There was a similar trend for diastolic blood pressure (8.4 ± 6.4 mmHg vs. 3.7 ± 6.4 mmHg, P = 0.052; 13.2% ±10.6 % vs. 6.8%± 10.1%, P = 0.053, respectively).Conclusions Salt sensitivity determined by intravenous saline loading showed good reproducibility. Blood pressure increments with age were much higher in salt-sensitive teenagers than non-salt sensitive teenagers, especially in terms of systolic blood pressure.

  6. Acute effects of consumption of energy drinks on intraocular pressure and blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilechie AA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A Alex Ilechie, Sandra TettehDepartment of Optometry, University of Cape Coast, GhanaBackground: Energy drinks contain a wide variety of ingredients including caffeine, for which there have been conflicting reports regarding its effects on intraocular pressure (IOP and blood pressure. The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effects of an energy drink (Red Bull® on the IOP and blood pressure of healthy young adults.Methods: Thirty healthy university students of either gender, aged 18–30 (mean 23.20 ± 2.81 years were randomly selected to participate in this study. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups (experimental and control and were asked to abstain from caffeine for 48 hours prior to and during the study. Baseline IOP and blood pressure were measured. The experimental group (n = 15 consumed one can of the energy drink (containing 85 mg of caffeine in 250 mL and measurements were repeated at 30, 60, and 90 minutes, while the control group drank 250 mL of water and were tested over the same time period.Results: When compared with baseline, a significant decrease (P < 0.05 in mean IOP at 60 and 90 minutes was observed in the experimental group. There was no corresponding change in systolic or diastolic blood pressure.Conclusion: Our results suggest that energy drinks (ie, Red Bull produce a significant reduction in IOP but have no effect on blood pressure. These findings may be interpreted as reflecting the effect of the combination of caffeine and taurine in the Red Bull energy drink. This effect may result from the known hypotensive effect of taurine, and warrants further study.Keywords: acute effect, intraocular pressure, blood pressure, glaucoma, caffeine, taurine

  7. Automatic blood pressure measuring system (M091)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    The Leg Volume Measuring System is used to measure leg calf girth changes that occur during exposure to lower body negative pressure as a result of pooling of blood and other fluids in the lower extremities.

  8. Booze, High Blood Pressure a Dangerous Mix

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in New York City. Until published in a peer-reviewed medical journal, the results should be considered preliminary. One-third of U.S. adults have high blood pressure, also called hypertension. It contributes to more than ...

  9. Elderly Benefit from Intensive Blood Pressure Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158958.html Elderly Benefit From Intensive Blood Pressure Treatment No greater ... The study included more than 2,600 patients, aged 75 and older. They were randomly assigned to ...

  10. Obesity Can Send Kids' Blood Pressure Soaring

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157363.html Obesity Can Send Kids' Blood Pressure Soaring: Study Losing ... and effective clinical and public health strategies for obesity prevention," said lead researcher Emily Parker. She is ...

  11. Accurate, reproducible measurement of blood pressure.

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, N. R.; Chockalingam, A; Fodor, J. G.; McKay, D. W.

    1990-01-01

    The diagnosis of mild hypertension and the treatment of hypertension require accurate measurement of blood pressure. Blood pressure readings are altered by various factors that influence the patient, the techniques used and the accuracy of the sphygmomanometer. The variability of readings can be reduced if informed patients prepare in advance by emptying their bladder and bowel, by avoiding over-the-counter vasoactive drugs the day of measurement and by avoiding exposure to cold, caffeine con...

  12. Limb venous compliance responses to lower body negative pressure in humans with high blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulopoulou, S; Deruisseau, K C; Carhart, R; Kanaley, J A

    2012-05-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that limb venous responses to baroreceptor unloading are altered in individuals with high blood pressure (HBP) compared with normotensive (NT) controls. Calf venous compliance was assessed in 20 subjects with prehypertension and stage-1 hypertension (mean arterial pressure, MAP: 104±1 mm Hg) and 13 NT controls (MAP: 86±2 mm Hg) at baseline and during lower body negative pressure (LBNP), using venous occlusion plethysmography. Baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) was measured using the sequence technique and total peripheral resistance (TPR) was estimated from finger plethysmography. Baseline venous compliance was not different between groups, but the HBP group had lower baseline lnBRS (2.22±0.14 vs 2.7±0.18 ms mm Hg(-1)) and greater baseline TPR (3828±138 vs 3250±111 dyn sec(-1) cm(-5) m(2), Pcompliance was reduced in response to LBNP only in the NT group (Psec(-1) cm(-5) m(2), P<0.05). In conclusion, the early stages of hypertension are characterized by an attenuated venoconstrictor response to baroreceptor unloading, which may compensate for an exaggerated vasoconstrictor response and protect against further increases in blood pressure. PMID:21471995

  13. Relationship of Early Spontaneous Type V Blood Pressure Fluctuation after Thrombolysis in Acute Cerebral Infarction Patients and the Prognosis

    OpenAIRE

    Lian Zuo; Ting Wan; Xiahong Xu; Feifeng Liu; Changsong Li; Ying Li; Yue Zhang; Jing Zhang; Huan Bao; Gang Li

    2016-01-01

    We examined the relationship between an early spontaneous type V blood pressure fluctuation and the post-thrombolysis prognosis of patients with acute cerebral infarction. Patients were admitted consecutively. All patients were categorized into the type V blood pressure fluctuation group or non-type V blood pressure group. Their blood pressure was monitored before thrombolysis and until 6 h after thrombolysis. Baseline data and clinical outcomes were compared. Of 170 patients, 43 (25.2%) had ...

  14. What about African Americans and High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ANSWERS by heart Lifestyle + Risk Reduction High Blood Pressure What About African Americans and High Blood Pressure? The prevalence of high blood pressure in African Americans is among the highest in ...

  15. Blood Pressure Measurement: Clinic, Home, Ambulatory, and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Drawz, Paul E; ABDALLA, MOHAMED; Rahman, Mahboob

    2012-01-01

    Blood pressure has traditionally been measured in the clinic setting using the auscultory method and a mercury sphygmomanometer. Technological advances have led to improvements in measuring clinic blood pressure and allowed for measuring blood pressures outside the clinic. This review outlines various methods for evaluating blood pressure and the clinical utility of each type of measurement. Home blood pressures and 24 hour ambulatory blood pressures have improved our ability to evaluate risk...

  16. Talk with Your Health Care Provider about High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Circulation Talk With Your Health Care Provider About High Blood Pressure Why is high blood pressure dangerous? Blood pressure is the force of blood ... pur-TEN-shun”). If it is not controlled, high blood pressure can cause: yy Stroke yy Kidney yy Heart ...

  17. Beat-to-Beat Blood Pressure Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Jin

    2012-01-01

    This device provides non-invasive beat-to-beat blood pressure measurements and can be worn over the upper arm for prolonged durations. Phase and waveform analyses are performed on filtered proximal and distal photoplethysmographic (PPG) waveforms obtained from the brachial artery. The phase analysis is used primarily for the computation of the mean arterial pressure, while the waveform analysis is used primarily to obtain the pulse pressure. Real-time compliance estimate is used to refine both the mean arterial and pulse pressures to provide the beat-to-beat blood pressure measurement. This wearable physiological monitor can be used to continuously observe the beat-to-beat blood pressure (B3P). It can be used to monitor the effect of prolonged exposures to reduced gravitational environments and the effectiveness of various countermeasures. A number of researchers have used pulse wave velocity (PWV) of blood in the arteries to infer the beat-to-beat blood pressure. There has been documentation of relative success, but a device that is able to provide the required accuracy and repeatability has not yet been developed. It has been demonstrated that an accurate and repeatable blood pressure measurement can be obtained by measuring the phase change (e.g., phase velocity), amplitude change, and distortion of the PPG waveforms along the brachial artery. The approach is based on comparing the full PPG waveform between two points along the artery rather than measuring the time-of-flight. Minimizing the measurement separation and confining the measurement area to a single, well-defined artery allows the waveform to retain the general shape between the two measurement points. This allows signal processing of waveforms to determine the phase and amplitude changes.

  18. Inner ocular blood flow responses to an acute decrease in blood pressure in resting humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whether inner ocular vessels have an autoregulatory response to acute fluctuations in blood pressure is unclear. We tried to examine the validity of acute hypotension elicited by thigh-cuff release as to assess the dynamic autoregulation in the ocular circulation. Blood flow velocity in the superior nasal and inferior temporal retinal arterioles, and in the retinal and choroidal vasculature were measured with the aid of laser speckle flowgraphy before and immediately after an acute decrease in blood pressure in 20 healthy subjects. Acute hypotension was induced by a rapid release of bilateral thigh occlusion cuffs that had been inflated to 220 mmHg for 2 min. The ratio of the relative change in retinal and choroidal blood flow velocity to the relative change in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) was calculated. Immediately after cuff release, the MAP and blood flows in the all ocular target vessels decreased significantly from the baseline values obtained before thigh-cuff release. The ratio of the relative change in inner ocular blood flow velocity to that in the MAP exceeded 1% / %mmHg. An explicit dynamic autoregulation in inner ocular vessels cannot be demonstrated in response to an acute hypotension induced by the thigh-cuff release technique. (paper)

  19. Superiority of home blood pressure measurements over office measurements for testing antihypertensive drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaur; Dubroca; Dutrey-Dupagne; Genès; Chatellier; Bouvier-d'Yvoire; Elkik; Ménard

    1998-04-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects on office blood pressure and home blood pressure of placebo and active drug administration. DESIGN: After a 2-week wash-out period, patients with mild-to-moderate hypertension entered a 2-week single-blind placebo period and then a 4-week double-blind period. Patients were randomly assigned to be administered either 2 mg trandolapril once daily or its placebo in a 2:1 proportion. Office blood pressure was measured by a physician at the end of each period, using a mercury sphygmomanometer (mean of three consecutive measurements). Home blood pressure was measured during the last week of each period according to standard procedure carefully taught to each patient by the physician. Compliance was checked by using electronic pill boxes. RESULTS: Data for 34 of the 44 patients who entered the study were eligible for analysis. Baseline systolic blood pressure/diastolic blood pressure were significantly (P = 0.0001/P = 0.0001) higher for office blood pressure (161/101 mmHg) than they were for home blood pressure (145/93 mmHg). There was no statistically significant difference between the placebo and active-treatment groups at baseline. During the single-blind period, blood pressures measured at the office and at home did not change significantly. Office blood pressure decreased by 2.7 +/- 10 mmHg for systolic blood pressure and by 0.5 +/- 4 mmHg for diastolic blood pressure whereas home blood pressure increased by 0.8 +/- 6 mmHg for systolic blood pressure and by 0.7 +/- 4 mmHg for diastolic blood pressure. During the double-blind period, office blood pressure fell significantly with trandolapril treatment (systolic by 10.2 +/- 12 mmHg, diastolic by 8.3 +/- 6 mmHg; P = 0.0005/0.0001, versus single-blind placebo period) but this decrease was not significantly different (P = 0.45/0.92) from the fall in members of the placebo group (systolic by 6.9 +/- 9 mmHg, diastolic by 8.0 +/-6 mmHg; P = 0.04/0.002, versus single-blind placebo period

  20. Blood Pressure Percentiles for School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Özanli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The prevalence of hypertension in childhood and adolescence is gradually increasing. We aimed to in­vestigate the blood pressure (BP values of children aged 7-18 years. Methods: This study was conducted in a total of 3375 (1777 females, 1598 males children from 27 schools. Blood pressures of children were measured using sphyg­momanometer appropriate to arm circumference. Results: A positive relationship was found between sys­tolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP and the body weight, height, age and body mass index (BMI in male and female children. SBP was high­er in males than females after the age of 13. DBP was higher in males than the females after the age of 14. The mean annual increase of SBP was 2.06 mmHg in males and 1.54 mmHg in females. The mean annual increase of DBP was 1.52 mmHg in males and 1.38 mmHg in fe­males. Conclusion: In this study, we identified the threshold val­ues for blood pressure in children between the age of 7 and 18 years in Erzurum province. It is necessary to com­bine and evaluate data obtained from various regions for the identification of BP percentiles according to the age, gender and height percentiles of Turkish children.

  1. BASELINE LEVELS OF TRACE METALS IN BLOOD OF CAPTIVE ASIAN ELEPHANTS (ELEPHAS MAXIMUS)

    OpenAIRE

    Wiedner, Ellen B.; Takeuchi, Noel Y.; Isaza, Ramiro; Barber, David

    2011-01-01

    Whole blood from 33 healthy captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) was analyzed for 12 trace elements: aluminum, chromium, manganese, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, arsenic, selenium, cadmium, mercury, and lead for the purpose of estimating preliminary baseline population parameters for these minerals. Metals were quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Baseline ranges for all animals and for all trace elements were comparable to normal concentrations reported in other s...

  2. Blood glucose and nocturnal blood pressure in African and caucasian men: the SABPA study

    OpenAIRE

    Lammertyn, Leandi; Schutte, Aletta Elisabeth; Schutte, Rudolph

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between nocturnal blood pressure and chronically elevated blood glucose to determine if these elevated blood glucose concentrations contribute to a non-dipping blood pressure, especially in high-risk groups such as Africans.

  3. Predictive role of the nighttime blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tine W; Li, Yan; Boggia, José;

    2011-01-01

    Numerous studies addressed the predictive value of the nighttime blood pressure (BP) as captured by ambulatory monitoring. However, arbitrary cutoff limits in dichotomized analyses of continuous variables, data dredging across selected subgroups, extrapolation of cross-sectional studies to...... conclusive evidence proving that nondipping is a reversible risk factor, the option whether or not to restore the diurnal blood pressure profile to a normal pattern should be left to the clinical judgment of doctors and should be individualized for each patient. Current guidelines on the interpretation of...

  4. Noninvasive blood pressure measurement in large vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulse pressure in the aorta was evaluated by the measurement of pulse wave velocity (PWV) and blood flow velocity (BFV). PWV reflects the elasticity of the vessel and was determined by a time-of-flight method. BFV was measured by analyzing the change of magnetization decay due to flow in multiecho experiments. If one neglects pulse wave reflections at vascular branch points and flow resistance due to blood viscosity, pulse pressure is proportional to PWV and BFV. Noninvasive MR imaging measurements were obtained in 12 patients, all of whom underwent correlative arterial catheterization. Values varied between 35 and 100 mm Hg. The results demonstrated a high correlation between the two methods

  5. Blood pressure in head‐injured patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Patrick; Gregson, Barbara A; Piper, Ian; Citerio, Giuseppe; Mendelow, A David; Chambers, Iain R

    2007-01-01

    Objective To determine the statistical characteristics of blood pressure (BP) readings from a large number of head‐injured patients. Methods The BrainIT group has collected high time‐resolution physiological and clinical data from head‐injured patients who require intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring. The statistical features of this dataset of BP measurements with time resolution of 1 min from 200 patients is examined. The distributions of BP measurements and their relationship with simultaneous ICP measurements are described. Results The distributions of mean, systolic and diastolic readings are close to normal with modest skewing towards higher values. There is a trend towards an increase in blood pressure with advancing age, but this is not significant. Simultaneous blood pressure and ICP values suggest a triphasic relationship with a BP rising at 0.28 mm Hg/mm Hg of ICP, for ICP up to 32 mm Hg, and 0.9 mm Hg/mm Hg of ICP for ICP from 33 to 55 mm Hg, and falling sharply with rising ICP for ICP >55 mm Hg. Conclusions Patients with head injury appear to have a near normal distribution of blood pressure readings that are skewed towards higher values. The relationship between BP and ICP may be triphasic. PMID:17138594

  6. Managing Blood Pressure with a Heart-Healthy Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Managing Blood Pressure with a Heart-Healthy Diet Updated:Apr 8, ... was last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...

  7. Blood pressure control among type 2 diabetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective was to assess blood pressure BP control in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 DM type treated in primary health care. A cross-sectional study was conducted in primary health care at King Fahd Military Complex Hospital in Dhahran, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between August 2003 and February 2004, to assess blood control in type 2 diabetics. A sample of 403 medical records of type 2 diabetic patients was selected using systematic random sampling after ordering the medical record numbers. The data were collected through the pre-coded checklist. Hypertension was found in 57.8% of diabetic patients with no statistically significant difference between males and females. The mean age of diabetic patients was significantly highly in hypertensive than non-hypertensive p=0.001. The mean duration of hypertension was significantly higher in females p=0.02. There were only 14.2% of hypertensive diabetic patients in whom blood pressure was controlled. Poor control was significantly associated with obesity and a high rate of complications. Blood pressure control correlated positively and significantly with the age of patients and negatively with duration of diabetes and hypertension. The most commonly prescribed antihypertensive were angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors in 29.3%, followed by angiotensin receptors blockers in 24.1%, and the least prescribed drug was thiazide diuretic. Blood pressure in diabetic patients needs to be given particular attention from all health care professionals, especially primary care family physicians, who should follow the new guideline for better control of blood pressure, and fewer complications. Patient's awareness should be increased, through continuous health education with different modalities. (author)

  8. High Blood Pressure and Children: What Parents Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Blood Institute Alternate Language URL Español High Blood Pressure and Children: What Parents Need to Know Page Content Children can have high blood pressure. Did you know that children could have high ...

  9. Dysglycemia induces abnormal circadian blood pressure variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumarasamy Sivarajan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prediabetes (PreDM in asymptomatic adults is associated with abnormal circadian blood pressure variability (abnormal CBPV. Hypothesis Systemic inflammation and glycemia influence circadian blood pressure variability. Methods Dahl salt-sensitive (S rats (n = 19 after weaning were fed either an American (AD or a standard (SD diet. The AD (high-glycemic-index, high-fat simulated customary human diet, provided daily overabundant calories which over time lead to body weight gain. The SD (low-glycemic-index, low-fat mirrored desirable balanced human diet for maintaining body weight. Body weight and serum concentrations for fasting glucose (FG, adipokines (leptin and adiponectin, and proinflammatory cytokines [monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α] were measured. Rats were surgically implanted with C40 transmitters and blood pressure (BP-both systolic; SBP and diastolic; DBP and heart rate (HR were recorded by telemetry every 5 minutes during both sleep (day and active (night periods. Pulse pressure (PP was calculated (PP = SBP-DBP. Results [mean(SEM]: The AD fed group displayed significant increase in body weight (after 90 days; p Conclusion These data validate our stated hypothesis that systemic inflammation and glycemia influence circadian blood pressure variability. This study, for the first time, demonstrates a cause and effect relationship between caloric excess, enhanced systemic inflammation, dysglycemia, loss of blood pressure control and abnormal CBPV. Our results provide the fundamental basis for examining the relationship between dysglycemia and perturbation of the underlying mechanisms (adipose tissue dysfunction induced local and systemic inflammation, insulin resistance and alteration of adipose tissue precursors for the renin-aldosterone-angiotensin system which generate abnormal CBPV.

  10. Ethnic Variations in Blood Pressure and Hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.O. Agyemang (Charles)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe objective of the study was to review published evidence on whether blood pressure levels and the prevalence of hypertension are higher or lower in South Asian adults living in the UK as compared to white populations. A systematic literature review was carried out using MEDLINE 196

  11. Teaming Up Against High Blood Pressure

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-09-04

    This podcast is based on the September 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. A team-based approach by patients, health care systems, and health care providers is one of the best ways to treat uncontrolled high blood pressure.  Created: 9/4/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 9/4/2012.

  12. Familial Aggregation and Childhood Blood Pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Xiaoling; Xu, Xiaojing; Su, Shaoyong; Snieder, Harold

    2015-01-01

    There is growing concern about elevated blood pressure (BP) in children. The evidence for familial aggregation of childhood BP is substantial. Twin studies have shown that a large part of the familial aggregation of childhood BP is due to genes. The first part of this review provides the latest prog

  13. Baseline blood levels of manganese, lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc in residents of Beijing suburb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Long-Lian, E-mail: Longlian57@163.com [Department of Occupational Diseases Control and Prevention, Fengtai Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100071 (China); Lu, Ling [Department of Occupational Diseases Control and Prevention, Fengtai Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100071 (China); Pan, Ya-Juan; Ding, Chun-Guang [Institute for Occupational Health and Poison Control in China Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Beijing 100050 (China); Xu, Da-Yong [Department of Occupational Diseases Control and Prevention, Fengtai Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100071 (China); Huang, Chuan-Feng; Pan, Xing-Fu [Institute for Occupational Health and Poison Control in China Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Beijing 100050 (China); Zheng, Wei, E-mail: wzheng@purdue.edu [School of Health Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Baseline blood concentrations of metals are important references for monitoring metal exposure in environmental and occupational settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the blood levels of manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) among the residents (aged 12–60 years old) living in the suburb southwest of Beijing in China and to compare the outcomes with reported values in various developed countries. Blood samples were collected from 648 subjects from March 2009 to February 2010. Metal concentrations in the whole blood were determined by ICP-MS. The geometric means of blood levels of Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were 11.4, 802.4, 4665, 42.6, and 0.68 µg/L, respectively. Male subjects had higher blood Pb than the females, while the females had higher blood Mn and Cu than the males. There was no gender difference for blood Cd and Zn. Smokers had higher blood Cu, Zn, and Cd than nonsmokers. There were significant age-related differences in blood levels of all metals studied; subjects in the 17–30 age group had higher blood levels of Mn, Pb, Cu, and Zn, while those in the 46–60 age group had higher Cd than the other age groups. A remarkably lower blood level of Cu and Zn in this population as compared with residents of other developed countries was noticed. Based on the current study, the normal reference ranges for the blood Mn were estimated to be 5.80–25.2 μg/L; for blood Cu, 541–1475 μg/L; for blood Zn, 2349–9492 μg/L; for blood Pb, <100 μg/L; and for blood Cd, <5.30 μg/L in the general population living in Beijing suburbs. - Highlights: • Baseline blood levels of metals in residents of Beijing suburb are investigated. • BMn and BPb in this cohort are higher than those in other developed countries. • Remarkably lower blood levels of Cu and Zn in this Chinese cohort are noticed. • The reference values for blood levels of Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd are established.

  14. Baseline blood levels of manganese, lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc in residents of Beijing suburb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baseline blood concentrations of metals are important references for monitoring metal exposure in environmental and occupational settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the blood levels of manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) among the residents (aged 12–60 years old) living in the suburb southwest of Beijing in China and to compare the outcomes with reported values in various developed countries. Blood samples were collected from 648 subjects from March 2009 to February 2010. Metal concentrations in the whole blood were determined by ICP-MS. The geometric means of blood levels of Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were 11.4, 802.4, 4665, 42.6, and 0.68 µg/L, respectively. Male subjects had higher blood Pb than the females, while the females had higher blood Mn and Cu than the males. There was no gender difference for blood Cd and Zn. Smokers had higher blood Cu, Zn, and Cd than nonsmokers. There were significant age-related differences in blood levels of all metals studied; subjects in the 17–30 age group had higher blood levels of Mn, Pb, Cu, and Zn, while those in the 46–60 age group had higher Cd than the other age groups. A remarkably lower blood level of Cu and Zn in this population as compared with residents of other developed countries was noticed. Based on the current study, the normal reference ranges for the blood Mn were estimated to be 5.80–25.2 μg/L; for blood Cu, 541–1475 μg/L; for blood Zn, 2349–9492 μg/L; for blood Pb, <100 μg/L; and for blood Cd, <5.30 μg/L in the general population living in Beijing suburbs. - Highlights: • Baseline blood levels of metals in residents of Beijing suburb are investigated. • BMn and BPb in this cohort are higher than those in other developed countries. • Remarkably lower blood levels of Cu and Zn in this Chinese cohort are noticed. • The reference values for blood levels of Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd are established

  15. Home and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring: when? who?

    OpenAIRE

    Gülçin KANTARCI

    2013-01-01

    Blood pressure measurement in the diagnosis and management of hypertension, including the technique required for ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and home blood pressure monitoring, will be reviewed in this article. Home and ambulatory measurements are widely used, both to confirm the diagnosis and to improve adherence to therapy. The major advantage of out-of-office blood pressure monitoring is that it provides a large number of blood pressure measurements away from the medical environme...

  16. Blood pressure and control of cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith A Whitworth

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Judith A WhitworthJohn Curtin School of Medical Research, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, AustraliaAbstract: Two key early 20th century notions, the first the primacy of diastolic pressure in determining risk, and the second that hypertension is a discrete disorder, have proved to be incorrect. We now recognize the primacy of systolic pressure as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and that hypertension is an arbitrary definition. In the early 21st century, we are moving away from a dichotomous approach to risk classification, and away from notions of hypertension and normotension towards an appreciation that blood pressure-related risk is continuous. In parallel, there has been a paradigm shift from a single risk factor approach to comprehensive cardiovascular disease risk prevention. Accordingly, prevention of cardiovascular disease requires a focus on lowering of blood pressure and modification of associated risk factors rather than simply treatment of hypertension. This emphasis is reflected in the World Health Organization (WHO – International Society of Hypertension (ISH 2003 statement on management of hypertension.Keywords: blood pressure, hypertension, cardiovascular risk, treatment

  17. Oscillometric blood pressure measurements: A signal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbé, K.; Van Moer, W.; Lauwers, L.

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, the oscillometric waveform measured by automatic non-invasive blood pressure meters (NIBP) is analyzed by transforming the data from the time domain to the frequency domain. The signal's spectrum of the oscillometric waveform is in current literature badly understood or explored. The only known link between the oscillometric waveform and the blood pressure is the maximum of the oscillometry's envelope equalling the mean arterial pressure (MAP). This link is established under the assumption that the oscillometry is an AM-signal. Unfortunately, computing the MAP is difficult in practice due to the non-sinusoidal nature of the actual measured signals. In this paper, we construct the best AM-signal approximation of the oscillometry and explore its use to compute the MAP.

  18. Blood pressure modifies retinal susceptibility to intraocular pressure elevation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng He

    Full Text Available Primary open angle glaucoma affects more than 67 million people. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP is a risk factor for glaucoma and may reduce nutrient availability by decreasing ocular perfusion pressure (OPP. An interaction between arterial blood pressure and IOP determines OPP; but the exact contribution that these factors have for retinal function is not fully understood. Here we sought to determine how acute modifications of arterial pressure will affect the susceptibility of neuronal function and blood flow to IOP challenge. Anaesthetized (ketamine:xylazine Long-Evan rats with low (∼60 mmHg, sodium nitroprusside infusion, moderate (∼100 mmHg, saline, or high levels (∼160 mmHg, angiotensin II of mean arterial pressure (MAP, n = 5-10 per group were subjected to IOP challenge (10-120 mmHg, 5 mmHg steps every 3 minutes. Electroretinograms were measured at each IOP step to assess bipolar cell (b-wave and inner retinal function (scotopic threshold response or STR. Ocular blood flow was measured using laser-Doppler flowmetry in groups with similar MAP level and the same IOP challenge protocol. Both b-wave and STR amplitudes decreased with IOP elevation. Retinal function was less susceptible to IOP challenge when MAP was high, whereas the converse was true for low MAP. Consistent with the effects on retinal function, higher IOP was needed to attenuated ocular blood flow in animals with higher MAP. The susceptibility of retinal function to IOP challenge can be ameliorated by acute high BP, and exacerbated by low BP. This is partially mediated by modifications in ocular blood flow.

  19. Blood pressure changes in dogs with babesiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Jacobson

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Systemic arterial blood pressures were measured in 30 dogs with acute babesiosis, 10 each with mild uncomplicated, severe uncomplicated and complicated disease. Ten healthy dogs were used as controls. Hypotension was defined as more than 3 standard deviations below the control mean. Normal mean pressures (±SD were: systolic arterial pressure 151 (±11 mm Hg, diastolic arterial pressure 89 (±8 mm Hg and mean arterial pressure 107 (±10 mmHg. Hypotension was the most frequent abnormality, and increased strikingly in incidence as disease severity increased, with 5/10 dogs in the complicated group being hypotensive for systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressures, compared with 2/10 in the severe uncomplicated group and 0/10 in the mild uncomplicated group. Systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressures in the complicated group and severe uncomplicated group, and systolic pressure in the mild uncomplicated group, were significantly lower than in the controls. There were no significant relationships between arterial pressures and age, pulse rate, respiratory rate, temperature, mucous membrane colour or haematocrit. There was a significant negative correlation between arterial pressures and white cell and immature neutrophil counts. Arterial pressures differed significantly between dogs that were clinically collapsed and those that were not, but not between survivors and non-survivors. Pulse pressure (systolic - diastolic was low in 7/10 complicated, 1/10 mild uncomplicated, and 1/10 severe uncomplicated cases, and differed significantly between the complicated and control groups. The high incidence of hypotension in clinically severe babesiosis has important implications for therapy.

  20. 21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870.1100...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts the signal from a blood...

  1. Effect of Classical Music on Reducing Blood Pressure in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Saing, Saloma Klementina; Rina, Oke; Ramayati, Rafita; Rusdidjas

    2009-01-01

    Background High blood pre ssure remains a public health problem. High blood pressure in children and adolescent is a major risk for cardiovascular disease in adulthood which can cause high morbidity and mortality. Listening to the classical music can be used as an alternative in reducing high blood pressure. Objective To investigate the effect of classical music in reducing blood pressure in children with high normal blood pressure and or hypertension. Methods Eighty eight students of S...

  2. Diurnal changes of blood pressure values (24 h blood pressures in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Grzechocińska

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: More attention is being paid lately to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS not only in the aspect of fertility but also according to long-term metabolic and cardiovascular abnormalities. Observations of women with PCOS show that the occurrence of blood hypertension is more frequent after the menopause. There are few articles concerning the predictable symptoms of blood hypertension. It seems that twenty-four hour blood pressure monitoring and assessment of changes of diurnal rhythm could be useful in this group of patients.Aim of the study: The purpose of this study was to assess diurnal changes of blood pressure in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.Material and methods: 26 women with PCOS diagnosed according to Rotterdam consensus criteria and Androgen Excess Society (AES criteria were included in our study. The mean age of the examined women was 29.5 years and the mean BMI (body mass index was 24.7 kg/m2. The control group consisted of 12 age-matched women, without PCOS. Twenty-four hour Holter monitoring of ambulatory blood pressure was performed during normal daily activity in all patients. Halberg’s cosinor method was used to analyse daily biorhythm.Results: Results show the diurnal changes of systolic blood pressure in the preclinical phase in 30% and diastolic in 15% of PCOS women. In this group no physiological decrease of blood pressure at night time was observed.

  3. Numerical simulation of noninvasive blood pressure measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Satoru; Hayase, Toshiyuki; Shirai, Atsushi; Maruyama, Masaru

    2006-10-01

    In this paper, a simulation model based on the partially pressurized collapsible tube model for reproducing noninvasive blood pressure measurement is presented. The model consists of a collapsible tube, which models the pressurized part of the artery, rigid pipes connected to the collapsible tube, which model proximal and distal region far from the pressurized part, and the Windkessel model, which represents the capacitance and the resistance of the distal part of the circulation. The blood flow is simplified to a one-dimensional system. Collapse and expansion of the tube is represented by the change in the cross-sectional area of the tube considering the force balance acting on the tube membrane in the direction normal to the tube axis. They are solved using the Runge-Kutta method. This simple model can easily reproduce the oscillation of inner fluid and corresponding tube collapse typical for the Korotkoff sounds generated by the cuff pressure. The numerical result is compared with the experiment and shows good agreement. PMID:16995754

  4. [Blood pressure control in eldery hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimamoto, Kazuaki

    2006-01-01

    Case of diabetes mellitus associated with essential hypertension are mostly type 2 diabetes mellitus(NIDDM) in elderly patients. In the JNC VI and JSH 2004, it is recommended that the therapeutic target blood pressure level should be lower then 130/80 mmHg in hypertension complicated with diabetes mellitus, and this target has recently obtained wide acceptance. On the other hand, the target blood pressure in elderly is recommended below 140/90 mmHg. Accordingly, diabetes mellitus in elderly hypertensives should be treated similarly as in the young and middle-aged. Because ACE inhibitors/ARBs or Ca blockers increase insulin sensitivity, these drugs should be used as the first choice in cases of elderly hypertensive patients complicated with diabetes mellitus. PMID:16408451

  5. Dirty Air, High Blood Pressure Linked

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    应树道

    2001-01-01

    贵刊去年第6期曾刊登一短文,题目是:盐,迫升血压之元凶。读了该文,我开始严格控制每日的食盐摄入量,再附以药物治疗,血压果然趋于平稳。近日上网,遇一奇文,意思是人的血压与空气污染状况有涉!根据对2600个成年人的调查,得出了这样的结论:Pollution may cause changes in the part of the nervous system that controls blood pressure.文章又同时说明:Exactly how pollution might cause blood pressure to climb remains unclear.人体之奥妙由此可见一斑。

  6. [Reducing blood pressure with Dipyron (novaminsulfone sodium)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoppi, M; Hoigné, R; Keller, M F; Streit, F; Hess, T

    1983-11-26

    A fall in systolic blood pressure without other symptoms of anaphylactic shock has been described following the administration of drugs containing dipyrone. This adverse reaction was first observed in 4 patients by the same team in 1972-1973. Ten further cases with a fall in systolic blood pressure by at least 20 mm Hg occurring within minutes to 6 hours after intravenous administration of dipyrone are presented in this paper. In each of them this adverse reaction was considered to be probable or even definite. During the years 1976-1981 drug exposure was registered for all 15 678 patients of the two medical divisions of Comprehensive Hospital Drug Monitoring Berne. This adverse reaction was found in 7, representing 0.34% of the 2053 patients who received intravenous treatment with a dipyrone preparation. PMID:6658424

  7. The relationship of blood lead to systolic blood pressure in a longitudinal study of policemen.

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, S T; Munoz, A.; Stein, A.; Sparrow, D.; Speizer, F E

    1988-01-01

    We examined the relationship of blood lead level to systolic and diastolic blood pressure in a longitudinal study of 89 Boston, MA, policemen. At the second examination blood lead level and blood pressure were measured in triplicate. Blood pressure measurements were taken in a similar fashion in years 3, 4, and 5. Multivariate analysis using a first-order autoregressive model revealed that after adjusting for previous systolic blood pressure, body mass index, age, and cigarette smoking, an el...

  8. What Are the Signs, Symptoms, and Complications of High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Are the Signs, Symptoms, and Complications of High Blood Pressure? Because diagnosis is based on blood pressure readings, ... damaged from chronic high blood pressure. Complications of High Blood Pressure When blood pressure stays high over time, it ...

  9. Blood pressure: trends, determinants and consequences.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leer, van E.

    1995-01-01

    Trends in blood pressure, prevalence and treatment of hypertension were studied in 30,000 men and women aged 37-43 years during the period 1974-1980, in 80,000 men aged 33-37 years during the period 1981-1986 and 36,000 in men and women aged 20-59 years during the period 1987-1991. Between 1974 and

  10. Accurate blood pressure recording: Is it difficult?

    OpenAIRE

    Bhalla A; Singh R; D'cruz S; Lehl S; Sachdev A

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Blood pressure (BP) measurement is a routine procedure but errors are frequently committed during BP recording. AIMS AND SETTINGS: The aim of the study was to look at the prevalent practices in the institute regarding BP recording. The study was conducted in the Medicine Department at Government Medical College, Chandigarh, a teaching institute for MBBS students. METHODS: A prospective, observational study was performed amongst the 80 doctors in a tertiary care hospital. All ...

  11. Effect of lemon juice on blood pressure

    OpenAIRE

    SARI, Aysel; SELİM, Nevzat; Melda DİLEK; AYDOĞDU, Turkan; ADIBELLİ, Zelal; BÜYÜKKAYA, Piltan; Akpolat, Tekin

    2012-01-01

    Lemon juice has commonly been used by hypertensive patients in order to lower blood pressure (BP) acutely when BP is raised or as an alternative/complementary therapy for expectation of chronic improvement. Grapefruit, a citrus fruit like lemon, causes clinically significant interactions with a variety of drugs including calcium antagonists. The aims of this study were to investigate acute and chronic effects of lemon juice on BP among hypertensive patients. Ninty-eight patients were included...

  12. Blood pressure changes resulting from aortography.

    OpenAIRE

    Snowdon, S L; Whitehouse, G. H.

    1981-01-01

    Patients requiring aortography frequently suffer from generalized arteriosclerosis. Uncontrolled hypotension is therefore clearly undesirable, especially if associated with myocardial depression. Significant hypotension was observed following the use of conventional ionic contrast media, Urografin 370 and Cardioconray, and occurred following every injection in this study. Metrizamide, a non-ionic contrast medium, was found to be associated with a smaller fall in blood pressure of a shorter du...

  13. Neuro-endocrine regulation of blood pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Sandeep Chopra; Chris Baby; Jubbin Jagan Jacob

    2011-01-01

    As our understanding of the underlying aetiology of hypertension is far from adequate, over 90% of patients with hypertension receive a diagnosis of essential hypertension. This non-specific diagnosis leads to suboptimal therapeutics and a major problem with non-compliance. Understanding the normal control of blood pressure (BP) is, hence, important for a better understanding of the disease.This review attempts to unravel the present understanding of BP control. The local mechanisms of BP con...

  14. Familial Aggregation and Childhood Blood Pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiaoling; Xu, Xiaojing; Su, Shaoyong; Snieder, Harold

    2015-01-01

    There is growing concern about elevated blood pressure (BP) in children. The evidence for familial aggregation of childhood BP is substantial. Twin studies have shown that a large part of the familial aggregation of childhood BP is due to genes. The first part of this review provides the latest progress in gene finding for childhood BP, focusing on the combined effects of multiple loci identified from the genome-wide association studies on adult BP. We further review the evidence on the contr...

  15. The effect of nutrition on blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savica, Vincenzo; Bellinghieri, Guido; Kopple, Joel D

    2010-08-21

    The incidence and severity of hypertension are affected by nutritional status and intake of many nutrients. Excessive energy intake and obesity are major causes of hypertension. Obesity is associated with increased activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone and sympathetic nervous systems, possibly other mineralcorticoid activity, insulin resistance, salt-sensitive hypertension and excess salt intake, and reduced kidney function. High sodium chloride intake strongly predisposes to hypertension. Increased alcohol consumption may acutely elevate blood pressure. High intakes of potassium, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and protein, along with exercise and possibly vitamin D, may reduce blood pressure. Less-conclusive studies suggest that amino acids, tea, green coffee bean extract, dark chocolate, and foods high in nitrates may reduce blood pressure. Short-term studies indicate that specialized diets may prevent or ameliorate mild hypertension; most notable are the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, which is high in fruits, vegetables, and low-fat dairy products, and the DASH low-sodium diet. Long-term compliance to these diets remains a major concern. PMID:20645853

  16. Classification of High Blood Pressure Persons Vs Normal Blood Pressure Persons Using Voice Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saloni

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The human voice is remarkable, complex and delicate. All parts of the body play some role in voice production and may be responsible for voice dysfunction. The larynx contains muscles that are surrounded by blood vessels connected to circulatory system. The pressure of blood in these vessels should be related with dynamic variation of vocal cord parameters. These parameters are directly related with acoustic properties of speech. Acoustic voice analysis can be used to characterize the pathological voices. This paper presents the classification of high blood pressure and normal with the aid of voice signal recorded from the patients. Various features have been extracted from the voice signal of healthy persons and persons suffering from high blood pressure. Simulation results show differences in the parameter values of healthy and pathological persons. Then an optimum feature vector is prepared and kmean classification algorithm was implemented for data classification. The 79% classification efficiency was obtained.

  17. Meta-analysis of timolol on diurnal and nighttime intraocular pressure and blood pressure.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lee, Princeton Wen-Yuan

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the nighttime intraocular pressure (IOP) and blood pressure (BP) response to timolol treatment in patients with ocular hypertension or primary open-angle glaucoma. METHODS: This was a meta-analysis of previously published studies that must have been randomized, prospective, crossover or parallel, single or double-masked trials. The treatment period must have been >\\/=2 weeks with >\\/=19 patients per treatment arm for a crossover, and >\\/=50 patients for a parallel designed trial. Studies must have included both baseline and treated 24-hour curves. RESULTS: For the IOP analysis, we included 8 articles with 340 patients. A reduction from baseline was observed for timolol at each time point and for the 24-hour curve (p<\\/=0.009). When 2 studies, in which timolol was used adjunctively, were removed, a similar difference was observed as above at each time point and for the 24-hour curve (p<\\/=0.003). In 2 studies, there were small reductions from baseline for the mean diastolic and systolic BPs at most time points and for the 24-hour curve (3.9 and 4.2 mmHg, respectively) with timolol treatment. The ocular perfusion pressure did not show any difference between baseline and timolol treatment at any time point or for the 24-hour curve (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis suggests that topical timolol therapy provides an ocular hypotensive effect over the 24-hour curve, including the nighttime hours, and while small reductions in the systolic and diastolic pressures occur, the ocular perfusion pressure is not altered over 24 hours.

  18. Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in Clinical Practice: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viera, Anthony J.; Shimbo, Daichi

    2016-01-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring offers the ability to collect blood pressure readings several times an hour across a 24-hour period. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring facilitates the identification of white-coat hypertension, the phenomenon whereby certain individuals who are not on antihypertensive medication show elevated blood pressure in a clinical setting but show non-elevated blood pressure averages when assessed by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Additionally, readings can be segmented into time windows of particular interest, e.g., mean daytime and nighttime values. During sleep, blood pressure typically decreases, or dips, such that mean sleep blood pressure is lower than mean awake blood pressure. A non-dipping pattern and nocturnal hypertension are strongly associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Approximately 70% of individuals dip ≥10% at night, while 30% have non-dipping patterns, when blood pressure remains similar to daytime average, or occasionally rises above daytime average. The various blood pressure categorizations afforded by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring are valuable for clinical management of high blood pressure since they increase accuracy for diagnosis and the prediction of cardiovascular risk. PMID:25107387

  19. High blood pressure - what to ask your doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    What to ask your doctor about high blood pressure; Hypertension - what to ask your doctor ... problems? What medicines am I taking to treat high blood pressure? Do they have any side effects? What should ...

  20. A Nutritional Strategy for the Treatment of High Blood Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podell, Richard N.

    1984-01-01

    Some physicians wonder if high blood pressure can be controlled without the use of drugs and their potential side effects. Current findings concerning nutrition and high blood pressure are presented. (RM)

  1. "Keep the Beat": Healthy Blood Pressure Helps Prevent Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Keep the Beat": Healthy Blood Pressure Helps Prevent Heart Disease Past Issues / Winter 2010 Table of Contents Your ... a condition that also increases the chance of heart disease and stroke. High blood pressure is especially common ...

  2. Dietary Mineral Could Be One Key to Blood Pressure Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Dietary Mineral Could Be One Key to Blood Pressure Control People who didn't get enough daily ... nutrient magnesium might be a boon to good blood pressure, new research suggests. "Magnesium dilates arteries, and in ...

  3. Snapshot: Blood Pressure in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Home Blood Pressure: Make Control Your Goal Infographic Recommend on Facebook ... Compartir Copy the code below to use the Blood Pressure Infographic on your web page or social media ...

  4. Blood Pressure Problems During Pregnancy, Heart Trouble Later?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159580.html Blood Pressure Problems During Pregnancy, Heart Trouble Later? Spotting risk ... 27, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Pregnant women who have blood pressure in the high-normal range may have an ...

  5. Even Poorer Nations Not Immune to High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Even Poorer Nations Not Immune to High Blood Pressure Researchers cite aging populations, diet, inactivity and lack ... HealthDay News) -- For the first time ever, high blood pressure rates are higher in low- and middle-income ...

  6. Standard Blood Pressure Target is Sufficient for Treating Some Strokes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Releases News Release Wednesday, June 8, 2016 Standard blood pressure target is sufficient for treating some ... of Minnesota An international stroke study found that standard and intensive blood pressure treatments were equally effective ...

  7. Smartphone Blood-Pressure App Often Wrong, Study Finds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157555.html Smartphone Blood-Pressure App Often Wrong, Study Finds Measurements ... HealthDay News) -- A popular app that uses your smartphone to check your blood pressure is inaccurate, missing ...

  8. Microcirculation impairment and blood pressure in sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domagoj Drenjančević

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Blood pressure is crucial for the tissue perfusion, oxygenation andelimination of metabolites in normal tissue. In septic patients itmay be altered by several mechanisms. Endothelial lesions andimpaired vasoregulation resulting from bacteriemia may producevasodilatation, hypotension, tissue hypoxia and decrease in theblood velocity. These events may favour disseminated intravascularcoagulation in septic patients, and thus pronounce perfusionmisdistribution. Since hypotension is commonly treated byvasoactive drugs to increase vascular tone toward normal values,more pronounced peripheral tissue ischemia may result. Duringthe process of blood pressure regulation in septic patients a diversityof physiological parameters should be encountered, i.e. age,body weight, core temperature, overall patients’ cardiovascularperformance, anemia, and protein status. In a healthy, adult person,in the absence of other causes of hypotension systolic bloodpressure of > 90 mmHg or mean arterial pressure ≥ 70 mmHgshould maintain adequate tissue perfusion. Together with specificantibiotics, therapeutic procedures like haemodilution, use of vasoconstrictors,vasopressin and its analogue terlipressin, corticosteroidsare currently used to improve outcome of hypotensive septicpatients. Numerous studies were undertaken to point the valuesof the biochemical tests suggesting a need for prompt intervention.The arterial lactate, cortisol response, TNF, interleukin (IL6, IL-12p70 and IL-12p40 production, together with submucosal(gastric intramucosal or sublingual CO2 values were proven as indicative.These may suggest whether microcirculatory impairmentis reversible or not, and which therapeutic maneuver should beappropriate.

  9. Low dose spironolactone reduces blood pressure in patients with resistant hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolzenburg Oxlund, Christina; Henriksen, J. E.; Tarnow, L.;

    2013-01-01

    Background:The increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with arterial hypertension is particularly pronounced in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Blood pressure control is, therefore, decisively important but often not sufficiently achieved.Objective:The primary...... excretion as well as adverse effects.Methods:In a multicentre, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study 119 patients with blood pressure at or above 130/80mmHg despite triple antihypertensive therapy were included. One tablet of 25mg spironolactone or placebo was added to previous treatment and...... increased to two if blood pressure below 130/80mmHg was not achieved after 4 weeks. Blood pressure was measured by ambulatory monitoring at baseline and after 16 weeks.Results:The study was completed by 112 patients, 57 randomized to spironolactone and 55 to placebo. Average daytime placebo-corrected blood...

  10. High-pressure processing for preservation of blood products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matser, A.M.; Ven, van der C.; Gouwerok, C.W.N.; Korte, de D.

    2005-01-01

    The possibilities of high pressure as a preservation method for human blood products were evaluated by examining the functional properties of blood fractions, after high-pressure processing at conditions which potentially inactivate micro-organisms and viruses. Blood platelets, red blood cells and b

  11. Heart and Artery Damage and High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stroke More Heart and Artery Damage and High Blood Pressure Updated:Oct 22,2015 There are several harmful ... was last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...

  12. 21 CFR 870.1140 - Venous blood pressure manometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Venous blood pressure manometer. 870.1140 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1140 Venous blood pressure manometer. (a) Identification. A venous blood pressure manometer is a device attached to a...

  13. 21 CFR 870.1120 - Blood pressure cuff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood pressure cuff. 870.1120 Section 870.1120...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1120 Blood pressure cuff. (a) Identification. A blood pressure cuff is a device that has an inflatable bladder in an...

  14. Intensive blood pressure control affects cerebral blood flow in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Yu-Sok; Davis, Shyrin C A T; Truijen, Jasper;

    2011-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with microvascular complications, hypertension, and impaired dynamic cerebral autoregulation. Intensive blood pressure (BP) control in hypertensive type 2 diabetic patients reduces their risk of stroke but may affect cerebral perfusion. Systemic hemodynamic...... variables and transcranial Doppler-determined cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV), cerebral CO2 responsiveness, and cognitive function were determined after 3 and 6 months of intensive BP control in 17 type 2 diabetic patients with microvascular complications (T2DM+), in 18 diabetic patients without (T2DM...... groups. However, in contrast to nondiabetic hypertensive patients, intensive BP control reduced CBFV in T2DM- (58±9 to 54±12 cm · s-1) and T2DM+ (57±13 to 52±11 cm · s-1) at 3 months, but CBFV returned to baseline at 6 months only in T2DM-, whereas the reduction in CBFV progressed in T2DM+ (to 48±8 cm...

  15. Risk Stratification by Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring Across JNC Classes of Conventional Blood Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brguljan-Hitij, Jana; Thijs, Lutgarde; Li, Yan;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Guidelines propose classification of conventional blood pressure (CBP) into normotension (<120/<80 mm Hg), prehypertension (120-139/80-89 mm Hg), and hypertension (≥140/≥90 mm Hg). METHODS: To assess the potential differential contribution of ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) in predict......BACKGROUND: Guidelines propose classification of conventional blood pressure (CBP) into normotension (...) in predicting risk across CBP strata, we analyzed outcomes in 7,826 untreated people recruited from 11 populations. RESULTS: During an 11.3-year period, 809 participants died (276 cardiovascular deaths) and 639, 383, and 225 experienced a cardiovascular, cardiac, or cerebrovascular event. Compared...... with normotension (n = 2,639), prehypertension (n = 3,076) carried higher risk (P ≤ 0.015) of cardiovascular (+41%) and cerebrovascular (+92%) endpoints; compared with hypertension (n = 2,111) prehypertension entailed lower risk (P ≤ 0.005) of total mortality (-14%) and cardiovascular mortality (-29...

  16. Altered baseline blood volume and the norepinephrine response to stress in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernikos, J.; Convertino, V. A.

    1992-01-01

    A hypothesis is proposed that a primary physiological purpose of the neural and endocrine response to stressors is the preservation of the blood volume/blood pressure relationship. Changes in blood volume caused by an adaptation to the environmental challenge serve to modulate the neural and endocrine responsiveness to stress. Relationships between changes in vascular volume, vasoconstriction, and norepinephrine (NE) responses during acute and chronic exposure to various stressors are examined. It is noted that the hypothesis is based on numerous observations rather than definitive cause-effect experiments and further investigation is required to prove it.

  17. E-health blood pressure control program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, David K; Stinson, Lynda J; Uebelacker, Lisa A; Wroblewski, Joseph P; McMurray, Jerome H; Eaton, Charles B

    2012-01-01

    Both technological and human factors design requirements for integration of home blood pressure monitoring (HBPM) into a patient centered medical home (PCMH) model primary care practice are described. Patients with uncontrolled hypertension were given home blood pressure (BP) monitors, and after a three-month run-in period introduced to either a high-tech only (HBPM connectivity to personal health record and tailored Web portal access) or a high-tech/"high-touch" (high-tech solution plus patient navigator [PN]) solution. Features of the Web portal included: BP graphing function, traffic-light feedback system of BP goal attainment, economic incentives for self-monitoring, and dual patient-facing and care-team-facing dashboard functions. The e-health BP control system with PN support was well received by patients, providers, and the healthcare team. Current e-health technology and limited technological literacy of many patients suggest that a PN or some other personnel resource may be required for the adoption of patient-facing technology in primary care. PMID:23167022

  18. Abnormal albuminuria and blood pressure rise in incipient diabetic nephropathy induced by exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Cramer

    1984-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of light to moderate dynamic work (450 kpm/min followed by 600 kpm/min during 20 min each) on the blood pressure and renal protein handling in insulin-dependent diabetic patients with incipient nephropathy (D3) (elevated baseline albumin excretion...... baseline diastolic blood pressure was elevated [92.1 mm Hg +/- 6.0 (mean +/- SD)] compared to D2 (80.9 mm Hg +/- 4.8, 2P = 0.003%) and C (79.5 mm Hg +/- 12.4, 2P = 1.2%). Baseline systolic blood pressure was not significantly different in the three groups, but systolic blood pressure was more elevated at...... 600 kpm/min in D3 (193.0 mm Hg +/- 23.0) compared to D2 (170.5 +/- 17.3, 2P = 1.2%) and C (157.5 mm Hg +/- 20.9, 2P = 0.07%). Baseline albumin excretion in D3 was 82.6 micrograms/min X/ divided by 2.5 (geometric mean X/ divided by tolerance factor) and during exercise the maximal albumin excretion...

  19. From blood pressure to physical disability: the role of cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Merrill F; Dore, Gregory A; Davey, Adam; Robbins, Michael A; Elias, Penelope K

    2010-06-01

    We examined the hypothesis that lowered cognitive performance plays a role in the relation between elevated blood pressure and physical disability in performing basic physical tasks. A community-based sample (N=1025) free from stroke and dementia (mean age: 61.1 years; SD: 13.0 years; 59.8% women) was used. Using path analysis, systolic and diastolic blood pressures (predictor variable) measured over multiple longitudinal examinations were averaged and related to multiple measures of cognition (intermediate variable) and physical ability (PA; outcome variable) measured at wave 6 of the Maine-Syracuse Study. PA was indexed by time required to execute standing, walking, and turning tests. A best-fit path model including blood pressure and multiple demographic and cardiovascular disease covariates was used. Paths from systolic blood pressure to global performance, verbal memory, and abstract reasoning (Similarities test) were significant (Pspatial organization/memory, verbal memory, working memory, and abstract reasoning. Regardless of the blood pressure predictor, lower cognitive performance (intermediate variable) was related to lower PA (outcome) in the path from blood pressure to PA. The direct path from blood pressure to PA was significant only for systolic blood pressure. Cognitive performance mediates between blood pressure and PA. As compared with systolic blood pressure, more domains of cognitive functioning intervene between diastolic blood pressure and PA. PMID:20404216

  20. A survey of blood pressure in Lebanese children and adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassem Abou Merhi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Blood pressure varies between populations due to ethnic and environmental factors. Therefore, normal blood pressure values should be determined for different populations. Aims: The aim of this survey was to produce blood pressure nomograms for Lebanese children in order to establish distribution curves of blood pressure by age and sex. Subjects and Methods: We conducted a survey of blood pressure in 5710 Lebanese schoolchildren aged 5 to 15 years (2918 boys and 2792 girls, and studied the distribution of systolic and diastolic blood pressure in these children and adolescents. Blood pressure was measured with a mercury sphygmomanometer using a standardized technique. Results: Both systolic and diastolic blood pressure had a positive correlation with weight, height, age, and body mass index (r= 0.648, 0.643, 0.582, and 0.44, respectively (P < .001. There was no significant difference in the systolic and diastolic blood pressure in boys compared to girls of corresponding ages. However, the average annual increase in systolic blood pressure was 2.86 mm Hg in boys and 2.63 mm Hg in girls, whereas the annual increase in diastolic blood pressure was 1.72 mm Hg in boys and 1.48 mm Hg in girls. The prevalence of high and high-normal blood pressure at the upper limit of normal (between the 90th and 95th percentile, at risk of future hypertension if not managed adequately, was 10.5% in boys and 6.9% in girls, with similar distributions among the two sexes. Conclusions: We present the first age-specific reference values for blood pressure of Lebanese children aged 5 to 15 years based on a good representative sample. The use of these reference values should help pediatricians identify children with normal, high-normal and high blood pressure.

  1. A survey of blood pressure in Lebanese children and adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassem Abou Merhi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Blood pressure varies between populations due to ethnic and environmental factors. Therefore, normal blood pressure values should be determined for different populations. Aims : The aim of this survey was to produce blood pressure nomograms for Lebanese children in order to establish distribution curves of blood pressure by age and sex. Subjects and Methods: We conducted a survey of blood pressure in 5710 Lebanese schoolchildren aged 5 to 15 years (2918 boys and 2792 girls, and studied the distribution of systolic and diastolic blood pressure in these children and adolescents. Blood pressure was measured with a mercury sphygmomanometer using a standardized technique. Results: Both systolic and diastolic blood pressure had a positive correlation with weight, height, age, and body mass index (r= 0.648, 0.643, 0.582, and 0.44, respectively (P < .001. There was no significant difference in the systolic and diastolic blood pressure in boys compared to girls of corresponding ages. However, the average annual increase in systolic blood pressure was 2.86 mm Hg in boys and 2.63 mm Hg in girls, whereas the annual increase in diastolic blood pressure was 1.72 mm Hg in boys and 1.48 mm Hg in girls. The prevalence of high and high-normal blood pressure at the upper limit of normal (between the 90 th and 95 th percentile, at risk of future hypertension if not managed adequately, was 10.5% in boys and 6.9% in girls, with similar distributions among the two sexes. Conclusions: We present the first age-specific reference values for blood pressure of Lebanese children aged 5 to 15 years based on a good representative sample. The use of these reference values should help pediatricians identify children with normal, high-normal and high blood pressure.

  2. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BLOOD-PRESSURE DURING HEMODIALYSIS AND AMBULATORY BLOOD-PRESSURE IN BETWEEN DIALYSES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HUISMAN, RM; DEBRUIN, C; KLONT, D; SMIT, AJ

    1995-01-01

    Background. Ambulatory blood pressure measurements in haemodialysis patients are relevant in view of the high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in chronic haemodialysis patients. Methods. Twelve normotensive patients were studied from the beginning of one dialysis until the end of the next (mea

  3. Invasively Measured Aortic Systolic Blood Pressure and Office Systolic Blood Pressure in Cardiovascular Risk Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Esben; Knudsen, Søren T; Hansen, Klavs W;

    2016-01-01

    Aortic systolic blood pressure (BP) represents the hemodynamic cardiac and cerebral burden more directly than office systolic BP. Whether invasively measured aortic systolic BP confers additional prognostic value beyond office BP remains debated. In this study, office systolic BP and invasively...

  4. Blood pressure load does not add to ambulatory blood pressure level for cardiovascular risk stratification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yan; Thijs, Lutgarde; Boggia, José;

    2014-01-01

    Experts proposed blood pressure (BP) load derived from 24-hour ambulatory BP recordings as a more accurate predictor of outcome than level, in particular in normotensive people. We analyzed 8711 subjects (mean age, 54.8 years; 47.0% women) randomly recruited from 10 populations. We expressed BP...

  5. Surfactant bolus instillation: effects of different doses on blood pressure and cerebral blood flow velocities

    OpenAIRE

    Rey, M.; Segerer, Hugo; Kiessling, C.; Obladen, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Fifteen preterm infants suffering from respiratory distress syndrome were randomly allocated to receive either high-dose (200 mg/kg) or low-dose (100 mg/kg) surfactant treatment. Retreatments were done with the low dose. Blood pressure, blood gases and cerebral blood flow velocities were determined before and after 24 bolus instillations. With the high dose mean blood pressure and mean cerebral blood flow velocity dropped significantly. With the low dose only mean cerebral blood flow velocity...

  6. Heritability of blood pressure traits and the genetic contribution to blood pressure variance explained by four blood-pressure-related genes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijn, M.J. van; Schut, A.F.; Aulchenko, Y.S.; Deinum, J.; Sayed-Tabatabaei, F.A.; Yazdanpanah, M.; Isaacs, A.; Axenovich, T.I.; Zorkoltseva, I.V.; Zillikens, M.C.; Pols, H.A.; Witteman, J.C.; Oostra, B.A.; Duijn, C.M. van

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the heritability of four blood pressure traits and the proportion of variance explained by four blood-pressure-related genes. METHODS: All participants are members of an extended pedigree from a Dutch genetically isolated population. Heritability and genetic correlations of systo

  7. Economic evaluation of home blood pressure telemonitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Line Bille; Christiansen, Terkel; Kirkegaard, Peder;

    2011-01-01

    Aims. The purpose of the present study was to compare the costs of home blood pressure (BP) telemonitoring (HBPM) with the costs of conventional office BP monitoring. In a randomized controlled trial, 105 hypertensive patients performed HBPM and 118 patients received usual care with conventional......-time ambulatory BP (ABP) were reduced in both groups. The uncertainty around the incremental cost effectiveness ratio point estimates was considerable for both systolic and diastolic ABP. For systolic ABP, the difference in cost effectiveness ratio between the two groups was 256 Danish kroner (DKK)/mmHg [95......% uncertainty interval, UI -860 to 4544]. For diastolic ABP, the difference in cost effectiveness ratio between the two groups was 655 DKK/mmHg [95% UI -674 to 69315]. Medication and consultation costs were lowest in the intervention group, but were offset by the cost of the telemonitoring equipment...

  8. Familial aggregation and childhood blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoling; Xu, Xiaojing; Su, Shaoyong; Snieder, Harold

    2015-01-01

    There is growing concern about elevated blood pressure (BP) in children. The evidence for familial aggregation of childhood BP is substantial. Twin studies have shown that a large part of the familial aggregation of childhood BP is due to genes. The first part of this review provides the latest progress in gene finding for childhood BP, focusing on the combined effects of multiple loci identified from the genome-wide association studies on adult BP. We further review the evidence on the contribution of the genetic components of other family risk factors to the familial aggregation of childhood BP including obesity, birth weight, sleep quality, sodium intake, parental smoking, and socioeconomic status. At the end, we emphasize the promise of using genomic-relatedness-matrix restricted maximum likelihood (GREML) analysis, a method that uses genome-wide data from unrelated individuals, in answering a number of unsolved questions in the familial aggregation of childhood BP. PMID:25432901

  9. Neuro-endocrine regulation of blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Chopra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As our understanding of the underlying aetiology of hypertension is far from adequate, over 90% of patients with hypertension receive a diagnosis of essential hypertension. This non-specific diagnosis leads to suboptimal therapeutics and a major problem with non-compliance. Understanding the normal control of blood pressure (BP is, hence, important for a better understanding of the disease.This review attempts to unravel the present understanding of BP control. The local mechanisms of BP control, the neural mechanisms, renal-endocrine mechanisms, and a variety of other hormones that have a bearing in normal BP control are discussed and the possible role in the pathophysiology is alluded to.

  10. Pharmacological attenuation of blood pressure variability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Claude JULIEN

    2005-01-01

    @@ Over the past few years, the research team of Professor Ding-feng SU has reported an impressive quantity of experimental data about the relationships between blood pressure variability (BPV) and end-organ damage, a topic of obvious clinical interest. This research work has been summarized in a paper that appeared in the August issue of the renowned journal Trends in Pharmacological Sciences[1]. The studies by Su et al provide convincing evidence that BPV is an independent cardiovascular risk factor that should be considered as such and, therefore, might become an important target for therapeutic interventions. Besides these exciting perspectives in the prevention and treatment of cardiovasculardiseases, the work by Su et al raises a series of physiological questions.

  11. How to measure blood pressure manually.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, Melanie; Smith, Joyce

    2016-01-20

    Rationale and key points This article aims to help nurses to measure blood pressure (BP) manually using an aneroid sphygmomanometer. ▶ BP measurement is an essential clinical skill, and nurses must be competent in performing this procedure and taking accurate readings. ▶ Nurses should be aware of manual BP measurement techniques and understand the patient and environmental factors that may result in inaccurate readings that could compromise patient care. ▶ Nurses should regularly undertake manual BP measurement to ensure they remain competent to perform the procedure. Reflective activity Clinical skills articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. How reading this article will change your practice. 2. Further learning needs to extend your professional development. Subscribers can upload their reflective accounts at: rcni.com/portfolio . PMID:26786460

  12. Effects of vegetarian diets on blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yokoyama Y

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Yoko Yokoyama,1,2 Kazuo Tsubota,2,3 Mitsuhiro Watanabe1,2,4,5 1Graduate School of Media and Governance, Keio University, Fujisawa, Kanagawa, 2Health Science Laboratory, 3Department of Ophthalmology, 4Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, 5Faculty of Environment and Information Studies, Keio University, Fujisawa, Kanagawa, Japan Abstract: Hypertension is a major independent risk factor for coronary artery diseases, and the prevalence of hypertension is continuously increasing. Diet is an important factor that can be modified to prevent hypertension. According to the US Department of Health and Human Services, dietary patterns are defined as the quantities, proportions, and variety or combinations of different foods and beverages in diets and the frequency with which they are habitually consumed. In this review, the vegetarian dietary pattern is introduced with a focus on the effect on blood pressure (BP. Although the available evidence is limited, according to a previous meta-analysis of controlled trials, vegetarian dietary patterns significantly reduced systolic and diastolic BPs. One of the common features of a vegetarian diet is weight loss, which might, at least partially, explain the effect on BP. Other possible factors such as sodium, potassium, protein, amino acids, vitamin B-12, antioxidants, fiber, and the microbiome are introduced as possible mechanisms. Further studies are needed with non-Western populations to determine the most effective vegetarian dietary pattern and to explore the exact mechanisms by which these dietary patterns affect BP. Keywords: vegetarian diet, plant-based diet, blood pressure, hypertension, meta-analysis

  13. One session treatment for pediatric blood-injection-injury phobia: A controlled multiple baseline trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oar, Ella L; Farrell, Lara J; Waters, Allison M; Conlon, Elizabeth G; Ollendick, Thomas H

    2015-10-01

    The present study evaluated the effectiveness of a modified One Session Treatment (OST), which included an e-therapy homework maintenance program over 4 weeks for Blood-Injection-Injury (BII) phobia in children and adolescents. Using a single case, non-concurrent multiple-baseline design, 24 children and adolescents (8-18 years; 7 males, 17 females) with a primary diagnosis of BII phobia were randomly assigned to a one, two or three week baseline prior to receiving OST. Primary outcome measures included diagnostic severity, diagnostic status, and child and parent fear ratings. Secondary outcome measures included avoidance during behavioural avoidance tasks (BAT), global functioning and self and parent reported anxiety, fear and depression. Efficacy was assessed at post-treatment, 1-month, and 3-month follow-up. BII symptoms and diagnostic severity remained relatively stable during the baseline periods and then significantly improved following implementation of the intervention. Treatment response was supported by changes across multiple measures, including child, parent and independent clinician ratings. At post-treatment 8 of the 24 (33.33%) children were BII diagnosis free. Treatment gains improved at follow-ups with 14 (58.33%) children diagnosis free at 1-month follow-up and 15 (62.5%) diagnosis free at 3-month follow-up. Preliminary findings support the effectiveness of a modified OST approach for BII phobic youth with treatment outcomes improving over follow-up intervals. PMID:26313620

  14. Base-line O2 extraction influences cerebral blood flow response to hematocrit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have shown that the fall in cerebral blood flow (CBF) as hematocrit (Hct) rises is due to the independent effects of increasing red blood cell (RBC) concentration and arterial O2 content (CaO2). In the present study, they tested the hypothesis that the magnitude of the effect of RBC concentration depends on the base-line cerebral fractional oxygen extraction (E). Pentobarbital-anesthetized 1- to 7-day-old sheep were first exchange transfused with plasma to lower Hct to 20%. Base-line E was set to either high or low levels by induction of hypocarbia, or hypercarbia. A second isovolemic exchange transfusion with pure methemoglobin-containing adult sheep red cells then raised Hct with no significant increase in CaO2. PaCO2 was maintained and other variables with potential effect on CBF did not change. CBF corrected for any individual alteration in CMRo2. This study supports the hypothesis that the magnitude of the decline in CBF secondary to an increase in RBC concentration depends on the initial E. The effect of RBC concentration on CBF is greatest when E is low

  15. Salt Really Does Boost Blood Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ransdell; pierson; 张仙根

    2000-01-01

    盐的摄入与高血压到底存在怎样的关系?多年来,人们对这个问题争论不休。现在,终于有了可靠的结论:A salty diet really does drive up bloodpressure;both in people with and without elevated pressure.本文出现了一个新的首字母缩略词DASH。《英汉大词典补编》尚未收入此词。所幸的是,本文作者对此DASH作了说明,DASH=Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension,我们是否可将它译成“食疗降血压法”?高血压是诱发各种心血管疾病的元凶,我们不能掉以轻心。本文的一个观点可供我们参考:An intake of sodium below thecurrent recommended daily level of 2,400 milligrams(毫克)could help Americansprevent blood pressure rises that occur especially with advancing age.

  16. Accurate blood pressure recording: Is it difficult?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhalla A

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Blood pressure (BP measurement is a routine procedure but errors are frequently committed during BP recording. AIMS AND SETTINGS: The aim of the study was to look at the prevalent practices in the institute regarding BP recording. The study was conducted in the Medicine Department at Government Medical College, Chandigarh, a teaching institute for MBBS students. METHODS: A prospective, observational study was performed amongst the 80 doctors in a tertiary care hospital. All of them were observed by a single observer during the act of BP recording. The observer was well versed with the guidelines issued by British Hypertension Society (BHS and the deviations from the standard set of guidelines issued by BHS were noted. The errors were defined as deviations from these guidelines. STATISTICAL METHODS: The results were recorded as percentage of doctors committing these errors. RESULTS: In our study, 90% used mercury type sphygmomanometer. Zero error of the apparatus, hand dominance was not noted by any one. Every one used the standard BP cuff for recording BP. 70% of them did not let the patient rest before recording BP. 80% did not remove the clothing from the arm. None of them recorded BP in both arms. In out patient setting, 80% recorded blood pressure in sitting position and 14% in supine position. In all the patients where BP was recorded in sitting position BP apparatus was below the level of heart and 20% did not have their arm supported. 60% did not use palpatory method for noticing systolic BP and 70% did not raise pressure 30-40 mm Hg above the systolic level before checking the BP by auscultation. 80% lowered the BP at a rate of more than 2 mm/s and 60% rounded off the BP to nearest 5-10 mm Hg. 70% recorded BP only once and 90% of the rest re inflated the cuff without completely deflating and allowing rest before a second reading was obtained. CONCLUSION: The practice of recording BP in our hospital varies from the standard

  17. Auscultatory versus oscillometric measurement of blood pressure in octogenarians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sidsel Arnspang

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background. Auscultatory measurement using a sphygmomanometer has been the predominant method for clinical estimation of blood pressure, but it is now rapidly being replaced by oscillometric measurement. Objective. To compare blood pressure by auscultatory and oscillometric measurements in...... patients 80 years. Method. 100 patients had blood pressure measured by auscultation with a sphygmomanometer and by an electronic device using the oscillometric method. For each patient the mean of two blood pressures with each method measured within 15 min were compared. Results. The mean age of...... participants was 85.8 years; 55.8% were women. The correlation coeffi cient for systolic blood pressure was 0.88 and for diastolic 0.79. Differences between auscultatory and oscillometric values were less than 10 mmHg in 70.6% of systolic blood pressures and in 83.2% for diastolic. Arrhythmia and hypertension...

  18. Diurnal variation in baseline human regional cerebral blood flow demonstrated by PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, D.J.; Mintun, M.A.; Moore, R.Y. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)] [and others

    1994-05-01

    We have previously described the diurnal variation in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) response to bright light in human subjects as demonstrated by the positron emission tomography (PET) activation method. In this abstract, we report the differences in rCBF (an indicator of differences in regional neuronal activity) between the evening and midday dim light baseline scans which served as the control states in the above bright light activation study. Five right-handed, healthy volunteers underwent both an evening (8pm) and a midday (12N) O-15 water PET scanning session. Each scanning session was preceded by one hour of dim light adaptation (50 lux) and consisted of six rCBF scans at three different light intensities in an AABBCC sequence (A=50 lux, B=2500 lux, C=7000lux). Significant differences in rCBF between the evening and midday 50 lux states were identified using the statistical parametric mapping method developed by Friston et al (p<.001). The evening scans demonstrated areas of greater relative blood flow in the pineal gland, the lateral temporal cortex bilaterally, the right lateral prefrontal cortex, the superior aspect of the anterior cingulate, and the left thalamus. The midday scans showed areas of greater relative blood flow in the visual cortex, the left lateral prefrontal cortex. the inferior aspect of the anterior cingulate, the left parietal cortex and the cerebellum. Our results demonstrate an extensive diurnal variation in baseline human rCBF. This indicates that time of day may be an important variable in conducting and interpreting functional brain imaging studies. Furthermore, these results suggest possible neuroanatomical substrates through which the circadian system may regulate the various physiologic and behavioral processes that manifest circadian rhythms.

  19. Differential effects of the changes of LDL cholesterol and systolic blood pressure on the risk of carotid artery atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien Kuo-Liong

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of baseline and changes in blood pressure and low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol on the carotid intima media thickness (IMT have not been well documented. Methods A total of 2572 adults (mean age 53.8 years, 54.6% women in a Taiwanese community undertook three blood pressure and LDL cholesterol examinations over 6 years. Latent growth curve modeling was used to investigate the effects of baseline and change in blood pressure and LDL cholesterol on IMT. Results Greater baseline LDL and blood pressure were associated with an increase in IMT (0.005 ± 0.002 mm per 1 mg/dL [p = 0.006] and 0.041 ± 0.004 mm mmHg [p Conclusions Carotid IMT was associated with baseline blood pressure and LDL cholesterol, yet only changes of blood pressure, not LDL cholesterol, were related to carotid IMT during the 6-year observation.

  20. Do maternal and intrauterine factors influence blood pressure in childhood?

    OpenAIRE

    Whincup, P H; Cook, D G; Papacosta, O

    1992-01-01

    It has been proposed that maternal health and nutrition may be important in the development of adult cardiovascular risk, and that blood pressure may be an important intermediate step in this process. To examine the relevance of this hypothesis in contemporary British children, the relationships of several maternal factors to blood pressure were studied in 3360 children of European origin aged 5-7 years. Maternal age, height, and body mass index were all positively related to blood pressure i...

  1. Blood pressure among the Inuit (Eskimo) populations in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Dewailly, Eric; Young, T Kue;

    2003-01-01

    Studies of blood pressure among various Inuit (Eskimo) populations in the Arctic have given inconsistent results. Most studies reported lower blood pressure among the Inuit as compared with the predominantly white national populations. This has been attributed to traditional subsistence practices...... and lifestyle. This study compared the blood pressure among the major Inuit population groups with other populations and examined the associations with factors like age, gender, obesity and smoking....

  2. A blood pressure measurement method based on synergetics theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>The principle for blood pressure measurement using pulse transit time is introduced in this paper.And the math model of synergetics theory is studied in detail.The synergetics theory is applied in the analysis of blood pressure measurement data.The simulation results show that the application of synergetics theory is helpful to judge the normal blood pressure,and the accuracy is up to 80%.

  3. A new method of non-invasive blood pressure measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Liangling; Yang, Yongming; Yu, Chengbo; Guo, Qiaohui; Zhu, Gang

    2005-12-01

    Blood pressure reflects a person's health.It is proposed here that the method of detecting blood pressure may be the key to improving the precision of blood pressure measurements. The oscillometric blood pressure measurement technique is widely used in automatic blood pressure measurement instruments correctly. A method of blood pressure measurement by oscillometric method is first presented. In the oscillometric method, the basic principle of the "feature point" method and the "amplitude characteristic ratios" method is also explained and discussed here. A new method of blood pressure measurement, namely the coefficient difference comparative method, is proposed here,which is based on the feature point method and amplitude characteristic ratios method. The method is proved both effective and reliable through the analysis of many cases and clinical tests. Utilizing Visual C++, software for this new and novel method was developed and passed criterion simulation apparatus test. When applied in hospital situation, its error was +/-5%. It is concluded that the oscillometric blood pressure measurement method can provide better means of blood pressure measurements reference for doctors.

  4. Auscultatory Blood Pressure Measurement—Effect of Pressure on the Head of the Stethoscope

    OpenAIRE

    Londe, Sol; Klitzner, Thomas S.

    1984-01-01

    Excessive pressure on the stethoscope head in auscultatory blood pressure measurement does not affect systolic blood pressure value but it does erroneously lower diastolic readings and frequently causes the sounds to persist to zero. Consequently, the lightest possible pressure should be placed on the stethoscope head.

  5. Water sodium, urinary electrolytes, and blood pressure of adolescents.

    OpenAIRE

    Robertson, J. S.

    1984-01-01

    Blood pressure measurements were made on children in their fourth year at secondary schools in parts of Scunthorpe Health District supplied with drinking water of varying sodium content. Of the 3131 children, 2740 were examined (1394 boys and 1346 girls). Boys had slightly higher systolic pressures and slightly lower diastolic pressures than the girls. There was no difference between the blood pressure distributions of children in areas supplied with water containing 105 mg/l sodium, 50 mg/l ...

  6. Predicting Increased Blood Pressure Using Machine Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson Fernandes Golino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the prediction of increased blood pressure by body mass index (BMI, waist (WC and hip circumference (HC, and waist hip ratio (WHR using a machine learning technique named classification tree. Data were collected from 400 college students (56.3% women from 16 to 63 years old. Fifteen trees were calculated in the training group for each sex, using different numbers and combinations of predictors. The result shows that for women BMI, WC, and WHR are the combination that produces the best prediction, since it has the lowest deviance (87.42, misclassification (.19, and the higher pseudo R2 (.43. This model presented a sensitivity of 80.86% and specificity of 81.22% in the training set and, respectively, 45.65% and 65.15% in the test sample. For men BMI, WC, HC, and WHC showed the best prediction with the lowest deviance (57.25, misclassification (.16, and the higher pseudo R2 (.46. This model had a sensitivity of 72% and specificity of 86.25% in the training set and, respectively, 58.38% and 69.70% in the test set. Finally, the result from the classification tree analysis was compared with traditional logistic regression, indicating that the former outperformed the latter in terms of predictive power.

  7. Blood pressure response to low level static contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallentin, Nils; Jørgensen, Kurt

    1992-01-01

    The present study re-examines the 15% MVC concept, i.e. the existence of a circulatory steady-state in low intensity static contractions below 15% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Mean arterial blood pressure was studied during static endurance contractions of the elbow flexor and extensor...... 0.7) min for elbow extension]. Mean arterial blood pressure exhibited a continuous and progressive increase during the 10% MVC contractions indicating that the 15% MVC concept would not appear to be valid. The terminal blood pressure value recorded at the point of exhaustion in the 10% MVC elbow...... the circulation to the muscles was arrested just prior to the cessation of the contraction, blood pressure only partly recovered and remained elevated for as long as the occlusion persisted, indicating the level of pressure-raising muscle chemoreflexes. Based on blood pressure recordings obtained...

  8. CDC Vital Signs: High Blood Pressure and Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1.36 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips High Blood Pressure and Cholesterol Out of Control Recommend on Facebook ... by County http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/GISCVH2/ High Blood Pressure and High Cholesterol Among US Adults SOURCES: National ...

  9. Prenatal air pollution exposure and newborn blood pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossem, Lenie; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Melly, Steven J.; Kloog, Itai; Luttmann-Gibson, Heike; Zanobetti, Antonella; Coull, Brent A.; Schwartz, Joel D.; Mittleman, Murray A.; Oken, Emily; Gillman, Matthew W.; Koutrakis, Petros; Gold, Diane R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Air pollution exposure has been associated with increased blood pressure in adults. oBjective: We examined associations of antenatal exposure to ambient air pollution with newborn systolic blood pressure (SBP). Methods: We studied 1,131 mother–infant pairs in a Boston, Massachusetts, are

  10. 21 CFR 870.1110 - Blood pressure computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood pressure computer. 870.1110 Section 870.1110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... computer. (a) Identification. A blood pressure computer is a device that accepts the electrical signal...

  11. Auscultatory versus oscillometric measurement of blood pressure in octogenarians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosholm, Jens-Ulrik; Pedersen, Sidsel Arnspang; Matzen, Lars;

    2012-01-01

    Auscultatory measurement using a sphygmomanometer has been the predominant method for clinical estimation of blood pressure, but it is now rapidly being replaced by oscillometric measurement.......Auscultatory measurement using a sphygmomanometer has been the predominant method for clinical estimation of blood pressure, but it is now rapidly being replaced by oscillometric measurement....

  12. Placental programming of blood pressure in Indian children

    OpenAIRE

    Winder, Nicola R; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V.; Hill, Jacqueline C.; Karat, Chitra LS; Fall, Caroline HD; Veena, Sargoor R; Barker, David JP

    2011-01-01

    Aim To determine whether the size and shape of the placental surface predict blood pressure in childhood. Methods We studied blood pressure in 471 nine-year-old Indian children whose placental length, breadth and weight were measured in a prospective birth cohort study. Results In the daughters of short mothers (

  13. Interactive effect of APOE genotype and blood pressure on cognitive decline: the PATH through life study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Shea; Das, Debjani; Anstey, Kaarin J; Easteal, Simon

    2015-01-01

    The apolipoprotein E (APOE) *ε4 allele and hypertension are two of the most prevalent risk factors for cognitive decline in later life. Here we investigate whether cognitive decline is affected by interaction between these two risk factors. Specifically, we examine whether APOE*ε4 moderates the association between high blood pressure and cognition in later life. Cognitive function was assessed at three time points over a period of 8 years in 1,474 cognitively normal, community-dwelling adults aged 60-64 years at baseline. Blood pressure and APOE genotype were assessed at baseline. Blood pressure was measured categorically as 'Hypertension' and continuously as 'Mean Arterial Pressure' (MAP). Multilevel models were used to investigate main and interactive effects of APOE genotype and both hypertension and MAP on the rate of change of episodic memory, working memory, verbal ability, perceptual speed, and global cognition. The APOE-hypertension interaction was associated with a small but statistically significant increase in the rate of decline of episodic memory, verbal ability, and global cognition. However, its inclusion in the model did not increase the amount of outcome variation explained beyond that already explained by the effect of time. In contrast, the APOE-MAP interaction had no effect on the rate of decline in any of these domains of cognitive performance. These results provide tentative evidence that APOE genotype moderates the association between high blood pressure and cognitive decline in later life. PMID:25672766

  14. Noninvasive 24-hour ambulatory arterial blood pressure monitoring in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Wiinberg, N; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    1995-01-01

    Cirrhotic patients have disturbed systemic hemodynamics with reduced arterial blood pressure, but this has not been investigated during daily activity and sleep. Systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP), and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), and heart rate (HR) were measured by an automatic ambulant...... device for monitoring blood pressure in 35 patients with cirrhosis and 35 healthy matched controls. During the daytime, SBP, DBP, and MAP were significantly lower in the patients than in the controls (median 118 vs. 127; 70 vs. 78; 86 vs. 94 mm Hg, P < .0001 to P < .05). The nighttime blood pressures...... were almost similar in the two groups (108 vs. 110; 65 vs. 67; 78 vs. 82 mm Hg, NS). Conversely, HR was significantly higher in the patients both in the daytime (86 vs. 72/min, P < .0001) and at night (80 vs. 64/min, P < .0001). Consequently, the reduction in blood pressure and HR from daytime to...

  15. Blood pressure self-measurement in the obstetric waiting room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Stefan; Kamper, Christina H.; Toftegaard, Thomas Skjødeberg;

    2013-01-01

    Background: Pregnant diabetic patients are often required to self- measure their blood pressure in the waiting room before consulta- tion. Currently used blood pressure devices do not guarantee valid measurements when used unsupervised. This could lead to misdi- agnosis and treatment error. The aim...... of this study was to investigate current use of blood pressure self-measurement in the waiting room in order to identify challenges that could influence the resulting data quality. Also, we wanted to investigate the potential for addressing these challenges with e-health and telemedicine technology...... obtain a reliable blood pressure reading. Results: We found that the patients did not adhere to given instructions when performing blood pressure self-measurement in the waiting room. None of the 81 patients adhered to all six inves- tigated recommendations, while around a quarter adhered to five out of...

  16. A comparison of blood pressure measurements in newborns.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Shea, Joyce

    2012-02-01

    Blood pressure monitoring is an essential component of neonatal intensive care. We compared invasive and noninvasive (Dinamap, Marquette, and Dash) recordings in newborns and also noninvasive values obtained from upper and lower limbs. Infants\\' blood pressure was recorded every 6 hours for 72 hours using three noninvasive devices and compared with invasive readings taken simultaneously. Twenty-five babies were enrolled in the study, with birth weights of 560 to 4500 g and gestation 24 + 1 to 40 + 5 weeks. Three hundred thirty-two recordings were obtained. Comparison between invasive and noninvasive readings revealed that all three noninvasive monitors overread mean blood pressure. There was no significant difference between the cuff recordings obtained from the upper or lower limbs. All three noninvasive devices overestimated mean blood pressure values compared with invasive monitoring. Clinicians may be falsely reassured by noninvasive monitoring. Mean blood pressure values obtained from the upper and lower limb are similar.

  17. SYSTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE: BIOPHYSICAL, AGE AND GENDER FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.I. Malinova

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of systolic blood pressure features in the population of large industrial center. On the basis of measurement of blood pressure in adult population of three city regions there were revealed the following age-related changes in systolic blood pressure in men: three periods of rise and two periods of stabilization. The principal difference in women is the absence of the periods of rise and stabilization, lower level of blood pressure in young and middle aged people and authentically higher level of blood pressure - in elderly women. The increase of haemodynamical loading for one year of life in men of the middle (2 times and elder ages (3 times was revealed, that was not typical forwomen.

  18. Gcg-XTEN: an improved glucagon capable of preventing hypoglycemia without increasing baseline blood glucose.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan C Geething

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: While the majority of current diabetes treatments focus on reducing blood glucose levels, hypoglycemia represents a significant risk associated with insulin treatment. Glucagon plays a major regulatory role in controlling hypoglycemia in vivo, but its short half-life and hyperglycemic effects prevent its therapeutic use for non-acute applications. The goal of this study was to identify a modified form of glucagon suitable for prophylactic treatment of hypoglycemia without increasing baseline blood glucose levels. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Through application of the XTEN technology, we report the construction of a glucagon fusion protein with an extended exposure profile (Gcg-XTEN. The in vivo half-life of the construct was tuned to support nightly dosing through design and testing in cynomolgus monkeys. Efficacy of the construct was assessed in beagle dogs using an insulin challenge to induce hypoglycemia. Dose ranging of Gcg-XTEN in fasted beagle dogs demonstrated that the compound was biologically active with a pharmacodynamic profile consistent with the designed half-life. Prophylactic administration of 0.6 nmol/kg Gcg-XTEN to dogs conferred resistance to a hypoglycemic challenge at 6 hours post-dose without affecting baseline blood glucose levels. Consistent with the designed pharmacokinetic profile, hypoglycemia resistance was not observed at 12 hours post-dose. Importantly, the solubility and stability of the glucagon peptide were also significantly improved by fusion to XTEN. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The data show that Gcg-XTEN is effective in preventing hypoglycemia without the associated hyperglycemia expected for unmodified glucagon. While the plasma clearance of this Gcg-XTEN has been optimized for overnight dosing, specifically for the treatment of nocturnal hypoglycemia, constructs with significantly longer exposure profiles are feasible. Such constructs may have multiple applications such as allowing for more

  19. Home readings of blood pressure in assessment of hypertensive subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, P.E.; Myschetzky, P; Andersen, A R;

    1986-01-01

    Out-patient clinic blood pressure (OPC-BP) was compared to home blood pressure (Home-BP) measured three times daily during a two week period in 122 consecutively referred hypertensive subjects. A semi-automatic device (TM-101) including a microphone for detection of Korotkoff-sounds, self......-deflation of cuff pressure and digital display of blood pressure was used. Mean difference between OPC-BP and Home-BP was systolic +13 mm Hg (range -21 - +100 mg Hg) and diastolic +5 mm Hg (range -27 - +36 mm Hg). Although a significant correlation could be demonstrated between Home-BP and OPC-BP, the inter...

  20. A Discussion on the Regulation of Blood Flow and Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Christopher B; Collier, David J; Shah, Mussadiq; Saxena, Manish; Brier, Timothy J; Kapil, Vikas; Green, David; Lobo, Melvin

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses two kinds of regulation essential to the circulatory system: namely the regulation of blood flow and that of (systemic) arterial blood pressure. It is pointed out that blood flow requirements sub-serve the nutritional needs of the tissues, adequately catered for by keeping blood flow sufficient for the individual oxygen needs. Individual tissue oxygen requirements vary between tissue types, while highly specific for a given individual tissue. Hence, blood flows are distributed between multiple tissues, each with a specific optimum relationship between the rate of oxygen delivery (DO2) and oxygen consumption (VO2). Previous work has illustrated that the individual tissue blood flows are adjusted proportionately, where there are variations in metabolic rate and where arterial oxygen content (CaO2) varies. While arterial blood pressure is essential for the provision of a sufficient pressure gradient to drive blood flow, it is applicable throughout the arterial system at any one time. Furthermore, It is regulated independently of the input resistance to individual tissues (local arterioles), since they are regulated locally, that being the means by which the highly specific adequate local requirement for DO2 is ensured. Since total blood flow is the summation of all the individually regulated tissue blood flows cardiac inflow (venous return) amounts to total tissue blood flow and as the heart puts out what it receives cardiac output is therefore determined at the tissues. Hence, regulation of arterial blood pressure is independent of the distributed independent regulation of individual tissues. It is proposed here that mechanical features of arterial blood pressure regulation will depend rather on the balance between blood volume and venous wall tension, determinants of venous pressure. The potential for this explanation is treated in some detail. PMID:26782204

  1. Maternal Blood Pressure During Pregnancy and Early Childhood Blood Pressures in the Offspring: The GUSTO Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Wai-Yee; Lee, Yung-Seng; Yap, Fabian Kok-Peng; Aris, Izzudin Mohd; Ngee, Lek; Meaney, Michael; Gluckman, Peter D; Godfrey, Keith M; Kwek, Kenneth; Chong, Yap-Seng; Saw, Seang-Mei; Pan, An

    2015-11-01

    Although epidemiological studies suggest that offspring of women with preeclampsia are at increased risk to higher blood pressures and cardiovascular disease, little is known about the nature of blood pressures between the mother and her offspring. As blood pressures comprise of both pulsatile (systolic blood pressure [SBP] and pulse pressure [PP]) and stable (diastolic blood pressure [DBP]) components, and they differ between central and peripheral sites, we sought to examine maternal peripheral and central blood pressure components in relation to offspring early childhood blood pressures. A prospective birth cohort of 567 Chinese, Malay, and Indian mother-offspring with complete blood pressure information were studied. Maternal brachial artery SBP, DBP, and PP were measured at 26 to 28 weeks gestation; and central SBP and PP were estimated from radial artery waveforms. Offspring brachial artery SBP, DBP, and PP were measured at 3 years of age. Associations between continuous variables of maternal blood pressures (peripheral SBP, DBP, PP, central SBP, and PP) and offspring blood pressures (peripheral SBP, DBP, and PP) were examined using multiple linear regression with adjustment for maternal characteristics (age, education level, parity, smoking status, alcohol consumption and physical activity during pregnancy, and pre-pregnancy BMI) and offspring characteristics (sex, ethnicity, BMI, and height at 3 years of age). In the multivariate models, offspring peripheral SBP increased by 0.08 (95% confidence interval 0.00-0.17, P = 0.06) mmHg with every 1-mmHg increase in maternal central SBP, and offspring peripheral PP increased by 0.10 (0.01-0.18, P = 0.03) mmHg for every 1-mmHg increase in maternal central PP. The relations of maternal-offspring peripheral blood pressures (SBP, DBP, and PP) were positive but not statistically significant, and the corresponding values were 0.05 (-0.03 to 0.13; P = 0.21), 0.03 (-0.04 to 0.10; P = 0.35), and 0.05 (-0

  2. Impact of systolic blood pressure on visit-to-visit blood pressure variability in middle-aged and elderly people

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈朔华

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the impact of systolic blood pressure(SBP)on visit-to-visit blood pressure variability(BPV) in middle-aged and elderly people.Methods Visit-to-visit BPV was determined in 5440 workers in the

  3. Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring-Derived Short-Term Blood Pressure Variability in Primary Aldosteronism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillo, Andrea; Bernardi, Stella; Rebellato, Andrea; Fabris, Bruno; Bardelli, Moreno; Burrello, Jacopo; Rabbia, Franco; Veglio, Franco; Fallo, Francesco; Carretta, Renzo

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the short-term blood pressure (BP) variability (BPV) derived from ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in patients with primary aldosteronism (PA), either idiopathic hyperaldosteronism (IHA) or aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA), in comparison with patients with essential hypertension (EH) and normotensive (NT) controls. Thirty patients with PA (16 with IHA and 14 with APA), 30 patients with EH, and 30 NT controls, matched for sex, age, body mass index, and antihypertensive therapy, were studied. The standard deviation (SD) of 24-hour, daytime, and nighttime BP; 24-hour weighted SD of BP; and 24-hour BP average real variability were not different between patients with PA and those with EH (P=not significant). All BPV indices were higher in patients with PA, either IHA or APA subtypes, and patients with EH, compared with NT controls (P<.001 to P<.05). ABPM-derived short-term BPV is increased in patients with PA, and it may represent an additional cardiovascular risk factor in this disease. The role of aldosterone excess in BPV has to be clarified. PMID:25880017

  4. Automatic noninvasive measurement of systolic blood pressure using photoplethysmography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glik Zehava

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Automatic measurement of arterial blood pressure is important, but the available commercial automatic blood pressure meters, mostly based on oscillometry, are of low accuracy. Methods In this study, we present a cuff-based technique for automatic measurement of systolic blood pressure, based on photoplethysmographic signals measured simultaneously in fingers of both hands. After inflating the pressure cuff to a level above systolic blood pressure in a relatively slow rate, it is slowly deflated. The cuff pressure for which the photoplethysmographic signal reappeared during the deflation of the pressure-cuff was taken as the systolic blood pressure. The algorithm for the detection of the photoplethysmographic signal involves: (1 determination of the time-segments in which the photoplethysmographic signal distal to the cuff is expected to appear, utilizing the photoplethysmographic signal in the free hand, and (2 discrimination between random fluctuations and photoplethysmographic pattern. The detected pulses in the time-segments were identified as photoplethysmographic pulses if they met two criteria, based on the pulse waveform and on the correlation between the signal in each segment and the signal in the two neighboring segments. Results Comparison of the photoplethysmographic-based automatic technique to sphygmomanometry, the reference standard, shows that the standard deviation of their differences was 3.7 mmHg. For subjects with systolic blood pressure above 130 mmHg the standard deviation was even lower, 2.9 mmHg. These values are much lower than the 8 mmHg value imposed by AAMI standard for automatic blood pressure meters. Conclusion The photoplethysmographic-based technique for automatic measurement of systolic blood pressure, and the algorithm which was presented in this study, seems to be accurate.

  5. Survival with Treated and Well-Controlled Blood Pressure: Findings from a Prospective Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Debbie A. Lawlor; Kim, Lois; Morris, Richard; Amuzu, Antoinette; Whincup, Peter; Ebrahim, Shah

    2011-01-01

    Aim To compare survival and incident cardiovascular disease between normotensive, untreated hypertensive, treated and poorly-controlled hypertensive and treated and well-controlled hypertensive adults. Methods and Results Data from the British Regional Heart Study (men) and British Women's Heart and Health Study (women) were used (N = 6476). Blood pressure and treatment were assessed at baseline (1998–2001) when participants were aged 60–79 years and participants were followed up for a median...

  6. Video Game Playing Is Independently Associated with Blood Pressure and Lipids in Overweight and Obese Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Goldfield, Gary S.; Kenny, Glen P.; Stasia Hadjiyannakis; Penny Phillips; Alberga, Angela S.; Saunders, Travis J.; Tremblay, Mark S.; Janine Malcolm; Denis Prud'homme; Rejeanne Gougeon; Sigal, Ronald J.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between duration and type of screen time (TV, video games, computer time) and blood pressure (BP) and lipids in overweight and obese adolescents. DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional study of 282 overweight or obese adolescents aged 14-18 years (86 males, 196 females) assessed at baseline prior to beginning a lifestyle intervention study for weight control. Sedentary behaviours, defined as hours per day spent watching TV, playing video games, recreational co...

  7. The relation of blood pressure to dementia in the elderly : A community-based longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu, Chengxuan

    2004-01-01

    This doctoral thesis concerns a community-based, prospective study aimed at investigating the complex relationship between blood pressure (BP) and risk of dementia in a dementia-free cohort (n = 1301) aged >=75 years in Stockholm, Sweden. After baseline survey (1987-1989), the cohort was followed for over 6 years, during which 2 waves of clinical examinations (1991-1993 & 1994-1996) for dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD) (DSM-III-R diagnostic criteria) were performed. Dat...

  8. Video Game Playing Is Independently Associated with Blood Pressure and Lipids in Overweight and Obese Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Gary S. Goldfield; Kenny, Glen P.; Hadjiyannakis, Stasia; Phillips, Penny; Alberga, Angela S.; Saunders, Travis J.; Tremblay, Mark S; Malcolm, Janine; Prud'homme, Denis; Gougeon, Rejeanne; Sigal, Ronald J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between duration and type of screen time (TV, video games, computer time) and blood pressure (BP) and lipids in overweight and obese adolescents. Design This is a cross-sectional study of 282 overweight or obese adolescents aged 14–18 years (86 males, 196 females) assessed at baseline prior to beginning a lifestyle intervention study for weight control. Sedentary behaviours, defined as hours per day spent watching TV, playing video games, recreational comp...

  9. What Blood Pressure Goal in Type-2 Diabetes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsson PM

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension in diabetes is a wellknown risk factor for cardiovascular diseases that should be taken seriously. Observational studies have shown a more or less linear relationship between systolic blood pressure levels and risk, but this does not correspond with the outcome results of intervention trials to lower blood pressure. In fact, tight blood pressure control has only been shown to be of general benefit in the range of 130–135 mmHg systolic blood pressure, but not below except for stroke prevention. On the other hand, there might even exist an increased risk for coronary heart disease events and cardiovascular mortality at lower ranges based on data from observational studies. This fact, in combination with the increased costs and risk of serious adverse events, cautions clinicians not to lower systolic blood pressure too much in susceptible patients with longer diabetes duration, more comorbidities, and in older age groups. However, we should not lose sight of the challenge that still around half of all patients with type-2 diabetes are not even below the desired minimum goal of 140 mmHg systolic blood pressure. This calls for improved actions to control blood pressure as part of a general strategy to counteract all cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type-2 diabetes. The higher the risk, the more ambitious should be the approach to screen, detect, treat, and monitor these risk factors.

  10. Blood cholesterol and vascular mortality by age, sex, and blood pressure: a meta-analysis of individual data from 61 prospective studies with 55,000 vascular deaths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    NN, NN; Jensen, Gorm Boje

    2007-01-01

    at baseline, to determine the joint relevance of these two risk factors. METHODS: Information was obtained from 61 prospective observational studies, mostly in western Europe or North America, consisting of almost 900,000 adults without previous disease and with baseline measurements of total cholesterol...... and blood pressure. During nearly 12 million person years at risk between the ages of 40 and 89 years, there were more than 55,000 vascular deaths (34,000 ischaemic heart disease [IHD], 12,000 stroke, 10,000 other). Information about HDL cholesterol was available for 150,000 participants, among whom...... in those with below-average blood pressure; at older ages (70-89 years) and, particularly, for those with systolic blood pressure over about 145 mm Hg, total cholesterol was negatively related to haemorrhagic and total stroke mortality. The results for other vascular mortality were intermediate between...

  11. TREATMENT OF HYPERTENSION USING TELEMEDICAL HOME BLOOD PRESSURE MEASUREMENTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann-Petersen, N; Lauritzen, T; Bech, J N;

    2015-01-01

    of the measurements and subsequent communication by telephone or E-mail. In the control group, patients received usual care. Primary outcome was reduction in daytime ambulatory blood pressure measurements (ABPM) from baseline to 3 months' follow-up. RESULTS: In both groups, daytime ABPM decreased significantly......: Participants (n = 356) were recruited from a prevalence study among citizens aged 55-64 years in the municipality of Holstebro, Denmark. The study was a randomised, controlled, unblinded 3 months trial. In the intervention group, antihypertensive treatment was based on TBPM with transmission....... The decrease in daytime ABPM in the intervention group was systolic/diastolic, -8  ± 12/-4 ± 7 mmHg. This did not differ significantly from the control group's -8 ± 13/-4 ± 8 mmHg. An equal number of participants obtained normal daytime ABPM, in the intervention group 17% (31/175) versus control 21% (37...

  12. Proton-Pump Inhibitors Therapy and Blood Pressure Control

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Francisco Sánchez Muñoz-Torrero; Pedro Joya-Vazquez; M Asunción Bacaicoa; Raul Velasco; Jose L. Chicón; Sara Trejo; M. Antonia Carrasco; N. Roberto Robles

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate  the potential impact of inhibitors of proton-pump in blood-pressure. .Methods: In a 24-hour-ambulatory-blood-pressure-monitoring (AMBP)-database we analyzed records of 462-hypertensive-patients according Proton-Pump Inhibitors (PPI). 150(33%)-patients were regularly users of PPI, and 312(67%) nonusers of PPI. Ambulatory-blood-pressure was measured non-invasively for 24--hours by the Spacelab-devices programmed-to-measure every 20-minutes during-daytime and every 60-min...

  13. Specific Blood Pressure Targets for Patients With Diabetic Nephropathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Guido; Mancia, Giuseppe; Nilsson, Peter M

    2016-08-01

    Diabetic nephropathy represents a condition frequently detected in current clinical practice characterized by a very high cardiovascular risk profile. Blood pressure reduction via antihypertension drug treatment represents a therapeutic approach capable of exerting favorable effects on renal and cardiovascular outcomes. The purpose of this article is to review the current literature and results of key clinical trials pertaining to blood pressure goals of antihypertension treatment in these patients. The pros and cons of a less or a more intensive blood pressure goal in diabetic nephropathy will be discussed, with particular emphasis on the cardiovascular and renal effects of each therapeutic strategy. PMID:27440837

  14. Blood pressure management in cardiovascular risk stratification : procedure, progression, process

    OpenAIRE

    Adiyaman, A.

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis we have explored different aspects of blood pressure measurement and related it to the risk of cardiovascular disease. In the first part we showed that when the arm is positioned under heart level, for example when the arm is placed on a desk or a chair support, the blood pressure and the cardiovascular risk is overstimated. We demonstrated that crossing the legs at the level of the knee, but not at the level of the ankle, causes a rise of blood pressure. We proved that the phy...

  15. Teaming Up Against High Blood Pressure PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-09-04

    Nearly one-third of American adults have high blood pressure, and more than half of them don’t have it under control. Simply seeing a doctor and taking medications isn’t enough for many people who have high blood pressure. A team-based approach by patients, health care systems, and health care providers is one of the best ways to treat uncontrolled high blood pressure.  Created: 9/4/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 9/4/2012.

  16. [Comparison of invasive blood pressure measurement in the aorta with indirect oscillometric blood pressure measurement at the wrist and forearm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saul, F; Aristidou, Y; Klaus, D; Wiemeyer, A; Lösse, B

    1995-09-01

    Indirectly measured blood pressure at the wrist or upper arm was compared with directly measured values in the aortic arch during routinely performed diagnostic cardiac catheterization in 100 patients (31-80 years, mean 59.3 years, 60% males). The noninvasive measurements were carried out by oscillometric devices, NAiS Blood Pressure Watch for measurements at the wrist, and Hestia OZ80 at the upper arm. Systolic blood pressure measured at the wrist was 4.3 +/- 14.1 mm Hg, and the diastolic value 6.0 +/- 8.9 mm Hg higher than when measured at the aortic arch; the difference was significant in both cases. Correlation coefficients were 0.85 for systolic and 0.71 for diastolic blood pressure. In 16% of the patients the systolic blood pressure at the wrist differed more than +/- 20 mm Hg. The diastolic blood pressure at the wrist measured more than +/- 20 mm Hg higher than in the aorta in 5% of the patients. At the upper arm mean systolic values were not different to the aorta. The diastolic pressure was 9.3 +/- 9.8 mm Hg higher in the aorta than at the upper arm. To verify the accuracy of values measured with the NAiS Blood Pressure Watch compared with the standard technique at the upper arm, sequential measurements were made at wrist and ipsilateral upper arm in the same group of 100 patients. The systolic blood pressure at the left wrist was 3.4 +/- 13.3 mm Hg higher and the diastolic pressure 3.8 +/- 9.5 mm Hg lower than at the upper arm. Only 53% of systolic values lay within a range of +/- 10 mm Hg. The correspondence between wrist and upper arm values was better for diastolic blood pressure, the values differing by less than +/- 10 mm Hg in two-thirds of patients. Self-measurement of arterial blood pressure with an oscillometric device at the wrist can be recommended only in individual cases with a difference of simultaneously measured values at the upper arm of less than +/- 10 mm Hg for systolic and diastolic blood pressures. The standard method for indirectly

  17. Estimated daily salt intake in relation to blood pressure and blood lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Betina H; Toft, Ulla; Buhelt, Lone P;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Excessive salt intake causes increased blood pressure which is considered the leading risk for premature death. One major challenge when evaluating associations between daily salt intake and markers of non-communicable diseases is that a high daily salt intake correlates with obesity......, which is also a well described risk factor for poor cardiometabolic outcome. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of estimated daily salt intake with blood pressure and blood lipids and to investigate the effect of taking different measures of obesity into account. METHODS: We included...... estimated 24-hour sodium excretion with blood pressure and blood lipids were evaluated by linear regression models. RESULTS: The daily mean estimated intake of salt was 10.80 g and 7.52 g among men and women, respectively. Daily salt intake was significantly associated with blood pressure (β-estimates 1...

  18. Menopausal hormone therapy is associated with having high blood pressure in postmenopausal women: observational cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine L Chiu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The relationship between menopausal hormone therapy (MHT and cardiovascular risk remains controversial, with a number of studies advocating the use of MHT in reducing risk of cardiovascular diseases, while others have shown it to increase risk. The aim of this study was to determine the association between menopausal hormone therapy and high blood pressure. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A total of 43,405 postmenopausal women were included in the study. Baseline data for these women were sourced from the 45 and Up Study, Australia, a large scale study of healthy ageing. These women reported being postmenopausal, having an intact uterus, and had not been diagnosed with high blood pressure prior to menopause. Odds ratios for the association between MHT use and having high blood pressure were estimated using logistic regression, stratified by age (<56 years, 56-61 years, 62-70 years and over 71 years and adjusted for demographic and lifestyle factors. MHT use was associated with higher odds of having high blood pressure: past menopausal hormone therapy use: <56 years (adjusted odds ratio 1.59, 99% confidence interval 1.15 to 2.20; 56-61 years (1.58, 1.31 to 1.90; 62-70 years (1.26, 1.10 to 1.44. Increased duration of hormone use was associated with higher odds of having high blood pressure, with the effect of hormone therapy use diminishing with increasing age. CONCLUSIONS: Menopausal hormone therapy use is associated with significantly higher odds of having high blood pressure, and the odds increase with increased duration of use. High blood pressure should be conveyed as a health risk for people considering MHT use.

  19. Occlusion cuff for routine measurement of digital blood pressure and blood flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, N A; Krähenbühl, B; Hirai, M

    1977-01-01

    A miniaturized blood pressure cuff made of plastic material and applicable to fingers and toes is described. The cuff was compared to rubber cuffs and to bladder-free cuffs. It was found to be more reliable than the former type and much easier to use than the latter type. It is recommended for us...... in conjunction with a mercury-in-Silastic strain gauge for routine measurement of digital blood pressure and blood flow in patients with arterial disease....

  20. Effect of overtime work on 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, T; Kobayashi, Y; Yamaoka, K; Yano, E

    1996-10-01

    Recently, the adverse effects of long working hours on the cardiovascular systems of workers in Japan, including "Karoshi" (death from overwork), have been the focus of social concern. However, conventional methods of health checkups are often unable to detect the early signs of such adverse effects. To evaluate the influence of overtime work on the cardiovascular system, we compared 24-hour blood pressure measurements among several groups of male white-collar workers. As a result, for those with normal blood pressure and those with mild hypertension, the 24-hour average blood pressure of the overtime groups was higher than that of the control groups; for those who periodically did overtime work, the 24-hour average blood pressure and heart rate during the busy period increased. These results indicate that the burden on the cardiovascular system of white-collar workers increases with overtime work. PMID:8899576

  1. Creatine kinase activity is associated with blood pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M. Brewster; G. Mairuhu; N.R. Bindraban; R.P. Koopmans; J.F. Clark; G.A. van Montfrans

    2006-01-01

    Background - We previously hypothesized that high activity of creatine kinase, the central regulatory enzyme of energy metabolism, facilitates the development of high blood pressure. Creatine kinase rapidly provides adenosine triphosphate to highly energy-demanding processes, including cardiovascula

  2. Variability of arterial blood pressure in normal and hypertensive pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oney, T; Meyer-Sabellek, W

    1990-12-01

    In normal pregnancy the circadian blood pressure rhythm is similar to that in the non-pregnant state, with the highest blood pressure values in the morning and the lowest at midnight. This rhythm is lost in patients with pre-eclampsia. Women with severe pre-eclampsia show a reversed circadian rhythm, with a nocturnal increase in blood pressure during the sleeping phase. Although the reasons for this nocturnal hypertension in severe pre-eclampsia are poorly understood, the results suggest that pre-eclamptic women are endangered by hypertensive emergencies, mostly at night. Therefore blood pressure measurement should be extended to the night, and antihypertensive treatment must be adapted to the demands of a reversed circadian rhythm in relevant subgroups of patients. PMID:2082002

  3. High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... trudnoći - Bosanski (Bosnian) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy 孕期高血压 - 简体中文 (Chinese - Simplified) Bilingual PDF Health Information ...

  4. More Support for Aggressive Blood Pressure Treatment for Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... More Support for Aggressive Blood Pressure Treatment for Elderly Latest findings from national trial show it lowers ... risk of heart disease -- even if they're elderly or have already had heart problems, new research ...

  5. Indirect measurement of arterial blood pressure: physiotherapists’ theoretical knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelle Morgana Vieira de Assis

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Blood pressure checking and its theoretical knowledge are crucial to obtain reliable data in clinical examination. Although it is considered a simple technique to be learned and applied, it is not fully dealt with at physiotherapy university courses. Therefore, a wide range of mistakes and misinterpretations are likely to threaten treatment quality. This work aims to evaluate the theory background of physiotherapists for blood pressure measurement. From June to October 2002, 55 physiotherapists answered a 20- question multiple-choice questionnaire on general knowledge related to concepts, anatomy and physiology, suitable equipment, indirect measurement, blood pressure values, mistakes and misinterpretation factors related to blood pressure measurement. The results disclose faulty theory concepts in the sample studied, indicating the need of deeper approach to this complex theme during course and ongoing updating of professionals.

  6. High Blood Pressure, Afib and Your Risk of Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prescribed if you have high blood pressure or atrial fibrillation . Stroke prevention is often the focus of doctor-patient conversations in atrial fibrillation, Dr. Sacco said. But for people with high ...

  7. Pediatric Blood Pressure and Adult Preclinical Markers of Cardiovascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Magnussen, Costan G.; Kylie J. Smith

    2016-01-01

    A high blood pressure level in adults is considered the single most important modifiable risk factor for global disease burden, especially those of cardiovascular (CV) origin such as stroke and ischemic heart disease. Because blood pressure levels have been shown to persist from childhood to adulthood, elevations in pediatric levels have been hypothesized to lead to increased CV burden in adulthood and, as such, might provide a window in the life course where primordial and primary prevention...

  8. Blood Pressure Level Amongst Lactovegetarian And Non-Vegetarian Males

    OpenAIRE

    Jain B K; Jain S C

    1999-01-01

    Research Question: Is the relative risk for the development of hypertension more among non vegetarians than lacto vegetarians? Objectives: To compare the arterial blood pressure between lacto vegetarian and non-vegetarian males of 30 years and above. Design: Cross sectional study. Setting: In two different areas of walled city of Delhi. Study Variables: Blood pressure. Statistical analysis: Quetelet Index, t-test, z-test, x2-test, Relative risk

  9. Blood Pressure Level Amongst Lactovegetarian And Non-Vegetarian Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain B K

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: Is the relative risk for the development of hypertension more among non vegetarians than lacto vegetarians? Objectives: To compare the arterial blood pressure between lacto vegetarian and non-vegetarian males of 30 years and above. Design: Cross sectional study. Setting: In two different areas of walled city of Delhi. Study Variables: Blood pressure. Statistical analysis: Quetelet Index, t-test, z-test, x2-test, Relative risk

  10. Functional capillary rarefaction in mild blood pressure elevation

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Cynthia; Diamond, James J.; Falkner, Bonita

    2008-01-01

    Capillary rarefaction is described in patients with moderate to severe hypertension. The study objective was to determine if structural and/or functional capillary rarefaction is detectable and associated with endothelial dysfunction in patients with mild blood pressure elevation (HBP: Systolic blood pressure 130 – 160 mm Hg). Capillary density was quantified by direct capillaroscopy in 110 nondiabetic black and non-black subjects. Endothelial function was quantified by plethysmographic measu...

  11. Optimizing blood pressure control through the use of fixed combinations

    OpenAIRE

    Rainer Düsing

    2010-01-01

    Rainer DüsingMedizinische Klinik und Poliklinik 1, Bonn, GermanyAbstract: The majority of hypertensive patients need ≥2 antihypertensive agents to reach goal blood pressure. As an estimate, one-third of unselected hypertensive patients may be successfully treated with monotherapy, one-third may require 2 and the remaining one-third of patients will need ≥3 antihypertensive agents for effective blood pressure control. However, doctors are often hesitant to expand therapy...

  12. Blood pressure, ethnic group, and salt intake in Belize.

    OpenAIRE

    Simmons, D

    1983-01-01

    A total of 1316 individuals were studied in seven villages in Belize, Central America. This represented 92% of the area population aged over 18. Generally, they were members of three ethnic groups--Maya, Spanish, and Creole. The systolic and diastolic IV and V blood pressures were recorded using standardised procedure. Significant differences in blood pressure, weight, and obesity were found between ethnic groups in both sexes, Creoles having higher means than the other groups. Significant re...

  13. What Is High Blood Pressure Medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Use a medicine calendar. • Set a reminder on your smartphone. What types of drugs are there? • D IURETICS rid the ... by heart Lifestyle + Risk Reduction High Blood ... types may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if you have side effects, but don’ ...

  14. Can hibiscus tea lower blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibiscus sabdariffa is a common ingredient found in blended herbal teas, and beverages made from the dried calyces of this plant are popular worldwide. In vitro studies have shown that H. sabdariffa has antioxidant properties and, in animal models of hypertension, extracts of this plant lower blood ...

  15. Relationship of Blood Pressure Self-Monitoring, Medication Adherence, Self-Efficacy, Stage of Change, and Blood Pressure Control Among Municipal Workers With Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Breaux-Shropshire, Tonya L.; Brown, Kathleen C.; Pryor, Erica R.; Maples, Elizabeth H.

    2012-01-01

    Uncontrolled blood pressure remains a major public health issue. Medication adherence is a key factor in blood pressure management; however, adherence behavior is not clearly understood and the most significant factors contributing to poor medication adherence and blood pressure control are unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of self-monitoring of blood pressure, medication adherence, self-efficacy, stage of change, and blood pressure control among municipal w...

  16. Effect on blood pressure of daily lemon ingestion and walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yoji; Domoto, Tokio; Hiramitsu, Masanori; Katagiri, Takao; Sato, Kimiko; Miyake, Yukiko; Aoi, Satomi; Ishihara, Katsuhide; Ikeda, Hiromi; Umei, Namiko; Takigawa, Atsusi; Harada, Toshihide

    2014-01-01

    Background. Recent studies suggest that the daily intake of lemon (Citrus limon) has a good effect on health, but this has not been confirmed in humans. In our previous studies, it was observed that people who are conscious of their health performed more lemon intake and exercise. An analysis that took this into account was required. Methodology. For 101 middle-aged women in an island area in Hiroshima, Japan, a record of lemon ingestion efforts and the number of steps walked was carried out for five months. The change rates (Δ%) of the physical measurements, blood test, blood pressure, and pulse wave measured value during the observation period were calculated, and correlations with lemon intake and the number of steps walked were considered. As a result, it was suggested that daily lemon intake and walking are effective for high blood pressure because both showed significant negative correlation to systolic blood pressure Δ%. Conclusions. As a result of multiple linear regression analysis, it was possible that lemon ingestion is involved more greatly with the blood citric acid concentration Δ% and the number of steps with blood pressure Δ%, and it was surmised that the number of steps and lemon ingestion are related to blood pressure improvement by different action mechanisms. PMID:24818015

  17. Effect on Blood Pressure of Daily Lemon Ingestion and Walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoji Kato

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recent studies suggest that the daily intake of lemon (Citrus limon has a good effect on health, but this has not been confirmed in humans. In our previous studies, it was observed that people who are conscious of their health performed more lemon intake and exercise. An analysis that took this into account was required. Methodology. For 101 middle-aged women in an island area in Hiroshima, Japan, a record of lemon ingestion efforts and the number of steps walked was carried out for five months. The change rates (Δ% of the physical measurements, blood test, blood pressure, and pulse wave measured value during the observation period were calculated, and correlations with lemon intake and the number of steps walked were considered. As a result, it was suggested that daily lemon intake and walking are effective for high blood pressure because both showed significant negative correlation to systolic blood pressure Δ%. Conclusions. As a result of multiple linear regression analysis, it was possible that lemon ingestion is involved more greatly with the blood citric acid concentration Δ% and the number of steps with blood pressure Δ%, and it was surmised that the number of steps and lemon ingestion are related to blood pressure improvement by different action mechanisms.

  18. Techniques for estimating blood pressure variation using video images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, Norihiro; Obara, Kazuma; Yoshizawa, Makoto; Abe, Makoto; Tanaka, Akira; Homma, Noriyasu

    2015-08-01

    It is important to know about a sudden blood pressure change that occurs in everyday life and may pose a danger to human health. However, monitoring the blood pressure variation in daily life is difficult because a bulky and expensive sensor is needed to measure the blood pressure continuously. In this study, a new non-contact method is proposed to estimate the blood pressure variation using video images. In this method, the pulse propagation time difference or instantaneous phase difference is calculated between two pulse waves obtained from different parts of a subject's body captured by a video camera. The forehead, left cheek, and right hand are selected as regions to obtain pulse waves. Both the pulse propagation time difference and instantaneous phase difference were calculated from the video images of 20 healthy subjects performing the Valsalva maneuver. These indices are considered to have a negative correlation with the blood pressure variation because they approximate the pulse transit time obtained from a photoplethysmograph. However, the experimental results showed that the correlation coefficients between the blood pressure and the proposed indices were approximately 0.6 for the pulse wave obtained from the right hand. This result is considered to be due to the difference in the transmission depth into the skin between the green and infrared light used as light sources for the video image and conventional photoplethysmogram, respectively. In addition, the difference in the innervation of the face and hand may be related to the results. PMID:26737225

  19. Changes in blood pressure, heart rate and blood constituents during heat exposure in men with elevated blood pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaebelein, C.J.; Senay, L.C. Jr.; Ladd, C.M.

    1985-01-01

    Although the vascular volume response of hypertensive men during exercise has been rather well characterized, the effect of resting heat exposure in this patient population has not been examined. This was done in the present report in seven men with high blood pressure (BP) (i.e., diastolic pressure greater than 12 kPa (90 mmHg) upon initial interview) and 5 normotensive control subjects. 50 min after each subject had consumed an amount of water equal to 1% of his body weight, he reclined on a cot. 10 min later the subject was carried into an environmental chamber equilibrated at Tdb = 45 degrees C, Twb = 28 degrees C. Free-flowing venous blood samples were obtained from a cubital vein, and BP and heart rate were measured, before the heat exposure and at 15 min intervals during the experiment. Within 30 min systolic, diastolic and mean BP of the high BP subjects had decreased to normal levels; no BP changes were detected in normotensive subjects. Accompanying this depressor response was an exaggerated elevation in plasma glucose concentration. No alterations were found with haematocrit, plasma osmolality or electrolytes, or total protein and albumin. The data suggest that heat exposure may have been more stressful for the subjects with high BP than for their controls. This finding implies that phasic depressor responses may be as important as phasic pressor episodes in the aetiology of established essential hypertension.

  20. Leisure-Time Exercise Could Lower Your Risk of High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... time exercise could lower your risk of high blood pressure American Heart Association Rapid Access Journal Report September ... American Heart Association Download (1.4 MB) High Blood Pressure A high blood pressure reading. copyright American Heart ...

  1. Quiz: Does Your Blood Pressure Pass the Test? | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Special Section: Healthy Blood Pressure Quiz: Does Your Blood Pressure Pass the Test? Past Issues / Winter 2010 Table of Contents Blood pressure changes throughout the day. It is highest while ...

  2. Blood Pressure Numbers: What They Mean | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn Javascript on. Special Section: Healthy Blood Pressure Blood Pressure Numbers: What They Mean Past Issues / Winter 2010 ... the time, you're at risk. Categories for Blood Pressure Levels in Adults (in mmHg, or millimeters of ...

  3. Baseline heavy metals and metalloid values in blood of loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) from Baja California Sur, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → We report baseline levels of selected heavy metals in blood of Pacific loggerhead turtles. → Blood was used to measure in a relatively non-invasive way baseline values of heavy metals. → Zn and Cd were found in high concentrations compared to levels reported in other parts of the world. → Cu concentrations in blood are high as they relate to concentrations in muscle. → No correlations were found between of heavy metals and metalloids analyzed and the size of the turtles. - Abstract: Environmental pollution due to heavy metals is having an increased impact on marine wildlife accentuated by anthropogenic changes in the planet including overfishing, agricultural runoff and marine emerging infectious diseases. Sea turtles are considered sentinels of ecological health in marine ecosystems. The objective of this study was to determine baseline concentrations of zinc, cadmium, copper, nickel, selenium, manganese, mercury and lead in blood of 22 clinically healthy, loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta), captured for several reasons in Puerto Lopez Mateos, Baja California Sur, Mexico. Zinc was the most prevalent metal in blood (41.89 μg g-1), followed by Selenium (10.92 μg g-1). The mean concentration of toxic metal Cadmium was 6.12 μg g-1 and 1.01 μg g-1 respectively. Mean concentrations of metals followed this pattern: Zn > Se > Ni > Cu > Mn > Cd > Pb and Hg. We can conclude that blood is an excellent tissue to measure in relatively non-invasive way baseline values of heavy metals in Caretta caretta.

  4. Childhood Blood Pressure Trends and Risk Factors for High Blood Pressure: The NHANES experience 1988–2008

    OpenAIRE

    Rosner, Bernard; Cook, Nancy R.; Daniels, Stephen; Falkner, Bonita

    2013-01-01

    The obesity epidemic in children makes it plausible that prevalence rates of elevated blood pressure are increasing over time. Yet, previous literature is inconsistent due to small sample sizes. Also, it is unclear whether adjusting for risk factors can explain longitudinal trends in prevalence of elevated blood pressure. Thus, we analyzed a population-based sample of 3,248 children in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III (1988–1994) and 8,388 children in continuous N...

  5. 10.5.Blood pressure and atherosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    920274 The effect of lowered pressure onthe diastolic ventricular function after anti-hypertension treatment.CAI Bohin (蔡伯林),etal.Ruijin Hosp,Shanghai 2nd Med Univ,200025.Chin J Cardiol 1991;19(6):366-368.

  6. Prognostic value of reading-to-reading blood pressure variability over 24 hours in 8938 subjects from 11 populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tine W; Thijs, Lutgarde; Li, Yan; Boggia, José; Kikuya, Masahiro; Björklund-Bodegård, Kristina; Richart, Tom; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Jeppesen, Jørgen Lykke; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Dolan, Eamon; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Tikhonoff, Valérie; Malyutina, Sofia; Casiglia, Edoardo; Nikitin, Yuri; Lind, Lars Solskov; Sandoya, Edgardo; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina; Imai, Yutaka; Wang, Jiguang; Ibsen, Hans; O'Brien, Eoin; Staessen, Jan A

    2010-01-01

    In previous studies, of which several were underpowered, the relation between cardiovascular outcome and blood pressure (BP) variability was inconsistent. We followed health outcomes in 8938 subjects (mean age: 53.0 years; 46.8% women) randomly recruited from 11 populations. At baseline, we asses...

  7. Risk Stratification by 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure and Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate in 5322 Subjects From 11 Populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boggia, José; Thijs, Lutgarde; Li, Yan;

    2013-01-01

    subjects (median age, 51.8 years; 43.1% women) randomly recruited from 11 populations, who had baseline measurements of 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (ABP(24)) and eGFR. We computed hazard ratios using multivariable-adjusted Cox regression. Median follow-up was 9.3 years. In fully adjusted models...

  8. Short Term Effects of Cocoa Consumption on Blood Pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Alleyne, T; Alleyne, A; Arrindell, D; Balleram, N; Cozier, D; Haywood, R.; Humphrey, C; Pran, L; K Rampersad; Reyes, D.; Bahall, S; Holder, R; Ignacio, D

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension, defined as diastolic pressure ≥ 90 mmHg and systolic pressure ≥ 140 mmHg, is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among black populations globally. Several studies have shown that prolonged consumption of cocoa or cocoa containing products leads to decreased blood pressure (BP) in hypertensives. In this study, we investigated the flavonoid content of the top selling cocoa/cocoa based products in Trinidad and Tobago and attempted to determine if consumption of cocoa had any i...

  9. Heritability of retinal vessel diameters and blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taarnhøj, Nina C B B; Larsen, Michael; Sander, Birgit;

    2006-01-01

    , aged 20 to 46 years, interpolated diameter estimates for the central retinal artery (CRAE), the central retinal vein (CRVE), and the artery-to-vein diameter ratio (AVR) were assessed by analysis of digital gray-scale fundus photographs of right eyes. RESULTS: The heritability was 70% (95% CI: 54...... for CRVE, and 0.67 +/- 0.05 microm for AVR. No significant influence on artery or vein diameters was found for gender, smoking, body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, or 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test values. CONCLUSIONS: In healthy young adults with normal blood pressure...... and blood glucose, variations in retinal blood vessel diameters and blood pressure were predominantly attributable to genetic effects. A genetic influence may have a role in individual susceptibility to hypertension and other vascular diseases. The results suggest that retinal vessel diameters and the...

  10. Propagation of Nonlinear Pressure Waves in Blood

    OpenAIRE

    Elgarayhi, A.; E. K. El-Shewy; MAHMOUD, ABEER A.; Elhakem, Ali A.

    2013-01-01

    The propagation of weakly nonlinear pressure waves in a fluid-filled elastic tube has been investigated. The reductive perturbation method has been employed to derive the Korteweg-de Vries equation for small but finite amplitude. The effect of the final inner radius of the tube on the basic properties of the soliton wave was discussed. Moreover, the conditions of stability and the soliton existence via the potential and the corresponding phase portrait were computed. The applicability of the ...

  11. Blood pressure standards for Saudi children and adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blood pressure levels may vary in children because of genetic, ethnic and socioeconomic factors. To date, there have been no large national studies in Saudi Arabia on blood pressure in children. Therefore, we sought to establish representative blood pressure reference centiles for Saudi Arabian children and adolescents. We selected a sample of children and adolescents aged from birth to 18 years by multi-stage probability sampling of the Saudi population. The selected sample represented Saudi children from the whole country. Data were collected through a house-to-house survey of all selected households in all 13 regions in the country. Data were analyzed to study the distribution pattern of systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and to develop reference values. The 90th percentile of SBP and DBP values for each age were compared with values from a Turkish and an American study. A total of 16 226 Saudi children and adolescents from birth to 18 years were studied. Blood pressure rose steadily with age in both boys and girls. The average annual increase in SBP was 1.66 mm Hg for boys and1.44 mm Hg for girls. The average annual increase in DBP was 0.83 mm Hg for boys and 0.77 mm Hg for girls. DBP rose sharply in boys at the age of 18 years. Values for the 90th percentile of both SBP and DBP varied in Saudi children from their Turkish and American counterparts for all age groups. Blood pressure values in this study differed from those from other studies in developing countries and in the United States, indicating that comparison across studies is difficult and from that every population should use their own normal standards to define measured blood pressure levels in children. (author)

  12. Verapamil buffering effect on the abrupt elevation in blood pressure, linkage with microcirculatory blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmitrov, J

    2008-01-01

    1 We studied the effects of verapamil on sudden elevation in blood pressure, microcirculation and arterial baroreflex sensitivity (BRS). 2 Thirty experiments (10 controls and 20 with verapamil) were performed in rabbits sedated using pentobarbital infusion (5 mg kg(-1) h(-1)). 3 BRS, mean femoral artery blood pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and ear lobe skin microcirculatory blood flow, estimated using microphotoelectric plethysmography (MPPG), were simultaneously measured during 30 min of verapamil infusion (20 mug kg(-1) min(-1)). BRS was assessed from HR and MAP responses to intravenous phenylephrine (Ph) and by power spectral analysis using transfer function (TF) from MAP to the HR (BRS(Ph,TF)). 4 Verapamil significantly increased microcirculatory blood flow, and decreased BRS(Ph,TF) and phenylephrine-induced abrupt elevation in MAP (MAP(AE)). 5 A significant inverse correlation was found between verapamil-induced changes in MAP(AE), BRS and in microcirculatory blood flow, measured before phenylephrine blood pressure ramps (DeltaMAP(AE) with DeltaBRS(TF), r = -0.47, P < 0.036; DeltaMAP(AE) with DeltaMPPG, r = -0.49, P < 0.025). 6 These results suggest involvement of the arterial baroreflex and vascular blood pressure-buffering mechanisms, their enhancement by verapamil, and thus a potential benefit of verapamil in cardiovascular conditions where patients present with abrupt high elevations in blood pressure. PMID:18598288

  13. Ethnic Differences in Physical Fitness, Blood Pressure and Blood Chemistry in Women (AGES 20-63)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, G. W.; Wier, L. T.; Jackson, A. S.; Stuteville, J. E.; Keptra, Sean (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    This study examined the role of ethnicity on the aerobic fitness, blood pressure, and selected blood chemistry values of women. One hundred twenty-four females (mean age 41.37 +/- 9.0) were medically Examined at the NASA/Johnson Space Center occupational health clinic. Ethnic groups consisted of 23 Black (B), 18 Hispanic (H) and 83 Non-minority (NM). Each woman had a maximum Bruce treadmill stress test (RER greater than or = 1.1) and a negative ECG. Indirect calorimetry, skinfolds, self-report physical activity (NASA activity scale), seated blood pressure, and blood chemistry panel determined VO2max, percent fat, level of physical activity, blood pressure and blood chemistry values. ANOVA revealed that the groups did not differ (p greater than 0.05) in age, VO2 max, weight, percent fat, level of physical activity, total cholesterol, or HDL-C. However, significant differences (p greater than 0.05) were noted in BMI, diastolic blood pressure, and blood chemistries. BMI was 3.17 higher in H than in NM; resting diastolic pressures were 5.69 and 8.05 mmHg. lower in NM and H than in B; triglycerides were 48.07 and 37.21 mg/dl higher in H than in B and NM; hemoglobin was .814 gm/dl higher in NM than B; fasting blood sugar was 15.41 mg/dl higher in H than NM; The results of this study showed that ethnic groups differed in blood pressure and blood chemistry values but not aerobic fitness or physical activity. There was an ethnic difference in BMI but not percent fat.

  14. Intra-arterial blood pressure response in hypertensive subjects during low- and high-intensity resistance exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra de Souza Nery

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe blood pressure responses during resistance exercise in hypertensive subjects and to determine whether an exercise protocol alters these responses. INTRODUCTION: Resistance exercise has been recommended as a complement for aerobic exercise for hypertensive patients. However, blood pressure changes during this kind of exercise have been poorly investigated in hypertensives, despite multiple studies of normotensives demonstrating significant increases in blood pressure. METHODS: Ten hypertensive and ten normotensive subjects performed, in random order, two different exercise protocols, composed by three sets of the knee extension exercise conducted to exhaustion: 40% of the 1-repetition maximum (1RM with a 45-s rest between sets, and 80% of 1RM with a 90-s rest between sets. Radial intra-arterial blood pressure was measured before and throughout each protocol. RESULTS: Compared with normotensives, hypertensives displayed greater increases in systolic BP during exercise at 80% (+80±3 vs. +62±2 mmHg, P<0.05 and at 40% of 1RM (+75±3 vs. +67±3 mmHg, P<0.05. In both exercise protocols, systolic blood pressure returned to baseline during the rest periods between sets in the normotensives; however, in the hypertensives, BP remained slightly elevated at 40% of 1RM. During rest periods, diastolic blood pressure returned to baseline in hypertensives and dropped below baseline in normotensives. CONCLUSION: Resistance exercise increased systolic blood pressure considerably more in hypertensives than in normotensives, and this increase was greater when lower-intensity exercise was performed to the point of exhaustion.

  15. Blood-Pressure Measuring System Gives Accurate Graphic Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    The problem: To develop an instrument that will provide an external (indirect) measurement of arterial blood pressure in the form of an easily interpreted graphic trace that can be correlated with standard clinical blood-pressure measurements. From sphygmograms produced by conventional sphygmographs, it is very difficult to differentiate the systolic and diastolic blood-pressure pulses and to correlate these indices with the standard clinical values. It is nearly impossible to determine these indices when the subject is under physical or emotional stress. The solution: An electronic blood-pressure system, basically similar to conventional ausculatory sphygmomanometers, employing a standard occluding cuff, a gas-pressure source, and a gas-pressure regulator and valve. An electrical output transducer senses cuff pressure, and a microphone positioned on the brachial artery under the occluding cuff monitors the Korotkoff sounds from this artery. The output signals present the conventional systolic and diastolic indices in a clear, graphical display. The complete system also includes an electronic timer and cycle-control circuit.

  16. Does a colour-coded blood pressure diary improve blood pressure control for patients in general practice: The CoCo trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senn Oliver

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insufficient blood pressure control is a frequent problem despite the existence of effective treatment. Insufficient adherence to self-monitoring as well as to therapy is a common reason. Blood pressure self-measurement at home (Home Blood Pressure Measurement, HBPM has positive effects on treatment adherence and is helpful in achieving the target blood pressure. Only a few studies have investigated whether adherence to HBPM can be improved through simple measures resulting also in better blood pressure control. Objective Improvement of self-monitoring and improved blood pressure control by using a new colour-coded blood pressure diary. Outcome Primary outcome: Change in systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure 6 months after using the new colour-coded blood pressure diary. Secondary outcome: Adherence to blood pressure self-measurement (number of measurements/entries. Methods/Design Randomised controlled study. Population: 138 adult patients in primary care with uncontrolled hypertension despite therapy. The control group uses a conventional blood pressure diary; the intervention group uses the new colour-coded blood pressure diary (green, yellow, red according a traffic light system. Expected results/conclusion The visual separation and entries in three colour-coded areas reflecting risk (green: blood pressure in the target range ≤ 140/≤ 90 mmHg, yellow: blood pressure >140/>90 mmHg, red: blood pressure in danger zone > 180 mmHg/>110 mmHg lead to better self-monitoring compared with the conventional (non-colour-coded blood pressure booklet. The colour-coded, visualised information supports improved perception (awareness and interpretation of blood pressure and triggers correct behaviour, in the means of improved adherence to the recommended treatment as well as better communication between patients and doctors resulting in improved blood pressure control. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT01013467

  17. Nocturnal variations in peripheral blood flow, systemic blood pressure, and heart rate in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindrup, J H; Kastrup, J; Christensen, H;

    1991-01-01

    Subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow rate, together with systemic arterial blood pressure and heart rate under ambulatory conditions, was measured in the lower legs of 15 normal human subjects for 12-20 h. The 133Xe-washout technique, portable CdTe(Cl) detectors, and a portable data storage uni...... than 0.0001). The synchronism of the nocturnal subcutaneous hyperemia and the decrease in systemic mean arterial blood pressure point to a common, possibly central nervous or humoral, eliciting mechanism.......Subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow rate, together with systemic arterial blood pressure and heart rate under ambulatory conditions, was measured in the lower legs of 15 normal human subjects for 12-20 h. The 133Xe-washout technique, portable CdTe(Cl) detectors, and a portable data storage unit...

  18. Body mass index relates to blood pressure among adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Dua

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The blood pressure and anthropometric measurements are important for evaluating the health of children, adolescents as well as adults. Aim: The aim is to study the blood pressure and body dimensions and to find out the prevalence of overweight/obesity and hypertension among adults. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted of all the people belonging to the Punjabi community, residing in Roshanara area and Jaina building in Delhi, for the past 20 years and aged 18-50 years. The men were engaged in transport business and women were mainly housewives. Results: Mean values of all the measurements, that is, height, weight, upper arm circumference, pulse rate, systolic blood pressure (SBP, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP were higher among males as compared with females, except skinfold thicknesses. Body mass index (BMI and fat percentage was found to be higher among females as compared with males. There was a significant positive correlation between BMI, fat percentage, and blood pressure both SBP as well as DBP. Odds ratio showed that overweight/obese subjects were more likely to have hypertension than those with normal BMI. Conclusion: Prevalence of prehypertension among overweight/obese suggested an early clinical detection of prehypertension and intervention including life style modification, particularly weight management.

  19. Detrended fluctuation analysis of a systolic blood pressure control loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galhardo, C E C; Penna, T J P; Argollo de Menezes, M [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Litoranea, s/n, 24210-340, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Soares, P P S [Instituto Biomedico, Universidade Federal Fluminense, R. Prof. Hernani Melo n. 101, 24210-130, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: marcio@mail.if.uff.br

    2009-10-15

    We use detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to study the dynamics of blood pressure oscillations and its feedback control in rats by analyzing systolic pressure time series before and after a surgical procedure that interrupts its control loop. We found, for each situation, a crossover between two scaling regions characterized by exponents that reflect the nature of the feedback control and its range of operation. In addition, we found evidence of adaptation in the dynamics of blood pressure regulation a few days after surgical disruption of its main feedback circuit. Based on the paradigm of antagonistic, bipartite (vagal and sympathetic) action of the central nerve system, we propose a simple model for pressure homeostasis as the balance between two nonlinear opposing forces, successfully reproducing the crossover observed in the DFA of actual pressure signals.

  20. Detrended Fluctuation Analysis of Systolic Blood Pressure Control Loop

    CERN Document Server

    Galhardo, C E C; de Menezes, M Argollo; Soares, P P S

    2009-01-01

    We use detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to study the dynamics of blood pressure oscillations and its feedback control in rats by analyzing systolic pressure time series before and after a surgical procedure that interrupts its control loop. We found, for each situation, a crossover between two scaling regions characterized by exponents that reflect the nature of the feedback control and its range of operation. In addition, we found evidences of adaptation in the dynamics of blood pressure regulation a few days after surgical disruption of its main feedback circuit. Based on the paradigm of antagonistic, bipartite (vagal and sympathetic) action of the central nerve system, we propose a simple model for pressure homeostasis as the balance between two nonlinear opposing forces, successfully reproducing the crossover observed in the DFA of actual pressure signals.

  1. Selective Heart Rate Reduction With Ivabradine Increases Central Blood Pressure in Stable Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimoldi, Stefano F; Messerli, Franz H; Cerny, David; Gloekler, Steffen; Traupe, Tobias; Laurent, Stéphane; Seiler, Christian

    2016-06-01

    Heart rate (HR) lowering by β-blockade was shown to be beneficial after myocardial infarction. In contrast, HR lowering with ivabradine was found to confer no benefits in 2 prospective randomized trials in patients with coronary artery disease. We hypothesized that this inefficacy could be in part related to ivabradine's effect on central (aortic) pressure. Our study included 46 patients with chronic stable coronary artery disease who were randomly allocated to placebo (n=23) or ivabradine (n=23) in a single-blinded fashion for 6 months. Concomitant baseline medication was continued unchanged throughout the study except for β-blockers, which were stopped during the study period. Central blood pressure and stroke volume were measured directly by left heart catheterization at baseline and after 6 months. For the determination of resting HR at baseline and at follow-up, 24-hour ECG monitoring was performed. Patients on ivabradine showed an increase of 11 mm Hg in central systolic pressure from 129±22 mm Hg to 140±26 mm Hg (P=0.02) and in stroke volume by 86±21.8 to 107.2±30.0 mL (P=0.002). In the placebo group, central systolic pressure and stroke volume remained unchanged. Estimates of myocardial oxygen consumption (HR×systolic pressure and time-tension index) remained unchanged with ivabradine.The decrease in HR from baseline to follow-up correlated with the concomitant increase in central systolic pressure (r=-0.41, P=0.009) and in stroke volume (r=-0.61, Phttp://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier NCT01039389. PMID:27091900

  2. Relating external compressing pressure to mean arterial pressure in non-invasive blood pressure measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, K Y; Panerai, R B

    2015-01-01

    Arterial volume clamping uses external compression of an artery to provide continuous non-invasive measurement of arterial blood pressure. It has been assumed that mean arterial pressure (MAP) corresponds to the point where unloading leads to the maximum oscillation of the arterial wall as reflected by photoplethysmogram (PPG), an assumption that has been challenged. Five subjects were recruited for the study (three males, mean age (SD) = 32 (15) years). The PPG waveform was analysed to identify the relationship between the external compressing pressure, PPG pulse amplitude and MAP. Two separate tests were carried out at compression step intervals of 10 mmHg and 2 mmHg, respectively. No significant differences were found between the two tests. The bias between the compressing pressure and the MAP was -4.7 ± 5.63 mmHg (p < 0.001) showing a normal distribution. Further research is needed to identify optimal algorithms for estimation of MAP using PPG associated with arterial compression. PMID:25429784

  3. Relationship of Early Spontaneous Type V Blood Pressure Fluctuation after Thrombolysis in Acute Cerebral Infarction Patients and the Prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Lian; Wan, Ting; Xu, Xiahong; Liu, Feifeng; Li, Changsong; Li, Ying; Zhang, Yue; Zhang, Jing; Bao, Huan; Li, Gang

    2016-01-01

    We examined the relationship between an early spontaneous type V blood pressure fluctuation and the post-thrombolysis prognosis of patients with acute cerebral infarction. Patients were admitted consecutively. All patients were categorized into the type V blood pressure fluctuation group or non-type V blood pressure group. Their blood pressure was monitored before thrombolysis and until 6 h after thrombolysis. Baseline data and clinical outcomes were compared. Of 170 patients, 43 (25.2%) had an early type V blood pressure fluctuation. The National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score before thrombolysis and 24 h after thrombolysis, and the modified Rankin scale score at 90 days differed significantly between the two groups (P V blood pressure fluctuation is common in patients with acute cerebral infarction who received venous thrombolysis, especially if they have a higher NIHSS score before thrombolysis. The type V blood pressure fluctuation may not influence patients' prognosis; however, this needs to be confirmed in future trials. PMID:27278121

  4. Using a Low-Sodium, High-Potassium Salt Substitute to Reduce Blood Pressure among Tibetans with High Blood Pressure: A Patient-Blinded Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xingshan; Yin, Xuejun; Li, Xian; Yan, Lijing L.; Lam, Christopher T.; Li, Shenshen; He, Feng; Xie, Wuxiang; Sang, Ba; Luobu, Gesang; Ke, Liang; Wu, Yangfeng

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effects of a low-sodium and high-potassium salt-substitute on lowering blood pressure (BP) among Tibetans living at high altitude (4300 meters). Method The study was a patient-blinded randomized controlled trial conducted between February and May 2009 in Dangxiong County, Tibetan Autonomous Region, China. A total of 282 Tibetans aged 40 or older with known hypertension (systolic BP≥140 mmHg) were recruited and randomized to intervention (salt-substitute, 65% sodium chloride, 25% potassium chloride and 10% magnesium sulfate) or control (100% sodium chloride) in a 1: 1 allocation ratio with three months’ supply. Primary outcome was defined as the change in BP levels measured from baseline to followed-up with an automated sphygmomanometer. Per protocol (PP) and intention to treat (ITT) analyses were conducted. Results After the three months’ intervention period, the net reduction in SBP/DBP in the intervention group in comparison to the control group was −8.2/−3.4 mmHg (all p<0.05) in PP analysis, after adjusting for baseline BP and other variables. ITT analysis showed the net reduction in SBP/DBP at −7.6/−3.5 mmHg with multiple imputations (all p<0.05). Furthermore, the whole distribution of blood pressure showed an overall decline in SBP/DBP and the proportion of patients with BP under control (SBP/DBP<140 mmHg) was significantly higher in salt-substitute group in comparison to the regular salt group (19.2% vs. 8.8%, p = 0.027). Conclusion Low sodium high potassium salt-substitute is effective in lowering both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and offers a simple, low-cost approach for hypertension control among Tibetans in China. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01429246 PMID:25338053

  5. Cuffless differential blood pressure estimation using smart phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Vikram; Dantu, Ram; Jonnada, Srikanth; Thiyagaraja, Shanti; Subbu, Kalyan Pathapati

    2013-04-01

    Smart phones today have become increasingly popular with the general public for their diverse functionalities such as navigation, social networking, and multimedia facilities. These phones are equipped with high-end processors, high-resolution cameras, and built-in sensors such as accelerometer, orientation-sensor, and light-sensor. According to comScore survey, 26.2% of U.S. adults use smart phones in their daily lives. Motivated by this statistic and the diverse capability of smart phones, we focus on utilizing them for biomedical applications. We present a new application of the smart phone with its built-in camera and microphone replacing the traditional stethoscope and cuff-based measurement technique, to quantify vital signs such as heart rate and blood pressure. We propose two differential blood pressure estimating techniques using the heartbeat and pulse data. The first method uses two smart phones whereas the second method replaces one of the phones with a customized external microphone. We estimate the systolic and diastolic pressure in the two techniques by computing the pulse pressure and the stroke volume from the data recorded. By comparing the estimated blood pressure values with those measured using a commercial blood pressure meter, we obtained encouraging results of 95-100% accuracy. PMID:22868529

  6. The effect of metformin on blood pressure and metabolism in nondiabetic hypertensive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snorgaard, O; Køber, L; Carlsen, J

    1997-01-01

    no impact on the decline in diastolic oBP within this group. Changes in fasting C-peptide and fasting insulin during treatment were unrelated to blood pressure changes. High fasting insulin (> 60 pmol L[-1]) or high fasting C-peptide (> 1000 pmol L[-1]) at baseline did not favour an effect of......OBJECTIVES: To study the effect of metformin on blood pressure and metabolism in nondiabetic hypertensives. DESIGN: A six-week single-blind placebo wash-out, followed by a double-blind placebo-controlled parallel group design with skew randomization (2:2:1) to metformin 850 mg b.i.d. (n = 10......), metformin 500 mg b.i.d. (n = 10), or placebo b.i.d. (n = 5) for 12 weeks. Office blood pressure (oBP), ambulatory blood pressure (aBP), lipoproteins, and oral glucose tolerance (OGTT) were measured/performed before and during treatment. SUBJECTS: Sixteen male and nine female nondiabetic (OGTT) patients...

  7. Alcohol intake and blood pressure: a systematic review implementing a Mendelian randomization approach.

    OpenAIRE

    Lina Chen; George Davey Smith; Harbord, Roger M.; Lewis, Sarah J

    2008-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background. High blood pressure (hypertension) is a common medical condition that affects nearly a third of US and UK adults. Hypertension has no symptoms but can lead to heart attacks or strokes. It is diagnosed by measuring blood pressure—the force that blood moving around the body exerts on the inside of large blood vessels. Blood pressure is highest when the heart is pumping out blood (systolic pressure) and lowest when it is filling up with blood (diastolic pressure). No...

  8. Relationship between blood manganese and blood pressure in the Korean general population according to KNHANES 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: We present data on the association of manganese (Mn) level with hypertension in a representative sample of the adult Korean population who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008. Methods: This study was based on the data obtained by KNHANES 2008, which was conducted for three years (2007-2009) using a rolling sampling design involving a complex, stratified, multistage, probability-cluster survey of a representative sample of the noninstitutionalized civilian population of South Korea. Results: Multiple regression analysis after controlling for covariates, including gender, age, regional area, education level, smoking, drinking status, hemoglobin, and serum creatinine, showed that the beta coefficients of log blood Mn were 3.514, 1.878, and 2.517 for diastolic blood pressure, and 3.593, 2.449, and 2.440 for systolic blood pressure in female, male, and all participants, respectively. Multiple regression analysis including three other blood metals, lead, mercury, and cadmium, revealed no significant effects of the three metals on blood pressure and showed no effect on the association between blood Mn and blood pressure. In addition, doubling the blood Mn increased the risk of hypertension 1.828, 1.573, and 1.567 fold in women, men, and all participants, respectively, after adjustment for covariates. The addition of blood lead, mercury, and cadmium as covariates did not affect the association between blood Mn and the prevalence of hypertension. Conclusion: Blood Mn level was associated with an increased risk of hypertension in a representative sample of the Korean adult population. - Highlights: → We showed the association of manganese with hypertension in Korean population. → This study was based on the data obtained by KNHANES 2008. → Blood manganese level was associated with an increased risk of hypertension.

  9. Spontaneous blood pressure oscillations in mechanically ventilated patients with sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Ronan M G; Plovsing, Ronni R; Greve, Anders M;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In the present hypothesis-generating study, we investigated whether spontaneous blood pressure oscillations are suppressed to lower frequencies, and whether abolished oscillations are associated with an adverse outcome in mechanically ventilated patients with sepsis. METHODS: We...... retrospectively subjected invasive steady-state blood pressure recordings from 65 mechanically ventilated patients with sepsis to spectral analysis. Modified spectral bands were visually identified by plotting spectral power against frequency. RESULTS: Modified middle-frequency and low-frequency (MF' and LF......') oscillations were absent in 9% and 22% of the patients, respectively. In patients in whom spontaneous blood pressure oscillations were preserved, the MF' oscillations occurred at 0.021 Hz (median, interquartile range 0.013-0.030), whereas the LF' oscillations occurred at 0.009 Hz (median, interquartile range 0...

  10. Effect of Smoking on Blood Pressure and Resting Heart Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Allan; Jacobsen, Rikke K; Skaaby, Tea;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: -Smoking is an important cardiovascular disease risk factor, but the mechanisms linking smoking to blood pressure are poorly understood. METHODS AND RESULTS: -Data on 141,317 participants (62,666 never, 40,669 former, 37,982 current smokers) from 23 population-based studies were...... included in observational and Mendelian randomisation (MR) meta-analyses of the associations of smoking status and smoking heaviness with systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), hypertension, and resting heart rate. For the MR analyses, a genetic variant rs16969968/rs1051730 was used as a proxy...... association of smoking heaviness with higher level of resting heart rate, but not with blood pressure. These findings suggest that part of the cardiovascular risk of smoking may operate through increasing resting heart rate....

  11. Heritability of Blood Pressure in an Iranian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Saadat

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The fact that life styles and personal interests, aggregate within families suggests that shared environment in addition to shared bioligical factors could play a role in determining the phenotypic similarity of idividuals living in the same household. It is a major concern of cardiovascular epidemiologists to know how much of the familial aggregation of blood pressure is attributable to shared genes and/or shared family environment. Genetic and environmental influences on blood pressure was examined in a sample representative of the adult population of Shiraz, Fars province, south of Iran. The studied population was the 107 pairs of mother and dauther. Analysis of the data suggest that the genetic heritabilities were estimated to be 0.58,0.30, 0.60 for systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure, respectively.

  12. Algorithmic Summaries of Perioperative Blood Pressure Fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toddenroth, Dennis; Ganslandt, Thomas; Drescher, Caroline; Weith, Thomas; Prokosch, Hans-Ulrich; Schuettler, Juergen; Muenster, Tino

    2016-01-01

    Automated perioperative measurements such as cardiovascular monitoring data are commonly compared to established upper and lower thresholds, but could also allow for more complex interpretations. Analyzing such time series in extensive electronic medical records for research purposes may itself require customized automation, so we developed a set of algorithms for quantifying different aspects of temporal fluctuations. We implemented conventional measures of dispersion, summaries of absolute gradients between successive values, and Poincaré plots. We aggregated the severity and duration of hypotensive episodes by calculating the average area under different mean arterial pressure (MAP) thresholds. We applied these methods to 30,452 de-identified MAP series, and analyzed the similarity between alternative indices via hierarchical clustering. To explore the potential utility of these propositional metrics, we computed their statistical association with presumed complications due to cardiovascular instability. We observed that hierarchical clustering reliably segregated features that had been designed to quantify dissimilar aspects. Summaries of temporary hypotension turned out to be significantly increased among patient subgroups with subsequent signs of a complicated recovery. These associations were even stronger for measures that were specifically geared to capturing short-term MAP variability. These observations suggest the potential capability of our proposed algorithms for quantifying heterogeneous aspects of short-term MAP fluctuations. Future research might also target a wider selection of outcomes and other attributes that may be subject to intraoperative variability. PMID:27577440

  13. The effect of ventricular assist devices on cerebral blood flow and blood pressure fractality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological signals often exhibit self-similar or fractal scaling characteristics which may reflect intrinsic adaptability to their underlying physiological system. This study analysed fractal dynamics of cerebral blood flow in patients supported with ventricular assist devices (VAD) to ascertain if sustained modifications of blood pressure waveform affect cerebral blood flow fractality. Simultaneous recordings of arterial blood pressure and cerebral blood flow velocity using transcranial Doppler were obtained from five cardiogenic shock patients supported by VAD, five matched control patients and five healthy subjects. Computation of a fractal scaling exponent (α) at the low-frequency time scale by detrended fluctuation analysis showed that cerebral blood flow velocity exhibited 1/f fractal scaling in both patient groups (α = 0.95 ± 0.09 and 0.97 ± 0.12, respectively) as well as in the healthy subjects (α = 0.86 ± 0.07). In contrast, fluctuation in blood pressure was similar to non-fractal white noise in both patient groups (α = 0.53 ± 0.11 and 0.52 ± 0.09, respectively) but exhibited 1/f scaling in the healthy subjects (α = 0.87 ± 0.04, P < 0.05 compared with the patient groups). The preservation of fractality in cerebral blood flow of VAD patients suggests that normal cardiac pulsation and central perfusion pressure changes are not the integral sources of cerebral blood flow fractality and that intrinsic vascular properties such as cerebral autoregulation may be involved. However, there is a clear difference in the fractal scaling properties of arterial blood pressure between the cardiogenic shock patients and the healthy subjects

  14. Relationship between children’s and parents’ blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desy Aswira Nasution

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background A family history of hypertension is a risk factor for hypertension in children. Past studies have reported a significant relationship between elevated blood pressure in children and hypertensive parents. Objective To assess for an association between blood pressure in children and that of their parents. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 90 children aged 6-18 years in Baringin Village, Panyabungan, from May to June 2010. Subjects were collected by consecutive sampling. Classification of hypertension was based on Fourth Task Force Guidelines by measuring blood pressure, height, and weight. We used Student’s T-test to analyze numerical data. Simple linear regression was used to investigate the relationship between blood pressures of children and their parents. Results Of the 90 participants recruited, 24 boys and 17 girls had hypertensive parents. The mean systolic (SBP, diastolic (DBP and arterial blood pressure (MABP were significantly higher in children with hypertensive parents than in children with normotensive parents [(SBP 116.7 (SD 7.07 vs. 87.1 (SD 13.57 mmHg; P=0.0001, (DBP 77.8 (SD 8.33 vs. 51.8 (SD 11.70 mmHg; P=0.0001, (MABP 90.7 (SD 7.41 vs. 63.6 (12.10 mmHg; P=0.0001]. There was a significant relationship between elevated SBP in boys and their fathers, as indicated by the correlation coefficient (r=0.806; P=0.0001. Conclusion The blood pressure is significantly higher in children with hypertensive parents than in those with normotensive parents. There is a correlation between SBP in boys and that of their fathers. [Paediatr Indones. 2014;54:202-5.].

  15. Small artery structure adapts to vasodilatation rather than to blood pressure during antihypertensive treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiassen, Ole N; Buus, Niels H; Larsen, Mogens L; Mulvany, Michael J; Christensen, Kent L

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Correction of the abnormal structure of resistance arteries in essential hypertension may be an important treatment goal in addition to blood pressure (BP) reduction. We investigated how this may be achieved in a prospective clinical study. METHODS: Plethysmography was used to measure....... RESULTS: In group A, mean ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) fell from 119 +/- 2 (SE) to 103 +/- 2 mmHg (P < 0.01), whereas mean ABP was unchanged in group B (100 +/- 1 to 99 +/- 1 mmHg, P = NS). Both groups showed similar reductions in Rrest (-33.4 and -28.5%, respectively) and in Rmin (-15.4 and -15...... forearm resting vascular resistance (Rrest) and minimum vascular resistance (Rmin) as a measure of vascular structure. Two different groups of patients with essential hypertension were examined at baseline and after 6 months of antihypertensive treatment. In group A, 21 patients with never...

  16. Disparate estimates of hypertension control from ambulatory and clinic blood pressure measurements in hypertensive kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogue, Velvie; Rahman, Mahboob; Lipkowitz, Michael; Toto, Robert; Miller, Edgar; Faulkner, Marquetta; Rostand, Stephen; Hiremath, Leena; Sika, Mohammed; Kendrick, Cynthia; Hu, Bo; Greene, Tom; Appel, Lawrence; Phillips, Robert A

    2009-01-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) monitoring provides unique information about day-night patterns of blood pressure (BP). The objectives of this article were to describe ABP patterns in African Americans with hypertensive kidney disease, to examine the joint distribution of clinic BP and ABP, and to determine associations of hypertensive target organ damage with clinic BP and ABP. This study is a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from the African American Study of Kidney Disease Cohort Study. Masked hypertension was defined by elevated daytime (>or= 135/85 mm Hg) or elevated nighttime (>or= 120/70 mm Hg) ABP in those with controlled clinic BP (disease, in large part because of increased nighttime BP. Whether lowering nighttime BP improves clinical outcomes is unknown but should be tested given the substantial burden of BP-related morbidity in this population. PMID:19047584

  17. Does home blood pressure monitoring improve patient outcomes? A systematic review comparing home and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring on blood pressure control and patient outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breaux-Shropshire, Tonya L; Judd, Eric; Vucovich, Lee A; Shropshire, Toneyell S; Singh, Sonal

    2015-01-01

    Objective Our objective was to compare the clinical effectiveness of home blood pressure monitoring (HBPM) and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) on blood pressure (BP) control and patient outcomes. Design A systematic review was conducted. We also appraised the methodological quality of studies. Data sources PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Central Register of Control Trials (CENTRAL). Inclusion criteria Randomized control trials, prospective and retrospective cohort studies, observational studies, and case-control studies published in English from any year to present that describe HBPM and 24-hour ABPM and report on systolic and/or diastolic BP and/or heart attack, stroke, kidney failure and/or all-cause mortality for adult patients. Due to the nature of the question, studies with only untreated patients were not considered. Results Of 1,742 titles and abstractions independently reviewed by two reviewers, 137 studies met predetermined criteria for evaluation. Nineteen studies were identified as relevant and included in the paper. The common themes were that HBPM and ABPM correlated with cardiovascular events and mortality, and targeting HBPM or ABPM resulted in similar outcomes. Associations between BP measurement type and mortality differed by study population. Both the low sensitivity of office blood pressure monitoring (OBPM) to detect optimal BP control by ABPM and the added association of HBPM with cardiovascular mortality supported the routine use of HBPM in clinical practice. There was insufficient data to determine the benefit of using HBPM as a measurement standard for BP control. Conclusion HBPM encourages patient-centered care and improves BP control and patient outcomes. Given the limited number of studies with both HBPM and ABPM, these measurement types should be incorporated into the design of randomized clinical trials within hypertensive populations. PMID:26170715

  18. Prostaglandin F2alpha elevates blood pressure and promotes atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Ying; Lucitt, Margaret B; Stubbe, Jane;

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about prostaglandin F(2alpha) in cardiovascular homeostasis. Prostaglandin F(2alpha) dose-dependently elevates blood pressure in WT mice via activation of the F prostanoid (FP) receptor. The FP is expressed in preglomerular arterioles, renal collecting ducts, and the hypothalamus....... Deletion of the FP reduces blood pressure, coincident with a reduction in plasma renin concentration, angiotensin, and aldosterone, despite a compensatory up-regulation of AT1 receptors and an augmented hypertensive response to infused angiotensin II. Plasma and urinary osmolality are decreased in FP KOs...

  19. Is aerobic workload positively related to ambulatory blood pressure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj, Mette; Clays, Els; Lidegaard, Mark;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Cardiovascular disease is prevalent among workers with high levels of occupational physical activity. The increased risk may be due to a high relative aerobic workload, possibly leading to increased blood pressure. However, studies investigating the relation between relative aerobic...... workload and ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) are lacking. The aim was to explore the relationship between objectively measured relative aerobic workload and ABP. METHODS: A total of 116 cleaners aged 18-65 years were included after informed consent was obtained. A portable device (Spacelabs 90217) was...

  20. Semiquantitative imaging measurement of baseline and vasomodulated normal prostatic blood flow using sildenafil

    OpenAIRE

    Haaga, JR; Exner, A; Fei, B; Seftel, AD

    2006-01-01

    The physiologic variability of blood flow to the prostate has not been studied until this time. We report the vasoactive effects of sildenafil and phenylephrine on blood flow of the normal prostate. Sildenafil increases prostate blood flow by approximately 75% and phenylephrine reduces the flow incrementally. Administration of these drugs with dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging may improve the diagnosis of cancerous tissue because according to the literature, tumor angiogeni...

  1. Secular trends of blood pressure in A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been controversy about whether or not radiation exposure plays a major role in advancing age. To preliminarily study this relationship, a statistical analysis was made on blood pressure measurements in a cohort of A-bomb survivors for Adult Health Study carried out during a 22-year period from 1958 through 1980. Systolic blood pressure increased with advancing age in both men and women between 30 and 80 years. During the years 1974 through 1980, it tended to increase in both men and women aged in their thirties and fourties. Diastolic blood pressure for men increased between the ages of 30 and 60 years, and decreased between the ages of 60 and 80 years. It tended to increase from year to year for men. For women, it decreased prior to the 1970's, and thereafter, tended to increase. The parameters, including systolic and diastolic blood pressures and pulse pressure, were independent of exposure doses in the subgroups according to age or sex. (Namekawa, K.)

  2. Blood pressure and plasma catecholamines in acute and prolonged hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanstrup, I L; Poulsen, T D; Hansen, J M;

    1999-01-01

    5 days after rapid, passive transport to high altitude (4,559 m). Acute mountain sickness scores ranged from 5 to 16 (maximal attainable score: 20) on the first day but were reduced to 0-8 by the fifth day. Systolic blood pressure, heart rate, and plasma epinephrine increased on day 1 at altitude......This study measured the pressor and plasma catecholamine response to local hypothermia during adaptation to hypobaric hypoxia. Eight healthy men were studied at rest and after 10 and 45 min of local cooling of one hand and forearm as well as after 30 min of rewarming at sea level and again 24 h and...... compared with sea level but declined again on day 5, whereas diastolic and mean blood pressures continued to rise in parallel with plasma norepinephrine. With local cooling, an increased vasoactive response was seen on the fifth day at altitude. Very high pressures were obtained, and the pressure elevation...

  3. Epidural blood patch for refractory low CSF pressure headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Søren Aalbæk; Fomsgaard, Jonna Storm; Jensen, Rigmor

    2011-01-01

    of non-invasive/conservative measures and invasive measures with epidural blood patch providing the cornerstone of the invasive measures. In the present pilot study we therefore aimed to evaluate the treatment efficacy of epidural blood patch (EBP) in treatment-refractory low-pressure headache. Our......Once believed an exceedingly rare disorder, recent evidence suggests that low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure headache has to be considered an important cause of new daily persistent headaches, particularly among young and middle-aged individuals. Treatment of low CSF pressure headache consists...... reduction in frequency. An increase in days with use of medication was found. Increased awareness of low CSF pressure headache is emphasized and a controlled larger randomized study is needed to confirm the results. However the present results, allows us to conclude that EBP in treatment-refractory low CSF...

  4. Fat induced hypertension in rabbits. Effects of dietary fibre on blood pressure and blood lipid concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstyn, P G; Husbands, D R

    1980-04-01

    Rabbits were fed diets containing 200 g.kg-1 coconut oil, palm oil, or safflower oil. Some of the diets also contained 200 g.kg-1 cellulose. The blood pressure was measured daily by a non-invasive technique for the 2 month duration of the experiment. Blood samples were drawn after an overnight fast at intervals during the experiment and analysed for lipids. Blood pressure was always increased by a fat-enriched diet. This effect was diminished and delayed by adding cellulose to the diets, though cellulose itself had no effect on the blood pressure in the absence of fat. There was a modest negative correlation between fasting serum triglyceride concentration and the blood pressure in animals fed fat enriched diets without added cellulose, but not in animals fed diets containing both fat and cellulose. These results coupled with those of Wright, Burstyn and Gibney may serve partly to explain the observation that vegetarians have lower blood pressures than omnivores, the latter consuming diets which are relatively richer in fats and poorer in fibre than the former. PMID:6253068

  5. Genetic variants in novel pathways influence blood pressure and cardiovascular disease risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.B. Ehret (Georg); P. Munroe (Patricia); K.M. Rice (Kenneth); M. Bochud (Murielle); A.D. Johnson (Andrew); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); A.V. Smith (Albert Vernon); M.D. Tobin (Martin); G.C. Verwoert (Germaine); S.J. Hwang; V. Pihur (Vasyl); P. Vollenweider (Peter); P.F. O'Reilly (Paul); N. Amin (Najaf); J.L. Bragg-Gresham (Jennifer L.); A. Teumer (Alexander); N.L. Glazer (Nicole); L.J. Launer (Lenore); J. Hua Zhao (Jing); Y.S. Aulchenko (Yurii); S.C. Heath (Simon); S. Sõber (Siim); A. Parsa (Afshin); J. Luan; P. Arora (Pankaj); A. Dehghan (Abbas); F. Zhang (Feng); G. Lucas (Gavin); A.A. Hicks (Andrew); A.U. Jackson (Anne); J. Peden (John); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); S.H. Wild (Sarah); I. Rudan (Igor); W. Igl (Wilmar); Y. Milaneschi (Yuri); A.N. Parker (Alex); C. Fava (Cristiano); J.C. Chambers (John); E.R. Fox (Ervin); M. Kumari (Meena); M. Jin Go (Min); P. van der Harst (Pim); W. Hong Linda Kao (Wen); M. Sjögren (Marketa); D.G. Vinay; M. Alexander (Myriam); Y. Tabara (Yasuharu); S. Shaw-Hawkins (Sue); P.H. Whincup (Peter); Y. Liu (Yongmei); G. Shi (Gang); J. Kuusisto (Johanna); B. Tayo (Bamidele); M. Seielstad (Mark); X. Sim (Xueling); K.-D. Hoang Nguyen; T. Lehtimäki (Terho); G. Matullo (Giuseppe); Y. Wu (Ying); T.R. Gaunt (Tom); N. Charlotte Onland-Moret; M.N. Cooper (Matthew); C. Platou (Carl); E. Org (Elin); R. Hardy (Rebecca); S. Dahgam (Santosh); J. Palmen (Jutta); V. Vitart (Veronique); P.S. Braund (Peter); T. Kuznetsova (Tatiana); C.S.P.M. Uiterwaal (Cuno); A. Adeyemo (Adebowale); W. Palmas (Walter); H. Campbell (Harry); B. Ludwig (Barbara); M. Tomaszewski; I. Tzoulaki; N.D. Palmer (Nicholette); T. Aspelund (Thor); M. Garcia (Melissa); Y.-P.C. Chang (Yen-Pei); J.R. O´Connell; N.I. Steinle (Nanette); D.E. Grobbee (Diederick); D.E. Arking (Dan); S.L. Kardia (Sharon); A.C. Morrison (Alanna); D.G. Hernandez (Dena); S.S. Najjar (Samer); W.L. McArdle (Wendy); D. Hadley (David); M.J. Brown (Morris); J. Connell (John); A. Hingorani (Aroon); I.N.M. Day (Ian); D.A. Lawlor (Debbie); J.P. Beilby (John); R.W. Lawrence (Robert); R. Clarke; J. Hopewell; H. Ongen (Halit); A.W. Dreisbach (Albert); Y. Li (Yali); J. Hunter Young; J.C. Bis (Joshua); M. Kähönen (Mika); J. Viikari (Jorma); N.R. Lee (Nanette); M-H. Chen (Ming-Huei); M. Olden (Matthias); C. Pattaro (Cristian); J.A. Hoffman Bolton (Judith); A. Köttgen (Anna); S.M. Bergmann (Sven); V. Mooser (Vincent); N. Chaturvedi (Nish); T.M. Frayling (Timothy); M. Islam (Muhammad); T.H. Jafar (Tazeen); S.R. Kulkarni (Smita); S.R. Bornstein (Stefan); J. Gräßler (Jürgen); L. Groop (Leif); B.F. Voight (Benjamin); J. Kettunen (Johannes); P. Howard (Philip); A. Taylor (Andrew); S. Guarrera (Simonetta); F. Ricceri (Fulvio); V. Emilsson (Valur); A.S. Plump (Andrew); K-T. Khaw (Kay-Tee); A.B. Weder (Alan); S.C. Hunt (Steven); Y.V. Sun (Yan); R.N. Bergman (Richard); F.S. Collins (Francis); L.L. Bonnycastle (Lori); L.J. Scott (Laura); H.M. Stringham (Heather); L. Peltonen (Leena Johanna); M. Perola (Markus); E. Vartiainen (Erkki); S.-M. Brand; J.A. Staessen (Jan); Y.A. Wang (Ying); P.R. Burton (Paul); M. Soler Artigas (Maria); Y. Dong (Yanbin); H. Snieder (Harold); H. Zhu (Haidong); K. Lohman (Kurt); M.E. Rudock (Megan); S.R. Heckbert (Susan); K.L. Wiggins (Kerri); A. Doumatey (Ayo); D. Shriner (Daniel); G. Veldre (Gudrun); M. Viigimaa (Margus); S. Kinra (Sanjay); D. Prabhakaran (Dorairaj); V. Tripathy (Vikal); C.D. Langefeld (Carl); A. Rosengren (Annika); D.S. Thelle (Dag); A. Maria Corsi (Anna); A. Singleton (Andrew); T. Forrester (Terrence); G. Hilton (Gina); C.A. McKenzie (Colin); T. Salako (Tunde); N. Iwai (Naoharu); Y. Kita (Yoshikuni); T. Ogihara (Toshio); T. Ohkubo (Takayoshi); T. Okamura (Tomonori); H. Ueshima (Hirotsugu); S. Umemura (Satoshi); S. Eyheramendy (Susana); T. Meitinger (Thomas); H.E. Wichmann (Heinz Erich); Y. Shin Cho (Yoon); H.-L. Kim; J.S. Sehmi (Joban); B. Hedblad (Bo); P. Nilsson (Peter); G. Davey-Smith (George); A. Wong (Andrew); N. Narisu (Narisu); A. Stancáková (Alena); L.J. Raffel (Leslie); J. Yao (Jie); S. Kathiresan (Sekar); C.J. O'Donnell (Christopher); S.M. Schwartz (Stephen); M.A. Ikram (Arfan); W.T. Longstreth Jr; T.H. Mosley (Thomas); S. Seshadri (Sudha); N.R.G. Shrine (Nick); L.V. Wain (Louise); M.A. Morken (Mario); A.J. Swift (Amy); J. Laitinen (Jaana); I. Prokopenko (Inga); P. Zitting (Paavo); S.E. Humphries (Steve); J. Danesh (John); A. Rasheed (Asif); A. Goel (Anuj); A. Hamsten (Anders); H. Watkins (Hugh); W.H. van Gilst (Wiek); C.S. Janipalli (Charles); K. Radha Mani; C. Yajnik (Chittaranjan); A. Hofman (Albert); F.U.S. Mattace Raso (Francesco); B.A. Oostra (Ben); A. Demirkan (Ayşe); A.J. Isaacs (Aaron); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); E. Lakatta (Edward); M. Orrù (Marco); A. Scuteri (Angelo); M. Ala-Korpela (Mika); A.J. Kangas (Antti); L.-P. Lyytikäinen (Leo-Pekka); P. Soininen (Pasi); T. Tukiainen (Taru); P. Würtz (Peter); R. Twee-Hee Ong (Rick); M. Dörr (Marcus); H.K. Kroemer (Heyo); U. Völker (Uwe); H. Völzke (Henry); P. Galan (Pilar); S. Hercberg (Serge); G.M. Lathrop (Mark); D. Zelenika (Diana); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); M. Mangino (Massimo); T.D. Spector (Timothy); G. Zhai (Guangju); J.F. Meschia (James F.); M.A. Nalls (Michael); P. Sharma (Pankaj); J. Terzic (Janos); M.V. Kranthi Kumar; M. Denniff (Matthew); E. Zukowska-Szczechowska (Ewa); L.E. Wagenknecht (Lynne); F. Gerald R. Fowkes; F.J. Charchar (Fadi); P.E.H. Schwarz (Peter); C. Hayward (Caroline); X. Guo (Xiuqing); C. Rotimi (Charles); M.L. Bots (Michiel); N.J. Samani (Nilesh); O. Polasek (Ozren); P.J. Talmud (Philippa); F. Nyberg (Fredrik); D. Kuh (Diana); M. Laan (Maris); K. Hveem (Kristian); Y.T. van der Schouw (Yvonne); J.P. Casas (Juan); K.L. Mohlke (Karen); P. Vineis (Paolo); O. Raitakari (Olli); S.K. Ganesh (Santhi); E. Shyong Tai; M. Laakso (Markku); D.C. Rao (Dabeeru C.); T.B. Harris (Tamara); R.W. Morris (Richard); A. Dominiczak (Anna); M. Kivimaki (Mika); M. Marmot (Michael); T. Miki (Tetsuro); D. Saleheen; G.R. Chandak (Giriraj); J. Coresh (Josef); G. Navis (Gerjan); V. Salomaa (Veikko); B.-G. Han; J.S. Kooner (Jaspal); O. Melander (Olle); P.M. Ridker (Paul); S. Bandinelli (Stefania); U. Gyllensten (Ulf); A.F. Wright (Alan); J.F. Wilson (James); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); M. Farrall (Martin); J. Tuomilehto (Jaakko); P.P. Pramstaller (Peter Paul); R. Elosua (Roberto); N. Soranzo (Nicole); E.J.G. Sijbrands (Eric); D. Altshuler (David); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth); A.R. Shuldiner (Alan); C. Gieger (Christian); P. Meneton (Pierre); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); N.J. Wareham (Nick); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); J.I. Rotter (Jerome); R. Rettig (Rainer); M. Uda (Manuela); D.P. Strachan (David); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); A.L. Hartikainen; J.S. Beckmann (Jacques); E. Boerwinkle (Eric); J. Erdmann (Jeanette); R.S. Vasan (Ramachandran Srini); M. Boehnke (Michael); M.G. Larson (Martin); M.R. Järvelin; B.M. Psaty (Bruce); P. Tikka-Kleemola (Päivi); C. Newton-Cheh (Christopher); P. Elliott (Paul); D. Levy (Daniel); M. Caulfield (Mark); G.R. Abecasis (Gonçalo); L.S. Adair (Linda); S.J.L. Bakker (Stephan); I. Barroso (Inês)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBlood pressure is a heritable trait influenced by several biological pathways and responsive to environmental stimuli. Over one billion people worldwide have hypertension (≥140mmg Hg systolic blood pressure ≥90mmg Hg diastolic blood pressure). Even small increments in blood pressure are

  6. Genetic variants in novel pathways influence blood pressure and cardiovascular disease risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehret, Georg B.; Munroe, Patricia B.; Rice, Kenneth M.; Bochud, Murielle; Johnson, Andrew D.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Smith, Albert V.; Tobin, Martin D.; Verwoert, Germaine C.; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Pihur, Vasyl; Vollenweider, Peter; O'Reilly, Paul F.; Amin, Najaf; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L.; Teumer, Alexander; Glazer, Nicole L.; Launer, Lenore; Zhao, Jing Hua; Aulchenko, Yurii; Heath, Simon; Sober, Siim; Parsa, Afshin; Luan, Jian'an; Arora, Pankaj; Dehghan, Abbas; Zhang, Feng; Lucas, Gavin; Hicks, Andrew A.; Jackson, Anne U.; Peden, John F.; Tanaka, Toshiko; Wild, Sarah H.; Rudan, Igor; Igl, Wilmar; Milaneschi, Yuri; Parker, Alex N.; Fava, Cristiano; Chambers, John C.; Fox, Ervin R.; Kumari, Meena; Go, Min Jin; van der Harst, Pim; Kao, Wen Hong Linda; Sjogren, Marketa; Vinay, D. G.; Alexander, Myriam; Tabara, Yasuharu; Shaw-Hawkins, Sue; Whincup, Peter H.; Liu, Yongmei; Shi, Gang; Kuusisto, Johanna; Tayo, Bamidele; Seielstad, Mark; Sim, Xueling; Khanh-Dung Hoang Nguyen, [No Value; Lehtimaki, Terho; Matullo, Giuseppe; Wu, Ying; Gaunt, Tom R.; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Cooper, Matthew N.; Platou, Carl G. P.; Org, Elin; Hardy, Rebecca; Dahgam, Santosh; Palmen, Jutta; Vitart, Veronique; Braund, Peter S.; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Uiterwaal, Cuno S. P. M.; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Palmas, Walter; Campbell, Harry; Ludwig, Barbara; Tomaszewski, Maciej; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Palmer, Nicholette D.; Aspelund, Thor; Garcia, Melissa; Chang, Yen-Pei C.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Steinle, Nanette I.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Arking, Dan E.; Kardia, Sharon L.; Morrison, Alanna C.; Hernandez, Dena; Najjar, Samer; McArdle, Wendy L.; Hadley, David; Brown, Morris J.; Connell, John M.; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Day, Ian N. M.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Beilby, John P.; Lawrence, Robert W.; Clarke, Robert; Hopewell, Jemma C.; Ongen, Halit; Dreisbach, Albert W.; Li, Yali; Young, J. Hunter; Bis, Joshua C.; Kahonen, Mika; Viikari, Jorma; Adair, Linda S.; Lee, Nanette R.; Chen, Ming-Huei; Olden, Matthias; Pattaro, Cristian; Bolton, Judith A. Hoffman; Koettgen, Anna; Bergmann, Sven; Mooser, Vincent; Chaturvedi, Nish; Frayling, Timothy M.; Islam, Muhammad; Jafar, Tazeen H.; Erdmann, Jeanette; Kulkarni, Smita R.; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Graessler, Juergen; Groop, Leif; Voight, Benjamin F.; Kettunen, Johannes; Howard, Philip; Taylor, Andrew; Guarrera, Simonetta; Ricceri, Fulvio; Emilsson, Valur; Plump, Andrew; Barroso, Ine S.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Weder, Alan B.; Hunt, Steven C.; Sun, Yan V.; Bergman, Richard N.; Collins, Francis S.; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Scott, Laura J.; Stringham, Heather M.; Peltonen, Leena; Perola, Markus; Vartiainen, Erkki; Brand, Stefan-Martin; Staessen, Jan A.; Wang, Thomas J.; Burton, Paul R.; Artigas, Maria Soler; Dong, Yanbin; Snieder, Harold; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhu, Haidong; Lohman, Kurt K.; Rudock, Megan E.; Heckbert, Susan R.; Smith, Nicholas L.; Wiggins, Kerri L.; Doumatey, Ayo; Shriner, Daniel; Veldre, Gudrun; Viigimaa, Margus; Kinra, Sanjay; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Tripathy, Vikal; Langefeld, Carl D.; Rosengren, Annika; Thelle, Dag S.; Corsi, Anna Maria; Singleton, Andrew; Forrester, Terrence; Hilton, Gina; McKenzie, Colin A.; Salako, Tunde; Iwai, Naoharu; Kita, Yoshikuni; Ogihara, Toshio; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Okamura, Tomonori; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Umemura, Satoshi; Eyheramendy, Susana; Meitinger, Thomas; Wichmann, H. -Erich; Cho, Yoon Shin; Kim, Hyung-Lae; Lee, Jong-Young; Scott, James; Sehmi, Joban S.; Zhang, Weihua; Hedblad, Bo; Nilsson, Peter; Smith, George Davey; Wong, Andrew; Narisu, Narisu; Stancakova, Alena; Raffel, Leslie J.; Yao, Jie; Kathiresan, Sekar; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Ikram, M. Arfan; Longstreth, W. T.; Mosley, Thomas H.; Seshadri, Sudha; Shrine, Nick R. G.; Wain, Louise V.; Morken, Mario A.; Swift, Amy J.; Laitinen, Jaana; Prokopenko, Inga; Zitting, Paavo; Cooper, Jackie A.; Humphries, Steve E.; Danesh, John; Rasheed, Asif; Goel, Anuj; Hamsten, Anders; Watkins, Hugh; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; van Gilst, Wiek H.; Janipalli, Charles S.; Mani, K. Radha; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S.; Hofman, Albert; Mattace-Raso, Francesco U. S.; Oostra, Ben A.; Demirkan, Ayse; Isaacs, Aaron; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Lakatta, Edward G.; Orru, Marco; Scuteri, Angelo; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Kangas, Antti J.; Lyytikainen, Leo-Pekka; Soininen, Pasi; Tukiainen, Taru; Wurtz, Peter; Ong, Rick Twee-Hee; Doerr, Marcus; Kroemer, Heyo K.; Voelker, Uwe; Voelzke, Henry; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Lathrop, Mark; Zelenika, Diana; Deloukas, Panos; Mangino, Massimo; Spector, Tim D.; Zhai, Guangju; Meschia, James F.; Nalls, Michael A.; Sharma, Pankaj; Terzic, Janos; Kumar, M. V. Kranthi; Denniff, Matthew; Zukowska-Szczechowska, Ewa; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.; Fowkes, F. Gerald R.; Charchar, Fadi J.; Schwarz, Peter E. H.; Hayward, Caroline; Guo, Xiuqing; Rotimi, Charles; Bots, Michiel L.; Brand, Eva; Samani, Nilesh J.; Polasek, Ozren; Talmud, Philippa J.; Nyberg, Fredrik; Kuh, Diana; Laan, Maris; Hveem, Kristian; Palmer, Lyle J.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Casas, Juan P.; Mohlke, Karen L.; Vineis, Paolo; Raitakari, Olli; Ganesh, Santhi K.; Wong, Tien Y.; Tai, E. Shyong; Cooper, Richard S.; Laakso, Markku; Rao, Dabeeru C.; Harris, Tamara B.; Morris, Richard W.; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Kivimaki, Mika; Marmot, Michael G.; Miki, Tetsuro; Saleheen, Danish; Chandak, Giriraj R.; Coresh, Josef; Navis, Gerjan; Salomaa, Veikko; Han, Bok-Ghee; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Melander, Olle; Ridker, Paul M.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Gyllensten, Ulf B.; Wright, Alan F.; Wilson, James F.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Farrall, Martin; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Elosua, Roberto; Soranzo, Nicole; Sijbrands, Eric J. G.; Altshuler, David; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Gieger, Christian; Meneton, Pierre; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Rotter, Jerome I.; Rettig, Rainer; Uda, Manuela; Strachan, David P.; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Boehnke, Michael; Larson, Martin G.; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Psaty, Bruce M.; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Elliott, Paul; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Levy, Daniel; Caulfield, Mark J.; Johnson, Toby

    2011-01-01

    Blood pressure is a heritable trait(1) influenced by several biological pathways and responsive to environmental stimuli. Over one billion people worldwide have hypertension (>= 140 mm Hg systolic blood pressure or >= 90 mm Hg diastolic blood pressure)(2). Even small increments in blood pressure are

  7. Blood pressure telemonitoring is useful to achieve blood pressure control in inadequately treated patients with arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, C L; Menne, J; Rieken, E M; Fischer, N; Weber, M H; Haller, H; Schulz, E G

    2011-12-01

    Failing to reach blood pressure (BP) goals is one of the main problems in hypertension management. Especially in high-risk patients, intensive monitoring including frequently office visits or new techniques to monitor home BP is required. A total of 60 patients with uncontrolled hypertension were included and randomized into a group with telemetric BP monitoring (TBPM) (n=30) and a control group receiving standard care (n=30). During the 3-month study period, patients received in addition to their antihypertensive pre-treatment up to 2 × 300 mg irbesartan to achieve the required target BP. All patients were instructed to measure their BP once daily in the morning. In the TBPM group automatic alerts were generated by the central database server using pre-defined algorithms and patients were subsequently contacted by the physician. At baseline mean 24-h ambulant BP monitoring (ABPM) was 143.3±11.1/82.6±9.9 mm Hg in the TBPM group and 141.4±12.6/82.1±6.5 mm Hg in the standard care group. During treatment mean systolic BP showed a more intensive decrease in the TBPM vs control group (-17.0±11.1 mm Hg vs -9.8±13.7 mm Hg; P=0.032). Patients in the TBPM group had a more pronounced night dipping and a higher reduction of mean pulse pressure than controls (-8.1±5.9 mm Hg vs -2.8±7.4 mm Hg, P=0.004). After 3 months, TBPM-treated patients were given a higher mean daily dose of irbesartan (375±187 mg vs 222±147 mg in controls; P=titration of the antihypertensive agent is possible. The alarm criteria chosen were useful to improve BP control. PMID:21228822

  8. Association of low-level blood lead and blood pressure in NHANES 1999–2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated whether low blood-lead levels (≤10 μg/dL) were associated with blood pressure (BP) outcomes. The authors analyzed data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2006 and participants aged 20 years or older. Outcome variables were systolic and diastolic BP measurements, pulse pressure, and hypertension status. Multivariable linear and logistic regressions stratified by race/ethnicity and gender were performed. Blood lead levels (BLL) were significantly correlated with higher systolic BP among black men and women, but not white or Mexican–American participants. BLLs were significantly associated with higher diastolic BPs among white men and women and black men, whereas, a negative association was observed in Mexican–American men that had, also, a wider pulse pressure. Black men in the 90th percentile of blood lead distribution (BLL≥3.50 μg/dL) compared to black men in the 10th percentile of blood lead distribution (BLL≤0.7 μg/dL) had a significant increase of risk of having hypertension (adjusted POR=2.69; 95% CI: 1.08–6.72). In addition, blood cadmium was significantly associated with hypertension and systolic and diastolic blood. This study found that, despite the continuous decline in blood lead in the U.S. population, lead exposure disparities among race and gender still exist.

  9. Relations of blood pressure and head injury to regional cerebral blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisser, Jason E; Allen, Allyssa J; Katzel, Leslie I; Wendell, Carrington R; Siegel, Eliot L; Lefkowitz, David; Waldstein, Shari R

    2016-06-15

    Hypertension confers increased risk for cognitive decline, dementia, and cerebrovascular disease. These associations have been attributed, in part, to cerebral hypoperfusion. Here we posit that relations of higher blood pressure to lower levels of cerebral perfusion may be potentiated by a prior head injury. Participants were 87 community-dwelling older adults - 69% men, 90% white, mean age=66.9years, 27.6% with a history of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) defined as a loss of consciousness ≤30min resulting from an injury to the head, and free of major medical (other than hypertension), neurological or psychiatric comorbidities. All engaged in clinical assessment of systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Computerized coding of the SPECT images yielded relative ratios of blood flow in left and right cortical and select subcortical regions. Cerebellum served as the denominator. Sex-stratified multiple regression analyses, adjusted for age, education, race, alcohol consumption, smoking status, and depressive symptomatology, revealed significant interactions of blood pressure and head injury to cerebral blood flow in men only. Specifically, among men with a history of head injury, higher systolic blood pressure was associated with lower levels of perfusion in the left orbital (β=-3.21, p=0.024) and left dorsolateral (β=-2.61, p=0.042) prefrontal cortex, and left temporal cortex (β=-3.36, p=0.014); higher diastolic blood pressure was marginally associated with lower levels of perfusion in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (β=-2.79, p=0.051). Results indicate that men with a history of head injury may be particularly vulnerable to the impact of higher blood pressure on cerebral perfusion in left anterior cortical regions, thus potentially enhancing risk for adverse brain and neurocognitive outcomes. PMID:27206865

  10. Accuracy of blood pressure monitors available in high street pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Adam; Stevens, Richard; Selwood, Mary; Fleming, Susannah

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of automated blood pressure monitors on sale to the UK general public. We conducted static pressure accuracy testing on all compatible (19 out of 22 available) blood pressure monitors available for sale in pharmacies within the city of Oxford, UK, and tested two devices for accuracy in measurement of systolic and diastolic blood pressures in 21 adults. The devices showed good accuracy when measuring static pressure in laboratory bench testing, with the median error per device ranging from -2.2 to +1.2 mmHg; however, the two devices tested performed worse in vivo than in laboratory tests, with median errors as high as 6 mmHg. The monitors showed good accuracy in static pressure testing, with a lack of correlation between monitor price and accuracy. However, higher error rates seen during in-vivo testing of a subset of monitors may indicate that static testing may not be appropriate for routine accuracy assessment of these monitors. PMID:26427055

  11. The Effects of Probiotic Supplementation on Markers of Blood Lipids, and Blood Pressure in Patients with Prediabetes: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahboobi, Sepideh; Iraj, Bijan; Maghsoudi, Zahra; Feizi, Awat; Ghiasvand, Reza; Askari, Gholamreza; Maayeshi, Najmeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Prediabetes is a high-risk condition for type 2 diabetes mellitus. The growing prevalence of diabetes emphasizes on the necessity of concentrating on various strategies to prediabetes prevention and management. Probiotics as a group of functional foods might exert antidiabetic effects. This study aimed to assess the effects of probiotic administration on blood lipid profile and blood pressure in patients with prediabetes. Methods: This randomized controlled trial consisted of 60 prediabetic patients, aged 25-65 years old, that were randomly assigned to the intervention (receiving 500 mg probiotic capsules, n = 30) or control group (receiving placebo, n = 30) for 8-week period. Demographic and anthropometric data were collected at baseline. Blood samples were collected at baseline and after 8 weeks for biochemical measurements. Blood pressure was measured at the baseline an after 8 weeks of intervention. Data regarding dietary intakes and physical activity were also collected during the study. We used SPSS software version 16 (SPSS Inc. Chicago, USA) for data analyzing. Results: Probiotic supplementation did not contribute to significant changes in total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, Triglycerides (TG), TG/LDL and LDL/HDL ratios, after 8 weeks. After adjusting for potential confounders, HDL-cholesterol reduced significantly in the placebo group compared with probiotic group. Percent change in systolic blood pressure was significantly different in the probiotic group in comparison with a placebo group (–3.10 ± 2.22 vs. 3.24 ± 1.96, P = 0.01), although this significance did not exist anymore after adjusting for confounders (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Our study showed that probiotics did not have significant effects on lipid markers although they had positive effects on systolic blood pressure. PMID:25400881

  12. Does a colour-coded blood pressure diary improve blood pressure control for patients in general practice: the CoCo trial

    OpenAIRE

    Steurer-Stey, C.; Zoller, M.; Moshinsky, C C; Senn, O; Rosemann, T

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Insufficient blood pressure control is a frequent problem despite the existence of effective treatment. Insufficient adherence to self-monitoring as well as to therapy is a common reason. Blood pressure self-measurement at home (Home Blood Pressure Measurement, HBPM) has positive effects on treatment adherence and is helpful in achieving the target blood pressure. Only a few studies have investigated whether adherence to HBPM can be improved through simple measures resulting also ...

  13. Does a colour-coded blood pressure diary improve blood pressure control for patients in general practice: The CoCo trial

    OpenAIRE

    Senn Oliver; Moshinsky Corinne; Zoller Marco; Steurer-Stey Claudia; Rosemann Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Insufficient blood pressure control is a frequent problem despite the existence of effective treatment. Insufficient adherence to self-monitoring as well as to therapy is a common reason. Blood pressure self-measurement at home (Home Blood Pressure Measurement, HBPM) has positive effects on treatment adherence and is helpful in achieving the target blood pressure. Only a few studies have investigated whether adherence to HBPM can be improved through simple measures resulti...

  14. Markers of collagen synthesis is related to blood pressure and vascular hypertrophy: a LIFE substudy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, M H; Christensen, M K; Wachtell, K; Tuxen, Christian; Fossum, E; Bang, L E; Wiinberg, N; Devereux, R B; Kjeldsen, S E; Hildebrandt, Per; Dige-Petersen, H; Rokkedal, J; Ibsen, H

    2005-01-01

    Cardiac fibrosis and high levels of circulating collagen markers has been associated with left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy. However, the relationship to vascular hypertrophy and blood pressure (BP) load is unclear. In 204 patients with essential hypertension and electrocardiographic LV hypertrophy...... losartan- or an atenolol-based regimen. Furthermore, we measured intima-media thickness of the common carotid arteries (IMT), minimal forearm vascular resistance (MFVR) by plethysmography and ambulatory 24-h BP in around half of the patients. At baseline, PICP/ICTP was positively related to IMT (r=0.24, P...

  15. Blood pressure, atherosclerosis, and the incidence of age-related maculopathy: the Rotterdam Study

    OpenAIRE

    Leeuwen, Redmer; Ikram, Kamran; Vingerling, Hans; Witteman, Jacqueline; Jong, Paulus; Hofman, Albert

    2003-01-01

    textabstractPURPOSE: To determine whether blood pressure and subclinical atherosclerosis are associated with incident age-related maculopathy (ARM). METHODS: The study was performed within the Rotterdam Study, a population-based, prospective cohort study in Rotterdam, The Netherlands. A total of 4822 subjects who at baseline were aged 55 years more, were free of ARM, and participated in at least one of two follow-up examinations after a mean of 2 and 6.5 years, were included in the study. At ...

  16. Renal resistance and long-term blood pressure in individuals genetically predisposed for essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Niels H; Mulvany, Michael J; Eiskjær, Hans; Christensen, Kent L; Skov, Karin

    2016-01-01

    follow-up period in offspring of parents both diagnosed with essential hypertension. METHODS: Based on renal plasma flow (p-aminohippurate clearance) and glomerular filtration rate (Cr-EDTA clearance) RA was calculated according to the model originally established by Gomez. Following baseline......AIM: Young individuals genetically predisposed for essential hypertension have increased renal vascular resistance. We evaluated whether 1 year of angiotensin II receptor blockade decreases afferent arteriolar resistance (RA) and induces a sustained blood pressure (BP) reduction during a 10-year...

  17. A Nutrition Curriculum for Families with High Blood Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Rosanne P.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    A nutrition curriculum for elementary and secondary school students with high blood pressure was implemented as part of a Dietary/Exercise Alteration Program trial. Reduced sodium and energy intake and increased potassium intake were promoted. Materials and methods of the program are described. (Author/DF)

  18. National High Blood Pressure 12-Month Kit. May 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Heart and Lung Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD. National High Blood Pressure Education Program.

    Part I of this kit provides information for program planners and health professionals on ways to overcome barriers to health care among the medically underserved, promote high blood pressure control through the media and other community channels, and improve adherence to treatment among hypertensive patients. It lists additional resources for…

  19. Euglycemic clamp insulin sensitivity and longitudinal systolic blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrie, John R; Malik, Muhammad Omar; Balkau, Beverley;

    2013-01-01

    Insulin resistance may be an independent risk factor for the development of hypertension, but change in blood pressure (BP) over time has not been adequately studied in healthy individuals fully characterized for insulin sensitivity. In the Relationship between Insulin Sensitivity and...

  20. Brachial versus central blood pressure and vascular stiffness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Susanne; Hansen, Tine; Frimodt-Møller, Marie

    2010-01-01

    Central blood pressure (BP) estimates the true load imposed on the left ventricle to a higher degree than does brachial BP. Increased aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV) and central BP are risk markers for cardiovascular disease. Both can be measured by simple and noninvasive methods. Guidelines...

  1. On preventive blood pressure self-monitoring at home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdezoto, Nervo; Grönvall, Erik

    2015-01-01

    -called Quantified Self). In this article, we explore socio-technical complexities that may occur when introducing preventive health-measurement technologies into older adults’ daily routines and everyday lives. In particular, the original study investigated blood pressure (BP) measurement in non-clinical settings...

  2. Birth weight and systolic blood pressure in adolescence and adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamborg, Michael; Byberg, Liisa; Rasmussen, Finn;

    2007-01-01

    The authors investigated the shape, sex- and age-dependency, and possible confounding of the association between birth weight and systolic blood pressure (SBP) in 197,954 adults from 20 Nordic cohorts (birth years 1910-1987), one of which included 166,249 Swedish male conscripts. Random...

  3. Dyslexia and familial high blood pressure: an observational pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    K. Taylor; Stein, J.

    2002-01-01

    Background: Developmental dyslexia is a neurodevelopmental learning disability characterised by unexpectedly poor reading and unknown aetiology. One hypothesis proposes excessive platelet activating factor, a potent vasodilator, as a contributor, implying that there should be a negative association between dyslexia and high blood pressure (HBP). Since both conditions have a partial genetic basis, this association may be apparent at the familial level.

  4. Disease Management to Promote Blood Pressure Control Among African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Brennan, Troyen; Spettell, Claire; Villagra, Victor; Ofili, Elizabeth; McMahill-Walraven, Cheryl; Lowy, Elizabeth J.; Daniels, Pamela; Quarshie, Alexander; Mayberry, Robert

    2010-01-01

    African Americans have a higher prevalence of hypertension and poorer cardiovascular and renal outcomes than white Americans. The objective of this study was to determine whether a telephonic nurse disease management (DM) program designed for African Americans is more effective than a home monitoring program alone to increase blood pressure (BP) control among African Americans enrolled in a national health plan.

  5. Study, Examinations, and Stress: Blood Pressure Assessments in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Brian M.

    2005-01-01

    The issue of stress associated with higher education and its impact on markers of student health is explored in three experiments looking at blood pressure levels in college students. All participants were full-time undergraduate students of psychology. In Experiment 1, academic fear of failure, assessed using psychometric testing, was found to be…

  6. Measures of blood pressure and cognition in dialysis patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are few reports on the relationship of blood pressure with cognitive function in maintenance dialysis patients. The Cognition and Dialysis Study is an ongoing investigation of cognitive function and its risk factors in six Boston area hemodialysis units. In this analysis, we evaluated the rela...

  7. Vessel Elasticity Estimation by Normalized Blood Pressure Dynamics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurák, Pavel; Halámek, Josef; Vondra, Vlastimil; Leinveber, Pavel; Plachý, M.; Fráňa, P.; Souček, M.; Kára, T.

    Tel-Aviv : Israel Heart Society, 2008. s. 115. ISBN N. [IDSS 2008 - International Dead Sea Symposium on Cardiac Arrhythmias and Device Therapy /9./. 22.09.2008-24.09.2008, Tel-Aviv] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : hypertension * vessel compliance * blood pressure * dynamic parameters Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery

  8. Blood Pressure Variability and Stress Management Training for Essential Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Vera, Maria Paz; Sanz, Jesus; Labrador, Francisco J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether stress management training reduces blood pressure (BP) variability in hypertensive patients. Previous literature suggests that cardiovascular risk is not only a function of BP levels, but also of BP variability, and this partially depends on changes induced by the stress of everyday life. The…

  9. Sodium intake and blood pressure in renal transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Else; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Brink, Elizabeth J.; van Baak, Marleen A.; van der Heide, Jaap J. Homan; Gans, Rijk O. B.; Navis, Gerjan; Bakker, Stephan J. L.

    2012-01-01

    Hypertension is common among renal transplant recipients (RTR) and a risk factor for graft failure and mortality. Sodium intake is a well-established determinant of blood pressure (BP) in the general population. However, data in RTR are limited. International guidelines recommend a maximum daily sod

  10. Sodium intake and blood pressure in renal transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den E.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Brink, E.J.; Baak, van M.A.; Homan van der Heide, van der J.J.; Gans, R.O.B.; Navis, G.; Bakker, S.J.L.

    2012-01-01

    Background - Hypertension is common among renal transplant recipients (RTR) and a risk factor for graft failure and mortality. Sodium intake is a well-established determinant of blood pressure (BP) in the general population. However, data in RTR are limited. International guidelines recommend a maxi

  11. Oscillometric continuous blood pressure sensing for wearable health monitoring system

    CERN Document Server

    Gelao, Gennaro; Passaro, Vittorio M N; Perri, Anna Gina

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present an acquisition chain for the measurement of blood arterial pressure based on the oscillometric method. This method does not suffer from any limitation as the well-known auscultatory method and it is suited for wearable health monitoring systems. The device uses a pressure sensor whose signal is filtered, digitalized and analyzed by a microcontroller. Local analysis allows the evaluation of the systolic and diastolic pressure values which can be used for local alarms, data collection and remote monitoring.

  12. Combination ergotamine and caffeine improves seated blood pressure and presyncopal symptoms in autonomic failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy C Arnold

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Severely affected patients with autonomic failure require pressor agents to counteract the blood pressure fall and improve presyncopal symptoms upon standing. Previous studies suggest that combination ergotamine and caffeine may be effective in the treatment of autonomic failure, but the efficacy of this drug has not been evaluated in controlled trials. Therefore, we compared the effects of ergotamine/caffeine on seated blood pressure and orthostatic tolerance and symptoms in 12 primary autonomic failure patients without history of coronary artery disease. Patients were randomized to receive a single oral dose of placebo, midodrine (5-10 mg, or ergotamine and caffeine (1 mg and 100 mg, respectively in a single-blind, crossover study. Blood pressure was measured while patients were seated and after standing for up to 10 minutes, at baseline and at 1 hour post-drug. Ergotamine/caffeine increased seated systolic blood pressure, the primary outcome, compared with placebo (131±19 and 95±12 mmHg, respectively, at 1 hour post-drug; p=0.003 for time effect. Midodrine also significantly increased seated systolic blood pressure (121±19 mmHg at 1 hour post-drug; p=0.015 for time effect versus placebo, but this effect was not different from ergotamine/caffeine (p=0.621. There was no significant effect of either medication on orthostatic tolerance; however, ergotamine/caffeine improved presyncopal symptoms (p=0.034. These findings suggest that combination ergotamine and caffeine elicits a seated pressor response that is similar in magnitude to midodrine, and improves symptoms in autonomic failure. Thus, ergotamine/caffeine could be used as an alternate treatment for autonomic failure, in carefully selected patients without comorbid coronary artery disease.

  13. Blood pressure in Afghan male immigrants to Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmar, Ali; Bülow, Jens; Simonsen, Lene;

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Immigration from a Third-World society to a Western society can be associated with higher blood pressure and salt sensitivity. We therefore tested whether immigrants from Afghanistan to Denmark compared with non-immigrant Danes exhibit a (i) higher 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (24-h ABP...... immigrants to Denmark exhibit a lower 24-h ABP than Danes. In young Afghans, PRA is less sensitive to changes in salt intake, while PNA is higher and may reflect their lower systolic blood pressure and/or arterial pulse pressure. Whether these hormonal differences can explain the lower 24-h ABP in Afghans...... 3-day high (250 mmol per 24-h) salt intake were in addition instituted in subgroups of the young groups (n = 18). RESULTS: Young and middle-aged Afghans exhibited a lower 24-h mean arterial pressure (24-h MAP) than the same respective age groups of Danes (83 ± 1 versus 90 ± 1 mm Hg, P<0·05, and 89...

  14. Patterns of blood pressure variability in normotensive and hypertensive rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein-Rathlou, N H; He, J; Wagner, A J;

    1995-01-01

    We sought patterns in mean arterial pressure of normotensive rats and alterations in chronic hypertension. Pressure was recorded for 4-6 days by telemetry from conscious, unrestrained rats and sampled digitally at 3 Hz, using normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR)...... active and lowest during the day; less pronounced in 2K,1C; and not detectable in SHR. There are regular patterns of blood pressure fluctuations and specific modifications to the patterns by different forms of hypertension.......We sought patterns in mean arterial pressure of normotensive rats and alterations in chronic hypertension. Pressure was recorded for 4-6 days by telemetry from conscious, unrestrained rats and sampled digitally at 3 Hz, using normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR...

  15. The blood pressure sensitivity to changes in sodium intake is similar in Asians, Blacks and Whites. An analysis of 92 randomized controlled trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels; Jürgens, Gesche

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the meta-analysis of randomized trials was to analyze the significance of ethnicity on the effect of sodium reduction (SR) on blood pressure (BP) by estimating the effect of SR on BP in Asians, Blacks and Whites under conditions, which were adjusted with respect to baseline BP......, baseline sodium intake and quantity of SR. Relevant studies were retrieved from a pool of 167 RCTs published in the period 1973-2010 and identified in a previous Cochrane review. 9 Asian, 9 Black, and 74 White populations standardized with respect to the range of baseline blood pressure, the range of...... baseline sodium, duration of SR (at least 7 days) and baseline sodium intake (at maximum 250 mmol) intake were included. In the cross-sectional analysis, there was no difference in change in SBP to SR between the ethnic groups, but there was a small difference in SR induced change in DBP between Blacks and...

  16. Non-Invasive Estimation of Systolic Blood Pressure and Diastolic Blood Pressure Using Photoplethysmograph Components

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong, Incheol; Jun, Sukhwan; Um, Daeja; Oh, Joonghwan; Yoon, Hyungro

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Photoplethysmography (PPG) is a noninvasive optical technology that detects changes in blood volume in the vascular system. This study aimed to investigate the possibilities of monitoring the cardiovascular system status by using PPG. Materials and Methods Forced hemodynamic changes were induced using cardiac stimulants; dopamine and epinephrine, and PPG components were recorded by a noninvasive method at the peripheral blood vessels. The results were compared among 6 dogs. Endotrache...

  17. Cardiac contractility, central haemodynamics and blood pressure regulation during semistarvation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, K H; Breum, L; Astrup, A

    1991-01-01

    pressure (BP) declined. The fall in BP was caused by the reduction in cardiac output as the total peripheral resistance was unchanged. Finally, the decline in total blood volume was not significant. These findings together with a reduction in heart rate indicated that a reduced sympathetic tone via......Eight obese patients were studied before and after 2 weeks of treatment by a very-low-calorie diet (VLCD). Cardiac output and central blood volume (pulmonary blood volume and left atrial volume) were determined by indicator dilution (125I-albumin) and radionuclide angiocardiography (first pass and...... equilibrium technique by [99Tcm]red blood cells). Cardiac output decreased concomitantly with the reduction in oxygen uptake as the calculated systemic arteriovenous difference of oxygen was unaltered. There were no significant decreases in left ventricular contractility indices, i.e. the ejection fraction...

  18. Continuous non-invasive finger blood pressure monitoring in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, H; Thulesius, O; Yamaguchi, H; Mino, M; Konishi, K

    1994-06-01

    We evaluated the performance of continuous non-invasive finger arterial pressure measurement using the volume-clamp technique (Finapres). This study was designed to compare finger arterial pressure with brachial blood pressure estimated by the auscultatory method in 217 children (90 boys and 127 girls) aged 4-16 years and in 38 adults (aged 18-45 years). Finger and brachial artery pressure readings were obtained consecutively from the ipsilateral side in the supine position. Finger arterial pressure waveforms were recorded in all children except 4 with small and thin fingers. There was good agreement for systolic pressure with only a slight underestimation of 1.9 mmHg and 5.1 mmHg lower for diastolic pressure. This difference most probably reflects inaccuracy of the auscultatory cuff method rather than an error in the Finapres. There was large inter-individual variability in Finapres recordings which might be due to differences in vasomotor tone, as demonstrated by systolic amplification in 5 patients with anorexia. However, Finapres showed a small within-subject variability (3.8 mmHg for systolic and 4.1 mmHg for diastolic pressure) determined in 5 patients during phenylephrine infusion, and as good reproducibility as the auscultatory method. These results suggest that finger arterial pressure measurement in children older than 6 years of age has similar accuracy as that in adults, and that this method is useful for clinical applications in children, especially for the non-invasive evaluation of autonomic control and cardiovascular reflexes involving transient and rapid blood pressure changes. PMID:7919764

  19. Chiral selective effects of doxazosin enantiomers on blood pressure and urinary bladder pressure in anesthetized rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-ping MA; Lei-ming REN; Ding ZHAO; Zhong-ning ZHU; Miao WANG; Hai-gang LU; Li-hua DUAN

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To study chiral selective effects of doxazosin enantiomers on blood pressure and urinary bladder pressure in anesthetized rats. Methods: In anesthetized rats, the carotid blood pressure, left ventricular pressure of the heart and the urinary bladder pressure were recorded. Results: Administration of S-doxazosin at 0.25, 2.5, 25, and 250 nmol/kg iv produced a dose-dependent decrease in blood pressure, but its depressor effect was significantly weaker than that induced by R-doxazosin and racemic-doxazosin (rac-doxazosin), and the ED30 values (producing a 30% decrease in mean arterial pressure) of R-doxazosin, rac-doxazosin and S-doxazosin were 15.64,45.93, and 128.81, respectively. Rac-doxazosin and its enantiomers administered cumulatively in anesthetized rats induced a dose-dependent decrease in the left ventricular systolic pressure and ±dp/dtmax, and the potency order of the 3 agents was R-doxazosin >rac-doxazosin >S-doxazosin. Rac-doxazosin and its enantiomers decreased the vesical micturition pressure dose-dependently at 2.5,25, and 250 nmol/kg, and the inhibitory potency among the 3 agents was not significantly different. Conclusion: S-doxazosin decreases the carotid blood pressure and left ventricular pressure of the heart less than R-doxazosin and rac-doxazosin, but its effect on the vesical micturition pressure is similar to R-doxazosin and rac-doxazosin, indicating that S-doxazosin has chiral selectivity between cardiovascular system and urinary system in anesthetized rats.

  20. Multivariate Modeling of Body Mass Index, Pulse Pressure, Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressure in Chinese Twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Yili; Zhang, Dongfeng; Pang, Zengchang;

    2015-01-01

    Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pulse pressure (PP), and body mass index (BMI) are heritable traits in human metabolic health but their common genetic and environmental backgrounds are not well investigated. The aim of this article was to explore the phenotypic and genetic associations among...... PP, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and BMI. The studied sample contained 615 twin pairs (17-84 years) collected in the Qingdao municipality. Univariate and multivariate structural equation models were fitted for assessing the genetic and environmental contributions...... multivariate model estimated (1) high genetic correlations for DBP with SBP (0.87), PP with SBP (0.75); (2) low-moderate genetic correlations between PP and DBP (0.32), each BP component and BMI (0.24-0.37); (3) moderate unique environmental correlation for PP with SBP (0.68) and SBP with DBP (0.63); (4) there...

  1. Effects of exercise training with blood flow restriction on blood pressure in medicated hypertensive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antônio Cezar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The development of non-pharmacological approaches to hypertension (HA is critical for both prevention and treatment. This study examined the hemodynamic and biochemical responses of medicated hypertensive women to resistance exercise with blood flow restriction (vascular occlusion. Twenty-three women were randomly assigned to one of three groups: High intensity strength training (n = 8; low-intensity resistance exercise with occlusion (n = 8; and control (n = 7. The first two groups underwent eight weeks of training performed twice a week, including three series of wrist flexion exercises with or without vascular occlusion. The exercised with occlusion group showed pre- to post-test reduction in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, and double product, whereas the other groups showed no significant hemodynamic changes. In conclusion, resistance exercise during 8 weeks was effective in lowering blood pressure in medicated hypertensive subjects.

  2. Synergism of hydrochlorothiazide and nitrendipine on reduction of blood pressure and blood pressure variability in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping HAN; Zheng-xu CHU; Fu-ming SHEN; He-hui XIE; Ding-feng SU

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the possible synergism of hydrochlorothiazide and nitrendipine on reducing both blood pressure (BP) and blood pressure variability (BPV) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Methods: Seventy animals were randomly divided into seven groups. The doses were 5 and 10 nig/kg for nitrendipine, 10 and 20 mg/kg for hydrochlorothiazide and 10+5, 20+10 mg/kg, respectively, for the combination of these two drugs and 0.8% carboxym-ethylcellulose as control. The drugs were given via a catheter of gastric fistula. BP was then continuously recorded for 5 h from 1 h before drug administration to the end of 4th hour after drug administration, in conscious and freely moving rats. Results: The effects on both BP and BPV reduction of the combination of hydrochlorothiazide and nitrendipine were greater than the single drug in SHR. The two drugs possessed an obvious synergism on both systolic blood pressure (q=1.79 with small dose and q=1.23 with large dose) and systolic blood pressure variability reduction (q=1.79 with small dose and q=1.39 with large dose) in SHR.Conclusion: The present work clearly demonstrated that there was a synergistic effect between hydrochlorothiazide and nitrendipine in lowering and stabilizing BP in SHR.

  3. Blood Pressure Lowering Medication, Visit-to-Visit Blood Pressure Variability, and Cognitive Function in Old Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wijsman, Liselotte W; de Craen, Anton J M; Muller, Majon; Sabayan, Behnam; Stott, David; Ford, Ian; Trompet, Stella; Jukema, J Wouter; Westendorp, Rudi G J; Mooijaart, Simon P

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Visit-to-visit blood pressure (BP) variability is associated with cognitive impairment. We assessed to what extent the association between BP variability and cognitive impairment is mediated by the association of BP lowering medication (BPLM) with both BP variability and cognition. ME...

  4. Study of blood pressure and blood sugar levels in adolescence and comparison with body mass index

    OpenAIRE

    Ashwin Borade; Gauri Shashank Kadam; Gayatri Bhide; Ram Dhongade

    2011-01-01

    Background: Worldwide prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing and its consequences prompted the WHO to designate obesity as a global epidemic in 2002. Being overweight is a risk factor for significant illness, especially diabetes and hypertension in adult life. Objectives : To study the blood pressure and blood sugar levels and lifestyle parameters in adolescence and comparison with body mass index. Materials and Methods: In a prospective case control study, out of the 1000 screene...

  5. Hypertension, blood pressure, cognition and cerebral blood flow in the cohort of "Men born 1914"

    OpenAIRE

    Reinprecht, Faina

    2006-01-01

    "Men born 1914" is a population based cohort study of the epidemiology of cardiovascular disease. Five hundred men, born 1914, were examined at the age of 68 and 185 of them were re-examined at 81 years of age. Examination included a medical and a psychological investigation, ultrasonographic measurement of carotid arteries, 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, regional cerebral blood flow, and cardiovascular risk factors. It is well known that hypertension plays a major et...

  6. Does home blood pressure monitoring improve patient outcomes? A systematic review comparing home and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring on blood pressure control and patient outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breaux-Shropshire TL

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Tonya L Breaux-Shropshire,1,2 Eric Judd,1 Lee A Vucovich,3 Toneyell S Shropshire,4 Sonal Singh5 1Vascular Biology and Hypertension Program, Cardiovascular Disease, School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA; 2Veterans Administration, Birmingham, AL, USA; 3Lister Hill Library, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA; 4Department of Physical Therapy, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA, USA; 5Department of Medicine, John Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA Objective: Our objective was to compare the clinical effectiveness of home blood pressure monitoring (HBPM and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM on blood pressure (BP control and patient outcomes. Design: A systematic review was conducted. We also appraised the methodological quality of studies. Data sources: PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Central Register of Control Trials (CENTRAL. Inclusion criteria: Randomized control trials, prospective and retrospective cohort studies, observational studies, and case-control studies published in English from any year to present that describe HBPM and 24-hour ABPM and report on systolic and/or diastolic BP and/or heart attack, stroke, kidney failure and/or all-cause mortality for adult patients. Due to the nature of the question, studies with only untreated patients were not considered. Results: Of 1,742 titles and abstractions independently reviewed by two reviewers, 137 studies met predetermined criteria for evaluation. Nineteen studies were identified as relevant and included in the paper. The common themes were that HBPM and ABPM correlated with cardiovascular events and mortality, and targeting HBPM or ABPM resulted in similar outcomes. Associations between BP measurement type and mortality differed by study population. Both the low sensitivity of office blood pressure monitoring (OBPM to detect optimal BP control by ABPM and the

  7. The effects of heated vegetable oils on blood pressure in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamsiah Jaarin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to determine the possible mechanism that is involved in the blood pressureraising effect of heated vegetable oils. METHODS: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 11 groups; the control group was fed with rat chow, and the other groups were fed with chow that was mixed with 15% weight/weight palm or soy oils, which were either in a fresh form or heated once, twice, five, or ten times. Blood pressures were measured at the baseline and throughout the 24-week study. Plasma nitric oxide levels were assessed prior to treatment and at the end of the study. Following 24 weeks, the rats were sacrificed to investigate their vascular reactivity using the thoracic aorta. RESULTS: Palm and soy oils had no detrimental effects on blood pressure, and they significantly elevated the nitric oxide contents and reduced the contractile responses to phenylephrine. However, trials using palm and soy oils that were repeatedly heated showed an increase in blood pressure, enhanced phenylephrine-induced contractions, reduced acetylcholine- and sodium nitroprusside-induced relaxations relative to the control and rats that were fed fresh vegetable oils. CONCLUSIONS: The blood pressure-raising effect of the heated vegetable cooking oils is associated with increased vascular reactivity and a reduction in nitric oxide levels. The chronic consumption of heated vegetable oils leads to disturbances in endogenous vascular regulatory substances, such as nitric oxide. The thermal oxidation of the cooking oils promotes the generation of free radicals and may play an important contributory role in the pathogenesis of hypertension in rats.

  8. Influence of caffeine on blood pressure and platelet aggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Wilson S. Cavalcante

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Studies have demonstrated that methylxanthines, such as caffeine, are A1 and A2 adenosine receptor antagonists found in the brain, heart, lungs, peripheral vessels, and platelets. Considering the high consumption of products with caffeine in their composition, in Brazil and throughout the rest of the world, the authors proposed to observe the effects of this substance on blood pressure and platelet aggregation. METHODS: Thirteen young adults, ranging from 21 to 27 years of age, participated in this study. Each individual took 750mg/day of caffeine (250mg tid, over a period of seven days. The effects on blood pressure were analyzed through the pressor test with handgrip, and platelet aggregation was analyzed using adenosine diphosphate, collagen, and adrenaline. RESULTS: Diastolic pressure showed a significant increase 24 hours after the first intake (p<0.05. This effect, however, disappeared in the subsequent days. The platelet aggregation tests did not reveal statistically significant alterations, at any time during the study. CONCLUSION: The data suggest that caffeine increases diastolic blood pressure at the beginning of caffeine intake. This hypertensive effect disappears with chronic use. The absence of alterations in platelet aggregation indicates the need for larger randomized studies.

  9. Association between blood pressure levels over time and brain atrophy in the elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Heijer, T; Skoog, [No Value; Oudkerk, M; de Leeuw, FE; de Groot, JC; Hofman, A; Breteler, MMB

    2003-01-01

    The relation between blood pressure level and degree of global brain atrophy is equivocal. We evaluated past and present blood pressure levels and change in blood pressure over 20 years in relation to the degree of cortical atrophy on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In 1995-1996, we measured blood

  10. 21 CFR 868.1200 - Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2) analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2... Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2) analyzer. (a) Identification. An indwelling blood oxygen... electrode) and that is used to measure, in vivo, the partial pressure of oxygen in blood to aid...

  11. Apolipoprotein L1 gene variants associate with prevalent kidney but not prevalent cardiovascular disease in the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Langefeld, Carl D.; Divers, Jasmin; Nicholas M. Pajewski; Hawfield, Amret T.; Reboussin, David M.; Bild, Diane E.; Kaysen, George A.; Kimmel, Paul L; Raj, Dominic; Ricardo, Ana C.; Wright, Jackson T; Sedor, John R.; Rocco, Michael V.; Freedman, Barry I.

    2014-01-01

    Apolipoprotein L1 gene (APOL1) G1 and G2 coding variants are strongly associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in African Americans. Here APOL1 association was tested with baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), urine albumin:creatinine ratio (UACR), and prevalent cardiovascular disease (CVD) in 2,571 African Americans from the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT), a trial assessing effects of systolic blood pressure reduction on renal and CVD outcomes. Logist...

  12. Blood Pressure Standards for Shiraz (Southern Iran School Children in Relation to Height

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Mohammad-Taghi Ayatollahi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aims at providing local reference values for blood pressure by height and determining distribution pattern of systolic and diastolic blood pressure in 6.5-11.5 elementary school children for the first time in Shiraz (Southern Iran.Methods: Height, systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP were measured with standard methods in 2270 healthy school children (1174 boys, 1096 girls who were selected by multi-stage random sampling in 2003-2004 academic years. We produced blood pressure percentiles by height percentiles using Healy-Rasbash-Yang method.Findings: The blood pressure (both systolic and diastolic tends to increase with age, but after adjusting the measurements for height, no significant correlation was found between either systolic blood pressure or diastolic blood pressure and age (r=-0.03 and P=0.15 for systolic blood pressure, r=-0.005 and P=0.8 for diastolic blood pressure. Then systolic and diastolic blood pressure percentile values by age and height percentiles, and blood pressure smoothed centiles by height in 6.5-11.5 years school children were derived.Conclusion: Due to genetic, cultural and environmental differences among populations, it is suggested to use local blood pressure standards in Iran. We produced blood pressure percentiles by height instead of age because it seems that it would lead to better evaluation for real hypertensive diagnosis.

  13. Predictors of the short-term effect of isoleucine-proline-proline/valine-proline-proline lactotripeptides from casein on office and ambulatory blood pressure in subjects with pharmacologically untreated high-normal blood pressure or first-degree hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicero, A F G; Rosticci, M; Ferroni, A; Bacchelli, S; Veronesi, M; Strocchi, E; Borghi, C

    2012-01-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the predictors of Isoleucine-Proline-Proline/Valine-Proline-Proline (IPP-VPP) lactotripeptides (LTPs) antihypertensive effect in the context of a short-term large double-blind randomized clinical trial involving 164 pharmacologically untreated subjects in primary prevention for cardiovascular disease. When compared with the baseline, office systolic blood pressure (SBP) (-3.42 mm Hg, P LTPs significantly improves the office SBP and DBP, especially in male subjects. The main predictor of LTP antihypertensive effect was the baseline BP. PMID:22574612

  14. Measurement of digital blood pressure after local cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S L; Lassen, N A

    1977-01-01

    A double-inlet plastic cuff was designed for local cooling and systolic blood pressure measurement on the middle phalanx of the fingers. With a tourniquet on the proximal phalanx of one finger, cooling for 5 min made the digital artery temperature equal the skin temperature. The difference between...... the systolic pressure in a control finger and in the cooled finger give the reopening pressure in the digital arteries. At 30, 25, 20, 15, and 10 degrees C, respectively the percent decrease of the finger pressure was 0.2 (0.2), 1.5 (2.5), 8.5 (3.7), 11.4 (3.4), and 15.3 (3.1) in normal young women...

  15. Evaluation of Cutaneous Blood Flow During Lower Body Negative Pressure to Prevent Orthostatic Intolerance of Bedrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Marilyn

    1991-01-01

    Orthostatic tolerance is markedly impaired in most of the crewmembers during space flight and could seriously compromise crew safety during and immediately after landing. NASA investigators are studying the use of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) as a countermeasure to this intolerance. It is hypothesized that the continuously changing vascular pressure induced by sinusoidal LBNP with an additional countermeasure of salt and water will help crewmembers to be in a more acceptable physiologic condition to enter the earth's atmosphere. In ground based studies, subjects on bedrest provide the model for studying the physiologic effects of weightlessness. When subjects are treated with sinusoidal LBNP, negative pressures ranging from 0 to -60 mm/Hg are administered during a two hour period. This increases body fluids in the legs and lower body. This paper reports the results of two subjects who were placed on bedrest for six days. The subjects were randomly selected for either the control or treatment mode. The subject receiving the treatment mode ingested salt tablets and water on day 4 of the bedrest period. A ramp LBNP of two hours was next administered to this subject. The control subject did not receive anything during the bedrest period. Laser Doppler was used to measure the cutaneous blood flow of the forearm and calf to monitor vasoconstrictor effects of the baroreceptor reflex. Data indicated that skin blood flow in the treatment subject was higher than baseline in the forearm while the skin blood flow was decreased in the control subject.

  16. Random perturbations of arterial blood pressure for the assessment of dynamic cerebral autoregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The assessment of cerebral autoregulation (CA) relies mostly on methods that modulate arterial blood pressure (ABP). Despite advances, the gold standard of assessment remains elusive and clinical practicality is limited. We investigate a novel approach of assessing CA, consisting of the intermittent application of thigh cuffs using square wave sequences. Our aim was to increase ABP variability whilst minimizing volunteer discomfort, thus improving assessment acceptability. Two random square wave sequences and two maximum pressure settings (80 and 150 mmHg) were used, corresponding to four manoeuvres that were conducted in random order after a baseline recording. The intermittent application of thigh cuffs resulted in an amplitude dependent increase in ABP (p = 0.001) and cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) variability (p = 0.026) compared to baseline. No statistically significant differences in mean heart rate or heart rate variability were observed (p = 0.108 and p = 0.350, respectively), suggesting that no significant sympathetic response was elicited. No significant differences in the CBFV step response were observed, suggesting no distortion of autoregulatory parameters resulted from the use of thigh cuffs. We conclude that pseudorandom binary sequences are an effective and safe alternative for increasing ABP variability. This new approach shows great promise as a tool for the robust assessment of CA. (paper)

  17. Signal quality measures for unsupervised blood pressure measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accurate systolic and diastolic pressure estimation, using automated blood pressure measurement, is difficult to achieve when the transduced signals are contaminated with noise or interference, such as movement artifact. This study presents an algorithm for automated signal quality assessment in blood pressure measurement by determining the feasibility of accurately detecting systolic and diastolic pressures when corrupted with various levels of movement artifact. The performance of the proposed algorithm is compared to a manually annotated reference scoring (RS). Based on visual representations and audible playback of Korotkoff sounds, the creation of the RS involved two experts identifying sections of the recorded sounds and annotating sections of noise contamination. The experts determined the systolic and diastolic pressure in 100 recorded Korotkoff sound recordings, using a simultaneous electrocardiograph as a reference signal. The recorded Korotkoff sounds were acquired from 25 healthy subjects (16 men and 9 women) with a total of four measurements per subject. Two of these measurements contained purposely induced noise artifact caused by subject movement. Morphological changes in the cuff pressure signal and the width of the Korotkoff pulse were extracted features which were believed to be correlated with the noise presence in the recorded Korotkoff sounds. Verification of reliable Korotkoff pulses was also performed using extracted features from the oscillometric waveform as recorded from the inflatable cuff. The time between an identified noise section and a verified Korotkoff pulse was the key feature used to determine the validity of possible systolic and diastolic pressures in noise contaminated Korotkoff sounds. The performance of the algorithm was assessed based on the ability to: verify if a signal was contaminated with any noise; the accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of this noise classification, and the systolic and diastolic pressure

  18. Driving environment in Iran increases blood pressure even in healthy taxi drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soodabeh Navadeh Khodadadi

    2008-12-01

    increased BP averagely 20 mmHg especially in those with higher BP measurements. Drivers with higher baseline systolic BPs were more prone to higher BP rises in driving time.

  19. KEYWORDS: Driving, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, hypertension, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring.
  20. Baseline blood Pb levels of black-necked stilts on the upper Texas coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riecke, Thomas V.; Conway, Warren C.; Haukos, David A.; Moon, Jena A.; Comer, Christopher E.

    2015-01-01

    There are no known biological requirements for lead (Pb), and elevated Pb levels in birds can cause a variety of sub-lethal effects and mortality. Historic and current levels of Pb in mottled ducks (Anas fulvigula) suggest that environmental sources of Pb remain available on the upper Texas coast. Because of potential risks of Pb exposure among coexisting marsh birds, black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus) blood Pb concentrations were measured during the breeding season. Almost 80 % (n = 120) of 152 sampled stilts exceeded the background threshold (>20 μg/dL) for Pb exposure. However, blood Pb concentrations did not vary by age or gender, and toxic or potentially lethal concentrations were rare (Pb concentrations of black-necked stilts in this study suggest the presence of readily bioavailable sources of Pb, although potential impacts on local stilt populations remain unclear.

  21. Chronic hypoxia increases arterial blood pressure and reduces adenosine and ATP induced vasodilatation in skeletal muscle in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calbet, J A L; Boushel, Robert Christopher; Robach, P;

    2014-01-01

    altitude than at sea level (P < 0.05). At altitude, the high doses of adenosine and ATP reduced mean arterial blood pressure by 9-12%, independently of FI O2 . The change in vascular conductance in response to ATP was lower at altitude than at sea level by 24 and 38%, during the low and high ATP doses...... protein expression was determined in muscle biopsies after 4 weeks at 3454 m by Western blot. RESULTS: At altitude, mean arterial blood pressure was 13% higher (91 ± 2 vs. 102 ± 3 mmHg, P < 0.05) than at sea level and was unaltered by hyperoxic breathing. Baseline leg vascular conductance was 25% lower at...... blood pressure and reduces the vasodilatory responses to adenosine and ATP....

  1. Estimating blood pressure using Windkessel model on Photoplethysmogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Anirban Dutta; Banerjee, Rohan; Sinha, Aniruddha; Kundu, Shaswati

    2014-01-01

    Simple and non-invasive methods to estimate vital signs are very important for preventive healthcare. In this paper, we present a methodology to estimate Blood Pressure (BP) using Photoplethysmography (PPG). Instead of directly relating systolic and diastolic BP values with PPG features, our proposed methodology initially maps PPG features with some person specific intermediate latent parameters and later derives BP values from them. The 2-Element Windkessel model has been considered in the current context to estimate total peripheral resistance and arterial compliance of a person using PPG features, followed by linear regression for simulating arterial blood pressure. Experimental results, performed on a standard hospital dataset yielded absolute errors of 0.78±13.1 mmHg and 0.59 ± 10.23 mmHg for systolic and diastolic BP values respectively. Results also indicate that the methodology is more robust than the standard methodologies that directly estimate BP values from PPG signal. PMID:25571008

  2. Relation of urinary calcium and magnesium excretion to blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesteloot, Hugo; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Brown, Ian J;

    2011-01-01

    Data indicate an inverse association between dietary calcium and magnesium intakes and blood pressure (BP); however, much less is known about associations between urinary calcium and magnesium excretion and BP in general populations. The authors assessed the relation of BP to 24-hour excretion...... of calcium and magnesium in 2 cross-sectional studies. The International Study of Macro- and Micro-Nutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP) comprised 4,679 persons aged 40-59 years from 17 population samples in China, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States, and the International Cooperative Study......) of higher urinary calcium excretion (associations were smaller for diastolic BP) in INTERMAP. Qualitatively similar associations were observed in INTERSALT analyses. Associations between magnesium excretion and BP were small and nonsignificant for most of the models examined. The present data suggest...

  3. [Synchonization of the blood flow rate in arterial with the changing rate of space of blood pressure with time].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shenghua; Qin, Renjia

    2012-10-01

    In physiology-related books, there are many relationship curves about blood flow rate in arteries and blood pressure changes with time, but there are not much explanation about such relationship. This is the very the question that the present article tries to answer. We clarified the relations between blood flow rate and blood pressure gradient using the experimental curves as the basis, using Poiseuille Law and relative knowledge of phisics and mathematics, and using analysis and reasoning. Based on the study, it can be concluded that in every course of cardiac cycle, the blood flow rate of any section in artery blood vessel is roughly synchronized with changing rate of space and time of the blood pressure, but blood flow rate is not synchronized with blood pressure. PMID:23198422

  4. Predictors of nonadherence with blood pressure regimens in hemodialysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kauric-Klein Z

    2013-01-01

    Zorica Kauric-KleinCollege of Nursing, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USABackground: Hypertension is very poorly controlled in patients on hemodialysis (HD). Demographic and psychosocial predictors of nonadherence with blood pressure (BP) regimens in HD have not been investigated. A study of 118 HD patients from six outpatient HD units was conducted to determine the relationship between demographic/psychosocial factors and adherence with BP-related regimens, ie, fluid restriction, BP me...

  5. Effects of Citrus sinensis juice on blood pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Asgary, Sedigheh; keshvari, Mahtab

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Citrus sinensis juice (CSJ) is a rich source of dietary flavonoids which reduce the risk of adverse cardiovascular events. This study aimed to examine the effects of four-week intake of natural and commercial orange (Citrus sinensis) juice on blood pressure in healthy volunteers. METHODS In this single-blind randomized crossover study, 22 healthy subjects (age: 18-59 years old) were included and randomly divided into two groups of 11. Group A consumed commercial CSJ during the firs...

  6. MEASUREMENTS OF THE BLOOD CAPILLARY PRESSURE AND ARTERIAL ELASTICITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuangMengcai; GuZhong; HangWenjing; ZhongQuan; TangFuyong

    1990-01-01

    Describe some new fully automatic instruments for the measurements of the blood capillary pressure (Pcap) and arterial elastic properties in human fingers using a photoelectric plethysmographic technique, With these instruments, the value of Pcap was in good agreement with those reported by other investigators, the arterial elastic properties in human fingers have been successfully measured. The measurements of Pcap and arterial elasticity are now required in clinics because they provide useful and important information for evaluating vascular haemodynamics.

  7. Cuff inflation during ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and heart rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Skov-Madsen

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Mia Skov-Madsen, My Svensson, Jeppe Hagstrup ChristensenDepartment of Nephrology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aalborg, DenmarkIntroduction: Twenty four-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring is a clinically validated procedure in evaluation of blood pressure (BP. We hypothesised that the discomfort during cuff inflation would increase the heart rate (HR measured with 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring compared to a following HR measurement with a 24-h Holter monitor.Methods: The study population (n = 56 were recruited from the outpatient’s clinic at the Department of Nephrology, Aalborg Hospital, Aarhus University Hospital at Aalborg, Denmark. All the patients had chronic kidney disease (CKD. We compared HR measured with a 24-h Holter monitor with a following HR measured by a 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring.Results: We found a highly significant correlation between the HR measured with the Holter monitor and HR measured with 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (r = 0.77, p < 0.001. Using the Bland-Altman plot, the mean difference in HR was only 0.5 beat/min during 24 hours with acceptable limits of agreement for both high and low HR levels. Dividing the patients into groups according to betablocker treatment, body mass index, age, sex, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor treatment, statins treatment, diuretic treatment, or calcium channel blocker treatment revealed similar results as described above.Conclusion: The results indicate that the discomfort induced by cuff inflation during 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring does not increase HR. Thus, 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring may be a reliable measurement of the BP among people with CKD.Keywords: ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, Holter monitoring, heart rate, chronic kidney disease, hypertension

  8. Aggressive blood pressure control for chronic kidney disease unmasks moyamoya!

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, T. Keefe; Halabi, Carmen M.; Siefken, Philp; Karmarkar, Swati; Leonard, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Hypertensive crises in children or adolescents are rare, but chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major risk factor for occurrence. Vesicoureteral reflux nephropathy is a common cause of pediatric renal failure and is associated with hypertension. Aggressive blood pressure (BP) control has been shown to delay progression of CKD and treatment is targeted for the 50th percentile for height when compared with a target below the 90th percentile for the general pediatric hypertensive patient. We pres...

  9. Wearable Beat-to-Beat Blood Pressure Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Jin

    2015-01-01

    Linea Research Corporation has developed a wearable noninvasive monitor that provides continuous blood pressure and heart rate measurements in extreme environments. Designed to monitor the physiological effects of astronauts' prolonged exposure to reduced-gravity environments as well as the effectiveness of various countermeasures, the device offers wireless connectivity to allow transfer of both real-time and historical data. It can be modified to monitor the health status of astronaut crew members during extravehicular missions.

  10. Influence of caffeine on blood pressure and platelet aggregation

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Studies have demonstrated that methylxanthines, such as caffeine, are A1 and A2 adenosine receptor antagonists found in the brain, heart, lungs, peripheral vessels, and platelets. Considering the high consumption of products with caffeine in their composition, in Brazil and throughout the rest of the world, the authors proposed to observe the effects of this substance on blood pressure and platelet aggregation. METHODS: Thirteen young adults, ranging from 21 to 27 years of age, par...

  11. Management of high blood pressure in peripheral arterial disease

    OpenAIRE

    Krzesinski, Jean-Marie

    2005-01-01

    Arterial hypertension (HTA) is a promoter of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in association with other atherosclerotic risk factors factors. Systolic HTA is the most frequently noted form in such disease, secondary to marked increase in large artery siffness. The existence of PAD confers on the hypertensive patient a very high cardiovascular (CV) risk, requiring an intensive global therapeutical approach. Treating HTA is one of such beneficial actions. The optimal blood pressure (BP) to...

  12. De-stiffening drug therapy and blood pressure control

    OpenAIRE

    Safar, Michel E.

    2010-01-01

    Michel E SafarParis-Descartes University, Faculty of Medicine, Hôtel-Dieu Hospital, AP-HP, Diagnosis Center, Paris, FranceAbstract: In hypertensive subjects, cardiovascular risk reduction is critically related to the decrease of systolic blood pressure (SBP). De-stiffening therapy means that, in a controlled therapeutic trial of long duration, a selective reduction of SBP has been obtained in the studied group by comparison with the control group, and that this SBP reduction is due ...

  13. Blood pressure and dementia in the very old

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Zhenchao

    1998-01-01

    Blood Pressure and Dementia in the Very Old. An epidemiologic study There is a considerable public health interest in the vascular causes of dementia because they are potentially treatable and preventable. A number of vascular factors may be associated with dementia. Hypertension is supposed to be the most powerful vascular risk factor for dementia because of its contribution to cerebrovascular disease. However, there have only been a few population-based studies about the ...

  14. Different effects of tocolytic medication on blood pressure and blood pressure amplification

    OpenAIRE

    FABRY, ISABELLE; Paepe, Peter; Kips, Jan; Vermeersch, Sebastian; van Bortel, Luc

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The importance of tocolysis has been discussed extensively. Beta-2 adrenoceptor agonistic drugs like ritodrine have been the reference tocolytic drugs in most countries. Cardiovascular side-effects are frequent. Atosiban, a newer tocolytic drug, is a competitive antagonist of oxytocin and has fewer cardiovascular side effects. Although large studies exist, there is mainly subjective reporting of adverse reactions with a focus on blood ...

  15. Pressure passive cerebral blood flow and breakdown of the blood-brain barrier in experimental fetal asphyxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou, H C; Lassen, N A; Tweed, W A;

    1979-01-01

    mean arterial blood pressure in the fetuses by blood withdrawal or infusion in this state, CBF was measured at different perfusion pressures (mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) minus central venous pressure (CVP)). A passive flow/pressure relationship--loss of autoregulation--was found, with hyperemia...... reaching CBF values up to 6 times normal at normal MABP of about 60 to 70 mmHg, and severe ischemia reaching CBF values close to zero in large cortical areas at MABP of 30 mmHg. CVP remained essentially unchanged at 10--15 mmHg. The severe and prolonged asphyxia rendered the blood-brain barrier leaky to...

  16. Ouabain induces cardiac remodeling in rats independent of blood pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing JIANG; Yan-ping REN; Zhuo-ren L(U)

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the ouabain's effects on cardiac remodeling in rats. Methods:Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with ouabain. Systolic blood pressure(SBP) was recorded weekly. After 4 and 6 weeks, echocardiography were performed,hemodynamic parameters were measured by invasive cardiac catheterization,changes in cardiac ultrastructure were analyzed using transmission electron microscopy, the collagen fraction of the left ventricle was assessed with Picrosirius red stain, and RT-PCR was applied to evaluate the mRNA level of myosin heavy chain-α and-β in the left ventricle. Results: Having been treated with ouabain for 4 weeks, there was no significant difference in the mean SBP of the two groups.However, left ventricular hypertrophy, myocardial ultrastructure deterioration,and extracellular matrix remodeling were induced by ouabain treatment; meanwhile,cardiac systolic and diastolic performance were both worsened. Moreover, the cardiac MHC-β mRNA was upregulated by ouabain treatment, whereas MHC-αmRNA was downregulated. After 4 weeks, the mean SBP in the ouabain group began to increase and was significantly higher than that in control group after 6 weeks (P<0.01); the rats' cardiac structure and function were worsened.Conclusion: These results suggested that ouabain induces alterations in cardiac structure and function, and the effects happened before the increase of blood pressure. The results indicated that ouabain induced cardiac remodeling in rats independent of blood pressure.

  17. Heart and Stroke Foundation of Ontario (HSFO high blood pressure strategy's hypertension management initiative study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Von Sychowski Shirley

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Achieving control of hypertension prevents target organ damage at both the micro and macrovascular level and is a highly cost effective means of lowering the risk for heart attack and stroke particularly in people with diabetes. Clinical trials demonstrate that blood pressure control can be achieved in a large proportion of people. Translating this knowledge into widespread practice is the focus of the Hypertension Management Initiative, which began in 2004 with the goal of improving the management of this chronic health condition by primary care providers and patients in the community. Methods This study will test the effect of a systems change on the management of high blood pressure in real world practice in primary care in Ontario, Canada. The systems change intervention involves an interprofessional educational program bringing together physicians, nurses and pharmacists with tools for both providers and patients to facilitate blood pressure management. Each of two waves of subjects were enrolled over a 6 month period with the initial enrollment between waves separated by 9 months. Blood pressure will be measured with the BpTru ® automated blood pressure device. To determine the effectiveness of the intervention, a before and after analysis within all subjects will compare blood pressure at baseline to annual measurements for the three year study. To assess whether the intervention has an impact on blood pressure control independent of community trends, a betwen group comparison of baseline blood pressures in the delayed wave will be made with the immediate wave during the same time period, so that the immediate wave has experienced the intervention for at least 9 months. The total enrollment goal is 5,000 subjects. The practice locations include 10 Family Health Teams (FHTs and 1 Community Health Centre (CHC and approximately 49 primary care physicians, 15 nurse practitioners, 37 registered nurses and over 150

  18. Epidemiology of hypertension as a public health problem: an overview as background for evaluation of blood lead-blood pressure relationship.

    OpenAIRE

    Tyroler, H A

    1988-01-01

    An overview of the epidemiology of blood pressure is presented as background for the International Symposium of Blood Lead-Blood Pressure Relationships. The correlates of blood pressure distributions in populations are varied and numerous. They have to be considered as either potential confounders or modifiers of any blood pressure-blood lead relationship detected. The relation of blood pressure to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality emphasizes the importance of detecting and elucidating a...

  19. Methodology and technology for peripheral and central blood pressure and blood pressure variability measurement: current status and future directions - Position statement of the European Society of Hypertension Working Group on blood pressure monitoring and cardiovascular variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stergiou, George S; Parati, Gianfranco; Vlachopoulos, Charalambos; Achimastos, Apostolos; Andreadis, Emanouel; Asmar, Roland; Avolio, Alberto; Benetos, Athanase; Bilo, Grzegorz; Boubouchairopoulou, Nadia; Boutouyrie, Pierre; Castiglioni, Paolo; de la Sierra, Alejandro; Dolan, Eamon; Head, Geoffrey; Imai, Yutaka; Kario, Kazuomi; Kollias, Anastasios; Kotsis, Vasilis; Manios, Efstathios; McManus, Richard; Mengden, Thomas; Mihailidou, Anastasia; Myers, Martin; Niiranen, Teemu; Ochoa, Juan Eugenio; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Omboni, Stefano; Padfield, Paul; Palatini, Paolo; Papaioannou, Theodore; Protogerou, Athanasios; Redon, Josep; Verdecchia, Paolo; Wang, Jiguang; Zanchetti, Alberto; Mancia, Giuseppe; O'Brien, Eoin

    2016-09-01

    Office blood pressure measurement has been the basis for hypertension evaluation for almost a century. However, the evaluation of blood pressure out of the office using ambulatory or self-home monitoring is now strongly recommended for the accurate diagnosis in many, if not all, cases with suspected hypertension. Moreover, there is evidence that the variability of blood pressure might offer prognostic information that is independent of the average blood pressure level. Recently, advancement in technology has provided noninvasive evaluation of central (aortic) blood pressure, which might have attributes that are additive to the conventional brachial blood pressure measurement. This position statement, developed by international experts, deals with key research and practical issues in regard to peripheral blood pressure measurement (office, home, and ambulatory), blood pressure variability, and central blood pressure measurement. The objective is to present current achievements, identify gaps in knowledge and issues concerning clinical application, and present relevant research questions and directions to investigators and manufacturers for future research and development (primary goal). PMID:27214089

  20. Higher blood pressure among Inuit migrants in Denmark than among the Inuit in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P; Jørgensen, M E; Lumholt, P;

    2002-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: Previous studies of blood pressure among the Inuit have given inconsistent results and studies comparing Inuit migrants with those living in traditional Inuit areas are absent. The purpose of the study was to compare the blood pressure of the Inuit in Greenland with that of Inuit...... adjusted blood pressures were 117/72 mm Hg in Greenland and 127/81 mm Hg among the migrants (p<0.001). In both populations, blood pressure increased with age and body mass index, and was higher among men and non-smokers. In Greenland, blood pressure increased with the level of school education. The...... blood pressure of the two populations while the difference for diastolic blood pressure was much less than for those with less education. CONCLUSIONS: Blood pressure was lower among the Inuit in Greenland than among the Inuit migrants in Denmark but the difference was absent (systolic pressure) or...

  1. Descriptive epidemiology of spot urine sodium-to-potassium ratio clarified close relationship with blood pressure level: the Nagahama study.

    OpenAIRE

    Tabara, Yasuharu; Takahashi, Yoshimitsu; Kumagai, Kyoko; Setoh, Kazuya; Kawaguchi, Takahisa; Takahashi, Meiko; Muraoka, Yuki; Tsujikawa, Akitaka; Gotoh, Norimoto; Terao, Chikashi; Yamada, Ryo; Kosugi, Shinji; Sekine, Akihiro; Yoshimura, Nagahisa; Nakayama, Takeo

    2015-01-01

    [Objectives]: We undertook descriptive epidemiology of spot urine sodium-to-potassium ratio (Na/K) in a population sample to clarify the close relationship between Na/K and blood pressure level independently of potential confounding factors. [Methods]: Study participants consisted of 9144 apparently healthy citizens (aged 54 ± 13 years). All clinical parameters were obtained at baseline. [Results]: Na/K was significantly higher in hypertensive individuals irrespective of antihypertensive medi...

  2. Relationship between daily exposure to biomass fuel smoke and blood pressure in high-altitude Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Melissa Burroughs; Romero, Karina M.; Velazquez, Eric J.; Davila-Roman, Victor G.; Gilman, Robert H.; Wise, Robert A; Miranda, J. Jaime; Checkley, William

    2015-01-01

    Household air pollution from biomass fuel use affects three billion people worldwide; however, few studies have examined the relationship between biomass fuel use and blood pressure. We sought to determine if daily biomass fuel use was associated with elevated blood pressure in high altitude Peru and if this relationship was affected by lung function. We analyzed baseline information from a population-based cohort study of adults aged ≥35 years in Puno, Peru. Daily biomass fuel use was self-reported. We used multivariable regression models to examine the relationship between daily exposure to biomass fuel smoke and blood pressure outcomes. Interactions with sex and quartiles of forced vital capacity (FVC) were conducted to evaluate for effect modification. Data from 1004 individuals (mean age 55.3 years, 51.7% female) were included. We found an association between biomass fuel use with both prehypertension (adjusted relative risk ratio 5.0, 95% CI 2.6 to 9.9) and hypertension (adjusted relative risk ratio 3.5, 95% CI 1.7 to 7.0). Biomass fuel users had a higher SBP (7.01 mmHg, 95% CI 4.4 to 9.6) and a higher DBP (5.9 mmHg, 95% CI 4.2 to 7.6) when compared to nonusers. We did not find interaction effects between daily biomass fuel use and sex or percent predicted FVC for either SBP or DBP. Biomass fuel use was associated with an increased risk of hypertension and higher blood pressure in Peru. Reducing exposure to household air pollution from biomass fuel use represents an opportunity for cardiovascular prevention. PMID:25753976

  3. Combination ergotamine and caffeine improves seated blood pressure and presyncopal symptoms in autonomic failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Amy C; Ramirez, Claudia E; Choi, Leena; Okamoto, Luis E; Gamboa, Alfredo; Diedrich, André; Raj, Satish R; Robertson, David; Biaggioni, Italo; Shibao, Cyndya A

    2014-01-01

    Severely affected patients with autonomic failure require pressor agents to counteract the blood pressure fall and improve presyncopal symptoms upon standing. Previous studies suggest that combination ergotamine and caffeine may be effective in the treatment of autonomic failure, but the efficacy of this drug has not been evaluated in controlled trials. Therefore, we compared the effects of ergotamine/caffeine on seated blood pressure and orthostatic tolerance and symptoms in 12 primary autonomic failure patients without history of coronary artery disease. Patients were randomized to receive a single oral dose of placebo, midodrine (5-10 mg), or ergotamine and caffeine (1 and 100 mg, respectively) in a single-blind, crossover study. Blood pressure was measured while patients were seated and after standing for up to 10 min, at baseline and at 1 h post-drug. Ergotamine/caffeine increased seated systolic blood pressure (SBP), the primary outcome, compared with placebo (131 ± 19 and 95 ± 12 mmHg, respectively, at 1 h post-drug; p = 0.003 for time effect). Midodrine also significantly increased seated SBP (121 ± 19 mmHg at 1 h post-drug; p = 0.015 for time effect vs. placebo), but this effect was not different from ergotamine/caffeine (p = 0.621). There was no significant effect of either medication on orthostatic tolerance; however, ergotamine/caffeine improved presyncopal symptoms (p = 0.034). These findings suggest that combination ergotamine and caffeine elicits a seated pressor response that is similar in magnitude to midodrine, and improves symptoms in autonomic failure. Thus, ergotamine/caffeine could be used as an alternate treatment for autonomic failure, in carefully selected patients without comorbid coronary artery disease. PMID:25104940

  4. Blood Pressure Characteristics in Moderate to Severe Renal Insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheyou Wu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM in chronic kidney disease (CKD patients has been extensively studied, but few investigations have attempted to relate ABPM with CKD stages. The objectives of this article were to compare ABPM parameters for the diagnosis and treatment determination of CKD with daytime clinic blood pressure (BP measurements. We also investigated BP and renal injury in combined hypertension and CKD. We supposed ABPM was important in combined hypertension and CKD. Methods: We compared ABPM in hypertension patients, including 152 patients with combined hypertension and CKD. Patients with combined hypertension and CKD were grouped according to severity into stages 1 through 3 (Stage 1-3 and stages 4 and 5 (Stage 4-5. Results: In the Stage 4-5 group, systolic BP (SBP (daytime, nighttime and 24 h mean, diastolic BP (DBP, pulse pressure and SBP standard deviations (SD (daytime and 24 h were higher. SBP and DBP loads were significantly higher in the Stage 4-5 group. The nighttime load was higher than the daytime load. Mean arterial pressure (MAP was higher and heart rates (HR were faster in the Stage 4-5 group. Conclusions: BP load should be a component employed in ABPM to determine cardiovascular risk stratification. MAP and HR might be associated with risk to develop end-stage renal disease.

  5. Blood pressure variability in relation to outcome in the International Database of Ambulatory blood pressure in relation to Cardiovascular Outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Thijs, Lutgarde; Richart, Tom;

    2010-01-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring provides information not only on the BP level but also on the diurnal changes in BP. In the present review, we summarized the main findings of the International Database on Ambulatory BP in relation to Cardiovascular Outcome (IDACO) with regard to risk.......1%. In conclusion, the IDACO observations support the concept that BP variability adds to risk stratification, but above all highlight that 24-h ambulatory BP level remains the main predictor to be considered in clinical practice....

  6. Low central venous pressure reduces blood loss in hepatectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Dong Wang; Li-Jian Liang; Xiong-Qing Huang; Xiao-Yu Yin

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of low central venous pressure (LCVP) on blood loss during hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).METHODS: By the method of sealed envelope,50 HCC patients were randomized into LCVP group (n = 25) and control group (n = 25). In LCVP group,CVP was maintained at 2-4 mmHg and systolic blood pressure (SBP) above 90 mmHg by manipulation of the patient's posture and administration of drugs during hepatectomy, while in control group hepatectomy was performed routinely without lowering CVP. The patients'preoperative conditions, volume of blood loss during hepatectomy, volume of blood transfusion, length of hospital stay, changes in hepatic and renal functions were compared between the two groups.RESULTS: There were no significant differences in patients' preoperative conditions, maximal tumor dimension, pattern of hepatectomy, duration of vascular occlusion, operationtime, weight of resected liver tissues, incidence of post-operative complications, hepatic and renal functions between the two groups. LCVP group had a markedly lower volume of total intraoperative blood loss and blood loss during hepatectomy than the control group, being 903.9±180.8 mL vs 2 329.4±2 538.4(W=495.5, P<0.01) and 672.4±429.9 mL vs1 662.6± 1932.1 (W=543.5, P<0.01). There were no remarkable differences in the pre-resection and post-resection blood losses between the two groups. The length of hospital stay was significantly shortened in LCVP group as compared with the control group, being 16.3±6.8 d vs21.5 ± 8.6 d (W= 532.5, P<0.05).CONCLUSION: LCVP is easily achievable in technique.Maintenance of CVP≤4 mmHg can help reduce blood loss during hepatectomy, shorten the length of hospital stay, and has no detrimental effects on hepatic or renal function.

  7. Comparison of non-invasive and invasive blood pressure in aeromedical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, N; Hogg, L A; Corfield, A R; Exton, A D

    2012-12-01

    Blood pressure measurement is an essential physiological measurement for all critically ill patients. Previous work has shown that non-invasive blood pressure is not an accurate reflection of invasive blood pressure measurement. In a transport environment, the effects of motion and vibration may make non-invasive blood pressure less accurate. Consecutive critically ill patients transported by a dedicated aeromedical retrieval and critical care transfer service with simultaneous invasive and non-invasive blood pressure measurements were analysed. Two sets of measurements were recorded, first in a hospital environment before departure (pre-flight) and a second during aeromedical transport (in-flight). A total of 56 complete sets of data were analysed. Bland-Altman plots showed limits of agreement (precision) for pre-flight systolic blood pressure were -37.3 mmHg to 30.0 mmHg, and for pre-flight mean arterial pressure -20.5 mmHg to 25.0 mmHg. The limits of agreement for in-flight systolic blood pressure were -40.6 mmHg to 33.1 mmHg, while those for in-flight mean blood pressure in-flight were -23.6 mmHg to 24.6 mmHg. The bias for the four conditions ranged from 0.5 to -3.8 mmHg. There were no significant differences in values between pre-flight and in-flight blood pressure measurements for all categories of blood pressure measurement. Thus, our data show that non-invasive blood pressure is not a precise reflection of invasive intra-arterial blood pressure. Mean blood pressure measured non-invasively may be a better marker of invasive blood pressure than systolic blood pressure. Our data show no evidence of non-invasive blood pressures being less accurate in an aeromedical transport environment. PMID:23033983

  8. Treating High Blood Pressure: Is a Beta-Blocker Drug Right for You?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High Blood Pressure: Is a Beta-blocker Drug Right for You? What are beta-blockers? Beta-blockers ... talk with your doctor about which drugs are right for you. If your blood pressure is slightly ...

  9. Treating High Blood Pressure: Is an ACE Inhibitor Drug Right for You?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High Blood Pressure: Is an ACE Inhibitor Drug Right for You? What are ACE inhibitors? ACE inhibitors, ... talk with your doctor about which drugs are right for you. If your blood pressure is slightly ...

  10. Treating High Blood Pressure: Is a Calcium Channel Blocker Drug Right for You?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Pressure: Is a Calcium Channel Blocker Drug Right for You? What are calcium channel blockers? Calcium ... talk with your doctor about which drugs are right for you. If your blood pressure is slightly ...

  11. Rarefaction and blood pressure in systemic and pulmonary arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olufsen, Mette S; Hill, N A; Vaughan, Gareth D A; Sainsbury, Christopher; Johnson, Martin

    2012-08-01

    The effects of vascular rarefaction (the loss of small arteries) on the circulation of blood are studied using a multiscale mathematical model that can predict blood flow and pressure in the systemic and pulmonary arteries. We augmented a model originally developed for the systemic arteries (Olufsen et al. 1998, 1999, 2000, 2004) to (a) predict flow and pressure in the pulmonary arteries, and (b) predict pressure propagation along the small arteries in the vascular beds. The systemic and pulmonary arteries are modelled as separate, bifurcating trees of compliant and tapering vessels. Each tree is divided into two parts representing the `large' and `small' arteries. Blood flow and pressure in the large arteries are predicted using a nonlinear cross-sectional area-averaged model for a Newtonian fluid in an elastic tube with inflow obtained from magnetic resonance measurements. Each terminal vessel within the network of the large arteries is coupled to a vascular bed of small `resistance' arteries, which are modelled as asymmetric structured trees with specified area and asymmetry ratios between the parent and daughter arteries. For the systemic circulation, each structured tree represents a specific vascular bed corresponding to major organs and limbs. For the pulmonary circulation, there are four vascular beds supplied by the interlobar arteries. This manuscript presents the first theoretical calculations of the propagation of the pressure and flow waves along systemic and pulmonary large and small arteries. Results for all networks were in agreement with published observations. Two studies were done with this model. First, we showed how rarefaction can be modelled by pruning the tree of arteries in the microvascular system. This was done by modulating parameters used for designing the structured trees. Results showed that rarefaction leads to increased mean and decreased pulse pressure in the large arteries. Second, we investigated the impact of decreasing vessel

  12. Physiological and Psychological Effects of Forest Therapy on Middle-Aged Males with High-Normal Blood Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Ochiai

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Time spent walking and relaxing in a forest environment (“forest bathing” or “forest therapy” has well demonstrated anti-stress effects in healthy adults, but benefits for ill or at-risk populations have not been reported. The present study assessed the physiological and psychological effects of forest therapy (relaxation and stress management activity in the forest on middle-aged males with high-normal blood pressure. Blood pressure and several physiological and psychological indices of stress were measured the day before and approximately 2 h following forest therapy. Both pre- and post-treatment measures were conducted at the same time of day to avoid circadian influences. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP, urinary adrenaline, and serum cortisol were all significantly lower than baseline following forest therapy (p < 0.05. Subjects reported feeling significantly more “relaxed” and “natural” according to the Semantic Differential (SD method. Profile of Mood State (POMS negative mood subscale scores for “tension-anxiety,” “confusion,” and “anger-hostility,” as well as the Total Mood Disturbance (TMD score were significantly lower following forest therapy. These results highlight that forest is a promising treatment strategy to reduce blood pressure into the optimal range and possibly prevent progression to clinical hypertension in middle-aged males with high-normal blood pressure.

  13. Cohort Profile: Sympathetic activity and Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Africans (SABPA) prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malan, Leoné; Hamer, Mark; Frasure-Smith, Nancy; Steyn, Hendrik S; Malan, Nicolaas T

    2015-12-01

    Adapting to an over-demanding stressful urban environment may exhaust the psychophysiological resources to cope with these demands, and lead to sympathetic nervous system dysfunction. The evidence that an urban-dwelling lifestyle may be detrimental to the cardiometabolic health of Africans motivated the design of the Sympathetic activity and Ambulatory Blood Pressure in African Prospective cohort study. We aimed to determine neural mechanistic pathways involved in emotional distress and vascular remodelling. The baseline sample included 409 teachers representing a bi-ethnic sex cohort from South Africa. The study was conducted in 2008-09 and repeated after 3-year follow-up in 2011-12, with an 87.8% successful follow-up rate. Seasonal changes were avoided and extensive clinical assessments were performed in a well-controlled setting. Data collection included sociodemographics, lifestyle habits, psychosocial battery and genetic analysis, mental stress responses mimicking daily life stress (blood pressure and haemostatic, cardiometabolic, endothelial and stress hormones). Target organ damage was assessed in the brain, heart, kidney, blood vessels and retina. A unique highly phenotyped cohort is presented that can address the role of a hyperactive sympathetic nervous system and neural response pathways contributing to the burden of cardiometabolic diseases in Africans. PMID:25344943

  14. Resistance exercise with different volumes: blood pressure response and forearm blood flow in the hypertensive elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brito AF

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aline de Freitas Brito,1 Caio Victor Coutinho de Oliveira,2 Maria do Socorro Brasileiro-Santos,1 Amilton da Cruz Santos1 1Physical Education Department, 2Research Laboratory for Physical Training Applied to Performance and Health, Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa, Brazil Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of two sessions of resistance exercise with different volumes on post-exercise hypotension, forearm blood flow, and forearm vascular resistance in hypertensive elderly subjects.Methods: The study was conducted with ten hypertensive elderly (65±3 years, 28.7±3 kg/m2 subjected to three experimental sessions, ie, a control session, exercise with a set (S1, and exercise with three sets (S3. For each session, the subjects were evaluated before and after intervention. In the pre-intervention period, blood pressure, forearm blood flow, and forearm vascular resistance were measured after 10 minutes of rest in the supine position. Thereafter, the subjects were taken to the gym to perform their exercise sessions or remained at rest during the same time period. Both S1 and S3 comprised a set of ten repetitions of ten exercises, with an interval of 90 seconds between exercises. Subsequently, the measurements were again performed at 10, 30, 50, 70, and 90 minutes of recovery (post-intervention in the supine position.Results: Post-exercise hypotension was greater in S3 than in S1 (systolic blood pressure, −26.5±4.2 mmHg versus −17.9±4.7 mmHg; diastolic blood pressure, −13.8±4.9 mmHg versus −7.7±5 mmHg, P<0.05. Similarly, forearm blood flow and forearm vascular resistance changed significantly in both sessions with an increase and decrease, respectively, that was more evident in S3 than in S1 (P<0.05.Conclusion: Resistance exercises with higher volume were more effective in causing post-exercise hypotension, being accompanied by an increase in forearm blood flow and a reduction of forearm vascular

  15. Maternal smoking and blood pressure in 7.5 to 8 year old offspring.

    OpenAIRE

    Morley, R.; Leeson Payne, C; Lister, G.; Lucas, A.

    1995-01-01

    Reduced fetal growth in babies born preterm may be associated with reduced later blood pressure, but in children born at term, higher blood pressure. It was hypothesised, therefore, that maternal smoking in pregnancy, associated with reduced fetal growth, programmes later blood pressure differentially according to length of gestation. Six hundred and eighteen children born preterm and now aged 7.5 to 8 years were studied prospectively. Systolic blood pressure in children from smoking compared...

  16. The Interdependence of Nutritional Status and Blood Pressure in Female Students

    OpenAIRE

    Szymelfejnik, Ewa Joanna; Chiba, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The value of blood pressure is affected by a number of factors, nutritional status being of utmost importance. The aim of the study was an assessment of the interdependence between the nutritional status and systolic blood pressure (SBP) as well as diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in female students. Material and method : The research included 66 women aged 20.5±0.71, studying in Bydgoszcz. The systolic and diastolic blood pressure was taken. The nutritional status of the students...

  17. Context-aware patient guidance during blood pressure self-measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandager, Puk; Lindahl, Camilla; Schlütter, Jacob Mørup;

    2013-01-01

    The importance of accurate measurement of blood pressure in the screening and management of hypertension during pregnancy is well established. Blood pressure levels can be measured manually by healthcare staff or by using a blood pressure self-measurement device, either at home or in the clinic. In...... blood pressure self-measurement process. Preliminary results indicate that such active and context-aware guidance leads to more reliable measurements by inhibiting non-adherent patient behavior...

  18. Comparison of Intraocular Pressure, Blood Pressure, Ocular Perfusion Pressure and Blood Flow Fluctuations During Dorzolamide Versus Timolol Add-On Therapy in Prostaglandin Analogue Treated Glaucoma Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruta Barsauskaite

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the effects of dorzolamide and timolol add-on therapy in open-angle glaucoma (OAG patients previously treated with prostaglandin analogue (Pg, by evaluating fluctuations in the intraocular (IOP, blood (BP, ocular perfusion pressures (OPP and retrobulbar blood flow (RBF parameters. Methods: 35 OAG patients (35 eyes, 31 women (88.6% age 63.3 (8.9 years were evaluated in a 3 month randomized, cross-over, single-masked study. During the experiments BP, heart rate, IOP and OPP were assessed 4 times per day (8–12–16–20 h. RBF was measured twice per day (8–20 h using Color Doppler imaging in the ophthalmic (OA, central retinal (CRA, nasal (nSPCA and temporal (tSPCA posterior ciliary arteries. In each vessel, peak systolic velocity (PSV and end-diastolic velocity (EDV were assessed and vascular resistance (RI calculated. Results: Both add-on therapies lowered IOP in a statistically significant manner from 15.7 ± 2.4 mmHg at latanoprost baseline to 14.9 ± 2.2 mmHg using dorzolamide (p < 0.001 and 14.2 ± 1.9 mmHg using timolol (p < 0.001. The IOP lowering effect was statistically significant at 20 h, favoring timolol as compared to dorzolamide (1.4 ± 2.4 vs. 0.2 ± 2.1 mmHg, (p < 0.05. Dorzolamide add-on therapy showed smaller IOP (2.0 ± 1.4, SPP (13.3 ± 7.9, systolic BP (13.5 ± 8.7 and diastolic BP (8.4 ± 5.4 fluctuations as compared to both latanoprost baseline or timolol add-on therapies. Higher difference between morning and evening BP was correlated to decreased evening CRA EDV in the timolol group (c = −0.41; p = 0.01. With increased MAP in the morning or evening hours, we found increased evening OA RI in timolol add-on group (c = 0.400, p = 0.02; c = 0.513, p = 0.002 accordingly. Higher MAP fluctuations were related to impaired RBF parameters during evening hours-decreased CRA EDV (c = −0.408; p = 0.01, increased CRA RI (c = 0.576; p < 0.001 and tSPCA RI (c = 0.356; p = 0.04 in the dorzolamide group and

  19. Nutritional interventions and blood pressure : role of specific micronutrients and other food components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mierlo, van L.A.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Elevated blood pressure is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Modest reductions in blood pressure at the population level, as can be achieved by dietary and lifestyle changes, have a large impact on the burden of CVD. Blood pressure is regulated by several physio

  20. Real-life Stories About High Blood Pressure | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: High Blood Pressure Real-life Stories About High Blood Pressure Past Issues / Fall ... who’s getting back in control!” For more real-life stories about high blood pressure, visit www.nhlbi. ...

  1. 77 FR 17060 - Announcement of Requirements and Registration for Beat Down Blood Pressure Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Announcement of Requirements and Registration for Beat Down Blood Pressure Challenge... years, announces the launch of the Beat Down Blood Pressure Video Challenge. This challenge is an open... consumer e-health tools to manage high blood pressure. Health care providers are also encouraged to...

  2. Home blood pressure measurement : reproducibility and relationship with left ventricular mass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, R.H.; Beltman, F.W.; Terpstra, W.F.; Smit, A.J.; May, J.F.; de Graeff, P.A.; Meyboom-de Jong, B.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the reproducibility and relationship with left ventricular mass index of home blood pressure in comparison with ambulatory and office blood pressures. METHODS: We measured home, ambulatory and office blood pressures of 84 previously untreated hypertensive patients, aged 60-74

  3. Blood pressure measurement: lessons learned from our ancestors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamanou, Marianna; Papaioannou, Theodore G; Tsoucalas, Gregory; Tousoulis, Dimitris; Stefanadis, Christodoulos; Androutsos, George

    2015-01-01

    The profound observations of William Harvey (1578-1657), in blood circulation and the progress of physical science laid the foundation for the development of the Iatrophysical School that contributed to the evolution of clinical sphygmomanometry. The pioneer work of Reverend Stephen Hales (1677-1761) demonstrated the dynamics of the vascular system. One century later the French physician Jean-Léonard-Marie Poiseuille (1797-1867) invented a U-tube mercury manometer and in 1860 the physiologist Etienne- Jules Marey (1830-1904) devised the first portable sphygmograph for recording the pulse wave. The non-invasive techniques of blood pressure measurement were completed by Scipione Riva-Rocci (1896-1937) sphygmomanometer and the description of "Korotkov sounds" by the Russian surgeon Nikolai- Sergeyevich Korotkov (1874-1920). PMID:25341864

  4. Influence of glutathione-s-transferase (GSTT1 and GSTM1 polymorphism on baseline micronuclei frequency in peripheral blood lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stošić Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We have analyzed impact of polymorphism in GSTT1 and GSTM1 genes on the micronuclei (MN frequency in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs. A total 134 women from central Serbia were enrolled in the study. Polymorphisms of GST genes were genotyped by performing a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR and cytokinesis block micronucleus (CBMN test was used to assess MN frequency. GSTT1 null and GSTM1 null genotype carriers had higher MN frequencies as compared to positive counterparts but without statistical significance. Carriers of dual GSTT1/GSTM1 null genotypes had significantly higher MN frequency than positive/positive, positive/null and null/positive. Smokers and women >45 years old with GSTT1 null genotype and GSTT1null/GSTM1null genotypes have statistically higher MN frequency than positive counterparts. Results suggest possible influence of dual null genotypes of GSTT1/GSTM1 on the baseline MN frequency, as well influence on the level of MN in smokers and in women age >45 years. GSTT1 null genotype may have the potential to influence the baseline MN frequency in PBLs of smokers, as well as in women age >45 years. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 41010

  5. Characterizing workers participating in a worksite wellness health screening program using blood pressure control, self-monitoring, medication adherence, depression, and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breaux-Shropshire, Tonya Lynn; Whitt, Lauren; Griffin, Russell L; Shropshire, Angele Trenese; Calhoun, David A

    2014-07-01

    Blood pressure control remains a serious public health issue because hypertension is the most common risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Effective management of hypertension often requires lifestyle modification and medication adherence. The objective of this study was to identify the prevalence of blood pressure control, medication adherence, self-monitoring of blood pressure, depression, and exercise among workers with access to health resources. Faculty and staff (N = 484) from a university and health care institution in the southeastern United States participated in biometric and questionnaire screening. The researchers used initial screening data from this worksite wellness program to describe baseline blood pressure control (< 140/90 mm Hg), self-monitoring of blood pressure, medication adherence, depression, and exercise. Overall, 63% of the workers' blood pressure was controlled; however, 23% of the sample had been prescribed antihypertensive medication to control their blood pressure. Thirty percent of the sample reported practicing blood pressure self-monitoring, 72.2% reported that they exercised, and 22% reported feeling down and depressed. More than half (64.9%) who used prescribed antihypertensive medication reported adherence to these medications. PMID:25000548

  6. Blood pressure and blood viscosity are not correlated in normal healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salazar Vázquez BY

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Beatriz Y Salazar Vázquez1,21Departamento de Medicina Experimental, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Hospital General de México, México D.F., México; 2Department of Bioengineering, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA Abstract: The relationship between blood viscosity, hematocrit (Hct, and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP was studied in a healthy population of 91 men and 66 women with an average age of 30.6 ± 8.0 years, from the city of Victoria de Durango (1800 m elevation. In women and men, Hct values were 42.4% ± 2.9% and 47.2% ± 2.3%, blood viscosities were 4.5 ± 0.7 and 6.1 ± 1.0 cP, and MAP was 83.0 ± 6.8 and 88.0 ± 6.1 mmHg, respectively. The correlation between blood viscosity and Hct was linear and positive (r2 = 0.48 and identical to that of previous studies reported in the literature when men and women are taken as a single group. Separating the data by gender yielded positive, linear correlations (r2 = 0.18 and 0.10, respectively with identical slopes, however blood viscosity for men was 1.2 cP greater than in women (P = 0.02. MAP and blood viscosity (and Hct were not statistically associated when men and women were analyzed separately and were weakly positively correlated (r2 = 0.08, P < 0.02 when treated as a group. The present results suggest that studies that show a positive correlation between MAP and blood viscosity (and Hct do not differentiate data according to gender, or involve populations that do not compensate for increased blood viscosity and potentially increased shear stress.Keywords: blood pressure, blood viscosity, hematocrit, gender, endothelial dysfunction

  7. Blood pressure change in Africa: case study from Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, J S; Owoaje, E E; Rotimi, C N; Cooper, R S

    1999-08-01

    Studies of migrants and comparisons of rural versus urban communities are potentially informative study designs because they allow examination of genetically similar population subgroups exposed to diverse environmental conditions. These designs have been underused in Africa, where recent urbanization has created many situations in which nearby communities of common ethnicity and culture live under different social and economic circumstances. The International Study of Hypertension in Blacks (ICSHIB) conducted several overlapping surveys in Nigeria starting in 1993. These surveys were based primarily in the rural village of Idere and the urban community of Idikan, both inhabited by people defined ethnically as Oyo Yoruba and sharing a common language and culture. Survey teams collected standardized blood pressure and anthropometric measurements, and some study participants provided 24-hr urine samples and questionnaire data on psychosocial stress and social integration. Rural and urban groups differed substantially in blood pressure and related characteristics. Age-adjusted prevalence of hypertension (blood pressure > or = 140/90 mm Hg) for participants aged 25 years and older was 7-8% in Idere and 24-27% in Idikan. The distributions of overweight, sodium/potassium ratio, perceived stress, and social integration scores all contributed to lower hypertension risk in Idere. The effects and interactions of these identified risk factors remain poorly understood, even among people who share a common genetic background, similar diet, and many other lifestyle features. Nonetheless, the rural-urban distinction is sufficiently salient to engender a nearly threefold difference in hypertension prevalence. This disparity in disease prevalence demonstrates the sensitivity of human beings to the environmental determinants of disease and provides a sobering example of the difficulty in identifying subtle genetic effects, which can be easily overwhelmed by small differences in

  8. Azilsartan/chlorthalidone combination therapy for blood pressure control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng JW

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Judy WM ChengMassachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USABackground: Edarbyclor® is a combined angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB and thiazide-like diuretic (azilsartan and chlorthalidone, and was approved on December 20, 2011 by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA for hypertension management.Objective: To review the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, safety, tolerability, and role of azilsartan plus chlorthalidone for hypertension management.Methods: Peer-reviewed clinical trials, review articles, and relevant treatment guidelines, were identified from the databases MEDLINE and Current Contents (both 1966 to February 15, 2013, inclusive using search terms “azilsartan”, “chlorthalidone”, “pharmacology”, “pharmacokinetics”, “pharmacodynamics”, “pharmacoeconomics”, and “cost-effectiveness”. The FDA website, as well as manufacturer prescribing information, was also reviewed to identify other relevant information.Results: Azilsartan is a new ARB with high affinity for the angiotensin 1 receptor, approved by the FDA for hypertension management. Unlike other ARBs, azilsartan has no clinical data supporting improvement in cardiovascular outcomes, and is not approved for indications other than hypertension, which a select few other ARBs may be used for (eg, diabetic nephropathy and heart failure. Chlorthalidone is a longer acting thiazide-like diuretic that has been demonstrated to improve cardiovascular outcomes. Combination treatment with azilsartan/chlorthalidone is effective for reducing blood pressure. Compared to olmesartan/hydrochlorothiazide and azilsartan/hydrochlorothiazide combinations, azilsartan/chlorthalidone appears to be more efficacious for reducing blood pressure.Conclusions: Azilsartan/chlorthalidone can be considered an antihypertensive therapy option in patients for whom combination therapy is required (blood pressure >20 mmHg systolic or

  9. Family Adaptability and Cohesion and High Blood Pressure among Urban African American women

    OpenAIRE

    Brittain, Kelly; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y.; Wu, Chun Yi

    2010-01-01

    African American women are at greater risk for complications related to high blood pressure. This study examined relationships between high blood pressure, pulse pressure, body mass index, family adaptability, family cohesion and social support among 146 Urban African American women. Significant relationships were found between family adaptability and systolic blood pressure (p = .03) and between adaptability and pulse pressure (p ≤ .01). Based on study results, practitioners should routinely...

  10. Non Invasive Measurement of Systolic Blood Pressure in Rats: A Simple Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Pauline; Avadhany, Sandhya T.; K.N. Maruthy

    2011-01-01

    Background: Non invasive, simple and economical instrument to measure blood pressure in r365-ats is important in cardiovascular research. Methods: Systolic blood pressure measuring instrument was fabricated using a tail cuff, photoplethysmograph, pressure transducer and PC with Biopac Software for recording. Tail cuff was used to occlude the tail artery, photoplethysmograph picked the blood flow pulses in the rat tail and the pressure transducer measured the cuff pressure and converted it int...

  11. Body mass index and blood pressure measurement during pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hogan, Jennifer L

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: The accurate measurement of blood pressure requires the use of a large cuff in subjects with a high mid-arm circumference (MAC). This prospective study examined the need for a large cuff during pregnancy and its correlation with maternal obesity. METHODS: Maternal body mass index (BMI), fat mass, and MAC were measured. RESULTS: Of 179 women studied, 15.6% were obese. With a BMI of level 1 obesity, 44% needed a large cuff and with a BMI of level 2 obesity 100% needed a large cuff. CONCLUSION: All women booking for antenatal care should have their MAC measured to avoid the overdiagnosis of pregnancy hypertension.

  12. Blood Pressure Dynamics in Hypertensive Subjects During Tilt Table Test

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurák, Pavel; Halámek, Josef; Plachý, M.; Fráňa, P.; Leinveber, P.; Souček, M.; Kára, T.

    Danvers: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., 2007, s. 939-942. ISBN 978-1-4244-0787-3. ISSN 1557-170X. [Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society /29./. Lyon (FR), 23.08.2007-26.08.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA102/05/0402 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : blood pressure * tilt table test * vessel compliance * hypertension Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery

  13. Arterial blood oxygen saturation during blood pressure cuff-induced hypoperfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyriacou, P A [School of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences, City University, London EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom); Shafqat, K [School of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences, City University, London EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom); Pal, S K [St Andrew' s Centre for Plastic Surgery and Burns, Broomfield Hospital, Chelmsford, CM1 7ET (United Kingdom)

    2007-10-15

    Pulse oximetry has been one of the most significant technological advances in clinical monitoring in the last two decades. Pulse oximetry is a non-invasive photometric technique that provides information about the arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO{sub 2}) and heart rate, and has widespread clinical applications. When peripheral perfusion is poor, as in states of hypovolaemia, hypothermia and vasoconstriction, oxygenation readings become unreliable or cease. The problem arises because conventional pulse oximetry sensors must be attached to the most peripheral parts of the body, such as finger, ear or toe, where pulsatile flow is most easily compromised. Pulse oximeters estimate arterial oxygen saturation by shining light at two different wavelengths, red and infrared, through vascular tissue. In this method the ac pulsatile photoplethysmographic (PPG) signal associated with cardiac contraction is assumed to be attributable solely to the arterial blood component. The amplitudes of the red and infrared ac PPG signals are sensitive to changes in arterial oxygen saturation because of differences in the light absorption of oxygenated and deoxygenated haemoglobin at these two wavelengths. From the ratios of these amplitudes, and the corresponding dc photoplethysmographic components, arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO{sub 2}) is estimated. Hence, the technique of pulse oximetry relies on the presence of adequate peripheral arterial pulsations, which are detected as photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pressure cuff-induced hypoperfusion on photoplethysmographic signals and arterial blood oxygen saturation using a custom made finger blood oxygen saturation PPG/SpO{sub 2} sensor and a commercial finger pulse oximeter. Blood oxygen saturation values from the custom oxygen saturation sensor and a commercial finger oxygen saturation sensor were recorded from 14 healthy volunteers at various induced brachial pressures

  14. Arterial blood oxygen saturation during blood pressure cuff-induced hypoperfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriacou, P. A.; Shafqat, K.; Pal, S. K.

    2007-10-01

    Pulse oximetry has been one of the most significant technological advances in clinical monitoring in the last two decades. Pulse oximetry is a non-invasive photometric technique that provides information about the arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) and heart rate, and has widespread clinical applications. When peripheral perfusion is poor, as in states of hypovolaemia, hypothermia and vasoconstriction, oxygenation readings become unreliable or cease. The problem arises because conventional pulse oximetry sensors must be attached to the most peripheral parts of the body, such as finger, ear or toe, where pulsatile flow is most easily compromised. Pulse oximeters estimate arterial oxygen saturation by shining light at two different wavelengths, red and infrared, through vascular tissue. In this method the ac pulsatile photoplethysmographic (PPG) signal associated with cardiac contraction is assumed to be attributable solely to the arterial blood component. The amplitudes of the red and infrared ac PPG signals are sensitive to changes in arterial oxygen saturation because of differences in the light absorption of oxygenated and deoxygenated haemoglobin at these two wavelengths. From the ratios of these amplitudes, and the corresponding dc photoplethysmographic components, arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) is estimated. Hence, the technique of pulse oximetry relies on the presence of adequate peripheral arterial pulsations, which are detected as photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pressure cuff-induced hypoperfusion on photoplethysmographic signals and arterial blood oxygen saturation using a custom made finger blood oxygen saturation PPG/SpO2 sensor and a commercial finger pulse oximeter. Blood oxygen saturation values from the custom oxygen saturation sensor and a commercial finger oxygen saturation sensor were recorded from 14 healthy volunteers at various induced brachial pressures. Both pulse

  15. Arterial blood oxygen saturation during blood pressure cuff-induced hypoperfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulse oximetry has been one of the most significant technological advances in clinical monitoring in the last two decades. Pulse oximetry is a non-invasive photometric technique that provides information about the arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) and heart rate, and has widespread clinical applications. When peripheral perfusion is poor, as in states of hypovolaemia, hypothermia and vasoconstriction, oxygenation readings become unreliable or cease. The problem arises because conventional pulse oximetry sensors must be attached to the most peripheral parts of the body, such as finger, ear or toe, where pulsatile flow is most easily compromised. Pulse oximeters estimate arterial oxygen saturation by shining light at two different wavelengths, red and infrared, through vascular tissue. In this method the ac pulsatile photoplethysmographic (PPG) signal associated with cardiac contraction is assumed to be attributable solely to the arterial blood component. The amplitudes of the red and infrared ac PPG signals are sensitive to changes in arterial oxygen saturation because of differences in the light absorption of oxygenated and deoxygenated haemoglobin at these two wavelengths. From the ratios of these amplitudes, and the corresponding dc photoplethysmographic components, arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) is estimated. Hence, the technique of pulse oximetry relies on the presence of adequate peripheral arterial pulsations, which are detected as photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pressure cuff-induced hypoperfusion on photoplethysmographic signals and arterial blood oxygen saturation using a custom made finger blood oxygen saturation PPG/SpO2 sensor and a commercial finger pulse oximeter. Blood oxygen saturation values from the custom oxygen saturation sensor and a commercial finger oxygen saturation sensor were recorded from 14 healthy volunteers at various induced brachial pressures. Both pulse

  16. Flavonoid-rich beverage effects on lipid profile and blood pressure in diabetic patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Reza; Amani; Sara; Moazen; Hajieh; Shahbazian; Kambiz; Ahmadi; Mohammad; Taha; Jalali

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To compare freeze-dried strawberry(FDS) beverage and strawberry-flavored drink effects on lipid profile and blood pressure in type 2 diabetic(T2D) patients.METHODS: In a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial, 36 subjects with T2D(23 females; mean ± SE age: 51.57 ± 10 years) were randomly divided into two groups. Participants consumed two cups of either pure FDS beverage(each cup containing 25 g freeze-dried strawberry powder equivalent to one serving of fresh strawberries; intervention group) or an iso-caloric drinkwith strawberry flavoring(similar to the FDS drink in fiber content and color; placebo group) daily for 6 wk. Anthropometric measurements, 3 d, 24 h dietary recall, and fasting blood samples were collected at baseline and at weeks 6 intervention. After lying down and relaxing for approximately 10 min, each participant’s blood pressure was recorded in triplicate with 5 min intervals; recordings were made at baseline and the trial end-point. Each participant’s lipid profile was assessed before and after intervention.RESULTS: Assessment at the weeks 6 intervention showed a significant reduction from baseline in total cholesterol levels and total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C) ratio in the intervention group(179.01 ± 31.86 to 165.9 ± 32.4 mg/L; P = 0.00 and 3.9 ± 0.88 to 3.6 ± 0.082 mg/L; P = 0.00 respectively), but the change was not significantly different between the two groups(P = 0.07, P = 0.29 respectively). Systolic blood pressure levels were significantly reduced from baseline in both the FDS and placebo drink groups(129.95 ± 14.9 to 114.3 ± 27.5 mm Hg; P = 0.02 and 127.6 ± 15.6 to 122.9 ± 14.47 mm Hg; P = 0.00 respectively), but the reduction was not significantly different between the two groups. Diastolic blood pressure was significantly reduced post-intervention in the FDS drink group compared to placebo group(78.7 ± 7.2 vs 84.4 ± 5.8; P = 0.01), the reduction was also significant within the

  17. Assessing the influence of mechanical ventilation on blood gases and blood pressure in rattlesnakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Mads F.; Buchanan, Rasmus; Jensen, Heidi M.;

    2015-01-01

    minute(-1) resulted in normocapnia (14.2 ± 2.7 mmHg [1.9 ± 0.4 kPa]), while 15 breaths minute(-1) caused marked hypocapnia (8.2 ± 2.5 mmHg [1.1 ± 0.3 kPa]). Following recovery, blood gases of the four groups were similar from 2 hours. Anesthesia, independent of ventilation was associated......OBJECTIVE: To characterize the impact of mechanical positive pressure ventilation on heart rate (HR), arterial blood pressure, blood gases, lactate, glucose, sodium, potassium and calcium concentrations in rattlesnakes during anesthesia and the subsequent recovery period. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective...... ventilation at a tidal volume of 30 mL kg(-1) at 1 breath every 90 seconds, 5 breaths minute(-1) , or 15 breaths minute(-1) . Arterial blood was collected from indwelling catheters at 30, 40, and 60 minutes and 2, 6, and 24 hours following induction of anesthesia and analyzed for pH, PaO2 , PaCO2...

  18. Correlation Between Fasting Blood Sugar and Resting Blood Pressure in Teachers Residing in Shiraz, Iran 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Aghasadeghi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coronary Artery Disease (CAD is the major cause ofmorbidity and mortality. The knowledge about correlation between the differentrisk factors of CAD provides valuable information for prediction and preventionof the disease in a specific population.The aim of this study was to evaluatethe correlation between fasting blood sugar (FBS and resting blood pressure inteachers residing in Shiraz, IranMethods: A total of 3115 teachers from different educational centers ofShiraz, Iran were interviewed in this cross sectional study. The data obtainedcomprised demographic information including age, sex, and history ofhypertension (HTN, diabetes mellitus (DM, and current use of medications.Other parameters measured were height, weight, fasting blood sugar (FBS andresting blood pressure (BP as well as calculating the body mass index (BMI.Results: Out of all the cases studied, undiagnosed and/or untreated casesof diabetes and hypertension were 1.5% and 15.2% respectively. FBS was higher inthe elderly and in cases with higher BMI, but without any significant differencein relation to sex. The prevalence of HTN was higher in males, in older casesand in those with higher BMI. A significant relationship was observed betweenFBS and resting BP in hypertensive and prehypertensive groups (P < 0.001 ascompared to normotensive subjects.Conclusion: There was a significant correlation between FBS and restingBP in hypertensive and prehypertensive teachers residing in Shiraz,Iran. Theprevalence of neglected DM and HTN in this population was high enough to warrantregular screening.

  19. Effects of nitrendipine on blood pressure and blood ciclosporin A level in patients with posttransplant hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copur, M S; Tasdemir, I; Turgan, C; Yasavul, U; Caglar, S

    1989-01-01

    In order to evaluate the antihypertensive effectiveness and interaction with ciclosporin A (CS-A) nitrendipine, a dihydropyridine derivative calcium entry blocking agent, was used in 16 (13 men, 3 women) hypertensive renal posttransplant patients followed by the Nephrology Department of Hacettepe University Hospital. The patients did not receive any antihypertensive drug for a 7-day period. They were then given 20 mg/day nitrendipine for 3 weeks. At the end of this period, mean (+/- SE) supine blood pressure fell from 163/108 +/- 3.6/1.87 to 141/87 +/- 3.8/2.2 mm Hg (p less than 0.01), while the heart rate was unchanged. 14 of 16 patients achieved full control of blood pressure levels with 20 mg/day nitrendipine, and only 2 patients needed a higher dosage of 30 mg/day (20 + 10 mg). After 3 weeks of treatment no significant variations in blood chemistry or renal functional parameters were noticed. There was also no difference between blood CS-A levels before and after treatment with nitrendipine (218.06 +/- 33 vs. 222.68 +/- 26 ng/ml, p greater than 0.05). We conclude that short-term therapy with nitrendipine in renal post-transplant patients does not appear to be harmful and longer term studies are needed to fully evaluate safety and efficacy of this drug. Because it influences neither blood chemistry nor renal functional parameters and blood CS-A level, it may be preferable to other calcium channel blocking agents in this group of patients. PMID:2662047

  20. Transmitted ultrasound pressure variation in micro blood vessel phantoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Shengping; Kruse, Dustin E; Ferrara, Katherine W

    2008-06-01

    Silica, cellulose and polymethylmethacrylate tubes with inner diameters of ten to a few hundred microns are commonly used as blood vessel phantoms in in vitro studies of microbubble or nanodroplet behavior during insonation. However, a detailed investigation of the ultrasonic fields within these micro-tubes has not yet been performed. This work provides a theoretical analysis of the ultrasonic fields within micro-tubes. Numerical results show that for the same tube material, the interaction between the micro-tube and megaHertz-frequency ultrasound may vary drastically with incident frequency, tube diameter and wall thickness. For 10 MHz ultrasonic insonation of a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) tube with an inner diameter of 195 microm and an outer diameter of 260 microm, the peak pressure within the tube can be up to 300% of incident pressure amplitude. However, using 1 MHz ultrasound and a silica tube with an inner diameter of 12 microm and an outer diameter of 50 microm, the peak pressure within the tube is only 12% of the incident pressure amplitude and correspondingly, the spatial-average-time-average intensity within the tube is only 1% of the incident intensity. PMID:18395962

  1. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of a forearm blood pressure measurement method in severe obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, Marie-Ève; Cloutier, Lyne; Poirier, Paul

    2015-04-01

    For blood pressure assessment, it has been reported that forearm blood pressure measurement appears to be as valid as an upper-arm blood pressure measurement method in individuals with severe obesity when correlated to the intra-arterial method, considered as the gold standard. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values for the presence of systemic hypertension in 25 severely obese patients from 352 blood pressure measurements were calculated. The sensitivity (0.98) and the positive predictive value (0.93) for hypertension on forearm blood pressure measurements are excellent, indicating that the forearm approach is a promising alternative to systemic hypertension diagnosis in severe obesity. PMID:25757220

  2. Take your blood pressure to heart! Screening programme 13-17 October

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    The silent health threat, high blood pressure, can only be detected by regular blood pressure tests. In Switzerland, one in four people suffer from high blood pressure without being aware of it.  A screening programme will take place from 13 to 17 October 2014 at the Medical Service Infirmary, Building 57, from 9 a.m. to 12 p.m. and from 1.30 to 4.30 p.m. Blood pressure tests, advice and general information on high blood pressure will be available to everyone working at CERN. Medical Service

  3. Ambulatory blood pressure and urinary albumin excretion in clinically healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Peter Vilhelm; Jensen, J S; Borch-Johnsen, K;

    1998-01-01

    A slightly elevated urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) is a predictor of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The mechanism is unknown, but moderate office blood pressure elevation has been demonstrated as part of a clustering of known atherosclerotic risk factors in subjects with elevated...... increased urinary loss of albumin could not be solely related to the higher blood pressure. In conclusion, apparently healthy subjects with elevated UAER had slightly but significantly higher 24-hour systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels in addition to increased blood pressure loads but normal...... circadian variation. The demonstrated differences in blood pressure may offer a partial explanation for the association between elevated urinary albumin excretion and atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk....

  4. The Effects of a 10-Week Water Aerobic Exercise on the Resting Blood Pressure in Patients with Essential Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahani

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose To investigate the effects of a 10-week water aerobic exercise on the resting blood pressure in patients with stage 1 or 2 hypertension referring to Tehran University Clinics. Methods Forty men with stage 1 or 2 essential hypertension were assigned to two groups of intervention [n = 12; aged 48.33±10.74 years (mean±SD] and control [n = 28; aged 46.96±11.58 years (mean±SD]. Subjects in the intervention group participated in a supervised 10-week water aerobic training program of 55 min sessions, 3 days per week on alternate days, while those in the control group were not involved in any regular training program during this period. Blood pressure of the participants was recorded and compared at the beginning and at the end of the study (48 hours after the last training session. Results Exercise lowered systolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure by 11.71 (95% confidence interval: 5.07 to 18.35 and 5.90 (95% confidence interval: 1.17 to 10.63 mm Hg respectively. The lowering effect of exercise on diastolic blood pressure was neither statistically significant nor clinically important (0.55 mm Hg; P. value = 0.8. There was no significant effect of age, baseline body mass index and stage of hypertension on the exercise-induced changes in blood pressure. Conclusion A 10-week course of water aerobic exercise markedly reduced the systolic and mean arterial blood pressure of patients with essential hypertension and is especially recommended for the obese and the elderly who have orthopedic problems or bronchospasm.

  5. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in solid organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh Prasad, G V

    2012-01-01

    Solid organ transplant recipients are at an increased risk for hypertension and cardiovascular disease. To assist in their management, 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) has become increasingly used in both clinical research settings and practice. ABPM has been used to better define post-transplant hypertension incidence and prevalence in different solid organ transplantation populations. ABPM provides additional information on cardiovascular risk beyond that obtained by clinic-based readings, based on its ability to assess 24-h blood pressure (BP) load, detect nocturnal non-dipping, and predict target organ damage. It has provided some assurance about the safety of living kidney donation. Information from ABPM can be used to guide living kidney donor selection, and because ABPM-related data has been correlated with clinically important kidney and heart transplant recipient outcomes, it may be a valuable adjunct in their management. Despite these advantages, barriers to wider use of ABPM include expense, clinical inertia in hypertension management, lack of prospective clinical trial data, and clinical problems that compete with hypertension for attention such as acute or chronic allograft dysfunction. The increasing amount of research and clinical use for ABPM may allow for closer assessment and intervention to help address the increased cardiovascular risk faced by many solid organ transplant recipients. PMID:22220828

  6. Peripheral and Central Effects of Melatonin on Blood Pressure Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Pechanova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The pineal hormone, melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine, shows potent receptor-dependent and -independent actions, which participate in blood pressure regulation. The antihypertensive effect of melatonin was demonstrated in experimental and clinical hypertension. Receptor-dependent effects are mediated predominantly through MT1 and MT2 G-protein coupled receptors. The pleiotropic receptor-independent effects of melatonin with a possible impact on blood pressure involve the reactive oxygen species (ROS scavenging nature, activation and over-expression of several antioxidant enzymes or their protection from oxidative damage and the ability to increase the efficiency of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Besides the interaction with the vascular system, this indolamine may exert part of its antihypertensive action through its interaction with the central nervous system (CNS. The imbalance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic vegetative system is an important pathophysiological disorder and therapeutic target in hypertension. Melatonin is protective in CNS on several different levels: It reduces free radical burden, improves endothelial dysfunction, reduces inflammation and shifts the balance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic system in favor of the parasympathetic system. The increased level of serum melatonin observed in some types of hypertension may be a counter-regulatory adaptive mechanism against the sympathetic overstimulation. Since melatonin acts favorably on different levels of hypertension, including organ protection and with minimal side effects, it could become regularly involved in the struggle against this widespread cardiovascular pathology.

  7. Salt intake in children and its consequences on blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lava, Sebastiano A G; Bianchetti, Mario G; Simonetti, Giacomo D

    2015-09-01

    Sodium is the most abundant extracellular cation and therefore pivotal in determining fluid balance. At the beginning of life, a positive sodium balance is needed to grow. Newborns and preterm infants tend to lose sodium via their kidneys and therefore need adequate sodium intake. Among older children and adults, however, excessive salt intake leads to volume expansion and arterial hypertension. Children who are overweight, born preterm, or small for gestational age and African American children are at increased risk of developing high blood pressure due to a high salt intake because they are more likely to be salt sensitive. In the developed world, salt intake is generally above the recommended intake also among children. Although a positive sodium balance is needed for growth during the first year of life, in older children, a sodium-poor diet seems to have the same cardiovascular protective effects as among adults. This is relevant, since: (1) a blood pressure tracking phenomenon was recognized; (2) the development of taste preferences is important during childhood; and (3) salt intake is often associated with the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (predisposing children to weight gain). PMID:25127918

  8. Blood Pressure Mobile Monitoring for Pregnant Woman Based Android System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supriyanti, Retno; Erfayanto, Uji; Ramadani, Yogi; Murdyantoro, Eko; Widodo, Haris B.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, at least 18,000 women die every year in Indonesia due to pregnancy or childbirth. It means that every half hour a woman dies due to pregnancy or childbirth. As a result, every year 36,000 children became orphans. The high maternal mortality rate was put Indonesia on top in ASEAN. The main causes of maternal mortality are high-risk pregnancy. Mothers who have diseases like high blood pressure, pre-eclampsia, diabetes, hyperthyroidism, and already over 40 years old and infectious diseases such as rubella, hepatitis and HIV can be factors that lead to high-risk pregnancy. This paper will discuss the development of a blood pressure monitoring device that is suitable for pregnant women. It is based on convenience for pregnant women to get the equipment that is flexible with her presence. Results indicate that the equipment is in use daily support for pregnant women therefore, one of the causes of maternal mortality can be detected earlier.

  9. Recurrence of lacunar stroke and blood pressure control. Kanagawa REALITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information on the background and status of recurrence realities of lacunar infarction (LI) is still limited. We investigated 856 patients started to treat from 1997 to 2000, in whom a diagnosis of first-ever symptomatic LI was detected by MRI were enrolled, excluding possible cardiogenic embolic stroke or branch atheromatous disease using medical records in 14 institutions in Kanagawa, retrospectively. Recurrent cerebrovascular events (CVEs) occurred in 96 patients (11%) and the annual incidence was 4.8%. The mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) just before recurrence of CVEs was significantly higher than the mean SBP at final follow-up in recurrence-free patients (P<0.001). As the result of multivariate analysis performed after adjusting for following risk factors, antiplatelet therapy, a high SBP just before the end of follow-up, the presence of diabetes mellitus, and a modified Rankin scale≥5 were independent prognostic factors related to recurrence of CVEs. The recurrence rates of CVEs or LI were decreased by lowering of the SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) just before the end of follow-up. Our analyses provide no evidence of a J-curve relationship between BP level and a recurrence after first-ever symptomatic LI. (author)

  10. Impact of sugar-sweetened beverages on blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Aaqib Habib; Akram, Yasir; Shetty, Suchith; Malik, Senada Senda; Yanchou Njike, Valentine

    2014-05-01

    The impact of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) on blood pressure (BP) has been debated, with some evidence suggesting that their increased intake is related to higher risk of developing hypertension. We conducted a systematic review exploring the relation between consumption of SSB and BP. A comprehensive search in 5 electronic databases along with a bibliography search was performed. The keywords "sugar sweetened beverages," "sugary drinks," "added sugars," "blood pressure," and "hypertension" were indexed in all combinations. Studies were included that reported the effects of intake of SSBs on BP. We excluded studies with <100 subjects and those involving subjects aged <12 years. Of 605 potentially relevant studies, a total of 12 studies (409,707 participants) met our inclusion criteria; 6 were cross sectional studies, whereas the rest were prospective cohort studies. All 12 studies showed positive relation between increased SSB intake and hypertension; however, statistical significance was reported in 10 of these studies. Of the 12 studies, 5 reported an increase in mean BP whereas 7 reported an increase in the incidence of high BP. In conclusion, our systematic review shows that the consumption of SSBs is associated with higher BP, leading to increased incidence of hypertension. Restriction on SSB consumption should be incorporated in the recommendations of lifestyle modifications for the treatment of hypertension. Interventions to reduce intake of SSBs should be an integral part of public health strategy to reduce the incidence of hypertension. PMID:24630785

  11. The Role of Metabolic Surgery on Blood Pressure Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavon, Carlos Aurelio; Drager, Luciano F; Bortolotto, Luiz A; Amodeo, Celso; Ikeoka, Dimas; Berwanger, Otávio; Cohen, Ricardo Vitor

    2016-08-01

    Obesity and hypertension are growing epidemics in the modern world. Lifestyle changes and medical treatment for obesity have disappointing long-term results and albeit drugs for hypertension are usually very effective, the necessity of multiple pills and frequent side effects make the adherence to treatment a huge challenge for healthcare systems. Bariatric/metabolic surgery is a very effective treatment and an exponential number of studies have been showing its positive impact beyond weight loss, mainly on type 2 diabetes. There is also growing evidence suggesting that bariatric/metabolic surgery is associated with reduced incidence of cardiovascular events, but the impact on hypertension and other components of metabolic syndrome usually derive from trials' secondary end points. Taking this limitation in mind, bariatric/metabolic surgery action on blood pressure is reaching a significant proportion of hypertension resolution or improvement. In this review, we discussed the current evidence on the impact of bariatric/metabolic surgery on blood pressure control and pointed out perspectives in this research area. PMID:27324638

  12. Early drop in systolic blood pressure and worsening renal function in acute heart failure : renal results of Pre-RELAX-AHF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voors, Adriaan A.; Davison, Beth A.; Felker, G. Michael; Ponikowski, Piotr; Unemori, Elaine; Cotter, Gadi; Teerlink, John R.; Greenberg, Barry H.; Filippatos, Gerasimos; Teichman, Sam L.; Metra, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Aims We aimed to determine the relation between baseline systolic blood pressure (SBP), change in SBP, and worsening renal function (WRF) in acute heart failure (AHF) patients enrolled in the Pre-RELAX-AHF trial. Methods and results The Pre-RELAX-AHF study enrolled 234 patients within 16 h of admiss

  13. Outcome-Driven Thresholds for Home Blood Pressure Measurement International Database of HOme blood pressure in relation to Cardiovascular Outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Niiranen, T. J.; Asayama, K.; Thijs, L; Johansson, J K; Ohkubo, T.; Kikuya, M; Boggia, J.; Hozawa, A.; Sandoya, E.; Stergiou, G. S.; Tsuji, I; Jula, A. M.; Imai, Y.; Staessen, J. A.

    2013-01-01

    The lack of outcome-driven operational thresholds limits the clinical application of home blood pressure (BP) measurement. Our objective was to determine an outcome-driven reference frame for home BP measurement. We measured home and clinic BP in 6470 participants (mean age, 59.3 years; 56.9% women; 22.4% on antihypertensive treatment) recruited in Ohasama, Japan (n=2520); Montevideo, Uruguay (n=399); Tsurugaya, Japan (n=811); Didima, Greece (n=665); and nationwide in Finland (n=2075). In mul...

  14. Study of blood pressure and blood sugar levels in adolescence and comparison with body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Borade

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Worldwide prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing and its consequences prompted the WHO to designate obesity as a global epidemic in 2002. Being overweight is a risk factor for significant illness, especially diabetes and hypertension in adult life. Objectives : To study the blood pressure and blood sugar levels and lifestyle parameters in adolescence and comparison with body mass index. Materials and Methods: In a prospective case control study, out of the 1000 screened, a total of 200 adolescents were considered out of which 100 were with high body mass index (BMI and the other 100 were with normal BMI. Height, weight, BMI, waist hip ratio (WHR, blood pressure (BP, BSL, and associated risk factors like physical activity, fast food consumption, and computer/television watching were measured and screened. Results and Observations: 109 (54.5% males and 91 (45.5% females were included. Maximum number [90 (45%] of adolescents screened were in the age group of 17-19 years, while 54 (27% and 56 (28% adolescents were in the age group of 10-13 years and 14-16 years, respectively. According to CDC charts 2000, prevalence of overweight was 24% which was double when compared to WHO charts 2007. There was significant difference in prevalence of obesity; according to CDC chart it was 26%, whereas according to WHO chart it was 39%. The difference in blood pressures between cases and controls as per both CDC and WHO charts was found to be statistically significant (P 0.05 with BMI. Conclusion: The adolescents seem to have become heavier owing to environmental influences on growth patterns. So, a consideration should be given to shift the cut-offs for overweight and obesity to higher BMI percentiles if recent growth charts are to be followed. Adolescents with a BMI above the 95 >th percentile (obese are most likely to have obesity-related health risks.

  15. Nursing Education in High Blood Pressure Control. Report of the Task Force on the Role of Nursing in High Blood Pressure Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Institutes of Health (DHEW), Bethesda, MD. High Blood Pressure Information Center.

    This curriculum guide on high blood pressure (hypertension) for nursing educators has five sections: (1) Introduction and Objectives provides information regarding the establishment and objectives of the National Task Force on the Role of Nursing in High Blood Pressure Control and briefly discusses nursing's role in hypertension control; (2) Goals…

  16. Relationship between blood pressure and cerebral blood flow during supine cycling: influence of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirl, Jonathan D; Hoffman, Keegan; Tzeng, Yu-Chieh; Hansen, Alex; Ainslie, Philip N

    2016-03-01

    The cerebral pressure-flow relationship can be quantified as a high-pass filter, where slow oscillations are buffered (TFA) findings (altered phase or intact gain). This study aimed to determine whether these previous findings accurately represent this relationship. Both younger (20-30 yr; n = 10) and older (62-72 yr; n = 9) adults were examined. To enhance the signal-to-noise ratio, large oscillations in blood pressure (via oscillatory lower body negative pressure; OLBNP) were induced during steady-state moderate intensity supine exercise (∼45-50% of heart rate reserve). Beat-to-beat blood pressure, cerebral blood velocity, and end-tidal Pco2 were monitored. Very low frequency (0.02-0.07 Hz) and low frequency (0.07-0.20 Hz) range spontaneous data were quantified. Driven OLBNP point estimates were sampled at 0.05 and 0.10 Hz. The OLBNP maneuvers augmented coherence to >0.97 at 0.05 Hz and >0.98 at 0.10 Hz in both age groups. The OLBNP protocol conclusively revealed the cerebrovascular system functions as a high-pass filter during exercise throughout aging. It was also discovered that the older adults had elevations (+71%) in normalized gain (+0.46 ± 0.36%/%: 0.05 Hz) and reductions (-34%) in phase (-0.24 ± 0.22 radian: 0.10 Hz). There were also age-related phase differences between resting and exercise conditions. It is speculated that these age-related changes in the TFA metrics are mediated by alterations in vasoactive factors, sympathetic tone, or the mechanical buffering of the compliance vessels. PMID:26586907

  17. Blood pressure, sodium intake, insulin resistance, and urinary nitrate excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchini, F S; DoNascimento, C; Reaven, G M; Yip, J W; Ni, X P; Humphreys, M H

    1999-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationships among various humoral factors thought to be involved in the regulation of blood pressure during high NaCl intake. Nineteen healthy subjects underwent sequential 5-day periods ingesting a low-sodium (25 mmol/d) or high-sodium (200 mmol/d) diet. Insulin resistance was assessed by the steady-state plasma glucose concentration at the end of a 3-hour insulin suppression test. Insulin resistance correlated inversely with natriuresis (P=0.04) and directly with increase in weight (P=0.03). The increase in mean arterial pressure associated with the high-sodium diet correlated directly with the gain in weight (P<0.05) and inversely with the increase in urinary nitrate excretion (P<0.0001). In a multiple regression model, more than 2/3 of the variance in mean arterial pressure was accounted for by the gain in weight and change in urinary nitrate excretion. The steady-state plasma glucose concentrations obtained with the 2 diets were similar, indicating that insulin resistance was unaffected by sodium intake. During high sodium intake, plasma renin activity and aldosterone decreased and plasma atrial natriuretic peptide increased; these changes did not correlate with the change in mean arterial pressure, insulin resistance, or change in urinary nitrate excretion. To the extent that urinary nitrate excretion reflects activity of the endogenous nitric oxide system, these results suggest that the salt sensitivity of mean arterial pressure may be related to blunted generation of endogenous nitric oxide. The results also demonstrate that insulin-resistant individuals have an impaired natriuretic response to high sodium intake. PMID:10205239

  18. Blood pressure changes after renal denervation at 10 European expert centers

    OpenAIRE

    Persu, A.; Jin, Y.; Azizi, M; Baelen, M; Völz, S; Elvan, A.; Severino, F; Rosa, J; Adiyaman, A; Fadl Elmula, F E; Taylor, A.; Pechère-Bertschi, A; Wuerzner, G; Jokhaji, F; Kahan, T

    2013-01-01

    We did a subject-level meta-analysis of the changes (Δ) in blood pressure (BP) observed 3 and 6 months after renal denervation (RDN) at 10 European centers. Recruited patients (n=109; 46.8% women; mean age 58.2 years) had essential hypertension confirmed by ambulatory BP. From baseline to 6 months, treatment score declined slightly from 4.7 to 4.4 drugs per day. Systolic/diastolic BP fell by 17.6/7.1 mm Hg for office BP, and by 5.9/3.5, 6.2/3.4, and 4.4/2.5 mm Hg for 24-h, daytime and nightti...

  19. Pressure and heat transfer investigation of a modified NASP baseline configuration at M = 6. [National Aero-Space Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reubush, David E.; Omar, M. Emmett

    1989-01-01

    A cooperative NASA Langley-Boeing investigation was conducted in the Langley eight-Foot High Temperature Tunnel to obtain hypersonic pressure and heat transfer data. In this investigation a large scale (1/20), modified version of the National Aero-Space Plane configuration known as the 'Government Baseline' was tested at a nominal Mach number of 6; at two Reynolds numbers (0.6 and 1.6 million per foot); and at angles of attack from about 0 to 15 deg. There were several purposes for the investigation: to provide a windward and leeward pressure and heat transfer data base for a realistic configuration for verification of computational methods, to provide these data for a large-scale model, and to provide these data for true temperature conditions because of concern about data from low temperature tunnels.

  20. Associations among environmental supports, physical activity, and blood pressure in African-American adults in the PATH trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulon, Sandra M; Wilson, Dawn K; Egan, Brent M

    2013-06-01

    High blood pressure disproportionately affects African-American adults and is a leading cause of stroke and heart attack. Engaging in recommended levels of physical activity reduces blood pressure, and social and physical environmental supports for physical activity may increase engagement in physical activity. Based on social cognitive theory within a bioecological framework, the present study tested hypotheses that perceived peer social support for physical activity and neighborhood walkability would be positively associated with physical activity, and that physical activity would mediate their relation with blood pressure. Baseline data were collected with 434 African-American adults in underserved communities (low income, high crime) participating in the Positive Action for Today's Health (PATH) trial. Perceived peer social support for physical activity and neighborhood walkability were measured with validated surveys. Physical activity was assessed with 7-day accelerometry (moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, min/day) and with a 4-week recall of walking. Three blood pressure assessments were taken by trained staff using standard protocols, with values from the second and third assessments averaged. The sample was predominantly female (63%), overweight (mean body mass index = 30.9, SD = 8.4), and had slightly elevated blood pressures with a mean systolic blood pressure of 132.4 (SD = 17.9) and a mean diastolic blood pressure of 81.4 (SD = 11.0). Results demonstrated that peer social support for physical activity (B = 2.43, p = .02) and neighborhood walkability (B = 2.40, p = .046) were significantly related to average daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Neighborhood walkability was also significantly associated with self-reported average daily walking (B = 8.86, p = .02). Physical activity did not mediate their relation with blood pressure and no significant direct effects of these variables on blood pressure were found. The positive influence of

  1. [Effect of the type of diabetes on the prognosis over 4 years of arterial blood pressure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayaudon, H; Dupuy, O; Belmejdoub, G; Bredin, C; Rivetta, F; Avaro, J F; Bauduceau, B

    2000-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse over a four years period the blood pressure rise according to the type of diabetes. The study population was composed of 79 diabetic patients (type 1: 36; type 2: 43). An evaluation of diabetes mellitus is undertaken at a four years interval (A0, A4). In the same time, blood pressure level is assessed using clinic BP and 24 h-ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). Type 2 diabetic patients were older than type 1 (60.9 +/- 9.5 vs 43.5 +/- 12.5 years, p < 0.001). The two groups did not differ in body mass index, tobacco consumption, diabetes duration, glycemic control and serum creatinine. Hypertension was more frequent in type 2 diabetes (46.5 vs 11.1%, p < 0.01) and baseline systolic but not diastolic casual BP was significantly higher in type 2 diabetes compared with type 1 (142 +/- 14 vs 132 +/- 15 mmHg, p < 0.01). Between A0 and A4 the increase in type 1 and type 2 diabetics casual BP was not significant. Type 1 diabetic patients 24 h-ABPM did not differ from significant manner at A0 and at A4. Type 2 diabetic subjects had an increase in 24 h and night time SBP (24 h: 123 +/- 14 at A0 vs 130 +/- 16 mmHg at A4, p < 0.05; night time: 116 +/- 15 at A0 vs 125 +/- 17 mmHg at A4, p < 0.02). This reduction in nocturnal BP fall was not associated with an increase in diabetes complications frequency. BP evolution seems to be closely linked to the type of diabetes and to patients age. In this study, frequency of diabetes complications does not increase when BP level is lower than references values for ABPM. PMID:10989751

  2. Splanchnic vasoconstriction in hyperthermic man - Role of falling blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowell, L. B.; Profant, G. R.; Wyss, C.; Detry, J.-M. R.

    1971-01-01

    Results of a study in which six supine resting subjects, wearing water-perfused suits, had body skin temperature controlled at 35 C for 30 min (control period), then rapidly increased to 40.5 C for 43 to 50 min (heating period) in a two-part experiment. In the first part of the experiment arterial mean pressure (MP) in three men was increased back to, or above control levels at the 30 to 35th min of heating by total occlusion of both legs for 8 to 10 min. Splanchnic blood flow (SBF), which had fallen from 1.4 to 0.9 L/min at occlusion, rose only 0.05 L/min during occlusion. Splanchnic vascular resistance (SVR) rose throughout heating and occlusion. In the second part of the experiment (three men) SBF fell despite a spontaneous rise in MP and aortic pulse pressure prior to leg occlusion. Cardiac output (CO) was measured just before, during and after occlusion. Occlusion raised MP 10 to 15 mm Hg and reduced CO only slightly. It is concluded that falling MP or aortic pulse pressure are not major causes of the splanchnic vasoconstriction in response to heating man.

  3. Relationship between blood pressure levels and adherence to medication in patients with chronic heart failure: How come?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Mohammadi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Mahsa Mohammadi1, Inger Ekman2, Maria Schaufelberger31Department of Medicine; 2Institute of Health and Care Sciences; 3Departments of Emergency and Cardiovascular Medicine, The Sahlgrenska Academy at Goteborg University, Goteborg, Sweden.Objective: To investigate whether change in objective signs during up-titration of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE-inhibitors in patients with chronic heart failure affect perception of information about medicines and subjective activities such as self-care.Methods: Consecutive patients referred for up-titration of ACE-inhibitors were included. Patients were given the Satisfaction with Information about Medicines Scale and the European Heart Failure Self-Care Behaviour Scale at their first visit and when the target dose was reached. Blood pressure, pulse and s-creatinine were measured at each visit.Results: Relationships were found between change in systolic (r = 0.224, p = 0.044 and diastolic (r = 0.361, p = 0.001 blood pressure and change in self-care scores and were also observed at baseline (r = 0.324, 0.398, p = 0.001, 0.000 and follow-up (r = 0.317, 0.253, p = 0.004, 0.022. Diastolic blood pressure correlated with the “potential problem of medication” score (r = −0.263, p = 0.007.Conclusion: Patients with a more advanced disease usually have a lower blood pressure. Hence, the relationship between blood pressure and self-care scores might indicate that patients are more motivated to adhere to prescriptions the more advanced the stage of their disease.Keywords: blood pressure, chronic heart failure, adherence, scales

  4. Target Blood Pressure in Patients with Diabetes: Asian Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sungha; Kario, Kazuomi; Park, Chang Gyu; Huang, Qi Fang; Cheng, Hao Min; Hoshide, Satoshi; Wang, Ji Guang; Chen, Chen Huan

    2016-11-01

    Recently, the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) blood pressure (BP) trial enrolled 4733 participants with type 2 diabetes and randomized them to a target systolic blood pressure (SBP) of less than 120 mm Hg or 140 mm Hg. Despite the significant difference in the achieved SBP, there was no significant difference in the incidence of primary outcomes. Based on this evidence, the target SBP for diabetics has been revised in the majority of major guidelines. However, there is a steeper association between SBP and stroke in Asians than other ethnicities, with stroke being the leading cause of cardiovascular mortality. This suggests that target BP in the Asian region should be tailored towards prevention of stroke. In the ACCORD study, the intensive BP treatment was associated with significant reductions in both total stroke and non-fatal stroke. The results from the ACCORD study are supported by a subgroup analysis from the ONgoing Telmisartan Alone and in combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial (ONTARGET) study, which showed that, in diabetic patients, the risk of stroke continues to decrease to a SBP value of 115 mm Hg with no evidence of J curve. As diabetes is highly associated with underlying coronary artery disease, there is a justified concern for adverse effects resulting from too much lowering of BP. In a post hoc analysis of 6400 diabetic subjects enrolled in the International Verapamil SR-Trandolapril (INVEST) study, subjects with SBP of less than 110 mm Hg were associated with a significant increase in all-cause mortality. In the ONTARGET study, at any levels of achieved SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP) below 67 mm Hg was associated with increased risk for cardiovascular outcomes. As such, a prudent approach would be to target a SBP of 130-140 mm Hg and DBP of above 60 mm Hg in diabetics with coronary artery disease. In conclusion, hypertension, in association with diabetes, has been found to be significantly correlated

  5. A simple model of cerebral blood flow dependence on arterial blood pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Gersten, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    It is shown that the dependence of the cerebral blood flow (CBF) on mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) can be described with a simple model having the following assumptions. Below certain MABP (denoted as MABP1) there are no autoregulatory or feedback mechanisms influencing CBF. Between MABP1 and MABP2 (MABP at which breakthrough accurs) there is a linear (on MABP) dependent feedback with a sloap depending very much on the individual considered. The classical autoregulation model with a plateau in between MABP1 and MABP2 is a particular case of this model. The model describes well the experiments performed on dogs (Harper 1966), for which the individual feedback sloap parameter varied to great extent, indicating the importance of mesurments on individuals against averaged mesurments (or measurments on diffent individuals) which superficially support the classical autoregulation. New effect of decreased CBF, while increasing MABP, was observed.

  6. Habitual intake of fruit juice predicts central blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pase, Matthew P; Grima, Natalie; Cockerell, Robyn; Pipingas, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Despite a common perception that fruit juice is healthy, fruit juice contains high amounts of naturally occurring sugar without the fibre content of the whole fruit. Frequent fruit juice consumption may therefore contribute to excessive sugar consumption typical of the Western society. Although excess sugar intake is associated with high blood pressure (BP), the association between habitual fruit juice consumption and BP is unclear. The present study investigated the association of fruit juice consumption with brachial and central (aortic) BP in 160 community dwelling adults. Habitual fruit juice consumption was measured using a 12 month dietary recall questionnaire. On the same day, brachial BP was measured and central (aortic) BP was estimated through radial artery applanation. Frequency of fruit juice consumption was classified as rare, occasional or daily. Those who consumed fruit juice daily, versus rarely or occasionally, had significantly higher central systolic BP (F (2, 134) = 6.09, p <0.01), central pulse pressure (F (2, 134) = 4.16, p <0.05), central augmentation pressure (F (2, 134) = 5.98, p <0.01) and central augmentation index (F (2, 134) = 3.29, p <0.05) as well as lower pulse pressure amplification (F (2, 134) = 4.36, p <0.05). There were no differences in brachial BP. Central systolic BP was 3-4 mmHg higher for those who consumed fruit juice daily rather than rarely or occasionally. In conclusion, more frequent fruit juice consumption was associated with higher central BPs. PMID:25278432

  7. PERFUSION PRESSURE AND RENAL BLOOD FLOW: THEIR RELATIONSHIP AND DIFFERENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos G. Musso, MD. PhD.1,2, Manuel Vilas, MD.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The concepts of renal perfusion pressure (RPP and renal blood flow (RBF are usually confused, but although they are intimately related, they are not strictly the same. RPP originates from the minute cardiac volume and is, therefore, the cause of RBF, which generates glomerular filtration and as a consequence, also induces the urinary flow. On the other hand, whereas RPP can be subject to fluctuations, the same happens to RBF though at a much lower level due to the existence of physiological mechanisms, such as self-regulation of the flow and tubule-glomerular feed-back. We conclude that there is a dependence of the RBF in relation with RPP, with the former acting as the final responsible of the glomerular filtration.

  8. Timing of blood pressure lowering in acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcel, Cheryl; Anderson, Craig S

    2015-08-01

    Whether there are any benefits without harm from early lowering of blood pressure (BP) in the setting of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) has been a longstanding controversy in medicine. Whilst most studies have consistently shown associations between elevated BP, particularly systolic BP, and poor outcome, some also report that very low BP (systolic <130 mmHg) and large reductions in systolic BP are associated with poor outcomes in AIS. However, despite these associations, the observed U- or J-shaped relationship between BP and outcome in these patients may not be causally related. Patients with more severe strokes may have a more prominent autonomic response and later lower BP as their condition worsens, often pre-terminally. Fortunately, substantial progress has been made in recent years with new evidence arising from well-conducted randomized trials. This review outlines new evidence and recommendations for clinical practice over BP management in AIS. PMID:26041479

  9. Hibiscus sabdariffa extract lowers blood pressure and improves endothelial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joven, Jorge; March, Isabel; Espinel, Eugenia; Fernández-Arroyo, Salvador; Rodríguez-Gallego, Esther; Aragonès, Gerard; Beltrán-Debón, Raúl; Alonso-Villaverde, Carlos; Rios, Lidia; Martin-Paredero, Vicente; Menendez, Javier A; Micol, Vicente; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Camps, Jordi

    2014-06-01

    Polyphenols from Hibiscus sabdariffa calices were administered to patients with metabolic syndrome (125 mg/kg/day for 4 wk, n = 31) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (125 or 60 mg/kg in a single dose or daily for 1 wk, n = 8 for each experimental group). The H. sabdariffa extract improved metabolism, displayed potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, and significantly reduced blood pressure in both humans and rats. Diuresis and inhibition of the angiotensin I-converting enzyme were found to be less important mechanisms than those related to the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and endothelium-dependent effects to explain the beneficial actions. Notably, polyphenols induced a favorable endothelial response that should be considered in the management of metabolic cardiovascular risks. PMID:24668839

  10. Why some adult Canadians do not have blood pressure measured.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amankwah, Ernest; Campbell, Norman R C; Maxwell, Colleen; Onysko, Jay; Quan, Hude

    2007-12-01

    Regular blood pressure (BP) measurements are required to identify people with hypertension and to optimally manage their cardiovascular risk. Analyses of data from the 2000-2001 Canadian Community Health Survey showed that most adult Canadians have had a BP assessment in the previous 2 years and few have never had one. Large numbers of persons without BP recordings were observed, however, among persons who were younger, were male, who did not have either a regular doctor or physician contact in the previous year, who were recent immigrants or visible minorities (nonwhite and non-Aboriginal), and who spoke neither French nor English. Common reasons reported for not having a BP assessment included believing it was not necessary and simply not getting around to it. Education programs targeting those at risk as well as more convenient BP screening may improve awareness and testing. PMID:18046100

  11. Barriers to and strategies for effective blood pressure control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, David

    2005-01-01

    There are major differences between the current knowledge of the treatment of cardiac conditions derived from evidence-based medicine and the widespread application of this knowledge. This is particularly true in the treatment of hypertension. Hypertension is the most common chronic cardiovascular condition, affecting more than 50 million Americans and approximately 1 billion individuals worldwide. However, many hypertensive patients are not receiving treatment, and of those that are, many are not adequately controlled. There is evidence that there are methods to improve blood pressure control and improve compliance with expert recommendations for the treatment of hypertension. These methods range from local initiatives such as academic detailing to national performance measures as have been developed by the US Department of Veterans Affairs. A challenge for the future will be to identify and broadly apply these and other programs to improve the quality and efficiency of hypertensive treatment. PMID:17319093

  12. Relationship of endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene polymorphism with blood pressure,lipid profile and blood glucose level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    To study the relationship of the polymorphism of endothelial nitric oxide synthase(eNOS)gene and blood pressure,lipid profiles and blood glucose level.By using PCR-RFLP,the eNOS Glu298Asp gene polymorphism was detected in 184 patients with essential hypertension and 196 matched healthy individuals with normal blood pressure.Taking into account eNOS Glu298Asp polymorphisms,the relationship of blood pressure with triglycerides(TG),total cholesterol(TC),high density lipoprotein(HDL),low density lipoprotein(LDL)and blood glucose level was analyzed.The distribution of eNOS Glu298Asp polymorphism had no significant difference between different blood pressure groups and gender groups,but there was a significant difference between different age groups,diastolic blood pressure groups or BMI groups(P<0.05).Asp/Asp genotype significantly increased the risk of hypertension in individuals with serum TC above 5.4 mmol/L(P=0.03,OR=2.65).eNOSGlu298Asp polymorphism and serum lipid could synergistically modulate the blood pressure,eNOS Asp/Asp genotype could significantly increase the risk of hypertension in individuals with serum TC over 5.4 mmol/L,eNOS Glu298Asp in combination with serum TC could be used to predict the risk of hypertension.

  13. Exaggerated Exercise Blood Pressure Response and Future Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzemos, Nikolaos; Lim, Pitt O; Mackenzie, Isla S; MacDonald, Thomas M

    2015-11-01

    Exaggerated blood pressure (BP) response to exercise predicts future hypertension. However, there is considerable lack of understanding regarding the mechanism of how this abnormal response is generated, and how it relates to the future establishment of cardiovascular disease. The authors studied 82 healthy male volunteers without cardiovascular risk factors. The participants were categorized into two age-matched groups depending on their exercise systolic BP (ExSBP) rise after 3 minutes of exercise using a submaximal step test: exaggerated ExSBP group (hyper-responders [peak SBP ≥ 180 mm Hg]) and low ExSBP responder group (hypo-responders [peak SBP Forearm venous occlusion plethysmography and intra-arterial infusions of acetylcholine (ACh), N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), sodium nitroprusside (SNP), and norepinephrine (NE) were used to assess vascular reactivity. Proximal aortic compliance was assessed with ultrasound, and neurohormonal blood sampling was performed at rest and during peak exercise. The hyper-responder group exhibited a significantly lower increase in forearm blood flow (FBF) with ACh compared with the hypo-responder group (ΔFBF 215% [14] vs 332.3% [28], mean [standard error of the mean]; P<.001), as well as decreased proximal aortic compliance. The vasoconstrictive response to L-NMMA was significantly impaired in the hyper-responder group in comparison to the hypo-responder group (ΔFBF -40.2% [1.6] vs -50.2% [2.6]; P<.05). In contrast, the vascular response to SNP and NE were comparable in both groups. Peak exercise plasma angiotensin II levels were significantly higher in the hyper-responder group (31 [1] vs 23 [2] pg/mL, P=.01). An exaggerated BP response to exercise is related to endothelial dysfunction, decreased proximal aortic compliance, and increased exercise-related neurohormonal activation, the constellation of which may explain future cardiovascular disease. PMID:26235814

  14. A relation between blood pressure and stiffness of joints and skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uiterwaal, CSPM; Grobbee, DE; Sakkers, RJB; Helders, PJM; Bank, RA; Engelbert, RHH

    2003-01-01

    Background. Blood pressure, particularly pulse pressure, is associated with arterial wall stiffness, but little is known about its relation to stiffness of other parts of the body. We examined the extent to which blood pressure levels in young healthy children are related to stiffness of various tis

  15. Blood pressure control, drug therapy, and kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Gabriel; Greene, Tom; Agodoa, Lawrence Y; Cheek, DeAnna; Junco, George; Dowie, Donna; Lash, James; Lipkowitz, Michael; Miller, Edgar R; Ojo, Akinlou; Sika, Mohammed; Wilkening, Beth; Toto, Robert D

    2005-07-01

    The African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension examined the effect on renal function decline of 2 blood pressure (BP) goals (low mean arterial pressure [MAP] disease (ESRD), death, or GFR decline by 50% or 25 mL/min per 1.73 m2. This report examines the effect of the BP intervention separately in the 3 drug groups. The BP effect was similar among the drug groups for either GFR slope or the main clinical composite. However, the BP effect differed significantly among the drug groups for the composite of ESRD or death (P=0.035) and ESRD alone (P=0.021). Higher event rates for amlodipine patients assigned to the usual BP goal (0.087 per patient-year for ESRD or death and 0.064 per patient-year for ESRD) were seen compared with the remaining groups of the factorial design (range, 0.041 to 0.050 for ESRD or death; and range, 0.027 to 0.036 for ESRD). The low BP goal was associated with reduced risk of ESRD or death (risk reduction 51%; 95% confidence interval, 13% to 73%) and ESRD (54%; 8% to 77%) for amlodipine patients, but not for patients assigned to the other drug groups. These secondary analyses suggest a benefit of the low BP goal among patients assigned to amlodipine, but they must be interpreted cautiously. PMID:15897360

  16. Blood Pressure Monitoring for the Anesthesiologist: A Practical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Karsten; Esper, Stephen A; Thiele, Robert H

    2016-06-01

    Periodic, quantitative measurement of blood pressure (BP) in humans, predating the era of evidence-based medicine by over a century, is a component of the American Society of Anesthesiologists standards for basic anesthetic monitoring and is a staple of anesthetic management worldwide. Adherence to traditional BP parameters complicates the ability of investigators to determine whether particular BP ranges confer any clinical benefits. The BP waveform is a complex amalgamation of both antegrade and retrograde (reflected) pressure waves and is affected by vascular compliance, distance from the left ventricle, and the 3D structure of the vascular tree. Although oscillometry is the standard method of measuring BP semicontinuously in anesthetized patients and is the primary form of measurement in >80% of general anesthetics, major shortcomings of oscillometry are its poor performance at the extremes and its lack of information concerning BP waveform. Although arterial catheterization remains the gold standard for accurate BP measurement, 2 classes of devices have been developed to noninvasively measure the BP waveform continuously, including tonometric and volume clamp devices. Described in terms of a feedback loop, control of BP requires measurement, an algorithm (usually human), and an intervention. This narrative review article discusses the details of BP measurement and the advantages and disadvantages of both noninvasive and invasive monitoring, as well as the principles and algorithms associated with each technique. PMID:27195632

  17. Nordic school meals improve blood pressure, plasma triglyceride and insulin despite increasing waist circumference: the opus school meal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, C. T.; Dalskov, S.; Laursen, R. P.;

    physical activity confirmed these results. Conclusions Nutritionally balanced school meals improved blood pressure, plasma triglyceride and glucose homeostasis in 8-11-year-old children, despite small increases in BMI and waist circumference. OPUS (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish...... MetS-markers in 8-11-year-olds at nine Danish schools without existing school meal programmes. Methods In a cluster-randomized cross-over design we assigned 834 third and fourth graders to school lunch and snacks based on the New Nordic Diet and usual home-packed lunch (control) for 3 months. We...... measured blood pressure, lipid profile, insulin resistance based on the Homeostasis Model of Assessment (HOMA-IR), anthropometry and body composition at baseline, month 3 and 6. Results Seventy-six% of the children were normalweight; 10% were underweight and 14% overweight/obese. The NND school meals did...

  18. The Influence of Proximity to City Parks on Blood Pressure in Early Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Grazuleviciene

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of proximity to city parks on blood pressure categories during the first trimester of pregnancy. This cross-sectional study included 3,416 female residents of the city of Kaunas, Lithuania, who were enrolled in the FP7 PHENOTYPE project study. The women were classified into four blood pressure categories: optimal, normal, high-normal blood pressure, and hypertension. Multinomial regression models were used to investigate the association between three women’s groups with respect to the residence distances from city parks (300, >300–1,000, and >1,000 m and four blood pressure categories. When using the optimal blood pressure as the reference group, the crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR for normal blood pressure and for high-normal blood pressure proved to be statistically significantly higher after the inclusion of the selected covariates into the regression analysis. The probability of normal blood pressure increased by 9%, and that of high-normal blood pressure—by 14% for every 300 m increase in the distance to green spaces. The findings of this study suggest a beneficial impact of nearby city parks on blood pressure amongst 20- to 45-year-old women. This relationship has important implications for the prevention of hypertension and the reduction of hypertension-related morbidity.

  19. Evaluation of the cerebrovascular pressure reactivity index using non-invasive finapres arterial blood pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pressure reactivity index (PRx) can be assessed in patients with continuous monitoring of arterial blood pressure (ABP) and intracranial pressure (ICP) as a moving correlation coefficient between slow fluctuations of these two signals within a low frequency bandwidth. The study aimed to investigate whether the invasive ABP monitoring can be replaced with non-invasive measurement of ABP using a Finapres plethysmograph (fABP) to calculate the fPRx. There is a well-defined group of patients, suffering from hydrocephalus and undergoing CSF pressure monitoring, which may benefit from such a measurement. 41 simultaneous day-by-day monitoring of ICP, ABP and fABP were performed for about 30 min in 10 head injury patients. A Bland–Altman assessment for agreement was used to compare PRx and fPRx calculations. Performance metrics and the McNemary test were used to determine whether fPRx is sensitive enough to distinguish between functioning and disturbed cerebrovascular pressure reactivity. The fPRx correlated with PRx (RSpearman = 0.92, p < 0.001; bias = −0.04; lower and upper limits of agreement: −0.26 and 0.17, respectively). The fPRx distinguished between active and passive reactivity in more than 89% cases. The fPRx can be used with care for assessment of cerebrovascular reactivity in patients for whom invasive ABP measurement is not feasible. The fPRx is sensitive enough to distinguish between functional and deranged reactivity

  20. Evaluation of the cerebrovascular pressure reactivity index using non-invasive finapres arterial blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprowicz, M; Schmidt, E; Kim, D J; Haubrich, C; Czosnyka, Z; Smielewski, P; Czosnyka, M

    2010-09-01

    A pressure reactivity index (PRx) can be assessed in patients with continuous monitoring of arterial blood pressure (ABP) and intracranial pressure (ICP) as a moving correlation coefficient between slow fluctuations of these two signals within a low frequency bandwidth. The study aimed to investigate whether the invasive ABP monitoring can be replaced with non-invasive measurement of ABP using a Finapres plethysmograph (fABP) to calculate the fPRx. There is a well-defined group of patients, suffering from hydrocephalus and undergoing CSF pressure monitoring, which may benefit from such a measurement. 41 simultaneous day-by-day monitoring of ICP, ABP and fABP were performed for about 30 min in 10 head injury patients. A Bland-Altman assessment for agreement was used to compare PRx and fPRx calculations. Performance metrics and the McNemary test were used to determine whether fPRx is sensitive enough to distinguish between functioning and disturbed cerebrovascular pressure reactivity. The fPRx correlated with PRx (R(Spearman) = 0.92, p agreement: -0.26 and 0.17, respectively). The fPRx distinguished between active and passive reactivity in more than 89% cases. The fPRx can be used with care for assessment of cerebrovascular reactivity in patients for whom invasive ABP measurement is not feasible. The fPRx is sensitive enough to distinguish between functional and deranged reactivity. PMID:20664157

  1. Effects of dapagliflozin on blood pressure in hypertensive diabetic patients on renin-angiotensin system blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Michael A; Mansfield, Traci A; Alessi, Federica; Iqbal, Nayyar; Parikh, Shamik; Ptaszynska, Agata

    2016-04-01

    Hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Dapagliflozin improves glycemic control and systolic blood pressure (SBP) in T2DM patients. This double-blind phase III study evaluated the effects of dapagliflozin on glycemic control and blood pressure in patients with inadequately controlled T2DM and hypertension, despite ongoing therapy with a renin-angiotensin system blocker. Patients were randomized to receive dapagliflozin 10 mg (n = 302) or placebo (n = 311) once daily for 12 weeks. Endpoints were change from baseline to week 12 in seated SBP and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c); longitudinal repeated-measures analysis was performed. Additional endpoints included other hemodynamic measures, serum uric acid, fasting plasma glucose, body weight, blood lipids and heart rate. After 12 weeks, dapagliflozin-treated versus placebo-treated patients showed significant reductions in HbA1c (-0.6% vs -0.1%, p < 0.0001), mean seated SBP (-10.4 vs -7.3 mmHg, p = 0.0010) and mean 24 h ambulatory SBP (-9.6 vs -6.7 mmHg, p = 0.0043). Dapagliflozin also reduced body weight compared with placebo (-1.0 vs -0.3 kg). Dapagliflozin was well tolerated, with adverse events consistent with previous studies. Dapagliflozin improved glycemic control, and reduced SBP as well as body weight in patients with poorly controlled T2DM and hypertension. PMID:26623980

  2. Less than half of citizens, aged 55-64 years, had a normal blood pressure in a Danish population. prevalence of hypertension using telemedically transmitted home blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann-Petersen, N; Lauritzen, T; Bech, J N;

    2015-01-01

    55-64 years had an abnormally high HBP, and one fourth had a wrong diagnosis, either white coat or masked hypertension. Improvements in diagnosing and treating hypertension seem necessary, and telemedically transmitted home blood pressure measurements might by an effective procedure to reach the goal.......OBJECTIVE: Hypertension is the most important modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. It is debated which method is optimal for diagnosing and treatment monitoring. Home blood pressure (HBP) is prognostically superior to office blood pressure (OBP) and similar to ambulatory BP. We wanted...

  3. HUB city steps: a 6-month lifestyle intervention improves blood pressure among a primarily African-American community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoellner, Jamie; Connell, Carol; Madson, Michael B; Thomson, Jessica L; Landry, Alicia S; Fontenot Molaison, Elaine; Blakely Reed, Vickie; Yadrick, Kathleen

    2014-04-01

    The effectiveness of community-based participatory research (CBPR) efforts to address the disproportionate burden of hypertension among African Americans remains largely untested. The objective of this 6-month, noncontrolled, pre-/post-experimental intervention was to examine the effectiveness of a CBPR intervention in achieving improvements in blood pressure, anthropometric measures, biological measures, and diet. Conducted in 2010, this multicomponent lifestyle intervention included motivational enhancement, social support provided by peer coaches, pedometer diary self-monitoring, and monthly nutrition and physical activity education sessions. Of 269 enrolled participants, 94% were African American and 85% were female. Statistical analysis included generalized linear mixed models using maximum likelihood estimation. From baseline to 6 months, blood pressure decreased significantly: mean (± standard deviation) systolic blood pressure decreased from 126.0 ± 19.1 to 119.6 ± 15.8 mm Hg, P=0.0002; mean diastolic blood pressure decreased from 83.2 ± 12.3 to 78.6 ± 11.1 mm Hg, P<0.0001). Sugar intake also decreased significantly as compared with baseline (by approximately 3 tsp; P<0.0001). Time differences were not apparent for any other measures. Results from this study suggest that CBPR efforts are a viable and effective strategy for implementing nonpharmacologic, multicomponent, lifestyle interventions that can help address the persistent racial and ethnic disparities in hypertension treatment and control. Outcome findings help fill gaps in the literature for effectively translating lifestyle interventions to reach and engage African-American communities to reduce the burden of hypertension. PMID:24534602

  4. Non-invasive pulmonary blood flow analysis and blood pressure mapping derived from 4D flow MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delles, Michael; Rengier, Fabian; Azad, Yoo-Jin; Bodenstedt, Sebastian; von Tengg-Kobligk, Hendrik; Ley, Sebastian; Unterhinninghofen, Roland; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Dillmann, Rüdiger

    2015-03-01

    In diagnostics and therapy control of cardiovascular diseases, detailed knowledge about the patient-specific behavior of blood flow and pressure can be essential. The only method capable of measuring complete time-resolved three-dimensional vector fields of the blood flow velocities is velocity-encoded magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), often denoted as 4D flow MRI. Furthermore, relative pressure maps can be computed from this data source, as presented by different groups in recent years. Hence, analysis of blood flow and pressure using 4D flow MRI can be a valuable technique in management of cardiovascular diseases. In order to perform these tasks, all necessary steps in the corresponding process chain can be carried out in our in-house developed software framework MEDIFRAME. In this article, we apply MEDIFRAME for a study of hemodynamics in the pulmonary arteries of five healthy volunteers. The study included measuring vector fields of blood flow velocities by phase-contrast MRI and subsequently computing relative blood pressure maps. We visualized blood flow by streamline depictions and computed characteristic values for the left and the right pulmonary artery (LPA and RPA). In all volunteers, we observed a lower amount of blood flow in the LPA compared to the RPA. Furthermore, we visualized blood pressure maps using volume rendering and generated graphs of pressure differences between the LPA, the RPA and the main pulmonary artery. In most volunteers, blood pressure was increased near to the bifurcation and in the proximal LPA, leading to higher average pressure values in the LPA compared to the RPA.

  5. Supine exercise restores arterial blood pressure and skin blood flow despite dehydration and hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Alonso, J; Mora-Rodríguez, R; Coyle, E F

    1999-08-01

    We determined whether the deleterious effects of dehydration and hyperthermia on cardiovascular function during upright exercise were attenuated by elevating central blood volume with supine exercise. Seven trained men [maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2 max)) 4.7 +/- 0. 4 l/min (mean +/- SE)] cycled for 30 min in the heat (35 degrees C) in the upright and in the supine positions (VO(2) 2.93 +/- 0.27 l/min) while maintaining euhydration by fluid ingestion or while being dehydrated by 5% of body weight after 2 h of upright exercise. When subjects were euhydrated, esophageal temperature (T(es)) was 37. 8-38.0 degrees C in both body postures. Dehydration caused equal hyperthermia during both upright and supine exercise (T(es) = 38. 7-38.8 degrees C). During upright exercise, dehydration lowered stroke volume (SV), cardiac output, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and cutaneous vascular conductance and increased heart rate and plasma catecholamines [30 +/- 6 ml, 3.0 +/- 0.7 l/min, 6 +/- 2 mmHg, 22 +/- 8%, 14 +/- 2 beats/min, and 50-96%, respectively; all P < 0. 05]. In contrast, during supine exercise, dehydration did not cause significant alterations in MAP, cutaneous vascular conductance, or plasma catecholamines. Furthermore, supine versus upright exercise attenuated the increases in heart rate (7 +/- 2 vs. 9 +/- 1%) and the reductions in SV (13 +/- 4 vs. 21 +/- 3%) and cardiac output (8 +/- 3 vs. 14 +/- 3%) (all P < 0.05). These results suggest that the decline in cutaneous vascular conductance and the increase in plasma norepinephrine concentration, independent of hyperthermia, are associated with a reduction in central blood volume and a lower arterial blood pressure. PMID:10444482

  6. Cuff-Free Blood Pressure Estimation Using Pulse Transit Time and Heart Rate

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ruiping; Jia, Wenyan; Mao, Zhi-Hong; Sclabassi, Robert J.; Sun, Mingui

    2014-01-01

    It has been reported that the pulse transit time (PTT), the interval between the peak of the R-wave in electrocardiogram (ECG) and the fingertip photoplethysmogram (PPG), is related to arterial stiffness, and can be used to estimate the systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). This phenomenon has been used as the basis to design portable systems for continuously cuff-less blood pressure measurement, benefiting numerous people with heart conditions. However, the PTT-ba...

  7. Experimental Feasibility Study of Estimation of the Normalized Central Blood Pressure Waveform from Radial Photoplethysmogram

    OpenAIRE

    Sohani, Vahid; Ali, M. A. Mohd.; Chellappan, Kalaivani; Beng, Gan Kok

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility of a novel system to reliably estimate the normalized central blood pressure (CBPN) from the radial photoplethysmogram (PPG) is investigated. Right-wrist radial blood pressure and left-wrist PPG were simultaneously recorded in five different days. An industry-standard applanation tonometer was employed for recording radial blood pressure. The CBP waveform was amplitude-normalized to determine CBPN. A total of fifteen second-order autoregressive models with exogenous input were...

  8. Community Characteristics are Associated with Blood Pressure Levels in a Racially Integrated Community

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel, L. J.; Thorpe, R. J.; Bower, K. M.; LaVeist, T. A.

    2015-01-01

    Community problems have been associated with higher, and community resources and social cohesion with lower, blood pressure. However, prior studies have not accounted for potential confounding by residential racial segregation. This study tested associations between community characteristics and blood pressure levels and prevalent hypertension in a racially integrated community. The Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities Study measured blood pressure in residents of two contig...

  9. Take your blood pressure to heart! Screening programme 24-27 March

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    In Switzerland, one person in four suffers from high blood pressure without knowing it. This silent killer can only be detected by carrying out regular blood pressure tests.     Following our last campaign in October 2014, 30% of participants were found to have previously undetected hypertension. This year, the nurses of the Medical Service are once again organising a blood pressure screening programme. See the flyer for more information. CERN Medical Service

  10. Heat stress attenuates the increase in arterial blood pressure during the cold pressor test

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Jian; Shibasaki, Manabu; Low, David A.; Keller, David M.; Davis, Scott L.; Crandall, Craig G.

    2010-01-01

    The mechanisms by which heat stress impairs the control of blood pressure leading to compromised orthostatic tolerance are not thoroughly understood. A possible mechanism may be an attenuated blood pressure response to a given increase in sympathetic activity. This study tested the hypothesis that whole body heating attenuates the blood pressure response to a non-baroreflex-mediated sympathoexcitatory stimulus. Ten healthy subjects were instrumented for the measurement of integrated muscle sy...

  11. Proportion and characteristics of patients who measure their blood pressure at home: Nationwide survey in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petek-Šter Marija

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Home blood pressure monitoring has several advantages over blood pressure monitoring at a physician's office, and has become a useful instrument in the management of hypertension. Objective. To explore the rate and characteristics of patients who measure their blood pressure at home. Methods. A sample of 2,752 patients with diagnosis of essential arterial hypertension was selected from 12596 consecutive office visitors. Data of 2,639 patients was appropriate for analysis. The data concerning home blood pressure measurement and patients' characteristics were obtained from the patients' case histories. Results 1,835 (69.5% out of 2,639 patients measured their blood pressure at home. 1,284 (70.0% of home blood pressure patients had their own blood pressure measurement device. There were some important differences between these two groups: home blood pressure patients were more frequently male, of younger age, better educated, from urban area, mostly non-smokers, more likely to have diabetes mellitus and ischemic heart disease and had higher number of co-morbidities and were on other drugs beside antihypertensive medication. Using the logistic regression analysis we found that the most powerful predictors of home blood pressure monitoring had higher education level than primary school OR=1.80 (95% CI 1.37-2.37, non-smoking OR=2.16 (95% CI 1.40-3.33 and having a physician in urban area OR=1.32 (95% CI 1.02-1.71. Conclusion. Home blood pressure monitoring is popular in Slovenia. Patients who measured blood pressure at home were different from patients who did not. Younger age, higher education, non-smoking, having a physician in urban area and longer duration of hypertension were predictors of home blood pressure monitoring.

  12. Results of ambulatory arterial blood pressure monitoring in children with obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Faruk Öktem

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The relationship between obesity and essential hypertension is well known. In this study, we aimed to evaluate ambulatory arterial blood pressure monitoring of obese and non-obese children who had similar demographic characteristics.Materials and methods: Seventy one children and adolescents (n=39 obesity, n=32 controls) were studied. Blood pressure of the children were measured by 24 hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring device.Results: Obese children had significantly higher...

  13. Dietary zinc intake is inversely associated with systolic blood pressure in young obese women

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jihye

    2013-01-01

    Zinc may participate in blood pressure regulation and in the pathogenesis of hypertension. The study examined the relationship between zinc status and blood pressure in obese Korean women. Forty obese women (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m2) aged 19-28 years participated in this study. Zinc intake was estimated from one 24 hour recall and 2-day diet records. Serum and urinary zinc concentrations were determined by atomic absorbance spectrophotometry. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastoli...

  14. The applicability of home blood pressure measurement in clinical practice: A review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Verberk, Willem J; Kroon, Abraham A.; Jongen-Vancraybex, Heidi A; Peter W de Leeuw

    2007-01-01

    Purpose To review the literature on home blood pressure measurement (HBPM), to examine its validity and applicability for clinical practice and to provide recommendations regarding HBPM assessment. Findings HBPM can eliminate the white coat effect and offers the possibility to obtain multiple measurements under standardized conditions, which increases knowledge of overall blood pressure value. Although it is not entirely capable of replacing ambulatory blood pressure measurement (ABPM), HBPM ...

  15. Blood pressure and migration: a study of Bengali immigrants in East London.

    OpenAIRE

    Silman, A J; Evans, S J; Loysen, E

    1987-01-01

    The role of blood pressure in explaining the increased risk of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) in Bengali immigrants living in the East End of London was studied in a comparative population study. In addition the effect on blood pressure of age, body mass, and duration of stay in the UK was evaluated. The Bengalis had significantly lower mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures though these differences disappeared after adjustment for age and body mass. Both groups, however, showed similar r...

  16. Skin necrosis in a critically ill patient due to a blood pressure cuff

    OpenAIRE

    Devbhandari Mohan; Shariff Z; Duncan A

    2006-01-01

    The non-invasive method of blood pressure measurement is regarded as a safe procedure and the reports of any serious complications are rare. We report a unique case of extensive skin necrosis due to an intermittently inflating blood pressure cuff in a 65-year-old critically ill lady following a third time redo mitral valve surgery. A brief review of the literature on complications associated with noninvasive method of measurement of blood pressure is presented along with possible mechanisms o...

  17. Predictive value and rate of change of blood pressure throughout adolescence : a Belgian prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Saint-Remy, Annie; Rorive, Georges

    1991-01-01

    We performed a prospective study on the natural course of blood pressure throughout adolescence. The major goals were to assess the predictive value of a high blood pressure level at the age of 12 years and the feasibilty of developing a screening test for the early detection of young subjects at risk of developing chronic hypertension. By measuring the relationship between the initial level and subsequent changes in blood pressure, we looked for a phenomenon previously demonstrated in adults...

  18. Circadian variations in blood pressure in health and disease: implications for patient management

    OpenAIRE

    Slaughter, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Atul R Chugh1, John H Loughran1, Mark S Slaughter21Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, 2Division of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USAAbstract: Traditionally, blood pressure measurements have been performed in office settings and have provided the basis for all diagnostic and therapeutic decisions. However, the development of a clinically relevant 24-hour blood pressure monitoring system has added greatly to the ability of blood pressure values...

  19. Associations of ambulatory blood pressure with urinary caffeine and caffeine metabolite excretions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guessous, Idris; Pruijm, Menno; Ponte, Belén; Ackermann, Daniel; Ehret, Georg; Ansermot, Nicolas; Vuistiner, Philippe; Staessen, Jan; Gu, Yumei; Paccaud, Fred; Mohaupt, Markus; Vogt, Bruno; Pechère-Bertschi, Antoinette; Pechère-Berstchi, Antoinette; Martin, Pierre-Yves; Burnier, Michel; Eap, Chin B; Bochud, Murielle

    2015-03-01

    Intake of caffeinated beverages might be associated with reduced cardiovascular mortality possibly via the lowering of blood pressure. We estimated the association of ambulatory blood pressure with urinary caffeine and caffeine metabolites in a population-based sample. Families were randomly selected from the general population of Swiss cities. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was conducted using validated devices. Urinary caffeine, paraxanthine, theophylline, and theobromine excretions were measured in 24 hours urine using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. We used mixed models to explore the associations of urinary excretions with blood pressure although adjusting for major confounders. The 836 participants (48.9% men) included in this analysis had mean age of 47.8 and mean 24-hour systolic and diastolic blood pressure of 120.1 and 78.0 mm Hg. For each doubling of caffeine excretion, 24-hour and night-time systolic blood pressure decreased by 0.642 and 1.107 mm Hg (both P values <0.040). Similar inverse associations were observed for paraxanthine and theophylline. Adjusted night-time systolic blood pressure in the first (lowest), second, third, and fourth (highest) quartile of paraxanthine urinary excretions were 110.3, 107.3, 107.3, and 105.1 mm Hg, respectively (P trend <0.05). No associations of urinary excretions with diastolic blood pressure were generally found, and theobromine excretion was not associated with blood pressure. Anti-hypertensive therapy, diabetes mellitus, and alcohol consumption modify the association of caffeine urinary excretion with systolic blood pressure. Ambulatory systolic blood pressure was inversely associated with urinary excretions of caffeine and other caffeine metabolites. Our results are compatible with a potential protective effect of caffeine on blood pressure. PMID:25489060

  20. Albuminuria and blood pressure, independent targets for cardioprotective therapy in patients with diabetes and nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtkamp, Frank A; de Zeeuw, Dick; de Graeff, Pieter A;

    2011-01-01

    The long-term cardioprotective effect of angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) is associated with the short-term lowering of its primary target blood pressure, but also with the lowering of albuminuria. Since the individual blood pressure and albuminuria response to an ARB varies between and withi...... an individual, we tested whether the variability and discordance in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and albuminuria response to ARB therapy are associated with its long-term effect on cardiovascular outcomes....