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Sample records for baseline blood pressure

  1. Baseline albuminuria predicts the efficacy of blood pressure-lowering drugs in preventing cardiovascular events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, C.; Postma, M.J.; Visser, S.T.; Atthobari, J.; de Jong, P.E.; de Jong-van den Berg, L.T.; Gansevoort, R.T.

    2008-01-01

    AIMS Albuminuria has been proven to be associated with cardiovascular (CV) events in specific patient populations, but also in the general population. This study aimed to investigate whether the efficacy of blood pressure-lowering agents in preventing CV events depends on baseline urinary albumin ex

  2. Activity of the positive and negative reinforcement motivation systems and baseline arterial blood pressure in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aftanas, L I; Sidorova, P V; Pavlov, S V; Makhnev, V P; Korenek, V V; Reva, N V; Amstislavskaya, T G

    2008-10-01

    The aim of the present work was to identify possible associations between individual balances in the activity of the positive and negative reinforcement motivation systems using a method based on emotional modulation of the startle reaction (EMSR) by motivationally significant emotionally positive and negative contextual visual stimuli and measures of cardiovascular system activity. Studies were performed using healthy males (mean age 30.29 +/- 9.8 years) with normal and first-episode excessive increases in arterial blood pressure (systolic blood pressure to greater than 140 mmHg, diastolic to greater than 90 mmHg). Cluster analysis of EMSR data identified groups of individuals with different activity profiles for the positive and negative reinforcement systems. Groups of subjects with changes in the balance of activity towards a lower level of positive reinforcement system activity (smaller startle reflexes to positive contextual stimuli) or a higher level of negative reinforcement system activity (larger startle reactions to threatening contextual stimuli) showed significantly greater baseline SBP and DBP. The possible mechanisms of the modulatory influences of the balance of system activities on autonomic vascular regulatory processes are discussed.

  3. Neonatal nociception elevated baseline blood pressure and attenuated cardiovascular responsiveness to noxious stress in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Ya-Chun; Yang, Cheryl C H; Lin, Ho-Tien; Chen, Pin-Tarng; Chang, Kuang-Yi; Yang, Shun-Chin; Kuo, Terry B J

    2012-10-01

    Neonatal nociception has significant long-term effects on sensory perception in adult animals. Although neonatal adverse experience affect future responsiveness to stressors is documented, little is known about the involvement of early nociceptive experiences in the susceptibility to subsequent nociceptive stress exposure during adulthood. The aim of this study is to explore the developmental change in cardiovascular regulating activity in adult rats that had been subjected to neonatal nociceptive insults. To address this question, we treated neonatal rats with an intraplantar injection of saline (control) or carrageenan at postnatal day 1. The carrageenan-treated rats exhibited generalized hypoalgesia at basal state, and localized hyperalgesia after re-nociceptive challenge induced by intraplantar injections of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) as adults. Then we recorded baseline cardiovascular variables and 24-h responsiveness to an injection of CFA in the free-moving adult rats with telemetric technique. The carrageenan-treated rats showed significantly higher basal blood pressures (110.3±3.16 vs. control 97.0±4.28 mmHg). In control animals, baroreceptor reflex sensitivity (BRS) decreased, sympathetic vasomotor activity increased, and parasympathetic activity was inhibited after CFA injection. Blood pressure elevation was evident (107.0±2.75 vs. pre-injection 97.0±4.28 mmHg). Comparatively, the carrageenan-treated rats showed a higher BRS (BrrLF 1.03±0.09 vs. control 0.70±0.06 ms/mmHg) and higher parasympathetic activity [0.93±0.17 vs. control 0.32±0.02 ln(ms²)] after CFA injection. The change in blood pressure is negligible (111.9±4.05 vs. pre-injection 110.3±3.16 mmHg). Our research has shown that neonatal nociception alters future pain sensation, raises basal blood pressure level, and attenuates cardiovascular responsiveness to nociceptive stress in adult rats.

  4. Baseline Systolic Blood Pressure Response to Exercise Stress Test Can Predict Exercise Indices following Cardiac Rehabilitation Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Sardari

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Systolic blood pressure recovery (rSBP is of prognostic value for predicting the survival and co-morbidity rate in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD. This study investigated the association between rSBP and exercise indices after complete cardiac rehabilitation program (CR in a population-based sample of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG.Methods: The sample population consisted of 352 patients who underwent pure CABG. The patients underwent standard symptom-limited exercise testing immediately before and also after the completion of the CR sessions. rSBP was defined as the ratio of the systolic blood pressure at 3 minutes in recovery to the systolic blood pressure at peak exercise.Results: An abnormal baseline rSBP after exercise was a strong predictor of exercise parameters in the last session, including metabolic equivalents (β = -0.617, SE = 0.127, p value < 0.001 and peak O2 consumption (β = -1.950, SE = 0.363, p value < 0.001 measured in the last session adjusted for baseline exercise characteristics, demographics, function class, and left ventricular ejection fraction.Conclusion: The current study strongly emphasizes the predictive role of baseline rSBP after exercise in evaluating exercise parameters following CR. This baseline index can predict abnormal METs value, peak O2 consumption, post-exercise heart rate, and heart rate recovery after a 24-session CR program.

  5. Effects of blood pressure lowering on cardiovascular risk according to baseline body-mass index : a meta-analysis of randomised trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ying, A.; Arima, H.; Czernichow, S.; Woodward, M.; Huxley, R.; Turnbull, F.; Perkovic, V.; Neal, B.; Agodoa, L.; Estacio, R.; Schrier, R.; Lubsen, J.; Chalmers, J.; Cutler, J.; Davis, B.; Wing, L.; Poulter, N. R.; Sever, P.; Remuzzi, G.; Ruggenenti, P.; Nissen, S.; Lindholm, L. H.; Fukui, T.; Ogihara, T.; Saruta, T.; Black, H.; Sleight, P.; Lievre, M.; Suzuki, H.; Fox, K.; Lisheng, L.; Ohkubo, T.; Imai, Y.; Yusuf, S.; Bulpitt, C. J.; Lewis, E.; Brown, M.; Palmer, C.; Wang, J.; Pepine, C.; Ishii, M.; Yui, Y.; Kuramoto, K.; Pfeff, M.; Asselbergs, F. W.; van Gilst, W. H.; Byington, B.; Pitt, B.; Brenner, B.; Remme, W. J.; de Zeeuw, D.; Rahman, M.; Viberti, G.; Teo, K.; Zanchetti, A.; Malacco, E.; Mancia, G.; Staessen, J.; Fagard, R.; Holman, R.

    2015-01-01

    Background The cardiovascular benefits of blood pressure lowering in obese people compared with people of normal weight might depend on choice of drug. We compared the effects of blood pressure-lowering regimens on cardiovascular risk in groups of patients categorised by baseline body-mass index (BM

  6. The effects of blood pressure reduction and of different blood pressure-lowering regimens on major cardiovascular events according to baseline blood pressure : meta-analysis of randomized trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czernichow, Sebastien; Zanchetti, Alberto; Turnbull, Fiona; Barzi, Federica; Ninomiya, Toshiaru; Kengne, Andre-Pascal; Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J.; Perkovic, Vlado; Huxley, Rachel; Arima, Hisatomi; Patel, Anushka; Chalmers, John; Woodward, Mark; MacMahon, Stephen; Neal, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Background The benefits of reducing blood pressure are well established, but there remains uncertainty about whether the magnitude of the effect varies with the initial blood pressure level. The objective was to compare the risk reductions achieved by different blood pressure-lowering regimens among

  7. Antihypertensive medications and sexual function in women: Baseline data from the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Holly N.; Evans, Gregory W.; Berlowtiz, Dan R.; Chertow, Glenn M.; Conroy, Molly B.; Foy, Capri G.; Glasser, Stephen P.; Lewis, Cora E.; Riley, William T.; Russell, Laurie; Williams, Olubunmi; Hess, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Hypertension is a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular and kidney disease, but treatment can substantially reduce risks. Many patients avoid antihypertensive medications due to fear of side effects. While associations between antihypertensives and sexual dysfunction in men have been documented, it remains unclear whether antihypertensives are associated with sexual dysfunction in women. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from women in the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) to evaluate the relations among class of antihypertensive medication and the outcomes (a) sexual activity and (b) sexual function. Methods SPRINT enrolled individuals 50 and older with hypertension at high risk for cardiovascular disease. A subset of participants completed questionnaires regarding quality of life (QoL), including sexual function. Antihypertensive class was determined by medications taken at baseline. Results Of 690 women in the QoL subset of SPRINT, 183 (26.5%) were sexually active. There were no significant differences in sexual activity among women taking one or more antihypertensives and women not taking any. Women taking an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker (ACEI/ARB) had higher odds of sexual activity [OR 1.66 (1.12-4.27), p=0.011]. Among sexually active women, the prevalence of sexual dysfunction was high (52.5%). No class of medication was associated with sexual dysfunction in the multivariable model. Conclusions ACEI/ARB use was associated with higher odds of sexual activity. While prevalence of sexual dysfunction was high, no single class of antihypertensive medication was associated with sexual dysfunction. PMID:27032074

  8. Blood pressure measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diastolic blood pressure; Systolic blood pressure; Blood pressure reading; Measuring blood pressure ... or your health care provider will wrap the blood pressure cuff snugly around your upper arm. The lower ...

  9. Impact of Baseline Systolic Blood Pressure and Long-Term Outcomes in Patients with Advanced Chronic Systolic Heart Failure (Insights from the BEST Trial)

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The impact of baseline systolic blood pressure (SBP) on outcomes in advanced chronic systolic heart failure (HF) patients has not been studied using propensity-matched design. Of the 2706 Beta-Blocker Evaluation of Survival Trial (BEST) participants with chronic HF, New York Heart Association class III–IV symptoms and left ventricular ejection fraction ≤35%, 1751 had SBP ≤120 (median, 108; range, 70–120) mm Hg and 955 had SBP >120 (median, 134; range 121–192) mm Hg. Propensity scores for SBP ...

  10. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) KidsHealth > For Teens > Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) Print ... rest temperature diet emotions posture medicines Why Is High Blood Pressure Bad? High blood pressure means a person's heart ...

  11. Low Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a problem. Sometimes blood pressure that is too low can also cause problems. Blood pressure is the ... reading is 90/60 or lower, you have low blood pressure. Some people have low blood pressure ...

  12. Aliskiren in combination with losartan reduces albuminuria independent of baseline blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Frederik; Lewis, Julia B; Lewis, Edmund J

    2011-01-01

    Elevated BP contributes to development and progression of proteinuria and decline in renal function in patients with type 2 diabetes. Our post hoc analysis assessed the baseline BP influence on the antiproteinuric effect in the Aliskiren in the Evaluation of Proteinuria in Diabetes (AVOID) study....

  13. High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... normal blood pressure 140/90 or higher is high blood pressure Between 120 and 139 for the top number, ... prehypertension. Prehypertension means you may end up with high blood pressure, unless you take steps to prevent it. High ...

  14. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Nearly 1 in 3 American adults has ... weight. How Will I Know if I Have High Blood Pressure? High blood pressure is a silent problem — you ...

  15. Blood Pressure Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an online personal health record or blood pressure tracker, for example. This gives you the option of ... lower your blood pressure. Exercise regularly. Regular physical activity can help lower your blood pressure and keep ...

  16. Low Blood Pressure (Hypotension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and rises sharply on waking. Blood pressure: How low can you go? What's considered low blood pressure ... even life-threatening disorders. Conditions that can cause low blood pressure Some medical conditions can cause low ...

  17. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) KidsHealth > For Teens > Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) A ... rest temperature diet emotions posture medicines Why Is High Blood Pressure Bad? High blood pressure means a person's heart ...

  18. Treating High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    About High Blood Pressure Many people in the United States die from high blood pressure. This condition usually does not cause symptoms. Most ... until it is too late. A person has high blood pressure when the blood pushes against Visit your doctor ...

  19. High blood pressure medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007484.htm High blood pressure medicines To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Treating high blood pressure will help prevent problems such as heart disease, ...

  20. Blood Pressure Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    High blood pressure, also called hypertension, usually has no symptoms. But it can cause serious problems such as stroke, ... kidney failure. If you cannot control your high blood pressure through lifestyle changes such as losing weight ...

  1. High Blood Pressure Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... More black women than men have high blood pressure. 2 Race of Ethnic Group Men (%) Women (%) African Americans 43.0 45.7 Mexican Americans 27.8 28.9 Whites 33.9 31.3 All 34.1 32.7 Top of Page Why Blood Pressure Matters View this graphic snapshot of blood pressure ...

  2. Chronic blood pressure control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brands, Michael W

    2012-10-01

    Chronic blood pressure is maintained within very narrow limits around an average value. However, the multitude of physiologic processes that participate in blood pressure control present a bewildering array of possibilities to explain how such tight control of arterial pressure is achieved. Guyton and Coleman and colleagues addressed this challenge by creating a mathematical model that integrated the short- and long-term control systems for overall regulation of the circulation. The hub is the renal-body fluid feedback control system, which links cardiac function and vascular resistance and capacitance with fluid volume homeostasis as the foundation for chronic blood pressure control. The cornerstone of that system is renal sodium excretory capability, which is defined by the direct effect of blood pressure on urinary sodium excretion, that is, "pressure natriuresis." Steady-state blood pressure is the pressure at which pressure natriuresis balances sodium intake over time; therefore, renal sodium excretory capability is the set point for chronic blood pressure. However, this often is misinterpreted as dismissing, or minimizing, the importance of nonrenal mechanisms in chronic blood pressure control. This article explains the renal basis for the blood pressure set point by focusing on the absolute dependence of our survival on the maintenance of sodium balance. Two principal threats to sodium balance are discussed: (1) a change in sodium intake or renal excretory capability and (2) a change in blood pressure. In both instances, circulatory homeostasis is maintained because the sodium balance blood pressure set point is reached.

  3. High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may have tax advantages for you. Workplace giving Workplace giving Find a list of the most common ... pressure and cholesterol. Exercise can also help relieve stress, another common cause of high blood pressure. To ...

  4. Preventing High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention Stroke Heart Disease Cholesterol Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Preventing High Blood Pressure: Healthy Living Habits Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir By living a healthy lifestyle, you can help keep your blood pressure in ...

  5. High Blood Pressure Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High Blood Pressure Salt Cholesterol Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN High Blood Pressure Fact Sheet Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... time. High blood pressure is also called hypertension. High Blood Pressure in the United States Having high blood pressure ...

  6. Home monitoring of blood pressure

    OpenAIRE

    McGrath, Barry P.

    2015-01-01

    Home blood pressure monitoring is the self-measurement of blood pressure by patients. In the diagnosis and management of high blood pressure it is complementary to 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and clinic blood pressure measurements. Home monitoring can also help to identify white-coat and masked hypertension.

  7. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... already been diagnosed with high blood pressure. Try yoga and meditation. Yoga and meditation not only can strengthen your body ... Accessed Sept. 21, 2015. Hu B, et al. Effects of psychological stress on hypertension in middle-aged ...

  8. Prevention of High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Prevention of High Blood Pressure Healthy lifestyle habits, proper use of medicines, and ... prevent high blood pressure or its complications. Preventing High Blood Pressure Onset Healthy lifestyle habits can help prevent high ...

  9. DIGITAL BLOOD PRESSURE MONITOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Fuentes

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present a blood pressure monitor which measures both the high blood pressure (systolic pressure,and the low blood pressure (diastolic pressure. It is a semiautomatic meter because the inflation of the occlusivecuff is carried out in a manual way. The transducer used is a piezoresistive silicon pressure sensor integrated onchip which provides a proportional voltage to the input pressure, with a measurement range from 0 to 50 kPa (0–7.3 PSI. The oscillometric method is employed, which consists on detecting the oscillometric signal on brachialartery, being processed at each pressure step, when the cuff is gradually deflated. Signal sampling is carried out ata rate determined by the heart rate.In order to program the digital electronics of the circuit we used Altera tools, with the compiler MAX-PLUS II, andthe device selected to implement the design was an EPM7128SLC84-15 CPLD (Complex Programmable LogicDevice

  10. Risk of cardiovascular events among women with high normal blood pressure or blood pressure progression: prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Conen, David; Ridker, Paul M.; Buring, Julie E.; Glynn, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    Objective To compare cardiovascular risk among women with high normal blood pressure (130-9/85-9 mm Hg) against those with normal blood pressure (120-9/75-84 mm Hg) and those with baseline hypertension.

  11. The Relationship Between Baseline Blood Pressure and Computed Tomography Findings in Acute Stroke Data From the Tinzaparin in Acute Ischaemic Stroke Trial (TAIST)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sare, G.M.; Bath, P.M.W.; Gray, L.J.;

    2009-01-01

    .06-1.17) at baseline, and signs of visible infarction at day 10 (OR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.00-1.13). A lower SBP was associated with signs of acute infarction (OR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.89-0.99). Hemorrhagic transformation, dense middle cerebral artery sign, mass effect, and cerebral edema at day 10 were not independently...... associated with baseline BP. Conclusion-Although high baseline BP is independently associated with a poor outcome after stroke, this was not shown to be through an association with increased hemorrhagic transformation, cerebral edema, or mass effect; trial design may be suboptimal to detect this. Higher SBP...

  12. Living with High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With High Blood Pressure If you have high blood pressure, the best thing to do is to talk ... help you track your blood pressure. Pregnancy Planning High blood pressure can cause problems for mother and baby. High ...

  13. What Causes High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Causes of High Blood Pressure Changes, either from genes or the environment, in ... and blood vessel structure and function. Biology and High Blood Pressure Researchers continue to study how various changes in ...

  14. Low Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Pressure • Know Your Numbers • Understand Symptoms and Risks • Learn How HBP Can Harm Your Health • Make Changes That Matter • Find Tools & Resources Watch, Learn and Live Our Interactive Cardiovascular Library has detailed animations and illustrations to help you ...

  15. Blood pressure and atherosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    2010319 Effects of combined application of Xuezhikang capsule with hypotensive drugs on arterial compliance and smoothness of the dynamic blood pressure. ZHU Zongtao(朱宗涛),et al. Dept Cardiol, Centr People’s Hosp, Tengzhou 277500.Chin J Integr Tradit & West Med 2010;30

  16. High blood pressure - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure in children and adolescents. Pediatrics . 2004;114 (2 Suppl 4th Report):555-576. PMID: 15286277 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15286277 . Review Date 5/6/2016 Updated by: Scott I ...

  17. Blood vessels, circulation and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Charles; Farley, Alistair; McLafferty, Ella

    This article, which forms part of the life sciences series, describes the vessels of the body's blood and lymphatic circulatory systems. Blood pressure and its regulatory systems are examined. The causes and management of hypertension are also explored. It is important that nurses and other healthcare professionals understand the various mechanisms involved in the regulation of blood pressure to prevent high blood pressure or ameliorate its damaging consequences.

  18. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... readings. Blood Pressure Severity and Type Your health care provider usually takes 2–3 readings at several medical appointments to diagnose high blood pressure. Using the ...

  19. High Blood Pressure Increasing Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162977.html High Blood Pressure Increasing Worldwide And health risks may appear even ... of people around the world with elevated or high blood pressure increases, so do the number of deaths linked ...

  20. Medications for High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Medications for High Blood Pressure Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... age and you cannot tell if you have high blood pressure by the way you feel, so have your ...

  1. High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the baby. Controlling your blood pressure during pregnancy and getting regular prenatal care are important for ... your baby. Treatments for high blood pressure in pregnancy may include close monitoring of the baby, lifestyle ...

  2. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ask for your readings. Blood Pressure Severity and Type Your health care provider usually takes 2–3 ... any other location. Health care providers diagnose this type of high blood pressure by reviewing readings in ...

  3. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Obesity Smoking and Your Heart Stroke Send a link to NHLBI to someone by E-MAIL | ... 90 mmHg or above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless and ...

  4. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless and can be done ... provider’s office or clinic. To prepare for the test: Don’t drink coffee or smoke cigarettes for ...

  5. Controlling your high blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000101.htm Controlling your high blood pressure To use the sharing features on this page, ... JavaScript. Hypertension is another term used to describe high blood pressure. High blood pressure can lead to: Stroke Heart ...

  6. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure For most patients, health care providers diagnose high ... are consistently 140/90 mmHg or above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless ...

  7. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure For most patients, health care providers diagnose high ... are consistently 140/90 mmHg or above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless ...

  8. ORANGE JUICE AND BLOOD PRESSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. VALIM

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Blood pressure is the force of blood against artery walls. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg and recorded as two numbers: systolic pressure (as the heart contracts over diastolic pressure (as the heart relaxes between beats. High blood pressure (hypertension is defined as chronically elevated high blood pressure, with systolic blood pressure (SBP of 140 mm Hg or greater, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP of 90 mm Hg or greater. High blood pressure (HBP, smoking, abnormal blood lipid levels, obesity and diabetes are risk factors for coronary heart disease, the leading cause of death in the US. Lifestyle modifications such as engaging in regular physical activity, quitting smoking and eating a healthy diet (limiting intake of saturated fat and sodium and increasing consumption of fiber, fruits and vegetables are advocated for the prevention, treatment, and control of HBP. As multiple factors influence blood pressure, the effects of each factor are typically modest, particularly in normotensive subjects, yet the combined effects can be substantial. Nutrition plays an important role in influencing blood pressure. Orange juice should be included as part of any low sodium diet and/or any blood pressure reducing eating plan, as it is sodium free, fat-free and can help meet recommended levels of potassium intake that may contribute to lower BP.

  9. Blood pressure and atherosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930082 Clinical administration of atrial natri-uretic factor in reno-vascular hypertension.ZHANG Weiguo(张卫国),et al.Cardiovasc In-stit & Fuwai Hosp,CAMS,Beijing.Chin Cir J1992;7(5):450-452.In order to evaluate the effects of atrial natri-uretic factor(ANF)on patients with reno-vas-cular hypertension,α-hANF(0.025μg/kg/min×60min)was administered to 7 patients byi.v.drip..The renin-angiotensin-aldosteronesystem,plasma catecholamine and arginine va-sopressin were suppressed with diuresis and na-triuresis and lowering of blood pressure.The

  10. Stroke and High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... More How High Blood Pressure Can Lead to Stroke Updated:Dec 2,2016 Stroke and high blood ... Changes That Matter • Find Tools & Resources Show Your Stroke Support! Show your stroke support with our new ...

  11. Atmospheric pressure loading parameters from very long baseline interferometry observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macmillan, D. S.; Gipson, John M.

    1994-01-01

    Atmospheric mass loading produces a primarily vertical displacement of the Earth's crust. This displacement is correlated with surface pressure and is large enough to be detected by very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) measurements. Using the measured surface pressure at VLBI stations, we have estimated the atmospheric loading term for each station location directly from VLBI data acquired from 1979 to 1992. Our estimates of the vertical sensitivity to change in pressure range from 0 to -0.6 mm/mbar depending on the station. These estimates agree with inverted barometer model calculations (Manabe et al., 1991; vanDam and Herring, 1994) of the vertical displacement sensitivity computed by convolving actual pressure distributions with loading Green's functions. The pressure sensitivity tends to be smaller for stations near the coast, which is consistent with the inverted barometer hypothesis. Applying this estimated pressure loading correction in standard VLBI geodetic analysis improves the repeatability of estimated lengths of 25 out of 37 baselines that were measured at least 50 times. In a root-sum-square (rss) sense, the improvement generally increases with baseline length at a rate of about 0.3 to 0.6 ppb depending on whether the baseline stations are close to the coast. For the 5998-km baseline from Westford, Massachusetts, to Wettzell, Germany, the rss improvement is about 3.6 mm out of 11.0 mm. The average rss reduction of the vertical scatter for inland stations ranges from 2.7 to 5.4 mm.

  12. Drinking pattern and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppä, K; Laippala, P; Sillanaukee, P

    1994-03-01

    Large amounts of alcohol are known to increase blood pressure. There is little evidence about the effect of binge drinking of alcohol on blood pressure, although this is the dominant style of alcohol drinking in several countries. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between binge drinking and blood pressure using daily heavy drinkers as a reference group. We examined 260 consecutive nonalcoholic 40- and 45-year-old men participating in a health screening. There were 37 teetotalers, 147 social drinkers, 62 weekend heavy drinkers attending the health screening 2 to 7 days after binge drinking, and 14 men who drank heavily every day. Group division was made using self-reported alcohol consumption and a structured alcohol questionnaire. Blood pressure was measured manually by a mercury manometer. BMDP statistical software was used in the statistical analysis of the material. The diastolic blood pressure of weekend heavy drinkers (mean intake during the weekend, 289 g) did not differ from that found in teetotalers but systolic blood pressure was slightly higher (5 mm Hg, P = .04). In contrast, daily heavy drinkers (mean intake during the weekend [Friday to Saturday], 151 g) had significantly higher systolic (8 mm Hg, P = .04) and diastolic (6 mm Hg, P = .05) blood pressure values than teetotalers. We conclude that different drinking habits seem to have different effects on blood pressure, those of daily heavy drinking being more prominent than those of weekend heavy drinking.

  13. Diabetes and blood pressure (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    People with diabetes have a higher risk for heart attacks and strokes. Your doctor or nurse should check your blood pressure ... People with diabetes have a higher risk for heart attacks and strokes. Your doctor or nurse should check your blood pressure ...

  14. What Is High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More What is High Blood Pressure? Updated:Oct 31,2016 First, let’s define high ... resources . This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP Introduction What ...

  15. Common High Blood Pressure Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common High Blood Pressure Myths Updated:Dec 9,2016 Knowing the facts ... health. This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP Introduction What ...

  16. High Blood Pressure and Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Mineral & Bone Disorder View All Content High Blood Pressure & Kidney Disease What is high blood pressure? Blood pressure is the force of blood ... million filtering units called nephrons. How does high blood pressure affect the kidneys? High blood pressure can ...

  17. Diet, blood pressure, and multicollinearity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, D; McGee, D; Yano, K; Hankin, J

    1985-01-01

    Recent reports of an inverse association between dietary calcium intake and hypertension stimulated this analysis of the relationship of blood pressure to more than 20 dietary factors among a group of 8000 Japanese men in Hawaii. Reported intakes of potassium, calcium, protein, and milk were all inversely associated with blood pressure levels when examined one at a time while controlling for other risk factors. Alcohol intake was directly associated with blood pressure, and was treated as a confounding variable in the analysis. The association of potassium intake with blood pressure was relatively stronger than the associations for other nutrients, but the intake of potassium was so highly correlated with intakes of calcium, milk, and protein that it was not statistically possible to identify the independent association of potassium and blood pressure. Calcium intake was strongly correlated with milk and potassium intakes, and only calcium from dairy sources was associated with blood pressure. These data thus indicate that several dietary factors are inversely related to blood pressure levels independently of other risk factors such as age, body mass, and alcohol intake. The high degree of intercorrelation (multicollinearity) among these dietary factors, however, indicates that the independent role of any specific nutrient cannot be conclusively separated from the possible effects of other nutrients in this type of study.

  18. High blood pressure in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, D A; Oparil, S

    1997-01-01

    There is a sexual dimorphism in blood pressure of humans and experimental animals: males tend to have higher blood pressure than females with functional ovaries, while ovariectomy or menopause tends to abolish the sexual dimorphism and cause females to develop a "male" pattern of blood pressure. Hypertensive male laboratory animals tend to have NaCl-sensitive blood pressure, while females are NaCl resistant unless their ovaries are removed, in which case NaCl sensitivity appears. The hormonal basis of NaCl sensitivity of blood pressure and of the sexual dimorphism of hypertension remains to be defined. Synthetic estrogens and progestins, as found in oral contraceptives, tend to elevate blood pressure, while naturally occurring estrogens lower it, or have no effect. Hypertension increases cardiovascular risk in women, as well as men, although the benefits of antihypertensive treatment have been more difficult to demonstrate in women. In the population of the United States, women are more aware of their hypertension, more likely to be treated medically, and more likely to have their blood pressure controlled.

  19. Genes That Influence Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Influence Blood Pressure Gene Linked to Optimism and Self-Esteem Designing New Diabetes Drugs Connect with Us Subscribe to get NIH Research Matters by email RSS Feed Facebook Email us Mailing Address: NIH Research Matters Bldg. ...

  20. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... over the years led to verification of the important role of high blood pressure—especially in concert with ... is specific for that person will be an important key to improving prevention, ... an international team of investigators, funded in part by the NIH, ...

  1. Alcohol: Does It Affect Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Conditions High blood pressure (hypertension) Does drinking alcohol affect your blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Drinking too much alcohol can raise blood pressure to unhealthy levels. Having ...

  2. Anxiety: A Cause of High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions High blood pressure (hypertension) Can anxiety cause high blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Anxiety doesn't cause long-term high blood pressure (hypertension). But episodes of anxiety can cause dramatic, ...

  3. High Blood Pressure Often Undiagnosed, Untreated

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162996.html High Blood Pressure Often Undiagnosed, Untreated Half of mobile clinic patients ... that's often referred to as a "silent killer" -- high blood pressure, a new Canadian study reveals. High blood pressure, ...

  4. Vegetarian diet and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beilin, L J; Armstrong, B K; Margetts, B M; Rouse, I L; Vandongen, R

    1987-01-01

    There is now convincing evidence from epidemiological studies and randomized controlled trials that adoption of an ovo-lacto vegetarian diet leads to blood pressure reduction in both normotensive and hypertensive subjects. This effect appears to be independent of both dietary sodium and weight loss but additive to effects of weight reduction. Long-term adherence to a vegetarian diet is associated with less of a rise of blood pressure with age and a decreased prevalence of hypertension. The nutrients responsible for these effects have not been clearly identified and the mechanisms involved are unknown. Resolution of these questions is needed to enable more widespread adoption of dietary changes which may reduce the prevalence of hypertension, reduce antihypertensive drug dependence and by effects on blood pressure and blood lipids ameliorate the natural history of hypertensive cardiovascular disease.

  5. Night time blood pressure dip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dennis; Bloomfield; Alex; Park

    2015-01-01

    The advent of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring permitted examination of blood pressures during sleep and recognition of the associated circadian fall in pressure during this period. The fall in pressure,called the "dip",is defined as the difference between daytime mean systolic pressure and nighttime mean systolic pressure expressed as a percentage of the day value. Ten percent to 20% is considered normal. Dips less than 10%,referred to as blunted or absent,have been considered as predicting an adverse cardiovascular event. This view and the broader concept that white coat hypertension itself is a forerunner of essential hypertension is disputable. This editorial questions whether mean arterial pressures over many hours accurately represent the systolic load,whether nighttime dipping varies from measure to measure or is a fixed phenomenon,whether the abrupt morning pressure rise is a risk factor or whether none of these issues are as important as the actual night time systolic blood pressure itself. The paper discusses the difference between medicated and nonmedicated white coat hypertensives in regard to the cardiovascular risk and suggests that further work is necessary to consider whether the quality and duration of sleep are important factors.

  6. Interarm difference in blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, Jesper; Wiinberg, Niels

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed at examining the interarm difference in blood pressure and its use as an indicator of peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Data were included from consecutive patients referred from their general practitioner to our vascular laboratory for possible PAD aged 50 years or older...... without known cardiac disease, renal disease, or diabetes mellitus. 824 patients (453 women) with mean age of 72 years (range: 50-101) were included. 491 patients had a diagnosis of hypertension and peripheral arterial disease (PAD) was present in 386 patients. Systolic blood pressure was 143 ± 24 mm......Hg and 142 ± 24 mmHg on the right and left arm, respectively (P = 0.015). The interarm difference was greater in patients with hypertension (P = 0.002) and PAD (P blood pressure was reproducible...

  7. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) KidsHealth > For Parents > High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) ... posture, and medications. continue Long-Term Effects of High Blood Pressure When someone has high blood pressure, the heart ...

  8. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) KidsHealth > For Parents > High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) A ... posture, and medications. continue Long-Term Effects of High Blood Pressure When someone has high blood pressure, the heart ...

  9. DASH diet to lower high blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000770.htm DASH diet to lower high blood pressure To use the sharing features on this page, ... Stop Hypertension. The DASH diet can help lower high blood pressure and cholesterol and other fats in your blood. ...

  10. High blood pressure and eye disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000999.htm High blood pressure and eye disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. High blood pressure can damage blood vessels in the retina . The ...

  11. Vital Signs - High Blood Pressure

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-10-02

    In the U.S., nearly one third of the adult population have high blood pressure, the leading risk factor for heart disease and stroke - two of the nation's leading causes of death.  Created: 10/2/2012 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/17/2012.

  12. Ultra-high pressure water jet: Baseline report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-31

    The ultra-high pressure waterjet technology was being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The ultra-high pressure waterjet technology acts as a cutting tool for the removal of surface substrates. The Husky{trademark} pump feeds water to a lance that directs the high pressure water at the surface to be removed. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure. These were dust and noise. The dust exposure was found to be minimal, which would be expected due to the wet environment inherent in the technology, but noise exposure was at a significant level. Further testing for noise is recommended because of the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place. In addition, other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, lockout/tagout, fall hazards, slipping hazards, hazards associated with the high pressure water, and hazards associated with air pressure systems.

  13. High Blood Pressure: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z High Blood Pressure Hypertension Unique to Older Adults This section provides ... Pressure Targets are Different for Very Old Adults High blood pressure (also called hypertension) increases your chance of having ...

  14. TREATMENT OF HYPERTENSION USING TELEMEDICAL HOME BLOOD PRESSURE MEASUREMENTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann-Petersen, N; Lauritzen, T; Bech, J N

    2015-01-01

    of the measurements and subsequent communication by telephone or E-mail. In the control group, patients received usual care. Primary outcome was reduction in daytime ambulatory blood pressure measurements (ABPM) from baseline to 3 months' follow-up. RESULTS: In both groups, daytime ABPM decreased significantly....../181), p = 0.34. Blood pressure reduction in the TBPM group varied with the different practices. CONCLUSIONS: No further reduction in ABPM or number of patients reaching blood pressure targets was observed when electronic transmission of TBPM was applied in the treatment of hypertension by GPs. Thus......OBJECTIVE: Telemonitoring of home blood pressure measurements (TBPM) is a new and promising supplement to diagnosis, control and treatment of hypertension. We wanted to compare the outcome of antihypertensive treatment based on TBPM and conventional monitoring of blood pressure. DESIGN AND METHOD...

  15. How to Prevent High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... provider will use a gauge, a stethoscope or electronic sensor, and a blood pressure cuff. For most ... per day, and women only 1. Not smoking. Cigarette smoking raises your blood pressure and puts you ...

  16. Avoid the Consequences of High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Avoid the Consequences of High Blood Pressure Infographic Updated:Oct 31,2016 View a downloadable version of this infographic High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  17. High Blood Pressure: Keep the Beat Recipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: High Blood Pressure Keep the Beat Recipes Past Issues / Fall 2011 ... 65 million American adults—one in three—with high blood pressure, you have probably heard the advice, "watch your ...

  18. Control Blood Pressure, Protect Your Kidneys

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Health Lines Control Blood Pressure, Protect Your Kidneys Past Issues / Fall ... Not Alone / Keep Weight Off / Facts About Fat / Control Blood Pressure, Protect Your Kidneys Fall 2008 Issue: ...

  19. HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE: DOES THIS CONCERN ME?

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    To find out, the Medical Service's nurses are organising A HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE SCREENING AND PREVENTION CAMPAIGN from Monday, 26th to Thursday, 29th March 2007 at the Infirmary - Building 57 - ground floor A blood pressure test, advice, information and, if necessary, referral for specialist medical treatment will be offered to any person working on the CERN site. High blood pressure is a silent threat to health. So come and get your blood pressure checked.

  20. HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE: DOES THIS CONCERN ME?

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    To find out, the Medical Service's nurses are organising A HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE SCREENING AND PREVENTION CAMPAIGN from Monday, 26th to Thursday, 29th March 2007 at the Infirmary - Building 57 - ground floor A blood pressure test, advice, information and, if necessary, referral for specialist medical treatment will be offered to any person working on the CERN site. High blood pressure is a stealth threat to health. So come and get your blood pressure checked.

  1. Automated postoperative blood pressure control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hang ZHENG; Kuanyi ZHU

    2005-01-01

    It is very important to maintain the level of mean arterial pressure (MAP).The MAP control is applied in many clinical situations,including limiting bleeding during cardiac surgery and promoting healing for patient's post-surgery.This paper presents a fuzzy controller-based multiple-model adaptive control system for postoperative blood pressure management.Multiple-model adaptive control (MMAC) algorithm is used to identify the patient model,and it is a feasible system identification method even in the presence of large noise.Fuzzy control (FC) method is used to design controller bank.Each fuzzy controller in the controller bank is in fact a nonlinear proportional-integral (PI) controller,whose proportional gain and integral gain are adjusted continuously according to error and rate of change of error of the plant output,resulting in better dynamic and stable control performance than the regular PI controller,especially when a nonlinear process is involved.For demonstration,a nonlinear,pulsatile-flow patient model is used for simulation,and the results show that the adaptive control system can effectively handle the changes in patient's dynamics and provide satisfactory performance in regulation of blood pressure of hypertension patients.

  2. Normalization effect of sports training on blood pressure in hypertensives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Liang; Liu, Yuh-Feng; Huang, Chih-Yang; Lee, Shin-Da; Chan, Yi-Sheng; Chen, Chiu-Chou; Harris, Brennan; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2010-02-01

    Exercise is recommended as a lifestyle intervention in preventing hypertension based on epidemiological findings. However, previous intervention studies have presented mixed results. This discrepancy could be associated with shortcomings related to sample sizes or the inclusion of normotensive participants. The aim of this prospective cohort study (N = 463) was to compare the chronic effect of increasing sports training time on resting blood pressure for normotensives and hypertensives. We assessed systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) for 69 untreated hypertensive patients (age 20.6 +/- 0.1 years, systolic blood pressure >140 mmHg) and 394 normotensive controls (age 20.6 +/- 0.1 years) before training and at follow-up visits at 12 months. All participants enrolled in various sports training lessons for 8 hours a week. The baseline BMI and HOMA-IR in the hypertensive group were significantly higher than those in the control group. For the normotensive control group, no significant changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure were observed after training. However, for the hypertensives, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were significantly reduced after training by approximately 15 mmHg and approximately 4 mmHg, respectively, and HOMA-IR was reduced by approximately 25%. In conclusion, the effect of sports training to lower blood pressure was confined to the group of hypertensives, which may account for the overall minimal reduction in blood pressure observed in previous intervention studies.

  3. Baseline blood pressure, low- and high-density lipoproteins, and triglycerides and the risk of vascular events in the Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amarenco, Pierre; Goldstein, Larry B; Callahan, Alfred

    2009-01-01

    AND RESULTS: The SPARCL trial randomized 4731 patients with recent stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) and no known coronary heart disease and LDL-C between 100 and 190 mg/dL to either atorvastatin 80 mg/d or placebo. Baseline assessment included SBP, DBP and measurements of low-density lipoprotein....... There were no interactions between any of these baseline variables and the effect of treatment on outcome strokes. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with recent stroke or TIA and no coronary heart disease, only lower baseline HDL-C predicted the risk of recurrent stroke with HDL-C, triglycerides, and LDL/HDL ratio...

  4. Factors affecting blood pressure variability: lessons learned from two systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya M Musini

    Full Text Available Systematic reviews can often reveal much more than the original objective of the work. The objectives of this retrospective analysis were to answer three basic questions about blood pressure variability: 1 Does blood pressure entry criterion have an effect on baseline blood pressure variability? 2 Do thiazide diuretics have a significant effect on blood pressure variability? and 3 Does systolic blood pressure vary to the same degree as diastolic blood pressure? This analysis of blood pressure variability is based on resting standardized research setting BP readings from two systematic reviews evaluating blood pressure lowering efficacy of thiazide diuretics from double blind randomized controlled trials in 33,611 patients with primary hypertension. The standard deviation reported in trials was the focus of the research and the unit of analysis. When a threshold systolic or diastolic blood pressure value is used to determine entry into a trial, baseline variability is significantly decreased, systolic from 14.0 to 9.3 mmHg and diastolic from 8.4 to 5.3 mmHg. Thiazides do not change BP variability as the standard deviation and coefficient of variation of systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure did not differ between thiazide and placebo groups at end of treatment. The coefficient of variation of systolic blood pressure was significantly greater than the coefficient of variation of diastolic blood pressure. Entry criterion decreases the baseline blood pressure variability. Treatment with a thiazide diuretic does not affect blood pressure variability. Systolic blood pressure varies to a greater degree than diastolic blood pressure.

  5. Blood pressure control for diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana V. Do

    ; one of the 10 trials reported a combined outcome of incidence and progression during a 4- to 5-year follow-up period. One trial in which type 2 diabetics participated had reported no primary (or secondary outcome targeted for this review. The evidence from these trials supported a benefit of more intensive blood pressure control intervention with respect to 4- to 5-year incidence of diabetic retinopathy (estimated risk ratio (RR 0.80; 95% confidence interval (CI 0.71 to 0.92 and the combined outcome of incidence and progression (estimated RR 0.78; 95% CI 0.63 to 0.97. The available evidence provided less support for a benefit with respect to 4- to 5-year progression of diabetic retinopathy (point estimate was closer to 1 than point estimates for incidence and combined incidence and progression, and the CI overlapped 1; estimated RR 0.88; 95% CI 0.73 to 1.05. The available evidence regarding progression to proliferative diabetic retinopathy or clinically significant macular edema or moderate to severe loss of best-corrected visual acuity did not support a benefit of intervention on blood pressure: estimated RRs and 95% CIs 0.95 (0.83 to 1.09 and 1.06 (0.85 to 1.33, respectively, after 4 to 5 years of follow-up. Findings within subgroups of trial participants (type 1 and type 2 diabetics; participants with normal blood pressure levels at baseline and those with elevated levels were similar to overall findings. The adverse event reported most often (7 of 15 trials was death, yielding an estimated RR 0.86 (95% CI 0.64 to 1.14. Hypotension was reported from three trials; the estimated RR was 2.08 (95% CI 1.68 to 2.57. Other adverse ocular events were reported from single trials.AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Hypertension is a well-known risk factor for several chronic conditions in which lowering blood pressure has proven to be beneficial. The available evidence supports a beneficial effect of intervention to reduce blood pressure with respect to preventing diabetic retinopathy for

  6. Blood pressure control for diabetic retinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Diana V; Wang, Xue; Vedula, Satyanarayana S; Marrone, Michael; Sleilati, Gina; Hawkins, Barbara S; Frank, Robert N

    2015-01-01

    combined outcome of incidence and progression during a 4-to 5-year follow-up period. One trial in which type 2 diabetics participated had reported no primary (or secondary) outcome targeted for this review. The evidence from these trials supported a benefit of more intensive blood pressure control intervention with respect to 4- to 5-year incidence of diabetic retinopathy (estimated risk ratio (RR) 0.80; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.71 to 0.92) and the combined outcome of incidence and progression (estimated RR 0.78; 95% CI 0.63 to 0.97). The available evidence provided less support for a benefit with respect to 4- to 5-year progression of diabetic retinopathy (point estimate was closer to 1 than point estimates for incidence and combined incidence and progression, and the CI overlapped 1; estimated RR 0.88; 95% CI 0.73 to 1.05). The available evidence regarding progression to proliferative diabetic retinopathy or clinically significant macular edema or moderate to severe loss of best-corrected visual acuity did not support a benefit of intervention on blood pressure: estimated RRs and 95% CIs 0.95 (0.83 to 1.09) and 1.06 (0.85 to 1.33), respectively, after 4 to 5 years of follow-up. Findings within subgroups of trial participants (type 1 and type 2 diabetics; participants with normal blood pressure levels at baseline and those with elevated levels) were similar to overall findings. The adverse event reported most often (7 of 15 trials) was death, yielding an estimated RR 0.86 (95% CI 0.64 to 1.14). Hypotension was reported from three trials; the estimated RR was 2.08 (95% CI 1.68 to 2.57). Other adverse ocular events were reported from single trials. Authors’ conclusions Hypertension is a well-known risk factor for several chronic conditions in which lowering blood pressure has proven to be beneficial. The available evidence supports a beneficial effect of intervention to reduce blood pressure with respect to preventing diabetic retinopathy for up to 4 to 5 years

  7. Embedded programmable blood pressure monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Md. Mahmud-Ul; Islam, Md. Kafiul; Shawon, Mehedi Azad; Nowrin, Tasnuva Faruk

    2010-02-01

    A more efficient newer algorithm of detecting systolic and diastolic pressure of human body along with a complete package of an effective user-friendly embedded programmable blood pressure monitoring system has been proposed in this paper to reduce the overall workload of medical personals as well as to monitor patient's condition more conveniently and accurately. Available devices for measuring blood pressure have some problems and limitations in case of both analog and digital devices. The sphygmomanometer, being analog device, is still being used widely because of its reliability and accuracy over digital ones. But it requires a skilled person to measure the blood pressure and obviously not being automated as well as time consuming. Our proposed system being a microcontroller based embedded system has the advantages of the available digital blood pressure machines along with a much improved form and has higher accuracy at the same time. This system can also be interfaced with computer through serial port/USB to publish the measured blood pressure data on the LAN or internet. The device can be programmed to determine the patient's blood pressure after each certain interval of time in a graphical form. To sense the pressure of human body, a pressure to voltage transducer is used along with a cuff in our system. During the blood pressure measurement cycle, the output voltage of the transducer is taken by the built-in ADC of microcontroller after an amplifier stage. The recorded data are then processed and analyzed using the effective software routine to determine the blood pressure of the person under test. Our proposed system is thus expected to certainly enhance the existing blood pressure monitoring system by providing accuracy, time efficiency, user-friendliness and at last but not the least the 'better way of monitoring patient's blood pressure under critical care' all together at the same time.

  8. Nutraceuticals for blood pressure control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirtori, Cesare R; Arnoldi, Anna; Cicero, Arrigo F G

    2015-01-01

    Significant effects on blood pressure (BP) have been reported from large nutritional interventions, particularly the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) and the Mediterranean diet. In more recent years, numerous studies have investigated the possible BP-lowering effect of different nutraceuticals; these range from specific foods to minerals, lipids, whole proteins, peptides, amino acids, probiotics, and vitamins. While a very large body of evidence supports the use of potassium, L-arginine, vitamins C and D, cocoa flavonoids, beetroot juice, some probiotics, coenzyme Q10, controlled-release melatonin, aged garlic extract, and coffee, the use of other nutraceuticals, such as green tea, flaxseed, and resveratrol, has not as yet been supported by adequate evidence. In some cases, e.g. proteins/peptides, the responsible component needs also to be fully uncovered. Finally, while for most of the products only short-term studies are available, with no specific end-points, an ongoing very large prospective study on chocolate flavanols will answer the question whether this may reduce cardiovascular risk. Thus, in addition to data on long-term safety, further clinical research is advisable in order to identify, among active nutraceuticals, those with the best cost-effectiveness and risk-benefit ratio for a wide use in the general population with a raised cardiovascular risk consequent to uncomplicated hypertension.

  9. Segmental blood pressure after total hip replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebuhr, Peter Henrik; Soelberg, M; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-nine patients due to have a total hip replacement had their systemic systolic and segmental blood pressures measured prior to operation and 1 and 6 weeks postoperatively. No patients had signs of ischemia. The segmental blood pressure was measured at the ankle and at the toes. A significant...... drop was found in all pressures 1 week postoperatively. The decrease followed the systemic pressure and was restored to normal after 6 weeks. In a group of six patients with preoperatively decreased ankle pressure, a significant transient further decrease in the ankle-toe gradient pressure was found...

  10. Effect of citicoline on blood pressure variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. D. Ostroumova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors give the results of their investigation dealing with citicoline therapy in patients with hypertension and cognitive impairments.Objective: to determine the efficiency of citicoline therapy on the level and variability of both systolic and diastolic blood pressures (BP (SBP and DBP.Patients and methods. The investigation covered 60 patients with Stage II hypertension and a goal BP of < 140/90 mm Hg within ≥3 months before their inclusion. The patients were randomized into 2 groups: 30 patients in the study group were assigned to receive a cycle of 10 injections of citicoline in a daily dose of 1000 mg dropwise intravenously, then 1000 mg/day orally for as long as 3 months. 30 patients comprised the control group.Results and discussion. 24-hour BP monitoring indicated that during 4-week citicoline therapy there were significant (p<0.05 reductions in average nocturnal SBP (by 4.1±2.24 mm Hg, average daytime (-1.5±0.39 mm Hg and average nighttime (-1.5±0.37 mm Hg BP variabilities; such changes were not found in the control group. In the study group, normal daytime SBP variability at baseline (≤15 mm Hg was seen in 15 (50% patients; that after citicoline treatment was in 21 (70%; in the control group, this was in 15 (50% and 14 (46.7% patients before and after 4-week therapy, respectively. In the study group, normal nocturnal SBP variability at baseline (≤ 15 mm Hg was seen in 15 (50% patients; that after citicoline treatment was in 23 (76.7%; in the control group, this was in 15 (50% and 16 (53.3% patients, respectively.Twenty-one (70% patients in each group had baseline normal daytime DBP variability (<14 mm Hg; following 4 weeks of treatment, the number of patients with normal daytime DBP variability remained unchanged in the control group and that increased by one patient (n = 22 (73.3% in the citicoline group. Normal nocturnal DBP variability at baseline (<12 mm Hg was observed in 19 (63.3% patients in each group

  11. An Electrical Muscle Stimulation Suit for Increasing Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    being painful . The arterial blood pressure increases from baseline were reg- istered with noninvasive Portapres® equipment (FMS, Amsterdam, The...thighs and over the gluteal and abdominal muscles to create a positive and negative pole over the muscle areas. For better electrical contact... pain . Each subject was instructed to have the investigator lower the intensity or stop the stimulation if muscle contraction pain was experienced

  12. Temporal changes in clinic and ambulatory blood pressure during cyclic post-menopausal hormone replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, M B; Rasmussen, Verner; Jensen, Gorm Boje

    2000-01-01

    cyclic norethisterone acetate (NETA) or placebo in two 12-week periods separated by a 3-month washout Clinic blood pressure was measured sitting by the same observer with a mercury manometer at four visits in each period. Twenty-four hour ambulatory blood pressure was measured at baseline...

  13. Segmental blood pressure after total hip replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebuhr, Peter Henrik; Soelberg, M; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    1992-01-01

    drop was found in all pressures 1 week postoperatively. The decrease followed the systemic pressure and was restored to normal after 6 weeks. In a group of six patients with preoperatively decreased ankle pressure, a significant transient further decrease in the ankle-toe gradient pressure was found......Twenty-nine patients due to have a total hip replacement had their systemic systolic and segmental blood pressures measured prior to operation and 1 and 6 weeks postoperatively. No patients had signs of ischemia. The segmental blood pressure was measured at the ankle and at the toes. A significant...... on the operated side. None of the patients had symptoms from the lowered pressure. We conclude that in patients without signs of ischemia, the postoperative segmental pressure decrease is reversible and therefore not dangerous....

  14. Acute effects of consumption of energy drinks on intraocular pressure and blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilechie AA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A Alex Ilechie, Sandra TettehDepartment of Optometry, University of Cape Coast, GhanaBackground: Energy drinks contain a wide variety of ingredients including caffeine, for which there have been conflicting reports regarding its effects on intraocular pressure (IOP and blood pressure. The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effects of an energy drink (Red Bull® on the IOP and blood pressure of healthy young adults.Methods: Thirty healthy university students of either gender, aged 18–30 (mean 23.20 ± 2.81 years were randomly selected to participate in this study. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups (experimental and control and were asked to abstain from caffeine for 48 hours prior to and during the study. Baseline IOP and blood pressure were measured. The experimental group (n = 15 consumed one can of the energy drink (containing 85 mg of caffeine in 250 mL and measurements were repeated at 30, 60, and 90 minutes, while the control group drank 250 mL of water and were tested over the same time period.Results: When compared with baseline, a significant decrease (P < 0.05 in mean IOP at 60 and 90 minutes was observed in the experimental group. There was no corresponding change in systolic or diastolic blood pressure.Conclusion: Our results suggest that energy drinks (ie, Red Bull produce a significant reduction in IOP but have no effect on blood pressure. These findings may be interpreted as reflecting the effect of the combination of caffeine and taurine in the Red Bull energy drink. This effect may result from the known hypotensive effect of taurine, and warrants further study.Keywords: acute effect, intraocular pressure, blood pressure, glaucoma, caffeine, taurine

  15. Lowering of blood pressure by increasing hematocrit with non nitric oxide scavenging red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar Vázquez, Beatriz Y; Cabrales, Pedro; Tsai, Amy G; Johnson, Paul C; Intaglietta, Marcos

    2008-02-01

    Isovolemic exchange transfusion of 40% of the blood volume in awake hamsters was used to replace native red blood cells (RBCs) with RBCs whose hemoglobin (Hb) was oxidized to methemoglobin (MetHb), MetRBCs. The exchange maintained constant blood volume and produced different final hematocrits (Hcts), varying from 48 to 62% Hct. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) did not change after exchange transfusion, in which 40% of the native RBCs were replaced with MetRBCs, without increasing Hct. Increasing Hct with MetRBCs lowered MAP by 12 mm Hg when Hct was increased 12% above baseline. Further increases of Hct with MetRBCs progressively returned MAP to baseline, which occurred at 62% Hct, a 30% increase in Hct from baseline. These observations show a parabolic "U" shaped distribution of MAP against the change in Hct. Cardiac index, cardiac output divided by body weight, increased between 2 and 17% above baseline for the range of Hcts tested. Peripheral vascular resistance (VR) was decreased 18% from baseline when Hct was increased 12% from baseline. VR and MAP were above baseline for increases in Hct higher than 30%. However, vascular hindrance, VR normalized by blood viscosity (which reflects the contribution of vascular geometry), was lower than baseline for all the increases in Hct tested with MetRBC, indicating prevalence of vasodilation. These suggest that acute increases in Hct with MetRBCs increase endothelium shear stress and stimulate the production of vasoactive factors (e.g., nitric oxide [NO]). When MetRBCs were compared with functional RBCs, vasodilation was augmented for MetRBCs probably due to the lower NO scavenging of MetHb. Consequently, MetRBCs increased the viscosity related hypotension range compared with functional RBCs as NO shear stress vasodilation mediated responses are greater.

  16. BLOOD PRESSURE CHANGE WITH AGE IN SALT-SENSITIVE TEENAGERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Ye; Zhi-quan Liu; Jian-jun Mu; Xi-han Fu; Jun Yang; Bao-lin Gao; Xiao-hong Zhang

    2004-01-01

    Objective To observe blood pressure change with age in salt-sensitive teenagers whose salt sensitivity were determined by repeated testing.Methods Salt sensitivity was determined through intravenous infusion of normal saline combined with volume-depletion by oral diuretic furosemide in 55 teenagers. After five years, salt sensitivity was re-examined and subject blood pressure was followed up. Blood pressure changes in salt-sensitive teenagers were compared to that of non-salt sensitive teenagers over five years.Results After 5 years, the repetition rate of salt sensitivity determined by intravenous saline loading is 92.7%. In teenagers with salt sensitivity on the baseline, both the systolic blood pressure increments and increment rates were much higher than non-salt sensitive teenagers (12.7±12.1 mmHg vs. 2.8±5.2 mmHg, P< 0.01; 12.2%± 12.0% vs. 2.5% ±4.4%, P< 0.001,respectively). There was a similar trend for diastolic blood pressure (8.4 ± 6.4 mmHg vs. 3.7 ± 6.4 mmHg, P = 0.052; 13.2% ±10.6 % vs. 6.8%± 10.1%, P = 0.053, respectively).Conclusions Salt sensitivity determined by intravenous saline loading showed good reproducibility. Blood pressure increments with age were much higher in salt-sensitive teenagers than non-salt sensitive teenagers, especially in terms of systolic blood pressure.

  17. Working meeting on blood pressure measurement: suggestions for measuring blood pressure to use in populations surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-11-01

    As part of the Pan American Hypertension Initiative (PAHI), the Pan American Health Organization and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of the National Institutes of Health of the United States of America conducted a working meeting to discuss blood pressure (BP) measurement methods used in various hypertension prevalence surveys and clinical trials, with the objective of developing a BP measurement protocol for use in hypertension prevalence surveys in the Americas. No such common protocol has existed in the Americas, so it has been difficult to compare hypertension prevention and intervention strategies. This piece describes a proposed standard method for measuring blood pressure for use in population surveys in the Region of the Americas. The piece covers: considerations for developing a common blood pressure measurement protocol, critical issues in measuring blood pressure in national surveys, minimum procedures for blood pressure measurement during surveillance, and quality assessment of blood pressure.

  18. Dietary fiber and blood pressure control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleixandre, A; Miguel, M

    2016-04-01

    In the past few years, new strategies to control blood pressure levels are emerging by developing new bioactive components of foods. Fiber has been linked to the prevention of a number of cardiovascular diseases and disorders. β-Glucan, the main soluble fiber component in oat grains, was initially linked to a reduction in plasma cholesterol. Several studies have shown afterward that dietary fiber may also improve glycaemia, insulin resistance and weight loss. The effect of dietary fiber on arterial blood pressure has been the subject of far fewer studies than its effect on the above-mentioned variables, but research has already shown that fiber intake can decrease arterial blood pressure in hypertensive rats. Moreover, certain fibers can improve arterial blood pressure when administered to hypertensive and pre-hypertensive subjects. The present review summarizes all those studies which attempt to establish the antihypertensive effects of dietary fiber, as well as its effect on other cardiovascular risk factors.

  19. High Blood Pressure May Hike Dementia Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_161398.html High Blood Pressure May Hike Dementia Risk New statement from American Heart Association warns ... in middle age, might open the door to dementia, the American Heart Association warns in a new ...

  20. Birth weight and childhood blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edvardsson, Vidar O; Steinthorsdottir, Sandra D; Eliasdottir, Sigridur B; Indridason, Olafur S; Palsson, Runolfur

    2012-12-01

    A large body of literature suggests an inverse relationship between birth weight and blood pressure in children, adolescents and adults. The most persistent findings have been observed in children with a history of low birth weight or intrauterine growth restriction, while a large number of studies carried out in populations with normally distributed birth weight have shown conflicting results. A recently reported strong direct association between high birth weight and blood pressure, and the significant positive effect of postnatal growth on blood pressure suggests that the fetal origins of adult disease hypothesis should be expanded to include the role of excessive fetal and postnatal growth. In this paper, we review recent studies on the relationship between birth weight and blood pressure in childhood, with a focus on confounding variables that may explain the conflicting results of published work in this field.

  1. High Blood Pressure: Medicines to Help You

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... names are given for the drugs in each group.Find your drug. Then read some basic information about your kind of drug. Types of High Blood Pressure Medicines ACE Inhibitors Beta Blockers Calcium Channel Blockers ...

  2. Blood pressure circadian rhythm and obesity: Blood pressure variations and obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despotović Nebojša

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The association between obesity and arterial hypertension has been established in a great number of studies. Our objective was to investigate whether circadian rhythm of blood pressure is disturbed among obese people. Material and methods In this cross-sectional, randomized study, Schiller BR-102 device was used for ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. One hundred and twenty outpatients were divided into three randomized groups: obese body mass index 30 kg/m2 (52 patients, overweight (28 patients, with body mass index 25,0-29,9 kg/m2 and normal weight (control group (48 patients, with body mass index 18,5-24,9 kg/m2. In all patients we investigated the following blood pressure parameters: average blood pressure (total, day-time and night-time, maximal blood pressure and dipping or non-dipping blood pressure pattern during night (for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively. Results In body mass index beyond 30 kg/m2 only systolic blood pressure parameters were significantly higher - average blood pressure - during daytime (P=0.034 and during night (P=0.014; maximal blood pressure (P=0.001. In body mass index beyond 30 kg/m2, absence of normal blood pressure during night was significantly more often registered (P=0.007. Discussion and Conclusion The non-dipping blood pressure pattern and increase of systolic blood pressure only reveal hyper activation of sympathetic nervous system as a leading pathophysiological mechanism causing arterial hypertension in obese patients.

  3. Predictive role of the nighttime blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tine W; Li, Yan; Boggia, José;

    2011-01-01

    Numerous studies addressed the predictive value of the nighttime blood pressure (BP) as captured by ambulatory monitoring. However, arbitrary cutoff limits in dichotomized analyses of continuous variables, data dredging across selected subgroups, extrapolation of cross-sectional studies to prospe......Numerous studies addressed the predictive value of the nighttime blood pressure (BP) as captured by ambulatory monitoring. However, arbitrary cutoff limits in dichotomized analyses of continuous variables, data dredging across selected subgroups, extrapolation of cross-sectional studies...

  4. Blood pressure regulation in diabetic autonomic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J

    1985-01-01

    experimental situations insufficient contraction of resistance vessels has been demonstrated. The vasoconstrictor defects demonstrated are of a magnitude sufficient to account for the prevailing hypotension. Furthermore, during exercise cardiac output is low in patients with autonomic neuropathy, a finding...... blood pressure fall ensues in patients with autonomic neuropathy, probably due to excessive muscular vasodilation. It is unresolved why blood pressure regulation is intact during hypoglycemia and severely impaired--at similar catecholamine concentrations--during epinephrine infusions....

  5. Cocoa, blood pressure, and cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Claudio; Desideri, Giovambattista; Ferri, Livia; Proietti, Ilenia; Di Agostino, Stefania; Martella, Letizia; Mai, Francesca; Di Giosia, Paolo; Grassi, Davide

    2015-11-18

    High blood pressure is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular events worldwide. Clinical and epidemiological studies suggest that cocoa-rich products reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. According to this, cocoa has a high content in polyphenols, especially flavanols. Flavanols have been described to exert favorable effects on endothelium-derived vasodilation via the stimulation of nitric oxide-synthase, the increased availability of l-arginine, and the decreased degradation of NO. Cocoa may also have a beneficial effect by protecting against oxidative stress alterations and via decreased platelet aggregation, decreased lipid oxidation, and insulin resistance. These effects are associated with a decrease of blood pressure and a favorable trend toward a reduction in cardiovascular events and strokes. Previous meta-analyses have shown that cocoa-rich foods may reduce blood pressure. Long-term trials investigating the effect of cocoa products are needed to determine whether or not blood pressure is reduced on a chronic basis by daily ingestion of cocoa. Furthermore, long-term trials investigating the effect of cocoa on clinical outcomes are also needed to assess whether cocoa has an effect on cardiovascular events. A 3 mmHg systolic blood pressure reduction has been estimated to decrease the risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. This paper summarizes new findings concerning cocoa effects on blood pressure and cardiovascular health, focusing on putative mechanisms of action and "nutraceutical " viewpoints.

  6. Detection of atmospheric pressure loading using very long baseline interferometry measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandam, T. M.; Herring, T. A.

    1994-01-01

    Loading of the Earth by the temporal redistribution of global atmospheric mass is likely to displace the positions of geodetic monuments by tens of millimeters both vertically and horizontally. Estimates of these displacements are determined by convolving National Meteorological Center (NMC) global values of atmospheric surface pressure with Farrell's elastic Green's functions. An analysis of the distances between radio telescopes determined by very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) between 1984 and 1992 reveals that in many of the cases studied there is a significant contribution to baseline length change due to atmospheric pressure loading. Our analysis covers intersite distances of between 1000 and 10,000 km and is restricted to those baselines measured more than 100 times. Accounting for the load effects (after first removing a best fit slope) reduces the weighted root-mean-square (WRMS) scatter of the baseline length residuals on 11 of the 22 baselines investigated. The slight degradation observed in the WRMS scatter on the remaining baselines is largely consistent with the expected statistical fluctuations when a small correction is applied to a data set having a much larger random noise. The results from all baselines are consistent with approximately 60% of the computed pressure contribution being present in the VLBI length determinations. Site dependent coefficients determined by fitting local pressure to the theoretical radial displacement are found to reproduce the deformation caused by the regional pressure to within 25% for most inland sites. The coefficients are less reliable at near coastal and island stations.

  7. Clitoral blood flow increases following vaginal pressure stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoisier, P; Aloui, R; Schmidt, M H; Watrelot, A

    1995-02-01

    The vascular responses of clitoral arteries to vaginal pressure stimulation in 10 volunteer women were evaluated by Doppler ultrasonography. Pressure stimulations (20-160 mm Hg) along the lower third of the vagina increased blood velocity and flow into clitoral arteries in 9 of the 10 women. The latency and duration of the Doppler responses ranged from 0.1 to 1.6 sec and from 3.2 to 9.5 sec, respectively, and the response was associated with a blood flow increase of 4 to 11 times the baseline prestimulation level. This response parallels that recorded in the cavernous arteries in men when a similar range of pressure stimulations are applied to the glans penis. Similar responses evoked in the male and female suggest a sexual synergy that may occur during intercourse in that such physiological responses and reflexes may be reciprocally reinforced.

  8. What about African Americans and High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ANSWERS by heart Lifestyle + Risk Reduction High Blood Pressure What About African Americans and High Blood Pressure? The prevalence of high blood pressure in African Americans is among the highest in ...

  9. Yoga Called Good Medicine for High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_162446.html Yoga Called Good Medicine for High Blood Pressure People who added this practice to a healthy ... elevated blood pressure] are likely to develop hypertension [high blood pressure] unless they improve their lifestyle," said study author ...

  10. Can Weight Loss Reduce the Need for Blood Pressure Medication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... weight loss reduce the need for blood pressure medication? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. If ... possible to reduce your dose of blood pressure medication — or stop taking your blood pressure medication completely. ...

  11. Blood Pressure Quiz | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: High Blood Pressure Blood Pressure Quiz Past Issues / Fall 2011 Table of Contents Blood pressure changes throughout the day. It… is highest while ...

  12. Too Many Americans Have High Blood Pressure, Doctors Warn

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_163468.html Too Many Americans Have High Blood Pressure, Doctors Warn With February designated National Heart Month, ... physicians warns that too many Americans struggle with high blood pressure. High blood pressure is a major risk factor ...

  13. Longitudinal assessment of high blood pressure in children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey B Schwimmer

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD affects 9.6% of children and may put these children at elevated risk of high blood pressure and subsequent cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Therefore, we sought to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for high blood pressure in children with NAFLD.Cohort study performed by the NIDDK NASH Clinical Research Network. There were 484 children with NAFLD ages 2 to 17 at enrollment; 382 children were assessed both at enrollment and 48 weeks afterwards. The main outcomes were high blood pressure at baseline and persistent high blood pressure at both baseline and 48 weeks.Prevalence of high blood pressure at baseline was 35.8% and prevalence of persistent high blood pressure was 21.4%. Children with high blood pressure were significantly more likely to have worse steatosis than children without high blood pressure (mild 19.8% vs. 34.2%, moderate 35.0% vs. 30.7%, severe 45.2% vs. 35.1%; P = 0.003. Higher body mass index, low-density lipoprotein, and uric acid were independent risk factors for high blood pressure (Odds Ratios: 1.10 per kg/m2, 1.09 per 10 mg/dL, 1.25 per mg/dL, respectively. Compared to boys, girls with NAFLD were significantly more likely to have persistent high blood pressure (28.4% vs.18.9%; P = 0.05.In conclusion, NAFLD is a common clinical problem that places children at substantial risk for high blood pressure, which may often go undiagnosed. Thus blood pressure evaluation, control, and monitoring should be an integral component of the clinical management of children with NAFLD.

  14. Intrathoracic Pressure Regulator for Blood Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-24

    reduce the fluid burden of hemorrhage. Based on group -to- group comparisons, ITPR had limited effect on improving mean arterial pressure and other...between the two groups . Mean arterial pressure showed a steady decrease from the beginning of the study until device placement, but showed no difference...AFRL-SA-WP-SR-2016-0006 Intrathoracic Pressure Regulator for Blood Loss Richard D. Branson, RRT University of Cincinnati

  15. Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in Clinical Practice: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, J. Rick; Viera, Anthony J.; Shimbo, Daichi

    2014-01-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring offers the ability to collect blood pressure readings several times an hour across a 24-hour period. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring facilitates the identification of white-coat hypertension, the phenomenon whereby certain individuals who are not on antihypertensive medication show elevated blood pressure in a clinical setting but show non-elevated blood pressure averages when assessed by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Additionally, readings ca...

  16. Beat-to-Beat Blood Pressure Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Jin

    2012-01-01

    This device provides non-invasive beat-to-beat blood pressure measurements and can be worn over the upper arm for prolonged durations. Phase and waveform analyses are performed on filtered proximal and distal photoplethysmographic (PPG) waveforms obtained from the brachial artery. The phase analysis is used primarily for the computation of the mean arterial pressure, while the waveform analysis is used primarily to obtain the pulse pressure. Real-time compliance estimate is used to refine both the mean arterial and pulse pressures to provide the beat-to-beat blood pressure measurement. This wearable physiological monitor can be used to continuously observe the beat-to-beat blood pressure (B3P). It can be used to monitor the effect of prolonged exposures to reduced gravitational environments and the effectiveness of various countermeasures. A number of researchers have used pulse wave velocity (PWV) of blood in the arteries to infer the beat-to-beat blood pressure. There has been documentation of relative success, but a device that is able to provide the required accuracy and repeatability has not yet been developed. It has been demonstrated that an accurate and repeatable blood pressure measurement can be obtained by measuring the phase change (e.g., phase velocity), amplitude change, and distortion of the PPG waveforms along the brachial artery. The approach is based on comparing the full PPG waveform between two points along the artery rather than measuring the time-of-flight. Minimizing the measurement separation and confining the measurement area to a single, well-defined artery allows the waveform to retain the general shape between the two measurement points. This allows signal processing of waveforms to determine the phase and amplitude changes.

  17. Blood Pressure Percentiles for School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Özanli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The prevalence of hypertension in childhood and adolescence is gradually increasing. We aimed to in­vestigate the blood pressure (BP values of children aged 7-18 years. Methods: This study was conducted in a total of 3375 (1777 females, 1598 males children from 27 schools. Blood pressures of children were measured using sphyg­momanometer appropriate to arm circumference. Results: A positive relationship was found between sys­tolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP and the body weight, height, age and body mass index (BMI in male and female children. SBP was high­er in males than females after the age of 13. DBP was higher in males than the females after the age of 14. The mean annual increase of SBP was 2.06 mmHg in males and 1.54 mmHg in females. The mean annual increase of DBP was 1.52 mmHg in males and 1.38 mmHg in fe­males. Conclusion: In this study, we identified the threshold val­ues for blood pressure in children between the age of 7 and 18 years in Erzurum province. It is necessary to com­bine and evaluate data obtained from various regions for the identification of BP percentiles according to the age, gender and height percentiles of Turkish children.

  18. Blood pressure in childhood : epidemiological probes into the aetiology of high blood pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Hofman (Albert)

    1983-01-01

    textabstractHigh arterial blood pressure takes a heavy toll in western populations (1 ). Its causes are still largely unknown, but its sequelae, a variety of cardiovascular and renal diseases, have been referred to as "a modern scourge" (2). High blood pressure of unknown cause, or essential hyperte

  19. [Blood pressure and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiałka, Marta; Milewicz, Tomasz; Klocek, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder occurring in women of childbearing age. The literature describes the relationship between PCOS and high blood pressure levels and increased risk of arterial hypertension development, which is an important and strong risk factor for adverse cardiovascular events in the future. Among the main causes of hypertension in PCOS women insulin resistance, hyperandrogenism, greater sympathetic nerve activity and concomitance of obesity are stressed. Because PCOS may contribute to earlier development of hypertension, as well as pre-hypertension, therefore it is advisable to monitor blood pressure systematically, to control known risk factors, and to initiate the treatment of hypertension when the disease occur.

  20. An implantable blood pressure and flow transmitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, R. D.; Meehan, J. P.; Henriksen, J. K. C.

    1973-01-01

    A miniature totally implantable FM/FM telemetry system has been developed to simultaneously measure blood pressure and blood flow, thus providing an appreciation of the hemodynamics of the circulation to the entire body or to a particular organ. Developed for work with animal subjects, the telemetry system's transmission time is controlled by an RF signal that permits an operating life of several months. Pressure is detected by a miniature intravascular transducer and flow is detected by an extravascular interferometric ultrasonic technique. Both pressure and flow are calibrated prior to implanting. The pressure calibration can be checked after the implanting by cannulation; flow calibration can be verified only at the end of the experiment by determining the voltage output from the implanted sensing system as a function of several measured flow rates. The utility of this device has been established by its use in investigating canine renal circulation during exercise, emotional encounters, administration of drugs, and application of accelerative forces.

  1. Dietary phosphorus and blood pressure: international study of macro- and micro-nutrients and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Paul; Kesteloot, Hugo; Appel, Lawrence J; Dyer, Alan R; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Chan, Queenie; Brown, Ian J; Zhao, Liancheng; Stamler, Jeremiah

    2008-03-01

    Raised blood pressure is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide; improved nutritional approaches to population-wide prevention are required. Few data are available on dietary phosphorus and blood pressure and none are available on possible combined effects of phosphorus, magnesium, and calcium on blood pressure. The International Study of Macro- and Micro-Nutrients and Blood Pressure is a cross-sectional epidemiologic study of 4680 men and women ages 40 to 59 from 17 population samples in Japan, China, United Kingdom, and United States. Blood pressure was measured 8 times at 4 visits. Dietary intakes were obtained from four 24-hour recalls plus data on supplement use. Dietary phosphorus was inversely associated with blood pressure in a series of predefined multiple regression models, with the successive addition of potential confounders, both nondietary and dietary. Estimated blood pressure differences per 232 mg/1000 kcal (2 SD) of higher dietary phosphorus were -1.1 to -2.3 mm Hg systolic/-0.6 to -1.5 mm Hg diastolic (n=4680) and -1.6 to -3.5 mm Hg systolic/-0.8 to -1.8 mm Hg diastolic for 2238 "nonintervened" individuals, ie, those without special diet/nutritional supplements or diagnosis/treatment for cardiovascular disease or diabetes. Dietary calcium and magnesium, correlated with phosphorus (partial r=0.71 and r=0.68), were inversely associated with blood pressure. Blood pressures were lower by 1.9 to 4.2 mm Hg systolic/1.2 to 2.4 mm Hg diastolic for people with intakes above versus below country-specific medians for all 3 of the minerals. These results indicate the potential for increased phosphorus/mineral intake to lower blood pressure as part of the recommendations for healthier eating patterns for the prevention and control of prehypertension and hypertension.

  2. Dysglycemia induces abnormal circadian blood pressure variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumarasamy Sivarajan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prediabetes (PreDM in asymptomatic adults is associated with abnormal circadian blood pressure variability (abnormal CBPV. Hypothesis Systemic inflammation and glycemia influence circadian blood pressure variability. Methods Dahl salt-sensitive (S rats (n = 19 after weaning were fed either an American (AD or a standard (SD diet. The AD (high-glycemic-index, high-fat simulated customary human diet, provided daily overabundant calories which over time lead to body weight gain. The SD (low-glycemic-index, low-fat mirrored desirable balanced human diet for maintaining body weight. Body weight and serum concentrations for fasting glucose (FG, adipokines (leptin and adiponectin, and proinflammatory cytokines [monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α] were measured. Rats were surgically implanted with C40 transmitters and blood pressure (BP-both systolic; SBP and diastolic; DBP and heart rate (HR were recorded by telemetry every 5 minutes during both sleep (day and active (night periods. Pulse pressure (PP was calculated (PP = SBP-DBP. Results [mean(SEM]: The AD fed group displayed significant increase in body weight (after 90 days; p Conclusion These data validate our stated hypothesis that systemic inflammation and glycemia influence circadian blood pressure variability. This study, for the first time, demonstrates a cause and effect relationship between caloric excess, enhanced systemic inflammation, dysglycemia, loss of blood pressure control and abnormal CBPV. Our results provide the fundamental basis for examining the relationship between dysglycemia and perturbation of the underlying mechanisms (adipose tissue dysfunction induced local and systemic inflammation, insulin resistance and alteration of adipose tissue precursors for the renin-aldosterone-angiotensin system which generate abnormal CBPV.

  3. 1 in 7 Obese People Has Normal Blood Pressure, Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in 7 Obese People Has Normal Blood Pressure, Cholesterol But that doesn't mean the excess weight ... people studied, 14 percent had normal blood sugar, cholesterol and blood pressure readings, the study found. Doctors ...

  4. High Blood Pressure and Children: What Parents Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung, and Blood Institute Alternate Language URL Español High Blood Pressure and Children: What Parents Need to Know Page Content Children can have high blood pressure. Did you know that children could have high ...

  5. Euglycemic clamp insulin sensitivity and longitudinal systolic blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrie, John R; Malik, Muhammad Omar; Balkau, Beverley;

    2013-01-01

    and Cardiovascular disease (RISC) study, we measured insulin sensitivity (M/I) using the euglycemic clamp technique in 1073 healthy European adults (587 women, 486 men) aged 30 to 60 years followed up 3 years later. Systolic BP (SBP) at baseline was higher in insulin-resistant women (ie, those in the low sex......Insulin resistance may be an independent risk factor for the development of hypertension, but change in blood pressure (BP) over time has not been adequately studied in healthy individuals fully characterized for insulin sensitivity. In the Relationship between Insulin Sensitivity...

  6. Blood pressure modifies retinal susceptibility to intraocular pressure elevation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng He

    Full Text Available Primary open angle glaucoma affects more than 67 million people. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP is a risk factor for glaucoma and may reduce nutrient availability by decreasing ocular perfusion pressure (OPP. An interaction between arterial blood pressure and IOP determines OPP; but the exact contribution that these factors have for retinal function is not fully understood. Here we sought to determine how acute modifications of arterial pressure will affect the susceptibility of neuronal function and blood flow to IOP challenge. Anaesthetized (ketamine:xylazine Long-Evan rats with low (∼60 mmHg, sodium nitroprusside infusion, moderate (∼100 mmHg, saline, or high levels (∼160 mmHg, angiotensin II of mean arterial pressure (MAP, n = 5-10 per group were subjected to IOP challenge (10-120 mmHg, 5 mmHg steps every 3 minutes. Electroretinograms were measured at each IOP step to assess bipolar cell (b-wave and inner retinal function (scotopic threshold response or STR. Ocular blood flow was measured using laser-Doppler flowmetry in groups with similar MAP level and the same IOP challenge protocol. Both b-wave and STR amplitudes decreased with IOP elevation. Retinal function was less susceptible to IOP challenge when MAP was high, whereas the converse was true for low MAP. Consistent with the effects on retinal function, higher IOP was needed to attenuated ocular blood flow in animals with higher MAP. The susceptibility of retinal function to IOP challenge can be ameliorated by acute high BP, and exacerbated by low BP. This is partially mediated by modifications in ocular blood flow.

  7. Ethnic Variations in Blood Pressure and Hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.O. Agyemang (Charles)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe objective of the study was to review published evidence on whether blood pressure levels and the prevalence of hypertension are higher or lower in South Asian adults living in the UK as compared to white populations. A systematic literature review was carried out using MEDLINE 196

  8. Teaming Up Against High Blood Pressure

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-09-04

    This podcast is based on the September 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. A team-based approach by patients, health care systems, and health care providers is one of the best ways to treat uncontrolled high blood pressure.  Created: 9/4/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 9/4/2012.

  9. Dietary protein, blood pressure and mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielemans, S.M.A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the main cause of death worldwide. In 2012, about 17.5 million people died from CVD, accounting for 30% of all deaths. High blood pressure (BP) is a major cardiovascular risk factor, which was responsible for 10.4 million deaths in 2013. Diet and lifestyle play an i

  10. Ethnicity, education, and blood pressure in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordunez, Pedro; Munoz, Jose Luis Bernal; Espinosa-Brito, Alfredo; Silva, Luis Carlos; Cooper, Richard S

    2005-07-01

    The causes of variation in hypertension risk by ethnicity and educational level are not well understood. To gain further insight into this issue in a nonindustrialized country, a population-based sample of 1,667 persons aged 15-74 years was recruited in Cienfuegos, Cuba. In this 2001-2002 study, interviewers classified 29% of participants as Black or mulatto and 71% as White. Educational attainment was stratified at the median number of school years. Compared with White women, non-White women had higher blood pressures (3.0/1.7, systolic blood pressure/diastolic blood pressure) and a higher prevalence of hypertension (24%, 95% confidence interval: 20, 28 vs. 15%, 95% confidence interval: 12, 18). Among men, no differences in blood pressure were observed by ethnicity. Men with a lower level of education had a 14% lower risk of hypertension compared with men above the median. However, women with a lower level of education had a 24% increase in risk. The effect of education was equally strong among Whites alone and when occupation was used for stratification. No variation was observed for body mass index or self-reported health behaviors by ethnicity or education. The narrower ethnic gradient in hypertension prevalence than seen in North America and the gender-specific social status effect, in the context of relatively equal living conditions, suggest that the influence of psychosocial stressors may be specific to cultural contexts.

  11. Familial Aggregation and Childhood Blood Pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Xiaoling; Xu, Xiaojing; Su, Shaoyong; Snieder, Harold

    2015-01-01

    There is growing concern about elevated blood pressure (BP) in children. The evidence for familial aggregation of childhood BP is substantial. Twin studies have shown that a large part of the familial aggregation of childhood BP is due to genes. The first part of this review provides the latest prog

  12. Neighborhood Disadvantage and Variations in Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathorall, Michelle L.; Xin, Huaibo; Peachey, Andrew; Bibeau, Daniel L.; Schulz, Mark; Aronson, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the extent to which neighborhood disadvantage accounts for variation in blood pressure. Methods: Demographic, biometric, and self-reported data from 19,261 health screenings were used. Addresses of participants were geocoded and located within census block groups (n = 14,510, 75.3%). Three hierarchical linear models were…

  13. Renoprotection with and without blood pressure reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laverman, GD; Andersen, S; Rossing, P; Navis, G; de Zeeuw, D; Parving, HH

    2005-01-01

    Background. AT1-receptor blockade dose dependently lowers blood pressure (BP) and albuminuria. Reduction of BP and albuminuria are independent treatment targets for renoprotection, but whether this requires similar dose titration is unknown. Methods. We tested this in two studies designed to find th

  14. Baseline blood levels of manganese, lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc in residents of Beijing suburb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Long-Lian, E-mail: Longlian57@163.com [Department of Occupational Diseases Control and Prevention, Fengtai Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100071 (China); Lu, Ling [Department of Occupational Diseases Control and Prevention, Fengtai Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100071 (China); Pan, Ya-Juan; Ding, Chun-Guang [Institute for Occupational Health and Poison Control in China Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Beijing 100050 (China); Xu, Da-Yong [Department of Occupational Diseases Control and Prevention, Fengtai Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100071 (China); Huang, Chuan-Feng; Pan, Xing-Fu [Institute for Occupational Health and Poison Control in China Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Beijing 100050 (China); Zheng, Wei, E-mail: wzheng@purdue.edu [School of Health Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Baseline blood concentrations of metals are important references for monitoring metal exposure in environmental and occupational settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the blood levels of manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) among the residents (aged 12–60 years old) living in the suburb southwest of Beijing in China and to compare the outcomes with reported values in various developed countries. Blood samples were collected from 648 subjects from March 2009 to February 2010. Metal concentrations in the whole blood were determined by ICP-MS. The geometric means of blood levels of Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were 11.4, 802.4, 4665, 42.6, and 0.68 µg/L, respectively. Male subjects had higher blood Pb than the females, while the females had higher blood Mn and Cu than the males. There was no gender difference for blood Cd and Zn. Smokers had higher blood Cu, Zn, and Cd than nonsmokers. There were significant age-related differences in blood levels of all metals studied; subjects in the 17–30 age group had higher blood levels of Mn, Pb, Cu, and Zn, while those in the 46–60 age group had higher Cd than the other age groups. A remarkably lower blood level of Cu and Zn in this population as compared with residents of other developed countries was noticed. Based on the current study, the normal reference ranges for the blood Mn were estimated to be 5.80–25.2 μg/L; for blood Cu, 541–1475 μg/L; for blood Zn, 2349–9492 μg/L; for blood Pb, <100 μg/L; and for blood Cd, <5.30 μg/L in the general population living in Beijing suburbs. - Highlights: • Baseline blood levels of metals in residents of Beijing suburb are investigated. • BMn and BPb in this cohort are higher than those in other developed countries. • Remarkably lower blood levels of Cu and Zn in this Chinese cohort are noticed. • The reference values for blood levels of Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd are established.

  15. Blood pressure and control of cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith A Whitworth

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Judith A WhitworthJohn Curtin School of Medical Research, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, AustraliaAbstract: Two key early 20th century notions, the first the primacy of diastolic pressure in determining risk, and the second that hypertension is a discrete disorder, have proved to be incorrect. We now recognize the primacy of systolic pressure as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and that hypertension is an arbitrary definition. In the early 21st century, we are moving away from a dichotomous approach to risk classification, and away from notions of hypertension and normotension towards an appreciation that blood pressure-related risk is continuous. In parallel, there has been a paradigm shift from a single risk factor approach to comprehensive cardiovascular disease risk prevention. Accordingly, prevention of cardiovascular disease requires a focus on lowering of blood pressure and modification of associated risk factors rather than simply treatment of hypertension. This emphasis is reflected in the World Health Organization (WHO – International Society of Hypertension (ISH 2003 statement on management of hypertension.Keywords: blood pressure, hypertension, cardiovascular risk, treatment

  16. Evaluation of the baseline Widal titres in healthy blood donors of Uttarakhand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garima Mittal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The interpretation of Widal test depends upon the baseline titre which is prevalent amongst healthy individuals in a particular geographical area. Aim and Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the baseline Widal titre of the apparently healthy population of a tertiary care centre of Uttarakhand. Material and Methods: Blood samples were collected from healthy blood donors (n=500 of the age group of 18-60 years, of both the sexes, who attended our blood bank from September 2013 to November 2013 and were analyzed for the presence of Salmonella antibodies by carrying out the Widal tube agglutination test. Results: Of the 500 serum samples which were tested, 255 (51% serum samples were positive for agglutinins (≥ 1:20 and 245 were negative. The most frequently recorded titre of the reactive sera was 1:40 for the anti-O antibodies and 1:80 for the anti-H antibodies for Salmonella enterica serotype typhi and this was the baseline titre. While the baseline titre of the ‘H’ agglutinins of Salmonella enterica serotype paratyphi A was 1:20 and of paratyphi B was also1:20. Conclusions: Based on the results of our study, it has been recommended that the significant titre of 1:80 for the anti-O antibodies and of 1:160 for the anti-H antibodies may be considered as diagnostic for enteric fever in the region of Uttarakhand, India.

  17. Influence of high glycemic index and glycemic load diets on blood pressure during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, Bamini; Flood, Victoria M; Rochtchina, Elena; Baur, Louise A; Smith, Wayne; Mitchell, Paul

    2012-06-01

    We aimed to prospectively examine the association between the glycemic index and glycemic load of foods consumed and the dietary intakes of carbohydrates, sugars, fiber, and principal carbohydrate-containing food groups (eg, breads, cereals, and sugary drinks) with changes in blood pressure during adolescence. A total of 858 students aged 12 years at baseline (422 girls and 436 boys) were examined from 2004-2005 to 2009-2011. Dietary data were assessed from validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires. Blood pressure was measured using a standard protocol. In girls, after adjusting for age, ethnicity, parental education, parental history of hypertension, baseline height, baseline blood pressure, change in body mass index, and time spent in physical and sedentary activities, each 1-SD (1-SD = 7.10 g/d) increase in baseline dietary intake of total fiber was associated with a 0.96-, 0.62-, and 0.75-mmHg decrease in mean systolic (P = 0.02), diastolic (P = 0.01), and arterial blood pressures (P = 0.002), respectively, 5 years later. In girls, each 1-SD increase in dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, carbohydrate, and fructose was concurrently related to increases of 1.81 (P = 0.001), 4.02 (P = 0.01), 4.74 (P = 0.01), and 1.80 mm Hg (P = 0.03) in systolic blood pressure, respectively, >5 years. Significant associations between carbohydrate nutrition variables and blood pressure were not observed among boys. Excessive dietary intake of carbohydrates, specifically from high glycemic index/glycemic load foods, could adversely influence blood pressure, particularly in girls, whereas fiber-rich diets may be protective against elevated blood pressure during adolescence.

  18. [Measurement of blood pressure variability and the clinical value].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kékes, Ede; Kiss, István

    2014-10-19

    Authors have collected and analyzed literature data on blood pressure variability. They present the methods of blood pressure variability measurement, clinical value and relationships with target organ damages and risk of presence of cardiovascular events. They collect data about the prognostic value of blood pressure variability and the effects of different antihypertensive drugs on blood pressure variability. They underline that in addition to reduction of blood pressure to target value, it is essential to influence blood pressure fluctuation and decrease blood pressure variability, because blood pressure fluctuation presents a major threat for the hypertensive subjects. Data from national studies are also presented. They welcome that measurement of blood pressure variability has been included in international guidelines.

  19. 21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870.1100...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts the signal from a blood...

  20. Meta-analysis of timolol on diurnal and nighttime intraocular pressure and blood pressure.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lee, Princeton Wen-Yuan

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the nighttime intraocular pressure (IOP) and blood pressure (BP) response to timolol treatment in patients with ocular hypertension or primary open-angle glaucoma. METHODS: This was a meta-analysis of previously published studies that must have been randomized, prospective, crossover or parallel, single or double-masked trials. The treatment period must have been >\\/=2 weeks with >\\/=19 patients per treatment arm for a crossover, and >\\/=50 patients for a parallel designed trial. Studies must have included both baseline and treated 24-hour curves. RESULTS: For the IOP analysis, we included 8 articles with 340 patients. A reduction from baseline was observed for timolol at each time point and for the 24-hour curve (p<\\/=0.009). When 2 studies, in which timolol was used adjunctively, were removed, a similar difference was observed as above at each time point and for the 24-hour curve (p<\\/=0.003). In 2 studies, there were small reductions from baseline for the mean diastolic and systolic BPs at most time points and for the 24-hour curve (3.9 and 4.2 mmHg, respectively) with timolol treatment. The ocular perfusion pressure did not show any difference between baseline and timolol treatment at any time point or for the 24-hour curve (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis suggests that topical timolol therapy provides an ocular hypotensive effect over the 24-hour curve, including the nighttime hours, and while small reductions in the systolic and diastolic pressures occur, the ocular perfusion pressure is not altered over 24 hours.

  1. Dirty Air, High Blood Pressure Linked

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    应树道

    2001-01-01

    贵刊去年第6期曾刊登一短文,题目是:盐,迫升血压之元凶。读了该文,我开始严格控制每日的食盐摄入量,再附以药物治疗,血压果然趋于平稳。近日上网,遇一奇文,意思是人的血压与空气污染状况有涉!根据对2600个成年人的调查,得出了这样的结论:Pollution may cause changes in the part of the nervous system that controls blood pressure.文章又同时说明:Exactly how pollution might cause blood pressure to climb remains unclear.人体之奥妙由此可见一斑。

  2. Perinatal development and adult blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ashton

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence supports the concept of fetal programming in cardiovascular disease in man, which asserts that an insult experienced in utero exerts a long-term influence on cardiovascular function, leading to disease in adulthood. However, this hypothesis is not universally accepted, hence animal models may be of value in determining potential physiological mechanisms which could explain how fetal undernutrition results in cardiovascular disease in later life. This review describes two major animal models of cardiovascular programming, the in utero protein-restricted rat and the cross-fostered spontaneously hypertensive rat. In the former model, moderate maternal protein restriction during pregnancy induces an increase in offspring blood pressure of 20-30 mmHg. This hypertensive effect is mediated, in part, by fetal exposure to excess maternal glucocorticoids as a result of a deficiency in placental 11-ß hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2. Furthermore, nephrogenesis is impaired in this model which, coupled with increased activity of the renin-angiotensin system, could also contribute to the greater blood pressure displayed by these animals. The second model discussed is the cross-fostered spontaneously hypertensive rat. Spontaneously hypertensive rats develop severe hypertension without external intervention; however, their adult blood pressure may be lowered by 20-30 mmHg by cross-fostering pups to a normotensive dam within the first two weeks of lactation. The mechanisms responsible for this antihypertensive effect are less clear, but may also involve altered renal function and down-regulation of the renin-angiotensin system. These two models clearly show that adult blood pressure is influenced by exposure to one of a number of stimuli during critical stages of perinatal development.

  3. High blood pressure in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Margaret; Bluhm, Brian

    2012-04-01

    High blood pressure in children and adolescents is a growing health problem that is often overlooked by physicians. Normal blood pressure values for children and adolescents are based on age, sex, and height, and are available in standardized tables. Prehypertension is defined as a blood pressure in at least the 90th percentile, but less than the 95th percentile, for age, sex, and height, or a measurement of 120/80 mm Hg or greater. Hypertension is defined as blood pressure in the 95th percentile or greater. A secondary etiology of hypertension is much more likely in children than in adults, with renal parenchymal disease and renovascular disease being the most common. Overweight and obesity are strongly correlated with primary hypertension in children. A history and physical examination are needed for all children with newly diagnosed hypertension to help rule out underlying medical disorders. Children with hypertension should also be screened for other risk factors for cardiovascular disease, including diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia, and should be evaluated for target organ damage with a retinal examination and echocardiography. Hypertension in children is treated with lifestyle changes, including weight loss for those who are overweight or obese; a healthy, low-sodium diet; regular physical activity; and avoidance of tobacco and alcohol. Children with symptomatic hypertension, secondary hypertension, target organ damage, diabetes, or persistent hypertension despite nonpharmacologic measures should be treated with antihypertensive medications. Thiazide diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, beta blockers, and calcium channel blockers are safe, effective, and well tolerated in children.

  4. Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in the Elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Diego Mediavilla García; Fernando Jaén Águila; Celia Fernández Torres; Blas Gil Extremera; Juan Jiménez Alonso

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of hypertension is high in the elderly and is present in 2/3 of the patients older than 65 years. Prevalence can reach 90% in patients older than 80 years. The presence of isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) is characteristic of this population. However, the prevalence of hypertension by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) is not well known. In this study, we analyzed the special characteristics of hypertension in this population, giving special emphasis on ABPM readings.

  5. Blood pressure: trends, determinants and consequences.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leer, van E.

    1995-01-01

    Trends in blood pressure, prevalence and treatment of hypertension were studied in 30,000 men and women aged 37-43 years during the period 1974-1980, in 80,000 men aged 33-37 years during the period 1981-1986 and 36,000 in men and women aged 20-59 years during the period 1987-1991. Between 1974 and

  6. Regulation of blood pressure by dopamine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Pedro A; Eisner, Gilbert M; Felder, Robin A

    2003-01-01

    Dopamine is an important regulator of blood pressure. Its actions on renal hemodynamics, epithelial transport and humoral agents such as aldosterone, catecholamines, endothelin, prolactin, pro-opiomelanocortin, renin and vasopressin place it in central homeostatic position for regulation of extracellular fluid volume and blood pressure. Dopamine also modulates fluid and sodium intake via actions in the central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract, and by regulation of cardiovascular centers that control the functions of the heart, arteries and veins. Abnormalities in dopamine production and receptor function accompany a high percentage of human essential hypertension and several forms of rodent genetic hypertension. Some dopamine receptor genes and their regulators are in loci linked to hypertension in humans and in rodents. Furthermore, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of genes that regulate dopamine receptors, alone or via the interaction with SNPs of genes that regulate the renin-angiotensin system, are associated with human essential hypertension. Each of the five dopamine receptor subtypes (D1, D2, D3, D4 and D5) participates in the regulation of blood pressure by mechanisms specific for the subtype. Some receptors (D2 and D5) influence the central and/or peripheral nervous system; others influence epithelial transport and regulate the secretion and receptors of several humoral agents (e.g., the D1, D3 and D4 receptors interact with the renin-angiotensin system). Modifications of the usual actions of the receptor can produce blood pressure changes. In addition, abnormal functioning of these dopamine receptor subtypes impairs their antioxidant function.

  7. What Are the Signs, Symptoms, and Complications of High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Are the Signs, Symptoms, and Complications of High Blood Pressure? Because diagnosis is based on blood pressure readings, ... damaged from chronic high blood pressure. Complications of High Blood Pressure When blood pressure stays high over time, it ...

  8. Blood Pressure Control: Stroke and Stroke Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Christoph Diener

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is the most important modifiable risk factor for primary and secondary stroke prevention.All antihypertensive drugs are effective in primary prevention: the risk reduction for stroke is 30—42%. However, not all classes of drugs have the same effects: there is some indication that angiotensin receptor blockers may be superior to other classes of antihypertensive drugs in stroke prevention.Seventy-five percent of patients who present to hospital with acute stroke have elevated blood pressure within the first 24—48 hours. Extremes of systolic blood pressure (SBP increase the risk of death or dependency. The aim of treatment should be to achieve and maintain the SBP in the range 140—160 mmHg. However, fast and drastic blood pressure lowering can have adverse consequences.The PROGRESS trial of secondary prevention with perindopril + indapamide versus placebo + placebo showed a decrease in numbers of stroke recurrences in patients given both active antihypertensive agents, more impressive for cerebral haemorrhage.There were also indications that active treatment might decrease the development of post-stroke dementia.

  9. Ambulatory blood pressure values in healthy children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paripović Dušan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM is an important tool in the diagnosis and management of childhood hypertension. Normal ambulatory blood pressure (ABP values in children with body heights between 100 and 120 cm have not been reported. The aim of the study was to establish the normal range of values for ABPM in these children. 24-hour ABPM was performed in 40 normotensive (auscultatory casual blood pressure was obtained before ABPM subjects, aged from 4 to 6 years (26 males, 14 females with body heights between 95 and 125 cm. ABPM was carried out on non-dominant arm using the oscillometric device (SpaceLab 90207 with appropriate cuff size. The monitor was programmed to measure BP every 15 min. during the day (6 a.m. to 10 p.m. and every 30 min. during the night (10 p.m. to 6 a.m.. The mean daytime SBP/DBP in boys and girls was 108+/-6/67+/-5 and 105+/-5/66+/-1, respectively. The mean nighttime SBP/DBP in boys and girls was 98+/-6/56+/-5 and 97+/-7/56+/-4, respectively. There was a significant difference between day and night readings of SBP, DBP and heart rate (nocturnal fall was observed. The distribution of ABP noted in this study could serve as preliminary reference. A multicenter study should be performed to provide normal ranges of ABP.

  10. Dietary spermidine for lowering high blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Andreas; Schroeder, Sabrina; Pendl, Tobias; Harger, Alexandra; Stekovic, Slaven; Schipke, Julia; Magnes, Christoph; Schmidt, Albrecht; Ruckenstuhl, Christoph; Dammbrueck, Christopher; Gross, Angelina S; Herbst, Viktoria; Carmona-Gutierrez, Didac; Pietrocola, Federico; Pieber, Thomas R; Sigrist, Stephan J; Linke, Wolfgang A; Mühlfeld, Christian; Sadoshima, Junichi; Dengjel, Joern; Kiechl, Stefan; Kroemer, Guido; Sedej, Simon; Madeo, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Loss of cardiac macroautophagy/autophagy impairs heart function, and evidence accumulates that an increased autophagic flux may protect against cardiovascular disease. We therefore tested the protective capacity of the natural autophagy inducer spermidine in animal models of aging and hypertension, which both represent major risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease. Dietary spermidine elicits cardioprotective effects in aged mice through enhancing cardiac autophagy and mitophagy. In salt-sensitive rats, spermidine supplementation also delays the development of hypertensive heart disease, coinciding with reduced arterial blood pressure. The high blood pressure-lowering effect likely results from improved global arginine bioavailability and protection from hypertension-associated renal damage. The polyamine spermidine is naturally present in human diets, though to a varying amount depending on food type and preparation. In humans, high dietary spermidine intake correlates with reduced blood pressure and decreased risk of cardiovascular disease and related death. Altogether, spermidine represents a cardio- and vascular-protective autophagy inducer that can be readily integrated in common diets. PMID:28118075

  11. Ankle blood pressure as a predictor of total and cardiovascular mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hietanen, Heikki; Pääkkönen, Rauni; Salomaa, Veikko

    2008-01-01

    Background The ankle blood pressure is commonly used as a ratio to the brachial blood pressure, called ankle-brachial index (ABI). Very few studies have considered the independent value of the ankle blood pressure without indexing it to the brachial blood pressure. We examined the value of ankle blood pressure, together with the exercise blood pressure, as a predictor of cardiovascular (CVD) and total mortality. Methods A prospective follow-up study of 3,858 consecutive ambulatory patients (mean age 51 years, 65,9% male) referred to a symptom-limited exercise test between August 1989 and December 1995. The cohort was followed up for all-cause and CVD mortality until December 31, 2004, by record linkage with the National Causes-of-Death Register. The independent value of ankle blood pressure as a predictor of cardiovascular and total mortality was assessed using Cox proportional hazards modelling. Results The average follow-up time was 14 years, during which 346 persons died, 108 of them due to CVD. Persons with normal (<140 mmHg) resting brachial blood pressure, ankle blood pressure < 175 mmHg and exercise blood pressure at moderate exercise level ≤215 mmHg at baseline investigation, had the best prognosis and were taken as the reference category. Among persons with elevated ankle blood pressure (≥175 mmHg) but normal or borderline resting brachial pressure and normal exercise blood pressure (≤215 mmHg) at moderate exercise level the multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HR, 95% confidence interval) for CVD and total mortality were 2.70 (1.52 – 4.80) and 2.13 (1.58 – 2.85), respectively. Similar and equally significant HRs were observed in persons with both elevated ankle blood pressure and elevated exercise blood pressure, as well as in those persons with elevated exercise blood pressure but ankle blood pressure < 175 mmHg. Conclusion These results suggest that the ankle blood pressure has an independent value as a marker of arterial stiffness or

  12. Classification of High Blood Pressure Persons Vs Normal Blood Pressure Persons Using Voice Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saloni

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The human voice is remarkable, complex and delicate. All parts of the body play some role in voice production and may be responsible for voice dysfunction. The larynx contains muscles that are surrounded by blood vessels connected to circulatory system. The pressure of blood in these vessels should be related with dynamic variation of vocal cord parameters. These parameters are directly related with acoustic properties of speech. Acoustic voice analysis can be used to characterize the pathological voices. This paper presents the classification of high blood pressure and normal with the aid of voice signal recorded from the patients. Various features have been extracted from the voice signal of healthy persons and persons suffering from high blood pressure. Simulation results show differences in the parameter values of healthy and pathological persons. Then an optimum feature vector is prepared and kmean classification algorithm was implemented for data classification. The 79% classification efficiency was obtained.

  13. Blood pressure-lowering treatment based on cardiovascular risk : a meta-analysis of individual patient data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sundström, Johan; Arima, Hisatomi; Woodward, Mark; Jackson, Rod; Karmali, Kunal; Lloyd-Jones, Donald; Baigent, Colin; Emberson, Jonathan; Rahimi, Kazem; MacMahon, Stephen; Patel, Anushka; Perkovic, Vlado; Turnbull, Fiona; Neal, Bruce; de Zeeuw, Dick

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We aimed to investigate whether the benefits of blood pressure-lowering drugs are proportional to baseline cardiovascular risk, to establish whether absolute risk could be used to inform treatment decisions for blood pressure-lowering therapy, as is recommended for lipid-lowering therapy

  14. High blood pressure and visual sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisner, Alvin; Samples, John R.

    2003-09-01

    The study had two main purposes: (1) to determine whether the foveal visual sensitivities of people treated for high blood pressure (vascular hypertension) differ from the sensitivities of people who have not been diagnosed with high blood pressure and (2) to understand how visual adaptation is related to standard measures of systemic cardiovascular function. Two groups of middle-aged subjects-hypertensive and normotensive-were examined with a series of test/background stimulus combinations. All subjects met rigorous inclusion criteria for excellent ocular health. Although the visual sensitivities of the two subject groups overlapped extensively, the age-related rate of sensitivity loss was, for some measures, greater for the hypertensive subjects, possibly because of adaptation differences between the two groups. Overall, the degree of steady-state sensitivity loss resulting from an increase of background illuminance (for 580-nm backgrounds) was slightly less for the hypertensive subjects. Among normotensive subjects, the ability of a bright (3.8-log-td), long-wavelength (640-nm) adapting background to selectively suppress the flicker response of long-wavelength-sensitive (LWS) cones was related inversely to the ratio of mean arterial blood pressure to heart rate. The degree of selective suppression was also related to heart rate alone, and there was evidence that short-term changes of cardiovascular response were important. The results suggest that (1) vascular hypertension, or possibly its treatment, subtly affects visual function even in the absence of eye disease and (2) changes in blood flow affect retinal light-adaptation processes involved in the selective suppression of the flicker response from LWS cones caused by bright, long-wavelength backgrounds.

  15. CDC Vital Signs: High Blood Pressure and Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the MMWR Science Clips High Blood Pressure and Cholesterol Out of Control Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... cdc.gov/GISCVH2/ High Blood Pressure and High Cholesterol Among US Adults SOURCES: National Health and Nutrition ...

  16. High Blood Pressure Rates Have Doubled Worldwide Since 1975

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162069.html High Blood Pressure Rates Have Doubled Worldwide Since 1975 Most of ... News) -- The number of people worldwide with high blood pressure has nearly doubled over the past 40 years, ...

  17. Normal Blood Pressure in Clinic May Mask Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162363.html Normal Blood Pressure in Clinic May Mask Hypertension Young, lean patients can have high blood pressure that's not caught during regular exams, study finds ...

  18. Blood Pressure Medications: Can They Raise My Triglycerides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... some blood pressure medications cause an increase in triglycerides? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Yes, some blood pressure medications can affect triglyceride and cholesterol levels. Hydrochlorothiazide is commonly prescribed for ...

  19. High Blood Pressure and Cold Remedies: Which Are Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... counter cold remedies safe for people who have high blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M. ... remedies aren't off-limits if you have high blood pressure, but it's important to make careful ...

  20. High Blood Pressure, Afib and Your Risk of Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More High Blood Pressure, Afib and Your Risk of Stroke Updated:Sep ... have a stroke for the first time have high blood pressure . And an irregular atrial heart rhythm — a condition ...

  1. High blood pressure - what to ask your doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    What to ask your doctor about high blood pressure; Hypertension - what to ask your doctor ... problems? What medicines am I taking to treat high blood pressure? Do they have any side effects? What should ...

  2. Menopause and High Blood Pressure: What's the Connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hypertension) Is there a connection between menopause and high blood pressure? Answers from Shannon K. Laughlin-Tommaso, M.D. ... hormonal shifts related to menopause may contribute to high blood pressure. Others think an increase in body mass index ( ...

  3. A Nutritional Strategy for the Treatment of High Blood Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podell, Richard N.

    1984-01-01

    Some physicians wonder if high blood pressure can be controlled without the use of drugs and their potential side effects. Current findings concerning nutrition and high blood pressure are presented. (RM)

  4. Can Whole-Grain Foods Lower Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions High blood pressure (hypertension) Can eating more whole-grain foods help lower my blood pressure? Answers from ... G. Sheps, M.D. It might. Eating more whole-grain foods on a regular basis may help reduce ...

  5. Sleep Deprivation: A Cause of High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High blood pressure (hypertension) Is it true that sleep deprivation can cause high blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon ... Cirelli C, et al. Definition and consequences of sleep deprivation. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed March 24, ...

  6. [An integrated system of blood pressure measurement with bluetooth communication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Jing; Sun, Hongyang; Xu, Zuyang; Chai, Xinyu

    2012-07-01

    The development of the integrated blood pressure system with bluetooth communication function is introduced. Experimental results show that the system can complete blood pressure measurement and data transmission wireless effectively, which can be used in m-Health in future.

  7. Microcirculation impairment and blood pressure in sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domagoj Drenjančević

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Blood pressure is crucial for the tissue perfusion, oxygenation andelimination of metabolites in normal tissue. In septic patients itmay be altered by several mechanisms. Endothelial lesions andimpaired vasoregulation resulting from bacteriemia may producevasodilatation, hypotension, tissue hypoxia and decrease in theblood velocity. These events may favour disseminated intravascularcoagulation in septic patients, and thus pronounce perfusionmisdistribution. Since hypotension is commonly treated byvasoactive drugs to increase vascular tone toward normal values,more pronounced peripheral tissue ischemia may result. Duringthe process of blood pressure regulation in septic patients a diversityof physiological parameters should be encountered, i.e. age,body weight, core temperature, overall patients’ cardiovascularperformance, anemia, and protein status. In a healthy, adult person,in the absence of other causes of hypotension systolic bloodpressure of > 90 mmHg or mean arterial pressure ≥ 70 mmHgshould maintain adequate tissue perfusion. Together with specificantibiotics, therapeutic procedures like haemodilution, use of vasoconstrictors,vasopressin and its analogue terlipressin, corticosteroidsare currently used to improve outcome of hypotensive septicpatients. Numerous studies were undertaken to point the valuesof the biochemical tests suggesting a need for prompt intervention.The arterial lactate, cortisol response, TNF, interleukin (IL6, IL-12p70 and IL-12p40 production, together with submucosal(gastric intramucosal or sublingual CO2 values were proven as indicative.These may suggest whether microcirculatory impairmentis reversible or not, and which therapeutic maneuver should beappropriate.

  8. Associations of education with 30 year life course blood pressure trajectories: Framingham Offspring Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Yongling

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Education is inversely associated with cardiovascular disease incidence in developed countries. Blood pressure may be an explanatory biological mechanism. However few studies have investigated educational gradients in longitudinal blood pressure trajectories, particularly over substantial proportions of the life course. Study objectives were to determine whether low education was associated with increased blood pressure from multiple longitudinal assessments over 30 years. Furthermore, we aimed to separate antecedent effects of education, and other related factors, that might have caused baseline differences in blood pressure, from potential long-term effects of education on post-baseline blood pressure changes. Methods The study examined 3890 participants of the Framingham Offspring Study (mean age 36.7 years, 52.0% females at baseline from 1971 through 2001 at up to 7 separate examinations using multivariable mixed linear models. Results Mixed linear models demonstrated that mean systolic blood pressure (SBP over 30 years was higher for participants with ≤12 vs. ≥17 years education after adjusting for age (3.26 mmHg, 95% CI: 1.46, 5.05 in females, 2.26 mmHg, 95% CI: 0.87, 3.66 in males. Further adjustment for conventional covariates (antihypertensive medication, smoking, body mass index and alcohol reduced differences in females and males (2.86, 95% CI: 1.13, 4.59, and 1.25, 95% CI: -0.16, 2.66 mmHg, respectively. Additional analyses adjusted for baseline SBP, to evaluate if there may be educational contributions to post-baseline SBP. In analyses adjusted for age and baseline SBP, females with ≤12 years education had 2.69 (95% CI: 1.09, 4.30 mmHg higher SBP over follow-up compared with ≥17 years education. Further adjustment for aforementioned covariates slightly reduced effect strength (2.53 mmHg, 95% CI: 0.93, 4.14. Associations were weaker in males, where those with ≤12 years education had 1.20 (95% CI: -0

  9. 21 CFR 870.1120 - Blood pressure cuff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood pressure cuff. 870.1120 Section 870.1120...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1120 Blood pressure cuff. (a) Identification. A blood pressure cuff is a device that has an inflatable bladder in an...

  10. Improved blood pressure control among school bus drivers with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Joseph; Severance-Fonte, Tina; Morandi-Matricaria, Elizabeth; Wogen, Jenifer; Frech-Tamas, Feride

    2010-04-01

    The impact of a hypertension awareness and educational program, BP DownShift, was evaluated among school bus drivers in a southern US state. At baseline (August 2007), blood pressure (BP) measurements, self-reported demographics, and hypertension awareness and management practices were collected from drivers who consented to participate in the study. Interventions included 4 educational mailings, installation of BP machines at all bus terminals, and access to free dietitian consultations and gym memberships. BP was evaluated using Department of Transportation guidelines. BP was remeasured and a survey was administered at follow-up (May 2008). At baseline, 208 drivers consented to the BP screening; 120 (58%) returned for a follow-up assessment. Most participants completing the study were female (73%) and African American (72%). Mean age was 50 years and mean body mass index was 32 kg/m(2); 52% of participants were obese. In all, 58% of participants reported a prior diagnosis of hypertension by a physician, and 63% reported taking antihypertensive medication. Both systolic and diastolic BP (SBP and DBP) were lower at follow-up (135/82 mmHg vs. 145/87 mmHg at baseline; P 10 mmHg, and 44% had a reduction in DBP > 5 mmHg. At follow-up, 58% were controlled to BP improvement in BP control, which may positively impact commercial driver's license recertification as well as improve employee health.

  11. High-pressure processing for preservation of blood products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matser, A.M.; Ven, van der C.; Gouwerok, C.W.N.; Korte, de D.

    2005-01-01

    The possibilities of high pressure as a preservation method for human blood products were evaluated by examining the functional properties of blood fractions, after high-pressure processing at conditions which potentially inactivate micro-organisms and viruses. Blood platelets, red blood cells and b

  12. Blood pressure response to conventional and low-dose enalapril in chronic renal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elung-Jensen, Thomas; Heisterberg, Jens; Kamper, Anne-Lise

    2003-01-01

    study was to evaluate short-term blood pressure response to two different plasma levels of enalaprilat. METHODS: As part of an open, randomized, controlled trial of the effect of high and low dosage of enalapril on the progression of renal failure, short-term blood pressure response was evaluated. Data...... pressures in the two groups were 140 (110-200) and 133 (110-165), in the high and low enalaprilat concentration groups, respectively, and after 3 months they were 135 (105-170) and 130 (105-170) mmHg (NS). Median diastolic blood pressure was 80 mmHg in each group both at baseline (65-100) and at follow......AIMS: In chronic renal failure, the clearance of most ACE inhibitors including enalapril is reduced. Hence, with conventional dosage, plasma enalaprilat may be markedly elevated. It is unclear whether this excess of drug exposure affords an improved control of blood pressure. The aim of the present...

  13. Effect of spiritual therapy on blood pressure, anxiety and quality of life in patients with high blood pressure

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background: High blood pressure is the most important risk factor of cardiovascular diseases. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of spiritual therapy on blood pressure, anxiety and quality of life in patients with high blood pressure. Method: This study was quasi-experimentalwith apretest-posttest and control group design. The sample consisted of 30 patients with high blood pressure refering to Kangavar Healthcare center that were selected through convenience sampling and...

  14. High blood pressure and cerebral white matter lesion progression in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaaren, Benjamin F J; Vernooij, Meike W; de Boer, Renske; Hofman, Albert; Niessen, Wiro J; van der Lugt, Aad; Ikram, M Arfan

    2013-06-01

    High blood pressure is considered an important risk factor for cerebral white matter lesions (WMLs) in the aging population. In a longitudinal population-based study of 665 nondemented persons, we investigated the longitudinal relationship of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and pulse pressure with annual progression of WMLs. Means of blood pressure were calculated over a 5-year period before longitudinal MRI scanning. WML progression was subsequently measured on 2 scans 3.5 years apart. We performed analyses with linear regression models and evaluated adjustments for age, sex, cardiovascular risk factors, and baseline WML volume. In addition, we evaluated whether treatment of hypertension is related to less WML progression. Both systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly associated with annual WML progression (regression coefficient [95% confidence interval], 0.08 [0.03; 0.14] mL/y and 0.09 [0.03; 0.15] mL/y per SD increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively). Pulse pressure was also significantly associated with WML progression, but not independent from hypertension. After adjustment for baseline WML volume, only systolic blood pressure remained significantly associated: 0.05 (0.00; 0.09) mL/y per SD increase. People with uncontrolled untreated hypertension had significantly more WML progression than people with uncontrolled treated hypertension (difference [95% confidence interval], 0.12 [0.00; 0.23] mL/y). The present study further establishes high blood pressure to precede WMLs and implies that hypertension treatment could reduce WML progression in the general population.

  15. Blood pressure monitor with a position sensor for wrist placement to eliminate hydrostatic pressure effect on blood pressure measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hironori; Koshimizu, Hiroshi; Yamashita, Shingo; Ogura, Toshihiko

    2013-01-01

    Accurate measurement of blood pressure at wrist requires the heart and wrist to be kept at the same level to avoid the effects of hydrostatic pressure. Although a blood pressure monitor with a position sensor that guides appropriate forearm angle without use of a chair and desk has already been proposed, a similar functioning device for measuring upper arm blood pressure with a chair and desk is needed. In this study, a calculation model was first used to explore design of such a system. The findings were then implemented into design of a new blood pressure monitor. Results of various methods were compared. The calculation model of the wrist level from arthrosis angles and interarticulars lengths was developed and considered using published anthropometric dimensions. It is compared with 33 volunteer persons' experimental results. The calculated difference of level was -4.1 to 7.9 (cm) with a fixed chair and desk. The experimental result was -3.0 to 5.5 (cm) at left wrist and -2.1 to 6.3(cm) at right wrist. The absolute difference level equals ±4.8 (mmHg) of blood pressure readings according to the calculated result. This meets the AAMI requirements for a blood pressure monitor. In the conclusion, the calculation model is able to effectively evaluate the difference between the heart and wrist level. Improving the method for maintaining wrist to heart level will improve wrist blood pressure measurement accuracy when also sitting in the chair at a desk. The leading angle of user's forearm using a position sensor is shown to work for this purpose.

  16. Blood pressure among the Inuit (Eskimo) populations in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Dewailly, Eric; Young, T Kue

    2003-01-01

    Studies of blood pressure among various Inuit (Eskimo) populations in the Arctic have given inconsistent results. Most studies reported lower blood pressure among the Inuit as compared with the predominantly white national populations. This has been attributed to traditional subsistence practices...... and lifestyle. This study compared the blood pressure among the major Inuit population groups with other populations and examined the associations with factors like age, gender, obesity and smoking.......Studies of blood pressure among various Inuit (Eskimo) populations in the Arctic have given inconsistent results. Most studies reported lower blood pressure among the Inuit as compared with the predominantly white national populations. This has been attributed to traditional subsistence practices...

  17. [Chronobiology of blood pressure and chronopharmacotherapy of arterial hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmieder, R E; Bramlage, P; Schunkert, H

    2012-02-01

    Arterial blood pressure is subject to a circadian rhythm that results in a fall of blood pressure during the night. In patients with diabetes, renal insufficiency, left-ventricular hypertrophy, sleep apnea, hypertension of pregnancy, and different forms of secondary hypertension a nocturnal fall of blood pressure is even abandoned or reverted. Diagnosis is made using 24-h blood pressure measurement, which is however used not frequently enough for a clinical assessment or adjustment of therapy. An adaption of the selection or the time of administration of antihypertensive drugs with respect to the circadian rhythm is beneficial to control blood pressure and reduce cardiovascular morbidity. This is particularly true for patients with an a non- or inverted dipping blood pressure pattern, in which the bedtime dosing may result in a normalization of blood pressure and restoration of a normal circadian rhythm. The present manuscript reviews the chronopharmacotherapy of arterial hypertension and grant practical recommendations for their translation into clinical practice.

  18. Women, Hypertension, and the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Nanette K; Ferdinand, Keith C; Bairey Merz, C Noel; Walsh, Mary Norine; Gulati, Martha; Pepine, Carl J

    2016-10-01

    Hypertension accounts for approximately 1 in 5 deaths in American women and is the major contributor to many comorbid conditions. Although blood pressure lowering reduces cardiovascular disease outcomes, considerable uncertainty remains on best management in women. Specifically, female blood pressure treatment goals have not been established, particularly among older and African American and Hispanic women, for whom hypertension prevalence, related adverse outcomes, and poor control rates are high. The Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) planned to clarify optimal blood pressure management in both sexes. Although confirming that a lower blood pressure goal is generally better, because female enrollment and event rates were low and follow-up shortened, outcomes differences in women were not statistically significant. Thus optimal blood pressure goals for women have not been established with the highest evidence. This review addresses SPRINT's significance and key remaining knowledge gaps in optimal blood pressure management to improve women's health.

  19. [Development of an automatic pneumatic tourniquet system that determines pressures in synchrony with systolic blood pressure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongyun; Li, Kaiyuan; Zhang, Zhengbo; Guo, Junyan; Wang, Weidong

    2012-11-01

    The correlation coefficients between arterial occlusion pressure and systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, limb circumference, body mass etc were obtained through healthy volunteer experiments, in which tourniquet were applied on upper/lower extremities. The prediction equations were derived from the data of experiments by multiple regression analysis. Based on the microprocessor C8051F340, a new pneumatic tourniquet system that can determine tourniquet pressure in synchrony with systolic blood pressure was developed and verified the function and stability of designed system. Results showed that the pneumatic tourniquet which automatically adjusts occlusion pressure in accordance with systolic blood pressure could stop the flow of blood to get a bloodless field.

  20. [Uncontrolled factors of blood pressure in essential hypertension: from "patient's high blood pressure" to "hypertensive patient"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xing-Jiang; Wang, Jie

    2014-04-01

    Hypertension is a significant medical and public health issue which puts an enormous burden on health care resources and the community. It is a chronic medical condition in which the systemic arterial blood pressure (BP) is elevated. Serious complications including cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases would be preventable if the rise in BP with age could be prevented or diminished. The majority of hypertensive patients require long-term treatment. Oral antihypertensive drugs, lifestyle modification including exercise and dietary modification are milestones for hypertension therapy. However, the control rate of hypertension hasn't reached the expected requirements currently. "Three lows" status quo, just low awareness, low treatment, and low control, are still the major problems confronting modern medicine. Recently, uncontrolled factors of blood pressure are widely concerned, which include insomnia, constipation, mood disorders, exogenous, etc. What's more, the control strategies of hypertension should not only pay close attention to "patient's high blood pressure", but also to "hypertensive patient". Therefore, the treatment of uncontrolled factors of blood pressure plays an important role in hypertensive therapy, which could be further research priorities.

  1. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BLOOD-PRESSURE DURING HEMODIALYSIS AND AMBULATORY BLOOD-PRESSURE IN BETWEEN DIALYSES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HUISMAN, RM; DEBRUIN, C; KLONT, D; SMIT, AJ

    1995-01-01

    Background. Ambulatory blood pressure measurements in haemodialysis patients are relevant in view of the high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in chronic haemodialysis patients. Methods. Twelve normotensive patients were studied from the beginning of one dialysis until the end of the next (mea

  2. Blood pressure load does not add to ambulatory blood pressure level for cardiovascular risk stratification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yan; Thijs, Lutgarde; Boggia, José

    2014-01-01

    Experts proposed blood pressure (BP) load derived from 24-hour ambulatory BP recordings as a more accurate predictor of outcome than level, in particular in normotensive people. We analyzed 8711 subjects (mean age, 54.8 years; 47.0% women) randomly recruited from 10 populations. We expressed BP...

  3. Estimation of blood pressure variability from 24-hour ambulatory finger blood pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Omboni, S.; Parati, G.; Castiglioni, P.; Rienzo, M. di; Imholz, B.P.M.; Langewouters, G.J.; Wesseling, K.H.; Mancia, G.

    1998-01-01

    Portapres is a noninvasive, beat-to-beat finger blood pressure (BP) monitor that has been shown to accurately estimate 24-hour intra-arterial BP at normal and high BPs. However, no information is available on the ability of this device to accurately track ambulatory BP variability. In 20 ambulatory

  4. Invasively Measured Aortic Systolic Blood Pressure and Office Systolic Blood Pressure in Cardiovascular Risk Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Esben; Knudsen, Søren T; Hansen, Klavs W;

    2016-01-01

    Aortic systolic blood pressure (BP) represents the hemodynamic cardiac and cerebral burden more directly than office systolic BP. Whether invasively measured aortic systolic BP confers additional prognostic value beyond office BP remains debated. In this study, office systolic BP and invasively...

  5. Changes in blood pressure indices in normotensive adults after the consumption of lemongrass tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christopher Ekpenyong; Eme Osim

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To accurately evaluate the effect of lemongrasses tea (LGT) on blood pressure (BP) indices in normal humans. Methods:A total of 105 participants were sub-divided into 3 groups with 35 in each group and they were administered with LGT prepared from 2, 4 or 8 g of the lemongrass leaf powder (LP) for 30 days, respectively. They were evaluated for various BP indices and other clinical and biochemical parameters at days 0, 10 and 30 after the administration of LGT using standard methods. Results:At day 10, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were lower than baseline levels. The mean arterial pressure was slightly reduced, while pulse pressure and heart rate (HR) significantly increased in subjects administered with LGT prepared from 4 or 8 g of the LP. At day 30, systolic blood pressure and DBP remained decreased in participants administered with LGT prepared from 4 g of the LP. DBP normalized in participants administered with LGT prepared from 4 g of the LP. The mean arterial pressure and HR decreased further in participants administered with LGT prepared from 8 g of the LP, but HR normalized in subjects treated with LGT prepared from 4 g of the LP. Pulse pressure almost returned to baseline level. Conclusions:Ingestion of LGT may be associated with decreased BP indices in normotensive humans due to its varied bioactive constituents and their activities.

  6. Changes in blood pressure indices in normotensive adults after the consumption of lemongrass tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Ekpenyong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To accurately evaluate the effect of lemongrasses tea (LGT on blood pressure (BP indices in normal humans. Methods: A total of 105 participants were sub-divided into 3 groups with 35 in each group and they were administered with LGT prepared from 2, 4 or 8 g of the lemongrass leaf powder (LP for 30 days, respectively. They were evaluated for various BP indices and other clinical and biochemical parameters at days 0, 10 and 30 after the administration of LGT using standard methods. Results: At day 10, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure (DBP were lower than baseline levels. The mean arterial pressure was slightly reduced, while pulse pressure and heart rate (HR significantly increased in subjects administered with LGT prepared from 4 or 8 g of the LP. At day 30, systolic blood pressure and DBP remained decreased in participants administered with LGT prepared from 4 g of the LP. DBP normalized in participants administered with LGT prepared from 4 g of the LP. The mean arterial pressure and HR decreased further in participants administered with LGT prepared from 8 g of the LP, but HR normalized in subjects treated with LGT prepared from 4 g of the LP. Pulse pressure almost returned to baseline level. Conclusions: Ingestion of LGT may be associated with decreased BP indices in normotensive humans due to its varied bioactive constituents and their activities.

  7. Heritability of blood pressure traits and the genetic contribution to blood pressure variance explained by four blood-pressure-related genes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijn, M.J. van; Schut, A.F.; Aulchenko, Y.S.; Deinum, J.; Sayed-Tabatabaei, F.A.; Yazdanpanah, M.; Isaacs, A.; Axenovich, T.I.; Zorkoltseva, I.V.; Zillikens, M.C.; Pols, H.A.; Witteman, J.C.; Oostra, B.A.; Duijn, C.M. van

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the heritability of four blood pressure traits and the proportion of variance explained by four blood-pressure-related genes. METHODS: All participants are members of an extended pedigree from a Dutch genetically isolated population. Heritability and genetic correlations of systo

  8. Pharmacological attenuation of blood pressure variability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Claude JULIEN

    2005-01-01

    @@ Over the past few years, the research team of Professor Ding-feng SU has reported an impressive quantity of experimental data about the relationships between blood pressure variability (BPV) and end-organ damage, a topic of obvious clinical interest. This research work has been summarized in a paper that appeared in the August issue of the renowned journal Trends in Pharmacological Sciences[1]. The studies by Su et al provide convincing evidence that BPV is an independent cardiovascular risk factor that should be considered as such and, therefore, might become an important target for therapeutic interventions. Besides these exciting perspectives in the prevention and treatment of cardiovasculardiseases, the work by Su et al raises a series of physiological questions.

  9. Familial aggregation and childhood blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoling; Xu, Xiaojing; Su, Shaoyong; Snieder, Harold

    2015-01-01

    There is growing concern about elevated blood pressure (BP) in children. The evidence for familial aggregation of childhood BP is substantial. Twin studies have shown that a large part of the familial aggregation of childhood BP is due to genes. The first part of this review provides the latest progress in gene finding for childhood BP, focusing on the combined effects of multiple loci identified from the genome-wide association studies on adult BP. We further review the evidence on the contribution of the genetic components of other family risk factors to the familial aggregation of childhood BP including obesity, birth weight, sleep quality, sodium intake, parental smoking, and socioeconomic status. At the end, we emphasize the promise of using genomic-relatedness-matrix restricted maximum likelihood (GREML) analysis, a method that uses genome-wide data from unrelated individuals, in answering a number of unsolved questions in the familial aggregation of childhood BP.

  10. Economic evaluation of home blood pressure telemonitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Line Bille; Christiansen, Terkel; Kirkegaard, Peder

    2011-01-01

    Aims. The purpose of the present study was to compare the costs of home blood pressure (BP) telemonitoring (HBPM) with the costs of conventional office BP monitoring. In a randomized controlled trial, 105 hypertensive patients performed HBPM and 118 patients received usual care with conventional......-time ambulatory BP (ABP) were reduced in both groups. The uncertainty around the incremental cost effectiveness ratio point estimates was considerable for both systolic and diastolic ABP. For systolic ABP, the difference in cost effectiveness ratio between the two groups was 256 Danish kroner (DKK)/mmHg [95......% uncertainty interval, UI -860 to 4544]. For diastolic ABP, the difference in cost effectiveness ratio between the two groups was 655 DKK/mmHg [95% UI -674 to 69315]. Medication and consultation costs were lowest in the intervention group, but were offset by the cost of the telemonitoring equipment...

  11. Effects of vegetarian diets on blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yokoyama Y

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Yoko Yokoyama,1,2 Kazuo Tsubota,2,3 Mitsuhiro Watanabe1,2,4,5 1Graduate School of Media and Governance, Keio University, Fujisawa, Kanagawa, 2Health Science Laboratory, 3Department of Ophthalmology, 4Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, 5Faculty of Environment and Information Studies, Keio University, Fujisawa, Kanagawa, Japan Abstract: Hypertension is a major independent risk factor for coronary artery diseases, and the prevalence of hypertension is continuously increasing. Diet is an important factor that can be modified to prevent hypertension. According to the US Department of Health and Human Services, dietary patterns are defined as the quantities, proportions, and variety or combinations of different foods and beverages in diets and the frequency with which they are habitually consumed. In this review, the vegetarian dietary pattern is introduced with a focus on the effect on blood pressure (BP. Although the available evidence is limited, according to a previous meta-analysis of controlled trials, vegetarian dietary patterns significantly reduced systolic and diastolic BPs. One of the common features of a vegetarian diet is weight loss, which might, at least partially, explain the effect on BP. Other possible factors such as sodium, potassium, protein, amino acids, vitamin B-12, antioxidants, fiber, and the microbiome are introduced as possible mechanisms. Further studies are needed with non-Western populations to determine the most effective vegetarian dietary pattern and to explore the exact mechanisms by which these dietary patterns affect BP. Keywords: vegetarian diet, plant-based diet, blood pressure, hypertension, meta-analysis

  12. Evaluation of dynamic fracture toughness for Yong Gwang unit 5 reactor pressure vessel materials (Baseline Tests)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chi Se Hwan; Kim, Joo Hag; Hong, Jun Hwa; Kwon, Sun Chil; Lee, Bong Sang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-10-01

    The dynamic fracture toughness (K{sub d}) of intermediate shell and its weld in SA 508 CI. 3 Yong Gwang 5 reactor pressure vessel was determined and evaluated. Precracked thirty six Charpy specimens were tested by using an instrumented impact tester. The purpose of present work is to evaluate and confirm the un-irradiated dynamic fracture toughness and to provide pre-irradiation baseline data for future evaluation on dynamic fracture toughness change during operation. 18 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs. (Author)

  13. Salt Really Does Boost Blood Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ransdell; pierson; 张仙根

    2000-01-01

    盐的摄入与高血压到底存在怎样的关系?多年来,人们对这个问题争论不休。现在,终于有了可靠的结论:A salty diet really does drive up bloodpressure;both in people with and without elevated pressure.本文出现了一个新的首字母缩略词DASH。《英汉大词典补编》尚未收入此词。所幸的是,本文作者对此DASH作了说明,DASH=Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension,我们是否可将它译成“食疗降血压法”?高血压是诱发各种心血管疾病的元凶,我们不能掉以轻心。本文的一个观点可供我们参考:An intake of sodium below thecurrent recommended daily level of 2,400 milligrams(毫克)could help Americansprevent blood pressure rises that occur especially with advancing age.

  14. Intensive blood pressure lowering increases cerebral blood flow in older subjects with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryambake, Dinesh; He, Jiabao; Firbank, Michael J; O'Brien, John T; Blamire, Andrew M; Ford, Gary A

    2013-06-01

    Hypertension is associated with reduced cerebral blood flow (CBF). Intensive (blood pressure (BP) lowering in older people might give greater reduction in cardiovascular risk, but there are concerns that this might produce hypoperfusion which may precipitate falls and possibly stroke. We determined the effect of intensive compared with usual BP lowering on CBF in hypertensive older subjects. Individuals aged >70 years with a history of systolic hypertension on 1 or no BP lowering drugs were recruited from primary care (n=37; age, 75±4 years; systolic BP, >150 mm Hg) and randomized to receive intensive (target BP, treatment. Baseline BP (ambulatory or in clinic) and baseline gray matter CBF were not significantly different between the groups. After treatment, BP was reduced significantly in both groups but fell more in the intensive group (26/17 versus 15/5 mm Hg; Phypertension increases CBF, compared with BP lowering to usual target. These findings suggest hypertension in older people shifts the autoregulatory CBF curve rightward and downward and is reversible with BP lowering.

  15. The TRINITY Study: distribution of systolic blood pressure reductions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugimoto DH

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Danny H Sugimoto,1 Steven G Chrysant,2 Michael Melino,3 James Lee,3 Victor Fernandez,3 Reinilde Heyrman41Cedar-Crosse Research Center and Rush Medical College, Chicago, IL, USA; 2Oklahoma Cardiovascular and Hypertension Center and Department of Cardiology, University of Oklahoma College of Medicine, Oklahoma City, OK, USA; 3Department of Clinical Development, Daiichi Sankyo, Inc, Parsippany, NJ, USA; 4Formerly of the Department of Clinical Development, Daiichi Sankyo, Inc, Parsippany, NJ, USABackground: Elevated systolic blood pressure is more difficult to control than elevated diastolic blood pressure. The objective of this prespecified analysis of the Triple Therapy with Olmesartan Medoxomil, Amlodipine, and Hydrochlorothiazide in Hypertensive Patients Study (TRINITY was to compare the efficacy of olmesartan medoxomil (OM 40 mg, amlodipine besylate (AML 10 mg, and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ 25 mg triple-combination treatment with the component dual-combination treatments in reducing elevated seated systolic blood pressure (SeSBP.Methods: The 12-week TRINITY study randomized participants to either one of the three component dual-combination treatments (OM 40 mg/AML 10 mg, OM 40 mg/HCTZ 25 mg, or AML 10 mg/HCTZ 25 mg or the triple-combination treatment. The primary outcome of this analysis was the categorical distribution of SeSBP reductions at week 12 from baseline with OM 40 mg/AML 10 mg/HCTZ 25 mg versus the dual-combination treatments.Results: SeSBP reductions >50 mmHg were seen in 24.4% of participants receiving triple-combination treatment versus 8.1%–15.8% receiving dual-combination treatment. More participants receiving triple-combination treatment achieved the SeSBP target of <140 mmHg (73.6% versus 51.3%–58.8%; P < 0.001 and the seated blood pressure target of <140/90 mmHg (69.9% versus 41.1%–53.4%; P < 0.001. Prevalence and severity of adverse events were similar in all treatment groups.Conclusion: Treatment with OM 40 mg/AML 10

  16. Diurnal variation in baseline human regional cerebral blood flow demonstrated by PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, D.J.; Mintun, M.A.; Moore, R.Y. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)] [and others

    1994-05-01

    We have previously described the diurnal variation in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) response to bright light in human subjects as demonstrated by the positron emission tomography (PET) activation method. In this abstract, we report the differences in rCBF (an indicator of differences in regional neuronal activity) between the evening and midday dim light baseline scans which served as the control states in the above bright light activation study. Five right-handed, healthy volunteers underwent both an evening (8pm) and a midday (12N) O-15 water PET scanning session. Each scanning session was preceded by one hour of dim light adaptation (50 lux) and consisted of six rCBF scans at three different light intensities in an AABBCC sequence (A=50 lux, B=2500 lux, C=7000lux). Significant differences in rCBF between the evening and midday 50 lux states were identified using the statistical parametric mapping method developed by Friston et al (p<.001). The evening scans demonstrated areas of greater relative blood flow in the pineal gland, the lateral temporal cortex bilaterally, the right lateral prefrontal cortex, the superior aspect of the anterior cingulate, and the left thalamus. The midday scans showed areas of greater relative blood flow in the visual cortex, the left lateral prefrontal cortex. the inferior aspect of the anterior cingulate, the left parietal cortex and the cerebellum. Our results demonstrate an extensive diurnal variation in baseline human rCBF. This indicates that time of day may be an important variable in conducting and interpreting functional brain imaging studies. Furthermore, these results suggest possible neuroanatomical substrates through which the circadian system may regulate the various physiologic and behavioral processes that manifest circadian rhythms.

  17. Gender differences in blood pressure regulation following artificial gravity exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Joyce; Goswami, Nandu; Kostas, Vladimir; Zhang, Qingguang; Ferguson, Connor; Moore, Fritz; Stenger, Michael, , Dr; Serrador, Jorge; W, Siqi

    Introduction. Before countermeasures to space flight cardiovascular deconditioning are established, gender differences in cardiovascular responses to orthostatic stress, in general, and to orthostatic stress following exposure to artificial gravity (AG), in particular, need to be determined. Our recent determination that a short exposure to AG improved the orthostatic tolerance limit (OTL) of cardiovascularly deconditioned subjects drives the current effort to determine mechanisms of that improvement in men and in women. Methods. We determined the OTL of 9 men and 8 women following a 90 min exposure to AG compared to that following 90 min of head down bed rest (HDBR). On both days (21 days apart), subjects were made hypovolemic (low salt diet plus 20 mg intravenous furosemide) and orthostatic tolerance was determined from a combination of head up tilt and increasing lower body negative pressure until presyncope. Mean values and correlations with OTL were determined for heart rate, blood pressure, stroke volume, cardiac output, total peripheral resistance (Finometer), middle cerebral artery flow velocity (DWL), partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Novametrics) and body segmental impedance (UFI THRIM) at supine baseline, during orthostatic stress to presyncope and at supine recovery. Results. Orthostatic tolerance of these hypovolemic subjects was significantly greater following AG than following HDBR. Exposure to AG increased cardiac output in both men and women and increased stroke volume in women. In addition, AG decreased systolic blood pressure in men, but not women, and increased cerebral flow in women, but not men. In both men and women, AG exposure decreased peripheral resistance and decreased cerebrovascular resistance in women. Men’s heart rate rose more at the end of OTL on their AG, compared to their HDBR, day but women’s fell. Presyncopal stroke volume reached the same level on each day of study for both men and women. Conclusions. In the present

  18. [Usefulness for detection of inappropriate blood pressure variability using 'wearable blood pressure sensor'].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Katsuya

    2015-11-01

    In the clinical settings, it has frequently seen that the elderly have rapid blood pressure (BP) elevation and decline, leading to such as orthostatic disorders and post-urination syncope. Excessive blood pressure variability (BPV) according to aging leads to aggravation of hypertensive target organ damage due to both disturbed baroreflex function and arterial stiffening. We developed continuous BP monitoring sensor using newly developing device 'wearable BP sensor', as our advantageous approach of without a cuff-stress. The new mobile device could reflect continuous beat-to-beat systolic BP, heart rate(HR), these very close changes and double product(sBPX HR) as a major indicator of cardiac lead, in consistent with cuff-based BP value. Our new challenge using this device might approach to the potential to achieve the quality-up of treatment strategy with consideration for very short-term BPV.

  19. A blood pressure measurement method based on synergetics theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>The principle for blood pressure measurement using pulse transit time is introduced in this paper.And the math model of synergetics theory is studied in detail.The synergetics theory is applied in the analysis of blood pressure measurement data.The simulation results show that the application of synergetics theory is helpful to judge the normal blood pressure,and the accuracy is up to 80%.

  20. Announcement: National High Blood Pressure Education Month - May 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-27

    May is National High Blood Pressure Education Month. High blood pressure (hypertension) is a major contributor to heart disease and stroke, two leading causes of death in the United States.* High blood pressure affects one third of U.S. adults, or approximately 75 million persons, yet approximately 11 million of these persons are not aware they have hypertension, and approximately 18 million are not being treated (unpublished data) (1,2).

  1. Do maternal and intrauterine factors influence blood pressure in childhood?

    OpenAIRE

    1992-01-01

    It has been proposed that maternal health and nutrition may be important in the development of adult cardiovascular risk, and that blood pressure may be an important intermediate step in this process. To examine the relevance of this hypothesis in contemporary British children, the relationships of several maternal factors to blood pressure were studied in 3360 children of European origin aged 5-7 years. Maternal age, height, and body mass index were all positively related to blood pressure i...

  2. Vitamin D therapy to reduce blood pressure and left ventricular hypertrophy in resistant hypertension: randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witham, Miles D; Ireland, Sheila; Houston, J Graeme; Gandy, Stephen J; Waugh, Shelley; Macdonald, Thomas M; Mackenzie, Isla S; Struthers, Allan D

    2014-04-01

    Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels are associated with higher prevalent blood pressure. We tested whether high-dose intermittent oral vitamin D therapy could reduce blood pressure and left ventricular mass in patients with hypertension resistant to conventional treatment. We conducted a parallel-group, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial. Patients with supine office blood pressure >140/90 mm Hg on ≥3 antihypertensive agents received 100 000 U oral vitamin D3 or matching placebo every 2 months. Office and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure, glucose, and cholesterol were measured at baseline, 2, 4, and 6 months; left ventricular mass index was measured by cardiac MRI on a subgroup at baseline and 6 months. The primary outcome was mean 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure at 6 months. A total of 68 participants were randomized, 34 in each group. Mean age was 63 (SD 11) years, mean baseline office blood pressure was 154/84 (13/10) mm Hg, and mean baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D level was 42 (16) nmol/L. Treatment with vitamin D did not reduce 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (adjusted treatment effects: systolic, +3 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, -4 to +11; P=0.33; diastolic, -2 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, -6 to +2; P=0.29); similar results were seen for office blood pressure. Left ventricular mass index was measured in a subgroup (n=25); no reduction was seen with vitamin D treatment (adjusted treatment effect, +4 g/m(2); 95% confidence interval, 0 to +7; P=0.04). There was no significant change in cholesterol or glucose levels. Thus, 6 months of intermittent, high-dose oral vitamin D3 did not reduce blood pressure or left ventricular mass in patients with resistant hypertension.

  3. Disproportional decrease in office blood pressure compared with 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure with antihypertensive treatment: dependency on pretreatment blood pressure levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmieder, Roland E; Schmidt, Stephanie T; Riemer, Thomas; Dechend, Ralf; Hagedorn, Ina; Senges, Jochen; Messerli, Franz H; Zeymer, Uwe

    2014-11-01

    The long-term relationship between 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) and office BP in patients on therapy is not well documented. From a registry we included all patients in whom antihypertensive therapy needed to be uptitrated. Drug treatment included the direct renin inhibitor aliskiren or an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker or drugs not blocking the renin-angiotensin system, alone or on top of an existing drug regimen. In all patients, office BP and 24-hour ABP were obtained at baseline and after 1 year with validated devices. In the study population of 2722 patients, there was a good correlation between the change in office BP and 24-hour ABP (systolic: r=0.39; PABP in a 1:1 fashion, for example, a decrease of 10, 20, and 30 mm Hg corresponded to a decrease of ≈7.2, 10.5, and 13.9 mm Hg in systolic ABP, respectively. The disproportionally greater decrease in systolic office BP compared with ABP was dependent on the level of the pretreatment BP, which was consistently higher for office BP than ABP. The white coat effect (difference between office BP and ABP) was on average 10/5 mm Hg lower 1 year after intensifying treatment and the magnitude of that was also dependent on pretreatment BP. There was a disproportionally greater decrease in systolic office BP than in ABP, which for both office BP and ABP seemed to depend on the pretreatment BP level.

  4. Predicting Increased Blood Pressure Using Machine Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson Fernandes Golino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the prediction of increased blood pressure by body mass index (BMI, waist (WC and hip circumference (HC, and waist hip ratio (WHR using a machine learning technique named classification tree. Data were collected from 400 college students (56.3% women from 16 to 63 years old. Fifteen trees were calculated in the training group for each sex, using different numbers and combinations of predictors. The result shows that for women BMI, WC, and WHR are the combination that produces the best prediction, since it has the lowest deviance (87.42, misclassification (.19, and the higher pseudo R2 (.43. This model presented a sensitivity of 80.86% and specificity of 81.22% in the training set and, respectively, 45.65% and 65.15% in the test sample. For men BMI, WC, HC, and WHC showed the best prediction with the lowest deviance (57.25, misclassification (.16, and the higher pseudo R2 (.46. This model had a sensitivity of 72% and specificity of 86.25% in the training set and, respectively, 58.38% and 69.70% in the test set. Finally, the result from the classification tree analysis was compared with traditional logistic regression, indicating that the former outperformed the latter in terms of predictive power.

  5. Electrocardiogram-assisted blood pressure estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Saif; Chen, Silu; Soueidan, Karen; Batkin, Izmail; Bolic, Miodrag; Dajani, Hilmi; Groza, Voicu

    2012-03-01

    Accurate automatic noninvasive assessment of blood pressure (BP) presents a challenge due to conditions like arrhythmias, obesity, and postural changes that tend to obfuscate arterial amplitude pulsations sensed by the cuff. Researchers tried to overcome this challenge by analyzing oscillometric pulses with the aid of a higher fidelity signal-the electrocardiogram (ECG). Moreover, pulse transit time (PTT) was employed to provide an additional method for BP estimation. However, these methods were not fully developed, suitably integrated, or tested. To address these issues, we present a novel method whereby ECG-assisted oscillometric and PTT (measured between ECG R-peaks and maximum slope of arterial pulse peaks) analyses are seamlessly integrated into the oscillometric BP measurement paradigm. The method bolsters oscillometric analysis (amplitude modulation) with more reliable ECG R-peaks provides a complementary measure with PTT analysis (temporal modulation) and fuses this information for robust BP estimation. We have integrated this technology into a prototype that comprises a BP cuff with an embedded conductive fabric ECG electrode, associated hardware, and algorithms. A pilot study has been undertaken on ten healthy subjects (150 recordings) to validate the performance of our prototype against United States Food and Drug Administration approved Omron oscillometric monitor (HEM-790IT). Our prototype achieves mean absolute difference of less than 5 mmHg and grade A as per the British Hypertension Society protocol for estimating BP, with the reference Omron monitor.

  6. Predicting Increased Blood Pressure Using Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golino, Hudson Fernandes; Amaral, Liliany Souza de Brito; Duarte, Stenio Fernando Pimentel; Soares, Telma de Jesus; dos Reis, Luciana Araujo

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the prediction of increased blood pressure by body mass index (BMI), waist (WC) and hip circumference (HC), and waist hip ratio (WHR) using a machine learning technique named classification tree. Data were collected from 400 college students (56.3% women) from 16 to 63 years old. Fifteen trees were calculated in the training group for each sex, using different numbers and combinations of predictors. The result shows that for women BMI, WC, and WHR are the combination that produces the best prediction, since it has the lowest deviance (87.42), misclassification (.19), and the higher pseudo R2 (.43). This model presented a sensitivity of 80.86% and specificity of 81.22% in the training set and, respectively, 45.65% and 65.15% in the test sample. For men BMI, WC, HC, and WHC showed the best prediction with the lowest deviance (57.25), misclassification (.16), and the higher pseudo R2 (.46). This model had a sensitivity of 72% and specificity of 86.25% in the training set and, respectively, 58.38% and 69.70% in the test set. Finally, the result from the classification tree analysis was compared with traditional logistic regression, indicating that the former outperformed the latter in terms of predictive power. PMID:24669313

  7. Neurohumoral blood pressure regulation in lead exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boscolo, P.; Carmignani, M.

    1988-06-01

    Previous human studies demonstrated that lead exposure may modify the metabolism of catecholamines and of hormones controlled by the hypothalamo-pituitary axis and may affect the kallikrein-kinin system. This paper reports unpublished data on the plasma renin activity of lead-exposed workers; these results are in agreement with those of previous human and experimental studies suggesting that the synthesis or release of renin is increased after short and moderate exposure to inorganic lead and reduced whenever the exposure is prolonged. Previous experimental investigations demonstrated that lead may act on the cardiovascular system, with effects on the renin-angiotensin system, on the reactivity to stimulation of peripheral catecholaminergic receptors, on sympathetic and vagal tone, and on reactivity to the stimulation of baroreceptors. This paper reports the results of a study on male Sprague-Dawley rats that received 0, 15, 30, and 60 ..mu..g/mL of lead in drinking water for 18 months. Blood pressure was increased in the rats receiving 30 and 60 ppm of lead; cardiac inotropism was augmented only in those receiving the higher dose of the metal, and heart rate was not modified. Cardiovascular responses to agonists indicated that lead exposure affects the renin-angiotensin system and induces sympathetic hyperactivity be acting on central and peripheral sympathetic junctions increasing the responsiveness to stimulation of ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenoreceptors and by increasing the reactivity to stimulation of cardiac and vascular ..beta..-adrenergic and dopaminergic receptors.

  8. Asymmetric features of short-term blood pressure variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzik, Przemyslaw; Piskorski, Jaroslaw; Krauze, Tomasz; Narkiewicz, Krzysztof; Wykretowicz, Andrzej; Wysocki, Henryk

    2010-11-01

    Prolongations of cardiac cycles have a significantly larger contribution to short-term heart rate variability than shortenings--this is called heart rate asymmetry. Our aim is to establish the existence of blood pressure asymmetry phenomenon, which has not been done so far. We used 30-min resting continuous recordings of finger pressure waveforms from 227 healthy young volunteers (19-31 years old; 97 female), and performed Poincaré plot analysis of systolic blood pressure (SBP) to quantify the effect. Median contribution of SBP increases (C(i)) to short-term blood pressure variability was 52.8% (inter-quartile range: 50.9-55.1%) and median number of SBP increases (N(i)) was 48.8% (inter-quartile range: 47.2-50.1%). The C(i)>50% was found in 82% (P<0.0001; binomial test) and N(i)<50% in 75% (P<0.0001) of the subjects. Although SBP increases are significantly less abundant than reductions, their contribution to short-term blood pressure variability is significantly larger, which means that short-term blood pressure variability is asymmetric. SBP increases and reductions have unequal contribution to short-term blood pressure variability at supine rest in young healthy people. As this asymmetric behavior of blood pressure variability is present in most of the healthy studied people at rest, it can be concluded that blood pressure asymmetry is a physiological phenomenon.

  9. Gcg-XTEN: an improved glucagon capable of preventing hypoglycemia without increasing baseline blood glucose.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan C Geething

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: While the majority of current diabetes treatments focus on reducing blood glucose levels, hypoglycemia represents a significant risk associated with insulin treatment. Glucagon plays a major regulatory role in controlling hypoglycemia in vivo, but its short half-life and hyperglycemic effects prevent its therapeutic use for non-acute applications. The goal of this study was to identify a modified form of glucagon suitable for prophylactic treatment of hypoglycemia without increasing baseline blood glucose levels. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Through application of the XTEN technology, we report the construction of a glucagon fusion protein with an extended exposure profile (Gcg-XTEN. The in vivo half-life of the construct was tuned to support nightly dosing through design and testing in cynomolgus monkeys. Efficacy of the construct was assessed in beagle dogs using an insulin challenge to induce hypoglycemia. Dose ranging of Gcg-XTEN in fasted beagle dogs demonstrated that the compound was biologically active with a pharmacodynamic profile consistent with the designed half-life. Prophylactic administration of 0.6 nmol/kg Gcg-XTEN to dogs conferred resistance to a hypoglycemic challenge at 6 hours post-dose without affecting baseline blood glucose levels. Consistent with the designed pharmacokinetic profile, hypoglycemia resistance was not observed at 12 hours post-dose. Importantly, the solubility and stability of the glucagon peptide were also significantly improved by fusion to XTEN. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The data show that Gcg-XTEN is effective in preventing hypoglycemia without the associated hyperglycemia expected for unmodified glucagon. While the plasma clearance of this Gcg-XTEN has been optimized for overnight dosing, specifically for the treatment of nocturnal hypoglycemia, constructs with significantly longer exposure profiles are feasible. Such constructs may have multiple applications such as allowing for more

  10. High blood pressure in older subjects with cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossello, Enrico; Simoni, David

    2016-06-22

    High blood pressure and cognitive impairment often coexist in old age, but their pathophysiological association is complex. Several longitudinal studies have shown that high blood pressure at midlife is a risk factor for cognitive impairment and dementia, although this association is much less clear in old age. The effect of blood pressure lowering in reducing the risk of dementia is only borderline significant in clinical trials of older subjects, partly due to the insufficient follow-up time. Conversely, dementia onset is associated with a decrease of blood pressure values, probably secondary to neurodegeneration. Prognostic effect of blood pressure values in cognitively impaired older subjects is still unclear, with aggressive blood pressure lowering being potentially harmful in this patients category. Brief cognitive screening, coupled with simple motor assessment, are warranted to identify frail older subjects who need a more cautious approach to antihypertensive treatment. Values obtained with ambulatory blood pressure monitoring seem more useful than clinical ones to predict the outcome of cognitively impaired older subjects. Future studies should identify the most appropriate blood pressure targets in older subjects with cognitive impairment.

  11. Auscultatory versus oscillometric measurement of blood pressure in octogenarians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosholm, Jens-Ulrik; Pedersen, Sidsel Arnspang; Matzen, Lars;

    2012-01-01

    Auscultatory measurement using a sphygmomanometer has been the predominant method for clinical estimation of blood pressure, but it is now rapidly being replaced by oscillometric measurement.......Auscultatory measurement using a sphygmomanometer has been the predominant method for clinical estimation of blood pressure, but it is now rapidly being replaced by oscillometric measurement....

  12. 21 CFR 870.1110 - Blood pressure computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood pressure computer. 870.1110 Section 870.1110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... computer. (a) Identification. A blood pressure computer is a device that accepts the electrical signal...

  13. What You Should Know About High Blood Pressure and Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aortic Aneurysm More What You Should Know About High Blood Pressure and Medications Updated:Jan 18,2017 Is medication ... resources . This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  14. Heart and Artery Damage and High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More How High Blood Pressure Can Lead to a Heart Attack Updated:Dec ... sheet This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  15. Americans with High Blood Pressure Still Eating Too Much Salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163977.html Americans With High Blood Pressure Still Eating Too Much Salt Average sodium intake ... March 8, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- For Americans with high blood pressure, cutting back on salt is an important way ...

  16. Changes You Can Make to Manage High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aneurysm More Changes You Can Make to Manage High Blood Pressure Updated:Mar 10,2017 Fighting back against the “ ... Follow us on Twitter Follow us on Facebook High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  17. Reliability of blood pressure measurement and cardiovascular risk prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hoeven, N.V.

    2016-01-01

    High blood pressure is one of the leading risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but difficult to reliably assess because there are many factors which can influence blood pressure including stress, exercise or illness. The first part of this thesis focuses on possible ways to improve the reliabili

  18. Role of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in resistant hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Guido; Bombelli, Michele; Seravalle, Gino; Brambilla, Gianmaria; Dell'oro, Raffaella; Mancia, Giuseppe

    2013-06-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring has gained growing popularity in the diagnosis and treatment of essential hypertension for several reasons, such as the lack of the so-called white-coat effect, the greater reproducibility as compared with clinic blood pressure, the ability to provide information on blood pressure phenomena of prognostic value and the closer relationship with the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. All the above-mentioned main features of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring are also true for resistant hypertension. In addition, however, in resistant hypertension, blood pressure monitoring allows one to precisely define the diagnosis of this clinical condition, by excluding the presence of white-coat hypertension, which is responsible for a consistent number of "false" resistant hypertensive cases. The approach also allows one to define the patterns of blood pressure variability in this clinical condition, as well as its relationships with target organ damage. Finally, it allows one to assess the effects of therapeutic interventions, such as renal nerves ablation, aimed at improving blood pressure control in this hypertensive state. The present paper will critically review the main features of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in resistant hypertension, with particular emphasis on the diagnosis and treatment of this high-risk hypertensive state.

  19. Managing Blood Pressure with a Heart-Healthy Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fat — factors that can raise your cholesterol . Eating foods that are high in sodium (salt) can increase blood pressure. Generally, the higher ... more tips, visit our healthy eating website . This content was last reviewed October 2016. Subscribe ... High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the ...

  20. Multiple imputation of missing blood pressure covariates in survival analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, S. van; Boshuizen, H.C.; Knook, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    This paper studies a non-response problem in survival analysis where the occurrence of missing data in the risk factor is related to mortality. In a study to determine the influence of blood pressure on survival in the very old (85+ years), blood pressure measurements are missing in about 12.5 per c

  1. Longitudinal correlates of change in blood pressure in adolescent girls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniels, [No Value; McMahon, RP; Obarzanek, E; Waclawiw, MA; Similo, SL; Biro, FM; Schreiber, GB; Kimm, SYS; Morrison, JA; Barton, BA

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the longitudinal changes in blood pressure in black and white adolescent girls and evaluate potential determinants of changes in blood pressure, including sexual maturation and body size. A total of 1213 black and 1166 white girls, ages 9 or 10 years at stud

  2. Prenatal air pollution exposure and newborn blood pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossem, Lenie; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Melly, Steven J.; Kloog, Itai; Luttmann-Gibson, Heike; Zanobetti, Antonella; Coull, Brent A.; Schwartz, Joel D.; Mittleman, Murray A.; Oken, Emily; Gillman, Matthew W.; Koutrakis, Petros; Gold, Diane R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Air pollution exposure has been associated with increased blood pressure in adults. oBjective: We examined associations of antenatal exposure to ambient air pollution with newborn systolic blood pressure (SBP). Methods: We studied 1,131 mother–infant pairs in a Boston, Massachusetts, are

  3. Beyond salt: lifestyle modifications and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisoli, Tiberio M; Schmieder, Roland E; Grodzicki, Tomasz; Messerli, Franz H

    2011-12-01

    Lifestyle changes have been shown to effect significant blood pressure (BP) reductions. Although there are several proposed neurohormonal links between weight loss and BP, body mass index itself appears to be the most powerful mediator of the weight-BP relationship. There appears to be a mostly linear relationship between weight and BP; as weight is regained, the BP benefit is mostly lost. Physical activity, but more so physical fitness (the physiological benefit obtained from physical activity), has a dose-dependent BP benefit but reaches a plateau at which there is no further benefit. However, even just a modest physical activity can have a meaningful BP effect. A diet rich in fruits and vegetables with low-fat dairy products and low in saturated and total fat (DASH) is independently effective in reducing BP. Of the dietary mineral nutrients, the strongest data exist for increased potassium intake, which reduces BP and stroke risk. Vitamin D is associated with BP benefit, but no causal relationship has been established. Flavonoids such as those found in cocoa and berries may have a modest BP benefit. Neither caffeine nor nicotine has any significant, lasting BP effect. Biofeedback therapies such as those obtained with device-guided breathing have a modest and safe BP benefit; more research is needed before such therapies move beyond those having an adjunctive treatment role. There is a strong, linear relationship between alcohol intake and BP; however, the alcohol effects on BP and coronary heart disease are divergent. The greatest BP benefit seems to be obtained with one drink per day for women and with two per day for men. This benefit is lost or attenuated if the drinking occurs in a binge form or without food. Overall, the greatest and most sustained BP benefit is obtained when multiple lifestyle interventions are incorporated simultaneously.

  4. Noninvasive 24-hour ambulatory arterial blood pressure monitoring in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Wiinberg, N; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    1995-01-01

    Cirrhotic patients have disturbed systemic hemodynamics with reduced arterial blood pressure, but this has not been investigated during daily activity and sleep. Systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP), and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), and heart rate (HR) were measured by an automatic ambulant...... device for monitoring blood pressure in 35 patients with cirrhosis and 35 healthy matched controls. During the daytime, SBP, DBP, and MAP were significantly lower in the patients than in the controls (median 118 vs. 127; 70 vs. 78; 86 vs. 94 mm Hg, P blood pressures...... were almost similar in the two groups (108 vs. 110; 65 vs. 67; 78 vs. 82 mm Hg, NS). Conversely, HR was significantly higher in the patients both in the daytime (86 vs. 72/min, P blood pressure and HR from daytime...

  5. Cost-effectiveness of Intensive Blood Pressure Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richman, Ilana B; Fairley, Michael; Jørgensen, Mads Emil

    2016-01-01

    Importance: Among high-risk patients with hypertension, targeting a systolic blood pressure of 120 mm Hg reduces cardiovascular morbidity and mortality compared with a higher target. However, intensive blood pressure management incurs additional costs from treatment and from adverse events......-effectiveness of intensive blood pressure management among 68-year-old high-risk adults with hypertension but not diabetes. We used the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) to estimate treatment effects and adverse event rates. We used Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Life Tables to project age....... Interventions: Treatment of hypertension to a systolic blood pressure goal of 120 mm Hg (intensive management) or 140 mm Hg (standard management). Main Outcomes and Measures: Lifetime costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), discounted at 3% annually. Results: Standard management yielded 9.6 QALYs...

  6. A Ubiquitous Blood Pressure Sensor Worn at the Ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Hiroshi; Shimada, Junichi; Uenishi, Yuji; Tochikubo, Osamu

    2009-12-01

    Blood pressure (BP) measurement and BP control are important for the prevention of lifestyle diseases, especially hypertension, which can lead to more serious conditions, such as cardiac infarction and cerebral apoplexy. The purpose of our study is to develop a ubiquitous blood pressure sensor that is more comfortable and less disruptive of users' daily activities than conventional blood pressure sensors. Our developed sensor is worn at an ear orifice and measures blood pressure at the tragus. This paper describes the concept, configuration, and the optical and electronic details of the developed ear-worn blood pressure sensor and presents preliminary evaluation results. The developed sensor causes almost no discomfort and produces signals whose quality is high enough for detecting BP at an ear, making it suitable for ubiquitous usage.

  7. Nutrition, physical activity, and blood pressure in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ideno, K T; Kubena, K S

    1989-01-01

    Forty noninstitutionalized elderly subjects, ages 65-86 years, were recruited for a study to determine relationships between nutritional status, physical activity, and blood pressure. A 24-hour recall of dietary intake and activities, health history, skinfolds, circumferences, height, weight, and blood pressure were obtained. Obesity was associated with hypertension in this group of elderly subjects. Truncal skinfolds (abdomen and subscapula) were positively correlated (P less than .05) with systolic blood pressure while body mass index, dietary magnesium and dietary calcium to magnesium ratio were directly related (P less than .05) to diastolic blood pressure. Physical activity and energy expenditure were not correlated (P greater than .05) with blood pressure in this study; however, the level of activity did not include strenuous exercise.

  8. A comparison of blood pressure measurements in newborns.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Shea, Joyce

    2012-02-01

    Blood pressure monitoring is an essential component of neonatal intensive care. We compared invasive and noninvasive (Dinamap, Marquette, and Dash) recordings in newborns and also noninvasive values obtained from upper and lower limbs. Infants\\' blood pressure was recorded every 6 hours for 72 hours using three noninvasive devices and compared with invasive readings taken simultaneously. Twenty-five babies were enrolled in the study, with birth weights of 560 to 4500 g and gestation 24 + 1 to 40 + 5 weeks. Three hundred thirty-two recordings were obtained. Comparison between invasive and noninvasive readings revealed that all three noninvasive monitors overread mean blood pressure. There was no significant difference between the cuff recordings obtained from the upper or lower limbs. All three noninvasive devices overestimated mean blood pressure values compared with invasive monitoring. Clinicians may be falsely reassured by noninvasive monitoring. Mean blood pressure values obtained from the upper and lower limb are similar.

  9. Heritability of retinal vessel diameters and blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taarnhøj, Nina C B B; Larsen, Michael; Sander, Birgit

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess the relative influence of genetic and environmental effects on retinal vessel diameters and blood pressure in healthy adults, as well as the possible genetic connection between these two characteristics. METHODS: In 55 monozygotic and 50 dizygotic same-sex healthy twin pairs......%-80%) for CRAE, 83% (95% CI: 73%-89%) for CRVE, and 61% (95% CI: 44%-73%) for mean arterial blood pressure (MABP). Retinal artery diameter decreased with increasing age and increasing arterial blood pressure. Mean vessel diameters in the population were 165.8 +/- 14.9 microm for CRAE, 246.2 +/- 17.7 microm...... and blood glucose, variations in retinal blood vessel diameters and blood pressure were predominantly attributable to genetic effects. A genetic influence may have a role in individual susceptibility to hypertension and other vascular diseases. The results suggest that retinal vessel diameters...

  10. Systolic blood pressure reactions to acute stress are associated with future hypertension status in the Dutch Famine Birth Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Carroll, Douglas; Ginty, Annie T; Painter, Rebecca C; Tessa J Roseboom; Phillips, Anna C.; de Rooij, Susanne R.

    2012-01-01

    These analyses examined the association between blood pressure reactions to acute psychological stress and subsequent hypertension status in a substantial Dutch cohort. Blood pressure was recorded during a resting baseline and during three acute stress tasks, Stroop colour word, mirror tracing and speech. Five years later, diagnosed hypertension status was determined by questionnaire. Participants were 453 (237 women) members of the Dutch Famine Birth Cohort. In analysis adjusting for a n...

  11. Home readings of blood pressure in assessment of hypertensive subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, P.E.; Myschetzky, P; Andersen, A R;

    1986-01-01

    Out-patient clinic blood pressure (OPC-BP) was compared to home blood pressure (Home-BP) measured three times daily during a two week period in 122 consecutively referred hypertensive subjects. A semi-automatic device (TM-101) including a microphone for detection of Korotkoff-sounds, self......-deflation of cuff pressure and digital display of blood pressure was used. Mean difference between OPC-BP and Home-BP was systolic +13 mm Hg (range -21 - +100 mg Hg) and diastolic +5 mm Hg (range -27 - +36 mm Hg). Although a significant correlation could be demonstrated between Home-BP and OPC-BP, the inter...

  12. Relationship between daily exposure to biomass fuel smoke and blood pressure in high-altitude Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burroughs Peña, Melissa; Romero, Karina M; Velazquez, Eric J; Davila-Roman, Victor G; Gilman, Robert H; Wise, Robert A; Miranda, J Jaime; Checkley, William

    2015-05-01

    Household air pollution from biomass fuel use affects 3 billion people worldwide; however, few studies have examined the relationship between biomass fuel use and blood pressure. We sought to determine if daily biomass fuel use was associated with elevated blood pressure in high altitude Peru and if this relationship was affected by lung function. We analyzed baseline information from a population-based cohort study of adults aged ≥ 35 years in Puno, Peru. Daily biomass fuel use was self-reported. We used multivariable regression models to examine the relationship between daily exposure to biomass fuel smoke and blood pressure outcomes. Interactions with sex and quartiles of forced vital capacity were conducted to evaluate for effect modification. Data from 1004 individuals (mean age, 55.3 years; 51.7% women) were included. We found an association between biomass fuel use with both prehypertension (adjusted relative risk ratio, 5.0; 95% confidence interval, 2.6-9.9) and hypertension (adjusted relative risk ratio, 3.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.7-7.0). Biomass fuel users had a higher systolic blood pressure (7.0 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, 4.4-9.6) and a higher diastolic blood pressure (5.9 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, 4.2-7.6) when compared with nonusers. We did not find interaction effects between daily biomass fuel use and sex or percent predicted forced vital capacity for either systolic blood pressure or diastolic blood pressure. Biomass fuel use was associated with a higher likelihood of having hypertension and higher blood pressure in Peru. Reducing exposure to household air pollution from biomass fuel use represents an opportunity for cardiovascular prevention.

  13. Association of blood pressure and hypertension with the risk of Parkinson disease: the National FINRISK Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Chengxuan; Hu, Gang; Kivipelto, Miia; Laatikainen, Tiina; Antikainen, Riitta; Fratiglioni, Laura; Jousilahti, Pekka; Tuomilehto, Jaakko

    2011-06-01

    Cardiovascular risk factors, such as diabetes mellitus and central obesity, have been associated with Parkinson disease (PD), but data on blood pressure and PD are lacking. We sought to examine the association of blood pressure and hypertension with the risk of PD among men and women. This study consisted of 7 surveys (1972-2002) on representative samples of the general population in Finland (National FINRISK Study). A total number of 59 540 participants (age 25 to 74 years; 51.8% women) who were free of PD and stroke at baseline were prospectively followed until December 31, 2006, to identify incident PD cases using the National Social Insurance Register database. Cox proportional hazards models were constructed to estimate the hazard ratio of PD associated with blood pressure. During a mean follow-up period of 18.8 years (SD: 10.2 years), 423 men and 371 women were ascertained to have developed PD. In women, compared with normotensive subjects (high-normal blood pressure (130 to 139/80 to 89 mm Hg) and hypertension (≥140/90 mm Hg or use of antihypertensive agents) were 1.63 (95% CI: 1.07 to 2.47) and 1.62 (95% CI: 1.09 to 2.42). There was no significant association between blood pressure and PD risk in men. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios of PD associated with use of antihypertensive agents were 1.08 (95% CI: 0.79 to 1.48) in men and 1.03 (95% CI: 0.76 to 1.38) in women. This study suggests that, in women, above-optimal blood pressure, including high-normal blood pressure and hypertension, is associated with an increased risk of PD. Optimal control of blood pressure in women may reduce the incidence of PD.

  14. The effects of cinacalcet on blood pressure, mortality and cardiovascular endpoints in the EVOLVE trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, T I; Abdalla, S; London, G M; Block, G A; Correa-Rotter, R; Drüeke, T B; Floege, J; Herzog, C A; Mahaffey, K W; Moe, S M; Parfrey, P S; Wheeler, D C; Dehmel, B; Goodman, W G; Chertow, G M

    2016-03-01

    Patients with end-stage renal disease often have derangements in calcium and phosphorus homeostasis and resultant secondary hyperparathyroidism (sHPT), which may contribute to the high prevalence of arterial stiffness and hypertension. We conducted a secondary analysis of the Evaluation of Cinacalcet Hydrochloride Therapy to Lower Cardiovascular Events (EVOLVE) trial, in which patients receiving hemodialysis with sHPT were randomly assigned to receive cinacalcet or placebo. We sought to examine whether the effect of cinacalcet on death and major cardiovascular events was modified by baseline pulse pressure as a marker of arterial stiffness, and whether cinacalcet yielded any effects on blood pressure. As reported previously, an unadjusted intention-to-treat analysis failed to conclude that randomization to cinacalcet reduces the risk of the primary composite end point (all-cause mortality or non-fatal myocardial infarction, heart failure, hospitalization for unstable angina or peripheral vascular event). However, after prespecified adjustment for baseline characteristics, patients randomized to cinacalcet experienced a nominally significant 13% lower adjusted risk (95% confidence limit 4-20%) of the primary composite end point. The effect of cinacalcet was not modified by baseline pulse pressure (Pinteraction=0.44). In adjusted models, at 20 weeks cinacalcet resulted in a 2.2 mm Hg larger average decrease in systolic blood pressure (P=0.002) and a 1.3 mm Hg larger average decrease in diastolic blood pressure (P=0.002) compared with placebo. In summary, in the EVOLVE trial, the effect of cinacalcet on death and major cardiovascular events was independent of baseline pulse pressure.

  15. Impact of systolic blood pressure on visit-to-visit blood pressure variability in middle-aged and elderly people

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈朔华

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the impact of systolic blood pressure(SBP)on visit-to-visit blood pressure variability(BPV) in middle-aged and elderly people.Methods Visit-to-visit BPV was determined in 5440 workers in the

  16. The effect of metformin on blood pressure and metabolism in nondiabetic hypertensive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snorgaard, O; Køber, L; Carlsen, J

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the effect of metformin on blood pressure and metabolism in nondiabetic hypertensives. DESIGN: A six-week single-blind placebo wash-out, followed by a double-blind placebo-controlled parallel group design with skew randomization (2:2:1) to metformin 850 mg b.i.d. (n = 10...... on the decline in diastolic oBP within this group. Changes in fasting C-peptide and fasting insulin during treatment were unrelated to blood pressure changes. High fasting insulin (> 60 pmol L[-1]) or high fasting C-peptide (> 1000 pmol L[-1]) at baseline did not favour an effect of metformin on diastolic o......BP. Glucose metabolism and lipoproteins were unchanged in all groups. CONCLUSIONS: Although metformin treatment induced a decline in diastolic office blood pressure in nondiabetic hypertensives, the decline was not different from that during placebo treatment. Metformin had no significant effect on ambulatory...

  17. The effect of tiaprofenic acid on blood pressure control in treated hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M D; Kupa, A; Weatherall, M; Henstridge, J D; Brooks, P M

    1985-01-01

    Eleven patients with osteoarthritis and mild hypertension completed an 8-week, double-blind crossover study in which 200 mg tiaprofenic acid 3-times daily or placebo were substituted for their normal non-steroidal anti-inflammatory therapy. Systolic blood pressure was significantly higher on tiaprofenic acid therapy than on placebo and plasma renin activity was significantly lower on active treatment. No significant changes were seen in biochemical parameters, though the weight of the patient was also higher on tiaprofenic acid than on placebo. Duration of morning stiffness was also lower on tiaprofenic acid than on placebo. Blood pressure on tiaprofenic acid was not different from baseline readings on other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug therapy. This study suggests that tiaprofenic acid, like other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, may interfere with blood pressure control in treated hypertensive patients.

  18. Whole blood interferon-gamma assay for baseline tuberculosis screening among Japanese healthcare students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuyuki Hotta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The whole blood interferon-gamma assay (QuantiFERON-TB-2G; QFT has not been fully evaluated as a baseline tuberculosis screening test in Japanese healthcare students commencing clinical contact. The aim of this study was to compare the results from the QFT with those from the tuberculin skin test (TST in a population deemed to be at a low risk for infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Healthcare students recruited at Okayama University received both the TST and the QFT to assess the level of agreement between these two tests. The interleukin-10 levels before and after exposure to M tuberculosis-specific antigens (early-secreted antigenic target 6-kDa protein [ESAT-6] and culture filtrate protein 10 [CFP-10] were also measured. Of the 536 healthcare students, most of whom had been vaccinated with bacillus-Calmette-Guérin (BCG, 207 (56% were enrolled in this study. The agreement between the QFT and the TST results was poor, with positive result rates of 1.4% vs. 27.5%, respectively. A multivariate analysis also revealed that the induration diameter of the TST was not affected by the interferon-gamma concentration after exposure to either of the antigens but was influenced by the number of BCG needle scars (p = 0.046. The whole blood interleukin-10 assay revealed that after antigen exposure, the median increases in interleukin-10 concentration was higher in the subgroup with the small increase in interferon-gamma concentration than in the subgroup with the large increase in interferon-gamma concentration (0.3 vs. 0 pg/mL; p = 0.004. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: As a baseline screening test for low-risk Japanese healthcare students at their course entry, QFT yielded quite discordant results, compared with the TST, probably because of the low specificity of the TST results in the BCG-vaccinated population. We also found, for the first time, that the change in the interleukin-10 level after exposure to

  19. Harmonics tracking of intracranial and arterial blood pressure waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahsavari, Sima; McKelvey, Tomas

    2008-01-01

    Considering cardiorespiratory interaction and heart rate variability, a new approach is proposed to decompose intracranial pressure and arterial blood pressure to their different harmonics. The method is based on tracking the amplitudes of the harmonics by a Kalman filter based tracking algorithm. The algorithm takes benefit of combined frequency estimation technique which uses both Fast Fourier Transform and RR-interval detection. The result would be of use in intracranial pressure and arterial blood pressure waveform analysis as well as other investigations which need to estimate contribution of specific harmonic in above mentioned signals such as Pressure-Volume Compensatory Reserve assessment.

  20. [Professional stress and blood pressure reactivity to stress do not predict blood pressure at 5 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauvel, J P; Mpio, I; Quelin, P; Rigaud, J P; Laville, M; Ducher, M L

    2004-01-01

    High job strain has been reported to be associated with higher blood pressure. Job strain could lead to hypertension if individual perception of stress or cardiovascular reactivity to stress are high. We report the results of the first five-year follow up study, which aimed to assess the respective influences of perception of professional strain and cardiovascular reactivity to a mental stress test on BP. A cohort of 292 healthy subjects (mean +/- SEM, 38 +/- 1 years) was followed for progression to hypertension outcome which was defined as an increase in SBP or DBP higher than 7 mmHg or a DBP higher than 95 mmHg during the follow-up. The high strain (HS) group representing 20.9% of the subjects was compared with the remaining subjects (NHS). Similarly the 20.9% subjects with the highest BP stress reactivity (HR) were compared with the remaining subjects (NHR). The Kaplan-Meier survival estimates revealed that neither high job strain, nor high stress reactivity, increased incidence of progression to hypertension. Age, alcohol, salt diet, BMI, and occupation did not interfere with our results. In conclusion, high stress cardiovascular reactivity and high job strain do not appear to be major risk markers for future high BP in healthy young adults. Stress could be associated with high BP at a short term and could explain high blood pressure in a long run only in stress-sensible subjects.

  1. Automatic noninvasive measurement of systolic blood pressure using photoplethysmography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glik Zehava

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Automatic measurement of arterial blood pressure is important, but the available commercial automatic blood pressure meters, mostly based on oscillometry, are of low accuracy. Methods In this study, we present a cuff-based technique for automatic measurement of systolic blood pressure, based on photoplethysmographic signals measured simultaneously in fingers of both hands. After inflating the pressure cuff to a level above systolic blood pressure in a relatively slow rate, it is slowly deflated. The cuff pressure for which the photoplethysmographic signal reappeared during the deflation of the pressure-cuff was taken as the systolic blood pressure. The algorithm for the detection of the photoplethysmographic signal involves: (1 determination of the time-segments in which the photoplethysmographic signal distal to the cuff is expected to appear, utilizing the photoplethysmographic signal in the free hand, and (2 discrimination between random fluctuations and photoplethysmographic pattern. The detected pulses in the time-segments were identified as photoplethysmographic pulses if they met two criteria, based on the pulse waveform and on the correlation between the signal in each segment and the signal in the two neighboring segments. Results Comparison of the photoplethysmographic-based automatic technique to sphygmomanometry, the reference standard, shows that the standard deviation of their differences was 3.7 mmHg. For subjects with systolic blood pressure above 130 mmHg the standard deviation was even lower, 2.9 mmHg. These values are much lower than the 8 mmHg value imposed by AAMI standard for automatic blood pressure meters. Conclusion The photoplethysmographic-based technique for automatic measurement of systolic blood pressure, and the algorithm which was presented in this study, seems to be accurate.

  2. Aerobic exercise reduces blood pressure in resistant hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimeo, Fernando; Pagonas, Nikolaos; Seibert, Felix; Arndt, Robert; Zidek, Walter; Westhoff, Timm H

    2012-09-01

    Regular physical exercise is broadly recommended by current European and American hypertension guidelines. It remains elusive, however, whether exercise leads to a reduction of blood pressure in resistant hypertension as well. The present randomized controlled trial examines the cardiovascular effects of aerobic exercise on resistant hypertension. Resistant hypertension was defined as a blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg in spite of 3 antihypertensive agents or a blood pressure controlled by ≥4 antihypertensive agents. Fifty subjects with resistant hypertension were randomly assigned to participate or not to participate in an 8- to 12-week treadmill exercise program (target lactate, 2.0±0.5 mmol/L). Blood pressure was assessed by 24-hour monitoring. Arterial compliance and cardiac index were measured by pulse wave analysis. The training program was well tolerated by all of the patients. Exercise significantly decreased systolic and diastolic daytime ambulatory blood pressure by 6±12 and 3±7 mm Hg, respectively (P=0.03 each). Regular exercise reduced blood pressure on exertion and increased physical performance as assessed by maximal oxygen uptake and lactate curves. Arterial compliance and cardiac index remained unchanged. Physical exercise is able to decrease blood pressure even in subjects with low responsiveness to medical treatment. It should be included in the therapeutic approach to resistant hypertension.

  3. Inhibition of natriuretic factors increases blood pressure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banday, Anees Ahmad; Lokhandwala, Mustafa F

    2009-08-01

    Renal dopamine and nitric oxide contribute to natriuresis during high-salt intake which maintains sodium and blood pressure homeostasis. We wanted to determine whether concurrent inhibition of these natriuretic factors increases blood pressure during high-sodium intake. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the following groups: 1) vehicle (V)-tap water, 2) NaCl-1% NaCl drinking water, 3) 30 mM l-buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), an oxidant, 4) BSO plus NaCl, and 5) BSO plus NaCl with 1 mM tempol (antioxidant). Compared with V, NaCl intake for 10 days doubled sodium intake and increased urinary dopamine level but reduced urinary nitric oxide content. NaCl intake also reduced basal renal proximal tubular Na-K-ATPase activity with no effect on blood pressure. However, NaCl intake in BSO-treated rats failed to reduce basal Na-K-ATPase activity despite higher urinary dopamine levels. Also, dopamine failed to inhibit proximal tubular Na-K-ATPase activity and these rats exhibited reduced urinary nitric oxide levels and high blood pressure. Tempol supplementation in NaCl plus BSO-treated rats reduced blood pressure. BSO treatment alone did not affect the urinary nitric oxide and dopamine levels or blood pressure. However, dopamine failed to inhibit proximal tubular Na-K-ATPase activity in BSO-treated rats. BSO treatment also increased basal protein kinase C activity, D1 receptor serine phosphorylation, and oxidative markers like malondialdehyde and 8-isoprostane. We suggest that NaCl-mediated reduction in nitric oxide does not increase blood pressure due to activation of D1 receptor signaling. Conversely, oxidative stress-provoked inhibition of D1 receptor signaling fails to elevate blood pressure due to presence of normal nitric oxide. However, simultaneously decreasing nitric oxide levels with NaCl and inhibiting D1 receptor signaling with BSO elevated blood pressure.

  4. Teaming Up Against High Blood Pressure PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-09-04

    Nearly one-third of American adults have high blood pressure, and more than half of them don’t have it under control. Simply seeing a doctor and taking medications isn’t enough for many people who have high blood pressure. A team-based approach by patients, health care systems, and health care providers is one of the best ways to treat uncontrolled high blood pressure.  Created: 9/4/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 9/4/2012.

  5. Preeclampsia and High Blood Pressure During Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have certain medical conditions such as diabetes mellitus , thrombophilia , or lupus • are obese •had in vitro fertilization ... an abnormal amount of protein in the urine. Thrombophilia: A condition in which the blood does not ...

  6. Blood pressure and plasma catecholamines in acute and prolonged hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanstrup, I L; Poulsen, T D; Hansen, J M

    1999-01-01

    and 5 days after rapid, passive transport to high altitude (4,559 m). Acute mountain sickness scores ranged from 5 to 16 (maximal attainable score: 20) on the first day but were reduced to 0-8 by the fifth day. Systolic blood pressure, heart rate, and plasma epinephrine increased on day 1 at altitude...... compared with sea level but declined again on day 5, whereas diastolic and mean blood pressures continued to rise in parallel with plasma norepinephrine. With local cooling, an increased vasoactive response was seen on the fifth day at altitude. Very high pressures were obtained, and the pressure elevation...

  7. Reduced effect of percutaneous renal denervation on blood pressure in patients with isolated systolic hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewen, Sebastian; Ukena, Christian; Linz, Dominik; Kindermann, Ingrid; Cremers, Bodo; Laufs, Ulrich; Wagenpfeil, Stefan; Schmieder, Roland E; Böhm, Michael; Mahfoud, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Renal denervation can reduce blood pressure in certain patients with resistant hypertension. The effect in patients with isolated systolic hypertension (ISH, ≥140/hypertension (CH, ≥140/≥90 mm Hg) defined as baseline office systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥140 mm Hg despite treatment with ≥3 antihypertensive agents. Renal denervation significantly reduced office SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) at 3, 6, and 12 months by 17/18/17 and 5/4/4 mm Hg in ISH and by 28/27/30 and 13/16/18 mm Hg in CH, respectively. The reduction in SBP and DBP in ISH was lower compared with patients with CH at all observed time points (P<0.05 for SBP/DBP intergroup comparison). The nonresponder rate (change in office SBP <10 mm Hg) after 6 months was 37% in ISH and 21% in CH (P<0.001). Mean 24-hour ambulatory SBP and DBP after 3, 6, and 12 months were significantly reduced by 10/13/15 and 6/6/9 mm Hg in CH, respectively. In patients with ISH the reduction in systolic ambulatory blood pressure was 4/8/7 mm Hg (P=0.032/P<0.001/P=0.009) and 3/4/2 mm Hg (P=0.08/P<0.001/P=0.130) in diastolic ambulatory blood pressure after 3, 6, and 12 months, respectively. The ambulatory blood pressure reduction was significantly lower after 3 and 12 months in SBP and after 12 months in ambulatory DBP, respectively. In conclusion, renal denervation reduces office and ambulatory blood pressure in patients with ISH. However, this reduction is less pronounced compared with patients with CH.

  8. Chlorthalidone Plus Amiloride Reduces the Central Systolic Blood Pressure in Stage 1 Hypertension Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Leticia Aparecida Barufi; Cestario, Elizabeth do Espirito Santo; Cosenso-Martin, Luciana Neves; Vilela-Martin, Jose Fernando; Yugar-Toledo, Juan Carlos; Fuchs, Flavio Danni

    2016-01-01

    Background Hypertension reduction strategies use blood pressure in the brachial artery as the primary endpoint. Individuals who achieve the target blood pressure reduction with antihypertensive treatment have residual cardiovascular risk attributed to the difference in pressure between the aorta and brachial artery. Antihypertensive treatment affects the intrinsic properties of the vascular wall and arterial stiffness markers and consequently the central pressure. Recent publications stress the importance of adequate control of the central compared to peripheral blood pressure. Related clinical implications suggest that individuals with normal peripheral but high central blood pressure should not receive antihypertensive drugs that act on the central pressure. Therefore, they are at greater cardiovascular risk. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of treatment with a thiazide diuretic versus losartan on the central blood pressure in stage 1 hypertensive patients. Methods Twenty-five patients were randomized to the chlorthalidone 25 mg/amiloride 5 mg group (q.d.) and 25 patients received losartan 50 mg (b.i.d). The central systolic blood pressure (CSBP) and augmentation index (AIx 75) were assessed using applanation tonometry. The paired t-test was used to compare the systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), pulse pressure (PP), CSBP and AIx 75 between the thiazide and losartan groups at baseline and after 6 months of treatment. Results Significant reductions in CSBP (123.3 ± 14.2 vs. 113.4 ± 111.4, P = 0.0103) and AIx 75 (87.7 ± 9.6 vs. 83.8 ± 8.9, P = 0.0289) were observed after 6 months of drug treatment with chlorthalidone 25 mg/amiloride 5 mg (q.d.). The administration of losartan 50 mg (b.i.d) did not reduce the CSBP and there were insignificant changes in the AIx 75. Conclusions Six-month treatment of chlorthalidone/amiloride but not losartan reduces the CSBP and AIx 75 in adults with stage 1

  9. Calcium Supplements: Do They Interfere with Blood Pressure Drugs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... some blood pressure medications. Interactions may occur with: Thiazide diuretics. Taking 1,500 milligrams (mg) or more of calcium with thiazide diuretics — such as chlorothiazide (Diuril), hydrochlorothiazide (Microzide, Oretic) and ...

  10. Wearable Beat to Beat Blood Pressure Monitor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A key component of NASA's human exploration programs is a system that monitors the health of the crew during space missions. The wearable beat-to-beat blood pressure...

  11. Racial differences in hypertension: implications for high blood pressure management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackland, Daniel T

    2014-08-01

    The racial disparity in hypertension and hypertension-related outcomes has been recognized for decades with African Americans with greater risks than Caucasians. Blood pressure levels have consistently been higher for African Americans with an earlier onset of hypertension. Although awareness and treatment levels of high blood pressure have been similar, racial differences in control rates are evident. The higher blood pressure levels for African Americans are associated with higher rates of stroke, end-stage renal disease and congestive heart failure. The reasons for the racial disparities in elevated blood pressure and hypertension-related outcomes risk remain unclear. However, the implications of the disparities of hypertension for prevention and clinical management are substantial, identifying African American men and women with excel hypertension risk and warranting interventions focused on these differences. In addition, focused research to identify the factors attributed to these disparities in risk burden is an essential need to address the evidence gaps.

  12. Let's Talk about High Blood Pressure and Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Are Heart Disease and Stroke? What is Metabolic Syndrome? What is Peripheral Vascular Disease? Stroke, Recovery and ... Blood Pressure Readings 4 Heart Attack Symptoms in Women 5 How to Eat Healthy 6 All About ...

  13. Pediatric Blood Pressure and Adult Preclinical Markers of Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnussen, Costan G; Smith, Kylie J

    2016-01-01

    A high blood pressure level in adults is considered the single most important modifiable risk factor for global disease burden, especially those of cardiovascular (CV) origin such as stroke and ischemic heart disease. Because blood pressure levels have been shown to persist from childhood to adulthood, elevations in pediatric levels have been hypothesized to lead to increased CV burden in adulthood and, as such, might provide a window in the life course where primordial and primary prevention could be focused. In the absence of substantive data directly linking childhood blood pressure levels to overt adult CV disease, this review outlines the available literature that examines the association between pediatric blood pressure and adult preclinical markers of CV disease.

  14. How Potassium Can Help Control High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... natural sources of potassium. For example, a medium banana has about 420 mg of potassium and half ... high blood pressure. Learn more Get a fact sheet on following a heart-healthy diet: English | Spanish ...

  15. Estimated daily salt intake in relation to blood pressure and blood lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Betina H; Toft, Ulla; Buhelt, Lone P

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Excessive salt intake causes increased blood pressure which is considered the leading risk for premature death. One major challenge when evaluating associations between daily salt intake and markers of non-communicable diseases is that a high daily salt intake correlates with obesity......, which is also a well described risk factor for poor cardiometabolic outcome. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of estimated daily salt intake with blood pressure and blood lipids and to investigate the effect of taking different measures of obesity into account. METHODS: We included...... of estimated 24-hour sodium excretion with blood pressure and blood lipids were evaluated by linear regression models. RESULTS: The daily mean estimated intake of salt was 10.80 g and 7.52 g among men and women, respectively. Daily salt intake was significantly associated with blood pressure (β-estimates 1...

  16. Worldwide trends in blood pressure from 1975 to 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Allan René; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.

    2017-01-01

    ·7 mm Hg (77·9-79·5) for men and 76·7 mm Hg (75·9-77·6) for women. Global age-standardised prevalence of raised blood pressure was 24·1% (21·4-27·1) in men and 20·1% (17·8-22·5) in women in 2015. Mean systolic and mean diastolic blood pressure decreased substantially from 1975 to 2015 in high...

  17. Spontaneous blood pressure oscillations in mechanically ventilated patients with sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Ronan M G; Plovsing, Ronni R; Greve, Anders M;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In the present hypothesis-generating study, we investigated whether spontaneous blood pressure oscillations are suppressed to lower frequencies, and whether abolished oscillations are associated with an adverse outcome in mechanically ventilated patients with sepsis. METHODS: We...... retrospectively subjected invasive steady-state blood pressure recordings from 65 mechanically ventilated patients with sepsis to spectral analysis. Modified spectral bands were visually identified by plotting spectral power against frequency. RESULTS: Modified middle-frequency and low-frequency (MF' and LF...

  18. Pediatric Blood Pressure and Adult Preclinical Markers of Cardiovascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Magnussen, Costan G.; Smith, Kylie J.

    2016-01-01

    A high blood pressure level in adults is considered the single most important modifiable risk factor for global disease burden, especially those of cardiovascular (CV) origin such as stroke and ischemic heart disease. Because blood pressure levels have been shown to persist from childhood to adulthood, elevations in pediatric levels have been hypothesized to lead to increased CV burden in adulthood and, as such, might provide a window in the life course where primordial and primary prevention...

  19. Noninvasive 24-hour ambulatory arterial blood pressure monitoring in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Wiinberg, N; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    1995-01-01

    were almost similar in the two groups (108 vs. 110; 65 vs. 67; 78 vs. 82 mm Hg, NS). Conversely, HR was significantly higher in the patients both in the daytime (86 vs. 72/min, P pressure and HR from daytime......Cirrhotic patients have disturbed systemic hemodynamics with reduced arterial blood pressure, but this has not been investigated during daily activity and sleep. Systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP), and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), and heart rate (HR) were measured by an automatic ambulant...... device for monitoring blood pressure in 35 patients with cirrhosis and 35 healthy matched controls. During the daytime, SBP, DBP, and MAP were significantly lower in the patients than in the controls (median 118 vs. 127; 70 vs. 78; 86 vs. 94 mm Hg, P pressures...

  20. Blood pressure levels and longitudinal changes in relation to social network factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Eriksson Sörman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between social network variables andlevels of and longitudinal changes in blood pressure in a middle-aged/older sample. Theparticipants (50-75 years at baseline; n=1097 responded to questions concerning socialrelationships at baseline and their blood pressure (diastolic, systolic was measured. Bloodpressure levels were reassessed 5, 10, and 15 years later. Latent growth models with responses toquestions concerning social relationships as predictors and basic demographic factors (age, sex ascovariates, unexpectedly indicated that a more limited social network (no close friend, few visits,little contact with friends in other ways, not living with someone, and a composite index based onall questions was associated with significantly lower diastolic blood pressure levels. For systolicblood pressure a similar result was observed for one of the variables (lack of a close friend. Ingeneral, these effects diminished over time, as indexed by the positive relationship between severalof the social variables and slope. The results were little affected by inclusion of additionalcovariates (e.g. measures of psychological distress, smoking/alcohol habits, and BMI suggestingthat the origins of this unexpected pattern of findings must probably be sought for in other subjectrelatedfactors, such as, for example, increased help seeking. Future studies should considerqualitative aspects (e.g. feelings of loneliness, quality of social relationships in addition tostructural aspects to provide a better understanding of these associations.

  1. Effect on Blood Pressure of Daily Lemon Ingestion and Walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoji Kato

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recent studies suggest that the daily intake of lemon (Citrus limon has a good effect on health, but this has not been confirmed in humans. In our previous studies, it was observed that people who are conscious of their health performed more lemon intake and exercise. An analysis that took this into account was required. Methodology. For 101 middle-aged women in an island area in Hiroshima, Japan, a record of lemon ingestion efforts and the number of steps walked was carried out for five months. The change rates (Δ% of the physical measurements, blood test, blood pressure, and pulse wave measured value during the observation period were calculated, and correlations with lemon intake and the number of steps walked were considered. As a result, it was suggested that daily lemon intake and walking are effective for high blood pressure because both showed significant negative correlation to systolic blood pressure Δ%. Conclusions. As a result of multiple linear regression analysis, it was possible that lemon ingestion is involved more greatly with the blood citric acid concentration Δ% and the number of steps with blood pressure Δ%, and it was surmised that the number of steps and lemon ingestion are related to blood pressure improvement by different action mechanisms.

  2. Potential benefits of exercise on blood pressure and vascular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Sebely; Radavelli-Bagatini, Simone; Ho, Suleen

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity seems to enhance cardiovascular fitness during the course of the lifecycle, improve blood pressure, and is associated with decreased prevalence of hypertension and coronary heart disease. It may also delay or prevent age-related increases in arterial stiffness. It is unclear if specific exercise types (aerobic, resistance, or combination) have a better effect on blood pressure and vascular function. This review was written based on previous original articles, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses indexed on PubMed from years 1975 to 2012 to identify studies on different types of exercise and the associations or effects on blood pressure and vascular function. In summary, aerobic exercise (30 to 40 minutes of training at 60% to 85% of predicted maximal heart rate, most days of the week) appears to significantly improve blood pressure and reduce augmentation index. Resistance training (three to four sets of eight to 12 repetitions at 10 repetition maximum, 3 days a week) appears to significantly improve blood pressure, whereas combination exercise training (15 minutes of aerobic and 15 minutes of resistance, 5 days a week) is beneficial to vascular function, but at a lower scale. Aerobic exercise seems to better benefit blood pressure and vascular function.

  3. Proneness to worry is negatively associated with blood pressure and baroreflex sensitivity: further evidence of the blood pressure emotional dampening hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Luis Carlos; Vila, Jaime; Reyes del Paso, Gustavo A

    2014-02-01

    This study analyzes differences in blood pressure (BP) and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) in relation to trait worry. 36 high worry and 21 low worry females were selected from scores on the Penn State Worry Questionnaire. Cardiovascular parameters were obtained during rest, a self-induced worry period, and defense reflex to intense auditory stimulation. Low worry participants exhibited greater BP during baseline and greater BRS both during baseline and the self-induced worry period than high worry participants. During the defense reflex, low worries present a greater increase in BP. It is concluded that low proneness to worry is associated with greater BP and BRS. Increases in BP during aversive stimulation activated a negative feedback mechanism to inhibit distress and emotional reactivity to negative stimulation. These results support the BP-emotional dampening hypothesis and suggest that the baroreflex can be a relevant mechanism in mediating this effect.

  4. Leisure-Time Exercise Could Lower Your Risk of High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Leisure-time exercise could lower your risk of high blood pressure American Heart Association Rapid Access Journal Report September ... copyright American Heart Association Download (1.4 MB) High Blood Pressure A high blood pressure reading. copyright American Heart ...

  5. Anger Expression and Blood Pressure in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starner, Tamie M.; Peters, Rosalind M.

    2004-01-01

    The clinical significance of childhood hypertension is important as elevated pressures during childhood are found to follow a progressively increasing track into adulthood. Little work has been done to examine the relationship of emotions and emotional behavioral factors to the development of hypertension in children. Using the Roy Adaptation…

  6. 10.5.Blood pressure and atherosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    920274 The effect of lowered pressure onthe diastolic ventricular function after anti-hypertension treatment.CAI Bohin (蔡伯林),etal.Ruijin Hosp,Shanghai 2nd Med Univ,200025.Chin J Cardiol 1991;19(6):366-368.

  7. Peripheral arterial blood pressure monitoring adequately tracks central arterial blood pressure in critically ill patients: an observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Mignini, Mariano Alejandro; Piacentini, Enrique; Dubin,Arnaldo

    2006-01-01

    Introduction Invasive arterial blood pressure monitoring is a common practice in intensive care units (ICUs). Accuracy of invasive blood pressure monitoring is crucial in evaluating the cardiocirculatory system and adjusting drug therapy for hemodynamic support. However, the best site for catheter insertion is controversial. Lack of definitive information in critically ill patients makes it difficult to establish guidelines for daily practice in intensive care. We hypothesize that peripheral ...

  8. Pressure and wall shear stress in blood hammer - Analytical theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Chiang C; Jing, Haixiao

    2016-10-01

    We describe an analytical theory of blood hammer in a long and stiffened artery due to sudden blockage. Based on the model of a viscous fluid in laminar flow, we derive explicit expressions of oscillatory pressure and wall shear stress. To examine the effects on local plaque formation we also allow the blood vessel radius to be slightly nonuniform. Without resorting to discrete computation, the asymptotic method of multiple scales is utilized to deal with the sharp contrast of time scales. The effects of plaque and blocking time on blood pressure and wall shear stress are studied. The theory is validated by comparison with existing water hammer experiments.

  9. Prognostic value of reading-to-reading blood pressure variability over 24 hours in 8938 subjects from 11 populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tine W; Thijs, Lutgarde; Li, Yan;

    2010-01-01

    In previous studies, of which several were underpowered, the relation between cardiovascular outcome and blood pressure (BP) variability was inconsistent. We followed health outcomes in 8938 subjects (mean age: 53.0 years; 46.8% women) randomly recruited from 11 populations. At baseline, we asses...

  10. Prognostic value of blood pressure measured during hospitalization after acute myocardial infarction: an insight from survival trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yap, Yee Guan; Duong, Trinh; Bland, J Martin

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prognostic value of blood pressure measured during hospitalization after acute myocardial infarction (MI) has not been investigated, particularly with regard to arrhythmic death. METHODS: A total of 3311 placebo patients (2612 men, median age 64 years; range 23-92) from the EMIAT......). Mortality up to 2 years was examined using Cox regression. RESULTS: At the 2-year follow-up, after adjustment for age, sex, smoking, previous MI, hypertension, heart rate, New York Heart Association functional class, baseline treatments, study effect and diastolic blood pressure, reduced systolic blood...

  11. Screening blood pressure measurement in children: are we saving lives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Tammy M; Redwine, Karen M; Flynn, Joseph T

    2014-06-01

    Blood Pressure screening in children and adolescents is currently recommended by several prominent medical organizations, including the American Heart Association, the National High Blood Pressure Education Program, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, the European Society of Hypertension, and the American Academy of Pediatrics. This practice was recently subject to intense scientific review by the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. The conclusion of the Task Force was that "current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for primary hypertension in asymptomatic children and adolescents." This commentary provides an alternate interpretation of current evidence for blood pressure screening in children and adolescents and highlights its importance as a part of routine medical care.

  12. Blood pressure associates with standing balance in elderly outpatients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jantsje H Pasma

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Assessment of the association of blood pressure measurements in supine and standing position after a postural change, as a proxy for blood pressure regulation, with standing balance in a clinically relevant cohort of elderly, is of special interest as blood pressure may be important to identify patients at risk of having impaired standing balance in routine geriatric assessment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a cross-sectional cohort study, 197 community-dwelling elderly referred to a geriatric outpatient clinic of a middle-sized teaching hospital were included. Blood pressure was measured intermittently (n = 197 and continuously (subsample, n = 58 before and after a controlled postural change from supine to standing position. The ability to maintain standing balance was assessed during ten seconds of side-by-side, semi-tandem and tandem stance, with both eyes open and eyes closed. Self-reported impaired standing balance and history of falls were recorded by questionnaires. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between blood pressure and 1 the ability to maintain standing balance; 2 self-reported impaired standing balance; and 3 history of falls, adjusted for age and sex. RESULTS: Blood pressure decrease after postural change, measured continuously, was associated with reduced ability to maintain standing balance in semi-tandem stance with eyes closed and with increased self-reported impaired standing balance and falls. Presence of orthostatic hypotension was associated with reduced ability to maintain standing balance in semi-tandem stance with eyes closed for both intermittent and continuous measurements and with increased self-reported impaired standing balance for continuous measurements. CONCLUSION: Continuous blood pressure measurements are of additional value to identify patients at risk of having impaired standing balance and may therefore be useful in routine geriatric care.

  13. Blood-Pressure Measuring System Gives Accurate Graphic Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    The problem: To develop an instrument that will provide an external (indirect) measurement of arterial blood pressure in the form of an easily interpreted graphic trace that can be correlated with standard clinical blood-pressure measurements. From sphygmograms produced by conventional sphygmographs, it is very difficult to differentiate the systolic and diastolic blood-pressure pulses and to correlate these indices with the standard clinical values. It is nearly impossible to determine these indices when the subject is under physical or emotional stress. The solution: An electronic blood-pressure system, basically similar to conventional ausculatory sphygmomanometers, employing a standard occluding cuff, a gas-pressure source, and a gas-pressure regulator and valve. An electrical output transducer senses cuff pressure, and a microphone positioned on the brachial artery under the occluding cuff monitors the Korotkoff sounds from this artery. The output signals present the conventional systolic and diastolic indices in a clear, graphical display. The complete system also includes an electronic timer and cycle-control circuit.

  14. Arterial blood pressure oscillation after active standing up in kidney transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardt, U; Schäfer, M; Hohage, H

    2000-04-12

    Dynamic arterial blood pressure (FINAPRES) response to active standing up, normally consisting of initial rise, fall and recovery above the baseline (overshoot), was compared with the early steady-state arterial blood pressure level to measure sympathetic vasomotor function in healthy subjects [group 1: n=50, 10 female subjects, age 51+/-2.5 years; weight 78+/-2.3 kg; height 174+/-1.4 cm (mean+/-standard error of the mean)] and in kidney transplant recipients under basal (group 2a: n=50, age 51.7+/-1.7 years; weight 77+/-2.1 kg; height 174+/-1.5 cm) and under high (group 2b: same subjects as in group 2a) cyclosporine A whole blood levels. Furthermore, baroreflex sensitivity and the activity of the generating compounds of the sympathetic nervous systems (Mayer waves) were measured. Systolic and diastolic overshoot values did not differ statistically significant in the present study. In the control subjects, a systolic overshoot of 15.4+/-2.7 mmHg and a diastolic overshoot of 15.2+/-2 mmHg was detected. The systolic overshoot disappeared in 57% of group 2a (-7.1+/-2.7 mmHg; P<0.001) and in 50% of group 2b recipients (-8.0+/-2.7 mmHg; P<0.001). Systolic early steady-state level was not lower in kidney transplant recipients before cyclosporine (baseline+2 mmHg) intake, but after cyclosporine administration (baseline-3 mmHg; controls: baseline+3 mmHg; P<0.05). There was a strong association between the overshoot and steady-state levels (P for chi(2)<0.001, n=150). Overshoot of group 1 levels (r=0.428; P<0.01) and group 2 levels (r=0.714; P<0. 001) correlated to their respective steady-state blood pressure. Furthermore, recipients had reduced baroreceptor sensitivities estimated by sequence analysis as compared to controls (10+/-1 ms/mmHg vs. 7.5+/-1.4 ms/mmHg; P<0.05). Mayer waves amplitudes of the heart rate spectrum were elevated statistically significant in renal transplant recipients (44.4+/-0.2 vs. 43.8+/-2.2 A.U.). In conclusion, baroreceptor reflex

  15. Association of high blood pressure with renal insufficiency: role of albuminuria, from NHANES, 1999-2006.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Yan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The relationship between hypertension and kidney disease is complicated. Clinical trials found intense blood pressure control was not associated with alterations in glomerular filtration rate (GFR in all patients but did slow the rate of GFR decline among those with a higher baseline proteinuria. However, the underlying mechanism has been unclear. METHODS: We tested the hypothesis that the association between high blood pressure and renal function is modified by albuminuria status by conducting analyses in a cross-sectional study with 12,440 adult participants without known kidney diseases, diabetes or cardiovascular diseases, participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2006. RESULTS: 1226 out of 12440 were found to have unknown high blood pressure and 4494 were found to have reduced renal function. Overall, a moderate association was found between high blood pressure and renal function insufficiency in all participants analyzed. However, among participants with albuminuria, the prevalence of moderate-severe renal insufficiency substantially and progressively increased from normal subjects to prehypertensive and undiagnosed hypertensive subjects (1.43%, 3.44%, 10.96%, respectively, P for trend<0.0001; on the other hand, the prevalence of undiagnosed hypertension was also significantly higher among subjects with moderate-severe renal insufficiency than those with mild renal insufficiency (35.54% Vs 19.09%, P value <0.05, supporting an association between hypertension and renal function damage. In contrast, no association between hypertension and renal insufficiency was observed among those without albuminuria in this population. Similar findings were observed when the CKD-EPI equation was used. CONCLUSIONS: The association between high blood pressure and reduced renal function could be dependent upon the albuminuria status. This finding may provide a possible explanation for results observed in

  16. Systolic blood pressure reactions to acute stress are associated with future hypertension status in the Dutch Famine Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Douglas; Ginty, Annie T; Painter, Rebecca C; Roseboom, Tessa J; Phillips, Anna C; de Rooij, Susanne R

    2012-08-01

    These analyses examined the association between blood pressure reactions to acute psychological stress and subsequent hypertension status in a substantial Dutch cohort. Blood pressure was recorded during a resting baseline and during three acute stress tasks, Stroop colour word, mirror tracing and speech. Five years later, diagnosed hypertension status was determined by questionnaire. Participants were 453 (237 women) members of the Dutch Famine Birth Cohort. In analysis adjusting for a number of potential confounders, systolic blood pressure reactivity was positively related to future hypertension. This was the case irrespective of whether reactivity was calculated as the peak or the average response to the stress tasks. The association was strongest for reactions to the speech and Stroop tasks. Diastolic blood pressure reactivity was not significantly associated with hypertension. The results provide support for the reactivity hypothesis.

  17. Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) and Target Systolic Blood Pressure in Future Hypertension Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Brent M; Li, Jiexiang; Wagner, C Shaun

    2016-08-01

    The Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP, mm Hg) Intervention Trial (SPRINT) showed that targeting SBP SPRINT has 2 implicit assumptions that could impact future US hypertension guidelines: (1) standard therapy controlled SBP similarly to that in adults with treated hypertension and (2) intensive therapy produced a lower mean SBP than in adults with treated hypertension and SBP SPRINT-like participants aged ≥50 years; group 2 consisted of participants all aged ≥18 years; and group 3 consisted of participants aged ≥18 years excluding group 1 but otherwise similar to SPRINT-like participants except high cardiovascular risk. Mean SBPs in groups 1, 2, and 3 were 133.0, 130.1, and 124.6, with 66.2%, 72.2%, and 81.9%, respectively, controlled to SBP SPRINT-like group had higher mean SBP than comparison groups, yet lower than SPRINT standard treatment group and (2) among groups 1 to 3 with SBP SPRINT intensive treatment. SPRINT results suggest that treatment should be continued and not reduced when treated SBP is SPRINT-like subset. Furthermore, increasing the percentage of treated adults with SBP SPRINT intensive treatment SBP without lowering treatment goals.

  18. Blood Pressure over Height Ratios: Simple and Accurate Method of Detecting Elevated Blood Pressure in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu Galescu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Blood pressure (BP percentiles in childhood are assessed according to age, gender, and height. Objective. To create a simple BP/height ratio for both systolic BP (SBP and diastolic BP (DBP. To study the relationship between BP/height ratios and corresponding BP percentiles in children. Methods. We analyzed data on height and BP from 2006-2007 NHANES data. BP percentiles were calculated for 3775 children. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC curve analyses were performed to calculate sensitivity and specificity of BP/height ratios as diagnostic tests for elevated BP (>90%. Correlation analysis was performed between BP percentiles and BP/height ratios. Results. The average age was 12.54 ± 2.67 years. SBP/height and DBP/height ratios strongly correlated with SBP & DBP percentiles in both boys (<0.001, 2=0.85, 2=0.86 and girls (<0.001, 2=0.85, 2=0.90. The cutoffs of SBP/height and DBP/height ratios in boys were ≥0.75 and ≥0.46, respectively; in girls the ratios were ≥0.75 and ≥0.48, respectively with sensitivity and specificity in range of 83–100%. Conclusion. BP/height ratios are simple with high sensitivity and specificity to detect elevated BP in children. These ratios can be easily used in routine medical care of children.

  19. Pressure Gradient Estimation Based on Ultrasonic Blood Flow Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, Naotaka; Homma, Kazuhiro; Shiina, Tsuyoshi

    2006-05-01

    Mechanical load to the blood vessel wall, such as shear stress and pressure, which occurs in blood flow dynamics, contribute greatly to plaque rupture in arteriosclerosis and to biochemical activation of endothelial cells. Therefore, noninvasive estimations of these mechanical loads are able to provide useful information for the prevention of vascular diseases. Although the pressure is the dominant component of mechanical load, for practical purposes, the pressure gradient is also often important. So far, we have investigated the estimation of the kinematic viscosity coefficient using a combination of the Navier-Stokes equations and ultrasonic velocity measurement. In this paper, a method for pressure gradient estimation using the estimated kinematic viscosity coefficient is proposed. The validity of the proposed method was investigated on the basis of the analysis with the data obtained by computer simulation and a flow phantom experiment. These results revealed that the proposed method can provide a valid estimation of the pressure gradient.

  20. Detrended Fluctuation Analysis of Systolic Blood Pressure Control Loop

    CERN Document Server

    Galhardo, C E C; de Menezes, M Argollo; Soares, P P S

    2009-01-01

    We use detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to study the dynamics of blood pressure oscillations and its feedback control in rats by analyzing systolic pressure time series before and after a surgical procedure that interrupts its control loop. We found, for each situation, a crossover between two scaling regions characterized by exponents that reflect the nature of the feedback control and its range of operation. In addition, we found evidences of adaptation in the dynamics of blood pressure regulation a few days after surgical disruption of its main feedback circuit. Based on the paradigm of antagonistic, bipartite (vagal and sympathetic) action of the central nerve system, we propose a simple model for pressure homeostasis as the balance between two nonlinear opposing forces, successfully reproducing the crossover observed in the DFA of actual pressure signals.

  1. Cardiovascular responses to lead are biphasic, while methylmercury, but not inorganic mercury, monotonically increases blood pressure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildemann, Tanja M; Mirhosseini, Naghmeh; Siciliano, Steven D; Weber, Lynn P

    2015-02-01

    Cardiovascular diseases, such as heart attack and stroke, are the major cause of death worldwide. It is well known that a high number of environmental and physiological risk factors contribute to the development of cardiovascular diseases. Although risk factors are additive, increased blood pressure (hypertension) is the greatest risk factor. Over the last two decades, a growing number of epidemiological studies associate environmental exposure to lead or mercury species with hypertension. However, cardiovascular effects beyond blood pressure are rarely studied and thresholds for effect are not yet clear. To explore effects of lead or mercury species on the cardiovascular system, normal male Wistar rats were exposed to a range of doses of lead, inorganic mercury or methylmercury through the drinking water for four weeks. High-resolution ultrasound was used to measure heart and vascular function (carotid artery blood flow) at baseline and at the end of the exposure, while blood pressure was measured directly in the femoral artery at the end of the 4-week exposure. After 4 weeks, blood pressure responses to lead were biphasic. Low lead levels decreased blood pressure, dilated the carotid artery and increased cardiac output. At higher lead doses, rats had increased blood pressure. In contrast, methylmercury-exposed rats had increased blood pressure at all doses despite dilated carotid arteries. Inorganic mercury did not show any significant cardiovascular effects. Based on the current study, the benchmark dose level 10% (BMDL10s) for systolic blood pressure for lead, inorganic mercury and methylmercury are 1.1, 1.3 and 1.0 μg/kg-bw/d, respectively. However, similar total mercury blood levels attributed to inorganic mercury or methylmercury produced strikingly different results with inorganic mercury having no observable effect on the cardiovascular system but methylmercury increasing systolic and pulse pressures. Therefore, adverse cardiovascular effects cannot be

  2. Noninvasive blood pressure measurement scheme based on optical fiber sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianxuan; Yuan, Xueguang; Zhang, Yangan

    2016-10-01

    Optical fiber sensing has many advantages, such as volume small, light quality, low loss, strong in anti-jamming. Since the invention of the optical fiber sensing technology in 1977, optical fiber sensing technology has been applied in the military, national defense, aerospace, industrial, medical and other fields in recent years, and made a great contribution to parameter measurement in the environment under the limited condition .With the rapid development of computer, network system, the intelligent optical fiber sensing technology, the sensor technology, the combination of computer and communication technology , the detection, diagnosis and analysis can be automatically and efficiently completed. In this work, we proposed a noninvasive blood pressure detection and analysis scheme which uses optical fiber sensor. Optical fiber sensing system mainly includes the light source, optical fiber, optical detector, optical modulator, the signal processing module and so on. wavelength optical signals were led into the optical fiber sensor and the signals reflected by the human body surface were detected. By comparing actual testing data with the data got by traditional way to measure the blood pressure we can establish models for predicting the blood pressure and achieve noninvasive blood pressure measurement by using spectrum analysis technology. Blood pressure measurement method based on optical fiber sensing system is faster and more convenient than traditional way, and it can get accurate analysis results in a shorter period of time than before, so it can efficiently reduce the time cost and manpower cost.

  3. Efficacy of flavonoids in the management of high blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jaime L; Zahradka, Peter; Taylor, Carla G

    2015-12-01

    Plant compounds such as flavonoids have been reported to exert beneficial effects in cardiovascular disease, including hypertension. Information on the effects of isolated individual flavonoids for management of high blood pressure, however, is more limited. This review is focused on the flavonoids, as isolated outside of the food matrix, from the 5 main subgroups consumed in the Western diet (flavones, flavonols, flavanones, flavan-3-ols, and anthocyanins), along with their effects on hypertension, including the potential mechanisms for regulating blood pressure. Flavonoids from all 5 subgroups have been shown to attenuate a rise in or to reduce blood pressure during several pathological conditions (hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes mellitus). Flavones, flavonols, flavanones, and flavanols were able to modulate blood pressure by restoring endothelial function, either directly, by affecting nitric oxide levels, or indirectly, through other pathways. Quercetin had the most consistent blood pressure-lowering effect in animal and human studies, irrespective of dose, duration, or disease status. However, further research on the safety and efficacy of the flavonoids is required before any of them can be used by humans, presumably in supplement form, at the doses required for therapeutic benefit.

  4. Ethnic Differences in Physical Fitness, Blood Pressure and Blood Chemistry in Women (AGES 20-63)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, G. W.; Wier, L. T.; Jackson, A. S.; Stuteville, J. E.; Keptra, Sean (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    This study examined the role of ethnicity on the aerobic fitness, blood pressure, and selected blood chemistry values of women. One hundred twenty-four females (mean age 41.37 +/- 9.0) were medically Examined at the NASA/Johnson Space Center occupational health clinic. Ethnic groups consisted of 23 Black (B), 18 Hispanic (H) and 83 Non-minority (NM). Each woman had a maximum Bruce treadmill stress test (RER greater than or = 1.1) and a negative ECG. Indirect calorimetry, skinfolds, self-report physical activity (NASA activity scale), seated blood pressure, and blood chemistry panel determined VO2max, percent fat, level of physical activity, blood pressure and blood chemistry values. ANOVA revealed that the groups did not differ (p greater than 0.05) in age, VO2 max, weight, percent fat, level of physical activity, total cholesterol, or HDL-C. However, significant differences (p greater than 0.05) were noted in BMI, diastolic blood pressure, and blood chemistries. BMI was 3.17 higher in H than in NM; resting diastolic pressures were 5.69 and 8.05 mmHg. lower in NM and H than in B; triglycerides were 48.07 and 37.21 mg/dl higher in H than in B and NM; hemoglobin was .814 gm/dl higher in NM than B; fasting blood sugar was 15.41 mg/dl higher in H than NM; The results of this study showed that ethnic groups differed in blood pressure and blood chemistry values but not aerobic fitness or physical activity. There was an ethnic difference in BMI but not percent fat.

  5. Fluid-filled blood pressure measurement systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J K; van Brummelen, A G; Noordergraaf, A

    1976-05-01

    The performance of catheter-manometer systems for the measurement of pulsatile pressure has been evaluated by both experimental techniques and theoretical considerations. The former approach has shown, on occasion, multiple maxima in the amplitude response. The latter has been approached in a variety of ways, ranging from extreme lumping to application of transmission line theory while employing different configurations in the system's representation. Multiple maxima have also been seen, The present paper identifies the sources of the differences found and compares the relative merits of various theoretical approaches. It introduces the compliance of the system as a figure of merit and provides a simple first-order approximation formula for evaluation of the quality of a system. Damping and impedance matching to improve the system's frequency response were studied. It was found that they were not needed in a very stiff or a very compliant system, nor should one worry about the representation of such a system.

  6. Short-term effects of polyphenol-rich black tea on blood pressure in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Jonathan M; Woodman, Richard J; Puddey, Ian B; Mulder, Theo; Fuchs, Dagmar; Croft, Kevin D

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that black tea polyphenols contribute to vascular health. We have recently shown that regular ingestion of polyphenol-rich black tea over 6 months results in lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure. However, the time course of these effects remains unclear. Therefore, our objective was to determine if short-term effects of tea on blood pressure could contribute to longer-term benefits of regular tea consumption on blood pressure. Men and women (n = 111) were recruited to a randomised placebo-controlled double-blind parallel designed trial. During a 4-week run-in, all participants consumed 3 cups per day of black tea. Participants then consumed 3 cups over 1 day of either powdered black tea solids containing 429 mg of polyphenols (tea), or a control product matched in flavour and caffeine content but containing no tea solids. The 24 h ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate was measured at the end of the 4-week run-in (baseline) and again during the 24 h intervention period. The 24 h day-time and night-time blood pressures were not significantly different between tea and control (P > 0.05). Baseline-adjusted net effects on mean 24 h ambulatory blood pressure for systolic and diastolic blood pressure were -0.2 mm Hg (95% CI, -1.5 to 1.0), P = 0.72, and 0.0 mm Hg (95% CI, -1.0 to 0.9), P = 0.95, respectively. Heart rate was significantly lower for tea compared to control during the night-time and early-morning periods (-2.0 (95% CI, -3.2, -0.8) bpm, and -1.9 (95% CI, -3.7, -0.2) bpm, respectively; P black tea on blood pressure are unlikely to be due to short-term changes.

  7. Blood pressure rhythmicity and visceral fat in children with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemirska, Anna; Litwin, Mieczysław; Feber, Janusz; Jurkiewicz, Elżbieta

    2013-10-01

    Primary hypertension is associated with disturbed activity of the sympathetic nervous system and altered blood pressure rhythmicity. We analyzed changes in cardiovascular rhythmicity and its relation with target organ damage during 12 months of antihypertensive treatment in 50 boys with hypertension (median, 15.0 years). The following parameters were obtained before and after 12 months of antihypertensive treatment: 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure, left ventricular mass, carotid intima-media thickness, and MRI for visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue. Amplitudes and acrophases of mean arterial pressure and heart rate rhythms were obtained for 24-, 12-, and 8-hour periods. After 1 year of treatment, 68% of patients were normotensive, and left ventricular mass and carotid intima-media thickness decreased in 60% and 62% of patients, respectively. Blood pressure and heart rate rhythmicity patterns did not change. Changes in blood pressure amplitude correlated with the decrease of waist circumference (P=0.035). Moreover, the decrease of visceral fat correlated with the decrease of 24-hour mean arterial pressure and heart rate acrophases (both Phypertension despite effective antihypertensive treatment, which suggests that it may be the primary abnormality. The correlation between changes in cardiovascular rhythmicity and visceral obesity may indicate that the visceral fat plays an important role in the sympathetic activity of adolescents with hypertension.

  8. Cuffless differential blood pressure estimation using smart phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Vikram; Dantu, Ram; Jonnada, Srikanth; Thiyagaraja, Shanti; Subbu, Kalyan Pathapati

    2013-04-01

    Smart phones today have become increasingly popular with the general public for their diverse functionalities such as navigation, social networking, and multimedia facilities. These phones are equipped with high-end processors, high-resolution cameras, and built-in sensors such as accelerometer, orientation-sensor, and light-sensor. According to comScore survey, 26.2% of U.S. adults use smart phones in their daily lives. Motivated by this statistic and the diverse capability of smart phones, we focus on utilizing them for biomedical applications. We present a new application of the smart phone with its built-in camera and microphone replacing the traditional stethoscope and cuff-based measurement technique, to quantify vital signs such as heart rate and blood pressure. We propose two differential blood pressure estimating techniques using the heartbeat and pulse data. The first method uses two smart phones whereas the second method replaces one of the phones with a customized external microphone. We estimate the systolic and diastolic pressure in the two techniques by computing the pulse pressure and the stroke volume from the data recorded. By comparing the estimated blood pressure values with those measured using a commercial blood pressure meter, we obtained encouraging results of 95-100% accuracy.

  9. Using a low-sodium, high-potassium salt substitute to reduce blood pressure among Tibetans with high blood pressure: a patient-blinded randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingshan Zhao

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of a low-sodium and high-potassium salt-substitute on lowering blood pressure (BP among Tibetans living at high altitude (4300 meters. METHOD: The study was a patient-blinded randomized controlled trial conducted between February and May 2009 in Dangxiong County, Tibetan Autonomous Region, China. A total of 282 Tibetans aged 40 or older with known hypertension (systolic BP≥140 mmHg were recruited and randomized to intervention (salt-substitute, 65% sodium chloride, 25% potassium chloride and 10% magnesium sulfate or control (100% sodium chloride in a 1: 1 allocation ratio with three months' supply. Primary outcome was defined as the change in BP levels measured from baseline to followed-up with an automated sphygmomanometer. Per protocol (PP and intention to treat (ITT analyses were conducted. RESULTS: After the three months' intervention period, the net reduction in SBP/DBP in the intervention group in comparison to the control group was -8.2/-3.4 mmHg (all p<0.05 in PP analysis, after adjusting for baseline BP and other variables. ITT analysis showed the net reduction in SBP/DBP at -7.6/-3.5 mmHg with multiple imputations (all p<0.05. Furthermore, the whole distribution of blood pressure showed an overall decline in SBP/DBP and the proportion of patients with BP under control (SBP/DBP<140 mmHg was significantly higher in salt-substitute group in comparison to the regular salt group (19.2% vs. 8.8%, p = 0.027. CONCLUSION: Low sodium high potassium salt-substitute is effective in lowering both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and offers a simple, low-cost approach for hypertension control among Tibetans in China. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01429246.

  10. Heritability of Blood Pressure in an Iranian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Saadat

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The fact that life styles and personal interests, aggregate within families suggests that shared environment in addition to shared bioligical factors could play a role in determining the phenotypic similarity of idividuals living in the same household. It is a major concern of cardiovascular epidemiologists to know how much of the familial aggregation of blood pressure is attributable to shared genes and/or shared family environment. Genetic and environmental influences on blood pressure was examined in a sample representative of the adult population of Shiraz, Fars province, south of Iran. The studied population was the 107 pairs of mother and dauther. Analysis of the data suggest that the genetic heritabilities were estimated to be 0.58,0.30, 0.60 for systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure, respectively.

  11. Blood pressure self-measurement in the obstetric waiting room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Stefan; Kamper, Christina H.; Toftegaard, Thomas Skjødeberg

    2013-01-01

    Background: Pregnant diabetic patients are often required to self- measure their blood pressure in the waiting room before consulta- tion. Currently used blood pressure devices do not guarantee valid measurements when used unsupervised. This could lead to misdi- agnosis and treatment error. The a...... support. This could include context-aware patient adherence aids and clinical decision support systems for automatically validating self-measured data based on e-health and telemedicine technology....... of this study was to investigate current use of blood pressure self-measurement in the waiting room in order to identify challenges that could influence the resulting data quality. Also, we wanted to investigate the potential for addressing these challenges with e-health and telemedicine technology. Subjects...

  12. The relationship between symptoms and blood pressure during maintenance hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, David J; Pugh, Christopher W; Sutherland, Sheera; Tarassenko, Lionel; Birks, Jacqueline

    2015-10-01

    Intradialytic hypotension (IDH) is a detrimental complication of maintenance hemodialysis, but how it is defined and reported varies widely in the literature. European Best Practice Guideline and Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative guidelines require symptoms and a mitigating intervention to fulfill the diagnosis, but morbidity and mortality outcomes are largely based on blood pressure alone. Furthermore, little is known about the incidence of asymptomatic hypotension, which may be an important cause of hypoperfusion injury and impaired outcome. Seventy-seven patients were studied over 456 dialysis sessions. Blood pressure was measured at 15-minute intervals throughout the session and compared with post-dialysis symptom questionnaire results using mixed modeling to adjust for repeated measures in the same patient. The frequency of asymptomatic hypotension was estimated by logistic regression using a variety of commonly cited blood pressure metrics that describe IDH. In 113 sessions (25%) where symptoms were recorded on the questionnaire, these appear not to have been reported to dialysis staff. When symptoms were reported (293 sessions [64%]), an intervention invariably followed. Dizziness and cramp were strongly associated with changes in systolic blood pressure (SBP), but not diastolic blood pressure. Nausea occurred more frequently in younger patients but was not associated with falls in blood pressure. Thresholds that maximized the probability of an intervention rather than a session remaining asymptomatic were SBP hemodialysis, which leads to an underestimation of IDH if symptom-based definitions are used. A revised definition of IDH excluding patient-reported symptoms would be in line with literature reporting morbidity and mortality outcomes and include sessions in which potentially detrimental asymptomatic hypotension occurs.

  13. Magnesium nitrate attenuates blood pressure rise in SHR rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilskersts, Reinis; Kuka, Janis; Liepinsh, Edgars; Cirule, Helena; Gulbe, Anita; Kalvinsh, Ivars; Dambrova, Maija

    2014-01-01

    The administration of magnesium supplements and nitrates/nitrites decreases arterial blood pressure and attenuates the development of hypertension-induced complications. This study was performed to examine the effects of treatment with magnesium nitrate on the development of hypertension and its complications in spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats. Male SHR rats with persistent hypertension at the age of 12-13 weeks were allocated to two groups according to their arterial blood pressure. Rats from the control group received purified water, while the experimental animals from the second group received magnesium nitrate dissolved in purified water at a dose of 50 mg/kg. After four weeks of treatment, blood pressure was measured, the anatomical and functional parameters of the heart were recorded using an ultrasonograph, vascular reactivity was assayed in organ bath experiments and the cardioprotective effects of magnesium nitrate administration was assayed in an ex vivo experimental heart infarction model. Treatment with magnesium nitrate significantly increased the nitrate concentration in the plasma (from 62 ± 8 μmol/l to 111 ± 8 μmol/L), and attenuated the increase in the arterial blood pressure. In the control and magnesium nitrate groups, the blood pressure rose by 21 ± 3 mmHg and 6 ± 4 mmHg, respectively. The administration of magnesium nitrate had no effect on the altered vasoreactivity, heart function or the size of the heart infarction. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that magnesium nitrate effectively attenuates the rise in arterial blood pressure. However, a longer period of administration or earlier onset of treatment might be needed to delay the development of complications due to hypertension.

  14. Automated compared to manual office blood pressure and to home blood pressure in hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipovský, Jan; Seidlerová, Jitka; Kratochvíl, Zdeněk; Karnosová, Petra; Hronová, Markéta; Mayer, Otto

    2016-08-01

    We studied the relationships of automated blood pressure (BP), measured in the healthcare centre, with manual office BP and home BP. Stable outpatients treated for hypertension were measured automatically, seated alone in a quiet room, six times after a 5 min rest with the BpTRU device, and immediately afterwards using the auscultatory method. Home BP was measured in a subgroup during 7 days preceding the visit. The automated, office and home BP values were 131.2 ± 21.8/77.8 ± 12.1 mmHg, 146.9 ± 20.8/85.8 ± 12.4 mmHg and 137.7 ± 17.7/79.4 ± 8.2 mmHg, respectively. Limits of agreement between office and automated BP (2 SDs in Bland-Altman plots) were +42.6 to -12.6/+22.6 to -6.6 mmHg for systolic/diastolic BP; for home and automated BP they were +45.8 to -25.8/+20.8 to -12.6 mmHg. For patients with two visits, intraclass correlation coefficients of BP values measured during the first and second visits were 0.66/0.72 for systolic/diastolic automated BP and 0.68/0.74 for systolic/diastolic office BP. Automated BP was lower than home BP and no more closely related to home BP than to office BP. It did not show better repeatability than office BP. Whether automated BP and the "white-coat effect", calculated cas the office BP-automated BP difference, have clinical and prognostic importance deserves further studies.

  15. Inhibition of natriuretic factors increases blood pressure in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Banday, Anees Ahmad; Lokhandwala, Mustafa F.

    2009-01-01

    Renal dopamine and nitric oxide contribute to natriuresis during high-salt intake which maintains sodium and blood pressure homeostasis. We wanted to determine whether concurrent inhibition of these natriuretic factors increases blood pressure during high-sodium intake. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the following groups: 1) vehicle (V)-tap water, 2) NaCl-1% NaCl drinking water, 3) 30 mM l-buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), an oxidant, 4) BSO plus NaCl, and 5) BSO plus NaCl with 1 mM t...

  16. Effects of fasting on Blood pressure in normotensive males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Samad

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Muslims all over the world fast in the holy month of Ramadan. Fasting means abstinence from drinking any liquids, eating, smoking and taking anything parenterally.  It is intermittent in nature from the start of dawn to end at dusk. Fasting has various physiological effects on different biological parameters of the human body. Previous studies that look at effect of Ramadan fasting on blood pressure have focused mainly on hypertensive patients and patients with already established heart disease.(1,2There is very limited data regarding the effect of fasting on the normal population. (3,4 A few previous studies have advocated a hypotensive role of fasting.(5 In our study published in Journal of Ayub Medical College Abbottabad (JAMC in 2015, “Effects of Ramadan Fasting on Blood pressure in normotensive males”, we investigated the effect of Ramadan fasting on blood pressure of normotensive men. We conducted a repeated measure observational study in Karachi, Pakistan on 70 individuals who were normotensive, non-smokers between the ages of 18–50 years. . Blood pressure, pulse, BMI of each participant was recorded one week before the start of Ramadan and in the first, second and third week of Ramadan. The results of our study show that intermittent fasting has a hypotensive effect in normotensive males as proven in animal models and certain human population. There was an average drop of 8/3 mmHg and while the results are significant, their clinical relevance needs to be analysed. Studies on animal models have suggested atrial natriuretic peptide, catecholamines, opiates and body mass index as possible reasons for the decrease in blood pressure due to fasting.(3, 6  Dewanti et al suggested that the cause of drop in blood pressure was the drop in BMI however in our study we found that a drop in BMI only occurred before Iftar towards the end of the fast. There was no significant drop in post-Iftar BMI although there was a significant drop in blood

  17. Laser Doppler flowmetry for bone blood flow measurement: correlation with microsphere estimates and evaluation of the effect of intracapsular pressure on femoral head blood flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swiontkowski, M.F.; Tepic, S.; Perren, S.M.; Moor, R.; Ganz, R.; Rahn, B.A.

    1986-01-01

    Laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) was used to measure bone blood flow in the rabbit femoral condyles. To correlate the LDF output signal blood cell flux to in vivo blood flow, simultaneous measurements using LDF and /sup 85/Sr-labeled microspheres were made in an adult rabbit model. There was no correlation between the two methods for blood flow in the femoral condyles and the correlation between the two methods for blood flow in the femoral head does not achieve statistical significance. An LDF signal of 0.4 V was approximately equal to a microsphere measured flow rate of 0.4 ml blood/g bone/min. The strength of the correlation in the latter case may have been affected by (a) large arteriovenous shunts, (b) inadequate mixing of the microspheres with a left ventricular injection, and (c) insufficient numbers of microspheres present in the bone samples. When LDF was used to evaluate the effect of elevated intracapsular pressure on femoral head blood flow in skeletally mature rabbits, femoral head subchondral bone blood flow declined with increasing intracapsular pressure from a baseline value of 0.343 +/- 0.036 to a value of 0.127 +/- 0.27 at 120 cm of water pressure. The decline in femoral head blood flow was statistically significant at pressures of 40 cm of water or higher (p less than 0.001), and evaluation of sections of the proximal femora made from preterminal disulphine blue injections confirmed these findings. Intracapsular tamponade has an adverse effect on femoral head blood flow beginning well below central venous pressure and should be considered in the pathophysiology of posttraumatic and nontraumatic necrosis of the femoral head. Laser Doppler flowmetry was easy to use and appears to be a reproducible technique for evaluating femoral head blood flow, offering distinct advantages over the microsphere technique for measuring bone blood flow.

  18. Impact of extracorporeal blood flow rate on blood pressure, pulse rate and cardiac output during haemodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schytz, Philip Andreas; Mace, Maria Lerche; Soja, Anne Merete Boas

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: If blood pressure (BP) falls during haemodialysis (HD) [intradialytic hypotension (IDH)] a common clinical practice is to reduce the extracorporeal blood flow rate (EBFR). Consequently the efficacy of the HD (Kt/V) is reduced. However, only very limited knowledge on the effect of redu...

  19. Nocturnal variations in peripheral blood flow, systemic blood pressure, and heart rate in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindrup, J H; Kastrup, J; Christensen, H;

    1991-01-01

    Subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow rate, together with systemic arterial blood pressure and heart rate under ambulatory conditions, was measured in the lower legs of 15 normal human subjects for 12-20 h. The 133Xe-washout technique, portable CdTe(Cl) detectors, and a portable data storage unit...

  20. Relationship between blood manganese and blood pressure in the Korean general population according to KNHANES 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung-Kook [Institute of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Soonchunhyang University 646 Eupnae-ri, Shinchang-myun, Asan-si, Choongnam 336-745 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yangho, E-mail: yanghokm@nuri.net [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 290-3 Cheonha-Dong, Dong-Gu, Ulsan 682-060 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    Introduction: We present data on the association of manganese (Mn) level with hypertension in a representative sample of the adult Korean population who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008. Methods: This study was based on the data obtained by KNHANES 2008, which was conducted for three years (2007-2009) using a rolling sampling design involving a complex, stratified, multistage, probability-cluster survey of a representative sample of the noninstitutionalized civilian population of South Korea. Results: Multiple regression analysis after controlling for covariates, including gender, age, regional area, education level, smoking, drinking status, hemoglobin, and serum creatinine, showed that the beta coefficients of log blood Mn were 3.514, 1.878, and 2.517 for diastolic blood pressure, and 3.593, 2.449, and 2.440 for systolic blood pressure in female, male, and all participants, respectively. Multiple regression analysis including three other blood metals, lead, mercury, and cadmium, revealed no significant effects of the three metals on blood pressure and showed no effect on the association between blood Mn and blood pressure. In addition, doubling the blood Mn increased the risk of hypertension 1.828, 1.573, and 1.567 fold in women, men, and all participants, respectively, after adjustment for covariates. The addition of blood lead, mercury, and cadmium as covariates did not affect the association between blood Mn and the prevalence of hypertension. Conclusion: Blood Mn level was associated with an increased risk of hypertension in a representative sample of the Korean adult population. - Highlights: {yields} We showed the association of manganese with hypertension in Korean population. {yields} This study was based on the data obtained by KNHANES 2008. {yields} Blood manganese level was associated with an increased risk of hypertension.

  1. Genetic variants in novel pathways influence blood pressure and cardiovascular disease risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.B. Ehret (Georg); P. Munroe (Patricia); K.M. Rice (Kenneth); M. Bochud (Murielle); A.D. Johnson (Andrew); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); A.V. Smith (Albert Vernon); M.D. Tobin (Martin); G.C. Verwoert (Germaine); S.J. Hwang; V. Pihur (Vasyl); P. Vollenweider (Peter); P.F. O'Reilly (Paul); N. Amin (Najaf); J.L. Bragg-Gresham (Jennifer L.); A. Teumer (Alexander); N.L. Glazer (Nicole); L.J. Launer (Lenore); J. Hua Zhao (Jing); Y.S. Aulchenko (Yurii); S.C. Heath (Simon); S. Sõber (Siim); A. Parsa (Afshin); J. Luan; P. Arora (Pankaj); A. Dehghan (Abbas); F. Zhang (Feng); G. Lucas (Gavin); A.A. Hicks (Andrew); A.U. Jackson (Anne); J. Peden (John); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); S.H. Wild (Sarah); I. Rudan (Igor); W. Igl (Wilmar); Y. Milaneschi (Yuri); A.N. Parker (Alex); C. Fava (Cristiano); J.C. Chambers (John); E.R. Fox (Ervin); M. Kumari (Meena); M. Jin Go (Min); P. van der Harst (Pim); W. Hong Linda Kao (Wen); M. Sjögren (Marketa); D.G. Vinay; M. Alexander (Myriam); Y. Tabara (Yasuharu); S. Shaw-Hawkins (Sue); P.H. Whincup (Peter); Y. Liu (Yongmei); G. Shi (Gang); J. Kuusisto (Johanna); B. Tayo (Bamidele); M. Seielstad (Mark); X. Sim (Xueling); K.-D. Hoang Nguyen; T. Lehtimäki (Terho); G. Matullo (Giuseppe); Y. Wu (Ying); T.R. Gaunt (Tom); N. Charlotte Onland-Moret; M.N. Cooper (Matthew); C. Platou (Carl); E. Org (Elin); R. Hardy (Rebecca); S. Dahgam (Santosh); J. Palmen (Jutta); V. Vitart (Veronique); P.S. Braund (Peter); T. Kuznetsova (Tatiana); C.S.P.M. Uiterwaal (Cuno); A. Adeyemo (Adebowale); W. Palmas (Walter); H. Campbell (Harry); B. Ludwig (Barbara); M. Tomaszewski; I. Tzoulaki; N.D. Palmer (Nicholette); T. Aspelund (Thor); M. Garcia (Melissa); Y.-P.C. Chang (Yen-Pei); J.R. O´Connell; N.I. Steinle (Nanette); D.E. Grobbee (Diederick); D.E. Arking (Dan); S.L. Kardia (Sharon); A.C. Morrison (Alanna); D.G. Hernandez (Dena); S.S. Najjar (Samer); W.L. McArdle (Wendy); D. Hadley (David); M.J. Brown (Morris); J. Connell (John); A. Hingorani (Aroon); I.N.M. Day (Ian); D.A. Lawlor (Debbie); J.P. Beilby (John); R.W. Lawrence (Robert); R. Clarke; J. Hopewell; H. Ongen (Halit); A.W. Dreisbach (Albert); Y. Li (Yali); J. Hunter Young; J.C. Bis (Joshua); M. Kähönen (Mika); J. Viikari (Jorma); N.R. Lee (Nanette); M-H. Chen (Ming-Huei); M. Olden (Matthias); C. Pattaro (Cristian); J.A. Hoffman Bolton (Judith); A. Köttgen (Anna); S.M. Bergmann (Sven); V. Mooser (Vincent); N. Chaturvedi (Nish); T.M. Frayling (Timothy); M. Islam (Muhammad); T.H. Jafar (Tazeen); S.R. Kulkarni (Smita); S.R. Bornstein (Stefan); J. Gräßler (Jürgen); L. Groop (Leif); B.F. Voight (Benjamin); J. Kettunen (Johannes); P. Howard (Philip); A. Taylor (Andrew); S. Guarrera (Simonetta); F. Ricceri (Fulvio); V. Emilsson (Valur); A.S. Plump (Andrew); K-T. Khaw (Kay-Tee); A.B. Weder (Alan); S.C. Hunt (Steven); Y.V. Sun (Yan); R.N. Bergman (Richard); F.S. Collins (Francis); L.L. Bonnycastle (Lori); L.J. Scott (Laura); H.M. Stringham (Heather); L. Peltonen (Leena Johanna); M. Perola (Markus); E. Vartiainen (Erkki); S.-M. Brand; J.A. Staessen (Jan); Y.A. Wang (Ying); P.R. Burton (Paul); M. Soler Artigas (Maria); Y. Dong (Yanbin); H. Snieder (Harold); H. Zhu (Haidong); K. Lohman (Kurt); M.E. Rudock (Megan); S.R. Heckbert (Susan); K.L. Wiggins (Kerri); A. Doumatey (Ayo); D. Shriner (Daniel); G. Veldre (Gudrun); M. Viigimaa (Margus); S. Kinra (Sanjay); D. Prabhakaran (Dorairaj); V. Tripathy (Vikal); C.D. Langefeld (Carl); A. Rosengren (Annika); D.S. Thelle (Dag); A. Maria Corsi (Anna); A. Singleton (Andrew); T. Forrester (Terrence); G. Hilton (Gina); C.A. McKenzie (Colin); T. Salako (Tunde); N. Iwai (Naoharu); Y. Kita (Yoshikuni); T. Ogihara (Toshio); T. Ohkubo (Takayoshi); T. Okamura (Tomonori); H. Ueshima (Hirotsugu); S. Umemura (Satoshi); S. Eyheramendy (Susana); T. Meitinger (Thomas); H.E. Wichmann (Heinz Erich); Y. Shin Cho (Yoon); H.-L. Kim; J.S. Sehmi (Joban); B. Hedblad (Bo); P. Nilsson (Peter); G. Davey-Smith (George); A. Wong (Andrew); N. Narisu (Narisu); A. Stancáková (Alena); L.J. Raffel (Leslie); J. Yao (Jie); S. Kathiresan (Sekar); C.J. O'Donnell (Christopher); S.M. Schwartz (Stephen); M.A. Ikram (Arfan); W.T. Longstreth Jr; T.H. Mosley (Thomas); S. Seshadri (Sudha); N.R.G. Shrine (Nick); L.V. Wain (Louise); M.A. Morken (Mario); A.J. Swift (Amy); J. Laitinen (Jaana); I. Prokopenko (Inga); P. Zitting (Paavo); S.E. Humphries (Steve); J. Danesh (John); A. Rasheed (Asif); A. Goel (Anuj); A. Hamsten (Anders); H. Watkins (Hugh); W.H. van Gilst (Wiek); C.S. Janipalli (Charles); K. Radha Mani; C. Yajnik (Chittaranjan); A. Hofman (Albert); F.U.S. Mattace Raso (Francesco); B.A. Oostra (Ben); A. Demirkan (Ayşe); A.J. Isaacs (Aaron); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); E. Lakatta (Edward); M. Orrù (Marco); A. Scuteri (Angelo); M. Ala-Korpela (Mika); A.J. Kangas (Antti); L.-P. Lyytikäinen (Leo-Pekka); P. Soininen (Pasi); T. Tukiainen (Taru); P. Würtz (Peter); R. Twee-Hee Ong (Rick); M. Dörr (Marcus); H.K. Kroemer (Heyo); U. Völker (Uwe); H. Völzke (Henry); P. Galan (Pilar); S. Hercberg (Serge); G.M. Lathrop (Mark); D. Zelenika (Diana); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); M. Mangino (Massimo); T.D. Spector (Timothy); G. Zhai (Guangju); J.F. Meschia (James F.); M.A. Nalls (Michael); P. Sharma (Pankaj); J. Terzic (Janos); M.V. Kranthi Kumar; M. Denniff (Matthew); E. Zukowska-Szczechowska (Ewa); L.E. Wagenknecht (Lynne); F. Gerald R. Fowkes; F.J. Charchar (Fadi); P.E.H. Schwarz (Peter); C. Hayward (Caroline); X. Guo (Xiuqing); C. Rotimi (Charles); M.L. Bots (Michiel); N.J. Samani (Nilesh); O. Polasek (Ozren); P.J. Talmud (Philippa); F. Nyberg (Fredrik); D. Kuh (Diana); M. Laan (Maris); K. Hveem (Kristian); Y.T. van der Schouw (Yvonne); J.P. Casas (Juan); K.L. Mohlke (Karen); P. Vineis (Paolo); O. Raitakari (Olli); S.K. Ganesh (Santhi); E. Shyong Tai; M. Laakso (Markku); D.C. Rao (Dabeeru C.); T.B. Harris (Tamara); R.W. Morris (Richard); A. Dominiczak (Anna); M. Kivimaki (Mika); M. Marmot (Michael); T. Miki (Tetsuro); D. Saleheen; G.R. Chandak (Giriraj); J. Coresh (Josef); G. Navis (Gerjan); V. Salomaa (Veikko); B.-G. Han; J.S. Kooner (Jaspal); O. Melander (Olle); P.M. Ridker (Paul); S. Bandinelli (Stefania); U. Gyllensten (Ulf); A.F. Wright (Alan); J.F. Wilson (James); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); M. Farrall (Martin); J. Tuomilehto (Jaakko); P.P. Pramstaller (Peter Paul); R. Elosua (Roberto); N. Soranzo (Nicole); E.J.G. Sijbrands (Eric); D. Altshuler (David); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth); A.R. Shuldiner (Alan); C. Gieger (Christian); P. Meneton (Pierre); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); N.J. Wareham (Nick); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); J.I. Rotter (Jerome); R. Rettig (Rainer); M. Uda (Manuela); D.P. Strachan (David); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); A.L. Hartikainen; J.S. Beckmann (Jacques); E.A. Boerwinkle (Eric); J. Erdmann (Jeanette); R.S. Vasan (Ramachandran Srini); M. Boehnke (Michael); M.G. Larson (Martin); M.R. Järvelin; B.M. Psaty (Bruce); P. Tikka-Kleemola (Päivi); C. Newton-Cheh (Christopher); P. Elliott (Paul); D. Levy (Daniel); M. Caulfield (Mark); G.R. Abecasis (Gonçalo); L.S. Adair (Linda); S.J.L. Bakker (Stephan); I. Barroso (Inês)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBlood pressure is a heritable trait influenced by several biological pathways and responsive to environmental stimuli. Over one billion people worldwide have hypertension (≥140mmg Hg systolic blood pressure ≥90mmg Hg diastolic blood pressure). Even small increments in blood pressure are

  2. Genetic variants in novel pathways influence blood pressure and cardiovascular disease risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehret, Georg B.; Munroe, Patricia B.; Rice, Kenneth M.; Bochud, Murielle; Johnson, Andrew D.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Smith, Albert V.; Tobin, Martin D.; Verwoert, Germaine C.; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Pihur, Vasyl; Vollenweider, Peter; O'Reilly, Paul F.; Amin, Najaf; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L.; Teumer, Alexander; Glazer, Nicole L.; Launer, Lenore; Zhao, Jing Hua; Aulchenko, Yurii; Heath, Simon; Sober, Siim; Parsa, Afshin; Luan, Jian'an; Arora, Pankaj; Dehghan, Abbas; Zhang, Feng; Lucas, Gavin; Hicks, Andrew A.; Jackson, Anne U.; Peden, John F.; Tanaka, Toshiko; Wild, Sarah H.; Rudan, Igor; Igl, Wilmar; Milaneschi, Yuri; Parker, Alex N.; Fava, Cristiano; Chambers, John C.; Fox, Ervin R.; Kumari, Meena; Go, Min Jin; van der Harst, Pim; Kao, Wen Hong Linda; Sjogren, Marketa; Vinay, D. G.; Alexander, Myriam; Tabara, Yasuharu; Shaw-Hawkins, Sue; Whincup, Peter H.; Liu, Yongmei; Shi, Gang; Kuusisto, Johanna; Tayo, Bamidele; Seielstad, Mark; Sim, Xueling; Khanh-Dung Hoang Nguyen, [No Value; Lehtimaki, Terho; Matullo, Giuseppe; Wu, Ying; Gaunt, Tom R.; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Cooper, Matthew N.; Platou, Carl G. P.; Org, Elin; Hardy, Rebecca; Dahgam, Santosh; Palmen, Jutta; Vitart, Veronique; Braund, Peter S.; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Uiterwaal, Cuno S. P. M.; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Palmas, Walter; Campbell, Harry; Ludwig, Barbara; Tomaszewski, Maciej; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Palmer, Nicholette D.; Aspelund, Thor; Garcia, Melissa; Chang, Yen-Pei C.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Steinle, Nanette I.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Arking, Dan E.; Kardia, Sharon L.; Morrison, Alanna C.; Hernandez, Dena; Najjar, Samer; McArdle, Wendy L.; Hadley, David; Brown, Morris J.; Connell, John M.; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Day, Ian N. M.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Beilby, John P.; Lawrence, Robert W.; Clarke, Robert; Hopewell, Jemma C.; Ongen, Halit; Dreisbach, Albert W.; Li, Yali; Young, J. Hunter; Bis, Joshua C.; Kahonen, Mika; Viikari, Jorma; Adair, Linda S.; Lee, Nanette R.; Chen, Ming-Huei; Olden, Matthias; Pattaro, Cristian; Bolton, Judith A. Hoffman; Koettgen, Anna; Bergmann, Sven; Mooser, Vincent; Chaturvedi, Nish; Frayling, Timothy M.; Islam, Muhammad; Jafar, Tazeen H.; Erdmann, Jeanette; Kulkarni, Smita R.; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Graessler, Juergen; Groop, Leif; Voight, Benjamin F.; Kettunen, Johannes; Howard, Philip; Taylor, Andrew; Guarrera, Simonetta; Ricceri, Fulvio; Emilsson, Valur; Plump, Andrew; Barroso, Ine S.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Weder, Alan B.; Hunt, Steven C.; Sun, Yan V.; Bergman, Richard N.; Collins, Francis S.; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Scott, Laura J.; Stringham, Heather M.; Peltonen, Leena; Perola, Markus; Vartiainen, Erkki; Brand, Stefan-Martin; Staessen, Jan A.; Wang, Thomas J.; Burton, Paul R.; Artigas, Maria Soler; Dong, Yanbin; Snieder, Harold; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhu, Haidong; Lohman, Kurt K.; Rudock, Megan E.; Heckbert, Susan R.; Smith, Nicholas L.; Wiggins, Kerri L.; Doumatey, Ayo; Shriner, Daniel; Veldre, Gudrun; Viigimaa, Margus; Kinra, Sanjay; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Tripathy, Vikal; Langefeld, Carl D.; Rosengren, Annika; Thelle, Dag S.; Corsi, Anna Maria; Singleton, Andrew; Forrester, Terrence; Hilton, Gina; McKenzie, Colin A.; Salako, Tunde; Iwai, Naoharu; Kita, Yoshikuni; Ogihara, Toshio; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Okamura, Tomonori; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Umemura, Satoshi; Eyheramendy, Susana; Meitinger, Thomas; Wichmann, H. -Erich; Cho, Yoon Shin; Kim, Hyung-Lae; Lee, Jong-Young; Scott, James; Sehmi, Joban S.; Zhang, Weihua; Hedblad, Bo; Nilsson, Peter; Smith, George Davey; Wong, Andrew; Narisu, Narisu; Stancakova, Alena; Raffel, Leslie J.; Yao, Jie; Kathiresan, Sekar; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Ikram, M. Arfan; Longstreth, W. T.; Mosley, Thomas H.; Seshadri, Sudha; Shrine, Nick R. G.; Wain, Louise V.; Morken, Mario A.; Swift, Amy J.; Laitinen, Jaana; Prokopenko, Inga; Zitting, Paavo; Cooper, Jackie A.; Humphries, Steve E.; Danesh, John; Rasheed, Asif; Goel, Anuj; Hamsten, Anders; Watkins, Hugh; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; van Gilst, Wiek H.; Janipalli, Charles S.; Mani, K. Radha; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S.; Hofman, Albert; Mattace-Raso, Francesco U. S.; Oostra, Ben A.; Demirkan, Ayse; Isaacs, Aaron; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Lakatta, Edward G.; Orru, Marco; Scuteri, Angelo; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Kangas, Antti J.; Lyytikainen, Leo-Pekka; Soininen, Pasi; Tukiainen, Taru; Wurtz, Peter; Ong, Rick Twee-Hee; Doerr, Marcus; Kroemer, Heyo K.; Voelker, Uwe; Voelzke, Henry; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Lathrop, Mark; Zelenika, Diana; Deloukas, Panos; Mangino, Massimo; Spector, Tim D.; Zhai, Guangju; Meschia, James F.; Nalls, Michael A.; Sharma, Pankaj; Terzic, Janos; Kumar, M. V. Kranthi; Denniff, Matthew; Zukowska-Szczechowska, Ewa; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.; Fowkes, F. Gerald R.; Charchar, Fadi J.; Schwarz, Peter E. H.; Hayward, Caroline; Guo, Xiuqing; Rotimi, Charles; Bots, Michiel L.; Brand, Eva; Samani, Nilesh J.; Polasek, Ozren; Talmud, Philippa J.; Nyberg, Fredrik; Kuh, Diana; Laan, Maris; Hveem, Kristian; Palmer, Lyle J.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Casas, Juan P.; Mohlke, Karen L.; Vineis, Paolo; Raitakari, Olli; Ganesh, Santhi K.; Wong, Tien Y.; Tai, E. Shyong; Cooper, Richard S.; Laakso, Markku; Rao, Dabeeru C.; Harris, Tamara B.; Morris, Richard W.; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Kivimaki, Mika; Marmot, Michael G.; Miki, Tetsuro; Saleheen, Danish; Chandak, Giriraj R.; Coresh, Josef; Navis, Gerjan; Salomaa, Veikko; Han, Bok-Ghee; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Melander, Olle; Ridker, Paul M.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Gyllensten, Ulf B.; Wright, Alan F.; Wilson, James F.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Farrall, Martin; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Elosua, Roberto; Soranzo, Nicole; Sijbrands, Eric J. G.; Altshuler, David; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Gieger, Christian; Meneton, Pierre; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Rotter, Jerome I.; Rettig, Rainer; Uda, Manuela; Strachan, David P.; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Boehnke, Michael; Larson, Martin G.; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Psaty, Bruce M.; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Elliott, Paul; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Levy, Daniel; Caulfield, Mark J.; Johnson, Toby

    2011-01-01

    Blood pressure is a heritable trait(1) influenced by several biological pathways and responsive to environmental stimuli. Over one billion people worldwide have hypertension (>= 140 mm Hg systolic blood pressure or >= 90 mm Hg diastolic blood pressure)(2). Even small increments in blood pressure are

  3. Extreme Elevations in Blood Pressure and All-Cause Mortality in a Referred CKD Population: Results from the CRISIS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, James; Rainone, Francesco; Green, Darren; Alderson, Helen; Chiu, Diana; Middleton, Rachel; O'Donoghue, Donal; Kalra, Philip A

    2013-01-01

    Hypertension frequently complicates chronic kidney disease (CKD), with studies showing clinical benefit from blood pressure lowering. Subgroups of patients with severe hypertension exist. We aimed to identify patients with the greatest mortality risk from uncontrolled hypertension to define the prevalence and phenotype of patients who might benefit from adjunctive therapies. 1691 all-cause CKD patients from the CRISIS study were grouped by baseline blood pressure-target (extreme (>190 and/or 100 mmHg). Groups were well matched for age, eGFR, and comorbidities. 77 patients had extreme hypertension at recruitment but no increased mortality risk (HR 0.9, P = 0.9) over a median follow-up period of 4.5 years. The 1.2% of patients with extreme hypertension at recruitment and at 12-months had a significantly increased mortality risk (HR 4.3, P = 0.01). This association was not seen in patients with baseline extreme hypertension and improved 12-month blood pressures (HR 0.86, P = 0.5). Most CKD patients with extreme hypertension respond to pharmacological blood pressure control, reducing their risk for death. Patients with extreme hypertension in whom blood pressure control cannot be achieved have an approximate prevalence of 1%. These patients have an increased mortality risk and may be an appropriate group to consider for further therapies, including renal nerve ablation.

  4. Conventional and Ambulatory Blood Pressure as Predictors of Retinal Arteriolar Narrowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Fang-Fei; Zhang, Zhen-Yu; Thijs, Lutgarde; Yang, Wen-Yi; Jacobs, Lotte; Cauwenberghs, Nicholas; Gu, Yu-Mei; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Allegaert, Karel; Verhamme, Peter; Li, Yan; Struijker-Boudier, Harry A J; Staessen, Jan A

    2016-08-01

    At variance with the long established paradigm that retinal arteriolar narrowing trails hypertension, several longitudinal studies, all based on conventional blood pressure (CBP) measurement, proposed that retinal arteriolar narrowing indicates heightened microvascular resistance and precedes hypertension. In 783 randomly recruited Flemish (mean age, 38.2 years; 51.3% women), we investigated to what extent CBP and daytime (10 am to 8 pm) ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) measured at baseline (1989-2008) predicted the central retinal arteriolar equivalent (CRAE) in retinal photographs obtained at follow-up (2008-2015). Systolic/diastolic hypertension thresholds were 140/90 mm Hg for CBP and 135/85 mm Hg for ABP. In multivariable-adjusted models including both baseline CBP and ABP, CRAE after 10.3 years (median) of follow-up was unrelated to CBP (P≥0.14), whereas ABP predicted CRAE narrowing (P≤0.011). Per 1-SD increment in systolic/diastolic blood pressure, the association sizes were -0.95 µm (95% confidence interval, -2.20 to 0.30)/-0.75 µm (-1.93 to 0.42) for CBP and -1.76 µm (-2.95 to -0.58)/-1.48 µm (-2.61 to -0.34) for ABP. Patients with ambulatory hypertension at baseline (17.0%) had smaller CRAE (146.5 versus 152.6 µm; PABP; prevalence, 77.6%) and white-coat hypertension (elevated CBP and normal ABP, 5.4%) and between masked hypertension (normal CBP and elevated ABP, 10.2%) and hypertension (elevated CBP and ABP, 6.8%). In conclusion, the paradigm that retinal arteriolar narrowing precedes hypertension can be explained by the limitations of CBP measurement, including nonidentification of masked and white-coat hypertension.

  5. Association between intraoperative blood pressure and postoperative delirium in elderly hip fracture patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nae-Yuh Wang

    Full Text Available One possible area of intervention to prevent postoperative delirium (PD is intraoperative blood pressure management. However, the relationship between intraoperative blood pressure and PD is unclear. A secondary analysis of a RCT study examining the PD risk over the range of absolute intraoperative mean arterial blood pressure (MAP readings and the corresponding relative changes from preoperative baseline level was performed to determine the role of MAP on PD.Nonparametric locally weighted quadratic polynomial smoothing (LOESS regression explored the pattern of PD risk at postoperative day 2 as a function of mean surgery MAP (msMAP and percent change of msMAP from baseline in 103 elderly hip fracture patients. Segment-linear logistic regression models were then constructed to determine the odds ratios (OR of PD over the observed range of these msMAP measures, adjusting for potential confounds.Twenty-three patients (22% developed PD on day 2. LOESS regression revealed a j-shaped association between absolute levels of msMAP and PD risk. When msMAP was ≥80 mmHg, higher msMAP imparted greater PD risk (OR = 2.28 per 10 mmHg msMAP increase; 95% CI: 1.11-4.70, while higher msMAP was associated with lower PD risk (OR = 0.19 per 10 mmHg increase; CI: 0.05-0.76 if msMAP was <80 mmHg. There was no statistically significant relationship between PD risk and average percent change from baseline in these msMAP measures.In elderly hip fracture patients, both very high and very low levels of msMAP were associated with significantly increased risk of PD.

  6. Tracking of blood pressure among adolescents and young adults in an urban slum of Puducherry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soudarssanane M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early diagnosis of hypertension (HT is an important strategy in its control. Tracking of blood pressure (BP has been found useful in identifying persons with potential HT, particularly in youngsters. A cohort of 756 subjects (with baseline information as a cross-sectional study in 2002 was followed up in 2006 to comment on the distribution of BP and its attributes. Objectives: To track BP distribution in a cohort of adolescents and young adults, and assess the persistence of high/low normotensives; to measure the incidence of HT and study the relationship of BP with age, sex, socioeconomic status, BMI, physical exercise, salt intake, smoking and alcohol consumption. Materials and Methods: The baseline study cohort (2002 of 756 subjects (19-24 years in urban field area of Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, JIPMER, was followed up between May and November 2006 by house visits for measurement of sociodemographic variables, anthropometry, salt intake, physical activity and BP. Results: A total of 555 subjects from the 2002 cohort were contacted (73.4%, in that 54.5% subjects who were below 5 th percentile, 93.6% subjects between 5 th and 95 th percentiles and 72% of those above 95 th percentile previously persisted in the same cut-offs for systolic blood pressure (SBP. The corresponding figures for diastolic blood pressure (DBP were 46.2, 92.2 and 74.1%, respectively. Shift from one cut-off to another was not significant for both SBP and DBP, proving the tracking phenomenon. Annual incidence of HT was 9.8/1000. Baseline BP was the significant predictor of current BP for the entire cohort; BMI and salt intake were significant predictors only in certain sections of the study cohort. Conclusions: Early diagnosis of hypertension even among adolescents/young adults is an important preventive measure, as tracking exists in the population.

  7. Association between routine and standardized blood pressure measurements and left ventricular hypertrophy among patients on hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walsh Michael

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Left ventricular (LV hypertrophy is common among patients on hemodialysis. While a relationship between blood pressure (BP and LV hypertrophy has been established, it is unclear which BP measurement method is the strongest correlate of LV hypertrophy. We sought to determine agreement between various blood pressure measurement methods, as well as identify which method was the strongest correlate of LV hypertrophy among patients on hemodialysis. Methods This was a post-hoc analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial. We evaluated the agreement between seven BP measurement methods: standardized measurement at baseline; single pre- and post-dialysis, as well as mean intra-dialytic measurement at baseline; and cumulative pre-, intra- and post-dialysis readings (an average of 12 monthly readings based on a single day per month. Agreement was assessed using Lin's concordance correlation coefficient (CCC and the Bland Altman method. Association between BP measurement method and LV hypertrophy on baseline cardiac MRI was determined using receiver operating characteristic curves and area under the curve (AUC. Results Agreement between BP measurement methods in the 39 patients on hemodialysis varied considerably, from a CCC of 0.35 to 0.94, with overlapping 95% confidence intervals. Pre-dialysis measurements were the weakest predictors of LV hypertrophy while standardized, post- and inter-dialytic measurements had similar and strong (AUC 0.79 to 0.80 predictive power for LV hypertrophy. Conclusions A single standardized BP has strong predictive power for LV hypertrophy and performs just as well as more resource intensive cumulative measurements, whereas pre-dialysis blood pressure measurements have the weakest predictive power for LV hypertrophy. Current guidelines, which recommend using pre-dialysis measurements, should be revisited to confirm these results.

  8. Semiquantitative imaging measurement of baseline and vasomodulated normal prostatic blood flow using sildenafil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haaga, JR; Exner, A; Fei, B; Seftel, AD

    2013-01-01

    The physiologic variability of blood flow to the prostate has not been studied until this time. We report the vasoactive effects of sildenafil and phenylephrine on blood flow of the normal prostate. Sildenafil increases prostate blood flow by approximately 75% and phenylephrine reduces the flow incrementally. Administration of these drugs with dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging may improve the diagnosis of cancerous tissue because according to the literature, tumor angiogenic vessels lack the vasoactive physiologic response of the normal tissue. PMID:16728965

  9. Oscillometric continuous blood pressure sensing for wearable health monitoring system

    CERN Document Server

    Gelao, Gennaro; Passaro, Vittorio M N; Perri, Anna Gina

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present an acquisition chain for the measurement of blood arterial pressure based on the oscillometric method. This method does not suffer from any limitation as the well-known auscultatory method and it is suited for wearable health monitoring systems. The device uses a pressure sensor whose signal is filtered, digitalized and analyzed by a microcontroller. Local analysis allows the evaluation of the systolic and diastolic pressure values which can be used for local alarms, data collection and remote monitoring.

  10. Chiral selective effects of doxazosin enantiomers on blood pressure and urinary bladder pressure in anesthetized rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-ping MA; Lei-ming REN; Ding ZHAO; Zhong-ning ZHU; Miao WANG; Hai-gang LU; Li-hua DUAN

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To study chiral selective effects of doxazosin enantiomers on blood pressure and urinary bladder pressure in anesthetized rats. Methods: In anesthetized rats, the carotid blood pressure, left ventricular pressure of the heart and the urinary bladder pressure were recorded. Results: Administration of S-doxazosin at 0.25, 2.5, 25, and 250 nmol/kg iv produced a dose-dependent decrease in blood pressure, but its depressor effect was significantly weaker than that induced by R-doxazosin and racemic-doxazosin (rac-doxazosin), and the ED30 values (producing a 30% decrease in mean arterial pressure) of R-doxazosin, rac-doxazosin and S-doxazosin were 15.64,45.93, and 128.81, respectively. Rac-doxazosin and its enantiomers administered cumulatively in anesthetized rats induced a dose-dependent decrease in the left ventricular systolic pressure and ±dp/dtmax, and the potency order of the 3 agents was R-doxazosin >rac-doxazosin >S-doxazosin. Rac-doxazosin and its enantiomers decreased the vesical micturition pressure dose-dependently at 2.5,25, and 250 nmol/kg, and the inhibitory potency among the 3 agents was not significantly different. Conclusion: S-doxazosin decreases the carotid blood pressure and left ventricular pressure of the heart less than R-doxazosin and rac-doxazosin, but its effect on the vesical micturition pressure is similar to R-doxazosin and rac-doxazosin, indicating that S-doxazosin has chiral selectivity between cardiovascular system and urinary system in anesthetized rats.

  11. Brachial versus central blood pressure and vascular stiffness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Susanne; Hansen, Tine; Frimodt-Møller, Marie

    2009-01-01

    Central blood pressure (BP) estimates the true load imposed on the left ventricle to a higher degree than does brachial BP. Increased aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV) and central BP are risk markers for cardiovascular disease. Both can be measured by simple and noninvasive methods. Guidelines re...

  12. Brachial versus central blood pressure and vascular stiffness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Susanne; Hansen, Tine; Frimodt-Møller, Marie

    2010-01-01

    Central blood pressure (BP) estimates the true load imposed on the left ventricle to a higher degree than does brachial BP. Increased aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV) and central BP are risk markers for cardiovascular disease. Both can be measured by simple and noninvasive methods. Guidelines re...

  13. Time Spent on the Internet and Adolescent Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy-Bushrow, Andrea E.; Johnson, Dayna A.; Peters, Rosalind M.; Burmeister, Charlotte; Joseph, Christine L. M.

    2015-01-01

    Internet use is nearly ubiquitous among adolescents. Growing evidence suggests heavy Internet use negatively impacts health, yet the relationship between time spent on the Internet and adolescent blood pressure (BP) is unknown. We examined the association between Internet use and elevated BP in a racially diverse cross-sectional sample of 331…

  14. Blood Pressure-Lowering Diet May Help Treat Gout

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood pressure may also offer a non-drug treatment for gout -- a type of inflammatory arthritis, a new study ... risk for gout. A dietary approach to prevent gout should be considered first-line therapy," said study senior author Dr. Edgar Miller III. ...

  15. Habitual coffee consumption and blood pressure: An epidemiological perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geleijnse, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarizes the current epidemiological evidence on coffee consumption in relation to blood pressure (BP) and risk of hypertension. Data from crosssectional studies suggest an inverse linear or U-shaped association of habitual coffee use with BP in different populations. Prospective studie

  16. Cuff inflations do not affect night-time blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Emilie H; Theilade, Simone; Hansen, Tine W;

    2015-01-01

    Discomfort related to cuff inflation may bias 24 h ambulatory blood pressure (BP) measurements, especially during night-time. We accessed the impact of cuff inflations by comparing 24 h BP recorded with a cuff-less tonometric wrist device and an upper-arm oscillometric cuff device. Fifty...

  17. On preventive blood pressure self-monitoring at home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdezoto, Nervo; Gronvall, Erik

    2015-01-01

    -called Quantified Self). In this article, we explore socio-technical complexities that may occur when introducing preventive health-measurement technologies into older adults’ daily routines and everyday lives. In particular, the original study investigated blood pressure (BP) measurement in non-clinical settings...

  18. Sodium intake and blood pressure in renal transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den E.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Brink, E.J.; Baak, van M.A.; Homan van der Heide, van der J.J.; Gans, R.O.B.; Navis, G.; Bakker, S.J.L.

    2012-01-01

    Background - Hypertension is common among renal transplant recipients (RTR) and a risk factor for graft failure and mortality. Sodium intake is a well-established determinant of blood pressure (BP) in the general population. However, data in RTR are limited. International guidelines recommend a maxi

  19. Determinants of blood pressure reduction by eplerenone in uncontrolled hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Pieter M.; Frenkel, Wijnanda J.; van den Born, Bert-Jan H.; de Bruijne, Emile L. E.; Deinum, Jaap; Kerstens, Michiel N.; Arnoldus, Joyce H. A.; Woittiez, Arend Jan; Wijbenga, Johanna A. M.; Zietse, Robert; Danser, A. H. Jan; van den Meiracker, Anton H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Add-on therapy with aldosterone receptor antagonists has been reported to lower blood pressure (BP) in patients with uncontrolled hypertension. We assessed potential predictors of this response. Methods: In essential hypertensive patients with uncontrolled BP, despite the use of at least

  20. Noradrenaline: Central inhibitory control of blood pressure and heart rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, Wybren de

    1974-01-01

    Noradrenaline injected bilaterally into the brainstem in the area of the nucleus tractus solitarii decreased systemic arterial blood pressure and heart rate of anesthetized rats. The effect of noradrenaline was prevented by a preceding injection of the α-adrenergic blocking agent phentolamine, at th

  1. Measures of blood pressure and cognition in dialysis patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are few reports on the relationship of blood pressure with cognitive function in maintenance dialysis patients. The Cognition and Dialysis Study is an ongoing investigation of cognitive function and its risk factors in six Boston area hemodialysis units. In this analysis, we evaluated the rela...

  2. Even Small Rise in Blood Pressure Can Harm Black Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Even Small Rise in Blood Pressure Can Harm Black Patients Study shows higher early death and heart failure risk from slight increase in ... SPRINT), of which 30 percent of patients were black, showed that aiming for a ... lives, reducing deaths from any cause by 27 percent, Fonarow said. ...

  3. Sodium intake and blood pressure in renal transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Else; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Brink, Elizabeth J.; van Baak, Marleen A.; van der Heide, Jaap J. Homan; Gans, Rijk O. B.; Navis, Gerjan; Bakker, Stephan J. L.

    2012-01-01

    Hypertension is common among renal transplant recipients (RTR) and a risk factor for graft failure and mortality. Sodium intake is a well-established determinant of blood pressure (BP) in the general population. However, data in RTR are limited. International guidelines recommend a maximum daily sod

  4. Effect of Smoking on Blood Pressure and Resting Heart Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Allan; Jacobsen, Rikke K; Skaaby, Tea;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: -Smoking is an important cardiovascular disease risk factor, but the mechanisms linking smoking to blood pressure are poorly understood. METHODS AND RESULTS: -Data on 141,317 participants (62,666 never, 40,669 former, 37,982 current smokers) from 23 population-based studies were...

  5. Decreasing systolic blood pressure with isometric muscle training: a CAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Espinoza Salinas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases such as coronary heart disease or heart failure. One of the interventions for the management of this disorder is isometric muscle training on upper and lower limbs. PURPOSE To prove the validity and applicability of results regarding the effectiveness of isometric training in hypertensive subjects. We also attempt to answer the following question: what is the effectiveness of isometric muscle training on the decrease of systolic blood pressure in hypertensive patients? METHODS Critical appraisal of the systematic review and meta-analysis “Isometric exercise training for blood pressure management”. RESULTS Isometric training reduces systolic blood pressure in normotensive and medicated hypertensive subjects, with a standardized mean difference of 6.77 mm Hg (95% confidence interval: 7.93-5.62. CONCLUSION It is reasonable to recommend isometric muscle training with the aim of lowering systolic blood pressure, considering the impact of the results of the articles analyzed and the applicability of this type of training.

  6. Dietary Protein and Blood Pressure: A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altorf-van der Kuil, W.; Engberink, M.F.; Brink, E.J.; Baak, van M.A.; Bakker, S.J.; Navis, G.; Veer, van 't P.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background - Elevated blood pressure (BP), which is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, is highly prevalent worldwide. Recently, interest has grown in the role of dietary protein in human BP. We performed a systematic review of all published scientific literature on dietary protein, incl

  7. Dietary Protein and Blood Pressure : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altorf-van der Kuil, Wieke; Engberink, Marielle F.; Brink, Elizabeth J.; van Baak, Marleen A.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Navis, Gerjan; van't Veer, Pieter; Geleijnse, Johanna M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Elevated blood pressure (BP), which is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, is highly prevalent worldwide. Recently, interest has grown in the role of dietary protein in human BP. We performed a systematic review of all published scientific literature on dietary protein, inclu

  8. Prostaglandin F2alpha elevates blood pressure and promotes atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Ying; Lucitt, Margaret B; Stubbe, Jane

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about prostaglandin F(2alpha) in cardiovascular homeostasis. Prostaglandin F(2alpha) dose-dependently elevates blood pressure in WT mice via activation of the F prostanoid (FP) receptor. The FP is expressed in preglomerular arterioles, renal collecting ducts, and the hypothalamus....

  9. National High Blood Pressure 12-Month Kit. May 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Heart and Lung Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD. National High Blood Pressure Education Program.

    Part I of this kit provides information for program planners and health professionals on ways to overcome barriers to health care among the medically underserved, promote high blood pressure control through the media and other community channels, and improve adherence to treatment among hypertensive patients. It lists additional resources for…

  10. Pitfalls in blood pressure measurement in daily practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houweling, ST; Kleefstra, N; Lutgers, HL; Groenier, KH; Meyboom-de Jong, B; Bilo, HJG

    2006-01-01

    Background. Accurate blood pressure (BP) readings and correctly interpreting the obtained values are of great importance. However, there is considerable variation in the different BP measuring methods suggested in guidelines and used in hypertension trials. Objective. To compare the different method

  11. Blood Pressure Variability and Stress Management Training for Essential Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Vera, Maria Paz; Sanz, Jesus; Labrador, Francisco J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether stress management training reduces blood pressure (BP) variability in hypertensive patients. Previous literature suggests that cardiovascular risk is not only a function of BP levels, but also of BP variability, and this partially depends on changes induced by the stress of everyday life. The…

  12. Dietary protein and blood pressure: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altorf, W.; Kuil, W.A. van der; Engberink, M.F.; Brink, E.J.; Baak, M.A. van; Bakker, S.J.L.; Navis, G.; Veer, P. van't; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Elevated blood pressure (BP), which is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, is highly prevalent worldwide. Recently, interest has grown in the role of dietary protein in human BP. We performed a systematic review of all published scientific literature on dietary protein, inclu

  13. Dietary Protein and Blood Pressure: A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altorf-van Der Kuil, W.; Engberink, M.F.; Brink, E.J.; van Baak, M.A.; Bakker, Stephan; Navis, Ger Jan; van't Veer, P.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Elevated blood pressure (BP), which is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, is highly prevalent worldwide. Recently, interest has grown in the role of dietary protein in human BP. We performed a systematic review of all published scientific literature on dietary protein, inclu

  14. Relation of urinary calcium and magnesium excretion to blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesteloot, Hugo; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Brown, Ian J

    2011-01-01

    of calcium and magnesium in 2 cross-sectional studies. The International Study of Macro- and Micro-Nutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP) comprised 4,679 persons aged 40-59 years from 17 population samples in China, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States, and the International Cooperative Study...

  15. Sodium intake and blood pressure in renal transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, E. van den; Geleijnse, J.M.; Brink, E.J.; Baak, M.A. van; Homan van der Heide, J.J.; Gans, R.O.B.; Navis, G.; Bakker, S.J.L.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Hypertension is common among renal transplant recipients (RTR) and a risk factor for graft failure and mortality. Sodium intake is a well-established determinant of blood pressure (BP) in the general population. However, data in RTR are limited. International guidelines recommend a maxim

  16. Blood Pressure Loci Identified with a Gene-Centric Array

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, Toby; Gaunt, Tom R.; Newhouse, Stephen J.; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Tomaszewski, Maciej; Kumari, Meena; Morris, Richard W.; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; O'Brien, Eoin T.; Poulter, Neil R.; Sever, Peter; Shields, Denis C.; Thom, Simon; Wannamethee, Sasiwarang G.; Whincup, Peter H.; Brown, Morris J.; Connell, John M.; Dobson, Richard J.; Howard, Philip J.; Mein, Charles A.; Onipinla, Abiodun; Shaw-Hawkins, Sue; Zhang, Yun; Smith, George Davey; Day, Ian N. M.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Goodall, Alison H.; Fowkes, F. Gerald; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Elliott, Paul; Gateva, Vesela; Braund, Peter S.; Burton, Paul R.; Nelson, Christopher P.; Tobin, Martin D.; van der Harst, Pim; Glorioso, Nicola; Neuvrith, Hani; Salvi, Erika; Staessen, Jan A.; Stucchi, Andrea; Devos, Nabila; Jeunemaitre, Xavier; Plouin, Pierre-Francois; Tichet, Jean; Juhanson, Peeter; Org, Elin; Putku, Margus; Sober, Siim; Veldre, Gudrun; Viigimaa, Margus; Levinsson, Anna; Rosengren, Annika; Thelle, Dag S.; Hastie, Claire E.; Hedner, Thomas; Lee, Wai K.; Melander, Olle; Wahlstrand, Bjoern; Hardy, Rebecca; Wong, Andrew; Cooper, Jackie A.; Palmen, Jutta; Chen, Li; Stewart, Alexandre F. R.; Wells, George A.; Westra, Harm-Jan; Wolfs, Marcel G. M.; Clarke, Robert; Franzosi, Maria Grazia; Goel, Anuj; Hamsten, Anders; Lathrop, Mark; Peden, John F.; Seedorf, Udo; Watkins, Hugh; Ouwehand, Willem H.; Sambrook, Jennifer; Stephens, Jonathan; Casas, Juan-Pablo; Drenos, Fotios; Holmes, Michael V.; Kivimaki, Mika; Shah, Sonia; Shah, Tina; Talmud, Philippa J.; Whittaker, John; Wallace, Chris; Delles, Christian; Laan, Mans; Kuh, Diana; Humphries, Steve E.; Nyberg, Fredrik; Cusi, Daniele; Roberts, Robert; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Franke, Lude; Stanton, Alice V.; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Farrall, Martin; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Samani, Nilesh J.; Caulfield, Mark J.; Munroe, Patricia B.

    2011-01-01

    Raised blood pressure (BP) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Previous studies have identified 47 distinct genetic variants robustly associated with BP, but collectively these explain only a few percent of the heritability for BP phenotypes. To find additional BP loci, we used a besp

  17. The Effects of Probiotic Supplementation on Markers of Blood Lipids, and Blood Pressure in Patients with Prediabetes: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahboobi, Sepideh; Iraj, Bijan; Maghsoudi, Zahra; Feizi, Awat; Ghiasvand, Reza; Askari, Gholamreza; Maayeshi, Najmeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Prediabetes is a high-risk condition for type 2 diabetes mellitus. The growing prevalence of diabetes emphasizes on the necessity of concentrating on various strategies to prediabetes prevention and management. Probiotics as a group of functional foods might exert antidiabetic effects. This study aimed to assess the effects of probiotic administration on blood lipid profile and blood pressure in patients with prediabetes. Methods: This randomized controlled trial consisted of 60 prediabetic patients, aged 25-65 years old, that were randomly assigned to the intervention (receiving 500 mg probiotic capsules, n = 30) or control group (receiving placebo, n = 30) for 8-week period. Demographic and anthropometric data were collected at baseline. Blood samples were collected at baseline and after 8 weeks for biochemical measurements. Blood pressure was measured at the baseline an after 8 weeks of intervention. Data regarding dietary intakes and physical activity were also collected during the study. We used SPSS software version 16 (SPSS Inc. Chicago, USA) for data analyzing. Results: Probiotic supplementation did not contribute to significant changes in total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, Triglycerides (TG), TG/LDL and LDL/HDL ratios, after 8 weeks. After adjusting for potential confounders, HDL-cholesterol reduced significantly in the placebo group compared with probiotic group. Percent change in systolic blood pressure was significantly different in the probiotic group in comparison with a placebo group (–3.10 ± 2.22 vs. 3.24 ± 1.96, P = 0.01), although this significance did not exist anymore after adjusting for confounders (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Our study showed that probiotics did not have significant effects on lipid markers although they had positive effects on systolic blood pressure. PMID:25400881

  18. Roles of Arterial Stiffness and Blood Pressure in Hypertension-Associated Cognitive Decline in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajjar, Ihab; Goldstein, Felicia C; Martin, Greg S; Quyyumi, Arshed A

    2016-01-01

    Although there is strong evidence that hypertension leads to cognitive decline, especially in the executive domain, the relationship between blood pressure and cognition has been conflicted. Hypertension is characterized by blood pressure elevation and increased arterial stiffness. We aimed at investigating whether arterial stiffness would be superior to blood pressure in predicting cognitive decline and explaining the hypertension-executive decline association. A randomly selected asymptomatic population (n=591, age=49.2 years, 70% women, 27% black, and education=18 years) underwent annual vascular and cognitive assessments. Cognition was assessed using computerized versions commonly used cognitive tests, and principal component analysis was used for deriving cognitive scores for executive function, memory, and working memory. Arterial stiffness was measured by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV). Higher PWV, but not blood pressure, was associated with a steeper decline in executive (P=0.0002), memory (P=0.05), and working memory (P=0.02) scores after adjusting for demographics, education, and baseline cognitive performance. This remained true after adjusting for hypertension. Hypertension was associated with greater decline in executive score (P=0.0029) and those with combined hypertension and elevated PWV (>7 m/s) had the greatest decline in executive score (P value hypertension×PWV=0.02). PWV explained the association between hypertension and executive function (P value for hypertension=0.0029 versus 0.24 when adjusting for PWV). In healthy adults, increased arterial stiffness is superior to blood pressure in predicting cognitive decline in all domains and in explaining the hypertension-executive function association. Arterial stiffness, especially in hypertension, may be a target in the prevention of cognitive decline.

  19. Association of low-level blood lead and blood pressure in NHANES 1999-2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scinicariello, Franco, E-mail: fes6@cdc.gov [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology and Environmental Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Abadin, Henry G.; Edward Murray, H. [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology and Environmental Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    This study investigated whether low blood-lead levels ({<=}10 {mu}g/dL) were associated with blood pressure (BP) outcomes. The authors analyzed data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2006 and participants aged 20 years or older. Outcome variables were systolic and diastolic BP measurements, pulse pressure, and hypertension status. Multivariable linear and logistic regressions stratified by race/ethnicity and gender were performed. Blood lead levels (BLL) were significantly correlated with higher systolic BP among black men and women, but not white or Mexican-American participants. BLLs were significantly associated with higher diastolic BPs among white men and women and black men, whereas, a negative association was observed in Mexican-American men that had, also, a wider pulse pressure. Black men in the 90th percentile of blood lead distribution (BLL{>=}3.50 {mu}g/dL) compared to black men in the 10th percentile of blood lead distribution (BLL{<=}0.7 {mu}g/dL) had a significant increase of risk of having hypertension (adjusted POR=2.69; 95% CI: 1.08-6.72). In addition, blood cadmium was significantly associated with hypertension and systolic and diastolic blood. This study found that, despite the continuous decline in blood lead in the U.S. population, lead exposure disparities among race and gender still exist.

  20. Multivariate Modeling of Body Mass Index, Pulse Pressure, Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressure in Chinese Twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Yili; Zhang, Dongfeng; Pang, Zengchang;

    2015-01-01

    Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pulse pressure (PP), and body mass index (BMI) are heritable traits in human metabolic health but their common genetic and environmental backgrounds are not well investigated. The aim of this article was to explore the phenotypic and genetic associations among...... PP, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and BMI. The studied sample contained 615 twin pairs (17-84 years) collected in the Qingdao municipality. Univariate and multivariate structural equation models were fitted for assessing the genetic and environmental contributions...... model estimated (1) high genetic correlations for DBP with SBP (0.87), PP with SBP (0.75); (2) low-moderate genetic correlations between PP and DBP (0.32), each BP component and BMI (0.24-0.37); (3) moderate unique environmental correlation for PP with SBP (0.68) and SBP with DBP (0.63); (4...

  1. Magnetic sensor for arterial distension and blood pressure monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhhammer, Johannes; Herbstritt, Tamara; Ruh, Dominic; Foerster, Katharina; Heilmann, Claudia; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm; Goldschmidtboeing, Frank; Seifert, Andreas; Woias, Peter

    2014-12-01

    A novel sensor for measuring arterial distension, pulse and pressure waveform is developed and evaluated. The system consists of a magnetic sensor which is applied and fixed to arterial vessels without any blood vessel constriction, hence avoiding stenosis. The measurement principle could be validated by in vitro experiments on silicone tubes, and by in vivo experiments in an animal model, thereby indicating the non-linear viscoelastic characteristics of real blood vessels. The sensor is capable to provide absolute measurements of the dynamically varying arterial diameter. By calibrating the sensor, a long-term monitoring system for continuously measuring blood pressure and other cardiovascular parameters could be developed based on the method described. This will improve diagnostics for high risk patients and enable a better, specific treatment.

  2. Trends in population blood pressure and determinant factors for population blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Ulla Overgaard

    2017-03-01

    Strategies to reduce the burden of blood pressure attributable diseases require knowledge of secular trend in PBP and its determinants. The issues were investigated in the Copenhagen City Heart Study. The design of CCHS is a repeated measures study. Such designs are uniquely suited to studying changes of an outcome and what risk factors may be associated with that outcome. Repeated measures studies are very well suited for trend analysis by using mixed effect analyses. SBP decreased about 2 mmHg in 25 years. The risk factors age, gender and BMI were found valid as determinant factors for secular trends in SBP. In addition, the following factors were identified: household income and the interactions ''gender*age'' and ''survey*age''. The interaction ''gender*age'' stated that the difference between SBP in the two genders was great in the young individuals and diminished by age. The interaction ''survey*age'' stated that SBP in the young individuals decreased more with survey than SBP in the older individuals. Thus, the 20 years old subjects in survey 2, 3 and 4 have lower SBP than the 20 years old subjects in preceding surveys. The slopes were less steep in higher ages. In the group of elderly and old subjects the trend is partly explained by treatment bias because more and more subjects leave the untreated group and start treatment. The factor ''household income'' was significant only in the female population and stated that high-income women had lower SBP and a more beneficial secular trend in SBP than low-income women. Marital status, self-reported physical exercise and alcohol intake were not significant factors. A number of factors, that are interesting in relation to SBP, were not included in the CCHS and therefore not investigated. Among them are salt intake, childhood factors, genetic factors and the DASH diet. A survival study was performed to investigate the mortality rate in relation to SBP changes during the observation period. A Cox regression analysis

  3. Implantable blood pressure sensor for analyzing elasticity in arteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Ayala, Marco; Martínez-Piñón, Fernando; Reyes-Barranca, Alfredo; Sánchez de la Peña, Salvador; Álvarez-Chavez, José A.

    2009-03-01

    MEMS technology could be an option for the development of a pressure sensor which allows the monitoring of several electronic signals in humans. In this work, a comparison is made between the typical elasticity curves of several arteries in the human body and the elasticity obtained for MEMS silicon microstructures such as membranes and cantilevers employing Finite Element analysis tools. The purpose is to identify which types of microstructures are mechanically compatible with human arteries. The goal is to integrate a blood pressure sensor which can be implanted in proximity with an artery. The expected benefits for this type of sensor are mainly to reduce the problems associated with the use of bulk devices through the day and during several days. Such a sensor could give precise blood pressure readings in a continuous or periodic form, i.e. information that is especially important for some critical cases of hypertension patients.

  4. Associations of Whole Blood n-3 and n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids with Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents – Results from the IDEFICS/I.Family Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pala, Valeria; Russo, Paola; Risé, Patrizia; Moreno, Luis A.; De Henauw, Stefaan; Mehlig, Kirsten; Veidebaum, Toomas; Molnár, Denés; Tornaritis, Michael; Galli, Claudio; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Börnhorst, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Background Polyunsaturated n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are precursors of biologically active metabolites that affect blood pressure (BP) regulation. This study investigated the association of n-3 and n-6 PUFA and BP in children and adolescents. Methods In a subsample of 1267 children aged 2–9 years at baseline of the European IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants) cohort whole blood fatty acids were measured by a validated gas chromatographic method. Systolic and diastolic BP was measured at baseline and after two and six years. Mixed-effects models were used to assess the associations between fatty acids at baseline and BP z-scores over time adjusting for relevant covariables. Models were further estimated stratified by sex and weight status. Results The baseline level of arachidonic acid was positively associated with subsequent systolic BP (β = 0.08, P = 0.002) and diastolic BP (β = 0.07, P<0.001). In thin/normal weight children, baseline alpha-linolenic (β = -1.13, P = 0.003) and eicosapentaenoic acid (β = -0.85, P = 0.003) levels were inversely related to baseline and also to subsequent systolic BP and alpha-linolenic acid to subsequent diastolic BP. In overweight/obese children, baseline eicosapentaenoic acid level was positively associated with baseline diastolic BP (β = 0.54, P = 0.005). Conclusions Low blood arachidonic acid levels in the whole sample and high n-3 PUFA levels in thin/normal weight children are associated with lower and therefore healthier BP. The beneficial effects of high n-3 PUFA on BP were not observed in overweight/obese children, suggesting that they may have been overlaid by the unfavorable effects of excess weight. PMID:27806134

  5. Baseline blood Pb levels of black-necked stilts on the upper Texas coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riecke, Thomas V.; Conway, Warren C.; Haukos, David A.; Moon, Jena A.; Comer, Christopher E.

    2015-01-01

    There are no known biological requirements for lead (Pb), and elevated Pb levels in birds can cause a variety of sub-lethal effects and mortality. Historic and current levels of Pb in mottled ducks (Anas fulvigula) suggest that environmental sources of Pb remain available on the upper Texas coast. Because of potential risks of Pb exposure among coexisting marsh birds, black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus) blood Pb concentrations were measured during the breeding season. Almost 80 % (n = 120) of 152 sampled stilts exceeded the background threshold (>20 μg/dL) for Pb exposure. However, blood Pb concentrations did not vary by age or gender, and toxic or potentially lethal concentrations were rare (blood Pb concentrations of black-necked stilts in this study suggest the presence of readily bioavailable sources of Pb, although potential impacts on local stilt populations remain unclear.

  6. Relationship between achieved blood pressure, dietary habits and cardiovascular disease in hypertensive patients treated with olmesartan: the OMEGA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramoto, Tamio; Kawamori, Ryuzo; Miyazaki, Shigeru; Teramukai, Satoshi; Shirayama, Masayuki; Hiramatsu, Katsutoshi; Kobayashi, Fumiaki

    2012-12-01

    We investigated the relationship between cardiovascular disease (CVD) and the achieved blood pressure, dietary habits and the presence/absence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in hypertensive patients treated with olmesartan medoxomil. A prospective cohort study with a 3-year follow-up was conducted in 14 721 olmesartan-naive outpatients (mean age: 64.9 years, 49.6% women) with essential hypertension. The association of CVD with achieved blood pressure, dietary habits and MetS was investigated by Cox proportional hazards analysis. There were 3059 patients (31.8%) with MetS (Japanese criteria) among 9625 evaluable patients. The mean baseline blood pressure was 157.4/88.8 mm Hg, which decreased to 134.0/76.1 mm Hg during treatment (Pdietary habits revealed a significant association between salt intake and the risk of stroke. Higher salt intake was associated with a significantly higher risk of stroke than lower salt intake (hazard ratio, 1.897; 95% confidence interval, 1.003-3.590). Blood pressure was well controlled in both patients with and without MetS, and there was no significant difference in the incidence of events between the two groups. In conclusion, the severity of hypertension (achieved blood pressure) is associated with the incidence of CVD, and the results of this study suggest that tight blood pressure control and salt restriction are important for preventing stroke.

  7. Synergism of hydrochlorothiazide and nitrendipine on reduction of blood pressure and blood pressure variability in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping HAN; Zheng-xu CHU; Fu-ming SHEN; He-hui XIE; Ding-feng SU

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the possible synergism of hydrochlorothiazide and nitrendipine on reducing both blood pressure (BP) and blood pressure variability (BPV) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Methods: Seventy animals were randomly divided into seven groups. The doses were 5 and 10 nig/kg for nitrendipine, 10 and 20 mg/kg for hydrochlorothiazide and 10+5, 20+10 mg/kg, respectively, for the combination of these two drugs and 0.8% carboxym-ethylcellulose as control. The drugs were given via a catheter of gastric fistula. BP was then continuously recorded for 5 h from 1 h before drug administration to the end of 4th hour after drug administration, in conscious and freely moving rats. Results: The effects on both BP and BPV reduction of the combination of hydrochlorothiazide and nitrendipine were greater than the single drug in SHR. The two drugs possessed an obvious synergism on both systolic blood pressure (q=1.79 with small dose and q=1.23 with large dose) and systolic blood pressure variability reduction (q=1.79 with small dose and q=1.39 with large dose) in SHR.Conclusion: The present work clearly demonstrated that there was a synergistic effect between hydrochlorothiazide and nitrendipine in lowering and stabilizing BP in SHR.

  8. Adult derived genetic blood pressure scores and blood pressure measured in different body postures in young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Maria Ac; Dalmeijer, Geertje W.; Visseren, Frank Lj; van der Ent, Cornelis K; Leusink, Maarten; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Der Zee, Anke H Maitland Van; Grobbee, Diederick E; Uiterwaal, CSPM

    2017-01-01

    Aims Several genes are related to blood pressure (BP) levels in adults, but it is largely unknown whether these genes also determine BP early in life. Methods Systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) were measured in 720 5-year-old children from the WHeezing-Illnesses-STudy-LEidsche-Rijn (WHISTLER)

  9. Protein supplementation lowers blood pressure in overweight adults : effect of dietary proteins on blood pressure (PROPRES), a randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen-Beekman, Karianna F. M.; Dopheide, Janneke; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Brink, Elizabeth J.; de Leeuw, Peter W.; van Baak, Marleen A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Dietary protein intake may help to manage blood pressure (BP) and prevent complications associated with elevated BR Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether 4 wk of increased protein intake (similar to 25% compared with similar to 15% of energy intake that isoenerg

  10. Protein supplementation lowers blood pressure in overweight adults: Effect of dietary proteins on blood pressure (PROPRES), a randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen-Beekman, K.F.M.; Dopheide, J.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Bakker, S.J.L.; Brink, E.J.; Leeuw, P.W. de; Baak, M.A. van

    2012-01-01

    Background: Dietary protein intake may help to manage blood pressure (BP) and prevent complications associated with elevated BP. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether 4 wk of increased protein intake (∼25% compared with ;15% of energy intake that isoenergetically replaces c

  11. Blood pressure variability in relation to outcome in the International Database of Ambulatory blood pressure in relation to Cardiovascular Outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Thijs, Lutgarde; Richart, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring provides information not only on the BP level but also on the diurnal changes in BP. In the present review, we summarized the main findings of the International Database on Ambulatory BP in relation to Cardiovascular Outcome (IDACO) with regard to risk...

  12. Influence of caffeine on blood pressure and platelet aggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Wilson S. Cavalcante

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Studies have demonstrated that methylxanthines, such as caffeine, are A1 and A2 adenosine receptor antagonists found in the brain, heart, lungs, peripheral vessels, and platelets. Considering the high consumption of products with caffeine in their composition, in Brazil and throughout the rest of the world, the authors proposed to observe the effects of this substance on blood pressure and platelet aggregation. METHODS: Thirteen young adults, ranging from 21 to 27 years of age, participated in this study. Each individual took 750mg/day of caffeine (250mg tid, over a period of seven days. The effects on blood pressure were analyzed through the pressor test with handgrip, and platelet aggregation was analyzed using adenosine diphosphate, collagen, and adrenaline. RESULTS: Diastolic pressure showed a significant increase 24 hours after the first intake (p<0.05. This effect, however, disappeared in the subsequent days. The platelet aggregation tests did not reveal statistically significant alterations, at any time during the study. CONCLUSION: The data suggest that caffeine increases diastolic blood pressure at the beginning of caffeine intake. This hypertensive effect disappears with chronic use. The absence of alterations in platelet aggregation indicates the need for larger randomized studies.

  13. The effects of heated vegetable oils on blood pressure in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamsiah Jaarin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to determine the possible mechanism that is involved in the blood pressureraising effect of heated vegetable oils. METHODS: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 11 groups; the control group was fed with rat chow, and the other groups were fed with chow that was mixed with 15% weight/weight palm or soy oils, which were either in a fresh form or heated once, twice, five, or ten times. Blood pressures were measured at the baseline and throughout the 24-week study. Plasma nitric oxide levels were assessed prior to treatment and at the end of the study. Following 24 weeks, the rats were sacrificed to investigate their vascular reactivity using the thoracic aorta. RESULTS: Palm and soy oils had no detrimental effects on blood pressure, and they significantly elevated the nitric oxide contents and reduced the contractile responses to phenylephrine. However, trials using palm and soy oils that were repeatedly heated showed an increase in blood pressure, enhanced phenylephrine-induced contractions, reduced acetylcholine- and sodium nitroprusside-induced relaxations relative to the control and rats that were fed fresh vegetable oils. CONCLUSIONS: The blood pressure-raising effect of the heated vegetable cooking oils is associated with increased vascular reactivity and a reduction in nitric oxide levels. The chronic consumption of heated vegetable oils leads to disturbances in endogenous vascular regulatory substances, such as nitric oxide. The thermal oxidation of the cooking oils promotes the generation of free radicals and may play an important contributory role in the pathogenesis of hypertension in rats.

  14. [Pharmacological study on blood pressure in rats with bone disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamoto, T

    1989-12-01

    To evaluate the relationship between the elevation of blood pressure and altered bone metabolism, the changes of systolic blood pressure in six experimental models for bone disorders were investigated. Rats used were either parathyroidectomized, ovariectomized, fed with a calcium-deficient diet, fed with a vitamin D-deficient diet, treated with HEBP (1-Hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-bisphosphonate) or treated with streptozotocin. Hypertension developed in 5-week-old male rats fed with a calcium-deficient diet for 2 weeks, which evoked hypocalcemia and nutritional hyperparathyroidism. The blood pressure returned to normal when fed with a normal calcium diet. In parathyroidectomized rats receiving a normal calcium diet, the blood pressure did not rise, though the plasma calcium level decreased to an extent similar to the rats fed with the calcium-deficient diet. These findings seem to indicate that hyperparathyroidism, but not hypocalcemia, was involved in the elevation of blood pressure in rats fed with a calcium-deficient diet. Hypertension was not observed in rats fed with a vitamin D-deficient diet or treated with streptozotocin. These rats showed not only an increase in parathyroid hormone (PTH) but also a decrease in 1,25 (OH)2 D3. These results may suggest that the presence of 1,25 (OH)2D3 as well as the enhanced parathyroid function is necessary for the development of hypertension. The elevated blood pressure was reduced by a calcium antagonist, nifedipine, or by calcium supplementation, but not by an inhibitor of angiotensin-converting enzyme, captopril, or by calcitonin. This may indicate that hypertension due to nutritional hyperparathyroidism responds to the calcium antagonist nifedipine and to calcium supplementation, but does not depend on renin or salt. Furthermore, an acute hypotensive effect by human PTH (1-34) was not observed in the hypertension of calcium-deficient rats, suggesting the difference between acute and chronic effects of PTH. The hypertension

  15. Association between blood pressure levels over time and brain atrophy in the elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Heijer, T; Skoog, [No Value; Oudkerk, M; de Leeuw, FE; de Groot, JC; Hofman, A; Breteler, MMB

    2003-01-01

    The relation between blood pressure level and degree of global brain atrophy is equivocal. We evaluated past and present blood pressure levels and change in blood pressure over 20 years in relation to the degree of cortical atrophy on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In 1995-1996, we measured blood

  16. Association between blood pressure levels over time and brain atrophy in the elderly.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijer, T.; Skoog, I.; Oudkerk, M.; Leeuw, H.F. de; Groot, J.C. de; Hofman, A.W.I.M.; Breteler, M.H.M.

    2003-01-01

    The relation between blood pressure level and degree of global brain atrophy is equivocal. We evaluated past and present blood pressure levels and change in blood pressure over 20 years in relation to the degree of cortical atrophy on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In 1995-1996, we measured blood

  17. Evaluation of Cutaneous Blood Flow During Lower Body Negative Pressure to Prevent Orthostatic Intolerance of Bedrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Marilyn

    1991-01-01

    Orthostatic tolerance is markedly impaired in most of the crewmembers during space flight and could seriously compromise crew safety during and immediately after landing. NASA investigators are studying the use of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) as a countermeasure to this intolerance. It is hypothesized that the continuously changing vascular pressure induced by sinusoidal LBNP with an additional countermeasure of salt and water will help crewmembers to be in a more acceptable physiologic condition to enter the earth's atmosphere. In ground based studies, subjects on bedrest provide the model for studying the physiologic effects of weightlessness. When subjects are treated with sinusoidal LBNP, negative pressures ranging from 0 to -60 mm/Hg are administered during a two hour period. This increases body fluids in the legs and lower body. This paper reports the results of two subjects who were placed on bedrest for six days. The subjects were randomly selected for either the control or treatment mode. The subject receiving the treatment mode ingested salt tablets and water on day 4 of the bedrest period. A ramp LBNP of two hours was next administered to this subject. The control subject did not receive anything during the bedrest period. Laser Doppler was used to measure the cutaneous blood flow of the forearm and calf to monitor vasoconstrictor effects of the baroreceptor reflex. Data indicated that skin blood flow in the treatment subject was higher than baseline in the forearm while the skin blood flow was decreased in the control subject.

  18. Driving environment in Iran increases blood pressure even in healthy taxi drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soodabeh Navadeh Khodadadi

    2008-12-01

    increased BP averagely 20 mmHg especially in those with higher BP measurements. Drivers with higher baseline systolic BPs were more prone to higher BP rises in driving time.

  19. KEYWORDS: Driving, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, hypertension, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring.
  20. Is aerobic workload positively related to ambulatory blood pressure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj, Mette; Clays, Els; Lidegaard, Mark;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Cardiovascular disease is prevalent among workers with high levels of occupational physical activity. The increased risk may be due to a high relative aerobic workload, possibly leading to increased blood pressure. However, studies investigating the relation between relative aerobic...... workload and ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) are lacking. The aim was to explore the relationship between objectively measured relative aerobic workload and ABP. METHODS: A total of 116 cleaners aged 18-65 years were included after informed consent was obtained. A portable device (Spacelabs 90217......) was mounted for 24-h measurements of ABP, and an Actiheart was mounted for 24-h heart rate measurements to calculate relative aerobic workload as percentage of relative heart rate reserve. A repeated-measure multi-adjusted mixed model was applied for analysis. RESULTS: A fully adjusted mixed model...

  21. Birth weight and systolic blood pressure in adolescence and adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamborg, Michael; Byberg, Liisa; Rasmussen, Finn

    2007-01-01

    The authors investigated the shape, sex- and age-dependency, and possible confounding of the association between birth weight and systolic blood pressure (SBP) in 197,954 adults from 20 Nordic cohorts (birth years 1910-1987), one of which included 166,249 Swedish male conscripts. Random-effects m......The authors investigated the shape, sex- and age-dependency, and possible confounding of the association between birth weight and systolic blood pressure (SBP) in 197,954 adults from 20 Nordic cohorts (birth years 1910-1987), one of which included 166,249 Swedish male conscripts. Random...... with a birth weight greater than 4 kg, SBP increased with birth weight (p groups (p

  1. How the python heart separates pulmonary and systemic blood pressures and blood flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Bjarke; Nielsen, Jan M; Axelsson, Michael; Pedersen, Michael; Löfman, Carl; Wang, Tobias

    2010-05-01

    The multiple convergent evolution of high systemic blood pressure among terrestrial vertebrates has always been accompanied by lowered pulmonary pressure. In mammals, birds and crocodilians, this cardiac separation of pressures relies on the complete division of the right and left ventricles by a complete ventricular septum. However, the anatomy of the ventricle of most reptiles does not allow for complete anatomical division, but the hearts of pythons and varanid lizards can produce high systemic blood pressure while keeping the pulmonary blood pressure low. It is also known that these two groups of reptiles are characterised by low magnitudes of cardiac shunts. Little, however, is known about the mechanisms that allow for this pressure separation. Here we provide a description of cardiac structures and intracardiac events that have been revealed by ultrasonic measurements and angioscopy. Echocardiography revealed that the atrioventricular valves descend deep into the ventricle during ventricular filling and thereby greatly reduce the communication between the systemic (cavum arteriosum) and pulmonary (cavum pulmonale) ventricular chambers during diastole. Angioscopy and echocardiography showed how the two incomplete septa, the muscular ridge and the bulbuslamelle - ventricular structures common to all squamates - contract against each other in systole and provide functional division of the anatomically subdivided ventricle. Washout shunts are inevitable in the subdivided snake ventricle, but we show that the site of shunting, the cavum venosum, is very small throughout the cardiac cycle. It is concluded that the python ventricle is incapable of the pronounced and variable shunts of other snakes, because of its architecture and valvular mechanics.

  2. Brewer's Yeast Improves Blood Pressure in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payam Hosseinzadeh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of Brewer's yeast supplementation on serum lipoproteins and blood pressure in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus.Methods: In a randomized double blind clinical trial, 90 adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus were recruited, and divided randomly into 2 groups, trial group received brewer's yeast (1800 mg/day and control group received placebo for 12 weeks. Weight, BMI, food consumption (based on 24 hour food recall, fasting serum lipoproteins (Cholesterol, Triglyceride, LDL-c, HDL-c, systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured before and after the intervention. Data analyses were performed by Statistical Package for Social Sciences ver. 18.0, and the statistical tests included Independent t-test, Paired t-test, Kolmogorov-Smirnov and analysis of covariance. This trial was registered in Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT, No.IRCT138807062513N1.Results: Eighty-four subjects (21 men and 63 women aged 46.3±6.1 years completed the study. After 12 weeks supplementation, systolic and diastolic blood pressures were decreased in the group receiving brewer's yeast (4.1±1.5, P=0.007 and 5.7±0.6, P=0.001 respectively. No-significant changes in LDL-c, HDL-c, Triglyceride and Cholesterol were shown.Conclusion: Supplementation with Brewer's yeast besides the usual treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus can reduce systolic and diastolic blood pressures in diabetic patients.

  3. Cuff inflation during ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and heart rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Skov-Madsen

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Mia Skov-Madsen, My Svensson, Jeppe Hagstrup ChristensenDepartment of Nephrology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aalborg, DenmarkIntroduction: Twenty four-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring is a clinically validated procedure in evaluation of blood pressure (BP. We hypothesised that the discomfort during cuff inflation would increase the heart rate (HR measured with 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring compared to a following HR measurement with a 24-h Holter monitor.Methods: The study population (n = 56 were recruited from the outpatient’s clinic at the Department of Nephrology, Aalborg Hospital, Aarhus University Hospital at Aalborg, Denmark. All the patients had chronic kidney disease (CKD. We compared HR measured with a 24-h Holter monitor with a following HR measured by a 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring.Results: We found a highly significant correlation between the HR measured with the Holter monitor and HR measured with 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (r = 0.77, p < 0.001. Using the Bland-Altman plot, the mean difference in HR was only 0.5 beat/min during 24 hours with acceptable limits of agreement for both high and low HR levels. Dividing the patients into groups according to betablocker treatment, body mass index, age, sex, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor treatment, statins treatment, diuretic treatment, or calcium channel blocker treatment revealed similar results as described above.Conclusion: The results indicate that the discomfort induced by cuff inflation during 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring does not increase HR. Thus, 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring may be a reliable measurement of the BP among people with CKD.Keywords: ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, Holter monitoring, heart rate, chronic kidney disease, hypertension

  4. Effects of fasting on Blood pressure in normotensive males

    OpenAIRE

    Fatima Samad

    2016-01-01

    Muslims all over the world fast in the holy month of Ramadan. Fasting means abstinence from drinking any liquids, eating, smoking and taking anything parenterally.  It is intermittent in nature from the start of dawn to end at dusk. Fasting has various physiological effects on different biological parameters of the human body. Previous studies that look at effect of Ramadan fasting on blood pressure have focused mainly on hypertensive patients and patients with already established heart disea...

  5. Blood pressure variability, prehypertension, and hypertension in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Batisky DL

    2012-01-01

    Donald L BatiskyEmory Children's Center, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USAAbstract: Medical conditions diagnosed during adolescence may have long term impacts on the health of an individual. As a result, identifying cardiovascular risk factors earlier in life such as prehypertension (pre-HTN) and hypertension (HTN) can have significant benefits across an individual's lifespan. Diagnosing elevated blood pressure (BP) during adolescence can be difficult, part...

  6. Wearable Beat-to-Beat Blood Pressure Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Jin

    2015-01-01

    Linea Research Corporation has developed a wearable noninvasive monitor that provides continuous blood pressure and heart rate measurements in extreme environments. Designed to monitor the physiological effects of astronauts' prolonged exposure to reduced-gravity environments as well as the effectiveness of various countermeasures, the device offers wireless connectivity to allow transfer of both real-time and historical data. It can be modified to monitor the health status of astronaut crew members during extravehicular missions.

  7. Salt intake and blood pressure in rural and metropolitan Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Castillo, C P; Solano, M L; Flores, J; Franklin, M F; Limón, N; Martínez del Cerro, V; Velázquez, C; Villa, A R; James, W P

    1996-01-01

    A selected group of 155 Mexican adults aged 20-64 years were studied to investigate the role of sodium (Na) intake in explaining blood pressure (BP) differences in a rural town and urban Mexico City. The subjects had their BP, height, weight and skinfolds measured and they collected 3 continuous 24 h urines. Adjusted for age differences, average BPs were significantly higher (p significant (p significance. Differences in the body mass index (BMI) accounted for 41% of the observed variance in BP.

  8. PREDICTION OF BLOOD PATTERN IN S-SHAPED MODEL OF ARTERY UNDER NORMAL BLOOD PRESSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Azrul Hisham Mohd Adib

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Athletes are susceptible to a wide variety of traumatic and non-traumatic vascular injuries to the lower limb. This paper aims to predict the three-dimensional flow pattern of blood through an S-shaped geometrical artery model. This model has created by using Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI software. The modeling of the geometrical S-shaped artery is suitable for understanding the pattern of blood flow under constant normal blood pressure. In this study, a numerical method is used that works on the assumption that the blood is incompressible and Newtonian; thus, a laminar type of flow can be considered. The authors have compared the results with a previous study with FSI validation simulation. The validation and verification of the simulation studies is performed by comparing the maximum velocity at t = 0.4 s, because at this time, the blood accelerates rapidly. In addition, the resulting blood flow at various times, under the same boundary conditions in the S-shaped geometrical artery model, is presented. The graph shows that velocity increases linearly with time. Thus, it can be concluded that the flow of blood increases with respect to the pressure inside the body.

  9. The hemodynamic effects of rebaudioside A in healthy adults with normal and low-normal blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, K C; Curry, L L; Carakostas, M C; Tarka, S M; Reeves, M S; Farmer, M V; McKenney, J M; Toth, P D; Schwartz, S L; Lubin, B C; Dicklin, M R; Boileau, A C; Bisognano, J D

    2008-07-01

    Rebaudioside A and stevioside are steviol glycosides extracted from the plant Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni and are used in several countries as food and beverage sweeteners. This randomized, double-blind trial evaluated the hemodynamic effects of 4weeks consumption of 1000mg/day rebaudioside A vs. placebo in 100 individuals with normal and low-normal systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). Subjects were predominantly female (76%, rebaudioside A and 82%, placebo) with a mean age of approximately 41 (range 18-73) years. At baseline, mean resting, seated SBP/DBP was 110.0/70.3mmHg and 110.7/71.2mmHg for the rebaudioside A and placebo groups, respectively. Compared with placebo, rebaudioside A did not significantly alter resting, seated SBP, DBP, mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) or 24-h ambulatory blood pressures responses. These results indicate that consumption of as much as 1000mg/day of rebaudioside A produced no clinically important changes in blood pressure in healthy adults with normal and low-normal blood pressure.

  10. Left Ventricular Geometry and Blood Pressure as Predictors of Adverse Progression of Fabry Cardiomyopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Krämer

    Full Text Available In spite of several research studies help to describe the heart in Fabry disease (FD, the cardiomyopathy is not entirely understood. In addition, the impact of blood pressure and alterations in geometry have not been systematically evaluated.In 74 FD patients (mean age 36±12 years; 45 females the extent of myocardial fibrosis and its progression were quantified using cardiac magnetic-resonance-imaging with late enhancement technique (LE. Results were compared to standard echocardiography complemented by 2D-speckle-tracking, 3D-sphericity-index (SI and standardized blood pressure measurement. At baseline, no patient received enzyme replacement therapy (ERT. After 51±24 months, a follow-up examination was performed.Systolic blood pressure (SBP was higher in patients with vs. without LE: 123±17 mmHg vs. 115±13 mmHg; P = 0.04. A positive correlation was found between SI and the amount of LE-positive myocardium (r = 0.51; P<0.001 indicating an association of higher SI in more advanced stages of the cardiomyopathy. SI at baseline was positively associated with the increase of LE-positive myocardium during follow-up. The highest SBP (125±19 mmHg and also the highest SI (0.32±0.05 was found in the subgroup with a rapidly increasing LE (ie, ≥0.2% per year; n = 16; P = 0.04. Multivariate logistic regression analysis including SI, SBP, EF, left ventricular volumes, wall thickness and NT-proBNP adjusted for age and sex showed SI as the most powerful parameter to detect rapid progression of LE (AUC = 0.785; P<0.05.LV geometry as assessed by the sphericity index is altered in relation to the stage of the Fabry cardiomyopathy. Although patients with FD are not hypertensive, the SBP has a clear impact on the progression of the cardiomyopathy.

  11. The long-term relation among retinal arteriolar narrowing, blood pressure, and incident severe hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie Jin; Rochtchina, Elena; Liew, Gerald; Tan, Ava G; Wong, Tien Yin; Leeder, Stephen R; Smith, Wayne; Shankar, Anoop; Mitchell, Paul

    2008-07-01

    The authors assessed associations between retinal vascular signs and incident severe hypertension in an older population-based cohort. At baseline (1992-1994), 3,654 residents aged 49-97 years living in the Blue Mountains area west of Sydney, Australia, were examined; respectively, 2,335 (75.1%) and 1,952 (76%) survivors were reexamined 5 and 10 years later. Retinal arteriolar and venular calibers were measured, and average central retinal artery and central retinal vein equivalents for that eye were estimated. Severe hypertension was defined by previous diagnosis of hypertension plus antihypertensive medication use or by systolic blood pressure > or =160 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure > or =100 mmHg at examinations. Of the 1,424 participants at risk, 618 developed severe hypertension over 10 years (cumulative incidence = 47.7%, 95% confidence interval: 44.9, 50.5). Participants who subsequently developed severe hypertension had significantly narrower mean central retinal artery equivalents than those who did not (187.0 vs. 191.9 mum, p < 0.0001). After adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, mean arterial blood pressure, and plasma glucose and triglyceride levels, baseline narrowing central retinal artery equivalent was associated with increased risk of severe hypertension (per standard deviation reduction, odds ratio = 1.1, 95% confidence interval: 1.1, 1.2; narrowest vs. widest quintile, odds ratio = 1.6, 95% confidence interval: 1.2, 2.1). These findings support structural narrowing in small arteries and arterioles antecedent to clinical onset of severe hypertension.

  12. Ouabain induces cardiac remodeling in rats independent of blood pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing JIANG; Yan-ping REN; Zhuo-ren L(U)

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the ouabain's effects on cardiac remodeling in rats. Methods:Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with ouabain. Systolic blood pressure(SBP) was recorded weekly. After 4 and 6 weeks, echocardiography were performed,hemodynamic parameters were measured by invasive cardiac catheterization,changes in cardiac ultrastructure were analyzed using transmission electron microscopy, the collagen fraction of the left ventricle was assessed with Picrosirius red stain, and RT-PCR was applied to evaluate the mRNA level of myosin heavy chain-α and-β in the left ventricle. Results: Having been treated with ouabain for 4 weeks, there was no significant difference in the mean SBP of the two groups.However, left ventricular hypertrophy, myocardial ultrastructure deterioration,and extracellular matrix remodeling were induced by ouabain treatment; meanwhile,cardiac systolic and diastolic performance were both worsened. Moreover, the cardiac MHC-β mRNA was upregulated by ouabain treatment, whereas MHC-αmRNA was downregulated. After 4 weeks, the mean SBP in the ouabain group began to increase and was significantly higher than that in control group after 6 weeks (P<0.01); the rats' cardiac structure and function were worsened.Conclusion: These results suggested that ouabain induces alterations in cardiac structure and function, and the effects happened before the increase of blood pressure. The results indicated that ouabain induced cardiac remodeling in rats independent of blood pressure.

  13. Evaluation of automated blood pressure measurements during exercise testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossack, K F; Gross, B W; Ritterman, J B; Kusumi, F; Bruce, R A

    1982-11-01

    Measurements of systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure were made at rest and during symptom-limited exercise with an automated blood pressure measuring device (EBPM). Comparisons were made between the EBPM readings and those made with mercury manometer. Correlations were high (SBP r = 0.92, DBP r = 0.80) when readings were made in the same arm, but were less satisfactory when the cuffs were on different arms (SBP r = 0.80, DBP r = 0.46). The correlation between two mercury manometer readings was SBP r = 0.90, and DBP r = 0.75. Comparison between EBPM and intra-arterial measurements were similar (SBP r = 0.74, DBP r = 0.79) to comparison between mercury manometer and intra-arterial measurements (SBP r = 0.81, DBP r = 0.61). The EBPM detected SBP at consistently higher levels than did physicians, which may be an advantage in the noisy environment of an exercise test. There was a definite tendency for physicians to record blood pressure to the nearest 10 mm Hg, whereas the frequency distribution curve for EBPM measurements was smoother. The EBPM operated satisfactorily at rest and during maximal exercise and gave as reliable measurements as a physician using a mercury manometer and, in the small number of available cases, detected exertional hypotension more often than the physician.

  14. Vitamin D and high blood pressure: causal association or epiphenomenon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunutsor, Setor K; Burgess, Stephen; Munroe, Patricia B; Khan, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    High plasma levels of vitamin D are associated with a reduced risk of high blood pressure, but whether this association is causal remains to be ascertained. We performed a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials, to examine the effect of vitamin D supplementation on both systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and supplemented these results with a Mendelian randomization analysis to investigate the causal relationship between vitamin D status (25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]) and BP. Pooled random effects meta-analysis of weighted mean differences across 16 trials of vitamin D supplementation showed a non-significant reduction in SBP (-0.94, 95% CI -2.98, 1.10 mmHg) and DBP (-0.52, 95% CI -1.18, 0.14 mmHg), with evidence of heterogeneity (I(2) = 67.9%, P causal effects of a doubling of genetically-elevated risk of vitamin D deficiency were 0.14 mmHg (95% CI -0.19, 0.47, P = 0.42), and 0.12 mmHg (95% CI -0.09, 0.33, P = 0.25) on SBP and DBP respectively. Additional evidence from genetic data are directionally consistent with clinical trial data, though underpowered to reliably demonstrate a strong causal effect of vitamin D status on BP. Further investigation may be warranted.

  15. Blood pressure response to low level static contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallentin, Nils; Jørgensen, Kurt

    1992-01-01

    The present study re-examines the 15% MVC concept, i.e. the existence of a circulatory steady-state in low intensity static contractions below 15% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Mean arterial blood pressure was studied during static endurance contractions of the elbow flexor and extensor...... muscles at forces corresponding to 10% and 40% MVC. Mean value for endurance time at 10% MVC was significantly longer for flexion [111.3 (SD 56.1) min] than for extension [18.1 (SD 7.5) min;n = 7]. At 40% MVC the difference in mean endurance time disappeared [2.3 (SD 0.7) min for elbow flexion and 2.3 (SD...... 0.7) min for elbow extension]. Mean arterial blood pressure exhibited a continuous and progressive increase during the 10% MVC contractions indicating that the 15% MVC concept would not appear to be valid. The terminal blood pressure value recorded at the point of exhaustion in the 10% MVC elbow...

  16. Insulin as a potential factor influencing blood pressure in amputees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, H G; Yalow, R S; Schweitzer, P; Schwartz, E

    1986-09-01

    War-injured, bilateral above-knee amputees are known to be at increased risk for cardiovascular mortality. To evaluate possible risk factors, we compared blood pressures and plasma glucose and insulin responses to orally administered glucose in 19 above-knee amputees from the Vietnam War (mean age, 36 +/- 1 years) with those of 12 age-matched unilateral below-elbow amputees. Body composition by densitometry and maximal oxygen consumption during arm or leg exercise were also determined. Nine of 19 leg amputees were hypertensive compared with one of 12 arm amputees. Their 3-hour average insulin responses were markedly increased (260 +/- 60 microU/ml) compared with those of normotensive leg (125 +/- 24 microU/ml) and arm amputees (101 +/- 20 microU/ml), and their mean body fat content (37.2%) also was elevated compared with that in both of these groups (23.2 and 22.6%, respectively). A unique finding was that both insulin response and body fat content were strongly and independently correlated with diastolic blood pressure (r = 0.55, p less than 0.01, and r = 0.62, p less than 0.01, respectively). We conclude that insulin may be a major factor in blood pressure regulation in the maturity-onset obesity that develops following traumatic leg amputation in young, healthy men.

  17. Aging, High Altitude, and Blood Pressure: A Complex Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parati, Gianfranco; Ochoa, Juan Eugenio; Torlasco, Camilla; Salvi, Paolo; Lombardi, Carolina; Bilo, Grzegorz

    2015-06-01

    Parati, Gianfranco, Juan Eugenio Ochoa, Camilla Torlasco, Paolo Salvi, Carolina Lombardi, and Grzegorz Bilo. Aging, high altitude, and blood pressure: A complex relationship. High Alt Biol Med 16:97-109, 2015.--Both aging and high altitude exposure may induce important changes in BP regulation, leading to significant increases in BP levels. By inducing atherosclerotic changes, stiffening of large arteries, renal dysfunction, and arterial baroreflex impairment, advancing age may induce progressive increases in systolic BP levels, promoting development and progression of arterial hypertension. It is also known, although mainly from studies in young or middle-aged subjects, that exposure to high altitude may influence different mechanisms involved in BP regulation (i.e., neural central and reflex control of sympathetic activity), leading to important increases in BP levels. The evidence is less clear, however, on whether and to what extent advancing age may influence the BP response to acute or chronic high altitude exposure. This is a question not only of scientific interest but also of practical relevance given the consistent number of elderly individuals who are exposed for short time periods (either for leisure or work) or live permanently at high altitude, in whom arterial hypertension is frequently observed. This article will review the evidence available on the relationship between aging and blood pressure levels at high altitude, the pathophysiological mechanisms behind this complex association, as well as some questions of practical interest regarding antihypertensive treatment in elderly subjects, and the effects of antihypertensive drugs on blood pressure response during high altitude exposure.

  18. Ambulatory blood pressure status in children: comparing alternate limit sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Cynthia S; Poffenbarger, Tim S; Samuels, Joshua A

    2011-12-01

    The American Heart Association has included alternate ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) limits for children published by Wühl in 2002. These updated limits employ the same pediatric cohort data as the previous ABP limits published by Soergel in 1997 but differ in analysis technique. The implications of changing ABP limit source on the diagnosis of hypertension has yet to be examined in a large pediatric cohort. We reviewed 741 ABP monitorings performed in children referred to our hypertension clinic between 1991-2007. Hypertension was defined as 24-h mean blood pressure ≥ 95 th percentile or 24-h blood pressure load ≥ 25%, by Soergel and Wühl limits separately. Six hundred seventy-three (91%) children were classified the same by both limit sources. Wühl limits were more likely than Soergel to classify a child as hypertensive (443 vs. 409, respectively). There was an increased classification of prehypertension and decreased white-coat hypertension by the Wühl method, whereas ambulatory and severe hypertension counts remained relatively the same by both limits sources. The use of either limit source will not significantly affect most clinical outcomes but should remain consistent over long-term research projects. Collection of new normative data from a larger, multiethnic population is needed for better measurement of ABP in children.

  19. Heart and Stroke Foundation of Ontario (HSFO high blood pressure strategy's hypertension management initiative study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Von Sychowski Shirley

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Achieving control of hypertension prevents target organ damage at both the micro and macrovascular level and is a highly cost effective means of lowering the risk for heart attack and stroke particularly in people with diabetes. Clinical trials demonstrate that blood pressure control can be achieved in a large proportion of people. Translating this knowledge into widespread practice is the focus of the Hypertension Management Initiative, which began in 2004 with the goal of improving the management of this chronic health condition by primary care providers and patients in the community. Methods This study will test the effect of a systems change on the management of high blood pressure in real world practice in primary care in Ontario, Canada. The systems change intervention involves an interprofessional educational program bringing together physicians, nurses and pharmacists with tools for both providers and patients to facilitate blood pressure management. Each of two waves of subjects were enrolled over a 6 month period with the initial enrollment between waves separated by 9 months. Blood pressure will be measured with the BpTru ® automated blood pressure device. To determine the effectiveness of the intervention, a before and after analysis within all subjects will compare blood pressure at baseline to annual measurements for the three year study. To assess whether the intervention has an impact on blood pressure control independent of community trends, a betwen group comparison of baseline blood pressures in the delayed wave will be made with the immediate wave during the same time period, so that the immediate wave has experienced the intervention for at least 9 months. The total enrollment goal is 5,000 subjects. The practice locations include 10 Family Health Teams (FHTs and 1 Community Health Centre (CHC and approximately 49 primary care physicians, 15 nurse practitioners, 37 registered nurses and over 150

  20. The mixing rate of the arterial blood pressure waveform Markov chain is correlated with shock index during hemorrhage in anesthetized swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adibuzzaman, Mohammad; Kramer, George C; Galeotti, Loriano; Merrill, Stephen J; Strauss, David G; Scully, Christopher G

    2014-01-01

    Identifying the need for interventions during hemorrhage is complicated due to physiological compensation mechanisms that can stabilize vital signs until a significant amount of blood loss. Physiological systems providing compensation during hemorrhage affect the arterial blood pressure waveform through changes in dynamics and waveform morphology. We investigated the use of Markov chain analysis of the arterial blood pressure waveform to monitor physiological systems changes during hemorrhage. Continuous arterial blood pressure recordings were made on anesthetized swine (N=7) during a 5 min baseline period and during a slow hemorrhage (10 ml/kg over 30 min). Markov chain analysis was applied to 20 sec arterial blood pressure waveform segments with a sliding window. 20 ranges of arterial blood pressure were defined as states and empirical transition probability matrices were determined for each 20 sec segment. The mixing rate (2(nd) largest eigenvalue of the transition probability matrix) was determined for all segments. A change in the mixing rate from baseline estimates was identified during hemorrhage for each animal (median time of 13 min, ~10% estimated blood volume, with minimum and maximum times of 2 and 33 min, respectively). The mixing rate was found to have an inverse correlation with shock index for all 7 animals (median correlation coefficient of -0.95 with minimum and maximum of -0.98 and -0.58, respectively). The Markov chain mixing rate of arterial blood pressure recordings is a novel potential biomarker for monitoring and understanding physiological systems during hemorrhage.

  1. Equipment Errors: A Prevalent Cause for Fallacy in Blood Pressure Recording - A Point Prevalence Estimate from an Indian Health University

    OpenAIRE

    Badrinarayan Mishra; Nidhi Dinesh Sinha; Hitesh Gidwani; Sushil Kumar Shukla; Abhishek Kawatra; S. C. Mehta

    2013-01-01

    Background: Blood pressure (BP) recording is the most commonly measured clinical parameter. Standing mercury sphygmomanometer is the most widely used equipment to record this. However, recording by sphygmomanometer is subject to observer and instrumental error. The different sources of equipment error are faulty manometer tube calibration, baseline deviations and improper arm bladder cuff dimensions. This is further compounded by a high prevalence of arm bladder miss-cuffing in the target pop...

  2. Blood pressure and blood flow variation during postural change from sitting to standing: model development and validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olufsen, M.S.; Ottesen, Johnny T.; Tran, H.T.

    2005-01-01

    Short-term cardiovascular responses to postural change from sitting to standing involve complex interactions between the autonomic nervous system, which regulates blood pressure, and cerebral autoregulation, which maintains cerebral perfusion. We present a mathematical model that can predict...... dynamic changes in beat-to-beat arterial blood pressure and middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity during postural change from sitting to standing. Our cardiovascular model utilizes 11 compartments to describe blood pressure, blood flow, compliance, and resistance in the heart and systemic circulation....... To include dynamics due to the pulsatile nature of blood pressure and blood flow, resistances in the large systemic arteries are modeled using nonlinear functions of pressure. A physiologically based submodel is used to describe effects of gravity on venous blood pooling during postural change. Two types...

  3. Bayesian fusion algorithm for improved oscillometric blood pressure estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forouzanfar, Mohamad; Dajani, Hilmi R; Groza, Voicu Z; Bolic, Miodrag; Rajan, Sreeraman; Batkin, Izmail

    2016-11-01

    A variety of oscillometric algorithms have been recently proposed in the literature for estimation of blood pressure (BP). However, these algorithms possess specific strengths and weaknesses that should be taken into account before selecting the most appropriate one. In this paper, we propose a fusion method to exploit the advantages of the oscillometric algorithms and circumvent their limitations. The proposed fusion method is based on the computation of the weighted arithmetic mean of the oscillometric algorithms estimates, and the weights are obtained using a Bayesian approach by minimizing the mean square error. The proposed approach is used to fuse four different oscillometric blood pressure estimation algorithms. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated on a pilot dataset of 150 oscillometric recordings from 10 subjects. It is found that the mean error and standard deviation of error are reduced relative to the individual estimation algorithms by up to 7 mmHg and 3 mmHg in estimation of systolic pressure, respectively, and by up to 2 mmHg and 3 mmHg in estimation of diastolic pressure, respectively.

  4. Cardiovascular risk factors and blood pressure in a primary care unit: Yugoslav Study of the Precursors of Atherosclerosis in School Children (YUSAD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajcetic, Milica; Ilic, Katarina; Singh, Nada Majkic; Novakovic, Ivana; Vukotic, Milija; Nedeljkovic, Srecko; Simeunovic, Slavko

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The presence of cardiovascular risk factors in children may be important in the development of atherosclerosis in adulthood. Adequate control of blood pressure is a cornerstone in atherosclerosis prevention. The aim of the Yugoslav Study of the Precursors of Atherosclerosis in School Children (YUSAD) was to identify risk factors for elevated blood pressure in school children. METHODS The YUSAD study is a multicentre follow-up study comprised of two cross-sectional surveys conducted five years apart. At baseline, 10-year-old children (3226 boys and 3074 girls [n=6300]) were randomly selected during periodical visits to primary health care centres. The risk factors measured were heart rate, weight, body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio, grade point average and current smoking status. RESULTS Significant age and sex differences were identified in systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and all investigated independent variables. In a multivariate analysis, diastolic blood pressure in 10-year-old boys was directly and significantly related to total cholesterol and height, whereas it was inversely related to weight. At follow-up, in the multivariate model, only BMI was a significant predictor of diastolic blood pressure in boys. In girls at baseline in the multivariate regression analysis, the only significant predictor of diastolic blood pressure was total cholesterol. In 15-year-old girls, diastolic blood pressure was significantly and directly related to BMI and heart rate, whereas it was inversely related to weight. For both 10- and 15-year-old male and female participants, none of the variables by multivariate analysis were a significant predictor of systolic blood pressure. CONCLUSIONS Age, sex, heart rate, cholesterol and weight are the most important predictors of blood pressure in school children. PMID:18651041

  5. Patterns of blood pressure variability in normotensive and hypertensive rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein-Rathlou, N H; He, J; Wagner, A J

    1995-01-01

    We sought patterns in mean arterial pressure of normotensive rats and alterations in chronic hypertension. Pressure was recorded for 4-6 days by telemetry from conscious, unrestrained rats and sampled digitally at 3 Hz, using normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR...... approximately 0.1 to 10 mHz the spectra were 1/f and without distinct peaks. The slopes were not significantly different among the groups and ranged from -1.03 to -1.61. At frequencies > 10 mHz, power continued to decrease but with a lower slope. A peak centered at approximately 100 mHz was present in both...... the day; less pronounced in 2K,1C; and not detectable in SHR. There are regular patterns of blood pressure fluctuations and specific modifications to the patterns by different forms of hypertension....

  6. Occlusion cuff for routine measurement of digital blood pressure and blood flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, N A; Krähenbühl, B; Hirai, M

    1977-01-01

    A miniaturized blood pressure cuff made of plastic material and applicable to fingers and toes is described. The cuff was compared to rubber cuffs and to bladder-free cuffs. It was found to be more reliable than the former type and much easier to use than the latter type. It is recommended for us...

  7. Comparison of Clinic and Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Response to Antihypertensive Drugs in Chinese Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective To compare the difference between 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) and trough clinic blood pressure (CBP) after 8 weeks of therapy. Methods The study used meta-regression analysis to summarize three randomized,double-blind, active controlled trials in order to compare the difference between the magnitude of the reduction in 24-h average ABP and CBP Patients. Chinese patients with seated diastolic blood pressure (SDBP) 95-115 mmHg and ambulatory diastolic blood pressure (ADBP) ≥85 mmHg. Results The average age of 126 patients was 47.7±8.3 years, ranging from 25 to 67 (95 males and 31 females). All regimens reduced 24-h ABP and CBP after 8 weeks of treatment. In the 126 patients the baseline 24-h SBP and DBP values (142.7/94.4 mmHg) were markedly lower than those for clinic values (152.6/102.6 mmHg;P<0.0001). Similarly, the 24-h SBP and DBP values (132.7/87.7 mmHg) in week 8 were markedly lower than the clinic values (138.9/92.7 mmHg; P<0.0001). The differences between the treatment-induced reductions in 24-h ABP and CBP were statistically significant (the difference was 3.7/3.3 mmHg for SBP/DBP, P=0.0069/P<0.0001). Conclusion All regimens significantly reduced seated CBP and ABP. The effect of antihypertensive treatment was greater on CBP than that on ABP,suggesting that assessment on effectiveness of an antihypertensive treatment using CBP readings only has to be carefully interpreted, and a more systematic application of ABP monitoring should be adopted.

  8. High-cocoa polyphenol-rich chocolate improves blood pressure in patients with diabetes and hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, Ali; Khalili, Mohammad; Haghighat, Neda; Eghtesadi, Shahryar; Shidfar, Farzad; Heidari, Iraj; Ebrahimpour-Koujan, Soraiya; Eghtesadi, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The aim was to examine the effects of high-cocoa polyphenol-rich chocolate on lipid profiles, weight, blood pressure, glycemic control, and inflammation in individuals with Type 2 diabetes and hypertension. METHODS Sixty individuals [32 in dark chocolate group (DCG) and 28 in white chocolate group (WCG)] with Type 2 diabetes on stable medication were enrolled in a randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind study. Subjects were randomized to consume 25 g DCG or WCG for 8 weeks. Changes in weight, blood pressure, glycemic control, lipid profile, and high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were measured at the beginning and end of the intervention. This clinical trial was registered at the Iranian registry of clinical trials. RESULTS In DCC group, compared with baseline, serum levels of Apo A-1 (P = 0.045) was increased and fasting blood sugar (FBS) (P = 0.027), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) (P = 0.025), Apo B (P = 0.012) and Log of hsCRP (P = 0.043) levels were decreased at the end of study. No changes were seen within the WCG in studied parameters. High polyphenol chocolate consumption compared to white chocolate resulted in significant decrease in of systolic (−5.93 ± 6.25 vs. −1.07 ± 7.97 mmHg, P = 0.004) and diastolic blood pressure (−6.4 ± 6.25 vs. 0.17 ± 7.9 mmHg, P = 0.002), FBS (−7.84 ± 19.15 vs. 4.00 ± 20.58 mg/dl, P = 0.019) over the course of 8 weeks of daily chocolate consumption neither weight nor body mass index and TG levels altered from baseline. CONCLUSION High polyphenol chocolate is effective in improving TG levels in hypertensive patients with diabetes and decreasing blood pressure and FBS without affecting weight, inflammatory markers, insulin resistance or glycemic control. PMID:26089927

  9. 正常高值血压者冷加压试验血压变化与血压变异的相关性%Association between cold pressure test for blood pressure and blood pressure variability in prehypertensives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路方红; 刘振东; 赵颖馨; 王舒健; 孙尚文; 胡小亮; 李俊

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨正常高值血压者冷加压试验血压变化与24 h血压变异相关性.方法 将受试者261人按血压水平分为理想血压组、正常高值血压组和高血压组.所有受试者均进行冷加压试验、24 h动态血压监测及血液生化指标检测.结果 正常高值血压组三酰甘油、空腹血糖高于理想血压组(P<0.05);正常高值血压者冷加压后0及60 s收缩压增加幅度分别为(14.0±6.5)及(9.3±5.0)mm Hg,冷加压试验阳性率为25.6%,低于高血压组,但明显高于理想血压组(P<0.05);正常高值血压组24 h、白天及夜间收缩压、舒张压变异均明显高于理想血压组(P<0.05);正常高值血压组0 s收缩压增加幅度与夜间收缩压变异、24 h收缩压变异呈正相关(r=0.625和r=0.512,均P<0.01);60 s收缩压增加幅度与夜间收缩压、舒张压变异呈正相关(r=0.617和r=0.533,均P<0.01).结论 正常高值血压者交感神经系统活性增强,冷加压后血压增加幅度上升,血压变异性增加,冷加压后血压增幅与血压变异相关.%Objective To explore the correlation between blood pressure changes of cold pressure test and 24 hours blood pressure variability in prehypertensives. Methods According to blood pressure level, 261 participants were divided into three groups, namely, normotensive group, prehypertensive group and hypertensive group. Cold pressure test, 24 hours ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and blood test were conducted in all participants. Results Triglycerides and fasting plasma glucose in prehypertensive group were higher than those in normotensive group (Pblood pressure (SBP) at baseline and sixty seconds after cold pressure test were (14. 0 + 6. 5) and (9. 3±5. 0)mm Hg, respectively, and the rate of positive cold pressure test was 25. 6% in prehypertensive group, lower than those in hypertensive group, higher than those in normotensive group (P<0. 05). The

  10. Resistance exercise with different volumes: blood pressure response and forearm blood flow in the hypertensive elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Aline de Freitas; de Oliveira, Caio Victor Coutinho; Brasileiro-Santos, Maria do Socorro; Santos, Amilton da Cruz

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of two sessions of resistance exercise with different volumes on post-exercise hypotension, forearm blood flow, and forearm vascular resistance in hypertensive elderly subjects. Methods The study was conducted with ten hypertensive elderly (65±3 years, 28.7±3 kg/m2) subjected to three experimental sessions, ie, a control session, exercise with a set (S1), and exercise with three sets (S3). For each session, the subjects were evaluated before and after intervention. In the pre-intervention period, blood pressure, forearm blood flow, and forearm vascular resistance were measured after 10 minutes of rest in the supine position. Thereafter, the subjects were taken to the gym to perform their exercise sessions or remained at rest during the same time period. Both S1 and S3 comprised a set of ten repetitions of ten exercises, with an interval of 90 seconds between exercises. Subsequently, the measurements were again performed at 10, 30, 50, 70, and 90 minutes of recovery (post-intervention) in the supine position. Results Post-exercise hypotension was greater in S3 than in S1 (systolic blood pressure, −26.5±4.2 mmHg versus −17.9±4.7 mmHg; diastolic blood pressure, −13.8±4.9 mmHg versus −7.7±5 mmHg, P<0.05). Similarly, forearm blood flow and forearm vascular resistance changed significantly in both sessions with an increase and decrease, respectively, that was more evident in S3 than in S1 (P<0.05). Conclusion Resistance exercises with higher volume were more effective in causing post-exercise hypotension, being accompanied by an increase in forearm blood flow and a reduction of forearm vascular resistance. PMID:25540580

  11. Low central venous pressure reduces blood loss in hepatectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Dong Wang; Li-Jian Liang; Xiong-Qing Huang; Xiao-Yu Yin

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of low central venous pressure (LCVP) on blood loss during hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).METHODS: By the method of sealed envelope,50 HCC patients were randomized into LCVP group (n = 25) and control group (n = 25). In LCVP group,CVP was maintained at 2-4 mmHg and systolic blood pressure (SBP) above 90 mmHg by manipulation of the patient's posture and administration of drugs during hepatectomy, while in control group hepatectomy was performed routinely without lowering CVP. The patients'preoperative conditions, volume of blood loss during hepatectomy, volume of blood transfusion, length of hospital stay, changes in hepatic and renal functions were compared between the two groups.RESULTS: There were no significant differences in patients' preoperative conditions, maximal tumor dimension, pattern of hepatectomy, duration of vascular occlusion, operationtime, weight of resected liver tissues, incidence of post-operative complications, hepatic and renal functions between the two groups. LCVP group had a markedly lower volume of total intraoperative blood loss and blood loss during hepatectomy than the control group, being 903.9±180.8 mL vs 2 329.4±2 538.4(W=495.5, P<0.01) and 672.4±429.9 mL vs1 662.6± 1932.1 (W=543.5, P<0.01). There were no remarkable differences in the pre-resection and post-resection blood losses between the two groups. The length of hospital stay was significantly shortened in LCVP group as compared with the control group, being 16.3±6.8 d vs21.5 ± 8.6 d (W= 532.5, P<0.05).CONCLUSION: LCVP is easily achievable in technique.Maintenance of CVP≤4 mmHg can help reduce blood loss during hepatectomy, shorten the length of hospital stay, and has no detrimental effects on hepatic or renal function.

  12. Nocturnal blood pressure and intraocular pressure measurement in glaucoma patients and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follmann, P; Palotás, C; Süveges, I; Petrovits, A

    Daytime and nocturnal intraocular pressure (IOP) values and systemic blood pressure (BP) values were compared in 60 non-glaucomatous controls, 54 glaucoma patients with normal visual field, and 46 glaucoma patients with visual field loss. The daytime IOP was measured with a Goldmann applanation tonometer and the nocturnal IOP with a Bio-Rad-Tono-Pen 2. The BP was measured with either a mercury manometer or with a Meditech ABPM-02 Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitor, which took BP readings at 60 minute intervals. A tendency towards increasing IOP and decreasing BP was detected in the non-glaucomatous controls, within normal limits, and pathological changes of IOP and BP were observed with a significantly high occurrence (5% > P > 2%; Pearson's chi 2-test) in the glaucoma group with visual field loss.

  13. More Folic Acid in Pregnancy May Protect Kids from High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Folic Acid in Pregnancy May Protect Kids From High Blood Pressure If mothers have heart disease risk factors, nutrient ... levels during pregnancy may reduce the risk of high blood pressure in children if their mothers have heart disease ...

  14. Many People Don't Take Their High Blood Pressure Meds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 163928.html Many People Don't Take Their High Blood Pressure Meds: Study Failure to follow doctors' orders leads ... 20 percent of patients seeking care for stubborn high blood pressure take all the medicine they're supposed to, ...

  15. Blood Pressure Numbers: What They Mean | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on. Special Section: Healthy Blood Pressure Blood Pressure Numbers: What They Mean Past Issues / Winter 2010 Table ... mmHg, or millimeters of mercury) Category Systolic (top number) Diastolic (bottom number) Normal Less than 120 And ...

  16. Long-term impact of systolic blood pressure and glycemia on the development of microalbuminuria in essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Jose Maria; Rodilla, Enrique; Gonzalez, Carmen; Pérez-Hoyos, Santiago; Redon, Josep

    2005-06-01

    The objective was to assess the temporal impact of factors related to the development of microalbuminuria during the follow-up of young adult normoalbuminurics with high-normal blood pressure or at stage 1 of essential hypertension. Prospective follow-up was conducted on 245 normoalbuminuric hypertensive subjects (mean age 40.9 years; 134 men; blood pressure 139.7/88.6 mm Hg; body mass index 28.5 kg/m2) never treated previously with antihypertensive drugs, with yearly urinary albumin excretion measurements, until the development of microalbuminuria. After enrollment, patients were placed on usual care including nonpharmacological treatment or with an antihypertensive drug regime to achieve a blood pressure of 15 mg per 24-hour systolic blood pressure >139 mm Hg and a positive trend in fasting glucose were observed in the univariate analyses. However, in the multivariate analysis, only the baseline urinary albumin excretion and the trend of fasting glucose were independently related to the risk of developing microalbuminuria. In mild hypertensives, the development of microalbuminuria was linked to insufficient blood pressure control and to a progressive increment of glucose values.

  17. Comparison of Intraocular Pressure, Blood Pressure, Ocular Perfusion Pressure and Blood Flow Fluctuations During Dorzolamide Versus Timolol Add-On Therapy in Prostaglandin Analogue Treated Glaucoma Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruta Barsauskaite

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the effects of dorzolamide and timolol add-on therapy in open-angle glaucoma (OAG patients previously treated with prostaglandin analogue (Pg, by evaluating fluctuations in the intraocular (IOP, blood (BP, ocular perfusion pressures (OPP and retrobulbar blood flow (RBF parameters. Methods: 35 OAG patients (35 eyes, 31 women (88.6% age 63.3 (8.9 years were evaluated in a 3 month randomized, cross-over, single-masked study. During the experiments BP, heart rate, IOP and OPP were assessed 4 times per day (8–12–16–20 h. RBF was measured twice per day (8–20 h using Color Doppler imaging in the ophthalmic (OA, central retinal (CRA, nasal (nSPCA and temporal (tSPCA posterior ciliary arteries. In each vessel, peak systolic velocity (PSV and end-diastolic velocity (EDV were assessed and vascular resistance (RI calculated. Results: Both add-on therapies lowered IOP in a statistically significant manner from 15.7 ± 2.4 mmHg at latanoprost baseline to 14.9 ± 2.2 mmHg using dorzolamide (p < 0.001 and 14.2 ± 1.9 mmHg using timolol (p < 0.001. The IOP lowering effect was statistically significant at 20 h, favoring timolol as compared to dorzolamide (1.4 ± 2.4 vs. 0.2 ± 2.1 mmHg, (p < 0.05. Dorzolamide add-on therapy showed smaller IOP (2.0 ± 1.4, SPP (13.3 ± 7.9, systolic BP (13.5 ± 8.7 and diastolic BP (8.4 ± 5.4 fluctuations as compared to both latanoprost baseline or timolol add-on therapies. Higher difference between morning and evening BP was correlated to decreased evening CRA EDV in the timolol group (c = −0.41; p = 0.01. With increased MAP in the morning or evening hours, we found increased evening OA RI in timolol add-on group (c = 0.400, p = 0.02; c = 0.513, p = 0.002 accordingly. Higher MAP fluctuations were related to impaired RBF parameters during evening hours-decreased CRA EDV (c = −0.408; p = 0.01, increased CRA RI (c = 0.576; p < 0.001 and tSPCA RI (c = 0.356; p = 0.04 in the dorzolamide group and

  18. High altitude hypoxia and blood pressure dysregulation in adult chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, E A; Salinas, C E; Blanco, C E; Villena, M; Giussani, D A

    2013-02-01

    Although it is accepted that impaired placental perfusion in complicated pregnancy can slow fetal growth and programme an increased risk of cardiovascular dysfunction at adulthood, the relative contribution of reductions in fetal nutrition and in fetal oxygenation as the triggering stimulus remains unclear. By combining high altitude (HA) with the chick embryo model, we have previously isolated the direct effects of HA hypoxia on embryonic growth and cardiovascular development before hatching. This study isolated the effects of developmental hypoxia on cardiovascular function measured in vivo in conscious adult male and female chickens. Chick embryos were incubated, hatched and raised at sea level (SL, nine males and nine females) or incubated, hatched and raised at HA (seven males and seven females). At 6 months of age, vascular catheters were inserted under general anaesthesia. Five days later, basal blood gas status, basal cardiovascular function and cardiac baroreflex responses were investigated. HA chickens had significantly lower basal arterial PO2 and haemoglobin saturation, and significantly higher haematocrit than SL chickens, independent of the sex of the animal. HA chickens had significantly lower arterial blood pressure than SL chickens, independent of the sex of the animal. Although the gain of the arterial baroreflex was decreased in HA relative to SL male chickens, it was increased in HA relative to SL female chickens. We show that development at HA lowers basal arterial blood pressure and alters baroreflex sensitivity in a sex-dependent manner at adulthood.

  19. Context-aware patient guidance during blood pressure self-measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandager, Puk; Lindahl, Camilla; Schlütter, Jacob Mørup

    2013-01-01

    The importance of accurate measurement of blood pressure in the screening and management of hypertension during pregnancy is well established. Blood pressure levels can be measured manually by healthcare staff or by using a blood pressure self-measurement device, either at home or in the clinic...... the blood pressure self-measurement process. Preliminary results indicate that such active and context-aware guidance leads to more reliable measurements by inhibiting non-adherent patient behavior...

  20. Blood Pressure Standards for Shiraz (Southern Iran) School Children in Relation to Height

    OpenAIRE

    Ayatollahi, Seyyed Mohammad-Taghi; Zare, Marzie

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study aims at providing local reference values for blood pressure by height and determining distribution pattern of systolic and diastolic blood pressure in 6.5-11.5 elementary school children for the first time in Shiraz (Southern Iran). Methods Height, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured with standard methods in 2270 healthy school children (1174 boys, 1096 girls) who were selected by multi-stage random sampling in 2003-2004 academic...

  1. Maternal smoking and blood pressure in 7.5 to 8 year old offspring.

    OpenAIRE

    Morley, R; Leeson Payne, C; G Lister; Lucas, A.

    1995-01-01

    Reduced fetal growth in babies born preterm may be associated with reduced later blood pressure, but in children born at term, higher blood pressure. It was hypothesised, therefore, that maternal smoking in pregnancy, associated with reduced fetal growth, programmes later blood pressure differentially according to length of gestation. Six hundred and eighteen children born preterm and now aged 7.5 to 8 years were studied prospectively. Systolic blood pressure in children from smoking compared...

  2. Blood pressure in Afghan male immigrants to Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmar, Ali; Bülow, Jens; Simonsen, Lene

    2013-01-01

    -day high (250 mmol per 24-h) salt intake were in addition instituted in subgroups of the young groups (n = 18). RESULTS: Young and middle-aged Afghans exhibited a lower 24-h mean arterial pressure (24-h MAP) than the same respective age groups of Danes (83 ± 1 versus 90 ± 1 mm Hg, P...PURPOSE: Immigration from a Third-World society to a Western society can be associated with higher blood pressure and salt sensitivity. We therefore tested whether immigrants from Afghanistan to Denmark compared with non-immigrant Danes exhibit a (i) higher 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (24-h ABP......) and (ii) blunted renin response to a change in salt intake. METHODS: Twenty-four-hour ABP was measured in 40 men of Afghan (Afghans) and 40 men of Danish (Danes) origin. Each group was divided into young (20-30 years, n = 20) and middle aged (40-60 years, n = 20). A 3-day low (70 mmol per 24-h) and a 3...

  3. Changes in cardiac index and blood pressure on positioning children prone for scoliosis surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Z E; Görges, M; Cooke, E; Malherbe, S; Dumont, G A; Ansermino, J M

    2013-07-01

    In this prospective observational study we investigated the changes in cardiac index and mean arterial pressure in children when positioned prone for scoliosis correction surgery. Thirty children (ASA 1-2, aged 13-18 years) undergoing primary, idiopathic scoliosis repair were recruited. The cardiac index and mean arterial blood pressure (median (IQR [range])) were 2.7 (2.3-3.1 [1.4-3.7]) l.min(-1).m(-2) and 73 (66-80 [54-91]) mmHg, respectively, at baseline; 2.9 (2.5-3.2 [1.7-4.4]) l.min(-1).m(-2) and 73 (63-81 [51-96]) mmHg following a 5-ml.kg(-1) fluid bolus; and 2.5 (2.2-2.7 [1.4-4.8]) l.min(-1).m(-2) and 69 (62-73 [46-85]) mmHg immediately after turning prone. Turning prone resulted in a median reduction in cardiac index of 0.5 l.min(-1).m(-2) (95% CI 0.3-0.7 l.min(-1).m(-2), p=0.001), or 18.5%, with a large degree of inter-subject variability (+10.3% to -40.9%). The changes in mean arterial blood pressure were not significant. Strategies to predict, prevent and treat decreases in cardiac index need to be developed.

  4. Coagulation changes during lower body negative pressure and blood loss in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Helmond, Noud; Johnson, Blair D; Curry, Timothy B; Cap, Andrew P; Convertino, Victor A; Joyner, Michael J

    2015-11-01

    We tested the hypothesis that markers of coagulation activation are greater during lower body negative pressure (LBNP) than those obtained during blood loss (BL). We assessed coagulation using both standard clinical tests and thrombelastography (TEG) in 12 men who performed a LBNP and BL protocol in a randomized order. LBNP consisted of 5-min stages at 0, -15, -30, and -45 mmHg of suction. BL included 5 min at baseline and following three stages of 333 ml of blood removal (up to 1,000 ml total). Arterial blood draws were performed at baseline and after the last stage of each protocol. We found that LBNP to -45 mmHg is a greater central hypovolemic stimulus versus BL; therefore, the coagulation markers were plotted against central venous pressure (CVP) to obtain stimulus-response relationships using the linear regression line slopes for both protocols. Paired t-tests were used to determine whether the slopes of these regression lines fell on similar trajectories for each protocol. Mean regression line slopes for coagulation markers versus CVP fell on similar trajectories during both protocols, except for TEG α° angle (-0.42 ± 0.96 during LBNP vs. -2.41 ± 1.13°/mmHg during BL; P coagulation was accelerated as evidenced by shortened R-times (LBNP, 9.9 ± 2.4 to 6.2 ± 1.1; BL, 8.7 ± 1.3 to 6.4 ± 0.4 min; both P coagulation markers observed during BL.

  5. Genome-wide association study identifies eight loci associated with blood pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Johnson, Toby; Gateva, Vesela; Tobin, Martin D.; Bochud, Murielle; Coin, Lachlan; Najjar, Samer S.; Zhao, Jing Hua; Heath, Simon C.; Eyheramendy, Susana; Papadakis, Konstantinos; Voight, Benjamin F.; Scott, Laura J.; Zhang, Feng; Farrall, Martin; Tanaka, Toshiko; Wallace, Chris; Chambers, John C.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Nilsson, Peter; van der Harst, Pim; Polidoro, Silvia; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Bots, Michiel L.; Wain, Louise V.; Elliott, Katherine S.; Teumer, Alexander; Luan, Jian'an; Lucas, Gavin; Kuusisto, Johanna; Burton, Paul R.; Hadley, David; McArdle, Wendy L.; Brown, Morris; Dominiczak, Anna; Newhouse, Stephen J.; Samani, Nilesh J.; Webster, John; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Bergmann, Sven; Lim, Noha; Song, Kijoung; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Waterworth, Dawn M.; Yuan, Xin; Groop, Leif; Orho-Melander, Marju; Allione, Alessandra; Di Gregorio, Alessandra; Guarrera, Simonetta; Panico, Salvatore; Ricceri, Fulvio; Romanazzi, Valeria; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Vineis, Paolo; Barroso, Ines; Sandhu, Manjinder S.; Luben, Robert N.; Crawford, Gabriel J.; Jousilahti, Pekka; Perola, Markus; Boehnke, Michael; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Collins, Francis S.; Jackson, Anne U.; Mohlke, Karen L.; Stringham, Heather M.; Valle, Timo T.; Willer, Cristen J.; Bergman, Richard N.; Morken, Mario A.; Doering, Angela; Gieger, Christian; Illig, Thomas; Meitinger, Thomas; Org, Elin; Pfeufer, Arne; Wichmann, H. Erich; Kathiresan, Sekar; Marrugat, Jaume; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Siscovick, David S.; Subirana, Isaac; Freimer, Nelson B.; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; McCarthy, Mark I.; O'Reilly, Paul F.; Peltonen, Leena; Pouta, Anneli; de Jong, Paul E.; Snieder, Harold; van Gilst, Wiek H.; Clarke, Robert; Goel, Anuj; Hamsten, Anders; Peden, John F.; Seedorf, Udo; Syvanen, Ann-Christine; Tognoni, Giovanni; Lakatta, Edward G.; Sanna, Serena; Scheet, Paul; Schlessinger, David; Scuteri, Angelo; Doerr, Marcus; Ernst, Florian; Felix, Stephan B.; Homuth, Georg; Lorbeer, Roberto; Reffelmann, Thorsten; Rettig, Rainer; Voelker, Uwe; Galan, Pilar; Gut, Ivo G.; Hercberg, Serge; Lathrop, G. Mark; Zelenika, Diana; Deloukas, Panos; Soranzo, Nicole; Williams, Frances M.; Zhai, Guangju; Salomaa, Veikko; Laakso, Markku; Elosua, Roberto; Forouhi, Nita G.; Volzke, Henry; Uiterwaal, Cuno S.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Numans, Mattijs E.; Matullo, Giuseppe; Navis, Gerjan; Berglund, Goran; Bingham, Sheila A.; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Connell, John M.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Ferrucci, Luigi; Watkins, Hugh; Spector, Tim D.; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Altshuler, David; Strachan, David P.; Laan, Maris; Meneton, Pierre; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Uda, Manuela; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Mooser, Vincent; Melander, Olle; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Elliott, Paul; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Caulfield, Mark; Munroe, Patricia B.

    2009-01-01

    Elevated blood pressure is a common, heritable cause of cardiovascular disease worldwide. To date, identification of common genetic variants influencing blood pressure has proven challenging. We tested 2.5 million genotyped and imputed SNPs for association with systolic and diastolic blood pressure

  6. Prognostic value of the morning blood pressure surge in 5645 subjects from 8 populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    recruited in 8 countries. The sleep-through and the preawakening MS were the differences in the morning blood pressure with the lowest nighttime blood pressure and the preawakening blood pressure, respectively. We computed multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios comparing the risk in ethnic- and sex...

  7. Treatment goals for ambulatory blood pressure and plasma lipids after stroke are often not reached

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Aase Worså; Kofoed, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    In Danish health care, secondary prevention after stroke is currently handled mainly by general practitioners using office blood pressure (OBP) assessment of hypertension. The aim of this study was to compare the OBP approach to 24-hour assessment by ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) monitoring....... Furthermore, we aimed to record the degree of adherence to recommended therapy goals for blood pressure and plasma lipids....

  8. Nutritional interventions and blood pressure : role of specific micronutrients and other food components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mierlo, van L.A.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Elevated blood pressure is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Modest reductions in blood pressure at the population level, as can be achieved by dietary and lifestyle changes, have a large impact on the burden of CVD. Blood pressure is regulated by several physio

  9. Treatment goals for ambulatory blood pressure and plasma lipids after stroke are often not reached

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Aase Worså; Kofoed, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    In Danish health care, secondary prevention after stroke is currently handled mainly by general practitioners using office blood pressure (OBP) assessment of hypertension. The aim of this study was to compare the OBP approach to 24-hour assessment by ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) monitoring. Fu....... Furthermore, we aimed to record the degree of adherence to recommended therapy goals for blood pressure and plasma lipids....

  10. Predictive value of ambulatory blood pressure shortly after withdrawal of antihypertensive drugs in primary care patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beltman, FW; Heesen, WF; Smit, AJ; May, JF; deGraeff, PA; Havinga, TK; Schuurman, FH; vanderVeur, E; Lie, KI; MeyboomdeJong, B

    1996-01-01

    Objective-To determine whether ambulatory blood pressure eight weeks after withdrawal of antihypertensive medication is a more sensitive measure than seated blood pressure to predict blood pressure in the long term. Design-Patients with previously untreated diastolic hypertension were treated with a

  11. [Instrumentation for blood pressure measurements: historical aspects, concepts and sources of error].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo, T L; Arcuri, E A; Martins, E

    1998-04-01

    According to the International Council of Nurses the measurement of blood pressure is the procedure most performed by nurses in all the world. The aim of this study is to analyse the polemical aspects of instruments used in blood pressure measurement. Considering the analyses of the literature and the American Heart Association Recommendations, the main source of errors when measuring blood pressure are discussed.

  12. Validation of continuous noninvasive arterial blood pressure measurements during general anesthesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalmar, A.F.; Vos, Jaap Jan; Weening, M.; Mooyaart, E.A.; Poterman, Marieke; Struys, Michel; Scheeren, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Background:  Continuous invasive arterial blood pressure (IBP) monitoring remains the accepted gold standard for blood pressure monitoring because of its high accuracy. Several disadvantages of this method motivate the use of noninvasive intermittent blood pressure (NIBP) in most anesthesia cases de

  13. A Comparative Analysis Between Optimized and Baseline High Pressure Compressor Stages Using Tridimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dragan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Re-vamping of industrial turbo-machinery is commonplace in the oil and gas industry in applications where subterranean combustion is used for oil extraction. The current case study refers to such an industrial compressor re-vamping, using a state of the art 3D fully viscous CFD methodology coupled with artificial neural networks (ANNs and genetic algorithms (GA. The ANN is used to establish correlations within a database of CFD simulations of geometrical variations of the original rotor and the GA uses those correlations to estimate an optimum. The estimate is then tested with the same CFD method and the results are fed back into the database, increasing the accuracy of the ANN correlations. The process is reiterated until the optimum estimated by the GA is confirmed with the CFD simulations. The resulting geometry is superior to the original in terms of efficiency and pressure ratio as well as the range of stabile operation, as confirmed by the successful implementation in the field. In this paper we present an analysis of why the optimized geometry achieves superior performances to the original one. Further work will present comparison between the detailed experimental data and CFD.

  14. The relationships between blood pressure, blood glucose, and bone mineral density in postmenopausal Turkish women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmak, Huseyin Altug; Cakmak, Burcu Dincgez; Yumru, Ayse Ender; Aslan, Serkan; Enhos, Asim; Kalkan, Ali Kemal; Coskun, Ebru Inci; Acikgoz, Abdullah Serdar; Karatas, Suat

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and osteoporosis are important comorbidities commonly seen in postmenopausal women. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships between blood pressure, blood glucose, and bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal Turkish women. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 270 consecutive patients who were admitted to an outpatient clinic with vasomotor symptoms and/or at least 1 year of amenorrhea were included. The patients were categorized into three groups according to their blood pressure and metabolic status as follows: normotensive, hypertensive nondiabetics, and hypertensive diabetics. The T- and z-scores of the proximal femur and lumbar vertebrae were measured with the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry method to assess the BMD of the study groups. Results Lumbar vertebral T-scores (P<0.001), lumbar vertebral z-scores (P<0.003), and proximal femoral T-scores (P<0.001) were demonstrated to be significantly lower in the hypertensive diabetic group compared to the hypertensive nondiabetic and normotensive groups. Systolic blood pressure was significantly inversely correlated with lumbar vertebral T-scores (r=−0.382; P=0.001), lumbar vertebral z-scores (r=−0.290; P=0.001), and proximal femoral T-scores (r=−0.340; P=0.001). Moreover, diastolic blood pressure was significantly inversely correlated with lumbar vertebral T-scores (r=−0.318; P=0.001), lumbar vertebral z-scores (r=−0.340; P=0.001), and proximal femoral T-scores (r=−0.304; P=0.001). Hypertension (odds ratio [OR]: 2.541, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.46–3.48, P=0.003), diabetes mellitus (OR: 2.136, 95% CI: 1.254–3.678, P=0.006), and age (OR: 1.069, 95% CI: 1.007–1.163, P=0.022) were found to be significant independent predictors of osteopenia in a multivariate analysis, after adjusting for other risk parameters. Conclusion The present study is the first to evaluate the relationships between blood pressure, blood glucose

  15. Dynamic cerebral autoregulation to induced blood pressure changes in human experimental and clinical sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Ronan M G; Plovsing, Ronni R; Bailey, Damian M

    2016-01-01

    (Pvolunteers at baseline; Pvolunteers after LPS). The corresponding RoR values increased from 0·46 (0·31-0·49) s(-1) at baseline to 0·58 (0·36-0·74) s(-1) after LPS (Pvolunteers, whereas they were similar to values observed in patients [0·43 (0·36-0·52) s...... shock. In this study, we hypothesized that this pattern of response would be identical during induced changes in blood pressure. Dynamic cerebral autoregulation was assessed in nine healthy volunteers and six septic patients. The healthy volunteers underwent a 4-h intravenous infusion of LPS (total dose......R). This was performed before and after LPS infusion in healthy volunteers, and within 72 h following clinical diagnosis of sepsis in patients. In healthy volunteers, thigh-cuff deflation caused a MAP reduction of 16 (13-20) % at baseline and 18 (16-20) % after LPS, while the MAP reduction was 12 (11-13) % in patients...

  16. Sustained sympathetic and blood pressure reduction 1 year after renal denervation in patients with resistant hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hering, Dagmara; Marusic, Petra; Walton, Antony S; Lambert, Elisabeth A; Krum, Henry; Narkiewicz, Krzysztof; Lambert, Gavin W; Esler, Murray D; Schlaich, Markus P

    2014-07-01

    Renal denervation (RDN) reduces muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and blood pressure (BP) in resistant hypertension. Although a persistent BP-lowering effect has been demonstrated, the long-term effect on MSNA remains elusive. We investigated whether RDN influences MSNA over time. Office BP and MSNA were obtained at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months after RDN in 35 patients with resistant hypertension. Office BP averaged 166±22/88±19 mm Hg, despite the use of an average of 4.8±2.1 antihypertensive drugs. Baseline MSNA was 51±11 bursts/min ≈2- to 3-fold higher than the level observed in healthy controls. Mean office systolic and diastolic BP significantly decreased by -12.6±18.3/-6.5±9.2, -16.1±25.6/-8.6±12.9, and -21.2±29.1/-11.1±12.9 mm Hg (Phypertension and high baseline MSNA. These observations are compatible with the hypothesis of a substantial contribution of afferent renal nerve signaling to increased BP in resistant hypertension and argue against a relevant reinnervation at 1 year after procedure.

  17. Dietary sodium and health: more than just blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquhar, William B; Edwards, David G; Jurkovitz, Claudine T; Weintraub, William S

    2015-03-17

    Sodium is essential for cellular homeostasis and physiological function. Excess dietary sodium has been linked to elevations in blood pressure (BP). Salt sensitivity of BP varies widely, but certain subgroups tend to be more salt sensitive. The mechanisms underlying sodium-induced increases in BP are not completely understood but may involve alterations in renal function, fluid volume, fluid-regulatory hormones, the vasculature, cardiac function, and the autonomic nervous system. Recent pre-clinical and clinical data support that even in the absence of an increase in BP, excess dietary sodium can adversely affect target organs, including the blood vessels, heart, kidneys, and brain. In this review, the investigators review these issues and the epidemiological research relating dietary sodium to BP and cardiovascular health outcomes, addressing recent controversies. They also provide information and strategies for reducing dietary sodium.

  18. Blood pressure measurement: lessons learned from our ancestors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamanou, Marianna; Papaioannou, Theodore G; Tsoucalas, Gregory; Tousoulis, Dimitris; Stefanadis, Christodoulos; Androutsos, George

    2015-01-01

    The profound observations of William Harvey (1578-1657), in blood circulation and the progress of physical science laid the foundation for the development of the Iatrophysical School that contributed to the evolution of clinical sphygmomanometry. The pioneer work of Reverend Stephen Hales (1677-1761) demonstrated the dynamics of the vascular system. One century later the French physician Jean-Léonard-Marie Poiseuille (1797-1867) invented a U-tube mercury manometer and in 1860 the physiologist Etienne- Jules Marey (1830-1904) devised the first portable sphygmograph for recording the pulse wave. The non-invasive techniques of blood pressure measurement were completed by Scipione Riva-Rocci (1896-1937) sphygmomanometer and the description of "Korotkov sounds" by the Russian surgeon Nikolai- Sergeyevich Korotkov (1874-1920).

  19. Intraspecific scaling of arterial blood pressure in the Burmese python.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enok, Sanne; Slay, Christopher; Abe, Augusto S; Hicks, James W; Wang, Tobias

    2014-07-01

    Interspecific allometric analyses indicate that mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) increases with body mass of snakes and mammals. In snakes, MAP increases in proportion to the increased distance between the heart and the head, when the heart-head vertical distance is expressed as ρgh (where ρ is the density of blood, G: is acceleration due to gravity and h is the vertical distance above the heart), and the rise in MAP is associated with a larger heart to normalize wall stress in the ventricular wall. Based on measurements of MAP in Burmese pythons ranging from 0.9 to 3.7 m in length (0.20-27 kg), we demonstrate that although MAP increases with body mass, the rise in MAP is merely half of that predicted by heart-head distance. Scaling relationships within individual species, therefore, may not be accurately predicted by existing interspecific analyses.

  20. Pressure ulcers in palliative ward patients: hyponatremia and low blood pressure as indicators of risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternal, Danuta; Wilczyński, Krzysztof; Szewieczek, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Background Prevention strategies for pressure ulcer formation remain critical in patients with an advanced illness. We analyzed factors associated with the development of pressure ulcers in patients hospitalized in a palliative care ward setting. Patients and methods This study was a retrospective analysis of 329 consecutive patients with a mean age (± standard deviation) of 70.4±11.8 years (range: 30–96 years, median 70.0 years; 55.3% women), who were admitted to the Palliative Care Department between July 2012 and May 2014. Results Patients were hospitalized for mean of 24.8±31.4 days (1–310 days, median 14 days). A total of 256 patients (77.8%) died in the ward and 73 patients (22.2%) were discharged. Two hundred and six patients (62.6%) did not develop pressure ulcers during their stay in the ward, 84 patients (25.5%) were admitted with pressure ulcers, and 39 patients (11.9%) developed pressure ulcers in the ward. Four factors assessed at admission appear to predict the development of pressure ulcers in the multivariate logistic regression model: Waterlow score (odds ratio [OR] =1.140, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.057–1.229, P=0.001), transfer from other hospital wards (OR =2.938, 95% CI =1.339–6.448, P=0.007), hemoglobin level (OR =0.814, 95% CI =0.693–0.956, P=0.012), and systolic blood pressure (OR =0.976, 95% CI =0.955–0.997, P=0.023). Five other factors assessed during hospitalization appear to be associated with pressure ulcer development: mean evening body temperature (OR =3.830, 95% CI =1.729–8.486, P=0.001), mean Waterlow score (OR =1.194, 95% CI =1.092–1.306, P<0.001), the lowest recorded sodium concentration (OR =0.880, 95% CI =0.814–0.951, P=0.001), mean systolic blood pressure (OR =0.956, 95% CI =0.929–0.984, P=0.003), and the lowest recorded hemoglobin level (OR =0.803, 95% CI =0.672–0.960, P=0.016). Conclusion Hyponatremia and low blood pressure may contribute to the formation of pressure ulcers in patients with an

  1. Evidence relating sodium intake to blood pressure and CVD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Martin; Mente, Andrew; Yusuf, Salim

    2014-01-01

    Sodium is an essential nutrient, mostly ingested as salt (sodium chloride). Average sodium intake ranges from 3 to 6 g per day (7.5-15 g/day of salt) in most countries, with regional variations. Increasing levels of sodium intake have a positive association with higher blood pressure. Randomized controlled trials report a reduction in blood pressure with reducing sodium intake from moderate to low levels, which is the evidence that forms the basis for international guidelines recommending all people consume less than 2.0 g of sodium per day. However, no randomized trials have demonstrated that reducing sodium leads to a reduction in cardiovascular disease (CVD). In their absence, the next option is to examine the association between sodium consumption and CVD in prospective cohort studies. Several recent prospective cohort studies have indicated that while high intake of sodium (>6 g/d) is associated with higher risk of CVD compared to those with moderate intake (3 to 5 g/d), lower intake (<3 g/day) is also associated with a higher risk (despite lower blood pressure levels). However, most of these studies were conducted in populations at increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Current epidemiologic evidence supports that an optimal level of sodium intake is in the range of about 3-5 g/day, as this range is associated with lowest risk of CVD in prospective cohort studies. Randomized controlled trials, comparing the effect of low sodium intake to moderate intake on incidence of cardiovascular events and mortality, are required to truly define optimal intake range.

  2. The evolution of blood pressure and the rise of mankind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Kevin; Kunter, Uta; Moeller, Marcus J

    2015-05-01

    Why is it that only human beings continuously perform acts of heroism? Looking back at our evolutionary history can offer us some potentially useful insight. This review highlights some of the major steps in our evolution-more specifically, the evolution of high blood pressure. When we were fish, the first kidney was developed to create a standardized internal 'milieu' preserving the primordial sea within us. When we conquered land as amphibians, the evolution of the lung required a low systemic blood pressure, which explains why early land vertebrates (amphibians, reptiles) are such low performers. Gaining independence from water required the evolution of an impermeable skin and a water-retaining kidney. The latter was accomplished twice with two different solutions in the two major branches of vertebrate evolution: mammals excrete nitrogenous waste products as urea, which can be utilized by the kidney as an osmotic agent to produce more concentrated urine. Dinosaurs and birds have a distinct nitrogen metabolism and excrete nitrogen as water-insoluble uric acid-therefore, their kidneys cannot use urea to concentrate as well. Instead, some birds have developed the capability to reabsorb water from their cloacae. The convergent development of a separate small circulation of the lung in mammals and birds allowed for the evolution of 'high blood-pressure animals' with better capillarization of the peripheral tissues allowing high endurance performance. Finally, we investigate why mankind outperforms any other mammal on earth and why, to this day, we continue to perform acts of heroism on our eternal quest for personal bliss.

  3. Exercise blood pressure and the risk of future hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmqvist, L; Mortensen, L; Kanckos, C; Ljungman, C; Mehlig, K; Manhem, K

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this prospective cohort study was to identify which blood pressure measurement during exercise is the best predictor of future hypertension. Further we aimed to create a risk chart to facilitate the evaluation of blood pressure reaction during exercise testing. A number (n=1047) of exercise tests by bicycle ergometry, performed in 1996 and 1997 were analysed. In 2007-2008, 606 patients without hypertension at the time of the exercise test were sent a questionnaire aimed to identify current hypertension. The response rate was 58% (n=352). During the 10-12 years between exercise test and questionnaire, 23% developed hypertension. The strongest predictors of future hypertension were systolic blood pressure (SBP) before exercise (odds ratios (OR) 1.63 (1.31-2.01) for 10 mm Hg difference) in combination with the increase of SBP over time during exercise testing (OR 1.12 (1.01-1.24) steeper increase for every 1 mm Hg min(-1)). A high SBP before exercise and a steep rise in SBP over time represented a higher risk of developing hypertension. A risk chart based on SBP before exercise, increase of SBP over time and body mass index was created. SBP before exercise, maximal SBP during exercise and SBP at 100 W were significant single predictors of future hypertension and the prediction by maximal SBP was improved by adjusting for time/power at which SBP max was reached during exercise testing. Recovery ratio (maximal SBP/SBP 4 min after exercise) was not predictive of future hypertension.

  4. Resistance exercise with different volumes: blood pressure response and forearm blood flow in the hypertensive elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brito AF

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aline de Freitas Brito,1 Caio Victor Coutinho de Oliveira,2 Maria do Socorro Brasileiro-Santos,1 Amilton da Cruz Santos1 1Physical Education Department, 2Research Laboratory for Physical Training Applied to Performance and Health, Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa, Brazil Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of two sessions of resistance exercise with different volumes on post-exercise hypotension, forearm blood flow, and forearm vascular resistance in hypertensive elderly subjects.Methods: The study was conducted with ten hypertensive elderly (65±3 years, 28.7±3 kg/m2 subjected to three experimental sessions, ie, a control session, exercise with a set (S1, and exercise with three sets (S3. For each session, the subjects were evaluated before and after intervention. In the pre-intervention period, blood pressure, forearm blood flow, and forearm vascular resistance were measured after 10 minutes of rest in the supine position. Thereafter, the subjects were taken to the gym to perform their exercise sessions or remained at rest during the same time period. Both S1 and S3 comprised a set of ten repetitions of ten exercises, with an interval of 90 seconds between exercises. Subsequently, the measurements were again performed at 10, 30, 50, 70, and 90 minutes of recovery (post-intervention in the supine position.Results: Post-exercise hypotension was greater in S3 than in S1 (systolic blood pressure, −26.5±4.2 mmHg versus −17.9±4.7 mmHg; diastolic blood pressure, −13.8±4.9 mmHg versus −7.7±5 mmHg, P<0.05. Similarly, forearm blood flow and forearm vascular resistance changed significantly in both sessions with an increase and decrease, respectively, that was more evident in S3 than in S1 (P<0.05.Conclusion: Resistance exercises with higher volume were more effective in causing post-exercise hypotension, being accompanied by an increase in forearm blood flow and a reduction of forearm vascular

  5. Hypertension, Blood Pressure Variability, and Target Organ Lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irigoyen, Maria-Cláudia; De Angelis, Kátia; Dos Santos, Fernando; Dartora, Daniela R; Rodrigues, Bruno; Consolim-Colombo, Fernanda Marciano

    2016-04-01

    Hypertensive patients have a higher risk of developing health complications, particularly cardiovascular (CV) events, than individuals with normal blood pressure (BP). Severity of complications depends on the magnitude of BP elevation and other CV risk factors associated with the target organ damage. Therefore, BP control and management of organ damage may contribute to reduce this risk. BP variability (BPV) has been considered a physiological marker of autonomic nervous system control and may be implicated in increased CV risk in hypertension. This review will present some evidence relating BPV and target organ damage in hypertension in clinical and experimental settings.

  6. Body mass index and blood pressure measurement during pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hogan, Jennifer L

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: The accurate measurement of blood pressure requires the use of a large cuff in subjects with a high mid-arm circumference (MAC). This prospective study examined the need for a large cuff during pregnancy and its correlation with maternal obesity. METHODS: Maternal body mass index (BMI), fat mass, and MAC were measured. RESULTS: Of 179 women studied, 15.6% were obese. With a BMI of level 1 obesity, 44% needed a large cuff and with a BMI of level 2 obesity 100% needed a large cuff. CONCLUSION: All women booking for antenatal care should have their MAC measured to avoid the overdiagnosis of pregnancy hypertension.

  7. The elusiveness of population-wide high blood pressure control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelton, Paul K

    2015-03-18

    High blood pressure (hypertension) is a leading risk factor for cardiovascular disease. It is highly prevalent in the US general population, especially in those who are old, African American, or socially disadvantaged. Prevalence is also high and increasing worldwide. Awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension have improved over time, but there is still considerable room for improvement. The optimal solution to this health challenge varies by country. Several nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic interventions are well proven as effective means to prevent hypertension and improve control rates in those with established hypertension. Better prevention and control of hypertension will yield substantial general population health benefits and remain high priorities in public health.

  8. Pheochromocytoma supporting blood pressure in the setting of cardiogenic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditkofsky, Noah; Workman, Chad

    2015-01-01

    Sixty-seven-year-old male presented with abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and decreasing level of consciousness. He was tachycardic but not hypotensive. Computed tomography scan revealed a peripherally enhancing adrenal mass and evidence of low cardiac output state. He was admitted to the intensive care unit but expired within 12 h. Autopsy determined the cause of death as acute coronary insufficiency and identified the adrenal mass as a pheochromocytoma. The pheochromocytoma may have maintained blood pressure in the setting of cardiogenic shock and delayed diagnosis of myocardial infarction.

  9. Regulation of blood pressure in the land crab Cardisoma guanhumi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkens, J L; Young, R E

    2006-01-01

    We examined the cardiovascular responses to acute and chronic changes in blood volume (BV) in the land crab Cardisoma guanhumi. Acute reduction in BV caused an increase in activity in the dorsoventral muscles (DVMs) and to a lesser extent in the epimeral attractor muscles (EAMs). Contraction of the DVMs and EAMs will decrease the volume of the dorsal sinus and the thorax as a whole, respectively. BV reduction also caused bradycardia with frequent periods of cardiac arrest. There was a small drop in hemolymph pressure. BV expansion had the reciprocal effect on DVM and EAM activity but had no effect on heart rate (fH). After the cardioregulatory nerves were cut, acute hypovolemia had no effect on fH but still caused a moderate increase in DVM activity. After dehydration-induced BV reduction, DVM activity increased, whereas hemolymph pressure, fH, and EAM activity were maintained close to control levels.

  10. Amlodipine+benazepril is superior to hydrochlorothiazide+benazepril irrespective of baseline pulse pressure: subanalysis of the ACCOMPLISH trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoglund, Per H; Svensson, Per; Asp, Joline; Dahlöf, Björn; Kjeldsen, Sverre E; Jamerson, Kenneth A; Weber, Michael A; Jia, Yan; Zappe, Dion H; Östergren, Jan

    2015-02-01

    Pulse pressure (PP) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) disease and death but few studies have investigated the effect of antihypertensive treatments in relation to PP levels before treatment. The Avoiding Cardiovascular Events Through Combination Therapy in Patients Living With Systolic Hypertension (ACCOMPLISH) trial showed that the combination of benazepril+amlodipine (B+A) is superior to benazepril+hydrochlorothiazide (B+H) in reducing CV events. We aimed to investigate whether the treatment effects in the ACCOMPLISH trial were dependent on baseline PP. High-risk hypertensive patients (n=11,499) were randomized to double-blinded treatment with single-pill combinations of either B+A or B+H and followed for 36 months. Patients were divided into tertiles according to their baseline PP and events (CV mortality/myocardial infarction or stroke) were compared. Hazard ratios (HRs) for the treatment effect (B+A over B+H) were calculated in a Cox regression model with age, coronary artery disease, and diabetes mellitus as covariates and were compared across the tertiles. The event rate was increased in the high tertile of PP compared with the low tertile (7.2% vs 4.4% P<.01). In the high and medium PP tertiles, HRs were 0.75 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.60-0.95; P=.018) and 0.74 (CI, 0.56-0.98, P=.034), respectively, in favor of B+A. There was no significant difference between the treatments in the low tertile and no significant differences in treatment effect when comparing the HRs between tertiles of PP. B+A has superior CV protection over B+H in high-risk hypertensive patients independent of baseline PP although the absolute treatment effect is enhanced in the higher tertiles of PP where event rates are higher.

  11. 2014 CRL Blood Pressure Study of Life Insurance Applicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulks, Michael; Dolan, Vera F; Stout, Robert L

    2015-01-01

    Objective .- Define the relative mortality risk by systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in a relatively healthy cohort split by age and sex with adjustment for smoking status, other findings and admitted heart disease history. Method .- Blood pressure (BP in mm Hg), build, laboratory studies and limited medical history are collected when people apply for individual life insurance. Information on 2,472,706 applicants tested by Clinical Reference Laboratory from 1993 to 2007 was utilized with follow-up for vital status using the September 2011 Social Security Death Master File identifying 31,033 deaths. Data was analyzed by SBP and DBP split by age and sex accounting for smoking and for BMI, urine protein/creatinine ratio and history of heart disease in a Cox multivariate survival analysis. Separate analysis by admitted hypertension history was also conducted. Results are presented by SBP and DBP for 4 age-sex groups with and without added covariates beyond age and smoking status. Results .- Relative mortality progressively increased by SBP level from the 90 to 119 band (down to 80 in younger women) upward with little additional impact by DBP. Addition of covariates beyond age and smoking resulted in a 5% to 10% reduction in relative risk. Although high DBP had limited impact, a pulse pressure/SBP ratio >½ identified 1% of applicants at high mortality risk, with little difference in risk for ratios ≤½. Hypertension history with current BP control was associated with a 10% to 25% increase in relative mortality risk as compared to those with similar BP but no such history. Conclusion .- Increasing SBP is closely associated with increasing relative mortality, starting from the lowest SBP. Increasing DBP has little additional impact, but a pulse pressure/SBP ratio >½ is a potent marker of increased risk as well. Accounting for build and other laboratory findings reduces risk modestly. A history of hypertension with current control increases risk.

  12. Blood pressure variability in patients with atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corino, Valentina D A; Lombardi, Federico; Mainardi, Luca T

    2014-10-01

    The highly irregular ventricular rate during atrial fibrillation (AF) represents a unique and physiological experimental model to eliminate the influence of rhythmical components of RR variability on arterial pressure variability for investigating the origin of low frequency (LF) component in arterial pressure. Surface ECG, blood pressure and respiratory signals were recorded in thirty patients with persistent AF, at rest and during a passive orthostatic stimulus ("tilt test"). Short-term systolic (SAP) and diastolic arterial pressure (DAP) variability was estimated by autoregressive method. In 15 patients (group A), SAP significantly increased during tilt (from 98±16 to 114±18mmHg, p<0.001 rest vs. tilt), whereas in the remaining patients (group B) SAP remained almost unchanged (from 108±16 to 104±17mmHg, p=0.05, rest vs. tilt). No clinical differences were found between group A and B. When analyzing group A, a significant increase in the LF power in SAP and DAP variability was observed during tilt (SAP: 2.24±2.75 vs. 6.60±5.11mmHg(2), p<0.05, rest vs. tilt; DAP: 3.54±1.95 vs. 4.38±3.21mmHg(2), p<0.05, rest vs. tilt). No significant differences were found in group B. In AF patients, changes of arterial pressure variability during tilt were not uniform. Vascular regulatory mechanisms appeared to be still efficient only in the subgroup of patients who responded to a sympathetic stimulus with an increased SAP. In these subjects tilt increased the LF component in arterial pressure variability, thus mimicking the physiological response observed in subjects with sinus rhythm.

  13. Quantification of wave reflection using peripheral blood pressure waveforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang-Sei; Fazeli, Nima; McMurtry, M Sean; Finegan, Barry A; Hahn, Jin-Oh

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel minimally invasive method for quantifying blood pressure (BP) wave reflection in the arterial tree. In this method, two peripheral BP waveforms are analyzed to obtain an estimate of central aortic BP waveform, which is used together with a peripheral BP waveform to compute forward and backward pressure waves. These forward and backward waves are then used to quantify the strength of wave reflection in the arterial tree. Two unique strengths of the proposed method are that 1) it replaces highly invasive central aortic BP and flow waveforms required in many existing methods by less invasive peripheral BP waveforms, and 2) it does not require estimation of characteristic impedance. The feasibility of the proposed method was examined in an experimental swine subject under a wide range of physiologic states and in 13 cardiac surgery patients. In the swine subject, the method was comparable to the reference method based on central aortic BP and flow. In cardiac surgery patients, the method was able to estimate forward and backward pressure waves in the absence of any central aortic waveforms: on the average, the root-mean-squared error between actual versus computed forward and backward pressure waves was less than 5 mmHg, and the error between actual versus computed reflection index was less than 0.03.

  14. Combination of phlebography and sanguinous measurement of venous blood pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, J.

    1988-07-01

    Phlebographic visualisation offers the highest spatial resolution of all imaging methods both in respect of veins of the leg and pelvis and of the abdomen. Phlebography offers optimal conditions for assessing morphological changes at the veins and in their direct neighbourhood. No quantitative information is available via phlebography if haemodynamics are disturbed; qualitative information is yielded merely to a restricted extent (by assessing flow velocity and collaterals). Direct sanguinous measurement of venous blood pressure is particularly suitable for the quantitative and qualitative assessment of disturbed haemodynamic conditions; in this respect it stands out among the function tests based on the employment of apparatures. If it is combined with phlebography, it is possible not only to optimise the diagnostic yield in the hands of one investigator, but also to reduce the invasiveness of both methods to one single puncture, since the puncture needle is at the same time also an instrument to measure the pressure. The article points out the possibilities and limitations of combining a) ascending phlebography of the leg and pelvis with peripheral venous pressure measurement (phlebodynamometry) and b) visualisation of the veins of the pelvis and vena cava inferior with central sanguinous venous pressure measurement (CP). Indicatious and technical execution are described.

  15. Flavonoid-rich beverage effects on lipid profile and blood pressure in diabetic patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Reza; Amani; Sara; Moazen; Hajieh; Shahbazian; Kambiz; Ahmadi; Mohammad; Taha; Jalali

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To compare freeze-dried strawberry(FDS) beverage and strawberry-flavored drink effects on lipid profile and blood pressure in type 2 diabetic(T2D) patients.METHODS: In a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial, 36 subjects with T2D(23 females; mean ± SE age: 51.57 ± 10 years) were randomly divided into two groups. Participants consumed two cups of either pure FDS beverage(each cup containing 25 g freeze-dried strawberry powder equivalent to one serving of fresh strawberries; intervention group) or an iso-caloric drinkwith strawberry flavoring(similar to the FDS drink in fiber content and color; placebo group) daily for 6 wk. Anthropometric measurements, 3 d, 24 h dietary recall, and fasting blood samples were collected at baseline and at weeks 6 intervention. After lying down and relaxing for approximately 10 min, each participant’s blood pressure was recorded in triplicate with 5 min intervals; recordings were made at baseline and the trial end-point. Each participant’s lipid profile was assessed before and after intervention.RESULTS: Assessment at the weeks 6 intervention showed a significant reduction from baseline in total cholesterol levels and total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C) ratio in the intervention group(179.01 ± 31.86 to 165.9 ± 32.4 mg/L; P = 0.00 and 3.9 ± 0.88 to 3.6 ± 0.082 mg/L; P = 0.00 respectively), but the change was not significantly different between the two groups(P = 0.07, P = 0.29 respectively). Systolic blood pressure levels were significantly reduced from baseline in both the FDS and placebo drink groups(129.95 ± 14.9 to 114.3 ± 27.5 mm Hg; P = 0.02 and 127.6 ± 15.6 to 122.9 ± 14.47 mm Hg; P = 0.00 respectively), but the reduction was not significantly different between the two groups. Diastolic blood pressure was significantly reduced post-intervention in the FDS drink group compared to placebo group(78.7 ± 7.2 vs 84.4 ± 5.8; P = 0.01), the reduction was also significant within the

  16. Blood volume, blood pressure and total body sodium: internal signalling and output control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bie, P

    2009-01-01

    Total body sodium and arterial blood pressure (ABP) are mutually dependent variables regulated by complex control systems. This review addresses the role of ABP in the normal control of sodium excretion (NaEx), and the physiological control of renin secretion. NaEx is a pivotal determinant of ABP...... and the regulation of NaEx via a hypothetical integrative control system. However, recent data show that subtle sodium loading (simulating salty meals) causes robust natriuresis without changes in ABP. Changes in ABP are not necessary for natriuresis. Normal sodium excretion is not regulated by pressure. Plasma......, and under experimental conditions, ABP is a powerful, independent controller of NaEx. Blood volume is a function of dietary salt intake; however, ABP is not, at least not in steady states. A transient increase in ABP after a step-up in sodium intake could provide a causal relationship between ABP...

  17. Effects of renal sympathetic denervation on 24-hour blood pressure variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Stefanie Zuern

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: In patients with arterial hypertension, increased blood pressure (BP variability contributes to end organ damage independently from mean levels of arterial BP. Increased BP variability has been linked to alterations in autonomic function including sympathetic overdrive. We hypothesized that catheter-based renal sympathetic denervation (RDN confers beneficial effects on BPV. Methods and Results: Eleven consecutive patients with therapy-refractory arterial hypertension (age 68.9±7.0 years; baseline systolic BP 189±23mmHg despite medication with 5.6±2.1 antihypertensive drugs underwent bilateral RDN. Twenty-four hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM was performed before RDN and six months thereafter. BPV was primarily assessed by means of standard deviation of 24-hour systolic arterial blood pressures (SDsys. Secondary measures of BPV were maximum systolic blood pressure (MAXsys and maximum difference between two consecutive readings of systolic BP (deltamaxsys over 24 hours. Six months after RDN, SDsys, MAXsys and deltamaxsys were significantly reduced from 16.9±4.6mmHg to 13.5±2.5mmHg (p=0.003, from 190±22mmHg to 172±20mmHg (p<0.001 and from 40±15mmHg to 28±7mmHg (p=0.006, respectively, without changes in concomitant antihypertensive therapy. Reductions of SDsys, MAXsys and deltamaxsys were observed in 10/11 (90.9%, 11/11 (100% and 9/11 (81.8% patients, respectively. Although we noted a significant reduction of systolic office blood pressure by 30.4±27.7mmHg (p=0.007, there was only a trend in reduction of average systolic BP assessed from ABPM (149±19mmHg to 142±18mmHg; p=0.086.Conclusions: In patients with therapy-refractory arterial hypertension, RDN leads to significant reductions of BP variability. Effects of RDN on BPV over 24 hours were more pronounced than on average levels of BP.

  18. Challenges in blood pressure measurement in patients treated with maintenance hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Matthew A; Pilmore, Helen L; Tonkin, Andrew M; Garg, Amit X; Pascoe, Elaine M; Badve, Sunil V; Cass, Alan; Ierino, Francesco L; Hawley, Carmel M

    2012-09-01

    The association between blood pressure and cardiovascular outcomes in patients undergoing hemodialysis remains controversial. This may relate in part to the technique and device used and the timing of the blood pressure measurement in relation to the hemodialysis procedure. Emerging evidence indicates that standardized hemodialysis unit blood pressure measurements or measurements obtained at home, either by the patient or using an ambulatory blood pressure monitor, may offer advantages over routine hemodialysis unit blood pressure measurements for determining cardiovascular risk and treatment. This review discusses the available evidence and implications for clinicians and clinical trials.

  19. Take your blood pressure to heart! Screening programme 13-17 October

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    The silent health threat, high blood pressure, can only be detected by regular blood pressure tests. In Switzerland, one in four people suffer from high blood pressure without being aware of it.  A screening programme will take place from 13 to 17 October 2014 at the Medical Service Infirmary, Building 57, from 9 a.m. to 12 p.m. and from 1.30 to 4.30 p.m. Blood pressure tests, advice and general information on high blood pressure will be available to everyone working at CERN. Medical Service

  20. Effect of Caffeine on near Maximal Blood Pressure and Blood Pressure Recovery in Physically-Active, College-Aged Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connahan, Laura E; Ott, Christopher A; Barry, Vaughn W

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine how caffeine affects exercise blood pressure (BP) and active and passive recovery BP after vigorous intensity exercise in physically active college-aged females. Fifteen physically active, ACSM stratified low-risk females (age (y): 23.53 ± 4.07, weight (kg): 60.34 ± 3.67, height (cm): 165.14 ± 7.20, BMI (kg/m(2)): 22.18 ± 1.55) participated in two Bruce protocol exercise tests. Before each test participants consumed 1) a placebo or 2) 3.3 mg·kg(-1) of caffeine at least one hour before exercise in a counterbalanced double-blinded fashion. After reaching 85% of their age-predicted maximum heart rate, BP was taken and participants began an active (i.e. walking) recovery phase for 6 minutes followed by a passive (i.e. sitting) recovery phase. BP was assessed every two minutes in each phase. Recovery times were assessed until active and passive BP equaled 20 mmHg and 10 mmHg above resting, respectively. Participants completed each test 1-2 weeks a part. Maximal systolic and diastolic blood pressures were not significantly different between the two trials. Active recovery, passive recovery, and total recovery times were all significantly longer during the caffeine trial than the placebo trial. Furthermore, the time to reach age-predicted maximum heart rate was significantly shorter in the placebo trial than the caffeine trial. While caffeine consumption did not significantly affect maximal blood pressure, it did affect active and passive recovery time following vigorous intensity exercise in physically active females. Exercise endurance also improved after consuming caffeine in this population.

  1. Effect of Caffeine on near Maximal Blood Pressure and Blood Pressure Recovery in Physically-Active, College-Aged Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    CONNAHAN, LAURA E.; OTT, CHRISTOPHER A.; BARRY, VAUGHN W.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine how caffeine affects exercise blood pressure (BP) and active and passive recovery BP after vigorous intensity exercise in physically active college-aged females. Fifteen physically active, ACSM stratified low-risk females (age (y): 23.53 ± 4.07, weight (kg): 60.34 ± 3.67, height (cm): 165.14 ± 7.20, BMI (kg/m2): 22.18 ± 1.55) participated in two Bruce protocol exercise tests. Before each test participants consumed 1) a placebo or 2) 3.3 mg·kg−1 of caffeine at least one hour before exercise in a counterbalanced double-blinded fashion. After reaching 85% of their age-predicted maximum heart rate, BP was taken and participants began an active (i.e. walking) recovery phase for 6 minutes followed by a passive (i.e. sitting) recovery phase. BP was assessed every two minutes in each phase. Recovery times were assessed until active and passive BP equaled 20 mmHg and 10 mmHg above resting, respectively. Participants completed each test 1–2 weeks a part. Maximal systolic and diastolic blood pressures were not significantly different between the two trials. Active recovery, passive recovery, and total recovery times were all significantly longer during the caffeine trial than the placebo trial. Furthermore, the time to reach age-predicted maximum heart rate was significantly shorter in the placebo trial than the caffeine trial. While caffeine consumption did not significantly affect maximal blood pressure, it did affect active and passive recovery time following vigorous intensity exercise in physically active females. Exercise endurance also improved after consuming caffeine in this population. PMID:28344739

  2. Blood Pressure Mobile Monitoring for Pregnant Woman Based Android System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supriyanti, Retno; Erfayanto, Uji; Ramadani, Yogi; Murdyantoro, Eko; Widodo, Haris B.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, at least 18,000 women die every year in Indonesia due to pregnancy or childbirth. It means that every half hour a woman dies due to pregnancy or childbirth. As a result, every year 36,000 children became orphans. The high maternal mortality rate was put Indonesia on top in ASEAN. The main causes of maternal mortality are high-risk pregnancy. Mothers who have diseases like high blood pressure, pre-eclampsia, diabetes, hyperthyroidism, and already over 40 years old and infectious diseases such as rubella, hepatitis and HIV can be factors that lead to high-risk pregnancy. This paper will discuss the development of a blood pressure monitoring device that is suitable for pregnant women. It is based on convenience for pregnant women to get the equipment that is flexible with her presence. Results indicate that the equipment is in use daily support for pregnant women therefore, one of the causes of maternal mortality can be detected earlier.

  3. Peripheral and Central Effects of Melatonin on Blood Pressure Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Pechanova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The pineal hormone, melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine, shows potent receptor-dependent and -independent actions, which participate in blood pressure regulation. The antihypertensive effect of melatonin was demonstrated in experimental and clinical hypertension. Receptor-dependent effects are mediated predominantly through MT1 and MT2 G-protein coupled receptors. The pleiotropic receptor-independent effects of melatonin with a possible impact on blood pressure involve the reactive oxygen species (ROS scavenging nature, activation and over-expression of several antioxidant enzymes or their protection from oxidative damage and the ability to increase the efficiency of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Besides the interaction with the vascular system, this indolamine may exert part of its antihypertensive action through its interaction with the central nervous system (CNS. The imbalance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic vegetative system is an important pathophysiological disorder and therapeutic target in hypertension. Melatonin is protective in CNS on several different levels: It reduces free radical burden, improves endothelial dysfunction, reduces inflammation and shifts the balance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic system in favor of the parasympathetic system. The increased level of serum melatonin observed in some types of hypertension may be a counter-regulatory adaptive mechanism against the sympathetic overstimulation. Since melatonin acts favorably on different levels of hypertension, including organ protection and with minimal side effects, it could become regularly involved in the struggle against this widespread cardiovascular pathology.

  4. High blood pressure in school children: prevalence and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivers Patrick A

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of high blood pressure (HBP and associated risk factors in school children 8 to 13 years of age. Methods Elementary school children (n = 1,066 were examined. Associations between HBP, body mass index (BMI, gender, ethnicity, and acanthosis nigricans (AN were investigated using a school based cross-sectional study. Blood pressure was measured and the 95th percentile was used to determine HBP. Comparisons between children with and without HBP were utilized. The crude and multiple logistic regression adjusted odds ratios were used as measures of association. Results Females, Hispanics, overweight children, and children with AN had an increased likelihood of HBP. Overweight children (BMI ≥ 85th percentile and those with AN were at least twice as likely to present with HBP after controlling for confounding factors. Conclusion Twenty one percent of school children had HBP, especially the prevalence was higher among the overweight and Hispanic group. The association identified here can be used as independent markers for increased likelihood of HBP in children.

  5. Arterial blood oxygen saturation during blood pressure cuff-induced hypoperfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriacou, P. A.; Shafqat, K.; Pal, S. K.

    2007-10-01

    Pulse oximetry has been one of the most significant technological advances in clinical monitoring in the last two decades. Pulse oximetry is a non-invasive photometric technique that provides information about the arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) and heart rate, and has widespread clinical applications. When peripheral perfusion is poor, as in states of hypovolaemia, hypothermia and vasoconstriction, oxygenation readings become unreliable or cease. The problem arises because conventional pulse oximetry sensors must be attached to the most peripheral parts of the body, such as finger, ear or toe, where pulsatile flow is most easily compromised. Pulse oximeters estimate arterial oxygen saturation by shining light at two different wavelengths, red and infrared, through vascular tissue. In this method the ac pulsatile photoplethysmographic (PPG) signal associated with cardiac contraction is assumed to be attributable solely to the arterial blood component. The amplitudes of the red and infrared ac PPG signals are sensitive to changes in arterial oxygen saturation because of differences in the light absorption of oxygenated and deoxygenated haemoglobin at these two wavelengths. From the ratios of these amplitudes, and the corresponding dc photoplethysmographic components, arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) is estimated. Hence, the technique of pulse oximetry relies on the presence of adequate peripheral arterial pulsations, which are detected as photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pressure cuff-induced hypoperfusion on photoplethysmographic signals and arterial blood oxygen saturation using a custom made finger blood oxygen saturation PPG/SpO2 sensor and a commercial finger pulse oximeter. Blood oxygen saturation values from the custom oxygen saturation sensor and a commercial finger oxygen saturation sensor were recorded from 14 healthy volunteers at various induced brachial pressures. Both pulse

  6. Arterial blood oxygen saturation during blood pressure cuff-induced hypoperfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyriacou, P A [School of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences, City University, London EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom); Shafqat, K [School of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences, City University, London EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom); Pal, S K [St Andrew' s Centre for Plastic Surgery and Burns, Broomfield Hospital, Chelmsford, CM1 7ET (United Kingdom)

    2007-10-15

    Pulse oximetry has been one of the most significant technological advances in clinical monitoring in the last two decades. Pulse oximetry is a non-invasive photometric technique that provides information about the arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO{sub 2}) and heart rate, and has widespread clinical applications. When peripheral perfusion is poor, as in states of hypovolaemia, hypothermia and vasoconstriction, oxygenation readings become unreliable or cease. The problem arises because conventional pulse oximetry sensors must be attached to the most peripheral parts of the body, such as finger, ear or toe, where pulsatile flow is most easily compromised. Pulse oximeters estimate arterial oxygen saturation by shining light at two different wavelengths, red and infrared, through vascular tissue. In this method the ac pulsatile photoplethysmographic (PPG) signal associated with cardiac contraction is assumed to be attributable solely to the arterial blood component. The amplitudes of the red and infrared ac PPG signals are sensitive to changes in arterial oxygen saturation because of differences in the light absorption of oxygenated and deoxygenated haemoglobin at these two wavelengths. From the ratios of these amplitudes, and the corresponding dc photoplethysmographic components, arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO{sub 2}) is estimated. Hence, the technique of pulse oximetry relies on the presence of adequate peripheral arterial pulsations, which are detected as photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pressure cuff-induced hypoperfusion on photoplethysmographic signals and arterial blood oxygen saturation using a custom made finger blood oxygen saturation PPG/SpO{sub 2} sensor and a commercial finger pulse oximeter. Blood oxygen saturation values from the custom oxygen saturation sensor and a commercial finger oxygen saturation sensor were recorded from 14 healthy volunteers at various induced brachial pressures

  7. Socioeconomic Position, But Not African Genomic Ancestry, Is Associated With Blood Pressure in the Bambui-Epigen (Brazil) Cohort Study of Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Costa, M Fernanda; Mambrini, Juliana Vaz de Mello; Leite, Maria Lea Corrêa; Peixoto, Sérgio Viana; Firmo, Josélia Oliveira Araújo; Loyola Filho, Antônio Ignácio de; Gouveia, Mateus H; Leal, Thiago P; Pereira, Alexandre Costa; Macinko, James; Tarazona-Santos, Eduardo

    2016-02-01

    The study objective is to examine the role of African genome origin on baseline and 11-year blood pressure trajectories in community-based ethnoracially admixed older adults in Brazil. Data come from 1272 participants (aged ≥60 years) of the Bambui cohort study of aging during 11 years of follow-up. Outcome measures were systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and hypertension control. Potential confounding variables were demographic characteristics, socioeconomic position (schooling and household income), and health indicators (smoking, sedentary lifestyle, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, waist circumference, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular diseases), including antihypertensive drug use. We used 370 539 single-nucleotide polymorphisms to estimate each individual's African, European, and Native American trihybrid ancestry proportions. Median African, European, and Native American ancestry were 9.6%, 84.0%, and 5.3%, respectively. Among those with African ancestry, 59.4% came from East and 40.6% from West Africa. Baseline systolic and diastolic blood pressure, controlled hypertension, and their respective trajectories, were not significantly (P>0.05) associated with level (in quintiles) of African genomic ancestry. Similar results were found for West and East African subcontinental origins. Lower schooling level (blood pressure (Adjusted β=2.92; 95% confidence interval, 0.85-4.99). Lower monthly household income per capita (hypertension control (β=-0.35; 95% confidence interval, -0.63 to -0.08, respectively). Our results support the view that favors social and environmental factors as determinants of blood pressure and hypertension control.

  8. The Impact of opium consumption on blood glucose, serum lipids and blood pressure, and related mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Najafipour

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractAim: Substance abuse has become a universal crisisin our modern age. Among illegal substances, opium and its derivatives have been ranked second in terms of usage after cannabis in the world. In many Asian regions, the use of opium enjoys a high social acceptance; hence, some common people and even medical practitioners believe that opium lowers blood glucose and pressure and treat dyslipidemia. How much this belief is scientifically justified? Method: The results of available studies on both humans and animals searched in different search engines up to mid-2016 were integrated (77 articles. Upon the findings we try to offer a more transparent picture of the effects of opium on the mentioned factors along with the probable underlying mechanisms of its action. Results: Taken together, a variety of evidences suggest that the consumption of opium has no scientific justification for amendment of these biochemical variables. The mechanisms proposed so far for the action of opium in the three above disorders are summarized at the end of the article. Short term effects seems to be mostly mediated through central nervous system (neural and hormonal mechanisms, but long term effects are often due to the structural and functional alterations in some body organs. Conclusion: Although opium may temporarily reduce blood pressure, but it increases blood glucose and most of blood lipids. Moreover its long term use has negative impacts and thus it aggravates diabetes, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Accordingly, it is necessary to inform societies about the potential disadvantages of unauthorized opium consumption.

  9. Blood pressure variability in relation to outcome in the International Database of Ambulatory blood pressure in relation to Cardiovascular Outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Thijs, Lutgarde; Richart, Tom;

    2010-01-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring provides information not only on the BP level but also on the diurnal changes in BP. In the present review, we summarized the main findings of the International Database on Ambulatory BP in relation to Cardiovascular Outcome (IDACO) with regard to risk...... variability as captured by the average of the daytime and nighttime s.d. weighted for the duration of the daytime and nighttime interval (s.d.(dn)) and the average real variability (ARV(24)) predicted the outcome, but improved the prediction of the composite of all cardiovascular events by only 0...

  10. The blood pressure sensitivity to changes in sodium intake is similar in Asians, Blacks and Whites. An analysis of 92 randomized controlled trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels; Jürgens, Gesche

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the meta-analysis of randomized trials was to analyze the significance of ethnicity on the effect of sodium reduction (SR) on blood pressure (BP) by estimating the effect of SR on BP in Asians, Blacks and Whites under conditions, which were adjusted with respect to baseline BP...

  11. EFFECT OF KIMCHI INTAKE ON LIPID PROFILES AND BLOOD PRESSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Ju Kim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Kimchi is a Korean fermented vegetable and has recognized as a healthy food. Some interventional studies have reported an inverse association between kimchi intake and higher lipid levels in healthy and obese people. However, kimchi intake and hypertention were still uncertain. This study is carried out to investigate whether the serum lipid profiles and blood pressure would be influenced by the amount of kimchi intake. Design for the clinical study by controlling the meal consumption and physical activity of the subjects for 7 days was approved by IRB at P Hospital (No.2011075. For the study, 100 volunteers assigned into 2 groups, low (15 g/day, n=50 and high kimchi intake group (210 g/day, n=50, temporarily stayed together at the dormitory during the 7-day experimental period. Three meals with different amount of kimchi were provided and subjects were asked to maintain the normal physical activity as usual. Significant decrease in the concentration of fasting blood glucose, TG, total-C, and LDL-C for the both group was observed after 7 days of kimchi intake regardless of amount of kimchi intake. Only FBG suppression effect was significantly different (p<0.01. Furthermore, people with hypercholesterolemia (≤19 mg/dL showed greater improvements in total cholesterol levels in high kimchi intake group. One notable finding in this study was that urinary Na excretion for the high kimchi intake group was significantly increased (p<0.05. There was no significant difference in the BP reductions by kimchi intake. Higher intake of kimchi appears to be a modest beneficial effect to lipid lowering, without any effect on blood pressure in spite of increased sodium excretion. Long-term study should be clarified whether kimchi intake associated with hypertension.

  12. Integrating Out-of-Office Blood Pressure in the Diagnosis and Management of Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jordana B; Cohen, Debbie L

    2016-11-01

    Guidelines for the diagnosis and monitoring of hypertension were historically based on in-office blood pressure measurements. However, the US Preventive Services Task Force recently expanded their recommendations on screening for hypertension to include out-of-office blood pressure measurements to confirm the diagnosis of hypertension. Out-of-office blood pressure monitoring modalities, including ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and home blood pressure monitoring, are important tools in distinguishing between normotension, masked hypertension, white-coat hypertension, and sustained (including uncontrolled or drug-resistant) hypertension. Compared to in-office readings, out-of-office blood pressures are a greater predictor of renal and cardiac morbidity and mortality. There are multiple barriers to the implementation of out-of-office blood pressure monitoring which need to be overcome in order to promote more widespread use of these modalities.

  13. Which Measurement of Blood Pressure Is More Associated With Albuminuria in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: Central Blood Pressure or Peripheral Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Noriyuki; Okada, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Muhei; Hashimoto, Yoshitaka; Kimura, Toshihiro; Nakano, Koji; Yamazaki, Masahiro; Hasegawa, Goji; Nakamura, Naoto; Fukui, Michiaki

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether central systolic blood pressure (SBP) was associated with albuminuria, defined as urinary albumin excretion (UAE) ≥30 mg/g creatinine, and, if so, whether the relationship of central SBP with albuminuria was stronger than that of peripheral SBP in patients with type 2 diabetes. The authors performed a cross-sectional study in 294 outpatients with type 2 diabetes. The relationship between peripheral SBP or central SBP and UAE using regression analysis was evaluated, and the odds ratios of peripheral SBP or central SBP were calculated to identify albuminuria using logistic regression model. Moreover, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of central SBP was compared with that of peripheral SBP to identify albuminuria. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that peripheral SBP (β=0.255, Pperipheral SBP (odds ratio, 1.029; 95% confidence interval, 1.016-1.043) or central SBP (odds ratio, 1.022; 95% confidence interval, 1.011-1.034) was associated with an increased odds of albuminuria. In addition, AUC of peripheral SBP was significantly greater than that of central SBP to identify albuminuria (P=0.035). Peripheral SBP is superior to central SBP in identifying albuminuria, although both peripheral and central SBP are associated with UAE in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  14. Nursing Education in High Blood Pressure Control. Report of the Task Force on the Role of Nursing in High Blood Pressure Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Institutes of Health (DHEW), Bethesda, MD. High Blood Pressure Information Center.

    This curriculum guide on high blood pressure (hypertension) for nursing educators has five sections: (1) Introduction and Objectives provides information regarding the establishment and objectives of the National Task Force on the Role of Nursing in High Blood Pressure Control and briefly discusses nursing's role in hypertension control; (2) Goals…

  15. Role of the adrenal medulla in control of blood pressure and renal function during furosemide-induced volume depletion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasbak, Philip; Petersen, Jørgen Søberg; Shalmi, Michael

    1995-01-01

    Farmakologi, furosemide, adrenaline, renal function, adrenal medullectomy, arterial blood pressure......Farmakologi, furosemide, adrenaline, renal function, adrenal medullectomy, arterial blood pressure...

  16. Accuracy of the Dinamap 1846 XT automated blood pressure monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaubien, E R; Card, C M; Card, S E; Biem, H J; Wilson, T W

    2002-09-01

    Accurate blood pressure (BP) measurement is important for the detection and treatment of hypertension. Despite widespread use of automated devices, there is limited published evidence for their reliability and accuracy. To determine the reliability and accuracy of the Dinamap 1846XT (Critikon Corporation, Tampa, FL, USA), a commonly used non-invasive oscillometric BP monitor The Dinamap was evaluated against the mercury manometer in 70 randomly selected adult hospitalised medical patients. Each individual underwent three sets of standardised BP measurement by automated method and three sets by mercury manometer by two independent observers. Reliability of BP measurement was assessed by repeated measures analysis. Dinamap accuracy was evaluated according to the American Association of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI) and British Hypertension Society (BHS) guidelines. Most patients were either normotensive or had stage I hypertension. The Dinamap tended to overestimate lower diastolic BP, and displayed poor reliability (P mercury manometer and 84% of systolic and 80% of diastolic readings were within 10 mm hg (bhs grade c). systolic and diastolic accuracy were worse with pressures >160/90 mm Hg (grade D) although these measures were based on a smaller sample of subjects. In conclusion the Dinamap yields inaccurate estimates of both systolic and diastolic BP even under standardised, and thus optimal conditions. This inaccuracy is exaggerated at higher BP (>160/90 mm Hg), although the number of measurements at higher pressures was small. We recommend that this device not be used when accurate BP measurement is needed for therapeutic decision-making.

  17. Predictors of blood pressure response in the SYMPLICITY HTN-3 trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandzari, David E.; Bhatt, Deepak L.; Brar, Sandeep; Devireddy, Chandan M.; Esler, Murray; Fahy, Martin; Flack, John M.; Katzen, Barry T.; Lea, Janice; Lee, David P.; Leon, Martin B.; Ma, Adrian; Massaro, Joseph; Mauri, Laura; Oparil, Suzanne; O'Neill, William W.; Patel, Manesh R.; Rocha-Singh, Krishna; Sobotka, Paul A.; Svetkey, Laura; Townsend, Raymond R.; Bakris, George L.

    2015-01-01

    Aims The SYMPLICITY HTN-3 randomized, blinded, sham-controlled trial confirmed the safety of renal denervation (RDN), but did not meet its primary efficacy endpoint. Prior RDN studies have demonstrated significant and durable reductions in blood pressure. This analysis investigated factors that may help explain these disparate results. Methods and results Patients with resistant hypertension were randomized 2 : 1 to RDN (n = 364) or sham (n = 171). The primary endpoint was the difference in office systolic blood pressure (SBP) change at 6 months. A multivariable analysis identified predictors of SBP change. Additional analyses examined the influence of medication changes, results in selected subgroups and procedural factors. Between randomization and the 6-month endpoint, 39% of patients underwent medication changes. Predictors of office SBP reduction at 6 months were baseline office SBP ≥180 mmHg, aldosterone antagonist use, and non-use of vasodilators; number of ablations was a predictor in the RDN group. Non-African-American patients receiving RDN had a significantly greater change in office SBP than those receiving sham; –15.2 ± 23.5 vs. –8.6 ± 24.8 mmHg, respectively (P = 0.012). Greater reductions in office and ambulatory SBP, and heart rate were observed with a higher number of ablations and energy delivery in a four-quadrant pattern. Conclusions Post hoc analyses, although derived from limited patient cohorts, reveal several potential confounding factors that may partially explain the unexpected blood pressure responses in both the sham control and RDN groups. These hypothesis-generating data further inform the design of subsequent research to evaluate the potential role of RDN in the treatment of resistant hypertension. ClinicalTrials. gov identifier NCT01418261. PMID:25400162

  18. Study of blood pressure and blood sugar levels in adolescence and comparison with body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Borade

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Worldwide prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing and its consequences prompted the WHO to designate obesity as a global epidemic in 2002. Being overweight is a risk factor for significant illness, especially diabetes and hypertension in adult life. Objectives : To study the blood pressure and blood sugar levels and lifestyle parameters in adolescence and comparison with body mass index. Materials and Methods: In a prospective case control study, out of the 1000 screened, a total of 200 adolescents were considered out of which 100 were with high body mass index (BMI and the other 100 were with normal BMI. Height, weight, BMI, waist hip ratio (WHR, blood pressure (BP, BSL, and associated risk factors like physical activity, fast food consumption, and computer/television watching were measured and screened. Results and Observations: 109 (54.5% males and 91 (45.5% females were included. Maximum number [90 (45%] of adolescents screened were in the age group of 17-19 years, while 54 (27% and 56 (28% adolescents were in the age group of 10-13 years and 14-16 years, respectively. According to CDC charts 2000, prevalence of overweight was 24% which was double when compared to WHO charts 2007. There was significant difference in prevalence of obesity; according to CDC chart it was 26%, whereas according to WHO chart it was 39%. The difference in blood pressures between cases and controls as per both CDC and WHO charts was found to be statistically significant (P 0.05 with BMI. Conclusion: The adolescents seem to have become heavier owing to environmental influences on growth patterns. So, a consideration should be given to shift the cut-offs for overweight and obesity to higher BMI percentiles if recent growth charts are to be followed. Adolescents with a BMI above the 95 >th percentile (obese are most likely to have obesity-related health risks.

  19. Electrocardiographic, echocardiographic, and indirect blood pressure evaluation in dogs subjected to different sedation protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Mondardo Cardoso

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of different sedation protocols on blood pressure and echocardiographic and electrocardiographic parameters in dogs. In total, 24 male mixed-breed dogs with a mean weight of 9.87±3.0kg were used.Animals were randomly divided into four groups (n=6, which were subjected to sedation using the following protocols: acepromazine (0.05mgkg-1 and butorphanol (0.3mgkg-1 (AB; acepromazine (0.05mgkg-1and methadone (0.5mgkg-1 (AM; acepromazine (0.03mgkg-1, methadone (0.5mgkg-1, and midazolam (0.3mgkg-1(MAM; and methadone only (0.5mgkg-1 (M. Indirect blood pressure (BP measurements and computerized electrocardiography (ECG and echocardiography (ECO were performed immediately before the application of the sedation protocol (baseline, and the same evaluations were repeated after 15 minutes. BP decreased in groups AB, MAM, and AM compared to baseline values. Electrocardiographic measurements showed decreased heart rates (HRs after sedation in all groups, and bradycardia was observed after sedation in two dogs from group M and one animal from group AM. The P-wave duration increased after sedation in groups AM and M. After sedation, no changes in cardiac dimensions were revealed byECO.Fractional shortening (FS decreased after sedation in the AM group, and dogs from group AB exhibited a smaller decrease in FS compared with the other groups. The cardiac index (CI was lower in groups AM and M than in the other groups. Animals from group AB were less resistant to examination and exhibited the most favorable sedation scores. It was concluded that the combination of acepromazine and butorphanol was the best sedation protocol for performing echocardiogram measurementsbecause dogs were less resistant to examinations and echocardiographic parameters of FS and CI remained stable.

  20. Blunted heart rate recovery is associated with exaggerated blood pressure response during exercise testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Umuttan; Duzenli, Mehmet Akif; Ozdemir, Kurtulus; Gok, Hasan

    2013-11-01

    Increased sympathetic activity and endothelial dysfunction are the proposed mechanisms underlying exaggerated blood pressure response to exercise (EBPR). However, data regarding heart rate behavior in patients with EBPR are lacking. We hypothesized that heart rate recovery (HRR) could be impaired in patients with EBPR. A total of 75 normotensive subjects who were referred for exercise treadmill test examination and experienced EBPR were included to this cross-sectional case-control study. The control group consisted of 75 age- and gender-matched normotensive subjects without EBPR. EBPR was defined as a peak exercise systolic blood pressure (BP) ≥210 mmHg in men and ≥190 mmHg in women. HRR was defined as the difference in HR from peak exercise to 1 min in recovery; abnormal HRR was defined as ≤12 beats/min. These parameters were compared with respect to occurrence of EBPR. Mean values of systolic and diastolic BP at baseline, peak exercise, and the first minute of the recovery were significantly higher in the subjects with EBPR. Mean HRR values were significantly lower (P recovery and degree of HRR in individuals without EBPR (r = 0.42, P recovery period. However, such a correlation was not found in subjects with EBPR. Our data suggest that mechanisms underlying the blunting of the HRR might be associated with the genesis of EBPR. The association between the extent of HRR and adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with EBPR needs to be investigated in detail in future research.

  1. Cost estimation of hypertension management based on home blood pressure monitoring alone or combined office and ambulatory blood pressure measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubouchairopoulou, Nadia; Karpettas, Nikos; Athanasakis, Kostas; Kollias, Anastasios; Protogerou, Athanase D; Achimastos, Apostolos; Stergiou, George S

    2014-10-01

    This study aims at estimating the resources consumed and subsequent costs for hypertension management, using home blood pressure (BP) monitoring (HBPM) alone versus combined clinic measurements and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (C/ABPM). One hundred sixteen untreated hypertensive subjects were randomized to use HBPM or C/ABPM for antihypertensive treatment initiation and titration. Health resources utilized within 12-months follow-up, their respective costs, and hypertension control were assessed. The total cost of the first year of hypertension management was lower in HBPM than C/ABPM arm (€1336.0 vs. €1473.5 per subject, respectively; P cost was identical in both arms. There was no difference in achieved BP control and drug expenditure (HBPM: €233.1 per subject; C/ABPM: €247.6 per subject; P = not significant), whereas the cost of BP measurements and/or visits was higher in C/ABPM arm (€393.9 vs. €516.9, per patient, respectively P cost for subsequent years (>1) was €348.9 and €440.2 per subject, respectively for HBPM and C/ABPM arm and €2731.4 versus €3234.3 per subject, respectively (P cost than C/ABPM, and the same trend is observed in 5-year projection. The results on the resources consumption can be used to make cost estimates for other health-care systems.

  2. The effects of daily consumption of grapefruit on body weight, lipids, and blood pressure in healthy, overweight adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Caitlin A; Going, Scott B; Chow, Hsiao-Hui S; Patil, Bhimanagouda S; Thomson, Cynthia A

    2012-07-01

    Folklore has suggested that consuming grapefruit may promote weight control. Sparse data exist to support this hypothesis, although there is some evidence of health promotion effects with regard to blood pressure control and modulation of circulating lipids. The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to prospectively evaluate the role of grapefruit in reducing body weight and blood pressure and in promoting improvements in the lipid profile in overweight adults (N = 74). Following a 3-week washout diet low in bioactive-rich fruits and vegetables, participants were randomized to either the control diet (n = 32) or daily grapefruit (n = 42) in the amount of one half of a fresh Rio-Red grapefruit with each meal (3× daily) for 6 weeks. No differences between group in weight, blood pressure, or lipids were demonstrated. Grapefruit consumption was associated with modest weight loss (-0.61 ± 2.23 kg, P = .097), a significant reduction in waist circumference (-2.45 ± 0.60 cm, P = .0002), and a significant reduction in systolic blood pressure (-3.21 ± 10.13 mm Hg, P = .03) compared with baseline values. Improvements were observed in circulating lipids of those consuming grapefruit, with total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein significantly decreasing by -11.7 mg/dL (P = .002) and -18.7 mg/dL (P lipids, or blood pressure as compared with the control condition. However, the improvements in blood pressure and lipids demonstrated in the intervention group suggest that grapefruit should be further evaluated in the context of obesity and cardiovascular disease prevention.

  3. Multiprofessional Treatment of High Blood Pressure in Very Elderly Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardim, Luciana Muniz Sanches Siqueira Veiga; Jardim, Thiago Veiga; de Souza, Weimar Kunz Sebba Barroso; Pimenta, Camila Dutra; Sousa, Ana Luiza Lima; Jardim, Paulo César Brandão Veiga

    2017-01-01

    Background As the world population ages, patients older than 80 years, known as very elderly, are more frequently found. There are no studies in this age group aimed at analyzing the multidisciplinary intervention in the treatment of systemic arterial hypertension (SAH) and some comorbidities. Objectives To assess the effect of a multidisciplinary approach in very elderly hypertensives cared for at a specialized service. Methods Longitudinal retrospective cohort study in a multidisciplinary service specialized in the SAH treatment in the Brazilian West-Central region. Patients aged 80 years and older by June 2015 were included. Data from the first (V1) and last visit (Vf) were assessed. Anthropometric variables, blood pressure (BP), renal function, pharmacological treatment, lifestyle, comorbidities and cardiovascular events were studied, comparing data from V1 and Vf. Controlled BP was defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) lower than 140 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) lower than 90 mm Hg. Statistical analyses were performed with SPSSR software, version 21.0. Values of p<0,05 were considered significant. Results Data of 71 patients were assessed with a mean follow-up time of 15,22 years. Their mean age at V1 was 69.2 years, and, at Vf, 84.53 years, and 26.8% of them were males. There was a significant reduction in mean SBP (157.3 x 142.1 mm Hg; p<0.001) and DBP (95.1 x 77.8 mm Hg; p<0.001), with an increase in BP control rates from V1 to Vf (36.6 x 83.1%; p<0.001). The number of antihypertensive drugs used increased (1.49 x 2.85; p<0.001), with an increase in the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (22.5 x 46.5%; p=0.004), angiotensin II receptor blockers (4.2 x 35.2%; p<0.001) and calcium-channel blockers (18.3 x 67.6%; p<0.001). There was a reduction in total cholesterol (217.9 x 191 mg/dL; p<0.001) and LDL-cholesterol (139.6 x 119.0 mg/dL; p<0.001), but worsening of the glomerular filtration rate (62.5 x 45.4 mL/min; p<0.001). Conclusion

  4. The vascular Ca2+-sensing receptor regulates blood vessel tone and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepelmann, M; Yarova, P L; Lopez-Fernandez, I; Davies, T S; Brennan, S C; Edwards, P J; Aggarwal, A; Graça, J; Rietdorf, K; Matchkov, V; Fenton, R A; Chang, W; Krssak, M; Stewart, A; Broadley, K J; Ward, D T; Price, S A; Edwards, D H; Kemp, P J; Riccardi, D

    2016-02-01

    The extracellular calcium-sensing receptor CaSR is expressed in blood vessels where its role is not completely understood. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the CaSR expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) is directly involved in regulation of blood pressure and blood vessel tone. Mice with targeted CaSR gene ablation from vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) were generated by breeding exon 7 LoxP-CaSR mice with animals in which Cre recombinase is driven by a SM22α promoter (SM22α-Cre). Wire myography performed on Cre-negative [wild-type (WT)] and Cre-positive (SM22α)CaSR(Δflox/Δflox) [knockout (KO)] mice showed an endothelium-independent reduction in aorta and mesenteric artery contractility of KO compared with WT mice in response to KCl and to phenylephrine. Increasing extracellular calcium ion (Ca(2+)) concentrations (1-5 mM) evoked contraction in WT but only relaxation in KO aortas. Accordingly, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressures of KO animals were significantly reduced compared with WT, as measured by both tail cuff and radiotelemetry. This hypotension was mostly pronounced during the animals' active phase and was not rescued by either nitric oxide-synthase inhibition with nitro-l-arginine methyl ester or by a high-salt-supplemented diet. KO animals also exhibited cardiac remodeling, bradycardia, and reduced spontaneous activity in isolated hearts and cardiomyocyte-like cells. Our findings demonstrate a role for CaSR in the cardiovascular system and suggest that physiologically relevant changes in extracellular Ca(2+) concentrations could contribute to setting blood vessel tone levels and heart rate by directly acting on the cardiovascular CaSR.

  5. Transfer function analysis for the assessment of cerebral autoregulation using spontaneous oscillations in blood pressure and cerebral blood flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abeelen, A.S.S. van den; Beek, A.H. van; Slump, C.H.; Panerai, R.B.; Claassen, J.A.H.R.

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral autoregulation (CA) is a key mechanism to protect the brain against excessive fluctuations in blood pressure (BP) and maintain cerebral blood flow. Analyzing the relationship between spontaneous BP and cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) using transfer function analysis is a widely used tec

  6. [Evaluation of the hypomagnetic environment effects on capillary blood circulation, blood pressure and heart rate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurfinkel, Iu I; Vasin, A L; Matveeva, T A; Sasonko, M L

    2014-01-01

    Impact of attenuated magnetic field (MF) on human health is a hard-core issue of present-day cosmonautics. A series of experiments with animals exposed in attenuated MF revealed violent disorders in cardiovascular system development. Purpose of the work was to study effects of the hypomagnetic environment (HME) on capillary blood circulation, blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) in normal people. Participants (n = 34) were 24 men and 10 women free from cardiovascular symptoms. Mean age was 43.3 +/- 15.4 years. Thirteen participants, i.e. 8 men and 5 women, were randomly selected for a repeated investigation in the usual conditions (imaginary exposure); mean age in the group made up 47.9 +/- 18 years. Cardiac rhythm and heart rate were recorded using cardiac monitor Astrocard (Russia). BP was measured with the help of automatic blood pressure monitor Tonocard (Russia). Capillary circulation was determined using a digital capillaroscope (Russia) with high-speed CMOS-camera (100 frames/s). Time of HME exposure was 60 min. It was demonstrated that in healthy people free from cardiovascular symptoms HME increases capillary circulation rate by 22.4% as compared with records made under the usual conditions. There was a reliable HR reduction by the end of HME exposure with reference to the measurements taken at the onset. At the end of exposure, diastolic BP dropped considerably relative to mid-exposure values and systolic BP, on the contrary, made a significant rise.

  7. Level of Mercury Manometer With Respect to Heart: Does it Affect Blood Pressure Measurement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Raj; Roy, V K; Manna, S; Bhattacharjee, M

    2015-01-01

    Measurement of blood pressure is an integral part of clinical examination. Over the years various types of instruments have been used to measure blood pressure but till date the mercury sphygmomanometer is regarded as the gold standard. However, there is a myth prevalent among health professionals regarding the level of the manometer in relation to heart at the time of measuring of blood pressure. Many professionals insist that it has to be placed at the level of the heart. We argue that the limb from which pressure is measured must be at the heart level rather than the manometer. We conducted a study in which we measured the blood pressure in adults by placing the manometer at three different levels with respect to the heart. The values of blood pressure obtained at all levels were similar and did not show any statistically significant difference. We therefore conclude that the level of sphygmomanometer per se does not affect blood pressure measurement.

  8. Marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids affect the blood pressure control in patients with newly diagnosed hypertension - a 1-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagge, Carina N; Strandhave, Charlotte; Skov, Charlotte M; Svensson, My; Schmidt, Erik B; Christensen, Jeppe H

    2017-02-28

    Marine long-chained n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are recognized for their cardio-protective effects, including potential lowering of blood pressure. We hypothesized that higher habitual fish intake and n-3 PUFA plasma levels were associated with lower blood pressure and being less likely to receive antihypertensive medication after one-year follow-up. In this prospective study of 115 patients, we assessed 24 h ambulatory and central blood pressure, plasma phospholipid fatty acid composition using gas chromatography and participants completed a food frequency questionnaire, including fish-eating habits. All measurements were repeated at one-year follow-up. At baseline, patients consuming fish ≥2 times per month for dinner had significantly higher plasma levels of total marine n-3 PUFA, docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid as well as significantly lower central blood pressure and a trend towards lower peripheral blood pressure. At follow-up, 21 patients (18%) without antihypertensive medication had significantly higher plasma levels of n-3 PUFA, docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid as well as a higher, but still acceptable 24 h ambulatory blood pressure (137/85 mmHg) compared to subjects receiving antihypertensive medication. The untreated group was more prone to take fish oil capsules and increased their plasma levels of n-3 PUFA compared to baseline. In patients with newly diagnosed, untreated hypertension, regular fish consumption was accompanied by lower blood pressure. After one year, patients without antihypertensive medication were characterized by a significant increase and higher plasma levels of n-3 PUFA. This supports a blood pressure-lowering effect and suggests an increase in marine n-3 PUFA intake as part of non-pharmacological treatment of hypertension.

  9. PERFUSION PRESSURE AND RENAL BLOOD FLOW: THEIR RELATIONSHIP AND DIFFERENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos G. Musso, MD. PhD.1,2, Manuel Vilas, MD.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The concepts of renal perfusion pressure (RPP and renal blood flow (RBF are usually confused, but although they are intimately related, they are not strictly the same. RPP originates from the minute cardiac volume and is, therefore, the cause of RBF, which generates glomerular filtration and as a consequence, also induces the urinary flow. On the other hand, whereas RPP can be subject to fluctuations, the same happens to RBF though at a much lower level due to the existence of physiological mechanisms, such as self-regulation of the flow and tubule-glomerular feed-back. We conclude that there is a dependence of the RBF in relation with RPP, with the former acting as the final responsible of the glomerular filtration.

  10. Mechanisms and pharmacogenetic signals underlying thiazide diuretics blood pressure response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahin, Mohamed H; Johnson, Julie A

    2016-04-01

    Thiazide (TZD) diuretics are among the most commonly prescribed antihypertensives globally; however their chronic blood pressure (BP) lowering mechanism remains unclear. Herein we discuss the current evidence regarding specific mechanisms regulating the antihypertensive effects of TZDs, suggesting that TZDs act via multiple complex and interacting mechanisms, including natriuresis with short term use and direct vasodilatory effects chronically. Additionally, we review pharmacogenomics signals that have been associated with TZDs BP-response in several cohorts (i.e. NEDD4L, PRKCA, EDNRA-GNAS, and YEATS4) and discuss how these genes might be related to TZD BP-response mechanism. Understanding the association between these genes and TZD BP mechanism might facilitate the development of new drugs and therapeutic approaches based on a deeper understanding of the determinants of BP-response.

  11. Debate: does it matter how you lower blood pressure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McInnes Gordon T

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The evidence base for drug treatment of hypertension is strong. Early trials using thiazide diuretics suggested a shortfall in prevention of coronary heart disease. The superiority of newer drugs has been widely advocated but trial evidence does not support an advantage of beta-blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, calcium channel blockers or alpha-blockers for this outcome. Even meta-analyses have failed to clarify matters. If this issue is to be settled, bigger and better trials of longer duration in high-risk patients are needed. Meanwhile, the importance of rigorous blood pressure control using multiple drugs has been established. This should be the focus of our attention rather than agonising over differences in cause-specific outcomes that may not be generalisable to all patient populations.

  12. [Is blood pressure control different in women than in men?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveras, A; Sans-Atxer, L; Vázquez, S

    2015-01-01

    Blood pressure (BP) evolves with age; until the 50's it is higher in men than in women, equaling and even then increasing in women. The prevalence of controlled BP appears to be similar between the sexes, but the prevalence of cardiovascular disease is higher in women than in men. The possibility that BP influences the cardiovascular risk differently according to sex must therefore be considered. While some studies suggest no difference exists, others have shown evidence of an increased risk in women with respect to men despite equal BP. In this way, it seems that the measurement of ambulatory BP, but not office BP, would mark the differences in the association between BP-gender and cardiovascular risk. It should therefore be investigated the possibility of a different BP goal for women and men, especially by evaluating ambulatory BP.

  13. Blood pressure and cardiovascular risk: what about cocoa and chocolate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Davide; Desideri, Giovambattista; Ferri, Claudio

    2010-09-01

    Cocoa flavonoids are able to reduce cardiovascular risk by improving endothelial function and decreasing blood pressure (BP). Interest in the biological activities of cocoa is daily increasing. A recent meta-analysis shows flavanol-rich cocoa administration decreases mean systolic (-4.5mm Hg; p<0.001) and diastolic (-2.5mm Hg; p<0.001) BP. A 3-mm Hg systolic BP reduction has been estimated to decrease the risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. This paper summarizes new findings concerning cocoa effects on cardiovascular health focusing on putative mechanisms of action and nutritional and "pharmacological" viewpoints. Cocoa consumption could play a pivotal role in human health.

  14. A mysterious blood pressure increase in a drilling Naval reservist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wettach, George E; Falvey, Shelley G

    2002-06-01

    This is a case report of a reservist who presented for a physical examination with hypertension. It was discovered that the reservist was unknowingly taking large doses of Ephedra sinica, or ma huang, a Chinese herbal supplement, for body-building. One of the ingredients in ma huang is ephedrine, an active alpha- and beta-adrenergic stimulant that produces increases in heart rate, blood pressure, and cardiac output. Ma huang has been reported to cause hypertension, hepatitis, nephrolithiasis, and sudden death in healthy, normotensive people. Ma huang will produce a positive urinary drug screen for stimulants and can be a drug of abuse. A recommendation is made to screen for dangerous supplement use before physical readiness training and to stop the supplement for 1 month before beginning any exercise program.

  15. A dramatic drop in blood pressure following prehospital GTN administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Malcolm J

    2007-03-01

    A male in his sixties with no history of cardiac chest pain awoke with chest pain following an afternoon sleep. The patient did not self medicate. The patient's observations were within normal limits, he was administered oxygen via a face mask and glyceryl trinitrate (GTN). Several minutes after the GTN the patient experienced a sudden drop in blood pressure and heart rate, this was rectified by atropine sulphate and a fluid challenge. There was no further deterioration in the patient's condition during transport to hospital. There are very few documented case like this in the prehospital scientific literature. The cause appears to be the Bezold-Jarish reflex, stimulation of the ventricular walls which in turn decreases sympathetic outflow from the vasomotor centre. Prehospital care providers who are managing any patient with a syncopal episode that fails to recover within a reasonable time frame should consider the Bezold-Jarisch reflex as the cause and manage the patient accordingly.

  16. Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring – Clinical Practice Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Mako

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM became a subject of considerable scientific interest. Due to the increasing use of the ABPM in everyday clinical practice it is important that all the users have a correct knowledge on the clinical indications, the methodology of using the device including some technical issues and the interpretation of results. In the last years several guidelines and position papers have been published with recommendations for the monitoring process, reference values, for clinical practice and research. This paper represents a summary of the most important aspects related to the use of ABPM in daily practice, being a synthesis of recommendations from the recent published guidelines and position papers. This reference article presents the practical and technical issues of ABPM, the use of this method in special situations, the clinical interpretation of measured values including the presentation of different ABPM patterns, derived parameters, the prognostic significance and the limitations of this method.

  17. Blood pressure variability, prehypertension, and hypertension in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batisky DL

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Donald L BatiskyEmory Children's Center, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USAAbstract: Medical conditions diagnosed during adolescence may have long term impacts on the health of an individual. As a result, identifying cardiovascular risk factors earlier in life such as prehypertension (pre-HTN and hypertension (HTN can have significant benefits across an individual's lifespan. Diagnosing elevated blood pressure (BP during adolescence can be difficult, partially due to the natural variability that occurs during this period of life. Levels of BP that define adolescent prehypertension/hypertension are provided as well as an abridged review of BP variability across research groups. Strategies for BP management of adolescents are considered, with the primary focus on nonpharmacologic interventions.Keywords: HTN, pre-HTN, overweight, obesity, BP, body mass index, BMI

  18. Pediatric ambulatory blood pressure monitoring: indications and interpretations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Joseph T; Urbina, Elaine M

    2012-06-01

    The prevalence of hypertension in children and adolescents is increasing, especially in obese and ethnic children. The adverse long-term effects of hypertension beginning in youth are known; therefore, it is important to identify young patients who need intervention. Unfortunately, measuring blood pressure (BP) is difficult due to the variety of techniques available and innate biologic variation in BP levels. Ambulatory BP monitoring may overcome some of the challenges clinicians face when attempting to categorize a young patient's BP levels. In this article, the authors review the use of ambulatory BP monitoring in pediatrics, discuss interpretation of ambulatory BP monitoring, and discuss gaps in knowledge in usage of this technique in the management of pediatric hypertension.

  19. Secular trends in blood pressure in children: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roulet, Céline; Bovet, Pascal; Brauchli, Thomas; Simeoni, Umberto; Xi, Bo; Santschi, Valérie; Paradis, Gilles; Chiolero, Arnaud

    2016-12-16

    Blood pressure (BP) is expected to have increased over time in children in most countries due to the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity worldwide. The authors conducted a systematic review of studies assessing secular trends in BP in children and adolescents. Of 1739 citations screened, the authors identified 18 studies including 2 042 470 participants examined between 1963 and 2012. Thirteen studies were conducted in high-income countries, five in middle-income countries, and none in low-income countries. The prevalence of overweight or obesity increased in 17 studies and decreased in one study. BP decreased over time in 13 studies, increased in four, and did not change in one. These findings suggest that secular trends in BP do not mirror secular trends in overweight. This implies that other factors mitigate the effect of overweight on BP in children and adolescents.

  20. Dopamine and renal function and blood pressure regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armando, Ines; Villar, Van Anthony M; Jose, Pedro A

    2011-07-01

    Dopamine is an important regulator of systemic blood pressure via multiple mechanisms. It affects fluid and electrolyte balance by its actions on renal hemodynamics and epithelial ion and water transport and by regulation of hormones and humoral agents. The kidney synthesizes dopamine from circulating or filtered L-DOPA independently from innervation. The major determinants of the renal tubular synthesis/release of dopamine are probably sodium intake and intracellular sodium. Dopamine exerts its actions via two families of cell surface receptors, D1-like receptors comprising D1R and D5R, and D2-like receptors comprising D2R, D3R, and D4R, and by interactions with other G protein-coupled receptors. D1-like receptors are linked to vasodilation, while the effect of D2-like receptors on the vasculature is variable and probably dependent upon the state of nerve activity. Dopamine secreted into the tubular lumen acts mainly via D1-like receptors in an autocrine/paracrine manner to regulate ion transport in the proximal and distal nephron. These effects are mediated mainly by tubular mechanisms and augmented by hemodynamic mechanisms. The natriuretic effect of D1-like receptors is caused by inhibition of ion transport in the apical and basolateral membranes. D2-like receptors participate in the inhibition of ion transport during conditions of euvolemia and moderate volume expansion. Dopamine also controls ion transport and blood pressure by regulating the production of reactive oxygen species and the inflammatory response. Essential hypertension is associated with abnormalities in dopamine production, receptor number, and/or posttranslational modification.

  1. Has blood pressure increased in children in response to the obesity epidemic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiolero, Arnaud; Bovet, Pascal; Paradis, Gilles; Paccaud, Fred

    2007-03-01

    The associations between elevated blood pressure and overweight, on one hand, and the increasing prevalence over time of pediatric overweight, on the other hand, suggest that the prevalence of elevated blood pressure could have increased in children over the last few decades. In this article we review the epidemiologic evidence available on the prevalence of elevated blood pressure in children and trends over time. On the basis of the few large population-based surveys available, the prevalence of elevated blood pressure is fairly high in several populations, whereas there is little direct evidence that blood pressure has increased during the past few decades despite the concomitant epidemic of pediatric overweight. However, a definite conclusion cannot be drawn yet because of the paucity of epidemiologic studies that have assessed blood pressure trends in the same populations and the lack of standardized methods used for the measurement of blood pressure and the definition of elevated blood pressure in children. Additional studies should examine if favorable secular trends in other determinants of blood pressure (eg, dietary factors, birth weight, etc) may have attenuated the apparently limited impact of the epidemic of overweight on blood pressure in children.

  2. Associations of ambulatory blood pressure with urinary caffeine and caffeine metabolite excretions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guessous, Idris; Pruijm, Menno; Ponte, Belén; Ackermann, Daniel; Ehret, Georg; Ansermot, Nicolas; Vuistiner, Philippe; Staessen, Jan; Gu, Yumei; Paccaud, Fred; Mohaupt, Markus; Vogt, Bruno; Pechère-Bertschi, Antoinette; Pechère-Berstchi, Antoinette; Martin, Pierre-Yves; Burnier, Michel; Eap, Chin B; Bochud, Murielle

    2015-03-01

    Intake of caffeinated beverages might be associated with reduced cardiovascular mortality possibly via the lowering of blood pressure. We estimated the association of ambulatory blood pressure with urinary caffeine and caffeine metabolites in a population-based sample. Families were randomly selected from the general population of Swiss cities. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was conducted using validated devices. Urinary caffeine, paraxanthine, theophylline, and theobromine excretions were measured in 24 hours urine using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. We used mixed models to explore the associations of urinary excretions with blood pressure although adjusting for major confounders. The 836 participants (48.9% men) included in this analysis had mean age of 47.8 and mean 24-hour systolic and diastolic blood pressure of 120.1 and 78.0 mm Hg. For each doubling of caffeine excretion, 24-hour and night-time systolic blood pressure decreased by 0.642 and 1.107 mm Hg (both P values theobromine excretion was not associated with blood pressure. Anti-hypertensive therapy, diabetes mellitus, and alcohol consumption modify the association of caffeine urinary excretion with systolic blood pressure. Ambulatory systolic blood pressure was inversely associated with urinary excretions of caffeine and other caffeine metabolites. Our results are compatible with a potential protective effect of caffeine on blood pressure.

  3. Effects of blood pressure reduction in mild hypertension : a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sundström, Johan; Arima, Hisatomi; Jackson, Rod; Turnbull, Fiona; Rahimi, Kazem; Chalmers, John; Woodward, Mark; Neal, Bruce; de Zeeuw, Dick

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Effects of blood pressure reduction in persons with grade 1 hypertension are unclear. PURPOSE: To investigate whether pharmacologic blood pressure reduction prevents cardiovascular events and deaths in persons with grade 1 hypertension. DATA SOURCES: Trials included in the BPLTTC (Blood

  4. Fluid input control in burned patients with the aid of ultrasonic arterial blood pressure monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banssillon, V; Latarjet, J

    1975-01-01

    Arterial blood pressure is nowadays easily and reliably measured with ultrasonic equipment. It correlates well with blood volume, and may therefore be used to guide fluid infusion in burned patients. Monitoring of blood pressure, instead of application of old-fashioned recipes, helps to avoid dangerous situations of hypovolemia or overload.

  5. Evaluation of the diurnal intraocular pressure fluctuations and blood pressure under dehydration due to fasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonen Baser

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study aimed to investigate the diurnal intraocular pressure fluctuations under dehydration conditions and the relationship between the intraocular pressure fluctuations and blood pressure. Methods: The intraocular pressures (IOP, body weights, as well as systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP, DBP of 36 fasting healthy volunteers were recorded at 8:00 a.m. and 5:00 p.m. in the Ramadan of 2014 and two weeks after it. The data were analyzed using paired Student’s t-test and Pearson correlation analysis. Results: As the results demonstrated, the mean diurnal IOP differences of IOP, SBP, DBP, and weight were 2.67±1.33 mmHg, 9.44±8.02 mmHg, 3.33±5.94 mmHg, and 0.90±0.46 kg during the fasting period, respectively. In addition, the mean diurnal IOP differences of IOP, SBP, DBP, and weight were -0.33±1.4 mmHg (P=0.001, 0.55±7.25mmHg (P=0.003, -3.33±5.94 mmHg (P=0.001, and 0.12±0.45 kg (P=0.001 during the control period, respectively. There was a moderate correlation between the diurnal IOP and SBP differences (r=0.517, P=0.028. Conclusion: Based on the findings of the current study, the total fluid volume might have a more dominant effect on IOP peaks than the sympathetic system activity. Furthermore, the SBP was found to correlate with the IOP.

  6. Effect of advanced blood pressure control with nifedipine delayed-release tablets on the blood pressure in patients underwent nasal endoscope surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-Hua Xiao; Li Yang; Rong-Ping Chen; Wei-Dong Qiu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect of advanced blood pressure control with nifedipine delayed-release tablets on the blood pressure in patients underwent nasal endoscope surgery and its feasibility.Methods:A total of 80 patients who were admitted in ENT department from June, 2012 to June, 2015 for nasal endoscope surgery were included in the study and randomized into the observation group and the control group with 40 cases in each group. The patients in the observation group were given nifedipine delayed-release tablets for advanced blood pressure control before operation, and were given routine blood pressure control during operation; while the patients in the control group were only given blood pressure control during operation. The changes of blood pressure, mean central arterial pressure, and heart rate before anesthesia (T0), after intubation (T1), during operation (T2), extubation when waking (T3), 30 min after extubation (T4), and 3 h after back to wards (T5) in the two groups were compared. The intraoperative situation and the surgical field quality in the two groups were compared.Results: SBP, DBP, and MAP levels at T1-5 in the two groups were significantly lower than those at T0. SBP, DBP, and MAP levels at T2 were significantly lower than those at other timing points, and were gradually recovered after operation, but were significantly lower than those at T0. The effect taking time of blood pressure reducing, intraoperative nitroglycerin dosage, and postoperative wound surface exudation amount in the observation group were significantly less than those in the control group. The surgical field quality scores in the observation group were significantly superior to those in the control group.Conclusions:Advanced blood pressure control with nifedipine delayed-release tablets can stabilize the blood pressure during the perioperative period in patients underwent nasal endoscope surgery, and enhance the surgical field qualities.

  7. Exaggerated Exercise Blood Pressure Response and Future Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzemos, Nikolaos; Lim, Pitt O; Mackenzie, Isla S; MacDonald, Thomas M

    2015-11-01

    Exaggerated blood pressure (BP) response to exercise predicts future hypertension. However, there is considerable lack of understanding regarding the mechanism of how this abnormal response is generated, and how it relates to the future establishment of cardiovascular disease. The authors studied 82 healthy male volunteers without cardiovascular risk factors. The participants were categorized into two age-matched groups depending on their exercise systolic BP (ExSBP) rise after 3 minutes of exercise using a submaximal step test: exaggerated ExSBP group (hyper-responders [peak SBP ≥ 180 mm Hg]) and low ExSBP responder group (hypo-responders [peak SBP exercise. The hyper-responder group exhibited a significantly lower increase in forearm blood flow (FBF) with ACh compared with the hypo-responder group (ΔFBF 215% [14] vs 332.3% [28], mean [standard error of the mean]; Pexercise plasma angiotensin II levels were significantly higher in the hyper-responder group (31 [1] vs 23 [2] pg/mL, P=.01). An exaggerated BP response to exercise is related to endothelial dysfunction, decreased proximal aortic compliance, and increased exercise-related neurohormonal activation, the constellation of which may explain future cardiovascular disease.

  8. The relationships between blood pressure, blood glucose, and bone mineral density in postmenopausal Turkish women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cakmak HA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Huseyin Altug Cakmak,1 Burcu Dincgez Cakmak,2 Ayse Ender Yumru,3 Serkan Aslan,4 Asim Enhos,1 Ali Kemal Kalkan,4 Ebru Inci Coskun,5 Abdullah Serdar Acikgoz,6 Suat Karatas3 1Department of Cardiology, Mustafakemalpasa Government Hospital, Bursa, 2Department of Obstetric and Gynecology, Rize Kackar Government Hospital, Rize, 3Department of Obstetric and Gynecology, Sisli Hamidiye Etfal Training and Research Hospital, 4Department of Cardiology, Mehmet Akif Ersoy Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, 5Department of Obstetric and Gynecology, Inonu University, Malatya, 6Department of Obstetric and Gynecology, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey Background: Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and osteoporosis are important comorbidities commonly seen in postmenopausal women. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships between blood pressure, blood glucose, and bone mineral density (BMD in postmenopausal Turkish women.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 270 consecutive patients who were admitted to an outpatient clinic with vasomotor symptoms and/or at least 1 year of amenorrhea were included. The patients were categorized into three groups according to their blood pressure and metabolic status as follows: normotensive, hypertensive nondiabetics, and hypertensive diabetics. The T- and z-scores of the proximal femur and lumbar vertebrae were measured with the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry method to assess the BMD of the study groups.Results: Lumbar vertebral T-scores (P<0.001, lumbar vertebral z-scores (P<0.003, and proximal femoral T-scores (P<0.001 were demonstrated to be significantly lower in the hypertensive diabetic group compared to the hypertensive nondiabetic and normotensive groups. Systolic blood pressure was significantly inversely correlated with lumbar vertebral T-scores (r=-0.382; P=0.001, lumbar vertebral z-scores (r=-0.290; P=0.001, and

  9. Intensive blood pressure control affects cerebral blood flow in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Yu-Sok; Davis, Shyrin C A T; Truijen, Jasper;

    2011-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with microvascular complications, hypertension, and impaired dynamic cerebral autoregulation. Intensive blood pressure (BP) control in hypertensive type 2 diabetic patients reduces their risk of stroke but may affect cerebral perfusion. Systemic hemodynamic...... variables and transcranial Doppler-determined cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV), cerebral CO2 responsiveness, and cognitive function were determined after 3 and 6 months of intensive BP control in 17 type 2 diabetic patients with microvascular complications (T2DM+), in 18 diabetic patients without (T2DM......-) microvascular complications, and in 16 nondiabetic hypertensive patients. Cerebrovascular reserve capacity was lower in T2DM+ versus T2DM- and nondiabetic hypertensive patients (4.6±1.1 versus 6.0±1.6 [P

  10. A simple model of cerebral blood flow dependence on arterial blood pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Gersten, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    It is shown that the dependence of the cerebral blood flow (CBF) on mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) can be described with a simple model having the following assumptions. Below certain MABP (denoted as MABP1) there are no autoregulatory or feedback mechanisms influencing CBF. Between MABP1 and MABP2 (MABP at which breakthrough accurs) there is a linear (on MABP) dependent feedback with a sloap depending very much on the individual considered. The classical autoregulation model with a plateau in between MABP1 and MABP2 is a particular case of this model. The model describes well the experiments performed on dogs (Harper 1966), for which the individual feedback sloap parameter varied to great extent, indicating the importance of mesurments on individuals against averaged mesurments (or measurments on diffent individuals) which superficially support the classical autoregulation. New effect of decreased CBF, while increasing MABP, was observed.

  11. A relation between blood pressure and stiffness of joints and skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uiterwaal, CSPM; Grobbee, DE; Sakkers, RJB; Helders, PJM; Bank, RA; Engelbert, RHH

    2003-01-01

    Background. Blood pressure, particularly pulse pressure, is associated with arterial wall stiffness, but little is known about its relation to stiffness of other parts of the body. We examined the extent to which blood pressure levels in young healthy children are related to stiffness of various tis

  12. Relationship of endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene polymorphism with blood pressure,lipid profile and blood glucose level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    To study the relationship of the polymorphism of endothelial nitric oxide synthase(eNOS)gene and blood pressure,lipid profiles and blood glucose level.By using PCR-RFLP,the eNOS Glu298Asp gene polymorphism was detected in 184 patients with essential hypertension and 196 matched healthy individuals with normal blood pressure.Taking into account eNOS Glu298Asp polymorphisms,the relationship of blood pressure with triglycerides(TG),total cholesterol(TC),high density lipoprotein(HDL),low density lipoprotein(LDL)and blood glucose level was analyzed.The distribution of eNOS Glu298Asp polymorphism had no significant difference between different blood pressure groups and gender groups,but there was a significant difference between different age groups,diastolic blood pressure groups or BMI groups(P<0.05).Asp/Asp genotype significantly increased the risk of hypertension in individuals with serum TC above 5.4 mmol/L(P=0.03,OR=2.65).eNOSGlu298Asp polymorphism and serum lipid could synergistically modulate the blood pressure,eNOS Asp/Asp genotype could significantly increase the risk of hypertension in individuals with serum TC over 5.4 mmol/L,eNOS Glu298Asp in combination with serum TC could be used to predict the risk of hypertension.

  13. Azilsartan medoxomil plus chlorthalidone reduces blood pressure more effectively than olmesartan plus hydrochlorothiazide in stage 2 systolic hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushman, William C; Bakris, George L; White, William B; Weber, Michael A; Sica, Domenic; Roberts, Andrew; Lloyd, Eric; Kupfer, Stuart

    2012-08-01

    Azilsartan medoxomil, an effective, long-acting angiotensin II receptor blocker, is a new treatment for hypertension that is also being developed in fixed-dose combinations with chlorthalidone, a potent, long-acting thiazide-like diuretic. We compared once-daily fixed-dose combinations of azilsartan medoxomil/chlorthalidone force titrated to a high dose of either 40/25 mg or 80/25 mg with a fixed-dose combination of the angiotensin II receptor blocker olmesartan medoxomil plus the thiazide diuretic hydrochlorothiazide force titrated to 40/25 mg. The design was a randomized, 3-arm, double-blind, 12-week study of 1071 participants with baseline clinic systolic blood pressure 160 to 190 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure ≤119 mm Hg. Patients had a mean age of 57 years; 59% were men, 73% were white, and 22% were black. At baseline, mean clinic blood pressure was 165/96 mm Hg and 24-hour mean blood pressure was 150/88 mm Hg. Changes in clinic (primary end point) and ambulatory systolic blood pressures at week 12 were significantly greater in both azilsartan medoxomil/chlorthalidone arms than in the olmesartan/hydrochlorothiazide arm (Pblood pressure (mean±SE) were -42.5±0.8, -44.0±0.8, and -37.1±0.8 mm Hg, respectively. Changes in 24-hour ambulatory systolic blood pressure were -33.9±0.8, -36.3±0.8, and -27.5±0.8 mm Hg, respectively. Adverse events leading to permanent drug discontinuation occurred in 7.9%, 14.5%, and 7.1% of the groups given azilsartan medoxomil/chlorthalidone 40/25 mg, azilsartan medoxomil/chlorthalidone 80/25 mg, and olmesartan/hydrochlorothiazide 40/25 mg, respectively. This large, forced-titration study has demonstrated superior antihypertensive efficacy of azilsartan medoxomil/chlorthalidone fixed-dose combinations compared with the maximum approved dose of olmesartan/hydrochlorothiazide.

  14. Improved Blood Pressure Control Using an Interactive Mobile Phone Support System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, Ulrika; Kjellgren, Karin; Hallberg, Inger; Lindwall, Magnus; Taft, Charles

    2016-02-01

    This explorative, longitudinal study evaluated the effect of the daily use of a mobile phone-based self-management support system for hypertension in reducing blood pressure (BP) among 50 primary care patients with hypertension over 8 weeks. The self-management system comprises modules for (1) self-reports of BP, pulse, lifestyle, symptoms, and well-being; (2) delivery of reminders and encouragements; and (3) graphical feedback of self-reports. Daily use of the support system significantly reduced BP (systolic BP -7 mm Hg, diastolic BP -4.9 mm Hg) between baseline and week 8, with daily improvements leveling off as the study progressed. Three homogenous subsets of patients were identified who, despite different initial BP levels, showed similar decreases in BP during the study, indicating that patients benefited irrespective of baseline BP. In showing significant reductions in BP, our results suggest that the self-management support system may be a useful tool in clinical practice to help patients self-manage their hypertension.

  15. The Influence of Proximity to City Parks on Blood Pressure in Early Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Grazuleviciene

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of proximity to city parks on blood pressure categories during the first trimester of pregnancy. This cross-sectional study included 3,416 female residents of the city of Kaunas, Lithuania, who were enrolled in the FP7 PHENOTYPE project study. The women were classified into four blood pressure categories: optimal, normal, high-normal blood pressure, and hypertension. Multinomial regression models were used to investigate the association between three women’s groups with respect to the residence distances from city parks (300, >300–1,000, and >1,000 m and four blood pressure categories. When using the optimal blood pressure as the reference group, the crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR for normal blood pressure and for high-normal blood pressure proved to be statistically significantly higher after the inclusion of the selected covariates into the regression analysis. The probability of normal blood pressure increased by 9%, and that of high-normal blood pressure—by 14% for every 300 m increase in the distance to green spaces. The findings of this study suggest a beneficial impact of nearby city parks on blood pressure amongst 20- to 45-year-old women. This relationship has important implications for the prevention of hypertension and the reduction of hypertension-related morbidity.

  16. Expression of STK39 in peripheral blood of hypertension patients and the relationship between its genetic polymorphism and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, B; Yang, M; Liu, J W

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the STK39 expression in peripheral blood of hypertension patients and the relation between its genetic polymorphism and blood pressure. The observation group comprised of 42 primary hypertension patients admitted to our hospital, and the control group comprised of 30 healthy individuals who underwent physical examination in our hospital during the same period. Fasting venous blood was collected from both groups in the morning to determine the STK39 mRNA and protein levels in peripheral blood using quantitative real-time PCR and western blot. STK39 gene SNP (rs6433027) was sequenced using PCR and its genetic variation was analyzed. The relationship between STK39 protein level, genetic variation, and diastolic and systolic blood pressure was also analyzed. The observation group showed increased STK39 mRNA and protein levels in peripheral blood compared to the control group, and the difference was statistically significant (P blood pressure (P blood pressure (P hypertension patients with genetic variation, which is related to the blood pressure.

  17. Prognostic and diagnostic value of moderate intensity stress test with blood pressure control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Marchenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of age and blood pressure values at rest,hypertensive response to moderate intensity stress testingis characterized by increasing ofprobable beginning of cardiac infarction, stroke or coronary disease in 1.36 times. The hypertensive response to stress test in people with normal blood pressure values at rest (independent of other risk factors is characterized by increasing risk of future hypertension more than in 2 times. Antihypertensive drugs affect blood pressure values differently during the stress testing. The prognosis of blood pressure values during daily physical activity is necessary for antihypertensive treatment. Low availability of convenient instruments and methodological tools for continuous measurement of blood pressure (similar to Spiroarteriocardiorhythmograph, Finapres duringthe dosed physical loads constrain wide use of stress tests with controlled blood pressure in medical practice.

  18. The effect on blood pressure of a monophasic oral contraceptive containing ethinylestradiol and gestodene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, N; Düsterberg, B; Weber-Diehl, F; Mühe, B

    1995-06-01

    To obtain an overview of the effect of monophasic gestodene on blood pressure and to determine the frequency of "OC elevated BP/hypertension," the results of blood pressure monitoring from four clinical studies of contraceptive efficacy and safety have been retrospectively analyzed. A total of 1930 women took part in the studies, which recorded BP for up to 24 cycles. Analysis of results revealed that 97 women (5.0%) showed an increase in blood pressure from previously normal to elevated values while taking monophasic gestodene, with only 26 (1.35%) fulfilling the criteria of "OC elevated BP/hypertension." Only four women dropped out of the trials due to hypertensive blood pressure values, while 67 women (3.5%) experienced a normalization of previously elevated blood pressure measurements. In conclusion, this analysis has confirmed that gestodene has a negligible effect on blood pressure, with increased BP a relatively rare event.

  19. Blood Pressure Levels in Male Carriers of Arg82Cys in CD300LG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støy, Julie; Grarup, Niels; Hørlyck, Arne

    2014-01-01

    (122 mmHg versus 115; p = 0.01) and diastolic blood pressure (77 mmHg versus 72; pgroups. Metalloproteinase-9 level was higher in CT-carriers than in CC-carriers (P... found to be associated with fasting HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels. The polymorphism has not been detected in hypertension GWAS potentially due to its low frequency, but CD300LG has been linked to blood pressure as CD300LG knockout mice have changes in blood pressure. Twenty......-four-hour ambulatory blood pressure was obtained in human CD300LG CT-carriers to follow up on these observations. METHODS: Twenty healthy male CD300LG rs72836561 CT-carriers matched for age and BMI with 20 healthy male CC-carriers. Office blood pressure, 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure, carotid intima...

  20. The effect of flaxseed powder on insulin resistance indices and blood pressure in prediabetic individuals: A randomized controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrooz Javidi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Designing the effective and early interventions can prevent progression of prediabetes to diabetes. Few studies have shown the effect of flaxseed on glycemic control. This study aimed to assess the effect of flaxseed powder on insulin resistance (IR indices and blood pressure in prediabetic individuals. Materials and Methods: In a randomized clinical trial, 99 prediabetic individuals were randomly divided into three groups: two groups received 40 g (FG40 and 20 g (FG20 flaxseed powder daily for 12 weeks and the third group was the control (CG. Before and after the intervention, anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, fasting serum glucose (FSG, insulin, homeostasis model assessment IR index (HOMA-IR, beta-cell function, and insulin sensitivity were measured. Results: FSG significantly declined overall in all groups compared to the baseline (P = 0.002 in CG and FG20 groups and P = 0.001 in FG40. In contrast, mean of the changes in FSG was not significantly different between groups. Insulin concentration did not change significantly within and between the investigated groups. Although HOMA-IR reduced in FG20 (P = 0.033, the mean of changes was not significant between the three groups. Mean of beta-cell function increased in CG and FG40 groups compared to the baseline (P = 0.044 and P = 0.018, respectively, but mean of its changes did not show any difference between the three groups. The mean of changes in IR indices was not significant between the three groups. FG40 group had significantly lowered systolic blood pressure after the intervention (P = 0.005. Conclusion: Daily intake of flaxseed powder lowered blood pressure in prediabetes but did not improve glycemic and IR indices.