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Sample records for based nutritional mixture

  1. Beneficial effects of a Q-ter based nutritional mixture on functional performance, mitochondrial function, and oxidative stress in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinze Xu

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are central mechanisms underlying the aging process and the pathogenesis of many age-related diseases. Selected antioxidants and specific combinations of nutritional compounds could target many biochemical pathways that affect both oxidative stress and mitochondrial function and, thereby, preserve or enhance physical performance.In this study, we evaluated the potential anti-aging benefits of a Q-ter based nutritional mixture (commercially known as Eufortyn mainly containing the following compounds: terclatrated coenzyme Q(10 (Q-ter, creatine and a standardized ginseng extract. We found that Eufortyn supplementation significantly ameliorated the age-associated decreases in grip strength and gastrocnemius subsarcolemmal mitochondria Ca(2+ retention capacity when initiated in male Fischer344 x Brown Norway rats at 21 months, but not 29 months, of age. Moreover, the increases in muscle RNA oxidation and subsarcolemmal mitochondrial protein carbonyl levels, as well as the decline of total urine antioxidant power, which develop late in life, were mitigated by Eufortyn supplementation in rats at 29 months of age.These data imply that Eufortyn is efficacious in reducing oxidative damage, improving the age-related mitochondrial functional decline, and preserving physical performance when initiated in animals at early midlife (21 months. The efficacy varied, however, according to the age at which the supplementation was provided, as initiation in late middle age (29 months was incapable of restoring grip strength and mitochondrial function. Therefore, the Eufortyn supplementation may be particularly beneficial when initiated prior to major biological and functional declines that appear to occur with advancing age.

  2. Nutritional and sensory characteristics of gluten-free quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd)-based cookies development using an experimental mixture design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Isabelle L; de Souza, Evandro Leite; Felex, Suênia Samara Santos; Madruga, Marta Suely; Yamashita, Fábio; Magnani, Marciane

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a gluten-free formulation of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)-based cookies using experimental design of mixture to optimize a ternary mixture of quinoa flour, quinoa flakes and corn starch for parameters of colour, specific volume and hardness. Nutritional and sensory aspects of the optimized formulation were also assessed. Corn starch had a positive effect on the lightness of the cookies, but increased amounts of quinoa flour and quinoa flakes in the mixture resulted in darker product. Quinoa flour showed a negative effect on the specific volume, producing less bulky cookies, and quinoa flour and quinoa flakes had a positive synergistic effect on the hardness of the cookies. According the results and considering the desirability profile for colour, hardness and specific volume in gluten-free cookies, the optimized formulation contains 30 % quinoa flour, 25 % quinoa flakes and 45 % corn starch. The quinoa-based cookie obtained was characterized as a product rich in dietary fibre, a good source of essential amino acids, linolenic acid and minerals, with good sensory acceptability. These findings reports for the first time the application of quinoa processed as flour and flakes in mixture with corn starch as an alternative ingredient for formulations of gluten-free cookies-type biscuits. PMID:26345002

  3. Mixture Based Outlier Filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pecherková

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Success/failure of adaptive control algorithms – especially those designed using the Linear Quadratic Gaussian criterion – depends on the quality of the process data used for model identification. One of the most harmful types of process data corruptions are outliers, i.e. ‘wrong data’ lying far away from the range of real data. The presence of outliers in the data negatively affects an estimation of the dynamics of the system. This effect is magnified when the outliers are grouped into blocks. In this paper, we propose an algorithm for outlier detection and removal. It is based on modelling the corrupted data by a two-component probabilistic mixture. The first component of the mixture models uncorrupted process data, while the second models outliers. When the outlier component is detected to be active, a prediction from the uncorrupted data component is computed and used as a reconstruction of the observed data. The resulting reconstruction filter is compared to standard methods on simulated and real data. The filter exhibits excellent properties, especially in the case of blocks of outliers. 

  4. [Crohn's disease and enteral feeding: comparative nutritional efficacy of elemental and polymeric nutritive mixtures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosnes, J; Bellanger, J; Gendre, J P; Le Quintrec, Y

    1988-10-01

    The nutritional development with three types of enteral diets during 28 days, was compared in 45 patients with malnutrition presenting an active Crohn's disease. Enteral feeding consisted of a polymeric mixture (Realmentyl) administered in addition to a normal oral diet in 11 patients; the same mixture was administered alone exclusively to 9 patients, and an elemental diet (Vivonex HN) administered exclusively to 25 patients. The total caloric intake reached, in the three groups, the mean values of 60.2, 36.9 and 33.8 kcal/kg of ideal weight/day, respectively. 33 patients also received steroids. At the end of 28 days of enteral diet, the improvement in the weight and the anthropometric measurements (muscle circumference, triceps skinfold) was significantly more marked (gain of 6.5 kg) with the supplemental polymeric mixture than with exclusive enteral diet, polymeric diet (+/- 2.0 kg) or basic (+1.2 kg). Transferrin and albumin plasma levels increased in all 3 groups, but much faster with the exclusive elemental feeding, in spite of a higher urinary urea excretion in these patients. The overall nutritional development was significantly better with supplemental polymeric feeding, and was identical in the two other groups. These results confirm that the supplemental polymeric enteral feeding is more effective, from the nutrition standpoint. With an exclusive enteral feeding, the nutritional result is appreciably the same, whether the mixture consists of polymers or basic elements. PMID:3144938

  5. Performance-based asphalt mixture design methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Al-Hosain Mansour

    Today, several State D.O.T.s are being investigating the use of tire rubber with local conventional materials. Several of the ongoing investigations identified potential benefits from the use of these materials, including improvements in material properties and performance. One of the major problems is being associated with the transferability of asphalt rubber technology without appropriately considering the effects of the variety of conventional materials on mixture behavior and performance. Typically, the design of these mixtures is being adapted to the physical properties of the conventional materials by using the empirical Marshall mixture design and without considering fundamental mixture behavior and performance. Use of design criteria related to the most common modes of failure for asphalt mixtures, such as rutting, fatigue cracking, and low temperature thermal cracking have to be developed and used for identifying the "best mixture," in term of performance, for the specific local materials and loading conditions. The main objective of this study was the development of a mixture design methodology that considers mixture behavior and performance. In order to achieve this objective a laboratory investigation able to evaluate mixture properties that can be related to mixture performance, (in terms of rutting, low temperature cracking, moisture damage and fatigue), and simulating the actual field loading conditions that the material is being exposed to, was conducted. The results proved that the inclusion of rubber into asphalt mixtures improved physical characteristics such as elasticity, flexibility, rebound, aging properties, increased fatigue resistance, and reduced rutting potential. The possibility of coupling the traditional Marshall mix design method with parameters related to mixture behavior and performance was investigated. Also, the SHRP SUPERPAVE mix design methodology was reviewed and considered in this study for the development of an integrated

  6. Relationship inference based on DNA mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Navreet; Bouzga, Mariam M; Dørum, Guro; Egeland, Thore

    2016-03-01

    Today, there exists a number of tools for solving kinship cases. But what happens when information comes from a mixture? DNA mixtures are in general rarely seen in kinship cases, but in a case presented to the Norwegian Institute of Public Health, sample DNA was obtained after a rape case that resulted in an unwanted pregnancy and abortion. The only available DNA from the fetus came in form of a mixture with the mother, and it was of interest to find the father of the fetus. The mother (the victim), however, refused to give her reference data and so commonly used methods for paternity testing were no longer applicable. As this case illustrates, kinship cases involving mixtures and missing reference profiles do occur and make the use of existing methods rather inconvenient. We here present statistical methods that may handle general relationship inference based on DNA mixtures. The basic idea is that likelihood calculations for mixtures can be decomposed into a series of kinship problems. This formulation of the problem facilitates the use of kinship software. We present the freely available R package relMix which extends on the R version of Familias. Complicating factors like mutations, silent alleles, and θ-correction are then easily handled for quite general family relationships, and are included in the statistical methods we develop in this paper. The methods and their implementations are exemplified on the data from the rape case. PMID:26541994

  7. Chocolate Bars Based on Human Nutritional Requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Robson, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    International audience Key Points * The nutritional value of chocolate bars should be based on the nutritional value of the low energy dense late Paleolithic human diet to help reduce mental ill health, obesity, and other postprandial insults. * Current chocolate bars have a high energy density (>2 kcal/g). * Cocoa can be sweetened by the addition of calorie-free Purefruit™ (Tate & Lyle) monk fruit ( Siraitia grosvenorii ) extract. PUREFRUIT™ is approximately 200 times sweeter than sugar a...

  8. Vision Based Extraction of Nutrition Information from Skewed Nutrition Labels

    OpenAIRE

    Zaman, Tanwir

    2016-01-01

    An important component of a healthy diet is the comprehension and retention of nutritional information and understanding of how different food items and nutritional constituents affect our bodies. In the U.S. and many other countries, nutritional information is primarily conveyed to consumers through nutrition labels (NLs) which can be found in all packaged food products. However, sometimes it becomes really challenging to utilize all this information available in these NLs even for consumers...

  9. Neighborhood Mixture Model for Knowledge Base Completion

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Dat Quoc; Sirts, Kairit; Qu, Lizhen; Johnson, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge bases are useful resources for many natural language processing tasks, however, they are far from complete. In this paper, we define a novel entity representation as a mixture of its neighborhood in the knowledge base and apply this technique on TransE-a well-known embedding model for knowledge base completion. Experimental results show that the neighborhood information significantly helps to improve the results of the TransE, leading to better performance than obtained by other sta...

  10. Tomato production in sand: vermicompost mixtures compared with sand and nutritive solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Moreno Reséndez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the response of tomato in Miramar and Romina genotypes of indeterminate growth, and to establish the optimum concentration of the mixture sand-vermicompost to satisfy crop nutritional needs, a greenhouse experiment was carried out. Seeds were sown in polystyrene trays with 200 cavities, padded with Peat moss and were transplanted in 20 L black plastic bags. The ratios of sand-vermicompost were 1:1; 2:1; 3:1 and 1:0 by volume. In mixture with ratio 1:0 a nutrient solution was applied. Four substrates and two genotypes were evaluated for a total of eight treatments, each of ones with six replications. Miramar genotype with a yield of 145.9 Mg/ha was exceed a 17.20% to Romina. Regarding the substrates, the yield of tomato in the treatment sand and nutrient solution (control was 168.7 Mg/ha. This value exceeded at least 24.6% the yields of the substrates with vermicompost. For the rest of the parameters, except in the days to harvest, the substrate with sand and nutrient solution also exceeded the three sand-vermicompost substrates. The substrates that included vermicompost, without synthetic fertilizers, for both genotypes developed completely the tomato crop cycle without apparent symptoms of deficiency, and without affecting the quality of fruits.

  11. Chemical Mixture Risk Assessment Additivity-Based Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powerpoint presentation includes additivity-based chemical mixture risk assessment methods. Basic concepts, theory and example calculations are included. Several slides discuss the use of "common adverse outcomes" in analyzing phthalate mixtures.

  12. Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva-Aguilar Martín

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Metals are ubiquitous pollutants present as mixtures. In particular, mixture of arsenic-cadmium-lead is among the leading toxic agents detected in the environment. These metals have carcinogenic and cell-transforming potential. In this study, we used a two step cell transformation model, to determine the role of oxidative stress in transformation induced by a mixture of arsenic-cadmium-lead. Oxidative damage and antioxidant response were determined. Metal mixture treatment induces the increase of damage markers and the antioxidant response. Loss of cell viability and increased transforming potential were observed during the promotion phase. This finding correlated significantly with generation of reactive oxygen species. Cotreatment with N-acetyl-cysteine induces effect on the transforming capacity; while a diminution was found in initiation, in promotion phase a total block of the transforming capacity was observed. Our results suggest that oxidative stress generated by metal mixture plays an important role only in promotion phase promoting transforming capacity.

  13. Optimal (Solvent) Mixture Design through a Decomposition Based CAMD methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achenie, L.; Karunanithi, Arunprakash T.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2004-01-01

    Computer Aided Molecular/Mixture design (CAMD) is one of the most promising techniques for solvent design and selection. A decomposition based CAMD methodology has been formulated where the mixture design problem is solved as a series of molecular and mixture design sub-problems. This approach is...... able to overcome most of the difficulties associated with the solution of mixture design problems. The new methodology has been illustrated with the help of a case study involving the design of solvent-anti solvent binary mixtures for crystallization of Ibuprofen....

  14. Probabilistic mixture-based image modelling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haindl, Michal; Havlíček, Vojtěch; Grim, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 3 (2011), s. 482-500. ISSN 0023-5954 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572; GA ČR GA102/08/0593 Grant ostatní: CESNET(CZ) 387/2010; GA MŠk(CZ) 2C06019; GA ČR(CZ) GA103/11/0335 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : BTF texture modelling * discrete distribution mixtures * Bernoulli mixture * Gaussian mixture * multi-spectral texture modelling Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 0.454, year: 2011 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/RO/haindl-0360244.pdf

  15. Technical hazards of using nutritive mixtures in bags for cyclical intravenous nutrition: comparison with standard intravenous nutrition in 48 gastroenterological patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Messing, B.; Beliah, M; Girard-Pipau, F; Leleve, D; Bernier, J J

    1982-01-01

    Three methods for dispensing nutritional solutions are compared in 48 patients with gastrointestinal diseases on intravenous nutrition during 3582 days. The protocol for intravenous nutrition applied by the nursing team and the solutions used were the same in the three groups. In group A standard bottles were used, while in group B, 31PVC-disposable bags were used--with fat emulsion included (group B1) or with fat excluded (group B2). When fat was excluded from the bags it was infused separat...

  16. Text document classification based on mixture models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novovičová, Jana; Malík, Antonín

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 3 (2004), s. 293-304. ISSN 0023-5954 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA2075302; GA ČR GA102/03/0049; GA AV ČR KSK1019101 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1075907 Keywords : text classification * text categorization * multinomial mixture model Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.224, year: 2004

  17. Arbor Clinical Nutrition Updates: evidence-based clinical nutrition education using the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helman, A D

    2005-08-01

    The Arbor Clinical Nutrition Updates (ACNU) is a weekly electronic nutrition journal for health professionals. Each issue summarises several recent clinical research papers appearing in the general medical and nutrition literature and which deal with a common nutrition topic. A commentary is added on how this research fits in with previous work, and what it all means for the practising clinician. ACNU is the world's most widely read electronic nutrition publication, with over 100,000 largely health-professional readers in 186 countries. It is published in nine languages and distributed by email without charge in both plain text and Acrobat formats. ACNU utilises a number of the Internet's unique characteristics to facilitate broad reach, currency and active reader feedback. This, together with its brevity and summarising format, helps to maintain its relevance to the nutrition education needs of health professionals, particularly those in clinical practice, and to overcome the factors most commonly reported by health professionals as obstacles to their greater adoption of evidence-based medicine. ACNU is intended to be a collaboration with the primary research journals to extend the reach of new nutrition research findings to a wider community of researchers, academics and clinicians than each journal might otherwise reach individually. As such, ACNU utilises the Internet to promote the goals of open-access publishing and evidence-based medicine. PMID:16052179

  18. Finite mixture models and model-based clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Melnykov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Finite mixture models have a long history in statistics, having been used to model population heterogeneity, generalize distributional assumptions, and lately, for providing a convenient yet formal framework for clustering and classification. This paper provides a detailed review into mixture models and model-based clustering. Recent trends as well as open problems in the area are also discussed.

  19. Mixture-based adaptive probabilistic control

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kárný, Miroslav; Böhm, Josef; Guy, Tatiana Valentine; Nedoma, Petr

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 2 (2003), s. 119-132. ISSN 0890-6327 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/02/0204; GA ČR GA102/00/P045 Grant ostatní: ProDaCTool(XE) IST-1999-12058 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1075907 Keywords : Bayesian identification * fully probabilistic control * finite mixtures Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 0.602, year: 2003 http://library.utia.cas.cz/prace/20030048.ps

  20. Image segmentation based on adaptive mixture model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As an important research field, image segmentation has attracted considerable attention. The classical geodesic active contour (GAC) model tends to produce fake edges in smooth regions, while the Chan–Vese (CV) model cannot effectively detect images with holes and obtain the precise boundary. To address the above issues, this paper proposes an adaptive mixture model synthesizing the GAC model and the CV model by a weight function. According to image characteristics, the proposed model can adaptively adjust the weight function. In this way, the model exploits the advantages of the GAC model in regions with rich textures or edges, while exploiting the advantages of the CV model in smooth local regions. Moreover, the proposed model is extended to vector-valued images. Through experiments, it is verified that the proposed model obtains better results than the traditional models. (paper)

  1. Consumer acceptance of nutrigenomics based personalised nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronteltap, A.; Trijp, van J.C.M.; Renes, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    Nutrigenomics is a new and promising development in nutritional science which aims to understand the fundamental molecular processes affected by foods. Despite general agreement on its promise for better understanding diet¿health relationships, less consensus exists among experts on the potential of

  2. Nutritional and sensory characteristics of Minas fresh cheese made with goat milk, cow milk, or a mixture of both.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant'Ana, A M S; Bezerril, F F; Madruga, M S; Batista, A S M; Magnani, M; Souza, E L; Queiroga, R C R E

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to assess and compare the nutritional, technological, and sensory characteristics of Minas fresh cheese made with goat milk, cow milk, or a mixture of the two stored in cold conditions for 21d. The yield and centesimal composition of the cheeses were not affected by the type of milk used in their preparation. Reductions were observed in the moisture content, pH, proteolysis index, and instrumental hardness; moreover, increases were observed in the syneresis, acidity index, and depth of proteolysis index in all cheeses. The percentages of caprylic, capric, oleic, and linoleic fatty acids were higher in goat milk cheese and cheese made with a mixture of goat and cow milk compared with cow milk cheese, and a sensory evaluation revealed differences in color, flavor, and aroma between the cheeses. The preparation of Minas fresh cheese with a mixture of goat and cow milk can be a viable alternative for dairy products in the market that can be characterized as high-quality products that meet consumer demands. PMID:24140324

  3. Adaptive Gaussian Mixture Filter Based on Statistical Linearization

    OpenAIRE

    Huber, Marco F.

    2012-01-01

    Gaussian mixtures are a common density representation in nonlinear, non-Gaussian Bayesian state estimation. Selecting an appropriate number of Gaussian components, however, is difficult as one has to trade of computational complexity against estimation accuracy. In this paper, an adaptive Gaussian mixture filter based on statistical linearization is proposed. Depending on the nonlinearity of the considered estimation problem, this filter dynamically increases the number of components via spli...

  4. Effects of Nutrition Relevant Mixtures of Phytoestrogens on Steroidogenesis, Aromatase, Estrogen, and Androgen Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taxvig, Camilla; Engell-Kofoed, Anders Elleby; Sonne-Hansen, Katrine;

    2010-01-01

    Phytoestrogens (PEs) are naturally occurring plant components produced in a large range of plants. They can induce biologic responses in vertebrates by mimicking or modulating the action or production of endogenous hormones. This study examined mixtures of 12 food relevant PEs for effects on...... steroid hormone production, aromatase activity, estrogenic activity, and for interaction with the androgen receptor. The results show that a mixture of all tested PEs increased estradiol production and decreased testosterone production in H295R human adrenal corticocarcinoma cells, indicating an induced...

  5. Bioconversions of Palm Kernel Cake and Rice Bran Mixtures by Trichoderma viride Toward Nutritional Contents

    OpenAIRE

    Yana Sukaryana; Umi Atmomarsono; Vitus D. Yunianto; Ejeng Supriyatna

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the research is to examine the mixtures of palm kernel cake and rice bran of fermented by Trichoderma viride. Completely randomized design in factorial pattern 4 x 4 was used in this experiment. factor I is the doses of inoculums; D1 = 0%, D2 =  0,1% , D3 =  0,2%, D4 =  0,3%, and  complement factor II is mixtures of palm kernel cake and rice bran : T1=20:80% ; T2=40:60% ; T3=60:40% ; T4=80:20%. The treatment each of three replicate. Fermentation was conduc...

  6. Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you would like to see a registered dietitian nutritionist for nutritional guidance when you have lung cancer. ... seek out the expertise of a registered dietitian nutritionist (RDN) who works with lung cancer patients. This ...

  7. Study of ionization losses in He-based gas mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Borsato, E; Dal Corso, F; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Buccheri, A; Ferroni, F; Lacava, F; Lamanna, E; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Pastore, F C; Piredda, G; Pontecorvo, L

    1999-01-01

    Helium based gas mixtures are particularly interesting since they have a good tracking resolution because of the reduced multiple scattering. We have studied the differential energy loss dE/dx in several mixtures, He-isobutane and He-ethane. We present results from measurements performed with electrons, pions and protons in the momentum range between 1 and 5 GeV/c obtained in a prototype drift chamber with a 3 cm cell. The results show that helium performs well in measuring energy losses for charged particles.

  8. Colour Texture Representation Based on Multivariate Bernoulli Mixtures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haindl, Michal; Havlíček, Vojtěch; Grim, Jiří

    Los Alamitos : IEEE, 2010, s. 578-581. ISBN 978-1-4244-7166-9. [10th International Conference on Information Sciences, Signal Processing and their Applications. Kuala Lumpur (MY), 10.05.2010-13.05.2010] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572; GA ČR GA102/08/0593 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) 2C06019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Texture modeling * Bernoulli mixture * EM algorithm Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2010/RO/haindl-colour texture representation based on multivariate bernoulli mixtures.pdf

  9. Multi-resolution image segmentation based on Gaussian mixture model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Yinggan; Liu Dong; Guan Xinping

    2006-01-01

    Mixture model based image segmentation method, which assumes that image pixels are independent and do not consider the position relationship between pixels, is not robust to noise and usually leads to misclassification. A new segmentation method, called multi-resolution Gaussian mixture model method, is proposed. First, an image pyramid is constructed and son-father link relationship is built between each level of pyramid. Then the mixture model segmentation method is applied to the top level. The segmentation result on the top level is passed top-down to the bottom level according to the son-father link relationship between levels. The proposed method considers not only local but also global information of image, it overcomes the effect of noise and can obtain better segmentation result. Experimental result demonstrates its effectiveness.

  10. Effect of a School-based Nutrition Education Program on the Nutritional Status of Primary School Children

    OpenAIRE

    Parisa Keshani; Seyed Mohammad Mousavi; Zahra Mirzaei; Zeinab Hematdar; Najmeh Maayeshi; Mahsa Mirshekari; Hanieh Ranjbaran; Shiva Faghih

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Regarding the high prevalence of unhealthy food habits among Iranian children, we aimed to assess the effect of a school-based nutrition education program on nutritional status of primary school students in Shiraz. Materials and Methods: This randomized educational controlled trial was carried out on 221 primary school age children selected by cluster sampling in the elementary schools of Shiraz-Iran. The intervention consisted of 6 nutrition education sessions ...

  11. Proteomics based compositional analysis of complex cellulase-hemicellulase mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chundawat, Shishir P.; Lipton, Mary S.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Uppugundla, Nirmal; Gao, Dahai; Balan, Venkatesh; Dale, Bruce E.

    2011-10-07

    Efficient deconstruction of cellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars for fuel and chemical production is accomplished by a complex mixture of cellulases, hemicellulases and accessory enzymes (e.g., >50 extracellular proteins). Cellulolytic enzyme mixtures, produced industrially mostly using fungi like Trichoderma reesei, are poorly characterized in terms of their protein composition and its correlation to hydrolytic activity on cellulosic biomass. The secretomes of commercial glycosyl hydrolase producing microbes was explored using a proteomics approach with high-throughput quantification using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Here, we show that proteomics based spectral counting approach is a reasonably accurate and rapid analytical technique that can be used to determine protein composition of complex glycosyl hydrolase mixtures that also correlates with the specific activity of individual enzymes present within the mixture. For example, a strong linear correlation was seen between Avicelase activity and total cellobiohydrolase content. Reliable, quantitative and cheaper analytical methods that provide insight into the cellulosic biomass degrading fungal and bacterial secretomes would lead to further improvements towards commercialization of plant biomass derived fuels and chemicals.

  12. Fermentation quality and nutritive value of rice crop residue based silage ensiled with addition of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Silage is the feedstuff resulted from the preservation of forages through lactic acid fermentation. The aim of this study was to evaluate nutritive value, fermentation characteristics and nutrients digestibility of rice crop residue based silage ensiled with epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The mixture of rice crop residue (RC), soybean curd residue (SC) and cassava waste (CW) in a 90: 5: 5 (on dry matter basis) ratio was used as silage material. Three treatments silage were (A) RC + SC...

  13. Bioassay-based risk assessment of complex mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, K.C.; Huebner, H.J. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Veterinary Anatomy and Public Health

    1996-12-31

    The baseline risk assessment often plays an integral role in various decision-making processes at Superfund sites. The present study reports on risk characterizations prepared for seven complex mixtures using biological and chemical analysis. Three of the samples (A, B, and C) were complex mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) extracted from coal tar; while four samples extracted from munitions-contaminated soil contained primarily nitroaromatic hydrocarbons. The chemical-based risk assessment ranked sample C as least toxic, while the risk associated with samples A and B was approximately equal. The microbial bioassay was in general agreement for the coal tar samples. The weighted activity of the coal tar extracts in Salmonella was 4,960 for sample C, and 162,000 and 206,000 for samples A and B, respectively. The bacterial mutagenicity of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene contaminated soils exhibited an indirect correlation with chemical-based risk assessment. The aqueous extract of sample 004 induced 1,292 net revertants in Salmonella, while the estimated risk to ingestion and dermal adsorption was 2E-9. The data indicate that the chemical-based risk assessment accurately predicted the genotoxicity of the PAHs, while the accuracy of the risk assessment for munitions contaminated soils was limited due to the presence of metabolites of TNT degradation. The biological tests used in this research provide a valuable compliment to chemical analysis for characterizing the genotoxic risk of complex mixtures.

  14. Encouraging appropriate, evidence-based use of oral nutritional supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, Rebecca J; Elia, Marinos

    2010-11-01

    With the considerable cost of disease-related malnutrition to individuals and to society (estimated to be >£13×109 for the UK, 2007 prices), there is a need for effective and evidence-based ways of preventing and treating this condition. The wide range of oral nutritional supplements that may be prescribed for the dietary management of malnutrition and other conditions account for only about 1% (about £99×106, 2007 data) of the prescribing budget in England. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses consistently suggest that ready-made, multi-nutrient liquids which may be prescribed can improve energy and nutritional intake, body weight and have a variety of clinical and functional benefits in a number of patient groups. Meta-analyses have repeatedly shown that oral nutritional supplements produce significant reductions in complications (e.g. infections) and mortality, and a recent meta-analysis shows a reduction in hospital admissions (OR 0·56 (95% CI 0·41, 0·77), six randomised controlled trials). Such benefits suggest that the appropriate use of oral nutritional supplements should form an integral part of the management of malnutrition, particularly as there is currently a lack of evidence for alternative oral nutrition strategies (e.g. food fortification and counselling). As with all therapies, compliance to oral nutritional supplements needs to be maximised and the use monitored. To make sure that those at risk of malnutrition are identified and treated appropriately, there is a need to embed national and local policies into routine clinical practice. In doing so, the economic burden of this costly condition can be curtailed. As recently suggested by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, substantial cost savings could be made if screening and treatment of malnourished patients was undertaken. PMID:20696091

  15. Penning transfer in argon-based gas mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Sahin, O; Tapan, I; Ozmutlu, E N

    2010-01-01

    Penning transfers, a group of processes by which excitation energy is used to ionise the gas, increase the gas gain in some detectors. Both the probability that such transfers occur and the mechanism by which the transfer takes place, vary with the gas composition and pressure. With a view to developing a microscopic electron transport model that takes Penning transfers into account, we use this dependence to identify the transfer mechanisms at play. We do this for a number of argon-based gas mixtures, using gain curves from the literature.

  16. Bayesian classification of sonograms of thyroid gland based on Gaussian mixtures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tesař, Ludvík; Smutek, D.

    Stavanger : NOBIM, 2004, s. 36-40. [NOBIM 2004. Stavanger (NO), 27.05.2004-28.05.2004] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/03/0049; GA MŠk LN00B107 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1075907 Keywords : thyroid gland * Bayesian classification * Gaussian mixtures Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition

  17. Ionic-Liquid Based Separation of Azeotropic Mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulajanpeng, Kusuma; Suriyapraphadilok, Uthaiporn; Gani, Rafiqul

    2014-01-01

    methodology for the screening of ionic liquids (ILs) as entrainers for ILs-based separation processes in binary aqueous azeotropic systems (e.g., water + ethanol and water + isopropanol) is presented. Ionic liquids as entrainers were first screened based on a combination of criteria such as...... stability, toxicity, and environmental impacts of the ILs. A Hildebrand solubility parameter group contribution model for ILs is highlighted to screen the miscibility of the ILs with the target solute component which was considered as a key target property to further screen the candidates from the previous...... minimum concentration of the ILs required to break the given azeotrope, the best ILs as entrainers for water + ethanol and water + isopropanol azeotropic mixtures were [C1MIM][DMP] and [C2MIM][N(CN)2], respectively....

  18. Evidence-based diabetes nutrition therapy recommendations are effective: the key is individualization

    OpenAIRE

    Franz MJ; Boucher JL; Evert AB

    2014-01-01

    Marion J Franz,1 Jackie L Boucher,2 Alison B Evert3 1Nutrition Concepts by Franz, Inc., Minneapolis, MN, 2Minneapolis Heart Institute Foundation, Minneapolis, MN, 3Diabetes Care Center, University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, WA, USA Abstract: Current nutrition therapy recommendations for the prevention and treatment of diabetes are based on a systematic review of evidence and answer important nutrition care questions. First, is diabetes nutrition therapy effective? Clinical trials...

  19. NUTRIBASE - Data base for Nutritional Evaluation and Dietetic Treatment in Populational Metabolic Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Ştefania IANCU; BONDOR, Cosmina Ioana; Ştefan ŢIGAN

    2008-01-01

    The nutritional evaluation and diet prescription are laborious and require much time. They need calculations of basic nutritional indices, to precisely diagnose and finally to indicate the proper nutritional recommendations based on demographic, anthropometric, biochemical data and medical history of the patient. Our purpose was to create a new strategic approach to increase the rapid elaboration of nutritional evaluation, calculation of carbohydrate controlled diets and a software implementa...

  20. Survey of Nutrition Education in U.S. Medical Schools An Instructor-Based Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Steven H. Zeisel, MD, PhD

    2001-01-01

    Background: Recent reports on the state of nutrition in U.S. medical schools suggest that these schools are challenged to incorporate nutrition into an already full curriculum. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the current state of nutrition education in US medical schools based on information reported by individuals responsible for teaching nutrition to medical students. Design: Between July 1999 and May 2000, we surveyed 122 U.S. medical and osteopathic schools. The survey w...

  1. Survey of Nutrition Education in U.S. Medical Schools – An Instructor-Based Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Torti, Frank M; Adams, Kelly M.; Edwards, Lloyd J.; Lindell, Karen C.; Zeisel, Steven H

    2001-01-01

    Background: Recent reports on the state of nutrition in U.S. medical schools suggest that these schools are challenged to incorporate nutrition into an already full curriculum. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the current state of nutrition education in US medical schools based on information reported by individuals responsible for teaching nutrition to medical students. Design: Between July 1999 and May 2000, we surveyed 122 U.S. medical and osteopathic schools. The survey w...

  2. Effects of processing variables and full fat soy flour on nutritional and sensory properties of spaghetti using a mixture design approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasehi, Behzad; Mortazavi, Syed Ali; Razavi, Syed Mohamadali; Tehrani, Mostafa Mazaheri; Karim, Roselina

    2009-01-01

    The influence of full-fat soy flour (FFSF) and extrusion conditions on nutritional and sensory characteristics of spaghetti was evaluated using a mixture design, in order to produce functional pasta. Addition of FFSF increases the nutritional composition significantly (Pnutritional and sensory attributes, but both enhanced the effect of formulation on the color and surface condition of spaghetti. Also, interaction between the screw speed and the ingredients resulted in a slight positive effect on the firmness and beany flavor attributes. Optimum nutritional value and sensory attributes of spaghetti were produced when 17.0 g/100 g FFSF was added and processed at a screw speed of 40 rpm and a temperature of 70 degrees C. PMID:19225970

  3. Adaptive learning algorithm based on mixture Gaussian background

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zha Yufei; Bi Duyan

    2007-01-01

    The key problem of the adaptive mixture background model is that the parameters can adaptively change according to the input data.To address the problem, a new method is proposed.Firstly, the recursive equations are inferred based on the maximum likelihood rule.Secondly, the forgetting factor and learning rate factor are redefined, and their still more general formulations are obtained by analyzing their practical functions.Lastly, the convergence of the proposed algorithm is proved to enable the estimation converge to a local maximum of the data likelihood function according to the stochastic approximation theory.The experiments show that the proposed learning algorithm excels the formers both in converging rate and accuracy.

  4. Efficient Kernel-Based Ensemble Gaussian Mixture Filtering

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Bo

    2015-11-11

    We consider the Bayesian filtering problem for data assimilation following the kernel-based ensemble Gaussian-mixture filtering (EnGMF) approach introduced by Anderson and Anderson (1999). In this approach, the posterior distribution of the system state is propagated with the model using the ensemble Monte Carlo method, providing a forecast ensemble that is then used to construct a prior Gaussian-mixture (GM) based on the kernel density estimator. This results in two update steps: a Kalman filter (KF)-like update of the ensemble members and a particle filter (PF)-like update of the weights, followed by a resampling step to start a new forecast cycle. After formulating EnGMF for any observational operator, we analyze the influence of the bandwidth parameter of the kernel function on the covariance of the posterior distribution. We then focus on two aspects: i) the efficient implementation of EnGMF with (relatively) small ensembles, where we propose a new deterministic resampling strategy preserving the first two moments of the posterior GM to limit the sampling error; and ii) the analysis of the effect of the bandwidth parameter on contributions of KF and PF updates and on the weights variance. Numerical results using the Lorenz-96 model are presented to assess the behavior of EnGMF with deterministic resampling, study its sensitivity to different parameters and settings, and evaluate its performance against ensemble KFs. The proposed EnGMF approach with deterministic resampling suggests improved estimates in all tested scenarios, and is shown to require less localization and to be less sensitive to the choice of filtering parameters.

  5. Viscoelastic Analysis of Asphalt Mixture Based on Creep Test

    OpenAIRE

    Lihua Zhao; Jingyun Chen; Shengwu Wang

    2013-01-01

    Two kinds of mineral fibers were added to AC-16C asphalt mixture. Trabecular bending creep experiments of asphalt mixtures were carried out at -10 and 20°C. The influence of mineral fibers on the low temperature viscoelasticity of asphalt mixtures were analyzed systemically. Furthermore, by using Origin, Burgers viscoelastic model was used to investigate the parameter regression for the creep test results at the different temperatures. The results show that the addition of mineral fibers can ...

  6. Effect of a School-based Nutrition Education Program on the Nutritional Status of Primary School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Keshani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Regarding the high prevalence of unhealthy food habits among Iranian children, we aimed to assess the effect of a school-based nutrition education program on nutritional status of primary school students in Shiraz. Materials and Methods: This randomized educational controlled trial was carried out on 221 primary school age children selected by cluster sampling in the elementary schools of Shiraz-Iran. The intervention consisted of 6 nutrition education sessions carried out through one year for children, using active learning methods. Mothers’ education was carried out in person in both lecture and question-answer sessions also via sending text messages and pamphlets. Weight, height and waist circumference (WC of children were measured before and after the intervention. Also a 168-item food frequency questionnaire was completed. Two separate nutrition knowledge questionnaires were filled up by children and their mothers. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16. Results: 171 children (83 in the case and 88 in the control group, aged 9.5-10.5 years, completed the study. Anthropometric and nutritional knowledge of the participants in both the intervention and control groups was significantly increased. Weight, height, WC and nutritional knowledge increased significantly more in the intervention group compared to the controls. Consumption of fruits and vegetables decreased in the intervention group while plain sugar and fast foods intake increased among the controls. There were no significant differences between the changes in the intake of any of the food groups in the two groups. Conclusions: In conclusion, the designed nutrition education program could increase students’ nutritional knowledge, and lead to a non-significant change towards reducing the consumption of unhealthy foods such as fast foods, sweets and salty snacks.

  7. Food-Based Science Curriculum Yields Gains in Nutrition Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carraway-Stage, Virginia; Hovland, Jana; Showers, Carissa; Díaz, Sebastián; Duffrin, Melani W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Students may be receiving less than an average of 4?hours of nutrition instruction per year. Integrating nutrition with other subject areas such as science may increase exposure to nutrition education, while supporting existing academics. Methods: During the 2009-2010 school year, researchers implemented the Food, Math, and Science…

  8. Combining ability of elephant grass based on nutritional characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Quitete Ribeiro da Silva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the work was to evaluate the effects of general combining ability (CGC of the parents and specific combining ability (CEC in the elephant grass hybrids by diallel analysis adapted to partial diallel crosses based on nutritional characters. Sixteen hybrids and eight parents in a randomized block design with three replications were evaluated. The study considered percentage of dry matter (%DM, ash (%ASH, crude protein (%CP and neutral detergent fiber (NDF. There were significant differences among genotypes for the traits evaluated, with a predominance of dominance gene effect. Based on CGC, the best parents were Taiwan A-144, Vruckwona Africana e Taiwan A-146. The best intersections based on CEC were Taiwan A-144 x Taiwan A-146, Vruckwona Africana x Taiwan A-146, Vruckwona Africana x Mercker S.E.A., Vruckwona Africana x Napier nº2 e Pusa Napier nº2 x Mercker Santa Rita.

  9. Viscoelastic Analysis of Asphalt Mixture Based on Creep Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two kinds of mineral fibers were added to AC-16C asphalt mixture. Trabecular bending creep experiments of asphalt mixtures were carried out at -10 and 20°C. The influence of mineral fibers on the low temperature viscoelasticity of asphalt mixtures were analyzed systemically. Furthermore, by using Origin, Burgers viscoelastic model was used to investigate the parameter regression for the creep test results at the different temperatures. The results show that the addition of mineral fibers can effectively improve the bending creep rate of asphalt mixtures, indicates the increase of crack resistance of asphalt mixtures. Good agreement between experimental data and Burgers model was found. The parameters of Burgers model at different temperatures can also provide data support for the viscoelastic design of asphalt pavements.

  10. FERTILIZER RECOMMENDATION SYSTEM FOR MELON BASED ON NUTRITIONAL BALANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Aridiano Lima de Deus

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Melon is one of the most demanding cucurbits regarding fertilization, requiring knowledge of soils, crop nutritional requirements, time of application, and nutrient use efficiency for proper fertilization. Developing support systems for decision-making for fertilization that considers these variables in nutrient requirement and supply is necessary. The objective of this study was parameterization of a fertilizer recommendation system for melon (Ferticalc-melon based on nutritional balance. To estimate fertilizer recommendation, the system considers the requirement subsystem (REQ, which includes the demand for nutrients by the plant, and the supply subsystem (SUP, which corresponds to the supply of nutrients through the soil and irrigation water. After determining the REQtotal and SUPtotal, the system calculates the nutrient balances for N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S, recommending fertilizer application if the balance is negative (SUP < REQ, but not if the balance is positive or zero (SUP ≥ REQ. Simulations were made for different melon types (Yellow, Cantaloupe, Galia and Piel-de-sapo, with expected yield of 45 t ha-1. The system estimated that Galia type was the least demanding in P, while Piel-de-sapo was the most demanding. Cantaloupe was the least demanding for N and Ca, while the Yellow type required less K, Mg, and S. As compared to other fertilizer recommendation methods adopted in Brazil, the Ferticalc system was more dynamic and flexible. Although the system has shown satisfactory results, it needs to be evaluated under field conditions to improve its recommendations.

  11. THE STUDY OF CORE SAND MIXTURES BASED ON POLYMERIC BINDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Natalia V. Zakharova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of using foamed polystyrene waste as the binder in manufacturing core sand mixtures. The article provides experimental data obtained by studying the core sand mixtures properties depending on the methods of addition, foamed polystyrene solution amount, its viscosity and the method of drying. The author investigates the ways of using foamed polystyrene as the binder and as the polymeric additive.

  12. A multipronged, nutritional-based strategy for managing Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, J Leslie; McMillan, Philip A

    2016-06-01

    A nutritional-based strategy has been proposed in order to improve cognitive performance of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. The strategy requires daily dietary supplementation with magnesium (Mg), folic acid, and vitamins B6 and B12, daily consumption of silicic acid-rich mineral water in order to lower the body burden of Al, and several plasma exchange procedures in order to replace Aβ-bound albumin with fresh albumin. Evidence suggests that the deteriorating cognitive performance associated with AD may be improved by supplementation with either Mg alone or with the combination of the above three B vitamins (B vitamin combo), or by drinking silicic acid-rich mineral water, or by undergoing plasma exchange. However, for the following reasons the combination of all four therapeutic approaches may have a synergistic effect on improving cognitive performance of AD patients. PMID:27142155

  13. Patients, evidence and genes: an exploration of GPs' perspectives on gene-based personalized nutrition advice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, L.I.; Molder, te H.F.M.; Hiddink, G.J.

    2008-01-01

    Background. Nutrigenomics science examines the response of individuals to food compounds using post-genomics technology. It is expected that in the future, personalized nutrition advice can be provided based on information about genetic make-up. Objectives. Gene-based personalized nutrition advice e

  14. A physiological foundation for the nutrition-based efficiency wage model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Strulik, Holger

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on recent research on allometric scaling and energy consumption, the present paper develops a nutrition-based efficiency wage model from first principles. The biologically micro-founded model allows us to address empirical criticism of the original nutrition-based efficiency wage model. By...

  15. A Bioeconomic Foundation for the Nutrition-based Efficiency Wage Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Strulik, Holger

    Drawing on recent research on allometric scaling and energy consumption, the present paper develops a nutrition-based efficiency wage model from first principles. The biologically micro-founded model allows us to address empirical criticism of the original nutrition-based efficiency wage model. By...

  16. Pilot-Testing CATCH Early Childhood: A Preschool-Based Healthy Nutrition and Physical Activity Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shreela; Chuang, Ru-Jye; Hedberg, Ann Marie

    2011-01-01

    Background: The literature on theoretically-based programs targeting healthy nutrition and physical activity in preschools is scarce. Purpose: To pilot test CATCH Early Childhood (CEC), a preschool-based nutrition and physical activity program among children ages three to five in Head Start. Methods: The study was conducted in two Head Start…

  17. Health Blief Model-based intervention to improve nutritional behavior among elderly women

    OpenAIRE

    Iranagh, Jamileh Amirzadeh; Rahman, Hejar Abdul; Motalebi, Seyedeh Ameneh

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Nutrition is a determinant factor of health in elderly people. Independent living in elderly people can be maintained or enhanced by improvement of nutritional behavior. Hence, the present study was conducted to determine the impact of Health Belief Model (HBM)-based intervention on the nutritional behavior of elderly women. SUBJECTS/METHODS Cluster-random sampling was used to assess the sample of this clinical trial study. The participants of this study attended a 12-we...

  18. Structure Property Relationships in Imidazole-based Deep Eutectic Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terheggen, Logan; Cosby, Tyler; Sangoro, Joshua

    2015-03-01

    Deep eutectic mixtures of levulinic acid with a systematic series of imidazoles are measured by broadband dielectric spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to investigate the impact of steric interactions on charge transport and structural dynamics. An enhancement of dc conductivity is found in each of the imidazoles upon the addition of levulinic acid. However, the extent of increase is dependent upon the alkyl substitution on the imidazole ring. These results highlight the importance of molecular structure on hydrogen bonding and charge transport in deep eutectic mixtures.

  19. Mixture theory-based poroelasticity as a model of interstitial tissue growth

    OpenAIRE

    Cowin, Stephen C.; Cardoso, Luis

    2012-01-01

    This contribution presents an alternative approach to mixture theory-based poroelasticity by transferring some poroelastic concepts developed by Maurice Biot to mixture theory. These concepts are a larger RVE and the subRVE-RVE velocity average tensor, which Biot called the micro-macro velocity average tensor. This velocity average tensor is assumed here to depend upon the pore structure fabric. The formulation of mixture theory presented is directed toward the modeling of interstitial growth...

  20. Subband-based Single-channel Source Separation of Instantaneous Audio Mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Taghia, Jalil; Doostari, Mohammad Ali

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a new algorithm is developed to separate the audio sources from a single instantaneous mixture. The algorithm is based on subband decomposition and uses a hybrid system of Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) and Principle Component Analysis (PCA) to construct artificial observations from the single mixture. In the separation stage of algorithm, we use Independent Component Analysis (ICA) to find independent components. At first the observed mixture is divided into a finite numbe...

  1. Medical Nutrition Therapy based on Nutrition Intervention for a Patient with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Seung Hee

    2014-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of disability, and according to statistics from the World Health Organization, COPD is the fourth leading cause of death overall in the face of decades, and expected to be increased. In 2005, the reported prevalence of COPD in Korea was 17.2% of adults over the age of 45. Malnutrition is a common problem in papatients with COPD. And several nutritional intervention studies showed a significant improvement in physical and functional...

  2. The phase behaviour of xanthan based biopolymer mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Boyd, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    It was proposed that a phase separated system might be utilised to deliver a concentrated polysaccharide mucosal protective coating in gastro oesophageal reflux disease (GORD). In this context the phase behaviour of xanthan gum in combination with sodium alginate and other polymers was studied. Above a threshold concentration of alginate, aqueous mixtures of xanthan exhibited phase separation, resulting in loss of normal viscoelastic properties and the formation of a low viscosity system. The...

  3. Rights-Based Approaches to Ensure Sustainable Nutrition Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Sweta

    2016-01-01

    In India, a rights-based approach has been used to address large-scale malnutrition, including both micro- and macro-level nutrition deficiencies. Stunting, which is an intergenerational chronic consequence of malnutrition, is especially widespread in India (38% among children under 5 years old). To tackle this problem, the government of India has designed interventions for the first 1,000 days, a critical period of the life cycle, through a number of community-based programs to fulfill the rights to food and life. However, the entitlements providing these rights have not yet produced the necessary changes in the malnutrition status of people, especially women and children. The government of India has already implemented laws and drafted a constitution that covers the needs of its citizens, but corruption, bureaucracy, lack of awareness of rights and entitlements and social discrimination limit people's access to basic rights and services. To address this crisis, Welthungerhilfe India, working in remote villages of the most backward states in India, has shifted from a welfare-based approach to a rights-based approach. The Fight Hunger First Initiative, started by Welthungerhilfe in 2011, is designed on the premise that in the long term, poor people can only leave poverty behind if adequate welfare systems are in place and if basic rights are fulfilled; these rights include access to proper education, sufficient access to adequate food and income, suitable health services and equal rights. Only then can the next generation of disadvantaged populations look forward to a new and better future and can growth benefit the entire society. The project, co-funded by the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development, is a long-term multi-sectoral program that involves institution-building and empowerment. PMID:27198153

  4. Sports Nutritive Food Mechanism Research Based on the Functional Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Zhengtao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of sports science, nowadays the sports competition is becoming intenser day by day. Sports nutritive food plays an important role for athletes to promote their sports ability, timely relieve fatigue and rapidly recover physical fitness. On the basis of analyzing the composition and efficacies of sports nutritive food, this study further explores its mechanism of impacting athletes to provide some guidance for related practices and follow-up studies.

  5. Sports Nutritive Food Mechanism Research Based on the Functional Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng Zhengtao

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid development of sports science, nowadays the sports competition is becoming intenser day by day. Sports nutritive food plays an important role for athletes to promote their sports ability, timely relieve fatigue and rapidly recover physical fitness. On the basis of analyzing the composition and efficacies of sports nutritive food, this study further explores its mechanism of impacting athletes to provide some guidance for related practices and follow-up studies.

  6. Viscosity Prediction of Hydrocarbon Mixtures Based on the Friction Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeberg-Mikkelsen, Claus Kjær; Cisneros, Sergio; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2001-01-01

    The application and capability of the friction theory (f-theory) for viscosity predictions of hydrocarbon fluids is further illustrated by predicting the viscosity of binary and ternary liquid mixtures composed of n-alkanes ranging from n-pentane to n-decane for wide ranges of temperature and from...... low to high pressures. In the f-theory viscosity predictions the SRK and the PRSV EOS have respectively been used. Further, a comparison with the widely used LBC viscosity model shows that better results are obtained with the f-theory models. The obtained AAD% is within or close to the experimental...

  7. NUTRIBASE - Data base for Nutritional Evaluation and Dietetic Treatment in Populational Metabolic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Ştefania IANCU

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional evaluation and diet prescription are laborious and require much time. They need calculations of basic nutritional indices, to precisely diagnose and finally to indicate the proper nutritional recommendations based on demographic, anthropometric, biochemical data and medical history of the patient. Our purpose was to create a new strategic approach to increase the rapid elaboration of nutritional evaluation, calculation of carbohydrate controlled diets and a software implementation. We named the outcome application Nutribase. The application could be used in clinical settings and/or nutritional research environments for calculating the composition of diet in diabetes and other metabolic disturbances, for helping dieticians and nutrition professionals as well as an educational instrument for patients and students. Nutribase (an Access based software collects data on nutritional and biological parameters related to dietary assessment and treatment of the subjects with metabolic diseases but not only, calculates the body mass index, ideal body weight and metabolic requirements of patients, provides ready-made diet models and recommendations according to the calculated metabolic requirements, diagnosis, provides tables of composition of foods (calories, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, allows an assessment of diet composition per meal, provides a flexible educational instrument for creating or adjusting a diet according to the patients’ preferences, is very much time saving in clinical settings and it may be adapted for epidemiological nutritional studies.

  8. Mixture theory-based poroelasticity as a model of interstitial tissue growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowin, Stephen C; Cardoso, Luis

    2012-01-01

    This contribution presents an alternative approach to mixture theory-based poroelasticity by transferring some poroelastic concepts developed by Maurice Biot to mixture theory. These concepts are a larger RVE and the subRVE-RVE velocity average tensor, which Biot called the micro-macro velocity average tensor. This velocity average tensor is assumed here to depend upon the pore structure fabric. The formulation of mixture theory presented is directed toward the modeling of interstitial growth, that is to say changing mass and changing density of an organism. Traditional mixture theory considers constituents to be open systems, but the entire mixture is a closed system. In this development the mixture is also considered to be an open system as an alternative method of modeling growth. Growth is slow and accelerations are neglected in the applications. The velocity of a solid constituent is employed as the main reference velocity in preference to the mean velocity concept from the original formulation of mixture theory. The standard development of statements of the conservation principles and entropy inequality employed in mixture theory are modified to account for these kinematic changes and to allow for supplies of mass, momentum and energy to each constituent and to the mixture as a whole. The objective is to establish a basis for the development of constitutive equations for growth of tissues. PMID:22184481

  9. Establishment of trees on mixtures of pulverised fuel ash and gypsum. Part II: nutrition and trace elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, P.J.A.; Moffat, A.J.

    1993-10-01

    Pulverised fuel ash (PFA) sites in Britain have traditionally been restored to agriculture, but with the current trend to taking agricultural land out of production there is renewed interest in alternative end uses such as forestry. PFA has been shown to be colonized naturally to trees after 20-plus-years. In a series of experiments, the authors tested the growth and chemical uptake of a variety of tree species ([ital Populus nigra] var 'Italica', [ital P.alba], [ital Pinus nigra] var maritima, [ital Betula pendula], [ital Acer pseudoplatanus], [ital Alnus glutinosa], [ital A. cordata], and [ital Robinia pseudoacacia]) in a variety of mixtures (PFA, flue gas desulphurization gypsum, a 1:1 PFA:gypsum mix and a 2:1 mix, and a compost control). In earlier research several of the species were shown to tolerate the unusual physical and chemical characteristics of the mixtures. Here, elemental content of leaves from the trees after one year indicated that PFA consistently increased foliar levels of K, B, and Mo. Poor performance of some of the tree species in pure PFA was attributed to boron toxicity. Adding gypsum with the PFA tended to reduce B uptake. Fertilizers tended to improve tree performance. The authors were encouraged by the performance of the nitrogen fixing species ([ital Alnus] and [ital Robinia]), indicating that it may be possible to establish a self-sustaining woodland on power plant wastes.

  10. Mixture Theory of Mass Transfer Based upon Microstructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L Brown

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A mixture theory has been developed to model equitemperature metamorphism of snow. This formulation is a volume fraction theory which models the inter change of mass between the constitueats making up the mixture. The formulation has been developed so that the microstructure of the materialis included to correctly describe the mechanical and thermal processes. The second law of thermo dynamics is used to impose restrictions upon the various constitutive relations. These constitutive relationsare then described in terms of microstructure of the material. The micsostructure of each constituentis represented by constituent size (mean grain size, intergranular bond size, intergranular neckgeometry, specific free surface area and dispersed density. The resulting formulation is then used to model equitemperature metamorphism of snow by determining the time-dependent changes in thedistribution of grain size, neck size and dispersed densities of each of the constituents. The resultsobtained show that the formulation can describe how the material changes under equitemperatureconditions. However, it is noted that since microstructure significantly affects the rate of metamorphism,an accurate determination of the microstructure (including grain and neck size distribution is necessary for this approach to accurately predict changes in the material due to metamorphism.

  11. A Holistic School-Based Nutrition Program Fails to Improve Teachers' Nutrition-Related Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviour in Rural China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongxu; Stewart, Donald; Chang, Chun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the effectiveness of a holistic school-based nutrition programme using the health-promoting school (HPS) approach, on teachers' knowledge, attitudes and behaviour in relation to nutrition in rural China. Design/methodology/approach: A cluster-randomised intervention trial design was employed. Two…

  12. On-chip characterization of cryoprotective agent mixtures using an EWOD-based digital microfluidic device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sinwook; Wijethunga, Pavithra A L; Moon, Hyejin; Han, Bumsoo

    2011-07-01

    For tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, cryopreservation, a technique for preserving biomaterials in the frozen state with cryoprotective agents (CPAs), is critically important for preserving engineered tissues (ETs) as well as cells necessary to create ETs. As more diverse ETs are produced using various cell types, CPAs and corresponding freeze/thaw (F/T) protocols need to be developed cell/tissue-type specifically. This is because CPAs and F/T protocols that have been successful for one cell/tissue type have proven to be difficult to adapt to other cell/tissue types. The most critical barrier to address this challenge is the inability to screen and identify CPA or CPA mixtures efficiently. In this paper, we developed an "electro-wetting-on-dielectic" (EWOD) based digital microfluidic platform to characterize and screen CPA mixtures cell-type specifically. The feasibility of the EWOD platform was demonstrated by characterizing and optimizing a mixture of dimethlysulfoxide (DMSO) and PBS for human breast cancer cell line as model CPA mixture and cell line. The developed platform multiplexed droplets of DMSO and PBS to create an array of DMSO-PBS mixtures, and mapped the phase change diagram of the mixture. After loading cell suspensions on the platform, the mixture was further screened on-chip for toxicity and cryoprotection. The results were discussed to illustrate the capabilities and limitations of the EWOD platform for cell and tissue-type specific optimization of CPA mixtures and F/T protocols. PMID:21603697

  13. Nutrigenomics-based personalised nutritional advice: in search of a business model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronteltap, Amber; van Trijp, Hans; Berezowska, Aleksandra; Goossens, Jo

    2013-03-01

    Nutritional advice has mainly focused on population-level recommendations. Recent developments in nutrition, communication, and marketing sciences have enabled potential deviations from this dominant business model in the direction of personalisation of nutrition advice. Such personalisation efforts can take on many forms, but these have in common that they can only be effective if they are supported by a viable business model. The present paper takes an inventory of approaches to personalised nutrition currently available in the market place as its starting point to arrive at an identification of their underlying business models. This analysis is presented as a unifying framework against which the potential of nutrigenomics-based personalised advice can be assessed. It has uncovered nine archetypical approaches to personalised nutrition advice in terms of their dominant underlying business models. Differentiating features among such business models are the type of information that is used as a basis for personalisation, the definition of the target group, the communication channels that are being adopted, and the partnerships that are built as a part of the business model. Future research should explore the consumer responses to the diversity of "archetypical" business models for personalised nutrition advice as a source of market information on which the delivery of nutrigenomics-based personalised nutrition advice may further build. PMID:22903899

  14. Evaluation of a preschool nutrition education program based on the theory of multiple intelligences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cason, K L

    2001-01-01

    This report describes the evaluation of a preschool nutrition education program based on the theory of multiple intelligences. Forty-six nutrition educators provided a series of 12 lessons to 6102 preschool-age children. The program was evaluated using a pretest/post-test design to assess differences in fruit and vegetable identification, healthy snack choices, willingness to taste foods, and eating behaviors. Subjects showed significant improvement in food identification and recognition, healthy snack identification, willingness to taste foods, and frequency of fruit, vegetable, meat, and dairy consumption. The evaluation indicates that the program was an effective approach for educating preschool children about nutrition. PMID:11953232

  15. Evaluation and performance based mix design of rubber modified mixtures: Laboratory evaluation of asphalt concrete mixtures using waste tires. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goulias, D.G.; Ali, A.H.M.

    1997-02-01

    New Jersey Department of Transportation has been investigating the use of rubber modified materials over the last few years with the design and use of dense and gap graded mixtures, and in some cases the incorporation of RAP materials, in selected projects. While the short term field performance of these materials is satisfactory, their long term performance is unknown. These mixtures were designed with the traditional Marshall mixture design method, and thus is was not considered design criteria related to mixture behavior and performance into mixture selection. The main objective of this study is the development of a mixture design methodology for rubber modified materials that considers mixture behavior and performance. In order to achieve this objective researchers conducted a laboratory investigation which was able to evaluate mixture properties that can be related to mixture performance, (in terms of rutting, low temperature cracking, and fatigue), and simulating the actual field loading conditions that the material is being exposed to. The possibility of coupling the traditional Marshall mix design method with parameters related to mixture behavior and performance was investigated since this technique has been used over the years by the agency, and the necessary testing apparatus is available to both the agency and material laboratories. The SHRP SUPERPAVE mix design methodology was reviewed and considered in this study for the development of an integrated performance based design procedure. However, its applicability and use on routine bases was not considered at this time since it requires specific equipment with ongoing evaluation for its repeatability and precision. Finally, for the conduct of this investigation materials and mixtures used by NJDOT in rubber modified paving projects were used.

  16. Development of professional practice through problem-based learning in human nutrition and Dietetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero-López Ma Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although competency-based education is well established in health care education, research shows that the competencies do not always match the reality of clinical workplaces, especially in nutrition area. Student of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, have reported shortcomings in their general competencies, such as organizational skills, teamwork, knowledge to develop proposals for intervention. Were given to students a problem-based learning (PBL activity with collaborative learning competence for to investigate their evolutions in collaborative learning and the knowledge in nutrition education. The results suggest that the PBL provided better preparation with respect to several of the competencies. The effect of PBL for the experienced students' collaborative learning and education nutrition competencies is especially promising in the professional development of future nutritionists.

  17. A Methodological Approach to Assessing the Health Impact of Environmental Chemical Mixtures: PCBs and Hypertension in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul White

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We describe an approach to examine the association between exposure to chemical mixtures and a health outcome, using as our case study polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and hypertension. The association between serum PCB and hypertension among participants in the 1999–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was examined. First, unconditional multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and associated 95% confidence intervals. Next, correlation and multicollinearity among PCB congeners was evaluated, and clustering analyses performed to determine groups of related congeners. Finally, a weighted sum was constructed to represent the relative importance of each congener in relation to hypertension risk. PCB serum concentrations varied by demographic characteristics, and were on average higher among those with hypertension. Logistic regression results showed mixed findings by congener and class. Further analyses identified groupings of correlated PCBs. Using a weighted sum approach to equalize different ranges and potencies, PCBs 66, 101, 118, 128 and 187 were significantly associated with increased risk of hypertension. Epidemiologic data were used to demonstrate an approach to evaluating the association between a complex environmental exposure and health outcome. The complexity of analyzing a large number of related exposures, where each may have different potency and range, are addressed in the context of the association between hypertension risk and exposure to PCBs.

  18. Foodomics: MS-based Strategies in Modern Food Science and Nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Herrero, Miguel; Simó, Carolina; García-Cañas, Virginia; Ibáñez, Elena; Cifuentes, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    Modern research in food science and nutrition is moving from classical methodologies to advanced analytical strategies in which MS-based techniques play a crucial role. In this context, Foodomics has been recently defined as a new discipline that studies food and nutrition domains through the application of advanced omics technologies in which MS techniques are considered indispensable. Applications of Foodomics include the genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and/or metabolomic study of foods...

  19. Exploring the Use of an Image-Based Approach to Assessing Nutrition Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Brianna Routh; Mary Jo Katras; Mary Marczak

    2015-01-01

    Formative evaluation was conducted for the Personal Health Behaviors Overview (PHBO) survey to evaluate nutrition behaviors with image-based questions in low-income populations. Forty-nine low-income adults from nutrition education classes were invited to participate with n = 42 included in the analysis. Participants completed the PHBO survey while an interviewer recorded observations. Upon completion, participants were asked questions regarding each PHBO survey item. Most participants comple...

  20. Explaining the Relation between Nutrition and Room Temperature Based on Iranian Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nutrition is one of the most effective components of human’s health and nutritional practices have an important role in a healthy nutrition. Iranian traditional medicine, which is one of the holistic medical schools, has special approaches related to effective environmental factors in healthy nutrition. Identifying these special approaches is helpful to the medical community. The aim of this study was to examine the relation between nutrition and room temperature during different seasons based on Iranian traditional medicine. To that end, its precise scientific aspects and the approach of the traditional medicine practitioners was analyzed to provide a new pattern in nutrition with respect to the weather Methods: Traditional medicine literature including Ibn-e Sina’s Qanoon, Zakhirey-e Kharazm shahi, Kāmil al-Sinaā al Tibbiya al-Maliki, mofarreh al-gholoob, Hefz o sehe Naseri, were studied. Differences and similarities were reviewed and summarized. In order to analyze the data, scientific resources of modern medicine such as Krause’s food and nutrition principles were applied. Results: According to traditional medicine’s approaches and the new scientific findings, there are significant differences between the type of regime, quality, and quantity of meals during different seasons of a year and in different room temperatures. Considering the above-mentioned differences, it plays an important role in a healthy nutrition. Conclusion: Adhering to a good regime and vigilance on a healthy nutrition would provide a new pattern regime and ultimately lead to healthy people. Therefore, it is important to focus on this topic to promote a healthy society.

  1. The production of high load coal-water mixtures on the base of Kansk-Achinsk Coal Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demidov, Y.; Bruer, G.; Kolesnikova, S. [Research and Design Institute for Problems of Development of Kansk-Achinsk Coal Basin (KATEKNilugol), Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-01

    The results of the {open_quotes}KATEKNIIugol{close_quotes} work on the problems of high load coal-water mixtures are given in this article. General principles of the mixture production, short characteristics of Kansk-Achinsk coals, the experimental results of the coal mixture production on a test-industrial scale, the suspension preparation on the base of coal mixtures, technical-economical indexes of tested coal pipeline variants based on Kansk-Achinsk coals are described.

  2. Ionic-Liquid Based Separation of Azeotropic Mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulajanpeng, Kusuma; Suriyapraphadilok, Uthaiporn; Gani, Rafiqul

    2014-01-01

    stability, toxicity, and environmental impacts of the ILs. A Hildebrand solubility parameter group contribution model for ILs is highlighted to screen the miscibility of the ILs with the target solute component which was considered as a key target property to further screen the candidates from the previous......methodology for the screening of ionic liquids (ILs) as entrainers for ILs-based separation processes in binary aqueous azeotropic systems (e.g., water + ethanol and water + isopropanol) is presented. Ionic liquids as entrainers were first screened based on a combination of criteria such as...... [C1MIM][DMP]. For the final evaluation, the best candidates for aqueous systems were used as entrainers, and then the vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) of the ternary systems containing ILs was predicted by the Non Random Two Liquids (NRTL) model to confirm the breaking of the azeotrope. Based on...

  3. Modeling dependence based on mixture copulas and its application in risk management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANG Zi-sheng; LIAO Hui; YANG Xiang-qun

    2009-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the statistical modeling of the dependence structure of multivariate financial data using the copula, and the application of copula functions in VaR valuation. After the introduction of the pure copula method and the maximum and minimum mixture copula method, authors present a new algorithm based on the more generalized mixture copula functions and the dependence measure, and apply the method to the portfolio of Shanghai stock composite index and Shenzhen stock component index. Comparing with the results from various methods, one can find that the mixture copula method is better than the pure Gaussia copula method and the maximum and minimum mixture copula method on different VaR level.

  4. Development of seasonal heat storage based on stable supercooling of a sodium acetate water mixture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Fan, Jianhua; Andersen, Elsa;

    2012-01-01

    to and from the sodium acetate water mixture in the modules. By means of the experiments: • The heat exchange capacity rates to and from the sodium acetate water mixture in the heat storage modules were determined for different volume flow rates. • The heat content of the heat storage modules were determined......A number of heat storage modules for seasonal heat storages based on stable supercooling of a sodium acetate water mixture have been tested by means of experiments in a heat storage test facility. The modules had different volumes and designs. Further, different methods were used to transfer heat....... • The reliability of the supercooling was elucidated for the heat storage modules for different operation conditions. • The reliability of a cooling method used to start solidification of the supercooled sodium acetate water mixture was elucidated. The method is making use of boiling CO2 in a small tank in good...

  5. Antioxidant and anti-ageing activities of citrus-based juice mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dan-Bi; Shin, Gi-Hae; Kim, Jae-Min; Kim, Young-Hyun; Lee, Jin-Ha; Lee, Jong Seok; Song, Hye-Jin; Choe, Soo Young; Park, In-Jae; Cho, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Ok-Hawn

    2016-03-01

    The production of excessive reactive oxygen species by exposure to oxidative stress and solar radiation are primary factors in skin damage. We examined the effects of a citrus-based juice mixture and its bioactive compounds on antioxidant and anti-ageing activities in human dermal fibroblasts and hairless mice via the regulation of antioxidant enzymes and the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. The citrus-based juice mixture reduced H2O2-induced cell damage and intracellular reactive oxygen species production in human dermal fibroblasts. Citrus-based juice mixture pretreatment suppressed the activation of the H2O2-mediated mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway by activating the expression of activator protein 1 and matrix metalloproteinases. Moreover, it increased the expression levels of antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione reductase, catalase and manganese superoxide dismutase. In addition, oral administration of the citrus-based juice mixture decreased skin thickness and wrinkle formation and increased collagen content on an ultraviolet light B-exposed hairless mouse. These results indicate that the citrus-based juice mixture is a potentially healthy beverage for the prevention of oxidative stress-induced premature skin ageing. PMID:26471635

  6. Honey-Based Mixtures Used in Home Medicine by Nonindigenous Population of Misiones, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Kujawska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Honey-based mixtures used in home medicine by nonindigenous population of Misiones, Argentina. Medicinal mixtures are an underinvestigated issue in ethnomedical literature concerning Misiones, one of the most bioculturally diverse province of Argentina. The new culturally sensitive politics of the Provincial Health System is a response to cultural practices based on the medicinal use of plant and animal products in the home medicine of the local population. Honey-based medicinal formulas were investigated through interviews with 39 farmers of mixed cultural (Criollos and Polish origins in northern Misiones. Fifty plant species and 8 animal products are employed in honey-based medicines. Plants are the most dominant and variable elements of mixtures. Most of the mixtures are food medicines. The role of honey in more than 90% of formulas is perceived as therapeutic. The ecological distribution of taxa and the cultural aspects of mixtures are discussed, particularly the European and American influences that have shaped the character of multispecies medicinal recipes.

  7. Humidifying system design of PEMFC test platform based on the mixture of dry and wet air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiancai Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the present humidifying system of PEMFC test platform, a novel design based on dry and wet air mixture is proposed. Key parameters are calculated, and test platform is built. Three experiments are implemented to test the performance of proposed design. Results show that the new design can meet the requirements, and realize the quick response and accurate control.

  8. Nonuniformity correction algorithm based on Gaussian mixture model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Xin-gang; Zhang, Gui-lin; Hu, Ruo-lan; Zhou, Xiao

    2011-08-01

    As an important tool to acquire information of target scene, infrared detector is widely used in imaging guidance field. Because of the limit of material and technique, the performance of infrared imaging system is known to be strongly affected by the spatial nonuniformity in the photoresponse of the detectors in the array. Temporal highpass filter(THPF) is a popular adaptive NUC algorithm because of its simpleness and effectiveness. However, there still exists the problem of ghosting artifact in the algorithms caused by blind update of parameters, and the performance is noticeably degraded when the methods are applied over scenes with lack of motion. In order to tackle with this problem, a novel adaptive NUC algorithm based on Gaussian mixed model (GMM) is put forward according to traditional THPF. The drift of the detectors is assumed to obey a single Gaussian distribution, and the update of the parameters is selectively performed based on the scene. GMM is applied in the new algorithm for background modeling, in which the background is updated selectively so as to avoid the influence of the foreground target on the update of the background, thus eliminating the ghosting artifact. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated with infrared image sequences with simulated and real fixed-pattern noise. The results show a more reliable fixed-pattern noise reduction, tracking the parameter drift, and presenting a good adaptability to scene changes.

  9. The School Meal System and School-Based Nutrition Education in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Taejung

    2015-01-01

    Since the school meal was first served in Korea in 1953, there have been many changes, particularly during the last decade. Recently, the representative features of the school meal system became free school meals for all pupils in elementary school and a nutrition teacher system in schools. These policies were suggested to implement more and more the educational role of the school meal. The rate of schools serving school meals reached 100% as of 2013, and 99.6% students eat a school meal each school day. Nutrition teachers were assigned to schools from 2007, and 4,704 (47.9%) nutrition teachers of all nutrition employees were employed in schools as of 2013. At present, various nutrition education materials are being development by local education offices and government agencies, and various education activities are being implemented spiritedly. The ultimate goal of school meals and school-based nutrition education are as follows: 1) improvement of the health of students; 2) promotion of the traditional Korean diet; and 3) extension of opportunities for a healthier dietary life. PMID:26598874

  10. Microstructure modeling and virtual test of asphalt mixture based on three-dimensional discrete element method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马涛; 张德育; 张垚; 赵永利; 黄晓明

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this work is to model the microstructure of asphalt mixture and build virtual test for asphalt mixture by using Particle Flow Code in three dimensions (PFC3D) based on three-dimensional discrete element method. A randomly generating algorithm was proposed to capture the three-dimensional irregular shape of coarse aggregate. And then, modeling algorithm and method for graded aggregates were built. Based on the combination of modeling of coarse aggregates, asphalt mastic and air voids, three-dimensional virtual sample of asphalt mixture was modeled by using PFC3D. Virtual tests for penetration test of aggregate and uniaxial creep test of asphalt mixture were built and conducted by using PFC3D. By comparison of the testing results between virtual tests and actual laboratory tests, the validity of the microstructure modeling and virtual test built in this study was verified. Additionally, compared with laboratory test, the virtual test is easier to conduct and has less variability. It is proved that microstructure modeling and virtual test based on three-dimensional discrete element method is a promising way to conduct research of asphalt mixture.

  11. Thermophysical properties of ethylene glycol mixture based CNT nanofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarano, D. M.; Mansur, F. A.; Araújo, T. L. C. F.; Salles, G. C.; Santos, A. P.

    2016-07-01

    Nanofluids are produced by dispersing nanometer-scale solid particles into base liquids such as water, ethylene glycol, etc. The thermal quadrupole method is utilized to determine the thermophysical properties of materials. By this technique, the thermal diffusivity and conductivity of different nanofluids containing the surfactants humic acid, sodium salt of humic acid and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and multi-wall carbon nanotubes were evaluated at room temperature and at 75 oC. Values of thermal diffusivity varying in the range from 9.60x10-8 m2s-1 to 1.46x10-7 m2s-1 and thermal conductivity from 0.26 Wm-1K-1 to 41 Wm-1K-1 were obtained. As main conclusions, it was noted that nanofluids exhibit superior heat transfer characteristics than the conventional heat transfer fluid and the thermal conductivity is enhanced by 50% for the nanofluid containing 0.0275 mg/mL of sodium salt of humic acid + ethylene glycol, at the temperature of 25 oC.

  12. Blind separation of sources in nonlinear convolved mixture based on a novel network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡英; 杨杰; 沈利

    2004-01-01

    Blind separation of independent sources from their nonlinear convoluted mixtures is a more realistic problem than from linear ones. A solution to this problem based on the Entropy Maximization principle is presented. First we propose a novel two-layer network as the de-mixing system to separate sources in nonlinear convolved mixture. In output layer of our network we use feedback network architecture to cope with convoluted mixtures. Then we derive learning algorithms for the two-layer network by maximizing the information entropy. Based on the comparison of the computer simulation results, it can be concluded that the proposed algorithm has a better nonlinear convolved blind signal separation effect than the H.H. Y' s algorithm.

  13. A Team-Based Learning Course on Nutrition and Lifestyle Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To create, implement, and evaluate an elective team-based learning (TBL) course on nutrition and lifestyle modification for pharmacy students. Design. An elective course with 15 contact hours was developed for second-year pharmacy students based on the principles of TBL. Student knowledge gained and satisfaction with the course were measured. Assessment. Sixty-two students completed the course. Knowledge about nutrition and lifestyle modification was significantly improved by completing the course (59% and 91%, respectively, p=85%) responded favorably to the TBL components. Conclusion. An elective course using TBL effectively delivered course content while teaching students communication and teamwork skills. The course was well received by students. PMID:23788814

  14. Caracterização químico-nutricional de um isolado protéico de soro de leite, um hidrolisado de colágeno bovino e misturas dos dois produtos Chemical-nutritional characterization of a whey protein isolate, a bovine collagen hydrolysate and mixtures of the two products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane La Flor Ziegler

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO:Estudar química e nutricionalmente um isolado protéico de soro de leite bovino, um hidrolisado de colágeno bovino e misturas dos dois produtos visando elevado valor nutritivo e funcional. MÉTODOS: Realizaram-se análises da composição centesimal e do perfil de aminoácidos dos dois materiais protéicos, para cálculo da melhor adequação dos aminoácidos essenciais, com base no perfil recomendado pela Organização Mundial de Saúde. Os índices de valor nutritivo para o isolado de soro de leite, o hidrolisado de colágeno e as misturas foram determinados em ratos, a partir de ensaios de crescimento e de balanço de nitrogênio. Os resultados dos parâmetros nutricionais foram submetidos à análise de variância e ao teste de Tukey para a verificação de diferenças entre médias (pOBJECTIVE:The objective was the chemical and nutritional study of a bovine whey protein isolate, a bovine collagen hydrolysate and mixtures of the two products aiming at high nutritional and functional value. METHODS: Centesimal composition and amino acid analyses were performed on both proteinaceous materials for the calculation of an adequate amino acid profile based on the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization recommendation. The nutritive value indexes for the whey protein isolate, the collagen hydrolysate and mixtures of both proteins were determined in rats through growth assay and nitrogen balance. The experimental parameters from nutritional assays were submitted to analysis of variance and the Tukey test applied for differences among means (p<0.05. RESULTS: The whey protein isolate met all the requirements of the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization reference for essential amino acids while the collagen hydrolysate showed deficiency in all essential amino acids and complete absence of tryptophan. The casein showed higher efficiency than the whey isolate and mixtures of both proteins in promoting

  15. Drift velocity and gain in argon- and xenon-based mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Andronic, A; Braun-Munzinger, P; Garabatos, C; Tsiledakis, G

    2004-01-01

    We present measurements of drift velocities and gains in gas mixtures based on Ar and Xe, with CO2, CH4, and N2 as quenchers, and compare them with calculations. In particular, we show the dependence of Ar- and Xe-CO2 drift velocities and gains on the amount of nitrogen contamination in the gas, which in real experiments may build up through leaks. A quantification of the Penning mechanism which contributes to the Townsend coefficients of a given gas mixture is proposed.

  16. Combustion of hydrogen-based mixtures in gas-fueled reciprocating engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smygalina, A. E.; Zaitchenko, V. M.; Ivanov, M. F.; Kiverin, A. D.

    2015-12-01

    The research is devoted to the possibility for application of hydrogen accumulated from renewable energy sources as a fuel for a reciprocating engine, which serves as an electrical generator drive. Hydrogen combustion in the chamber of a reciprocating engine, as a rule, occurs in a detonation mode. In order to obtain less hard modes, the present research proposes the usage of steam additions to hydrogen-air mixture or lean hydrogen-air mixtures. Mathematical simulation is used for investigation of combustion of mentioned mixtures in the combustion chamber of a reciprocating engine with a spark-plug ignition. The comparison of the usage of hydrogen-steam-air mixtures and lean hydrogen-air mixtures as fuels is given. The dependence of arising combustion modes and its quantitative characteristics on hydrogen content in combustible composition is investigated. The analysis of optimal combustion is presented, which is based on the consideration of two parameters: peak pressure in one cycle and the crankshaft angle corresponding to the achievement of the peak pressure.

  17. Molecular-Based Theory for Electron-Transfer Reorganization Energy in Solvent Mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Bilin; Wang, Zhen-Gang

    2016-07-01

    Using statistical-field techniques, we develop a molecular-based dipolar self-consistent-field theory (DSCFT) for charge solvation in liquid mixtures under equilibrium and nonequilibrium conditions, and apply it to compute the solvent reorganization energy of electron-transfer reactions. In addition to the nonequilibrium orientational polarization, the reorganization energy in liquid mixtures is also determined by the out-of-equilibrium solvent composition around the reacting species due to preferential solvation. Using molecular parameters that are readily available, the DSCFT naturally accounts for the dielectric saturation effect and the spatially varying solvent composition in the vicinity of the reacting species. We identify three general categories of binary solvent mixtures, classified by the relative optical and static dielectric permittivities of the solvent components. Each category of mixture is shown to produce a characteristic local solvent composition profile in the vicinity of the reacting species, which gives rise to the distinctive composition dependence of the reorganization energy that cannot be predicted using the dielectric permittivities of the homogeneous solvent mixtures. PMID:27187110

  18. Effect of lupine as cheese base substitution on technological and nutritional properties of processed cheese analogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezik Azab Awad

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Healthy foods have been met with marked success in the last two decades. Lupine flours, protein concentrates, and isolates can be applied as a substance for enriching different kinds of food systems such as bakery products, lupine pasta, ice cream, milk substitutes. Imitation processed cheese is made from mixtures of dairy and/or non dairy proteins and fat/oils and is variously labeled analogue, artifi cial, extruded, synthetic and/or fi lled. Processed cheese can be formulated using different types of cheese with different degree of maturation, fl avorings, emulsifying, salts, and/or several ingredients of non-dairy components. Non-dairy ingredients have been used in processed cheese for many dietary and economic reasons. In this study, lupine paste was used to substitute 25, 50, 75 and 100% of cheese in base formula of processed cheese analogue (PCA. Material and methods. Matured Ras cheese (3 months old was manufactured using fresh cow milk. Soft cheese curd was manufactured using fresh buffalo skim milk. Emulsifying salts S9s and Unsalted butter were used. Lupine termis paste was prepared by soaking the seeds in tap water for week with changing the water daily, and then boiled in water for 2 hrs, cooled and peeled. The peeled seeds were minced, blended to get very fi ne paste and kept frozen until used. Results. Lupine paste was used to substitute 25, 50, 75 and 100% of cheese in base formula of processed cheese analogue (PCA. The obtained PCA were analysed when fresh and during storage up to 3 months at 5±2°C for chemical composition, physical and sensory properties. The histopathological effect of lupines on alloxan diabetic albino rats and nutritional parameters were also investigated. Incorporation of lupine paste in PCA increased the ash and protein contents while meltability and penetration values of resultant products were decreased. Adding lupine in PSA formula had relatively increased the oil index and fi rmness of

  19. Spatial variability in nutritional status of arabic coffee based on dris index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel de Assis Silva

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The combined use of precision agriculture and the Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS allows the spatial monitoring of coffee nutrient balance to provide more balanced and cost-effective fertilizer recommendations. The objective of this work was to evaluate the spatial variability in the nutritional status of two coffee varieties using the Mean Nutritional Balance Index (NBIm and its relationship with their respective yields. The experiment was conducted in eastern Minas Gerais in two areas, one planted with variety Catucaí and another with variety Catuaí. The NBIm of the two varieties and their yields were analyzed through geostatistics and, based on the models and parameters of the variograms, were interpolated to obtain their spatial distribution in the studied areas. Variety Catucai, with grater spatial variability, was more nutritional unbalanced than variety Catuai, and consequently produced lower yields. Excess of Fe and Mn makes these elements limiting yield factors.

  20. The Impact of Content-Based Network Technologies on Perceptions of Nutrition Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Hannah; Church, E. Mitchell; Brewer, Steven L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Consumers are exposed to obesogenic environments on a regular basis. Building nutrition literacy is critical for sustaining healthy dietary habits for a lifetime and reducing the prevalence of chronic disease. Purpose: There is a need to investigate the impact of content-based network (CBN) technologies on perceptions of nutrition…

  1. School Nutrition Directors are Receptive to Web-Based Training Opportunities: A National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoellner, Jamie; Carr, Deborah H.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate school nutrition directors' (SNDs) previous experience with web-based training (WBT), interest in utilizing WBT within 14 functional areas, and logistical issues (time, price, educational credits, etc.) of developing and delivering WBT learning modules. Methods: A survey was developed…

  2. Implementation of an ICT-Based Learning Environment in a Nutrition Health Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiha, Teija; Tossavainen, Kerttu; Enkenberg, Jorma; Turunen, Hannele

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the views of school staff on a nutrition health project implemented via an ICT-based learning environment in a secondary school (7th to 9th grades). Design/methodology/approach: The study was a part of the wider European Network for Health Promoting Schools programme (ENHPS; since 2008, Schools…

  3. Evidence-based diabetes nutrition therapy recommendations are effective: the key is individualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz MJ

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Marion J Franz,1 Jackie L Boucher,2 Alison B Evert3 1Nutrition Concepts by Franz, Inc., Minneapolis, MN, 2Minneapolis Heart Institute Foundation, Minneapolis, MN, 3Diabetes Care Center, University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, WA, USA Abstract: Current nutrition therapy recommendations for the prevention and treatment of diabetes are based on a systematic review of evidence and answer important nutrition care questions. First, is diabetes nutrition therapy effective? Clinical trials as well as systematic and Cochrane reviews report a ~1%–2% lowering of hemoglobin A1c values as well as other beneficial outcomes from nutrition therapy interventions, depending on the type and duration of diabetes and level of glycemic control. Clinical trials also provide evidence for the effectiveness of nutrition therapy in the prevention of diabetes. Second, are weight loss interventions important and when are they beneficial? Modest weight loss is important for the prevention of type 2 diabetes and early in the disease process. However, as diabetes progresses, weight loss may or may not result in beneficial glycemic and cardiovascular outcomes. Third, are there ideal percentages of macronutrients and eating patterns that apply to all persons with diabetes? There is no ideal percentage of macronutrients and a variety of eating patterns has been shown to be effective for persons with diabetes. Treatment goals, personal preferences (eg, tradition, culture, religion, health beliefs, economics, and the individual's ability and willingness to make lifestyle changes must all be considered by clinicians and/or educators when counseling and educating individuals with diabetes. A healthy eating pattern emphasizing nutrient-dense foods in appropriate portion sizes, regular physical activity, and support are priorities for all individuals with diabetes. Reduced energy intake for persons with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes as well as matching insulin to planned

  4. Nutritional status assessment in semiclosed environments: ground-based and space flight studies in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. M.; Davis-Street, J. E.; Rice, B. L.; Nillen, J. L.; Gillman, P. L.; Block, G.

    2001-01-01

    Adequate nutrition is critical during long-term spaceflight, as is the ability to easily monitor dietary intake. A comprehensive nutritional status assessment profile was designed for use before, during and after flight. It included assessment of both dietary intake and biochemical markers of nutritional status. A spaceflight food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was developed to evaluate intake of key nutrients during spaceflight. The nutritional status assessment protocol was evaluated during two ground-based closed-chamber studies (60 and 91 d; n = 4/study), and was implemented for two astronauts during 4-mo stays on the Mir space station. Ground-based studies indicated that the FFQ, administered daily or weekly, adequately estimated intake of key nutrients. Chamber subjects maintained prechamber energy intake and body weight. Astronauts tended to eat 40--50% of WHO-predicted energy requirements, and lost >10% of preflight body mass. Serum ferritin levels were lower after the chamber stays, despite adequate iron intake. Red blood cell folate concentrations were increased after the chamber studies. Vitamin D stores were decreased by > 40% on chamber egress and after spaceflight. Mir crew members had decreased levels of most nutritional indices, but these are difficult to interpret given the insufficient energy intake and loss of body mass. Spaceflight food systems can provide adequate intake of macronutrients, although, as expected, micronutrient intake is a concern for any closed or semiclosed food system. These data demonstrate the utility and importance of nutritional status assessment during spaceflight and of the FFQ during extended-duration spaceflight.

  5. Legume based plant mixtures for delivery of multiple ecosystem services: An overview of benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas F Döring; Baddeley, J. A.; Brown, RJ; Collins, R; Crowley, Oliver; Cuttle, Steve; McCalman, Heather; Pearce, Bruce; Roderick, Stephen; Stobart, Ron; Storkey, Jonathan; Watson, Christine; Wolfe, Martin; Jones, H. E.

    2012-01-01

    As costs for mineral fertilizers rise, legume-based leys are recognised as a potential alternative nitrogen source for crops. Here we demonstrate that including species-rich legume-based leys in the rotation helps to maximize synergies between agricultural productivity and other ecosystem services. By using functionally diverse plant species mixtures these services can be optimised and fine-tuned to regional and farm-specific needs. Field experiments run over three years at multiple locations...

  6. IMPACT OF SPORTS AND NUTRITION COUNSELING TO BLOOD PRESSURE AND NUTRITIONAL STATUS BASED ON WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE IN HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS AT BENGKULU MUNICIPALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emy Yuliantini

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypertension is a condition when blood pressure at constant state is over 140190 mmHg. According to National Health Survey in 2001 the proportion of hypertension in Indonesia was 27% in male and 29% in female. The prevalence of hypertension at Bengkulu Municipality in 2005 was 1.7% (6.098, increased to 2.6% (7,244 in 2006, 2.6% (7,514 in 2007 and 7,175 in 2008. Respectively the management of hypertension therapy and lifestyle modification become important in the management of hypertensive patients. Objective: The study aimed to identify the impact of sports and nutrition counseling to blood pressure and nutrition status based on waist circumference in hypertensive patients at Bengkulu Municipality. Method: The study was a quasi experiment. Subject were hypertensive patients that fulfilled inclusion criteria (newly-diagnosed hypertension, age of 20-50 years, living in Bengkulu and willing to become respondents. Samples consisted of 120 people divided into 3 groups with intervention; Each group consisted of 40 people. Analysis used chi square, t-test, Anova and double linear regression. Result There was difference (p = 0.000 in waist circumference in female subject but not in male subject. Mutivariate test showed that aerobic sports within 60 minutes 3 times/week largely insignificant. T-test showed there was impact (p = 0.000 of nutrition counseling and sports to blood pressure status. Multivariate test showed that aerobic sports within 60 minutes 3 times/week largely affected systolic and diastolic blood pressure by controlling nutrition  counseling  and frequency of antihypertensive drug taking. Conclusion: The main factors affected to decrease of blood pressure and nutrional status patients based on waist circumference were nutritional counseling and sports.  Key words: sports, nutritional counseling, nutritional status, waist circumference, blood pressure

  7. Dissipation of bentazone, pyrimethanil and boscalid in biochar and digestate based soil mixtures for biopurification systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Santanu; Tappe, Wolfgang; Weihermueller, Lutz; Hofmann, Diana; Köppchen, Stephan; Laabs, Volker; Schroeder, Tom; Vereecken, Harry; Burauel, Peter

    2016-02-15

    Biopurification systems, such as biofilters, are biotechnological tools to prevent point sources of pesticide pollution stemming from on-farm operations. For the purification processes pesticide sorption and mineralization and/or dissipation are essential and both largely depend on the type of filling materials and the pesticide in use. In this paper the mineralization and dissipation of three contrasting (14)C-labeled pesticides (bentazone, boscalid, and pyrimethanil) were investigated in laboratory incubation experiments using sandy soil, biochar produced from Pine woodchips, and/or digestate obtained from anaerobic digestion process using maize silage, chicken manure, beef and pig urine as feedstock. The results indicate that the addition of digestate increased pesticide mineralization, whereby the mineralization was not proportional to the digestate loads in the mixture, indicating a saturation effect in the turnover rate of pesticides. This effect was in correlation with the amount of water extractable DOC, obtained from the digestate based mixtures. Mixing biochar into the soil generally reduced total mineralization and led to larger sorption/sequestration of the pesticides, resulting in faster decrease of the extractable fraction. Also the addition of biochar to the soil/digestate mixtures reduced mineralization compared to the digestate alone mixture but mineralization rates were still higher as for the biochar/soil alone. In consequence, the addition of biochar to the soil generally decreased pesticide dissipation times and larger amounts of biochar led to high amounts of non-extractable residues of pesticide in the substrates. Among the mixtures tested, a mixture of digestate (5%) and biochar (5%) gave optimal results with respect to mineralization and simultaneous sorption for all three pesticides. PMID:26657365

  8. Mechanism-Based Classification of PAH Mixtures to Predict Carcinogenic Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilton, Susan C; Siddens, Lisbeth K; Krueger, Sharon K; Larkin, Andrew J; Löhr, Christiane V; Williams, David E; Baird, William M; Waters, Katrina M

    2015-07-01

    We have previously shown that relative potency factors and DNA adduct measurements are inadequate for predicting carcinogenicity of certain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and PAH mixtures, particularly those that function through alternate pathways or exhibit greater promotional activity compared to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). Therefore, we developed a pathway-based approach for classification of tumor outcome after dermal exposure to PAH/mixtures. FVB/N mice were exposed to dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC), BaP, or environmental PAH mixtures (Mix 1-3) following a 2-stage initiation/promotion skin tumor protocol. Resulting tumor incidence could be categorized by carcinogenic potency as DBC > BaP = Mix2 = Mix3 > Mix1 = Control, based on statistical significance. Gene expression profiles measured in skin of mice collected 12 h post-initiation were compared with tumor outcome for identification of short-term bioactivity profiles. A Bayesian integration model was utilized to identify biological pathways predictive of PAH carcinogenic potential during initiation. Integration of probability matrices from four enriched pathways (P < .05) for DNA damage, apoptosis, response to chemical stimulus, and interferon gamma signaling resulted in the highest classification accuracy with leave-one-out cross validation. This pathway-driven approach was successfully utilized to distinguish early regulatory events during initiation prognostic for tumor outcome and provides proof-of-concept for using short-term initiation studies to classify carcinogenic potential of environmental PAH mixtures. These data further provide a 'source-to-outcome' model that could be used to predict PAH interactions during tumorigenesis and provide an example of how mode-of-action-based risk assessment could be employed for environmental PAH mixtures. PMID:25908611

  9. Energy Minimization-Based Spatially Constrained Mixture Model and its Application to Image Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong Xiao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel method is proposed for image segmentation based on probabilistic field theory. This model assumes that the whole pixels of an image and some unknown parameters form a field. According to this model, the pixel labels are generated by a compound function of the field. The main novelty of this model is it consider the features of the pixels and the interdependent among the pixels. The parameters are generated by a novel spatially variant mixture model and estimated by expectation-maximization (EM- based algorithm. Thus, we simultaneously impose the spatial smoothness on the prior knowledge. Numerical experiments are presented where the proposed method and other mixture model-based methods were tested on synthetic and real world images. These experimental results demonstrate that our algorithm achieves competitive performance compared to other methods.

  10. Development of a new gas sensor for binary mixtures based on the permselectivity of polymeric membranes. Application to carbon dioxide/methane and carbon dioxide/helium mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa Rego; Nídia Caetano; Adélio Mendes

    2004-01-01

    Membrane-based gas sensors were developed and used for determining the composition on bi-component mixtures in the 0100% range, such as oxygen/nitrogen and carbon dioxide/methane (biogas). These sensors are low cost and are aimed at a low/medium precision market.The paper describes the use of this sensor for two gas mixtures: carbon dioxide/methane and carbon dioxide/helium. The membranes used are poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) and Teflon-AF hollow fibers. The response curves for both sensors ...

  11. THE INFLUENCE OF DIFFRENT LEVELS OF NDF AND ADF ON NUTRITIVE AND BIOPRODUCTIVE INDICES AND ON DIGESTIVE VISCOSITY AT THE JEJUNUM AND ILEUM LEVEL AT BROILER CHICKENS FED WITH A DIET CONTAINING AN ENZYMATIC MIXTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAMONA TETILEANU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment we have studied the effect of different levels of main cellulose categories (NDF, ADF on nutritive and bioproductive indices and on digestive viscosity at the jejunum and ileum level at broiler chickens. The experiment was carried out on 44 broiler chickens divided into two experimental groups (V1-5% and V2-15%. In the structure of combined feed was used barley in proportion of 5% for V1-5% and 15% for V2-15%. For both experimental groups were used enzymatic mixture which contained protease and cellulose. The hybrid used was Ross 308. The raising of NDF and ADF levels in broiler diet did not affect significantly the nutritive and bioproductive indices, but was recorded an increase of digestive viscosity at the jejunum and ileum level with 28,31%.

  12. A peer-based study on adolescence nutritional health: a lesson learned from Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the adolescence opinions among nutritional habits and beliefs. Methods: To conduct a multi disciplinary approach through involving adolescence /youth for finding their mental needs and their suggestion for solving them, we designed a qualitative approach based on grounded theory. For data collection a semi-structured guide questioner designed and 16 focus group discussions were conducted by trained peers with youth aged 10-19 years. Results: According to FGDs results, although majority of participants agreed on the important role of nutrition in health and the effect of nutritional habits on different aspect of health, they used modern and publicized fast foods. On the other hand, most of female and male participants said that different factors influenced the girls and boys diet selection i. e. girls's paid more attention to diet selection and taste and health of foods, whereas boys were careless and gluttony caused more food to be consumed. Conclusion: Adolescents' information (both genders) regarding nutritional problems resulting from improper food habits were not satisfactory. Peer-based health programmes through target groups for capacity building and participation of stake holders will fulfill the objectives. (author)

  13. The Effectiveness of School-Based Nutritional Education Program among Obese Adolescents: A Randomized Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supinya In-Iw

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to determine the change in body weight and body mass index (BMI, as well as diet behaviors at 4 months after intervention between obese adolescent girls who participated in the school-based nutritional education program, addressed by pediatrician, compared to those who attended regular nutritional class. Methods. 49 obese girls were recruited from a secondary school. Those, were randomized into 2 groups of intervention and control. The intensive interactive nutritional program was provided to the intervention group. Weight and height, dietary record and % fat consumption, as well as self-administered questionnaires on healthy diet attitudes were collected at baseline and 4-month follow-up, and then compared between two groups. Results. There was a statistically significant change of BMI in the intervention group by  kg/m2 ( compared to the control group ( kg/m2, but no significant change in calorie and % fat consumption between groups. The attitudes on healthy eating behaviors in the intervention group were shown improving significantly (. Conclusions. Interactive and intensive nutritional education program as shown in the study was one of the most successful school-based interventions for obese adolescents.

  14. Optimisation of Natural Ingredient Based Lipstick Formulation by Using Mixture Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajin, Mariani; Bono, Awang; Mun, Ho Chong

    The cosmetic industry in Malaysia is proven to be one of the important economy sources. Lipstick is one of the decorative cosmetic products that command a unique market. The quality of lipstick is directly linked to the basic material used in the formulation. The ratio of the ingredients used determines the final product characteristics. In previous researches, statistical mixture design has been proved to be effective tool to investigate the relationship between variables in formulation work. Contour graphics were formed to assess the change in the response surface in order to understand the relationship between the product cost and consumer acceptance of the lipsticks. In this work, natural waxes, solvents and colorant were used to prepare lipstick formulation. Statistical mixture design has been applied for experimental setting for the components system. The effects of the mixture components on the physical properties and consumer acceptance of the lipstick have been investigated. The results indicate that the physical properties of the lipstick can be manipulated by changing the composition of the base ingredient used in the formulation. It was found that the variation of the mixture component affected the consumer acceptance on lipstick`s rub-off characteristic.

  15. Eco-friendly gas mixtures for Resistive Plate Chambers based on Tetrafluoropropene and Helium

    CERN Document Server

    Abbrescia, M; Bianco, S; Ferrini, M; Muhammad, S; Passamonti, L; Pierluigi, D; Piccolo, D; Primavera, F; Russo, A; Saviano, G

    2016-01-01

    Due to the recent restrictions deriving from the application of the Kyoto protocol, the main components of the gas mixtures presently used in the Resistive Plate Chambers systems of the LHC experiments will be most probably phased out of production in the coming years. Identifying possible replacements with the adequate characteristics requires an intense R&D, which was recently started, also in collaborations across the various experiments. Possible candidates have been proposed and are thoroughly investigated. Some tests on one of the most promising candidate - HFO-1234ze, an allotropic form of tetrafluoropropane- have already been reported. Here an innovative approach, based on the use of Helium, to solve the problems related to the too elevate operating voltage of HFO-1234ze based gas mixtures, is discussed and the relative first results are shown.

  16. Implementation of a Food-Based Science Curriculum Improves Fourth-Grade Educators' Self-Efficacy for Teaching Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stage, Virginia C.; Roseno, Ashley; Hodges, Caroline D.; Hovland, Jana; Diaz, Sebastian; Duffrin, Melani W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Teacher self-efficacy for teaching nutrition can positively impact student dietary behaviors; however, limited curricular resources and professional development can serve as barriers to the provision of nutrition education in the classroom. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of a food-based, integrative science…

  17. Development and Evaluation of Nutrition Education Competencies and a Competency-Based Resource Guide for Preschool-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Reed, Heather; Briggs, Marilyn; Zidenberg-Cherr, Sheri

    2011-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this research was to develop and evaluate nutrition education competencies and a competency-based resource guide, Connecting the Dots...Healthy Foods, Healthy Choices, Healthy Kids (CTD), for preschool-aged children in California. Methods: Nutrition education experts and California Department of Education staff…

  18. Compatibility between a quartz surface hardener and different base concrete mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Pinheiro-Alves, M.ª Teresa; Fernandes, André; Bettencourt Ribeiro, António

    2012-01-01

    Many cases of cracking and detachment of the concrete surface have appeared in concrete floors, namely pavements where surface hardeners were used, especially in car parks, industrial areas and warehouses. This paper studies the behaviour of ten different base concretes mixtures made with two chemical admixtures and four additions, when a quartz surface hardener is applied. The objective is to identify the relevant parameters of the concrete constituents that influence the open time. Results ...

  19. Determination of low citric acid concentrations in a mixture of weak acid/bases

    OpenAIRE

    Lahav, O.; Shlafman, E.; Cochva, M.

    2005-01-01

    A titration approach was developed to measure low concentrations of citric acid (C6H8O7) in a mixture of other weak acid/ bases. Two methods were tested. The first and more practical method (a 4-point titration procedure) is applicable in conditions where volatile fatty acids (VFAs) are not normally present. The second method (a 5-point titration procedure) was developed for anaerobic environments where VFAs may be encountered. Generally, fairly accurate and repetitive results (precision > 95...

  20. Decomposition driven interface evolution for layers of binary mixtures: I. Model derivation and stratified base states

    OpenAIRE

    Thiele, Uwe; Madruga Sánchez, Santiago; Frastia, Lubor

    2007-01-01

    A dynamical model is proposed to describe the coupled decomposition and profile evolution of a free surface film of a binary mixture. An example is a thin film of a polymer blend on a solid substrate undergoing simultaneous phase separation and dewetting. The model is based on model-H describing the coupled transport of the mass of one component (convective Cahn-Hilliard equation) and momentum (Navier-Stokes-Korteweg equations) supplemented by appropriate boundary conditions at the solid subs...

  1. A sparse smoothing approach for Gaussian mixture model based acoustic-to-articulatory inversion

    OpenAIRE

    Sudhakara Murthy, Prasad; Jacques, Laurent; Ghosh, Prasanta Kumar; International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing

    2014-01-01

    It is well-known that the performance of the Gaussian mixture model (GMM) based acoustic-to-articulatory inversion (AAI) improves by either incorporating smoothness constraint directly in the inversion criterion or smoothing (low-pass filtering) estimated articulator tra- jectories in a post-processing step, where smoothing is performed independently of the inversion. As the low-pass filtering is inde- pendent of inversion, the smoothed articulator trajectory samples no longer remain optimal ...

  2. A novel algorithm for image encryption based on mixture of chaotic maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behnia, S. [Department of Physics, IAU, Urmia (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: s.behnia@iaurmia.ac.ir; Akhshani, A.; Mahmodi, H. [Department of Physics, IAU, Urmia (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Akhavan, A. [Department of Engineering, IAU, Urmia (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-01-15

    Chaos-based encryption appeared recently in the early 1990s as an original application of nonlinear dynamics in the chaotic regime. In this paper, an implementation of digital image encryption scheme based on the mixture of chaotic systems is reported. The chaotic cryptography technique used in this paper is a symmetric key cryptography. In this algorithm, a typical coupled map was mixed with a one-dimensional chaotic map and used for high degree security image encryption while its speed is acceptable. The proposed algorithm is described in detail, along with its security analysis and implementation. The experimental results based on mixture of chaotic maps approves the effectiveness of the proposed method and the implementation of the algorithm. This mixture application of chaotic maps shows advantages of large key space and high-level security. The ciphertext generated by this method is the same size as the plaintext and is suitable for practical use in the secure transmission of confidential information over the Internet.

  3. Batch anaerobic digestion of synthetic military base food waste and cardboard mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asato, Caitlin M; Gonzalez-Estrella, Jorge; Jerke, Amber C; Bang, Sookie S; Stone, James J; Gilcrease, Patrick C

    2016-09-01

    Austere US military bases typically dispose of solid wastes, including large fractions of food waste (FW) and corrugated cardboard (CCB), by open dumping, landfilling, or burning. Anaerobic digestion (AD) offers an opportunity to reduce pollution and recover useful energy. This study aimed to evaluate the rates and yields of AD for FW-CCB mixtures. Batch AD was analyzed at substrate concentrations of 1-50g total chemical oxygen demand (COD)L(-1) using response surface methodology. At low concentrations, higher proportions of FW were correlated with faster specific methanogenic activities and greater final methane yields; however, concentrations of FW ⩾18.75gCODL(-1) caused inhibition. Digestion of mixtures with ⩾75% CCB occurred slowly but achieved methane yields >70%. Greater shifts in microbial communities were observed at higher substrate concentrations. Statistical models of methane yield and specific methanogenic activity indicated that FW and CCB exhibited no considerable interactions as substrates for AD. PMID:27323241

  4. Thermodynamic study of the surface of liquid mixtures containing pyridinium-based ionic liquids and alkanols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Surface tensions of a pyridinium ionic liquid with an alkanol have been determined. • From experimental data surface tension deviations have been obtained and correlated. • Relative adsorptions of alkanol at the (air + liquid) interface were also calculated. • The relative adsorptions were found positive in all the mixtures. - Abstract: Surface tension for seven binary mixtures containing a pyridinium-based ionic liquid (1-propylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate, 1-butylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate, 1-butyl-3-methylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate, or 1-butyl-4-methylpyridinium) and a short chain alkanol (methanol or ethanol) were determined at the temperatures: (293.15, 303.15, 313.15, and 323.15) K. From these data, the surface tension deviations were calculated. These deviations were correlated using a Redlich–Kister polynomial expansion. Moreover, relative adsorptions of alkanol at the (air + liquid) interface were calculated from the Gibbs isotherm

  5. Measurements of ion mobility in argon and neon based gas mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Deisting, Alexander; Szabo, Alexander; Vranic, Danilo

    2016-01-01

    As gaseous detectors are operated at high rates of primary ionisation, ions created in the detector have a considerable impact on the performance of the detector. The upgraded ALICE Time Projection Chamber (TPC) will operate during LHC Run$\\,3$ with a substantial space charge density of positive ions in the drift volume. In order to properly simulate such space charges, knowledge of the ion mobility $K$ is necessary. To this end, a small gaseous detector was constructed and the ion mobility of various gas mixtures was measured. To validate the corresponding signal analysis, simulations were performed. Results are shown for several argon and neon based mixtures with different $\\textrm{CO}_2$ fractions. A decrease of $K$ was measured for increasing water content.

  6. Phosphoric-based ionic liquids as solvents to separate the azeotropic mixture of ethanol and hexane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Potential solvent for the separation of ethanol and hexane in (liquid + liquid) extraction. - Highlights: • Phosphoric-based ILs were studied as solvents to extract ethanol from hexane. • LLE data for ternary systems with miscibility gap were presented. • The NRTL model can correlate the experimental LLE data with a good accuracy. • [MMIM][DMP] was a promising solvent for the separation of ethanol and hexane. - Abstract: Ethanol and hexane mixtures are present in industrial processes producing oxygenated additives for unleaded gasoline. The separation of ethanol and hexane is important but challenging due to the formation of an azeotropic mixture. This research focuses on the study of phosphoric-based ionic liquids (ILs) as green solvents for the separation of ethanol from hexane in a liquid extraction process. The knowledge of the (liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) of this mixture is essential for the design of the extraction separation technique. Hence, the experimental determination of the LLE data for the ternary system {ethanol + hexane + 1,3-dimethylimidazolium dimethylphosphate ([MMIM][DMP])}, {ethanol + hexane + 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethylphosphate ([EMIM][DEP])} and {ethanol + hexane + 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dibutylphosphate ([BMIM][DBP])} at T = 303.2 K and atmospheric pressure was carried out. The reliability of the experimental LLE data was confirmed by applying the Othmer–Tobias and Hand equations, and the NRTL model was used to correlate the experimental results for the studied ternary system. The solute distribution ratio and selectivity, derived from the experimental LLE data, were calculated and analyzed evaluate the capacity of the investigated ILs as solvents in liquid extraction process. This capacity was also compared with that of other ILs. The experimental results show that the studied ILs can be suitable solvents in a (liquid + liquid) extraction for the separation of azeotropic mixtures of ethanol

  7. Generalized renewal process for repairable systems based on finite Weibull mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veber, B. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Askerceva 6, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)], E-mail: bostjan.veber@fs.uni-lj.si; Nagode, M.; Fajdiga, M. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Askerceva 6, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2008-10-15

    Repairable systems can be brought to one of possible states following a repair. These states are: 'as good as new', 'as bad as old' and 'better than old but worse than new'. The probabilistic models traditionally used to estimate the expected number of failures account for the first two states, but they do not properly apply to the last one, which is more realistic in practice. In this paper, a probabilistic model that is applicable to all of the three after-repair states, called generalized renewal process (GRP), is applied. Simplistically, GRP addresses the repair assumption by introducing the concept of virtual age into the stochastic point processes to enable them to represent the full spectrum of repair assumptions. The shape of measured or design life distributions of systems can vary considerably, and therefore frequently cannot be approximated by simple distribution functions. The scope of the paper is to prove that a finite Weibull mixture, with positive component weights only, can be used as underlying distribution of the time to first failure (TTFF) of the GRP model, on condition that the unknown parameters can be estimated. To support the main idea, three examples are presented. In order to estimate the unknown parameters of the GRP model with m-fold Weibull mixture, the EM algorithm is applied. The GRP model with m mixture components distributions is compared to the standard GRP model based on two-parameter Weibull distribution by calculating the expected number of failures. It can be concluded that the suggested GRP model with Weibull mixture with an arbitrary but finite number of components is suitable for predicting failures based on the past performance of the system.

  8. Generalized renewal process for repairable systems based on finite Weibull mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repairable systems can be brought to one of possible states following a repair. These states are: 'as good as new', 'as bad as old' and 'better than old but worse than new'. The probabilistic models traditionally used to estimate the expected number of failures account for the first two states, but they do not properly apply to the last one, which is more realistic in practice. In this paper, a probabilistic model that is applicable to all of the three after-repair states, called generalized renewal process (GRP), is applied. Simplistically, GRP addresses the repair assumption by introducing the concept of virtual age into the stochastic point processes to enable them to represent the full spectrum of repair assumptions. The shape of measured or design life distributions of systems can vary considerably, and therefore frequently cannot be approximated by simple distribution functions. The scope of the paper is to prove that a finite Weibull mixture, with positive component weights only, can be used as underlying distribution of the time to first failure (TTFF) of the GRP model, on condition that the unknown parameters can be estimated. To support the main idea, three examples are presented. In order to estimate the unknown parameters of the GRP model with m-fold Weibull mixture, the EM algorithm is applied. The GRP model with m mixture components distributions is compared to the standard GRP model based on two-parameter Weibull distribution by calculating the expected number of failures. It can be concluded that the suggested GRP model with Weibull mixture with an arbitrary but finite number of components is suitable for predicting failures based on the past performance of the system

  9. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on establishing Food-Based Dietary Guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    Tetens, Inge

    2010-01-01

    This Opinion of the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA) provides guidance on the translation of nutrient based dietary advice into guidance, intended for the European population as a whole, on the contribution of different foods or food groups to an overall diet that would help to maintain good health through optimal nutrition (food-based dietary guidelines). The main focus of this Opinion is put on the scientific process of developing food-based dietary guidelines...

  10. Characterizing intimate mixtures of materials in hyperspectral imagery with albedo-based and kernel-based approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Robert S.; Resmini, Ronald G.; Allen, David W.

    2015-09-01

    Linear mixtures of materials in a scene often occur because the pixel size of a sensor is relatively large and consequently they contain patches of different materials within them. This type of mixing can be thought of as areal mixing and modeled by a linear mixture model with certain constraints on the abundances. The solution to these models has received a lot of attention. However, there are more complex situations, such as scattering that occurs in mixtures of vegetation and soil, or intimate mixing of granular materials like soils. Such multiple scattering and microscopic mixtures within pixels have varying degrees of non-linearity. In such cases, a linear model is not sufficient. Furthermore, often enough, scenes may contain cases of both linear and non-linear mixing on a pixel-by-pixel basis. This study considers two approaches for use as generalized methods for un-mixing pixels in a scene that may be linear (areal mixed) or non-linear (intimately mixed). The first method is based on earlier studies that indicate non-linear mixtures in reflectance space are approximately linear in albedo space. The method converts reflectance to singlescattering albedo (SSA) according to Hapke theory assuming bidirectional scattering at nadir look angles and uses a constrained linear model on the computed albedo values. The second method is motivated by the same idea, but uses a kernel that seeks to capture the linear behavior of albedo in non-linear mixtures of materials. The behavior of the kernel method is dependent on the value of a parameter, gamma. Furthermore, both methods are dependent on the choice of endmembers, and also on RMSE (root mean square error) as a performance metric. This study compares the two approaches and pays particular attention to these dependencies. Both laboratory and aerial collections of hyperspectral imagery are used to validate the methods.

  11. Removing Mixture of Gaussian and Impulse Noise by Patch-Based Weighted Means

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Haijuan; Li, Bing; Liu, Quansheng

    2015-01-01

    We first establish a law of large numbers and a convergence theorem in distribution to show the rate of convergence of the non-local means filter for removing Gaussian noise. Based on the convergence theorems, we propose a patch-based weighted means filter for removing an impulse noise and its mixture with a Gaussian noise by combining the essential idea of the trilateral filter and that of the non-local means filter. Experiments show that our filter is competitive compared to recently propos...

  12. Preliminary trial of the effect of general practice based nutritional advice.

    OpenAIRE

    Baron, J A; R. Gleason; Crowe, B; Mann, J I

    1990-01-01

    Despite formal recommendations for dietary change to reduce the incidence of ischaemic heart disease, the acceptability and effectiveness of the proposed diets have not been well investigated in population based studies. In this preliminary investigation of nutritional advice in a well population, subjects in one group practice were randomized to receive either dietary instruction or simple follow up without instruction. The dietary recommendations were well received, and a substantial propor...

  13. Evidence-based recommendations for natural bodybuilding contest preparation: nutrition and supplementation

    OpenAIRE

    Helms, Eric R; Aragon, Alan A.; Fitschen, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    The popularity of natural bodybuilding is increasing; however, evidence-based recommendations for it are lacking. This paper reviewed the scientific literature relevant to competition preparation on nutrition and supplementation, resulting in the following recommendations. Caloric intake should be set at a level that results in bodyweight losses of approximately 0.5 to 1%/wk to maximize muscle retention. Within this caloric intake, most but not all bodybuilders will respond best to consuming ...

  14. Development and validation of a social cognitive theory-based survey for elementary nutrition education program

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Elisha; Chai, Weiwen; Koszewski, Wanda; Albrecht, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Background The Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) is a widely used model for developing elementary nutrition education programs; however, few instruments are available to assess the impact of such programs on the main constructs of the SCT. The purposes of this study were: 1) to develop and validate a SCT-based survey instrument that focuses on knowledge, behavior, and self-efficacy for fifth grade students; 2) to assess the relationships between knowledge, behavior, and self-efficacy; and 3) to a...

  15. Medical nutrition therapy planning

    OpenAIRE

    Torović Ljilja; Grujičić Maja; Pavlović-Trajković Ljiljana; Jovičić Jelena; Novaković Budimka; Balać Dragana

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. Diet has vital, preventive and therapeutic functions. Medical nutrition therapy is a part of the Standardized Nutrition Care Process integrated in health care systems. Material and methods. An overview of the Nutrition Care Process model and the application of nutrition guidelines based on literature, reports, documents and programmes of international health, food and physical activity authorities was done. Results. The Nutrition Care Process model requires registered diet...

  16. LiTDI and solvent mixture based electrolytes for lithium-ion cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrolyte optimization for both best performance and low use of materials is described in this paper. Electrochemical performance and material utility are reported to achieve the goal of optimal combinations of salt concentration and solvent ratios for several solvent mixtures. A lithium 4,5-dicyano-2-trifluoromethanoimidazolide (LiTDI) salt was used for its thermal stability, ease of handling (stable in the presence of air and moisture) and high ionic conductivity at low concentration in solvents. Solvent mixtures were chosen based on industrial practice and performance at low temperature. The conductivity dependence of salt concentration is reported. In all systems, low concentration onset and a broad range of high conductivity was observed. Lithium cation transference numbers were measured for highly conductive samples and used as the secondary parameter in the optimization procedure. Both high ionic conductivity and transference number values were recorded, even for samples with low salt content: 0.3 mol kg−1 LiTDI in 1EC:2EMC (σ = 4.18 mS cm−1, TLi+ = 0.544) and 0.4 mol kg−1 LiTDI in EC:DMC:EMC (σ = 4.69 mS cm−1, TLi+ = 0.455). Cycling with anodic material was also carried out, showing good capacity for retention of the mixtures chosen containing average salt concentrations. Hence, material savings in comparison to other commercially available lithium salts is possible

  17. Face Recognition Algorithm Based on Doubly Truncated Gaussian Mixture Model Using Hierarchical Clustering Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Haritha

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A robust and efficient face recognition system was developed and evaluated. The each individual face is characterized by 2D-DCT coefficients which follows a finite mixture of doubly truncated Gaussian distribution. In modelling the features vector of the face the number of components (in the mixture model are determined by hierarchical clustering. The model parameters are estimated using EM algorithm. The face recognition algorithm is developed by maximum likelihood under Baysian frame. The method was tested on two available face databases namely JNTUK and yale. The recognition rates computed for different methods of face recognition have revealed that the proposed method performs very well when compared to the other approaches. It is also observed that the proposed system require less number of DCT coefficients in each block and serve well even with large and small databases. The hybridization of hierarchical clustering with model based approach has significantly improved the recognition rate of the system even with the simple features like DCT. Keywords: Face recognition system, doubly truncated Gaussian mixture model, Hierarchical clustering algorithm, DCT coefficients.

  18. SAR Images Statistical Modeling and Classification Based on the Mixture of Alpha-Stable Distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangling Pu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the mixture of Alpha-stable (MAS distributions for modeling statistical property of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR images in a supervised Markovian classification algorithm. Our work is motivated by the fact that natural scenes consist of various reflectors with different types that are typically concentrated within a small area, and SAR images generally exhibit sharp peaks, heavy tails, and even multimodal statistical property, especially at high resolution. Unimodal distributions do not fit such statistical property well, and thus a multimodal approach is necessary. Driven by the multimodality and impulsiveness of high resolution SAR images histogram, we utilize the mixture of Alpha-stable distributions to describe such characteristics. A pseudo-simulated annealing (PSA estimator based on Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC is present to efficiently estimate model parameters of the mixture of Alpha-stable distributions. To validate the proposed PSA estimator, we apply it to simulated data and compare its performance to that of a state-of-the-art estimator. Finally, we exploit the MAS distributions and a Markovian context for SAR images classification. The effectiveness of the proposed classifier is demonstrated by experiments on TerraSAR-X images, which verifies the validity of the MAS distributions for modeling and classification of SAR images.

  19. A Gaussian Mixture Model-Based Continuous Boundary Detection for 3D Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuji Matsumoto

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a high precision Gaussian Mixture Model-based novel Boundary Detection 3D (BD3D scheme with reasonable implementation cost for 3D cases by selecting a minimum number of Boundary sensor Nodes (BNs in continuous moving objects. It shows apparent advantages in that two classes of boundary and non-boundary sensor nodes can be efficiently classified using the model selection techniques for finite mixture models; furthermore, the set of sensor readings within each sensor node’s spatial neighbors is formulated using a Gaussian Mixture Model; different from DECOMO [1] and COBOM [2], we also formatted a BN Array with an additional own sensor reading to benefit selecting Event BNs (EBNs and non-EBNs from the observations of BNs. In particular, we propose a Thick Section Model (TSM to solve the problem of transition between 2D and 3D. It is verified by simulations that the BD3D 2D model outperforms DECOMO and COBOM in terms of average residual energy and the number of BNs selected, while the BD3D 3D model demonstrates sound performance even for sensor networks with low densities especially when the value of the sensor transmission range (r is larger than the value of Section Thickness (d in TSM. We have also rigorously proved its correctness for continuous geometric domains and full robustness for sensor networks over 3D terrains.

  20. Color-texture segmentation using JSEG based on Gaussian mixture modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yuzhong; Yang Jie; Zhou Yue

    2006-01-01

    An improved approach for J-value segmentation (JSEG) is presented for unsupervised color image segmentation. Instead of color quantization algorithm, an automatic classification method based on adaptive mean shift (AMS)based clustering is used for nonparametric clustering of image data set. The clustering results are used to construct Gaussian mixture modelling (GMM) of image data for the calculation of soft J value. The region growing algorithm used in JSEG is then applied in segmenting the image based on the multiscale soft J-images. Experiments show that the synergism of JSEG and the soft classification based on AMS based clustering and GMM overcomes the limitations of JSEG successfully and is more robust.

  1. A Neural Network Based Hybrid Mixture Model to Extract Information from Non-linear Mixed Pixels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uttam Kumar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Signals acquired by sensors in the real world are non-linear combinations, requiring non-linear mixture models to describe the resultant mixture spectra for the endmember’s (pure pixel’s distribution. This communication discusses inferring class fraction through a novel hybrid mixture model (HMM. HMM is a three-step process, where the endmembers are first derived from the images themselves using the N-FINDR algorithm. These endmembers are used by the linear mixture model (LMM in the second step that provides an abundance estimation in a linear fashion. Finally, the abundance values along with the training samples representing the actual ground proportions are fed into neural network based multi-layer perceptron (MLP architecture as input to train the neurons. The neural output further refines the abundance estimates to account for the non-linear nature of the mixing classes of interest. HMM is first implemented and validated on simulated hyper spectral data of 200 bands and subsequently on real time MODIS data with a spatial resolution of 250 m. The results on computer simulated data show that the method gives acceptable results for unmixing pixels with an overall RMSE of 0.0089 ± 0.0022 with LMM and 0.0030 ± 0.0001 with the HMM when compared to actual class proportions. The unmixed MODIS images showed overall RMSE with HMM as 0.0191 ± 0.022 as compared to the LMM output considered alone that had an overall RMSE of 0.2005 ± 0.41, indicating that individual class abundances obtained from HMM are very close to the real observations.

  2. Evidence-Based Psychotherapies and Nutritional Interventions for Children With Bipolar Spectrum Disorders and Their Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fristad, Mary A

    2016-01-01

    Treatment guidelines recommend that psychotherapy be used in conjunction with pharmacotherapy in children with bipolar disorder. A well-established category of psychotherapy is family skill-building plus psychoeducation; 3 examples of this are family-focused treatment, psychoeducational psychotherapy, and child- and family-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy. These treatments share several common elements that are important in pediatric populations, including being family-based, providing psychoeducation on symptoms and their management, and training patients and families in emotion regulation, communication, and problem-solving skills. Clinicians may also wish to explore nutritional interventions; multinutrient complexes are experimental, and omega-3 fatty acid supplements are possibly efficacious. Nutritional interventions are particularly attractive in this patient population because of their favorable safety profile. PMID:27570930

  3. Noni-based nutritional supplementation and exercise interventions influence body composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afa K Palu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of obesity and overweight in the Unites States has reached unprecedented levels, and so has the need for effective exercise and nutritional programs for prevention of unhealthy weight gain or safe weight loss. Aims: The present study was conducted in overweight men and women to assess the impact of noni-based nutritional supplementation and exercise interventions on body composition. Materials and Methods: Twenty two participants (16 women and 6 men, ages 18-65, were enrolled in a 12-week, open-label trial of a weight-loss program involving noni-based dietary supplements, gender-specific daily calorie restriction, and exercise interventions. Weight, percent body fat, and body mass index were measured before and after the trial. Results: All participants experienced weight loss. The average decrease in fat mass was highly significant (P < 0.0001, as were decreases in percent body fat and body mass index. Individual weight and fat mass losses were 17.55 ± 9.73 and 21.78 ± 8.34 lbs., respectively, and individual percent body fat and body mass index decreases were 8.91 ± 3.58 % and 2.6 ± 1.32, respectively. Conclusion: The nutritional and exercise interventions significantly influenced body composition among participants.

  4. Exploring the Use of an Image-Based Approach to Assessing Nutrition Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brianna Routh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Formative evaluation was conducted for the Personal Health Behaviors Overview (PHBO survey to evaluate nutrition behaviors with image-based questions in low-income populations. Forty-nine low-income adults from nutrition education classes were invited to participate with n = 42 included in the analysis. Participants completed the PHBO survey while an interviewer recorded observations. Upon completion, participants were asked questions regarding each PHBO survey item. Most participants completed the survey in an average of 4 minutes. The majority said the photographs of food made it easier to answer questions. Less than half indicated that the visuals depicting frequency made questions easier. While participant responses were aligned with the aims of the PHBO question being asked, some suggestions were offered for improvements of photographs. While this formative evaluation research indicates additional validation is necessary before use of these PHBO questions, the image-based simple question technique is a possible solution for efficient and effective nutrition assessments in low-income, limited literacy populations

  5. Binomial Mixture Model Based Association Testing to Account for Genetic Heterogeneity for GWAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhiyuan; Pan, Wei

    2016-04-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have confirmed the ubiquitous existence of genetic heterogeneity for common disease: multiple common genetic variants have been identified to be associated, while many more are yet expected to be uncovered. However, the single SNP (single-nucleotide polymorphism) based trend test (or its variants) that has been dominantly used in GWAS is based on contrasting the allele frequency difference between the case and control groups, completely ignoring possible genetic heterogeneity. In spite of the widely accepted notion of genetic heterogeneity, we are not aware of any previous attempt to apply genetic heterogeneity motivated methods in GWAS. Here, to explicitly account for unknown genetic heterogeneity, we applied a mixture model based single-SNP test to the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC) GWAS data with traits of Crohn's disease, bipolar disease, coronary artery disease, and type 2 diabetes, identifying much larger numbers of significant SNPs and risk loci for each trait than those of the popular trend test, demonstrating potential power gain of the mixture model based test. PMID:26916514

  6. Study of acid-base properties in various water-salt and water-organic solvent mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acid-base reactions have been studied in water-salt mixtures and water organic solvent-mixtures. It has been possible to find some relations between the displacement of the equilibria and the numerical value of water activity in the mixture. First have been studied some equilibria H+ + B ↔ HB+ in salt-water mixtures and found a relation between the pKA value, the solubility of the base and water activity. The reaction HO- + H+ ↔ H2O has been investigated and a relation been found between pKi values, water activity and the molar concentration of the salt in the mixture. This relation is the same for every mixture. Then the same reactions have been studied in organic solvent-water mixtures and a relation found in the first part of the work have been used with success. So it has been possible to explain easily some properties of organic water-mixture as the shape of the curves of the Hammett acidity function Ho. (authors)

  7. A comparison of two differential methods for nutrition education in elementary school: lecture-and experience-based learning program

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Lan-Hee; Choi, Jeong-Hwa; Bang, Hyun-Mi; Shin, Jun-Ho; Heo, Young-Ran

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES This research was conducted to compare lecture-and experience-based methods of nutritional education as well as provide fundamental data for developing an effective nutritional education program in elementary schools. SUBJECTS/METHODS A total of 110 students in three elementary schools in Jeollanam-do were recruited and randomly distributed in lecture-and experience-based groups. The effects of education on students' dietary knowledge, dietary behaviors, and dietary habi...

  8. A Grasp-pose Generation Method Based on Gaussian Mixture Models

    OpenAIRE

    Wenjia Wu

    2015-01-01

    A Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM)-based grasp-pose generation method is proposed in this paper. Through offline training, the GMM is set up and used to depict the distribution of the robot’s reachable orientations. By dividing the robot’s workspace into small 3D voxels and training the GMM for each voxel, a look-up table covering all the workspace is built with the x, y and z positions as the index and the GMM as the entry. Through the definition of Task Space Regions (TSR), an object’s feasible...

  9. Hybrid nanostructured solar cells based on the incorporation of inorganic nanoparticles in polymer-fullerene mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Jilian N.; Nogueira, Ana Flávia

    2010-08-01

    Ternary systems based on mixtures of polymer, PCBM and CdSe nanoparticles were investigated. The photophysical and electrochemical properties were modulated by changing the size of the inorganic nanoparticles and their effects on the performance of the solar cells were analyzed. At the optimized conditions, the presence of the nanoparticles increased the photocurrent and photovoltage, improving the efficiency of the devices. A complete study on the morphologic effects induced by the presence of these nanoparticles was performed using AFM, HR-TEM and optical microscopy techniques.

  10. Blind signal separation of underdetermined mixtures based on clustering algorithms on planes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Shengli; Tan Beihai; Fu Yuli

    2007-01-01

    Based on clustering method on planes, blind signal separation (BSS) of underdetermined mixtures with three observed signals is discussed. The condition of sufficient sparsity of the source signals is not necessary when clustering method on planes is used. In other words, it needs not that only one source signal plays the main role among others at one time. The proposed method uses normal line clustering of planes first. Then, the mixing matrix can be identified via deciding the intersection lines of the planes. This method is an effective implement of the new theory presented by Georgiev. Simulations illustrate accuracy and restoring capability of the method to estimate the mixing matrix.

  11. Note: Gaussian mixture model for event recognition in optical time-domain reflectometry based sensing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, A. K.; Anufriev, M. N.; Zhirnov, A. A.; Stepanov, K. V.; Nesterov, E. T.; Namiot, D. E.; Karasik, V. E.; Pnev, A. B.

    2016-03-01

    We propose a novel approach to the recognition of particular classes of non-conventional events in signals from phase-sensitive optical time-domain-reflectometry-based sensors. Our algorithmic solution has two main features: filtering aimed at the de-nosing of signals and a Gaussian mixture model to cluster them. We test the proposed algorithm using experimentally measured signals. The results show that two classes of events can be distinguished with the best-case recognition probability close to 0.9 at sufficient numbers of training samples.

  12. Semi-Supervised Classification based on Gaussian Mixture Model for remote imagery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Semi-Supervised Classification (SSC),which makes use of both labeled and unlabeled data to determine classification borders in feature space,has great advantages in extracting classification information from mass data.In this paper,a novel SSC method based on Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) is proposed,in which each class’s feature space is described by one GMM.Experiments show the proposed method can achieve high classification accuracy with small amount of labeled data.However,for the same accuracy,supervised classification methods such as Support Vector Machine,Object Oriented Classification,etc.should be provided with much more labeled data.

  13. Experimental studies on seasonal heat storage based on stable supercooling of a sodium acetate water mixture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Dragsted, Janne; Fan, Jianhua;

    2011-01-01

    seasonal heat storage, that will be suitable for solar heating systems which can fully cover the yearly heat demand of Danish low energy buildings. The tested module has approximately the dimensions 2020 mm x 1285 mm x 80 mm. The module material is steel and the wall thickness is 2 mm. Different methods to...... transfer heat to and from the module have been tested. Further, a solidification start method, based on a strong cooling of a small part of the salt water mixture in the module by boiling CO2 in a small brass tank in good thermal contact to the outer side of the module wall, has been tested. Tests of the...

  14. MAP-Based Underdetermined Blind Source Separation of Convolutive Mixtures by Hierarchical Clustering and -Norm Minimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kellermann Walter

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We address the problem of underdetermined BSS. While most previous approaches are designed for instantaneous mixtures, we propose a time-frequency-domain algorithm for convolutive mixtures. We adopt a two-step method based on a general maximum a posteriori (MAP approach. In the first step, we estimate the mixing matrix based on hierarchical clustering, assuming that the source signals are sufficiently sparse. The algorithm works directly on the complex-valued data in the time-frequency domain and shows better convergence than algorithms based on self-organizing maps. The assumption of Laplacian priors for the source signals in the second step leads to an algorithm for estimating the source signals. It involves the -norm minimization of complex numbers because of the use of the time-frequency-domain approach. We compare a combinatorial approach initially designed for real numbers with a second-order cone programming (SOCP approach designed for complex numbers. We found that although the former approach is not theoretically justified for complex numbers, its results are comparable to, or even better than, the SOCP solution. The advantage is a lower computational cost for problems with low input/output dimensions.

  15. [Preoperative evaluation of surgery for intractable aspiration based on the prognostic nutritional index].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Masaya; Hashimoto, Keiko; Mukudai, Shigeyuki; Ushijima, Chihisa; Dejima, Kenji

    2014-12-01

    Because there is no absolute indicator of the nutritional status and prognosis in patients with severe aspiration problems, it is quite difficult to arrive at a true long-time prognosis. By performing surgery for intractable aspiration on such patients, both the prognosis and QOL of the patients could be expected to improve. In our department, we have experienced patients dying within 6 months after surgery. In these cases, the patient's preoperative nutritional status was not good. Therefore, we consider that, when we adopt this procedure, there should be some indicators we should use which could have an effect on the prognosis of such nutritionally-challenged patients. In patients who underwent surgery for intractable aspiration; we examined the relationship between their survival and the prognostic nutritional index (PNI) which is an indicator of the risk of complications such as post-operative events in the surgical field. We investigated the relationship between the prognosis and the postoperative indicators of each of the following: WBC, CRP, serum albumin level, and PNI. Out of a total of 31 cases, the average O-PNI of eight cases in which death occurred was 29.45, and the average of six cases in which death occurred within 6 months after surgery was 28.26. The average O-PNI of the survivors was 36.01. A significant association was noted between the early postoperative deaths and some of the four indicators namely that serum albumin level and O-PNI. Based on the ROC curve, the O-PNI offered higher precision than the albumin level. The cut-off value of the O-PNI value for early postoperative mortality rate was 32. The early postoperative mortality rate was 44.4% in patients with less than 32 O-PNI in the preoperative examination, but if it were O-PNI 32 or more, the early postoperative mortality rate was 9.1%, significantly lower. Therefore, O-PNI could be useful as one of the prognostic evaluation factors in the case of preoperative surgery for intractable

  16. Design of Nutrition Catering System for Athletes Based on Access Database

    OpenAIRE

    Hongjiang Wu,; Haiyan Zhao; Xugang Liu; Mingshun Xing

    2015-01-01

    In order to monitor and adjust athletes' dietary nutrition scientifically, Active X Data Object (ADO) and Structure Query Language (SQL) were used to produce program under the development environment of Visual Basic 6.0 and Access database. The consulting system on food nutrition and dietary had been developed with the two languages combination and organization of the latest nutrition information. Nutrition balance of physiological characteristics, assessment for nutrition intake, inquiring n...

  17. A plant nutrition strategy for ex-situ conservation based on "Ecological Similarity"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Kai-yuan; CHEN Fang; TAO Yong; CHEN Shu-sen; ZHANG Guo-shi

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviewed a large scale conservation work of rare and endangered plants currently conducted in main botanical gardens in China,and the existed,predictable and neglected problems on plant growth and reproduction in ex-situ conservation process.Considered the status quo in plant ex conservation,a nutritional strategy on the plant conservation was proposed based on 'Ecological Similarity'.Its main idea was that the ex-situ conservation plants coming from natural ecosystem were compulsively allocated in the agro-ecosystems and would return to natural ecosystem ultimately.Therefore,research on plant nutrition of the ex-situ conservation plants should neither just pursue yield and quality as that in agro-ecosystems nor merely stay on intrinsic natures without human intervening.We should give attentions to both of their attributes as in natural ecosystems and in agro-ecosystems,i.e.,taking full advantage of plant nutritional measures as in agro-ecosystems to solve actual survival problems of the ex-conservation plants,and ensuring the final goal of returning to nature and playing its ecological role.

  18. Creating the Future of Evidence-Based Nutrition Recommendations: Case Studies from Lipid Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Johanna T; Rubin, Kristin H; Fritsche, Kevin L; Psota, Tricia L; Liska, DeAnn J; Harris, William S; Montain, Scott J; Lyle, Barbara J

    2016-07-01

    Strategic translational research is designed to address research gaps that answer specific guidance questions. It provides translational value with respect to nutrition guidance and regulatory and public policy. The relevance and the quality of evidence both matter in translational research. For example, design decisions regarding population, intervention, comparator, and outcome criteria affect whether or not high-quality studies are considered relevant to specific guidance questions and are therefore included as evidence within the context of systematic review frameworks used by authoritative food and health organizations. The process used in systematic reviews, developed by the USDA for its Nutrition Evidence Library, is described. An eating pattern and cardiovascular disease (CVD) evidence review is provided as an example, and factors that differentiated the studies considered relevant and included in that evidence base from those that were excluded are noted. Case studies on ω-3 (n-3) fatty acids (FAs) and industrial trans-FAs illustrate key factors vital to relevance and translational impact, including choice of a relevant population (e.g., healthy, at risk, or diseased subjects; general population or high-performance soldiers); dose and form of the intervention (e.g., food or supplement); use of relevant comparators (e.g., technically feasible and realistic); and measures for both exposure and outcomes (e.g., inflammatory markers or CVD endpoints). Specific recommendations are provided to help increase the impact of nutrition research on future dietary guidance, policy, and regulatory issues, particularly in the area of lipids. PMID:27422509

  19. Nutritional aspects applied to grazing cattle in the tropics: a review based on Brazilian results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edenio Detmann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This review presents and discusses the nutritional and physiological aspects of cattle production under grazing in the tropics. The critical evaluations were based on Brazilian experimental results as well as on basic literature concerning ruminant nutrition. Several associations between the characteristics of the grazed forage, the composition of the supplements and animal and microbial requirements were established. The adopted approach was divided according to two different climatic seasons observed in the tropics: dry and rainy seasons. During the dry season, the main nutritional constraints on animal performance are associated with inherent requirements of the rumen fibrolytic microorganisms. An overall deficiency of nitrogenous compounds is observed in the forage, which compromises forage intake and digestibility. Supplementation with nitrogenous compounds must be a priority in this season to increase forage intake and energy extraction from forage fiber. However, during the rainy season, no constraints on microbial growth are observed. The usual pasture composition presents an unbalanced and high ratio of energy to protein when compared to animal requirements. In such cases, protein supplementation is needed to equilibrate the basal diet and improve the utilization of metabolizable energy and protein.

  20. Comparison of the Noise Robustness of FVC Retrieval Algorithms Based on Linear Mixture Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Yoshioka

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The fraction of vegetation cover (FVC is often estimated by unmixing a linear mixture model (LMM to assess the horizontal spread of vegetation within a pixel based on a remotely sensed reflectance spectrum. The LMM-based algorithm produces results that can vary to a certain degree, depending on the model assumptions. For example, the robustness of the results depends on the presence of errors in the measured reflectance spectra. The objective of this study was to derive a factor that could be used to assess the robustness of LMM-based algorithms under a two-endmember assumption. The factor was derived from the analytical relationship between FVC values determined according to several previously described algorithms. The factor depended on the target spectra, endmember spectra, and choice of the spectral vegetation index. Numerical simulations were conducted to demonstrate the dependence and usefulness of the technique in terms of robustness against the measurement noise.

  1. Space Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2009-01-01

    Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crewmembers begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes during a mission and, if necessary, to provide intervention to maintain that status throughout the mission, and to assesses changes after landing in order to facilitate the return to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. We report here the findings from our nutritional assessment of astronauts who participated in the International Space Station (ISS) missions, along with flight and ground-based research findings. We also present ongoing and planned nutrition research activities. These studies provide evidence that bone loss, compromised vitamin status, and oxidative damage are the critical nutritional concerns for space travelers. Other nutrient issues exist, including concerns about the stability of nutrients in the food system, which are exposed to longterm storage and radiation during flight. Defining nutrient requirements, and being able to provide and maintain those nutrients on exploration missions, will be critical for maintaining crew member health.

  2. Range prediction for tissue mixtures based on dual-energy CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möhler, Christian; Wohlfahrt, Patrick; Richter, Christian; Greilich, Steffen

    2016-06-01

    The use of dual-energy CT (DECT) potentially decreases range uncertainties in proton and ion therapy treatment planning via determination of the involved physical target quantities. For eventual clinical application, the correct treatment of tissue mixtures and heterogeneities is an essential feature, as they naturally occur within a patient’s CT. Here, we present how existing methods for DECT-based ion-range prediction can be modified in order to incorporate proper mixing behavior on several structural levels. Our approach is based on the factorization of the stopping-power ratio into the relative electron density and the relative stopping number. The latter is confined for tissue between about 0.95 and 1.02 at a therapeutic beam energy of 200 MeV u‑1 and depends on the I-value. We show that convenient mixing and averaging properties arise by relating the relative stopping number to the relative cross section obtained by DECT. From this, a maximum uncertainty of the stopping-power ratio prediction below 1% is suggested for arbitrary mixtures of human body tissues.

  3. Physical activity and nutrition behavioural outcomes of a home-based intervention program for seniors: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Burke Linda; Lee Andy H; Jancey Jonine; Xiang Liming; Kerr Deborah A; Howat Peter A; Hills Andrew P; Anderson Annie S

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background This intervention aimed to ascertain whether a low-cost, accessible, physical activity and nutrition program could improve physical activity and nutrition behaviours of insufficiently active 60–70 year olds residing in Perth, Australia. Methods A 6-month home-based randomised controlled trial was conducted on 478 older adults (intervention, n = 248; control, n = 230) of low to medium socioeconomic status. Both intervention and control groups completed postal questionnaires...

  4. Physical activity and nutrition behavioural outcomes of a home-based intervention program for seniors: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, Linda; Lee, Andy H.; Jancey, Jonine; Xiang, Liming; Deborah A. Kerr; Howat, Peter A.; Hills, Andrew P; Anderson, Annie S

    2013-01-01

    Background This intervention aimed to ascertain whether a low-cost, accessible, physical activity and nutrition program could improve physical activity and nutrition behaviours of insufficiently active 60–70 year olds residing in Perth, Australia. Methods A 6-month home-based randomised controlled trial was conducted on 478 older adults (intervention, n = 248; control, n = 230) of low to medium socioeconomic status. Both intervention and control groups completed postal questionnaires at basel...

  5. Nutrition Education Based on Health Belief Model Improves Dietary Calcium Intake among Female Students of Junior High Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Naghashpour, Mahshid; Shakerinejad, Ghodratollah; Lourizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Hajinajaf, Saeedeh; Jarvandi, Farzaneh

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study examined the effects of a nutrition education programme based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) on knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of dietary calcium in female students. In this interventional study, 188 students were placed into intervention (95) and control (93) groups. The intervention group participated in a nutrition education programme. Students in both the groups completed KAP and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) at baseline and after two and three months o...

  6. Evaluation of acute tryptophan depletion and sham depletion with a gelatin-based collagen peptide protein mixture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenbæk, D S; Einarsdottir, H S; Goregliad-Fjaellingsdal, T;

    2016-01-01

    Acute Tryptophan Depletion (ATD) is a dietary method used to modulate central 5-HT to study the effects of temporarily reduced 5-HT synthesis. The aim of this study is to evaluate a novel method of ATD using a gelatin-based collagen peptide (CP) mixture. We administered CP-Trp or CP+Trp mixtures ...... effects of CP-Trp compared to CP+Trp were observed. The transient increase in plasma Trp after CP+Trp may impair comparison to the CP-Trp and we therefore recommend in future studies to use a smaller dose of Trp supplement to the CP mixture....

  7. Gaussian mixture model for events recognition in optical time-domain reflectometry based sensing systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fedorov, Aleksey; Zhirnov, Andrey; Stepanov, Konstantin; Nesterov, Evgeniy; Namiot, Dmitry; Karasik, Valery; Pnev, Alexey

    2015-01-01

    The novel approach for recognition of particular classes of non-conventional events in signals from phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometry is proposed. The proposed algorithmic solution is based on the adaptive filtering for de-nosing of signals and Gaussian Mixture Model with the feature space formed by the cepstral coefficients for their clustering. We use experimentally measured signals from phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometry based sensing systems for evidence of the suggested algorithm. Our results show that two classes of events can be detected and distinguished between two classes with the probability being close to 0.9. Proposed algorithmic solution can be used in real-time distributed fiber optic sensing systems for control of protected areas.

  8. Decomposition driven interface evolution for layers of binary mixtures: I. Model derivation and stratified base states

    CERN Document Server

    Thiele, Uwe; Frastia, Lubor

    2007-01-01

    A dynamical model is proposed to describe the coupled decomposition and profile evolution of a free surface film of a binary mixture. An example is a thin film of a polymer blend on a solid substrate undergoing simultaneous phase separation and dewetting. The model is based on model-H describing the coupled transport of the mass of one component (convective Cahn-Hilliard equation) and momentum (Navier-Stokes-Korteweg equations) supplemented by appropriate boundary conditions at the solid substrate and the free surface. General transport equations are derived using phenomenological non-equilibrium thermodynamics for a general non-isothermal setting taking into account Soret and Dufour effects and interfacial viscosity for the internal diffuse interface between the two components. Focusing on an isothermal setting the resulting model is compared to literature results and its base states corresponding to homogeneous or vertically stratified flat layers are analysed.

  9. Design of Nutrition Catering System for Athletes Based on Access Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjiang Wu,

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to monitor and adjust athletes' dietary nutrition scientifically, Active X Data Object (ADO and Structure Query Language (SQL were used to produce program under the development environment of Visual Basic 6.0 and Access database. The consulting system on food nutrition and dietary had been developed with the two languages combination and organization of the latest nutrition information. Nutrition balance of physiological characteristics, assessment for nutrition intake, inquiring nutrition of common food and recommended of functional nourishing food could be achieved for different events and different level of athletes.

  10. Confirmation Bias: Examples from Dairy Cow Nutrition and Their Impact on Evidence-Based Veterinary Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ad VAN VUUREN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In 1989 a Boeing 737 crashed in the Amazon jungle after running out of fuel 600 miles off course. The accident was due to human failures, being incorrect input of the required direction and misinterpreting external signals thereby (misconfirming that the plane headed the right way and that the crew was infallible; a situation in psychology known as confirmation bias.Confirmation bias is the tendency to search for, interpret, or recall information in a way that confirms one's beliefs or hypotheses. Also in (Veterinary Science external signals can be helpful to confirm one’s beliefs or hypothesis, but an open, critical attitude must be considered to prevent confirmation bias. Therefore veterinary (and other nutritionists should:-utilise facts and insights obtained in well-designed experiments to develop sound unbiased theories on the aetiology of nutrition-based animal diseases and to generate preferable interventions to prevent or treat such diseases.-reflect on the effect of dogmas in dairy cow nutrition, which may have consequences for preventing for example laminitis and metabolic disorders in early-lactation.This brings to Evidence-Based Veterinary Clinical Nutrition whose development, advantages and disadvantages of Evidence-Based Veterinary Medicine (EBVM have been reviewed recently (Vandeweerd et al., 2012. Similar to evidence-based medicine, EBVM distinguishes five sequential steps: (1 formulate answerable questions, (2 locate best evidence to answer the question, (3 assess internal validity of the obtained information, (4 integrate validated information with own clinical expertise and the unique situation of patient and owner and (5 assess effectiveness and efficiency of the therapy to improve future appraisals (Schmidt, 2007, Fajt et al., 2009, Vandeweerd et al., 2012. In a contribution of Roudebush et al. (2004 examples for applying EBVM in clinical nutrition have been presented, showing how this approach can improve patient outcomes

  11. Prediction of pyrolysis kinetic parameters from biomass constituents based on simplex-lattice mixture design☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Panusit Sungsuk; Sasiporn Chayaporn; Sasithorn Sunphorka; Prapan Kuchonthara; Pornpote Piumsomboon; Benjapon Chalermsinsuwan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the effect of the main chemical components of biomass:cel ulose, hemicel-lulose and lignin, on chemical kinetics of biomass pyrolysis. The experiments were designed based on a simplex-lattice mixture design. The pyrolysis was observed by using a thermogravimetric analyzer. The curves obtained from the employed analytical method fit the experimental data (R2 N 0.9). This indicated that this method has the potential to determine the kinetic parameters such as the activation energy (Ea), frequency factor (A) and re-action order (n) for each point of the experimental design. The results obtained from the simplex-lattice mixture design indicated that cellulose had a significant effect on Ea and A, and the interaction between cellulose and lignin had an important effect on the reaction order, n. The proposed models were then proved to be useful for predicting pyrolysis behavior in real biomass and so could be used as a simple approximation for predicting the overall trend of chemical reaction kinetics.

  12. Vapour pressures and osmotic coefficients of binary mixtures containing alcohol and pyrrolidinium-based ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Osmotic coefficients of alcohols with pyrrolidinium ILs are determined. • Experimental data were correlated with extended Pitzer model of Archer and MNRTL. • Mean molal activity coefficients and excess Gibbs free energies were calculated. • The results have been interpreted in terms of interactions. -- Abstract: The osmotic and activity coefficients and vapour pressures of mixtures containing primary (1-propanol, 1-butanol and 1-pentanol) and secondary (2-propanol and 2-butanol) alcohols with pyrrolidinium-based ionic liquids (1-butyl-1-methyl pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, C4MpyrNTf2, and 1-butyl-1-methyl pyrrolidinium trifluoromethanesulfonate, C4MpyrTFO) have been experimentally determined at T = 323.15 K. For the experimental measurements, the vapour pressure osmometry technique has been used. The results on the influence of the structure of the alcohol and of the anion of the ionic liquid on the determined properties have been discussed and compared with literature data. For the correlation of the osmotic coefficients obtained, the Extended Pitzer model of Archer and the Modified Non-Random Two Liquids model were applied. The mean molal activity coefficients and the excess Gibbs energy for the studied mixtures were calculated from the parameters obtained in the correlation

  13. Probability Density Function Characterization for Aggregated Large-Scale Wind Power Based on Weibull Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Gómez-Lázaro

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Weibull probability distribution has been widely applied to characterize wind speeds for wind energy resources. Wind power generation modeling is different, however, due in particular to power curve limitations, wind turbine control methods, and transmission system operation requirements. These differences are even greater for aggregated wind power generation in power systems with high wind penetration. Consequently, models based on one-Weibull component can provide poor characterizations for aggregated wind power generation. With this aim, the present paper focuses on discussing Weibull mixtures to characterize the probability density function (PDF for aggregated wind power generation. PDFs of wind power data are firstly classified attending to hourly and seasonal patterns. The selection of the number of components in the mixture is analyzed through two well-known different criteria: the Akaike information criterion (AIC and the Bayesian information criterion (BIC. Finally, the optimal number of Weibull components for maximum likelihood is explored for the defined patterns, including the estimated weight, scale, and shape parameters. Results show that multi-Weibull models are more suitable to characterize aggregated wind power data due to the impact of distributed generation, variety of wind speed values and wind power curtailment.

  14. DPNuc: Identifying Nucleosome Positions Based on the Dirichlet Process Mixture Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huidong; Guan, Jihong; Zhou, Shuigeng

    2015-01-01

    Nucleosomes and the free linker DNA between them assemble the chromatin. Nucleosome positioning plays an important role in gene transcription regulation, DNA replication and repair, alternative splicing, and so on. With the rapid development of ChIP-seq, it is possible to computationally detect the positions of nucleosomes on chromosomes. However, existing methods cannot provide accurate and detailed information about the detected nucleosomes, especially for the nucleosomes with complex configurations where overlaps and noise exist. Meanwhile, they usually require some prior knowledge of nucleosomes as input, such as the size or the number of the unknown nucleosomes, which may significantly influence the detection results. In this paper, we propose a novel approach DPNuc for identifying nucleosome positions based on the Dirichlet process mixture model. In our method, Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulations are employed to determine the mixture model with no need of prior knowledge about nucleosomes. Compared with three existing methods, our approach can provide more detailed information of the detected nucleosomes and can more reasonably reveal the real configurations of the chromosomes; especially, our approach performs better in the complex overlapping situations. By mapping the detected nucleosomes to a synthetic benchmark nucleosome map and two existing benchmark nucleosome maps, it is shown that our approach achieves a better performance in identifying nucleosome positions and gets a higher F-score. Finally, we show that our approach can more reliably detect the size distribution of nucleosomes. PMID:26671796

  15. Effects of species diversity on seasonal variation in herbage yield and nutritive value of seven binary grass-legume mixtures and pure grass under cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elgersma, Anjo; Søegaard, Karen

    2016-01-01

    and diversity on herbage yield, contents of N, neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD). Perennial ryegrass (PR, Lolium perenne) was sown alone and with each of four forage legumes: red clover (RC, Trifolium pratense), lucerne (LU, Medicago sativa), birdsfoot...... yield and quality. Results are discussed in terms of their potential to contribute to forage resources in farming practice and enhance resource use efficiency and ecosystem services....... mixture had the highest legume proportion, N content and N yield. There was less WC in swards with HR and MF than with PR and TI. These differences were reflected in N contents of herbage of the mixtures. Legumes had higher N and lignin and lower NDF contents and IVOMD than grasses. Among legumes, NDF...

  16. Characterization of microbulk detectors in argon- and neon-based mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Iguaz, F J; Giganon, A; Giomataris, I

    2012-01-01

    A recent Micromegas manufacturing technique, so called Microbulk, has been developed, improving the uniformity and stability of this kind of detectors. Excellent energy resolutions have been obtained, reaching values as low as 11% FWHM at 5.9 keV in Ar+5%iC4H10. This detector has other advantages like its flexible structure, low material budget and high radio-purity. Two microbulk detectors with gaps of 50 and 25 um have been characterized in argon- and neon-based mixtures with ethane, isobutane and cyclohexane. The results will be presented and discussed. The gain curves have been fitted to the Rose-Korff gain model and dependences of the electron mean free path and the threshold energy for ionization have been obtained. The possible relation between these two parameters and the energy resolution will be also discussed.

  17. Ethanol-Water Near-Azeotropic Mixture Dehydration by Compound Starch-Based Adsorbent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙津生; 师明; 王文平

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol-water near-azeotropic mixture dehydration was investigated by formulated compound starch-based adsorbent(CSA), which consists of corn, sweet potato and foaming agent. The net retention time and separa-tion factor of water over ethanol were measured by inverse gas chromatography(IGC). Results indicated that water has a longer net retention time than ethanol and that low temperature is beneficial to this dehydration process. Or-thogonal test was conducted under different vapor feed flow rates, bed temperatures and bed heights, to obtain op-timal fixed-bed dehydration condition. Dynamic saturated adsorbance was also studied. It was found that CSA has the same water adsorption capacity(0.15 g/g)as some commercial molecular sieves. Besides, this biosorptive dehy-dration process was found to be the most energy-efficient compared with other ethanol purification processes.

  18. A Surface Tension Model for Liquid Mixtures Based on NRTL Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A new equation for predicting surface tension is proposed based on the thermodynamic definition of surface tension and the expression of the Gibbs free energy of the system. Using the NRTL equation to represent the excess Gibbs free energy, a two-parameter surface tension equation is derived. The feasibility of the new equation has been tested in terms of 124 binary and 16 multicomponent systems(13-ternary and 3-quaternary) with absolute relative deviations of 0.59% and 1.55% respectively. This model is also predictive for the temperature dependence of surface tension of liquid mixtures. It is shown that, with good accuracy, this equation is simple and reliable for practical use.

  19. Infant Nutrition and 12 and 18 Months Secure Base Behavior: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachs, Theodore D.; Posada, German; Carbonell, Olga A.; Creed-Kanashiro, Hillary; Gurkas, Pinar

    2011-01-01

    A notable omission in studies of developmental links to early nutritional deficiencies is infant attachment. In those few studies investigating associations between infant nutrition and attachment, nutrition was defined solely by physical growth, and infants had moderate-severe growth retardation. In this study, we utilized multiple markers of…

  20. BClass: A Bayesian Approach Based on Mixture Models for Clustering and Classification of Heterogeneous Biological Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Medrano-Soto

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on mixture models, we present a Bayesian method (called BClass to classify biological entities (e.g. genes when variables of quite heterogeneous nature are analyzed. Various statistical distributions are used to model the continuous/categorical data commonly produced by genetic experiments and large-scale genomic projects. We calculate the posterior probability of each entry to belong to each element (group in the mixture. In this way, an original set of heterogeneous variables is transformed into a set of purely homogeneous characteristics represented by the probabilities of each entry to belong to the groups. The number of groups in the analysis is controlled dynamically by rendering the groups as 'alive' and 'dormant' depending upon the number of entities classified within them. Using standard Metropolis-Hastings and Gibbs sampling algorithms, we constructed a sampler to approximate posterior moments and grouping probabilities. Since this method does not require the definition of similarity measures, it is especially suitable for data mining and knowledge discovery in biological databases. We applied BClass to classify genes in RegulonDB, a database specialized in information about the transcriptional regulation of gene expression in the bacterium Escherichia coli. The classification obtained is consistent with current knowledge and allowed prediction of missing values for a number of genes. BClass is object-oriented and fully programmed in Lisp-Stat. The output grouping probabilities are analyzed and interpreted using graphical (dynamically linked plots and query-based approaches. We discuss the advantages of using Lisp-Stat as a programming language as well as the problems we faced when the data volume increased exponentially due to the ever-growing number of genomic projects.

  1. Iterative Mixture Component Pruning Algorithm for Gaussian Mixture PHD Filter

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoxi Yan

    2014-01-01

    As far as the increasing number of mixture components in the Gaussian mixture PHD filter is concerned, an iterative mixture component pruning algorithm is proposed. The pruning algorithm is based on maximizing the posterior probability density of the mixture weights. The entropy distribution of the mixture weights is adopted as the prior distribution of mixture component parameters. The iterative update formulations of the mixture weights are derived by Lagrange multiplier and Lambert W funct...

  2. Changes in stature, weight, and nutritional status with tourism-based economic development in the Yucatan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherman, Thomas L; Goodman, Alan H; Stillman, Tobias

    2010-07-01

    Over the past 40 years, tourism-based economic development has transformed social and economic conditions in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. We address how these changes have influenced anthropometric indicators of growth and nutritional status in Yalcoba, a Mayan farming community involved in the circular migration of labor in the tourist economy. Data are presented on stature and weight for children measured in 1938 in the Yucatan Peninsula and from 1987 to 1998 in the Mayan community of Yalcoba. In addition, stature, weight and BMI are presented for adults in Yalcoba based on clinic records. Childhood stature varied little between 1938 and 1987. Between 1987 and 1998 average male child statures increased by 2.6cm and female child statures increased by 2.7cm. Yet, 65% of children were short for their ages. Between 1987 and 1998, average child weight increased by 1.8kg. Child BMIs were similar to US reference values and 13% were considered to be above average for weight. Forty percent of adult males and 64% of females were overweight or obese. The anthropometric data from Yalcoba suggest a pattern of stunted children growing into overweight adults. This pattern is found elsewhere in the Yucatan and in much of the developing world where populations have experienced a nutrition transition toward western diets and reduced physical activity levels. PMID:20579944

  3. The Key to Life Nutrition Program: results from a community-based dietary sodium reduction trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robare, Joseph F; Milas, N Carole; Bayles, Constance M; Williams, Kathy; Newman, Anne B; Lovalekar, Mita T; Boudreau, Robert; McTigue, Kathleen; Albert, Steven M; Kuller, Lewis H

    2016-01-01

    Objective Evaluation of a dietary Na reduction trial in a community setting. Design Community-based randomized trial. Ten-week nutrition intervention activities focused on lifestyle modification to decrease dietary Na intake, under the supervision of a registered dietitian. Twenty-four hour urine specimens were collected at baseline and follow-up visits to determine 24 h urinary Na excretion. Setting The University of Pittsburgh Center for Healthy Aging, Key to Life Nutrition Program. Subjects Hypertensive adults at least 65 years of age. Results Mean age of participants was 75 years. Twenty-four hour mean urinary Na excretion at baseline was 3174 mg/d. This reduced to 2944 mg/d (P = 0·30) and 2875 mg/d (P ≤ 0·03) at 6-and 12-month follow-ups, respectively. In a sub-sample (urine volume of ≥ 1000 ml, baseline to 12 months), mean urinary Na excretion decreased from 3220 mg/d to 2875 mg/d (P ≤ 0·02). Conclusions Significant reductions in mean 24 h urinary Na were reported, but results fell short of the recommended guidelines of 1500 mg/d for at-risk individuals. Our results reiterate the difficulty in implementing these guidelines in community-based programmes. More aggressive public health efforts, food industry support and health policy changes are needed to decrease Na levels in older adults to the recommended guidelines. PMID:19781124

  4. A Pilot Study of Self-Management-based Nutrition and Physical Activity Intervention in Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michelle; Zrim, Stephanie; Lawn, Sharon; Woodman, Richard; Leggett, Stephanie; Jones, Lynnette; Karapetis, Christos; Kichenadasse, Ganessan; Sukumaran, Shawgi; Roy, Amitesh C; Koczwara, Bogda

    2016-07-01

    Exercise and a healthy diet are beneficial after cancer, but are not uniformly adopted by cancer survivors. This study reports on the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of a self-management-based nutrition and exercise intervention for Australian cancer survivors. Adult survivors (n  =  25) during curative chemotherapy (stratum 1[S1]; n  =  11) or post-treatment (stratum 2 [S2]; n  =  14) were recruited prospectively from a single center. The Flinders Living Well Self-Management Program™ (FLW Program) was utilized to establish patient-led nutrition and exercise goals and develop a tailored 12-wk intervention plan. Fortnightly reviews occurred with assessments at baseline, 6 and 12 wk. A recruitment and retention rate of 38% and 84% were observed. Both strata maintained total skeletal muscle mass. Small reductions in body mass index, hip circumference, and percentage body fat, and small increases in hand grip strength and exercise capacity among subjects in both strata were observed. No significant differences were observed between strata; however, significant increases in exercise capacity and global health status for S2 were observed from baseline to 12 wk. FLW Program is a feasible mode of delivering nutrition and exercise intervention to cancer survivors and it appears that there are no barriers to implementing this program early during chemotherapy. Hence, the additive effect of gains achieved over a longer duration is promising and this should be explored in randomized controlled trials adequately powered to observe clinically and statistically significant improvements in relevant outcomes. PMID:27176450

  5. Pertinence of the recent school-based nutrition interventions targeting fruit and vegetable consumption in the United States:a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher R. Aloia; Taylor A. Shockey; Nahar, Vinayak K.; Knight, Kathy B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Schools are the major locations for implementing children’s dietary behavior related educational or interventional programs. Recently, there has been an increase in school-based nutrition interventions. The objective of this systematic review was to overview the evidence for the effectiveness of school-based nutrition intervention on fruit and vegetable consumption. Methods: PubMed was used to search for articles on school-based nutrition interventions that measured students’ f...

  6. Purging mixture for extruder

    OpenAIRE

    Okpala, Chukwubuike

    2015-01-01

    This thesis work focuses on compounding a mechanical purge mixture for extruders. The base resin for making the purge mixture is recycled High Density Polyethylene chosen for its high density and good processing temperature. The additives are mainly clay and sili-con dioxide added as filler and scrubbing materials respectively. The purge mixture was produced by mixing the base resin and additives in percentage ratios into five places la-beled A, B, C, D, and E. the mixtures were extruded and ...

  7. Soot modeling of counterflow diffusion flames of ethylene-based binary mixture fuels

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yu

    2015-03-01

    A soot model was developed based on the recently proposed PAH growth mechanism for C1-C4 gaseous fuels (KAUST PAH Mechanism 2, KM2) that included molecular growth up to coronene (A7) to simulate soot formation in counterflow diffusion flames of ethylene and its binary mixtures with methane, ethane and propane based on the method of moments. The soot model has 36 soot nucleation reactions from 8 PAH molecules including pyrene and larger PAHs. Soot surface growth reactions were based on a modified hydrogen-abstraction-acetylene-addition (HACA) mechanism in which CH3, C3H3 and C2H radicals were included in the hydrogen abstraction reactions in addition to H atoms. PAH condensation on soot particles was also considered. The experimentally measured profiles of soot volume fraction, number density, and particle size were well captured by the model for the baseline case of ethylene along with the cases involving mixtures of fuels. The simulation results, which were in qualitative agreement with the experimental data in the effects of binary fuel mixing on the sooting structures of the measured flames, showed in particular that 5% addition of propane (ethane) led to an increase in the soot volume fraction of the ethylene flame by 32% (6%), despite the fact that propane and ethane are less sooting fuels than is ethylene, which is in reasonable agreement with experiments of 37% (14%). The model revealed that with 5% addition of methane, there was an increase of 6% in the soot volume fraction. The average soot particle sizes were only minimally influenced while the soot number densities were increased by the fuel mixing. Further analysis of the numerical data indicated that the chemical cross-linking effect between ethylene and the dopant fuels resulted in an increase in PAH formation, which led to higher soot nucleation rates and therefore higher soot number densities. On the other hand, the rates of soot surface growth per unit surface area through the HACA mechanism were

  8. [Formulation of a rice-based beverage of high nutritive value].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, M J; González, D; Jaffé, W G; Calderón, M

    1981-06-01

    The purpose of this work was the production of a beverage with a nutritive value similar to that of milk, but available at a lower cost. A traditional beverage in Venezuela, "Chicha de Arroz" (Rice Chicha), was chosen. The various formulas studied were based on rice, non-fat milk and different kinds of soy flour, in addition to sugar, vegetable oil, vitamins, ferrous sulfate and different flavors. A product with protein and caloric values similar to those of milk was obtained. Twenty formulas were prepared and submitted to physico-chemical, microbiological and sensorial evaluations with respect to flavor, color, viscosity and stability during period of refrigeration. The most adequate formula was prepared on a pilot-plant scale. Rat assays gave the same PER results as those of casein. Consumer acceptability was tested on 1,080 school children, and showed to be greater than 95%. The stability was superior to that of milk and the cost, approximately three-fourths that of the latter. In the school-snack program of the National Institute of Nutrition, milk is now being replaced by this Chicha. PMID:6895986

  9. Study of mixtures based on hydrocarbons used in ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle) for engine waste heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For high temperature ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle) used in engine waste heat recovery, it's very critical to select a high temperature working fluid. HCs (Hydrocarbons) usually have excellent cycle performance, but the flammability limits their practical application. Considering that some retardants can be used to suppress flammability, the paper presents an application of mixtures based on hydrocarbons blending with refrigerant retardants to engine waste heat ORC. Three pure hydrocarbons (cyclopentane, cyclohexane, benzene) and two retardants (R11, R123) are selected for combination. Thermal efficiency and exergy loss are selected as the main objective functions. Based on thermodynamic model, the effects of retardants mass fraction, evaporation temperature and IHE (internal heat exchanger) are investigated. Results show that zeotropic mixtures do have higher thermal efficiency and lower exergy loss than pure fluids, at a certain mixture ratio. There exists the OMR (optimal mixture ratio) for different mixtures, and it changes with the evaporation temperature. When adding IHE to system, cycle performance could be obviously improved, and for benzene/R11 (0.7/0.3), the efficiency growth is about 7.12%∼9.72%. Using it, the maximum thermal efficiency of the system can achieve 16.7%, and minimum exergy loss is only 30.76 kW. - Highlights: • A theoretical analysis of Organic Rankine Cycle for engine exhaust heat recovery is proposed. • Mixtures based on hydrocarbons as working fluids have been suggested. • Effects of the IHE (internal heat exchanger) on ORC system are investigated. • OMR (Optimal mixture ratio) changes with the evaporation temperature. • Using the system, maximum thermal efficiency can achieve 16.7%

  10. Optimal mixture experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Sinha, B K; Pal, Manisha; Das, P

    2014-01-01

    The book dwells mainly on the optimality aspects of mixture designs. As mixture models are a special case of regression models, a general discussion on regression designs has been presented, which includes topics like continuous designs, de la Garza phenomenon, Loewner order domination, Equivalence theorems for different optimality criteria and standard optimality results for single variable polynomial regression and multivariate linear and quadratic regression models. This is followed by a review of the available literature on estimation of parameters in mixture models. Based on recent research findings, the volume also introduces optimal mixture designs for estimation of optimum mixing proportions in different mixture models, which include Scheffé’s quadratic model, Darroch-Waller model, log- contrast model, mixture-amount models, random coefficient models and multi-response model.  Robust mixture designs and mixture designs in blocks have been also reviewed. Moreover, some applications of mixture desig...

  11. Mechanical and Explosive Properties of Plastic Bonded Explosives Based on Mixture of HMX and TATB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjun Singh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes formulation of plastic bonded explosives (PBXs compositions based on 2,4,6- triamino-1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TATB, Octahydro l,3,5,7-tetranitro- 1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX by varying their relative amounts with Viton A as polymeric binder by slurry coating technique. These PBXs compositions are studied for mechanical and detonic properties. It has been observed that sensitivity and explosive performance of PBXs based on mixture of HMX and TATB were varied over a wide considerable range by varying relative amounts of TATB and HMX. The detonation study revealed there was increased in velocity of detonation (VOD and detonation pressure with increasing amount of HMX from 10-80 % by weight. The sensitivity test results exhibited that insensitivity to impact for PBXs compositions was found to decrease with increasing HMX amount.  Friction sensitivity study showed that no reactions were observed upto 36 kg load for PBXs compositions namely HT6030, HT5040, HT4050, HT3060, HT2070 and HT1080. The compressive strength of these PBXs compositions was found within the range of 9-11 MPa.Defence Science Journal, 2013, 63(6, pp.622-629, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.63.5764

  12. A Dirichlet Process Mixture Based Name Origin Clustering and Alignment Model for Transliteration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyue Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In machine transliteration, it is common that the transliterated names in the target language come from multiple language origins. A conventional maximum likelihood based single model can not deal with this issue very well and often suffers from overfitting. In this paper, we exploit a coupled Dirichlet process mixture model (cDPMM to address overfitting and names multiorigin cluster issues simultaneously in the transliteration sequence alignment step over the name pairs. After the alignment step, the cDPMM clusters name pairs into many groups according to their origin information automatically. In the decoding step, in order to use the learned origin information sufficiently, we use a cluster combination method (CCM to build clustering-specific transliteration models by combining small clusters into large ones based on the perplexities of name language and transliteration model, which makes sure each origin cluster has enough data for training a transliteration model. On the three different Western-Chinese multiorigin names corpora, the cDPMM outperforms two state-of-the-art baseline models in terms of both the top-1 accuracy and mean F-score, and furthermore the CCM significantly improves the cDPMM.

  13. Studies of Helium Based Gas Mixtures Using a Small Cell Drift Chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heise, Jaret; /British Columbia U.

    2006-07-07

    An international collaboration is currently working on the construction and design of an asymmetric B Factory at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center that will be ready to collect data in 1999. The main physics motivation for such a facility is to test the description and mechanism of CP violation in the Standard Model of particle physics and provide insight into the question of why more matter than antimatter is observed in the universe today. In particular, this experiment will measure CP violation in the decay of B mesons. In the early stages of this effort, the Canadian contingent proposed to build the central tracking chamber for the BaBar detector. Presently, a prototype drift chamber is in operation and studies are being performed to test some of the unique features of drift chamber design dictated by the conditions of the experiment. Using cosmic muons, it is possible to study tracking and pattern recognition in the prototype chamber, and therefore calculate the efficiency and spatial resolution of the prototype chamber cells. These performance features will be used to test whether or not the helium-based gas mixtures proposed for the BaBar drift chamber are a viable alternative to the more traditional argon-based gases.

  14. Range prediction for tissue mixtures based on dual-energy CT

    CERN Document Server

    Möhler, Christian; Richter, Christian; Greilich, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    The use of dual-energy CT (DECT) potentially decreases range uncertainties in proton and ion therapy treatment planning via determination of the involved physical target quantities. For eventual clinical application, the correct treatment of tissue mixtures and heterogeneities is an essential feature, as they naturally occur within a patient's CT. Here, we present how existing methods for DECT-based ion-range prediction can be modified in order to incorporate proper mixing behavior on several structural levels. Our approach is based on the factorization of the stopping-power ratio into the relative electron density and the relative stopping number. The latter is confined for tissue between about 0.95 and 1.02 at a therapeutic beam energy of 200 MeV/u and depends on the I-value. We show that convenient mixing and averaging properties arise by relating the relative stopping number to the relative cross section obtained by DECT. From this, a maximum uncertainty of the stopping-power ratio prediction below 1% is ...

  15. Size-based characterization of nanoparticle mixtures by the inline coupling of capillary electrophoresis to Taylor dispersion analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oukacine, Farid; Morel, Aurélie; Desvignes, Isabelle; Cottet, Hervé

    2015-12-24

    Separation of closely related nanoparticles is still a challenging issue for the characterization of complex mixtures for industrial/research applications or regulatory purposes. In this work, the remarkable separating performances of CE were complemented with the absolute size-based determination provided by Taylor dispersion analysis (TDA) for the characterization of nanoparticle mixtures. The inline hyphenation of CE to TDA was successfully implemented for the baseline separation followed by a size-based characterization of a bimodal mixture containing two closely size-related nanolatexes (70nm and 56nm radii). A pixel sensor UV area imager providing three detection points along the capillary was used for a differential measurement of the peak broadening during the Taylor dispersion step. Comparison of this new technique with dynamic light scattering and hydrodynamic chromatography is also discussed. PMID:26653841

  16. Cultivating nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Levin, Carol E.; Long, Jennifer; Simler, Kenneth R.; Johnson-Welch, Charlotte

    2003-01-01

    "Over the past decade, donor-funded policies and programs designed to address undernutrition in the Global South have shifted away from agriculture-based strategies toward nutrient supplementation and food fortification programs. Given the potential benefits resulting from agriculture-based nutrition interventions, this study uses Q methodology to explore the views of a range of stakeholders from both developed and developing countries on the value of—and constraints related to—gender-sensiti...

  17. A new decomposition-based computer-aided molecular/mixture design methodology for the design of optimal solvents and solvent mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karunanithi, A.T.; Achenie, L.E.K.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a novel computer-aided molecular/mixture design (CAMD) methodology for the design of optimal solvents and solvent mixtures. The molecular/mixture design problem is formulated as a mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) model in which a performance objective is to be...... optimized subject to structural, property, and process constraints. The general molecular/mixture design problem is divided into two parts. For optimal single-compound design, the first part is solved. For mixture design, the single-compound design is first carried out to identify candidates and then the...... second part is solved to determine the optimal mixture. The decomposition of the CAMD MINLP model into relatively easy to solve subproblems is essentially a partitioning of the constraints from the original set. This approach is illustrated through two case studies. The first case study involves the...

  18. Nutrigenomics-based personalised nutritional advice: in search of a business model?

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Nutritional advice has mainly focused on population-level recommendations. Recent developments in nutrition, communication, and marketing sciences have enabled potential deviations from this dominant business model in the direction of personalisation of nutrition advice. Such personalisation efforts can take on many forms, but these have in common that they can only be effective if they are supported by a viable business model. The present paper takes an inventory of approaches to personalise...

  19. Effect of novel ultrasound based processing on the nutrition quality of different fruit and vegetable juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandpur, Paramjeet; Gogate, Parag R

    2015-11-01

    Increasing consumer awareness regarding the health benefits of different nutrients in food have led to the requirement of assessing the effect of food processing approaches on the quality attributes. The present work focuses on understanding the effects of novel approaches based on the use of ultrasound and ultraviolet irradiations on the nutritional quality of different fruit and vegetable juices (orange, sweet lime, carrot and spinach juices) and its comparison with the conventional thermal pasteurization operated at 80°C for 10 min. The ultrasound sterilization parameters were maintained at ultrasound frequency of 20 kHz and power of 100 W with treatment time as 15 min. For the case of ultraviolet irradiations, 2 UVC lamps (254 nm) of 8 W were placed in parallel on either sides of the reactor. The treated juices were analyzed for total phenol content, antioxidant activity, vitamin C, carbohydrates etc. It has been established that ultrasound processed juice retained most of the nutrient components to higher extent in comparison to all the other techniques used in the work. Combination of ultrasound and ultraviolet irradiations used to achieve an effective decontamination of juices (recommended 5 log reduction of microorganisms) also retained nutrients to a higher level in comparison to the thermal method; however some losses were observed as compared to the use of only ultrasound which could be attributed to inefficient heat exchange in the combined approach. A scale up attempt was also made for treatment of spinach juice using ultrasonic reactors and analysis for quality attributes confirmed that the juice satisfied the criteria of required nutrient contents for 18 days shelf life trial in refrigerated storage conditions. The present work has clearly established the usefulness of ultrasound based treatment in maintaining the nutritional quality of beverages while giving enhanced shelf life as compared to the conventional approaches. PMID:26186829

  20. Bayesian Analysis of a Lipid-Based Physiologically Based Toxicokinetic Model for a Mixture of PCBs in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan F. Sasso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A lipid-based physiologically based toxicokinetic (PBTK model has been developed for a mixture of six polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs in rats. The aim of this study was to apply population Bayesian analysis to a lipid PBTK model, while incorporating an internal exposure-response model linking enzyme induction and metabolic rate. Lipid-based physiologically based toxicokinetic models are a subset of PBTK models that can simulate concentrations of highly lipophilic compounds in tissue lipids, without the need for partition coefficients. A hierarchical treatment of population metabolic parameters and a CYP450 induction model were incorporated into the lipid-based PBTK framework, and Markov-Chain Monte Carlo was applied to in vivo data. A mass balance of CYP1A and CYP2B in the liver was necessary to model PCB metabolism at high doses. The linked PBTK/induction model remained on a lipid basis and was capable of modeling PCB concentrations in multiple tissues for all dose levels and dose profiles.

  1. Evaluation of effectiveness of class-based nutrition intervention on changes in soft drink and milk consumption among young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holloman Christopher

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During last few decades, soft drink consumption has steadily increased while milk intake has decreased. Excess consumption of soft drinks and low milk intake may pose risks of several diseases such as dental caries, obesity, and osteoporosis. Although beverage consumption habits form during young adulthood, which has a strong impact on beverage choices in later life, nutrition education programs on beverages are scarce in this population. The purpose of this investigation was 1 to assess soft drink and milk consumption and 2 to evaluate the effectiveness of 15-week class-based nutrition intervention in changing beverage choices among college students. Methods A total of 80 college students aged 18 to 24 years who were enrolled in basic nutrition class participated in the study. Three-day dietary records were collected, verified, and analyzed before and after the intervention. Class lectures focused on healthful dietary choices related to prevention of chronic diseases and were combined with interactive hands on activities and dietary feedback. Results Class-based nutrition intervention combining traditional lecture and interactive activities was successful in decreasing soft drink consumption. Total milk consumption, specifically fat free milk, increased in females and male students changed milk choice favoring skim milk over low fat milk. (1% and 2%. Conclusion Class-based nutrition education focusing on prevention of chronic diseases can be an effective strategy in improving both male and female college students' beverage choices. Using this type of intervention in a general nutrition course may be an effective approach to motivate changes in eating behaviors in a college setting.

  2. A Grasp-pose Generation Method Based on Gaussian Mixture Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjia Wu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM-based grasp-pose generation method is proposed in this paper. Through offline training, the GMM is set up and used to depict the distribution of the robot’s reachable orientations. By dividing the robot’s workspace into small 3D voxels and training the GMM for each voxel, a look-up table covering all the workspace is built with the x, y and z positions as the index and the GMM as the entry. Through the definition of Task Space Regions (TSR, an object’s feasible grasp poses are expressed as a continuous region. With the GMM, grasp poses can be preferentially sampled from regions with high reachability probabilities in the online grasp-planning stage. The GMM can also be used as a preliminary judgement of a grasp pose’s reachability. Experiments on both a simulated and a real robot show the superiority of our method over the existing method.

  3. Characterization of a Spherical Proportional Counter in argon-based mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Iguaz, F J; Castel, J F; Irastorza, I G

    2014-01-01

    The Spherical Proportional Counter is a novel type of radiation detector, with a low energy threshold (typically below 100 eV) and good energy resolution. This detector is being developed by the network NEWS, which includes several applications. We can name between many others Dark Matter searches, low level radon and neutron counting or low energy neutrino detection from supernovas or nuclear reactors via neutrino-nucleus elastic scattering. In this context, this works will present the characterization of a spherical detector of 1 meter diameter using two argon-based mixtures (with methane and isobutane) and for gas pressures between 50 and 1250 mbar. In each case, the energy resolution shows its best value in a wide range of gains, limited by the ballistic effect at low gains and by ion-backflow at high gains. Moreover, the best energy resolution shows a degradation with pressure. These effects will be discussed in terms of gas avalanche properties. Finally, the effect of an electrical field corrector in th...

  4. (Liquid + liquid) equilibria for mixtures of dodecane and ethanol with alkylsulfate-based ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • LLE data for dodecane + ethanol + 1-alkyl-imidazoluim-based ionic liquids (ILs). • ILs are [Mmim][MeSO4], [Emim][MeSO4], and [Bmim][MeSO4]. • Measurements at T = 298.15 K and 0.101 MPa, as well as at T = 313.15 K for [Mmim][MeSO4]. • Consistency of the tie-lines checked with the Othmer–Tobias and Hand equations. • Data correlated with the NRTL model. - Abstract: The ternary (liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) data for mixtures of dodecane (C12H26) and ethanol with ionic liquids 1,3-dimethylimidazolium methylsulfate [Mmim][MeSO4], 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium methylsulfate, [Emim][MeSO4] and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium methylsulfate, [Bmim][MeSO4], were studied at T = 298.15 K and 0.101 MPa. The selectivity and solute distribution coefficient ratios determined from the data were used to examine the possibility of using these ionic liquids for extraction of ethanol from dodecane. The temperature dependency was investigated by measuring the LLE data for {dodecane + ethanol + [Mmim][MeSO4]} at T = 313.15 K and 0.101 MPa. The Othmer–Tobias and Hand equations were used to test the consistency of the tie-line data. The tie-line data were correlated with the Non-Random Two Liquid (NRTL) equation which provided a good model and representation for the experimental results

  5. Numerical analysis of soil-rock mixture's meso-mechanics based on biaxial test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hai-yang; XU Wen-jie; YU Yu-zhen

    2016-01-01

    Soil-rock mixture(S-RM)is a widely distributed geotechnical medium composed of "soil" and "rock block" different both in size and strength. Internal rock blocks form special and variable meso-structural characteristics of S-RM. The objective of this work was to study the control mechanism of meso-structural characteristics on mechanical properties of S-RM. For S-RM containing randomly generated polygonal rock blocks, a series of biaxial tests based on DEM were conducted. On the basis of research on the effects of rock blocks' breakability and sample lateral boundary type (rigid, flexible) on macroscopic mechanical behavior of S-RM, an expanded Mohr-Coulomb criterion in power function form was proposed to represent the strength envelop. At the mesoscopic level, the variations of meso-structure such as rotation of rock block, and the formation mechanism and evolution process of the shear band during tests were investigated. The results show that for S-RM with a high content of rock block, translation, rotating and breakage of rock blocks have crucial effects on mechanical behavior of S-RM. The formation and location of the shear band inside S-RM sample are also controlled by breakability and arrangement of rock blocks.

  6. Reverse engineering Boolean networks: from Bernoulli mixture models to rule based systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehreen Saeed

    Full Text Available A Boolean network is a graphical model for representing and analyzing the behavior of gene regulatory networks (GRN. In this context, the accurate and efficient reconstruction of a Boolean network is essential for understanding the gene regulation mechanism and the complex relations that exist therein. In this paper we introduce an elegant and efficient algorithm for the reverse engineering of Boolean networks from a time series of multivariate binary data corresponding to gene expression data. We call our method ReBMM, i.e., reverse engineering based on Bernoulli mixture models. The time complexity of most of the existing reverse engineering techniques is quite high and depends upon the indegree of a node in the network. Due to the high complexity of these methods, they can only be applied to sparsely connected networks of small sizes. ReBMM has a time complexity factor, which is independent of the indegree of a node and is quadratic in the number of nodes in the network, a big improvement over other techniques and yet there is little or no compromise in accuracy. We have tested ReBMM on a number of artificial datasets along with simulated data derived from a plant signaling network. We also used this method to reconstruct a network from real experimental observations of microarray data of the yeast cell cycle. Our method provides a natural framework for generating rules from a probabilistic model. It is simple, intuitive and illustrates excellent empirical results.

  7. Hardware performance versus video quality trade-off for Gaussian mixture model based background identification systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovese, Mariangela; Napoli, Ettore; Petra, Nicola

    2014-04-01

    Background identification is a fundamental task in many video processing systems. The Gaussian Mixture Model is a background identification algorithm that models the pixel luminance with a mixture of K Gaussian distributions. The number of Gaussian distributions determines the accuracy of the background model and the computational complexity of the algorithm. This paper compares two hardware implementations of the Gaussian Mixture Model that use three and five Gaussians per pixel. A trade off analysis is carried out by evaluating the quality of the processed video sequences and the hardware performances. The circuits are implemented on FPGA by exploiting state of the art, hardware oriented, formulation of the Gaussian Mixture Model equations and by using truncated binary multipliers. The results suggest that the circuit that uses three Gaussian distributions provides video with good accuracy while requiring significant less resources than the option that uses five Gaussian distributions per pixel.

  8. Influence of electrode materials and surface roughness on the homogeneity of discharges in fluorine-based excimer laser gas mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathew, D.; Bastiaens, H.M.J.; Boller, K.-J.; Peters, P.J.M.; Schuöcker, Dieter

    2007-01-01

    The influence of electrode materials and surface roughness on the discharge homogeneity of F2 based excimer laser gas mixtures is investigated in a small x-ray preionised discharge chamber. The temporal and spatial evolution of the discharge is monitored by taking photographs of the discharge lumino

  9. Process to prepare stable trifluorostyrene containing compounds grafted to base polymers using a solvent/water mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelofs, Mark Gerrit; Yang, Zhen-Yu; Han, Amy Qi

    2010-06-15

    A fluorinated ion exchange polymer is prepared by grafting at least one grafting monomer derived from trifluorostyrene on to at least one base polymer in a organic solvent/water mixture. These ion exchange polymers are useful in preparing catalyst coated membranes and membrane electrode assemblies used in fuel cells.

  10. Pediatric parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease and cholestasis: Novel advances in pathomechanisms-based prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orso, Giuseppe; Mandato, Claudia; Veropalumbo, Claudio; Cecchi, Nicola; Garzi, Alfredo; Vajro, Pietro

    2016-03-01

    Parenteral nutrition constitutes a life-saving therapeutic tool in patients unable to ingest/absorb oral or enteral delivered nutrients. Liver function tests abnormalities are a common therapy-related complication, thus configuring the so-called Parenteral Nutrition Associated Liver Disease (PNALD) or cholestasis (PNAC). Although the damage is frequently mild, and resolves after discontinuation of parenteral nutrition, in some cases it progresses into cirrhotic changes, especially in neonates and infants. We present a literature review focusing on the pathogenetic mechanisms-driven prevention and therapies for the cases where parenteral nutrition cannot be discontinued. Ursodeoxycholic acid has been proposed in patients with cholestatic hepatopathy, but its efficacy needs to be better established. Little evidence is available on efficacy of anti-oxidants, antibiotics, probiotics and anti TNFα. Lipid emulsions based on fish oil with a high content of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids ω-3 appear effective both in decreasing intrahepatic inflammation and in improving biliary flow. Most recent promising variations such as soybean/MCT/olive/fish oil emulsion [third generation lipid emulsion (SMOFlipid)] are under investigation. In conclusion, we remark the emergence of a number of novel pathomechanisms underlying the severe liver impairment damage (PNALD and PNAC) in patients treated with parenteral nutrition. Only few traditional and innovative therapeutic strategies have hitherto been shown promising. PMID:26698410

  11. Optimization of Natural Lipstick Formulation Based on Pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) Seed Oil Using D-Optimal Mixture Experimental Design

    OpenAIRE

    Norsuhaili Kamairudin; Siti Salwa Abd Gani; Hamid Reza Fard Masoumi; Puziah Hashim

    2014-01-01

    The D-optimal mixture experimental design was employed to optimize the melting point of natural lipstick based on pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) seed oil. The influence of the main lipstick components—pitaya seed oil (10%–25% w/w), virgin coconut oil (25%–45% w/w), beeswax (5%–25% w/w), candelilla wax (1%–5% w/w) and carnauba wax (1%–5% w/w)—were investigated with respect to the melting point properties of the lipstick formulation. The D-optimal mixture experimental design was applied to opti...

  12. HB LED color mixture traffic light solution based on EZ-color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Qunhuan; Wang, Weijian; Xiao, Zhihong

    2010-02-01

    This paper introduces a traffic light design solution using HB LED color mixture,namely an implementation method using a set of traffic lights composed of red, green and blue HB LED to replace ordinary red, yellow and green lights. This scheme realizes HB LED color mixture lighting design on the basis of Cypress EZ-Color controller and codeless embedded design software PSoC Express.

  13. Face Recognition Algorithm Based on Doubly Truncated Gaussian Mixture Model Using Hierarchical Clustering Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    D. Haritha; K. Srinivasa Rao; Ch.Satyanarayana

    2012-01-01

    A robust and efficient face recognition system was developed and evaluated. The each individual face is characterized by 2D-DCT coefficients which follows a finite mixture of doubly truncated Gaussian distribution. In modelling the features vector of the face the number of components (in the mixture model) are determined by hierarchical clustering. The model parameters are estimated using EM algorithm. The face recognition algorithm is developed by maximum likelihood under Baysian frame. The ...

  14. Operation of low-pressure proportional counter filled with argon-based gas mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mixtures of argon with propane, DME (Dimethyl-ether) and isobutane at total pressures P from 2 kPa to 90 kPa were studied in a low-pressure proportional counter. Strong non-uniform electric fields were thus produced at the anode surface (Sa). Deviations from the exponential dependence of gas gain on high voltage above a certain value of gas gain, M0, were observed in all mixtures. The best energy resolution has been obtained at low gas gains, and at gas gains above M0 resolution degrades much faster in ''thin'' mixtures due to avalanche chain formation. The reduced ionization coefficient α/P under non-equilibrium conditions is a function of mixture composition and of gas pressure. Crossings of α/P curves for different mixture compositions at the same total pressure are observed. The statistics of the avalanche size distribution (relative variance f) was determined by measuring the single-electron (SE) spectra. In pure gases and in mixtures with relatively high content of the molecular gas, the value is f 1. The gas gain where f ∝ 1 is roughly equal to the value of M0, showing that both effects are caused by insufficient quenching of the molecular admixture. (orig.)

  15. Peer-Led, School-Based Nutrition Education for Young Adolescents: Feasibility and Process Evaluation of the TEENS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, Mary; Lytle, Leslie A.; Birnbaum, Amanda S.; Perry, Cheryl L.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the feasibility of the peer leader component of a school-based nutrition intervention for young adolescents designed to increase fruit and vegetable consumption and lower fat consumption. Results from a multicomponent process evaluation involving participant feedback, observation, and teacher ratings and interviews indicated that…

  16. Food Safety Programs Based on HACCP Principles in School Nutrition Programs: Implementation Status and Factors Related to Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, Wendy Bounds; Carr, Deborah; Nettles, Mary Frances; Johnson, James T.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The objectives of this study were to assess the extent to which school nutrition (SN) programs have implemented food safety programs based on Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) principles, as well as factors, barriers, and practices related to implementation of these programs. Methods: An online survey was…

  17. Factors Influencing Adoption and Implementation of Cooking with Kids, an Experiential School-Based Nutrition Education Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diker, Ann; Walters, Lynn M.; Cunningham-Sabo, Leslie; Baker, Susan S.

    2011-01-01

    Little research has been conducted to examine factors leading to adoption and implementation of nutrition education curricula. Data from two Web-based surveys (n = 313) and 27 interviews were used to explore how Diffusion of Innovations' perceived attributes contributed to adoption and implementation of Cooking with Kids (CWK) food and nutrition…

  18. Perceptions of community-based participatory research in the delta nutrition intervention research initiative:an academic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lower Mississippi Delta Nutrition Intervention Research Initiative (Delta NIRI) is an academic-community partnership between seven academic institutions and three communities in Mississippi, Arkansas, and Louisiana. A range of community-based participatory methods have been employed to develop susta...

  19. 26th Hohenheim Concensus Conference, September 11, 2010 Scientific substantiation of health claims: Evidence-based nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesalski, H.K.; Aggett, P.J.; Anton, R.; Bernstein, P.S.; Blumberg, J.; Heaney, R.P.; Henry, J.; Nolan, J.M.; Richardson, D.P.; Ommen, van B.; Witkamp, R.F.; Rijkers, G.T.; Zollner, I.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The objective was to define the term evidence based nutrition on the basis of expert discussions and scientific evidence. Methods and procedures The method used is the established Hohenheim Consensus Conference. The term “Hohenheim Consensus Conference” defines conferences dealing with nut

  20. 26th Hohenheim Consensus Conference, September 11, 2010 Scientific substantiation of health claims : Evidence-based nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesalski, Hans Konrad; Aggett, Peter J.; Anton, Robert; Bernstein, Paul S.; Blumberg, Jeffrey; Heaney, Robert P.; Henry, Jeya; Nolan, John M.; Richardson, David P.; van Ommen, Ben; Witkamp, Renger F.; Rijkers, Ger T.; Zoellner, Iris

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to define the term evidence based nutrition on the basis of expert discussions and scientific evidence. Methods and procedures: The method used is the established Hohenheim Consensus Conference. The term "Hohenheim Consensus Conference" defines conferences dealing with n

  1. 26th Hohenheim Consensus Conference, September 11, 2010 Scientific substantiation of health claims: Evidence-based nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesalski, H.K.; Aggett, P.J.; Anton, R.; Bernstein, P.S.; Blumberg, J.; Heaney, R.P.; Henry, J.; Nolan, J.M.; Richardson, D.P.; Ommen, B. van; Witkamp, R.F.; Rijkers, G.T.; Zöllner, I.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to define the term evidence based nutrition on the basis of expert discussions and scientific evidence. Methods and procedures: The method used is the established Hohenheim Consensus Conference. The term "Hohenheim Consensus Conference" defines conferences dealing with n

  2. Planned development and evaluation protocol of two versions of a web-based computer-tailored nutrition education intervention aimed at adults, including cognitive and environmental feedback

    OpenAIRE

    Springvloet, Linda; Lechner, Lilian; Oenema, Anke

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite decades of nutrition education, the prevalence of unhealthy dietary patterns is still high and inequalities in intake between high and low socioeconomic groups still exist. Therefore, it is important to innovate and improve existing nutrition education interventions. This paper describes the development, design and evaluation protocol of a web-based computer-tailored nutrition education intervention for adults targeting fruit, vegetable, high-energy snack and fat intake. Th...

  3. School-Based Health Promotion: The Effects of a Nutrition Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom-Hoffman, Jessica; DuPaul, George J.

    2003-01-01

    An exploratory evaluation of the effect of a multicomponent nutrition education program on student knowledge and behavior change is described. The nutrition education program was implemented in an urban environment with African American children and their families. Results of the outcome evaluation indicated the program was implemented with…

  4. Development of an Image-based Multi-Scale Finite Element Approach to Predict Fatigue Damage in Asphalt Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshadi, Amir

    Image-based simulation of complex materials is a very important tool for understanding their mechanical behavior and an effective tool for successful design of composite materials. In this thesis an image-based multi-scale finite element approach is developed to predict the mechanical properties of asphalt mixtures. In this approach the "up-scaling" and homogenization of each scale to the next is critically designed to improve accuracy. In addition to this multi-scale efficiency, this study introduces an approach for consideration of particle contacts at each of the scales in which mineral particles exist. One of the most important pavement distresses which seriously affects the pavement performance is fatigue cracking. As this cracking generally takes place in the binder phase of the asphalt mixture, the binder fatigue behavior is assumed to be one of the main factors influencing the overall pavement fatigue performance. It is also known that aggregate gradation, mixture volumetric properties, and filler type and concentration can affect damage initiation and progression in the asphalt mixtures. This study was conducted to develop a tool to characterize the damage properties of the asphalt mixtures at all scales. In the present study the Viscoelastic continuum damage model is implemented into the well-known finite element software ABAQUS via the user material subroutine (UMAT) in order to simulate the state of damage in the binder phase under the repeated uniaxial sinusoidal loading. The inputs are based on the experimentally derived measurements for the binder properties. For the scales of mastic and mortar, the artificially 2-Dimensional images of mastic and mortar scales were generated and used to characterize the properties of those scales. Finally, the 2D scanned images of asphalt mixtures are used to study the asphalt mixture fatigue behavior under loading. In order to validate the proposed model, the experimental test results and the simulation results were

  5. Bioremediation of oil sludge contaminated soil using bulking agent mixture enriched consortia of microbial inoculants based by irradiated compost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulking agent mixture enriched consortia of microbial inoculants based by irradiated compost was used on bioremediation of microcosm scale contaminated by hydrocarbon soil. Bioremediation composting was carried out for 42 days. Composting was done with a mixture of bulking agent (sawdust, residual sludge biogas and compost) by 30%, mud petroleum (oil sludge) by 20% and 50% of soil. Mixture of 80% soil and 20% oil sludge was used as a control. Irradiated compost was used as a carrier for consortia of microbial inoculants (F + B) which biodegradable hydrocarbons. Treatment variations include A1, A2, B1, B2, C1, C2, D1 and D2. Process parameters were observed to determine the optimal conditions include: temperature, pH, water content, TPC (Total Plate Count) and degradation of % TPH (Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon). Optimal conditions were achieved in the remediation of oil sludge contamination of 20% using the B2 treatment with the addition consortia of microbial inoculants based by irradiated compost of sawdust (bulking agentby 30% at concentrations of soil by 50% with TPH degradation optimal efficiency of 81.32%. The result of GC-MS analysis showed that bioremediation for 42 days by using a sawdust as a mixture of bulking agents which enriched consortia of microbial inoculants based by irradiated compost is biodegradeable, so initial hydrocarbons with the distribution of the carbon chain C-7 to C-54 into final hydrocarbons with the distribution of carbon chain C-6 to C-8. (author)

  6. Fermentation of seeds of Teff (Eragrostis teff), grass-pea (Lathyrus sativus), and their mixtures: aspects of nutrition and food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigzaw, Yirgalem; Gorton, Lo; Solomon, Theodoros; Akalu, Girma

    2004-03-10

    Fermentation of pure teff (Eragrostis teff), pure grass-pea (Lathyrus sativus), and their mixtures, 9:1 and 8:2 (teff/grass-pea) has been done at two temperatures (room temperature and 35 degrees C) in duplicate using the strains of Lactobacillus plantarum, for bacterial fermentation, and Aspergillus oryzae and Rhizopus oligosporus in succession for solid-state fungal fermentation as inocula. In addition, the natural or spontaneous and back-slopping methods of bacterial fermentation have been done on the above four substrate groups. The pH and essential amino acid profiles of the different fermentation processes were compared. The back-slopping in teff at a temperature of 35 degrees C gave the sharpest pH drop. All fermentations done at 35 degrees C showed a steeper slope in their pH versus time plot compared to their room temperature counterpart. Fungal fermentation gave an improved amino acid profile for the essential ones in all of the substrate groups, except in pure grass-pea. Fermented teff/grass-pea (8:2) in this fungal fermentation has been found to be quite comparable in essential amino acid profile to an ideal reference protein recommended for children of 2-5 years of age. None of the bacterial fermentations produced a net change in their essential amino acid profile in any of the substrate groups investigated. Solid state fungal fermentation on pure grass-pea using the fungal strains R. oligosporous and A. oryzae in succession has shown that the neurotoxin beta-N-oxalyl-alpha,beta-diaminopropionic acid (beta-ODAP) in grass-pea has been removed by 80% on average for the high-toxin variety and by up to 97% for the low-toxin variety as determined by an improved chromatographic method with bioelectrochemical detection coupled on-line with refractive index detection. PMID:14995115

  7. [Estimation of Hunan forest carbon density based on spectral mixture analysis of MODIS data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, En-ping; Lin, Hui; Wang, Guang-xing; Chen, Zhen-xiong

    2015-11-01

    With the fast development of remote sensing technology, combining forest inventory sample plot data and remotely sensed images has become a widely used method to map forest carbon density. However, the existence of mixed pixels often impedes the improvement of forest carbon density mapping, especially when low spatial resolution images such as MODIS are used. In this study, MODIS images and national forest inventory sample plot data were used to conduct the study of estimation for forest carbon density. Linear spectral mixture analysis with and without constraint, and nonlinear spectral mixture analysis were compared to derive the fractions of different land use and land cover (LULC) types. Then sequential Gaussian co-simulation algorithm with and without the fraction images from spectral mixture analyses were employed to estimate forest carbon density of Hunan Province. Results showed that 1) Linear spectral mixture analysis with constraint, leading to a mean RMSE of 0.002, more accurately estimated the fractions of LULC types than linear spectral and nonlinear spectral mixture analyses; 2) Integrating spectral mixture analysis model and sequential Gaussian co-simulation algorithm increased the estimation accuracy of forest carbon density to 81.5% from 74.1%, and decreased the RMSE to 5.18 from 7.26; and 3) The mean value of forest carbon density for the province was 30.06 t · hm(-2), ranging from 0.00 to 67.35 t · hm(-2). This implied that the spectral mixture analysis provided a great potential to increase the estimation accuracy of forest carbon density on regional and global level. PMID:26915200

  8. An In Silico Approach for Evaluating a Fraction-Based, Risk Assessment Method for Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Nina Ching Y.; Glenn E. Rice; Teuschler, Linda K.; Joan Colman; Yang, Raymond S.H.

    2012-01-01

    Both the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection (MADEP) and the Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Criteria Working Group (TPHCWG) developed fraction-based approaches for assessing human health risks posed by total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) mixtures in the environment. Both organizations defined TPH fractions based on their expected environmental fate and by analytical chemical methods. They derived toxicity values for selected compounds within each fraction and used these as surroga...

  9. A Kinetic Model for Gas Mixtures Based on a Fokker-Planck Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a generalized nonlinear Fokker–Planck equation, which describes the dynamics of rarefied monatomic gas mixture flows. The devised kinetic model leads to correct transfer of energy and momentum between gas species and to consistent evolution of molecular stresses and heat fluxes with respect to the generalized Boltzmann equation. Thus, the correct diffusion coefficient together with the mixture viscosity and mixture heat conductivity coefficients are obtained. The strength of the presented model lies on the computational efficiency, which is due to the fact that the resulting stochastic processes are continuous in time. Therefore, unlike in Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC), here simulated particles do not collide with each other, but move along independent continuous stochastic paths. Another aspect of the new Fokker-Planck model equation is that here the effect of collisions is described via drift and diffusion type processes. Accordingly, a scheme can be derived for which the time step size limitation of the corresponding numerical simulation becomes independent of the Knudsen number. Consequently, this leads to more efficient simulations, especially in low or intermediate Knudsen numbers. Results are presented for helium-argon mixture in a one dimensional geometry. The calculated mixture viscosity is found to be in accordance with experimental data, which reveals the accuracy and relevance of the approach.

  10. [Quantitative Analysis of the Hydration Process of Mine Gas Mixture Based on Raman Spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bao-yong; Yu, Yue; Wu, Qiang; Gao, Xia

    2015-07-01

    The research on micro crystal structure of mine gas hydrate is especially significant for the technology of gas hydrate separation. Using Raman spectroscopy to observe hydration process of 3 kinds of mine gas mixture on line which contains high concentration of carbon dioxide, this experiment obtained the information of the hydrate crystals including large and small cage occupancy. Meanwhile obtained the hydration number indirectly based on the statistical thermodynamic model of van der Waals and Platteeuw. The results show that cage occupancy and hydration number of mine gas hydrates change little during different growth stages. The large cages of hydrate phases are nearly full occupied by carbon dioxide and methane molecules together, with the occupancy ratios between 97.70% and 98.68%. Most of the guest molecules in large cages is carbon dioxide (78.58%-94.09%) and only a few (4.52%-19.12%) is filled with methane, it is because carbon dioxide concentration in the gas sample is higher than methane and there is competition between them. However the small cage occupancy ratios is generally low in the range from 17.93% to 82.41%, and the guest molecules are all methane. With the increase of methane concentration in gas sample, the cage occupancy both large and small which methane occupied has increased, meanwhile the large cage occupancy which methane occupied is lower than small cage. The hydration numbers of mine gas hydrate during different growth stages are between 6.13 and 7.33. Small cage occupancy has increased with the increase of methane concentration, this lead to hydration number decreases. Because of the uneven distribution of hydrate growth, the hydration numbers of 3 kinds of gas samples show irregular change during different growth stages. PMID:26717751

  11. Context based mixture model for cell phase identification in automated fluorescence microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Xiaobo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Automated identification of cell cycle phases of individual live cells in a large population captured via automated fluorescence microscopy technique is important for cancer drug discovery and cell cycle studies. Time-lapse fluorescence microscopy images provide an important method to study the cell cycle process under different conditions of perturbation. Existing methods are limited in dealing with such time-lapse data sets while manual analysis is not feasible. This paper presents statistical data analysis and statistical pattern recognition to perform this task. Results The data is generated from Hela H2B GFP cells imaged during a 2-day period with images acquired 15 minutes apart using an automated time-lapse fluorescence microscopy. The patterns are described with four kinds of features, including twelve general features, Haralick texture features, Zernike moment features, and wavelet features. To generate a new set of features with more discriminate power, the commonly used feature reduction techniques are used, which include Principle Component Analysis (PCA, Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA, Maximum Margin Criterion (MMC, Stepwise Discriminate Analysis based Feature Selection (SDAFS, and Genetic Algorithm based Feature Selection (GAFS. Then, we propose a Context Based Mixture Model (CBMM for dealing with the time-series cell sequence information and compare it to other traditional classifiers: Support Vector Machine (SVM, Neural Network (NN, and K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN. Being a standard practice in machine learning, we systematically compare the performance of a number of common feature reduction techniques and classifiers to select an optimal combination of a feature reduction technique and a classifier. A cellular database containing 100 manually labelled subsequence is built for evaluating the performance of the classifiers. The generalization error is estimated using the cross validation technique. The

  12. Volumetric properties of binary mixtures of benzene with cyano-based ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonfa, Girma; Bustam, Mohamad Azmi; Moniruzzaman, Muhammad; Murugesan, Thanabalan

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the volumetric properties of the binary mixtures comprised benzene and two ionic liquids, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium thiocyanate ([BMIM][SCN]) and 1-butyl-3-methyl- imidazolium dicyanamide ([ BMIM ][ N ( CN )2]( . Densities (ρ) and viscosities (μ) of the binary mixtures were measured over a temperature range of 293.15 to 323.15 K and at atmospheric pressure. Excess molar volumes and viscosity deviations were calculated from the experimental densities and viscosities values. The volumetric properties of the mixtures were changed significantly with the change of compositions and temperatures. It was also found that the value of excess molar volume and viscosity deviations were negative (-ve) over the entire range of compositions. The results have been interpreted in terms of molecular interactions of ILs and benzene.

  13. Construction of web-based nutrition education contents and searching engine for usage of healthy menu of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Soon-Myung; Lee, Tae-Kyong; Chung, Hea-Jung; Park, Hye-Kyung; Lee, Eun-Ju; Nam, Hye-Seon; Jung, Soon-Im; Cho, Jee-Ye; Lee, Jin-Hee; Kim, Gon; Kim, Min-Chan

    2008-01-01

    A diet habit, which is developed in childhood, lasts for a life time. In this sense, nutrition education and early exposure to healthy menus in childhood is important. Children these days have easy access to the internet. Thus, a web-based nutrition education program for children is an effective tool for nutrition education of children. This site provides the material of the nutrition education for children with characters which are personified nutrients. The 151 menus are stored in the site together with video script of the cooking process. The menus are classified by the criteria based on age, menu type and the ethnic origin of the menu. The site provides a search function. There are three kinds of search conditions which are key words, menu type and "between" expression of nutrients such as calorie and other nutrients. The site is developed with the operating system Windows 2003 Server, the web server ZEUS 5, development language JSP, and database management system Oracle 10 g. PMID:20126375

  14. Transport coefficients of helium-argon mixture based on ab initio potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharipov, Felix; Benites, Victor J

    2015-10-21

    The viscosity, thermal conductivity, diffusion coefficient, and thermal diffusion factor of helium-argon mixtures are calculated for a wide range of temperature and for various mole fractions up to the 12th order of the Sonine polynomial expansion with an ab initio intermolecular potential. The calculated values for these transport coefficients are compared with other data available in the open literature. The comparison shows that the obtained transport coefficients of helium-argon mixture have the best accuracy for the moment. PMID:26493894

  15. High rates of resolution of cholestasis in parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease with fish oil-based lipid emulsion monotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our research was conducted to determine factors leading to resolution of cholestasis in patients with parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease treated with fish-oil-based lipid emulsion (FOLE). We used a prospective observational study of 57 infants <6 months of age with parenteral nutrition-as...

  16. School-Based Intervention for Nutrition Promotion in Mi Yun County, Beijing, China: Does a Health-Promoting School Approach Improve Parents' Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviour?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongxu; Stewart, Donald; Chang, Chun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess whether the school-based nutrition programme using the health-promoting school (HPS) framework was effective to improve parents' knowledge, attitudes and behaviour (KAB) in relation to nutrition in rural Mi Yun County, Beijing. Design/methodology/approach: A cluster-randomised intervention trial…

  17. Web-based targeted nutrition counselling and social support for patients at increased cardiovascular risk in general practice: randomized controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheijden, M.W.; Bakx, J.C.; Akkermans, R.; Hoogen, van den H.; Godwin, M.; Rosser, W.; Staveren, van W.A.; Weel, van C.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Using the Internet may prove useful in providing nutrition counselling and social support for patients with chronic diseases. Objective: We evaluated the impact of Web-based nutrition counselling and social support on social support measures, anthropometry, blood pressure, and serum chol

  18. Drivers of forests and tree-based systems for food security and nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleinschmit, Daniela; Sijapati Basnett, Bimbika; Martin, Adrian;

    2015-01-01

    , commercialisation of agriculture, industrialisation of forest resources, gender imbalances, conflicts, formalisation of tenure rights, rising food prices and increasing per capita income) were identified within these four categories. They affect food security and nutrition through land use and management; through...

  19. Water-in-ionic liquid microemulsion formation in solvent mixture of aprotic and protic imidazolium-based ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusano, Takumi; Fujii, Kenta; Hashimoto, Kei; Shibayama, Mitsuhiro

    2014-10-14

    We report that water-in-ionic liquid microemulsions (MEs) are stably formed in an organic solvent-free system, i.e., a mixture of aprotic (aIL) and protic (pIL) imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs) containing the anionic surfactant dioctyl sulfosuccinate sodium salt (AOT). Structural investigations using dynamic light, small-angle X-ray, and small-angle neutron scatterings were performed for MEs formed in mixtures of aprotic 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium ([C8mIm(+)]) and protic 1-alkylimidazolium ([CnImH(+)], n = 4 or 8) IL with a common anion, bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide ([TFSA(-)]). It was found that the ME structure strongly depends on the mixing composition of the aIL/pIL in the medium. The ME size appreciably increases with increasing pIL content in both [C8mIm(+)][TFSA(-)]/[C8ImH(+)][TFSA(-)] and [C8mIm(+)][TFSA(-)]/[C4ImH(+)][TFSA(-)] mixtures. The size is larger for the n = 8 system than that for the n = 4 system. These results indicate that the shell part of MEs is composed of both AOT and pIL cation, and the ME size can be tuned by pIL content in the aIL/pIL mixtures. PMID:25226398

  20. A novel school-based intervention to improve nutrition knowledge in children: cluster randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Ong Ken K; Sharp Stephen J; Lakshman Rajalakshmi R; Forouhi Nita G

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Improving nutrition knowledge among children may help them to make healthier food choices. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness and acceptability of a novel educational intervention to increase nutrition knowledge among primary school children. Methods We developed a card game 'Top Grub' and a 'healthy eating' curriculum for use in primary schools. Thirty-eight state primary schools comprising 2519 children in years 5 and 6 (aged 9-11 years) were recruited...

  1. Explicit and implicit tasks for assessing hedonic-versus nutrition-based attitudes towards food in French children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnery-Patris, Sandrine; Marty, Lucile; Bayer, Frédéric; Nicklaus, Sophie; Chambaron, Stéphanie

    2016-01-01

    Attitudes are important precursors of behaviours. This study aims to compare the food attitudes (i.e., hedonic- and nutrition-based) of children using both an implicit pairing task and an explicit forced-choice categorization task suitable for the cognitive abilities of 5- to 11-year-olds. A dominance of hedonically driven attitudes was expected for all ages in the pairing task, designed to elicit affective and spontaneous answers, whereas a progressive emergence of nutrition-based attitudes was expected in the categorization task, designed to involve deliberate analyses of the costs/benefits of foods. An additional exploratory goal was to evaluate differences in the attitudes of normal and overweight children in both tasks. Children from 3 school levels (n = 194; mean age = 8.03 years) were individually tested on computers in their schools. They performed a pairing task in which the tendencies to associate foods with nutritional vs. culinary contexts were assessed. Next, they were asked to categorize each food into one of the following four categories: "yummy", "yucky" (i.e., hedonic categories), "makes you strong", or"makes you fat" (i.e., nutritional categories). The hedonic/culinary pairs were very frequently selected (81% on average), and this frequency significantly increased through school levels. In contrast, in the categorization task, a significant increase in nutrition-driven categorizations with school level was observed. Additional analyses revealed no differences in the food attitudes between the normal and overweight children in the pairing task, and a tendency towards lower hedonic categorizations among the overweight children. Culinary associations can reflect cultural learning in the French context where food pleasure is dominant. In contrast, the progressive emergence of cognitively driven attitudes with age may reflect the cognitive development of children who are more reasonable and influenced by social norms. PMID:26522508

  2. Food and dietary pattern-based recommendations: an emerging approach to clinical practice guidelines for nutrition therapy in diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievenpiper, John L; Dworatzek, Paula D N

    2013-02-01

    Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for the nutritional management of diabetes mellitus have evolved considerably over the last 25 years. As major diabetes associations have focussed on the individualization of nutrition therapy, there has been a move toward a broader more flexible macronutrient distribution that emphasizes macronutrient quality over quantity. There is now a call for the integration of food- and dietary pattern-based approaches into diabetes association CPGs. The main argument has been that an approach that focuses on nutrients alone misses important nutrient interactions oversimplifying the complexity of foods and dietary patterns, both of which have been shown to have a stronger influence on disease risk than nutrients alone. Although cancer and heart associations have begun to integrate this approach into their dietary guidelines, diabetes associations have not yet adopted this approach. We provide a rationale for the adoption of this approach for The Canadian Diabetes Association (CDA) 2013 CPGs for nutrition therapy. The systematic review for the development of these guidelines revealed emerging evidence to support the use of vegetarian, Mediterranean, and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) dietary patterns as well as specific foods such as dietary pulses and nuts in people with diabetes. Popular and conventional weight loss diets were also found to have similar advantages in people with diabetes, although poor dietary adherence remains an issue with these diets. The CDA 2013 CPGs will support an even greater individualization of nutrition therapy for people with diabetes and appeal to a broader range of practice styles of health professionals. PMID:24070749

  3. The Role of Extension Nutrition Education in Student Achievement of Nutrition Standards in Grades K-3: A Descriptive Evaluation of a School-Based Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Mary E.; Schreiber, Debera

    2012-01-01

    This article reports the results of a descriptive evaluation of the impact of an in-school Extension nutrition education program in a small, very rural county. The evaluation focused on understanding the nature of the role the Extension educator plays in delivering nutrition education, the impact of the program on student learning and achievement…

  4. The Effect of Fish Oil-Based Lipid Emulsion and Soybean Oil-Based Lipid Emulsion on Cholestasis Associated with Long-Term Parenteral Nutrition in Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Leilei; Zhang, Jing; Gao, Jiejin; Qian, Yan; Ling, Ya

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To retrospectively study the effect of fish oil-based lipid emulsion and soybean oil-based lipid emulsion on cholestasis associated with long-term parenteral nutrition in premature infants. Methods. Soybean oil-based lipid emulsion and fish oil-based lipid emulsion had been applied in our neonatology department clinically between 2010 and 2014. There were 61 qualified premature infants included in this study and divided into two groups. Soybean oil group was made up of 32 premature infants, while fish oil group was made up of 29 premature infants. Analysis was made on the gender, feeding intolerance, infection history, birth weight, gestational age, duration of parenteral nutrition, total dosage of amino acid, age at which feeding began, usage of lipid emulsions, and incidence of cholestasis between the two groups. Results. There were no statistical differences in terms of gender, feeding intolerance, infection history, birth weight, gestational age, duration of parenteral nutrition, total dosage of amino acid, and age at which feeding began. Besides, total incidence of cholestasis was 21.3%, and the days of life of occurrence of cholestasis were 53 ± 5.0 days. Incidence of cholestasis had no statistical difference in the two groups. Conclusion. This study did not find the different role of fish oil-based lipid emulsions and soybean oil-based lipid emulsions in cholestasis associated with long-term parenteral nutrition in premature infants.

  5. Nutritional Epigenetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Preston Mercer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Questions concerning the fundamental effects of nutrition on gene function are now being elucidated as the human genome project has been completed. Nutritional genomics seeks to expand the use of foods to achieve human genetic potential, while reducing the risk of diseases. As issues such as nutrigenomics (dietary influence on gene function and nutrigenetics (genomic reaction to diet are unraveled, thepotential for personalized nutrition becomes attainable. It has been stated that “genomics is to the 21st century what infectious disease was to the 20th century”. The nucleotide sequence of DNA was once seen as the only mechanism by which genetic information could be transmitted between generations. Phenotypic variation resulted from recombination and, occasionally, genetic mutation. This widely accepted concept is now undergoing modification as evidence builds to support the idea that reversible, heritable changes in gene function - termed “epigenetics”- can occur without a change in the sequence of nuclear DNA (i.e., non-Mendelian inheritance. The word epigenetics is of Greek origin and literallymeans over and above (epi the genome. The terminology“same genome, different epigenome” has been demonstrated in several experiments. As research and understanding advances, dietary advice based on the human genome will become more prevalent and new pharmacological interventions may be developed.

  6. Displacement sensor based on polarization mixture of orthogonal polarized He-Ne laser at 1.15 μm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhengqi Zhao; Shulian Zhang; Peng Zhang; Zhaoli Zeng; Yidong Tan; Yan Li

    2012-01-01

    Displacement sensor based on the polarization mixture and the cavity tuning of the orthogonal polarized He-Ne laser 1.15 μm is presented.The power tuning curves of He-Ne laser are irregular,and it is difficult to measure the change in cavity length.The distortion of the curves is caused by the higher relative excitation compared with the He-Ne laser at 633 nm.In view of its potential for the wider displacement measuring range,a new method of displacement sensing is developed.Experiments show that displacement measuring stability based on the method of the polarization mixture is better than that of the power tuning curves.The displacement sensor achieves the measuring range of 100 mm,resolution of 144 nm,and linearity of 7× 10-6.%Displacement sensor based on the polarization mixture and the cavity tuning of the orthogonal polarized He-Ne laser 1.15 /xm is presented. The power tuning curves of He-Ne laser are irregular, and it is difficult to measure the change in cavity length. The distortion of the curves is caused by the higher relative excitation compared with the He-Ne laser at 633 nm. In view of its potential for the wider displacement measuring range, a new method of displacement sensing is developed. Experiments show that displacement measuring stability based on the method of the polarization mixture is better than that of the power tuning curves. The displacement sensor achieves the measuring range of 100 mm, resolution of 144 nm, and linearity of 7×l0-6.

  7. THE EFFECT OF ACID ROCK FROM CĂLIMANI MOUNTAINS ON MAKING UP A NUTRITIVE SUPPORT FOR PLANTS, BASED ON RED MUD

    OpenAIRE

    Radu Lacatusu; Venera Mihaela Stroe; Teodor Marusca; Nineta Rizea; Mihaela Lungu; Mihaela Monica Stanciu - Burileanu; Rodica Lazar

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the results of an experiment carried out in controlled conditions, regarding triticale plants growth on a nutritive layer consisting of a mixture of red mud, acid rock and compost, in different proportions. The analytical results highlighted the strongly alkaline reaction of the layer, high organic carbon, mobile phosphorus and potassium contents and low nitrogen contents. The layer has a high salinity and sodium salts are predominant. The total microelements and heavy m...

  8. Tastant quantitative analysis from complex mixtures using taste cell-based sensor and double-layered cascaded series stochastic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, tastant quantitative analysis from complex mixtures using taste cell-based sensor and double-layered cascaded series stochastic resonance (DCSSR) method has been investigated. Taste cells, NCI-H716 cells and STC-1 cells, are cultured on carbon screen printed electrode (CSPE) to fabricate integrated sensing devices. Cell culture status on CSPE is observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) method. Molecular components referring to taste receptor protein and signal transduction (α-gustducin) in taste cells are identified by immunocytochemistry. The chemical mixtures containing sweet/bitter tastants in 7 concentrations are measured by corresponding cell-based sensor. Real-time EIS measurement data of taste cell-based sensor is recorded and processed by DCSSR. Tastant mixtures containing the same chemical components share the same eigen peak located noise intensities (EPLNIs). Correlations and statistical tests on DCSSR signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) maximums (Max-SNR) have been conducted to give a clearly comparison with stochastic resonance (SR) method. Results demonstrate that DCSSR method presents better quantitative perception abilities for sucrose/quinine tastants than SR. Sucrose/quinine concentrations can be discriminated by Max-SNR values. The proposed method provides a promising way for the construction of a novel biological tongue

  9. Ca stabilized zirconia based composites by wet consolidation of zirconia and high alumina cement mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Composites of the CaO-Al2O3-ZrO2 system are widely used in many industrial applications. In this study, porous Ca stabilized ZrO2 composites were developed from a starting mixture of m-ZrO2 and calcium aluminate cement. Ceramics were produced by wet consolidation of aqueous suspensions with and without corn starch as pore former agent and sintering at 1000-1500 °C. The influence of processing parameters on crystalline phases, sintering behavior and textural characteristics was examined. Stabilized c-ZrO2 formed with the composition of Ca0.15Zr0.85O1.85. The sintering of the mixtures lead to porous composites materials. Textural properties were analyzed considering the initial composition and the present crystalline phases. (author)

  10. A New Approach Towards Web Security Cracking based on CAPTCHA Recognition Using Mixture of Experts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Azad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available CAPTCHA, an acronym which stand for ‘Completely Automated Public Turing test to tell Computers and Humans Apart’, is an automated challenge and response test to ensure that a human is making an online transaction rather than a computer. In this paper, a new technique is proposed for recognition CAPTCHAs by computer system using mixture of expert classifier. First by extracting Fourier and HU moments features of the segmented CAPTCHA which have invariance property of translation, rotation and size, this paper applies mixture of experts' classifier to achieve the real-time recognition. Experimental results show the proposed techniques can achieve recognition rates of about 98%. In addition experiment result indicates that this method is flexible, realistic and exact, and fit for many cracking systems.

  11. Use of Linear Spectral Mixture Model to Estimate Rice Planted Area Based on MODIS Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites.Linear spectral mixture models are applied to MOIDS data for the sub-pixel classification of land covers.Shaoxing county of Zhcjiang Province in China was chosen to be the study site and early rice was selected as the study crop.The derived proportions of land covers from MODIS pixel using linear spectral mixture models were compared with unsupervised classification derived from TM data acquired on the same day,which implies that MODIS data could be used as satellite data source for rice cultivation area estimation,possibly rice growth monitoring and yield forecasting on the regional scale.

  12. Ca stabilized zirconia based composites by wet consolidation of zirconia and high alumina cement mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruni, Y.L.; Garrido, L.B.; Aglietti, E.F., E-mail: lgarrido@cetmic.unlp.edu.ar [Centro de Tecnologia de Recursos Minerales y Ceramica (CETMIC/CIC-CONICET La Plata), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2012-07-01

    Composites of the CaO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZrO{sub 2} system are widely used in many industrial applications. In this study, porous Ca stabilized ZrO{sub 2} composites were developed from a starting mixture of m-ZrO{sub 2} and calcium aluminate cement. Ceramics were produced by wet consolidation of aqueous suspensions with and without corn starch as pore former agent and sintering at 1000-1500 °C. The influence of processing parameters on crystalline phases, sintering behavior and textural characteristics was examined. Stabilized c-ZrO{sub 2} formed with the composition of Ca{sub 0.15}Zr{sub 0.85}O{sub 1.85}. The sintering of the mixtures lead to porous composites materials. Textural properties were analyzed considering the initial composition and the present crystalline phases. (author)

  13. A novel school-based intervention to improve nutrition knowledge in children: cluster randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ong Ken K

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improving nutrition knowledge among children may help them to make healthier food choices. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness and acceptability of a novel educational intervention to increase nutrition knowledge among primary school children. Methods We developed a card game 'Top Grub' and a 'healthy eating' curriculum for use in primary schools. Thirty-eight state primary schools comprising 2519 children in years 5 and 6 (aged 9-11 years were recruited in a pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial. The main outcome measures were change in nutrition knowledge scores, attitudes to healthy eating and acceptability of the intervention by children and teachers. Results Twelve intervention and 13 control schools (comprising 1133 children completed the trial. The main reason for non-completion was time pressure of the school curriculum. Mean total nutrition knowledge score increased by 1.1 in intervention (baseline to follow-up: 28.3 to 29.2 and 0.3 in control schools (27.3 to 27.6. Total nutrition knowledge score at follow-up, adjusted for baseline score, deprivation, and school size, was higher in intervention than in control schools (mean difference = 1.1; 95% CI: 0.05 to 2.16; p = 0.042. At follow-up, more children in the intervention schools said they 'are currently eating a healthy diet' (39.6% or 'would try to eat a healthy diet' (35.7% than in control schools (34.4% and 31.7% respectively; chi-square test p Conclusions The 'Top Grub' card game facilitated the enjoyable delivery of nutrition education in a sample of UK primary school age children. Further studies should determine whether improvements in nutrition knowledge are sustained and lead to changes in dietary behaviour.

  14. Pattern-Based Sensing of Sulfated Glycosaminoglycans with a Dynamic Mixture of Iron Complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Müller-Graff, Peter-Korbinian; Szelke, Helga; Severin, Kay; Krämer, Roland

    2010-01-01

    A dynamic mixture of iron complexes was used as a colorimetric sensor for sulfated glycosaminoglycans. The sensing ensemble was prepared by mixing [FeCl2(H2O)4] with dipicolylamine, the functionalized bipyridyl ligand N-(6-aminohexyl)-4'-methyl-2,2'-bipyridine-4-carboxamide, and the dye Evans Blue. Upon addition of the analytes, characteristic changes in the UV-Vis spectrum of the solutions were observed. The spectral changes allowed indentifying different sulfated glucosaminoglycans (unfr...

  15. A heterojunction photovoltaic cell based on a mixture of silane copolymer with C70 fullerene derivative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostromin, S. V.; Malov, V. V.; Tameev, A. R.; Bronnikov, S. V.; Sacarescu, L.

    2016-01-01

    Heterojunction photovoltaic cells with a photoactive layer composed of a mixture of a silane copolymer with a fullerene derivative PC70BM have been fabricated, and their working characteristics have been measured. Data obtained by cyclic voltammetry were used to construct the energy level diagram for the cell components. Analysis of the diagram and photoelectric characteristics of the photovoltaic cell made it possible to find ways to improve its efficiency.

  16. A semiparametric and location-shift copula-based mixture model

    OpenAIRE

    Mazo, Gildas

    2016-01-01

    Modeling of distributions mixtures has rested on Gaussian distribu- tions and/or a conditional independence hypothesis for a long time. Only recently researchers have started to construct and study broader generic models without appealing to these hypotheses. Some of these extensions use copulas as a tool to build flexible models, as they permit to model the dependence and the marginal distributions separately. But this approach also has drawbacks. First, it increases much the number of choic...

  17. Mutual Solubilities of Ammonium-Based Ionic Liquids with Water and with Water/Methanol Mixture

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Machanová, Karolina; Jacquemin, J.; Wagner, Zdeněk; Bendová, Magdalena

    Praha : Orgit, 2012, P1.76. ISBN 978-80-905035-1-9. [International Congress of Chemical and Process Engineering CHISA 2012 and 15th Conference PRES 2012 /20./. Prague (CZ), 25.08.2012-29.08.2012] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12020 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : water/methanol mixture * homogeneous catalysis * solubilities Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering www.chisa.cz/2012

  18. A Primary Care-Based Early Childhood Nutrition Intervention: Evaluation of a Pilot Program Serving Low-Income Hispanic Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Toni Terling; Appel, Louis; Lopez, Veronica; Flores, Bianca; Lawhon, Brittany

    2015-12-01

    Nutrition in early childhood can significantly impact physical and mental health outcomes for children. However, research on broadly defined pre/postnatal nutrition interventions is sparse. The present study is a process and outcome evaluation of a primary care-based nutrition intervention targeting low-income Hispanic women. Pregnant women enrolled in the program were in their first trimester and received services through their 6-month well child check. The program provided vouchers for fruits and vegetables from the local farmers' market, nutrition classes, cooking classes, and lactation counseling. We conducted a prospective study of program participants (n = 32) and a comparable group of women for whom the program was not available (n = 29). Panel survey data measured maternal diet, exercise, stress, depression, social support, infant feeding practices, and demographics. Outcome measures obtained from medical records included pregnancy weight gain, infant weight at 6 and 12 months, and infant development at 9 months. Findings reveal that the program was not associated with infant weights. However, despite similar profiles at baseline, women in the intervention group were more likely than women in the comparison group to have significant improvements in diet, exercise, and depression (p ≤ .05). In addition, participants were more likely to breastfeed (p = .07) and their infants were more likely to pass the ages and stages developmental screen (p = .06) than women in the comparison group. The study was limited by a lack of random assignment and small samples. However, the breadth and size of the effects suggest pre/postnatal nutrition interventions integrated into primary care warrant additional investigation. PMID:26863560

  19. Development and quality characteristics of nutritionally enhanced potato legume based wari- an Indian traditional savoury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Sukhpreet; Aggarwal, Poonam

    2016-04-01

    The present study was carried out to develop waris from potato and legume blends and to analyze them for organoleptic, physicochemical, phytochemical and shelf life quality. Wari is a partially fermented legume based savoury, used as adjunct in vegetable curries. In this study, potato (boiled and dehydrated) was used to supplement black gram or urad dhal waris. Two processing cultivars (Kufri Chipsona-1, Kufri Chandramukhi) and one commonly grown cultivar (Kufri Pukhraj) were evaluated for processing into waris. Based on preliminary sensory trails, waris with potato (70 %) and urad dhal (30 %) level of supplementation were found to be most acceptable and these waris were subjected to nutritional evaluation. Storage stability of the waris was assessed by storing the product at room temperature for a period of 12 months. Results were compared with dhal waris (control). Protein content was significantly higher in control waris compared to potato supplemented waris. Bioactive compounds including ascorbic acid, total phenolics and total antioxidant activity measured as DPPH radical scavenging activity increased significantly on incorporation of potato. Between the cultivars, waris enriched with Kufri Pukhraj, a table variety which is considered unfit for processing, displayed the highest phytochemical content and total antioxidant activity. Sensory evaluation indicated higher overall acceptability scores of potato enriched waris compared to control waris. Between the treatments i.e. boiled mash and dehydrated flour, waris supplemented with boiled potato mash showed a significantly higher content of phytochemicals and total antioxidant activity compared to potato flour waris. However no significant difference was observed in sensory quality of the product prepared either with fresh potato mash or potato flour. Storage studies showed that the potato waris can be stored safely for 12 months with its nutrient constituents intact. PMID:27413216

  20. A Prognostic Model Using Inflammation- and Nutrition-Based Scores in Patients With Metastatic Gastric Adenocarcinoma Treated With Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Meng-Che; Wang, Shih-Hor; Chuah, Seng-Kee; Lin, Yu-Hung; Lan, Jui; Rau, Kun-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The outcomes of patients with metastatic gastric cancer (mGC) are poor. Recent studies have identified the prognostic impact of inflammatory response and nutritional status on survival for patients with gastric cancer. This study aims to create a prognostic model using inflammatory- and nutrition-based scores to predict survival in patients with mGC treated with chemotherapy. After institutional review board approval, patients who had mGC and were treated with chemotherapy from 2007 to 2012 at Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital were retrospectively reviewed. Significantly predictive factors were identified by multivariate Cox regression analyses. Based on these variables, a prognostic model using inflammatory- and nutrition-based scores was constructed to predict survival. Kaplan-Meier curves were plotted to estimate overall survival. The c-statistic values with 95% confidence interval (CI) were also calculated to access their predicting performances. Our study consisted of 256 patients with a median age of 60 years and a median follow-up visit of 18.5 months. Multivariate analyses showed that neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), modified Glasgow prognostic score (mGPS), and Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) were independently related to survival. After computing these scores, patients were classified into favorable-, intermediate-, and poor-risk groups. The median overall survival were 27.6 versus 13.2 versus 8.2 months in favorable, intermediate, and poor-risk groups, respectively. The 2-year survival rate was 52% versus 16% versus 3% in favorable-, intermediate-, and poor-risk groups, respectively. (P < 0.001). The c-statistic value of our model at 2 years is 0.8 (95% CI, 0.75–0.86). NLR, mGPS, and PG-SGA were independently related to survival. Our prognostic model using inflammatory- and nutrition-based scores could provide prognostic information to patients and physicians. PMID:27124056

  1. A Prognostic Model Using Inflammation- and Nutrition-Based Scores in Patients With Metastatic Gastric Adenocarcinoma Treated With Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Meng-Che; Wang, Shih-Hor; Chuah, Seng-Kee; Lin, Yu-Hung; Lan, Jui; Rau, Kun-Ming

    2016-04-01

    The outcomes of patients with metastatic gastric cancer (mGC) are poor. Recent studies have identified the prognostic impact of inflammatory response and nutritional status on survival for patients with gastric cancer. This study aims to create a prognostic model using inflammatory- and nutrition-based scores to predict survival in patients with mGC treated with chemotherapy.After institutional review board approval, patients who had mGC and were treated with chemotherapy from 2007 to 2012 at Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital were retrospectively reviewed. Significantly predictive factors were identified by multivariate Cox regression analyses. Based on these variables, a prognostic model using inflammatory- and nutrition-based scores was constructed to predict survival. Kaplan-Meier curves were plotted to estimate overall survival. The c-statistic values with 95% confidence interval (CI) were also calculated to access their predicting performances.Our study consisted of 256 patients with a median age of 60 years and a median follow-up visit of 18.5 months. Multivariate analyses showed that neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), modified Glasgow prognostic score (mGPS), and Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) were independently related to survival. After computing these scores, patients were classified into favorable-, intermediate-, and poor-risk groups. The median overall survival were 27.6 versus 13.2 versus 8.2 months in favorable, intermediate, and poor-risk groups, respectively. The 2-year survival rate was 52% versus 16% versus 3% in favorable-, intermediate-, and poor-risk groups, respectively. (P < 0.001). The c-statistic value of our model at 2 years is 0.8 (95% CI, 0.75-0.86).NLR, mGPS, and PG-SGA were independently related to survival. Our prognostic model using inflammatory- and nutrition-based scores could provide prognostic information to patients and physicians. PMID:27124056

  2. The Development and Feasibility of a Ward-Based Physiotherapy and Nutritional Rehabilitation Package for People Experiencing Critical Illness

    OpenAIRE

    Salisbury, L. G.; Merriweather, J. L.; Walsh, T. S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate ward-based rehabilitation after critical illness and undertake a pilot study exploring the feasibility of delivering enhanced physiotherapy and nutritional rehabilitation.Design: Service evaluation (part A) and pilot feasibility randomized controlled trial (part B).Setting: Hospital inpatient wards following discharge from intensive care.Participants: Part A involved 24 people with an intensive care stay of four days or more. Part B involved 16 participants randomize...

  3. Size at birth, maternal nutritional status in pregnancy, and blood pressure at age 17: population based analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Laor, A.; Stevenson, D K; Shemer, J; Gale, R; Seidman, D S

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of size at birth, maternal nutrition, and body mass index on blood pressure in late adolescence. DESIGN: Population based analysis of birth weight corrected for gestational age, mother's weight before pregnancy and weight gain in pregnancy, obtained from the Jerusalem perinatal study, and blood pressure and body mass index at age 17, available from military draft records. SETTING: Jerusalem, Israel. SUBJECTS: 10,883 subjects (6684 men and 4199 women) born in Je...

  4. Nutritional disturbance in acid–base balance and osteoporosis: a hypothesis that disregards the essential homeostatic role of the kidney

    OpenAIRE

    Bonjour, Jean-Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The nutritional acid load hypothesis of osteoporosis is reviewed from its historical origin to most recent studies with particular attention to the essential but overlooked role of the kidney in acid–base homeostasis. This hypothesis posits that foods associated with an increased urinary acid excretion are deleterious for the skeleton, leading to osteoporosis and enhanced fragility fracture risk. Conversely, foods generating neutral or alkaline urine would favour bone growth and Ca balance, p...

  5. Prevalence of Sarcopenia in the Korean Woman Based on the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Hyoung-Joon; Ha, Yong-Chan; Park, Hyoung-Moo

    2016-01-01

    Background The criteria for defining sarcopenia vary among studies and confusion has arisen when defining the cutoff value. As a result, the prevalence of sarcopenia differs markedly depending on the definition. This study used the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS) definition to determine the prevalence of sarcopenia among Korean women. Methods This study was based on data obtained from the 2008 to 2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys IV and V. We used the AWG...

  6. Use of sourdough fermentation and mixture of wheat, chickpea, lentil and bean flours for enhancing the nutritional, texture and sensory characteristics of white bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Calasso, Maria; Campanella, Daniela; De Angelis, Maria; Gobbetti, Marco

    2014-06-16

    This study aimed at investigating the addition of legume (chickpea, lentil and bean) flours to wheat flour bread. Type I sourdough containing legumes or wheat-legume flours were prepared and propagated (back slopped) in laboratory, according to traditional protocols that are routinely used for making typical Italian breads. Based on kinetic of acidification and culture-dependent data, the wheat-legume sourdough was further characterized and selected for bread making. As determined by RAPD-PCR and partial sequencing of 16S rDNA gene analyses, lactic acid bacteria in wheat-legume sourdough included Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus fermentum, Weissella cibaria, Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactobacillus coryneformis, Lactobacillus rossiae, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus parabuchneri and Lactobacillus paraplantarum. Two breads containing 15% (w/w) of legume (chickpea, lentil and bean) flours were produced using selected wheat-legume sourdough (WLSB) and traditional wheat sourdough (WSB). Compared to wheat yeasted bread (WYB), the level of total free amino acids (FAA) was higher in WSB and WLSB. Phytase and antioxidant activities were the highest in WLSB. Compared to bread WYB, the addition of legume flours decreased the in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) (WYB versus WSB). However, the dough fermentation with WSLB favored an increase of IVPD. According to the levels of carbohydrates, dietary fibers and resistant starch, WSB and WLSB showed lower values of hydrolysis index (HI) compared to WYB. As showed by texture and image analyses and sensory evaluation of breads, a good acceptability was found for WSB and, especially, WLSB breads. PMID:24794619

  7. An Application of Space-Based Gas Mixtures for Joule-Thompson Cryocoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipov, V. T.; Yevdokimova, O. V.; Lobko, M. P.; Yakuba, V. V.

    An extension of deepspace research, specifically, the work done on Alpha program, will inevitably require new and different cryostating systems. The primary differences will be in the areas of cooling power and temperature. One variant which can be used with J-T cryocoolers is the application of diverse gas mixtures which can work over a large temperature range. We have found that the J-T cycle is an efficient application of mixed gas working fluids, being very similar to a vapor-compression cycle utilized in household refrigerants. The simplicity and viability of a J-T design and the associated minimal heat losses compensate for theoretical efficiency ratio of Stirling-type machines. Simultaneously, the J-T machines are never restricted in terms of output power and contain no moving parts in the cold zone resulting in minimal vibration during operation. The effective cooling of these systems allows parallel cooling of multiple objects. Finally in long-life system designs these cryocooler systems are feasibly coupled with phase-transition thermal storage accumulators. The application of such J-T systems is especially efficient under space conditions, due to the fact that there is an option to use at low temperatures a radiation release unit for the outlet of compression heat and for preliminary cooling of the system. This is not possible for terrestrial applications. Particularly, obtaining the -10 to 100 (C temperature range is feasible through the use of low As/(( - coefficient coatings; shade screens; or radiator unit orientations. Computational and experimental research has provided us high efficiency gas-mixture J-T cryocooler results between 60 to 100K cooling temperatures. We have actual space systems which were tested and operated for 80-90 K with efficiencies of 20 to 25 W/W. The authors of this research have studied various gas mixtures as candidates for use with simple J-T single contour J-T systems. We have seen resultant reduction of energy consumption

  8. Test Your Nutrition IQ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李井岗

    2004-01-01

    All of us eat every day, but most of us don't understand nutrition. How much do you know about good nutrition? Please answer these twelve questions based on current ideas about food and health. The answers may surprise you.

  9. Evidence-based recommendations for natural bodybuilding contest preparation: nutrition and supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, Eric R; Aragon, Alan A; Fitschen, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    The popularity of natural bodybuilding is increasing; however, evidence-based recommendations for it are lacking. This paper reviewed the scientific literature relevant to competition preparation on nutrition and supplementation, resulting in the following recommendations. Caloric intake should be set at a level that results in bodyweight losses of approximately 0.5 to 1%/wk to maximize muscle retention. Within this caloric intake, most but not all bodybuilders will respond best to consuming 2.3-3.1 g/kg of lean body mass per day of protein, 15-30% of calories from fat, and the reminder of calories from carbohydrate. Eating three to six meals per day with a meal containing 0.4-0.5 g/kg bodyweight of protein prior and subsequent to resistance training likely maximizes any theoretical benefits of nutrient timing and frequency. However, alterations in nutrient timing and frequency appear to have little effect on fat loss or lean mass retention. Among popular supplements, creatine monohydrate, caffeine and beta-alanine appear to have beneficial effects relevant to contest preparation, however others do not or warrant further study. The practice of dehydration and electrolyte manipulation in the final days and hours prior to competition can be dangerous, and may not improve appearance. Increasing carbohydrate intake at the end of preparation has a theoretical rationale to improve appearance, however it is understudied. Thus, if carbohydrate loading is pursued it should be practiced prior to competition and its benefit assessed individually. Finally, competitors should be aware of the increased risk of developing eating and body image disorders in aesthetic sport and therefore should have access to the appropriate mental health professionals. PMID:24864135

  10. An analysis of flame instabilities for hydrogen-air mixtures based on Sivashinsky equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanez, J.; Kuznetsov, M.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper flame instabilities are analyzed utilizing the Sivashinsky equation in order to derive the flame wrinkling factor. This is a synthetic variable representing the excess of flame surface which is obtained for a wide range of hydrogen concentrations, considering the Darrieus-Landau and the Thermo-Diffusive instabilities, and also taking into account the effect of acceleration. Additionally, the time for the development of the cellularity is also analyzed. The study is carried out for a wide range of hydrogen-air mixtures as well as for a large domain of accelerations. Models representing both the wrinkling factor and the time of development of the instabilities are obtained.

  11. Photonic Crystal Based Sensor for Organic Solvents and for Solvent-Water Mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfbeis, Otto S.; Thomas Hirsch; Christoph Fenzl

    2012-01-01

    Monodisperse polystyrene nanoparticles with a diameter of 173 nm were incorporated into a polydimethylsiloxane matrix where they display an iridescent color that can be attributed to the photonic crystal effect. The film is of violet color if placed in plain water, but turns to red in the presence of the non-polar solvent n-hexane. Several solvents were studied in some detail. We show that such films are capable of monitoring the water content of ethanol/water mixtures, where only 1% (v/v) of...

  12. Separation of gas mixtures using Co(II) carborane-based porous coordination polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Y. S.; Spokoyny, Alexander M.; Farha, Omar K.; Snurr, R. Q.; Hupp, Joseph T.; Mirkin, Chad

    2010-01-01

    Separations of CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2}, and O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} mixtures were studied in three porous coordination polymers made of the same carborane ligand and Co(II) nodes. High selectivities for CO{sub 2} over CH{sub 4} (~47) and CO{sub 2} over N{sub 2} (~95) were obtained, especially in the material with coordinated pyridine. Unusual selectivity for O{sub 2} over N{sub 2} (as high as 6.5) was demonstrated in the materials with open Co(II) sites.

  13. Immune functional impacts of oyster peptide-based enteral nutrition formula (OPENF) on mice: a pilot study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Bingna; PAN Jianyu; WU Yuantao; WAN Peng; SUN Huili

    2013-01-01

    Oyster peptides were produced from Crassostrea hongkongensis and used as a new protein source for the preparation of an oyster peptide-based enteral nutrition formula (OPENF).Reserpineinduced malabsorption mice and cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppression mice were used in this study.OPENF powder is light yellow green and has a protein-fat-carbohydrate ratio of 16:9:75 with good solubility in water.A pilot study investigating immune functional impacts of the OPENF on mice show that the OPENF enhanced spleen lymphocyte proliferation and the activity of natural killer (NK) cells in BALB/c mice.Furthermore,OPENF can improve intestinal absorption,increase food utilization ratio,and maintain the normal physiological function of mice.These results suggest that oyster peptides could serve as a new protein source for use in enteral nutrition formula,but more importantly,also indicate that OPENF has an immunostimulating effect in mice.

  14. Development of a beetroot-based nutritional gel containing high content of bioaccessible dietary nitrate and antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgado, Marina; de Oliveira, Gustavo Vieira; Vasconcellos, Julia; Monteiro, Maria Lucia; Conte-Junior, Carlos; Pierucci, Anna Paola Trindade Rocha; Alvares, Thiago Silveira

    2016-03-01

    Beetroot, a food rich in nitrate and antioxidants has gained attention because of its potential effect on improving cardiovascular health and exercise performance. This work had the purpose of developing a beetroot-based nutritional gel (BG) and estimating the in vitro bioaccessibility of the nitrate, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total phenolic (TP) and potassium content, as compared to beetroot juice (BJ). Nitrate was assessed by a high-performance liquid chromatography system, TAC was assessed using the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay and TP was measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu method before and after an in vitro digestion. Significantly higher values of nitrate, TEAC, TP and potassium before and after digestion were observed in BG as compared to BJ. The results suggest a new nutritional strategy to give high contents of bioaccessible nutrients (nitrate, antioxidants and potassium) that are potentially relevant to improve cardiovascular health and exercise performance. PMID:26887255

  15. Immune functional impacts of oyster peptide-based enteral nutrition formula (OPENF) on mice: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Bingna; Pan, Jianyu; Wu, Yuantao; Wan, Peng; Sun, Huili

    2013-07-01

    Oyster peptides were produced from Crassostrea hongkongensis and used as a new protein source for the preparation of an oyster peptide-based enteral nutrition formula (OPENF). Reserpineinduced malabsorption mice and cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppression mice were used in this study. OPENF powder is light yellow green and has a protein-fat-carbohydrate ratio of 16:9:75 with good solubility in water. A pilot study investigating immune functional impacts of the OPENF on mice show that the OPENF enhanced spleen lymphocyte proliferation and the activity of natural killer (NK) cells in BALB/c mice. Furthermore, OPENF can improve intestinal absorption, increase food utilization ratio, and maintain the normal physiological function of mice. These results suggest that oyster peptides could serve as a new protein source for use in enteral nutrition formula, but more importantly, also indicate that OPENF has an immunostimulating effect in mice.

  16. Nutrition education based on health belief model improves dietary calcium intake among female students of junior high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghashpour, Mahshid; Shakerinejad, Ghodratollah; Lourizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Hajinajaf, Saeedeh; Jarvandi, Farzaneh

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the effects of a nutrition education programme based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) on knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of dietary calcium in female students. In this interventional study, 188 students were placed into intervention (95) and control (93) groups. The intervention group participated in a nutrition education programme. Students in both the groups completed KAP and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) at baseline and after two and three months of follow-up respectively. The data were analyzed by independent and paired t-tests. Those who received the intervention were found to have better attitude (p=0.049) and practice (p=0.005) scores compared to the controls. The HBM constructs, including perceived susceptibility (p=0.006), perceived severity (p=0.001), perceived benefits (p=0.002), perceived barriers (p=0.001), and taking health action (p=0.02) scores, were also significantly higher. The findings support the effectiveness of nutrition education based on the HBM in improving the knowledge, attitude, and practice relating to calcium intake among adolescent students. PMID:25395905

  17. Nutrition Counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Counter: A Reference For The Kidney Patient AAKP Nutrition Counter: A Reference For The Kidney Patient Buy ... Harum RD, CSR, LD Certified Specialist in Renal Nutrition, Miami, Florida Reviewed by: 2005 – Maria Karalis, MBA, ...

  18. Nutritional Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutritional support is therapy for people who cannot get enough nourishment by eating or drinking. You may need ... absorb nutrients through your digestive system You receive nutritional support through a needle or catheter placed in your ...

  19. Application of simplified desorption method to sorption study. (2) Sorption of neptunium (V) on montmorillonite-based mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To elucidate the sorption behaviors of radionuclides in multi-mineral systems and the mutual effects of minerals on the sorption, this paper carried out the sorption and desorption experiments of neptunium(V) on montmorillonite-based two-mineral mixtures. The Np sorbed on montmorillonite at pH from 4 to 8 was desorbed with 1M KCl solutions, indicating that the sorption was cation exchange. The Np sorbed on apatite and calcite was nondesorbable with 1M KCl solutions, which is in harmony with the knowledge that Np forms strong complexes with the phosphate groups of apatite and the carbonate groups of calcite. This study utilized these clear distinguishes of the desorption behaviors for examining the two-mineral systems. In montmorillonite-apatite mixtures, the sorption on the montmorillonite was decreased and Np was accumulated on the apatite. In montmorillonite-calcite mixtures, the sorption on the montmorillonite was decreased due to the interference by the calcium and carbonate ions dissolved from calcite while no accumulation of Np to calcite was observed. (author)

  20. Computer Based Thermodynamic Properties of Ammonia-Water Mixture for the Analysis of Power and Refrigeration Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kausik Sadhukhan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The thermodynamic analysis and optimization of combined power and refrigeration cycle as well as the improved vapour absorption refrigeration system necessitate the development of computer based thermodynamic properties of ammonia-water mixture. In this work, a computer code has been developed for the thermodynamic properties of ammonia water mixture for different pressures, temperatures and ammonia mass fraction concentration. This has been achieved by using some exact thermodynamic relations and some co-relations available in the literature. The computed results have been compared with the published experimental data and the agreement is found to be of good accuracy. The errors in the computed results for different thermodynamic properties are slightly more at comparatively high pressure and temperature. The maximum error is found to be with saturated liquid mixture entropy and its value is also less then 3.8% even at a high pressure of 34.47 bar.

  1. The nutrition-based comprehensive intervention study on childhood obesity in China (NISCOC: a randomised cluster controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Guifa

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity and its related metabolic and psychological abnormalities are becoming serious health problems in China. Effective, feasible and practical interventions should be developed in order to prevent the childhood obesity and its related early onset of clinical cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this paper is to describe the design of a multi-centred random controlled school-based clinical intervention for childhood obesity in China. The secondary objective is to compare the cost-effectiveness of the comprehensive intervention strategy with two other interventions, one only focuses on nutrition education, the other only focuses on physical activity. Methods/Design The study is designed as a multi-centred randomised controlled trial, which included 6 centres located in Beijing, Shanghai, Chongqing, Shandong province, Heilongjiang province and Guangdong province. Both nutrition education (special developed carton style nutrition education handbook and physical activity intervention (Happy 10 program will be applied in all intervention schools of 5 cities except Beijing. In Beijing, nutrition education intervention will be applied in 3 schools and physical activity intervention among another 3 schools. A total of 9750 primary students (grade 1 to grade 5, aged 7-13 years will participate in baseline and intervention measurements, including weight, height, waist circumference, body composition (bioelectrical impendence device, physical fitness, 3 days dietary record, physical activity questionnaire, blood pressure, plasma glucose and plasma lipid profiles. Data concerning investments will be collected in our study, including costs in staff training, intervention materials, teachers and school input and supervising related expenditure. Discussion Present study is the first and biggest multi-center comprehensive childhood obesity intervention study in China. Should the study produce comprehensive results, the

  2. Photonic Crystal Based Sensor for Organic Solvents and for Solvent-Water Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto S. Wolfbeis

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Monodisperse polystyrene nanoparticles with a diameter of 173 nm were incorporated into a polydimethylsiloxane matrix where they display an iridescent color that can be attributed to the photonic crystal effect. The film is of violet color if placed in plain water, but turns to red in the presence of the non-polar solvent n-hexane. Several solvents were studied in some detail. We show that such films are capable of monitoring the water content of ethanol/water mixtures, where only 1% (v/v of water leads to a shift of the peak wavelength of reflected light by 5 nm. The method also can be applied to determine, both visually and instrumentally, the fraction of methanol in ethanol/methanol mixtures. Here, a fraction of 1% of methanol (v/v results in a wavelength shift of 2 nm. The reflected wavelength is not influenced by temperature changes nor impeded by photobleaching. The signal changes are fully reversible and response times are <1 s.

  3. Image Segmentation Method Based On Finite Doubly Truncated Bivariate Gaussian Mixture Model with Hierarchical Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G V S Rajkumar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Image segmentation is one of the most important area of image retrieval. In colour image segmentation the feature vector of each image region is 'n' dimension different from grey level image. In this paper a new image segmentation algorithm is developed and analyzed using the finite mixture of doubly truncated bivariate Gaussian distribution by integrating with the hierarchical clustering. The number of image regions in the whole image is determined using the hierarchical clustering algorithm. Assuming that a bivariate feature vector (consisting of Hue angle and Saturation of each pixel in the image region follows a doubly truncated bivariate Gaussian distribution, the segmentation algorithm is developed. The model parameters are estimated using EM-Algorithm, the updated equations of EM-Algorithm for a finite mixture of doubly truncated Gaussian distribution are derived. A segmentation algorithm for colour images is proposed by using component maximum likelihood. The performance of the developed algorithm is evaluated by carrying out experimentation with five images taken form Berkeley image dataset and computing the image segmentation metrics like, Global Consistency Error (GCE, Variation of Information (VOI, and Probability Rand Index (PRI. The experimentation results show that this algorithm outperforms the existing image segmentation algorithms.

  4. Optimization of Natural Lipstick Formulation Based on Pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus Seed Oil Using D-Optimal Mixture Experimental Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norsuhaili Kamairudin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The D-optimal mixture experimental design was employed to optimize the melting point of natural lipstick based on pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus seed oil. The influence of the main lipstick components—pitaya seed oil (10%–25% w/w, virgin coconut oil (25%–45% w/w, beeswax (5%–25% w/w, candelilla wax (1%–5% w/w and carnauba wax (1%–5% w/w—were investigated with respect to the melting point properties of the lipstick formulation. The D-optimal mixture experimental design was applied to optimize the properties of lipstick by focusing on the melting point with respect to the above influencing components. The D-optimal mixture design analysis showed that the variation in the response (melting point could be depicted as a quadratic function of the main components of the lipstick. The best combination of each significant factor determined by the D-optimal mixture design was established to be pitaya seed oil (25% w/w, virgin coconut oil (37% w/w, beeswax (17% w/w, candelilla wax (2% w/w and carnauba wax (2% w/w. With respect to these factors, the 46.0 °C melting point property was observed experimentally, similar to the theoretical prediction of 46.5 °C. Carnauba wax is the most influential factor on this response (melting point with its function being with respect to heat endurance. The quadratic polynomial model sufficiently fit the experimental data.

  5. Optimization of natural lipstick formulation based on pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) seed oil using D-optimal mixture experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamairudin, Norsuhaili; Gani, Siti Salwa Abd; Masoumi, Hamid Reza Fard; Hashim, Puziah

    2014-01-01

    The D-optimal mixture experimental design was employed to optimize the melting point of natural lipstick based on pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) seed oil. The influence of the main lipstick components-pitaya seed oil (10%-25% w/w), virgin coconut oil (25%-45% w/w), beeswax (5%-25% w/w), candelilla wax (1%-5% w/w) and carnauba wax (1%-5% w/w)-were investigated with respect to the melting point properties of the lipstick formulation. The D-optimal mixture experimental design was applied to optimize the properties of lipstick by focusing on the melting point with respect to the above influencing components. The D-optimal mixture design analysis showed that the variation in the response (melting point) could be depicted as a quadratic function of the main components of the lipstick. The best combination of each significant factor determined by the D-optimal mixture design was established to be pitaya seed oil (25% w/w), virgin coconut oil (37% w/w), beeswax (17% w/w), candelilla wax (2% w/w) and carnauba wax (2% w/w). With respect to these factors, the 46.0 °C melting point property was observed experimentally, similar to the theoretical prediction of 46.5 °C. Carnauba wax is the most influential factor on this response (melting point) with its function being with respect to heat endurance. The quadratic polynomial model sufficiently fit the experimental data. PMID:25325152

  6. Public acceptance of nutrigenomics-based personalised nutrition : exploring the future with experts and consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronteltap, A.

    2008-01-01

    Nutrigenomics is a recent discipline within nutrition sciences that aims at understanding how food components influence health status by affecting gene expression to eventually help maintain health and prevent disease. Nutrigenomics science has a potential consumer application in the form of so-call

  7. The Agatston Urban Nutrition Initiative: Working to Reverse the Obesity Epidemic through Academically Based Community Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Francis E.

    2009-01-01

    The Agatston Urban Nutrition Initiative (AUNI) presents a fruitful partnership between faculty and students at a premier research university and members of the surrounding community aimed at addressing the problem of childhood obesity. AUNI uses a problem-solving approach to learning by focusing course activities, including service-learning, on…

  8. Math, Science, and Web-Based Activities to Raise Awareness about Nutrition and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuercher, Deborah K.

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of child obesity in the United States is increasing at an alarming rate. This article provides information about nutrition, obesity, and related health conditions and suggests some classroom activities to raise awareness about these issues and empower students to live healthier, more active lives. A list of recommended health-related…

  9. Nutrition Education Initiative: A School-Based Program to Promote Healthy Eating Practices of Preadolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Bonnie; Ralston, Penny A.; Young-Clark, Iris; Cornille, Tom; Brown, Linda Lockett; Davis, Kimberly E.; Salley, Tihesha J.; Goehrig, Marianne Henderson; Mullins, Amy Piper; Gaskins, Dykibra J.

    2009-01-01

    The implementation of the Nutrition Education Initiative (NEI), a project to promote the adoption of healthy eating practices by middle school students in North Florida, included the development of the "NEI Resource Guide" and pilot study outcomes. Eight schools in North Florida participated in the pilot project. Food recall data from 331 and 768…

  10. Advantages of enteral nutrition over parenteral nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Seres, David S; Valcarcel, Monika; Guillaume, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    It is a strong and commonly held belief among nutrition clinicians that enteral nutrition is preferable to parenteral nutrition. We provide a narrative review of more recent studies and technical reviews comparing enteral nutrition with parenteral nutrition. Despite significant weaknesses in the existing data, current literature continues to support the use of enteral nutrition in patients requiring nutrition support, over parenteral nutrition.

  11. Personalised nutrition: Status and perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joost, H.-G.; Gibney, M.J.; Cashman, K.D.; Görman, U.; Hesketh, J.E.; Mueller, M.; Ommen, B. van; Williams, C.M.; Mathers, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    Personalised, genotype-based nutrition is a concept that links genotyping with specific nutritional advice in order to improve the prevention of nutrition-associated, chronic diseases. This review describes the current scientific basis of the concept and discusses its problems. There is convincing e

  12. Hemodynamic response based mixture model to estimate micro- and macro-vasculature contributions in functional MRI

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Manbir; Sungkarat, Witaya; Zhou, Yongxia

    2003-01-01

    A multi-componet model reflecting the temporal characteristics of micro- and macro-vasculature hemodynamic responses was used to fit the time-course of voxels in functional MRI (fMRI). The number of relevant components, the latency of the first component, the time- separation among the components, their relative amplitude and possible interpretation in terms of partial volume contributions of micro- and macro-components to the time-course data were investigated. Analysis of a reversing checkerboard experiment revealed that there was no improvement in the filing beyond two components. Using a two-component model, the fractional abundances of the micro- and macro-vasculature were estimated in individual voxels. These results suggest the potential of a mixture-model approach to mitigate partial volume effects and separate contributions of vascular components within a voxel in fMRI.

  13. An efficient approach for shadow detection based on Gaussian mixture model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩延祥; 张志胜; 陈芳; 陈恺

    2014-01-01

    An efficient approach was proposed for discriminating shadows from moving objects. In the background subtraction stage, moving objects were extracted. Then, the initial classification for moving shadow pixels and foreground object pixels was performed by using color invariant features. In the shadow model learning stage, instead of a single Gaussian distribution, it was assumed that the density function computed on the values of chromaticity difference or bright difference, can be modeled as a mixture of Gaussian consisting of two density functions. Meanwhile, the Gaussian parameter estimation was performed by using EM algorithm. The estimates were used to obtain shadow mask according to two constraints. Finally, experiments were carried out. The visual experiment results confirm the effectiveness of proposed method. Quantitative results in terms of the shadow detection rate and the shadow discrimination rate (the maximum values are 85.79%and 97.56%, respectively) show that the proposed approach achieves a satisfying result with post-processing step.

  14. Development and optimization of the activated charcoal suspension composition based on a mixture design approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronowicz Joanna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a new drug product containing activated charcoal was designed and developed. The excipient levels in the pharmaceutical formulation were optimized using a mixture design approach. The adsorption power of the activated charcoal suspension was selected as the critical quality attribute influencing the efficacy of medical treatment. Significant prognostic models (p < 0.05 were obtained to describe in detail the interrelations between excipient levels and the adsorption power of the formulation. Liquid flavour had a critical impact on the adsorption power of the suspension. Formulations containing the largest amount of liquid flavour showed the lowest adsorption power. Sorbitol was not adsorbed onto activated charcoal so strongly as liquid flavour. A slight increase in the content of carboxymethylcellulose sodium led to a marked decrease in adsorption power. The obtained mathematical models and response surface allowed selection of the optimal composition of excipients in a final drug product

  15. Estimation of Seismic Wavelets Based on the Multivariate Scale Mixture of Gaussians Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Huai Gao

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new method for estimating seismic wavelets. Suppose a seismic wavelet can be modeled by a formula with three free parameters (scale, frequency and phase. We can transform the estimation of the wavelet into determining these three parameters. The phase of the wavelet is estimated by constant-phase rotation to the seismic signal, while the other two parameters are obtained by the Higher-order Statistics (HOS (fourth-order cumulant matching method. In order to derive the estimator of the Higher-order Statistics (HOS, the multivariate scale mixture of Gaussians (MSMG model is applied to formulating the multivariate joint probability density function (PDF of the seismic signal. By this way, we can represent HOS as a polynomial function of second-order statistics to improve the anti-noise performance and accuracy. In addition, the proposed method can work well for short time series.

  16. A molecular-based approach to the thermodynamics of aqueous solutions: binary mixture of water and carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirsák, J; Škvor, J

    2015-05-20

    A simple model and theory of molecular fluids is applied to a binary mixture of water and carbon dioxide. An approach based on the perturbation theory is followed using a reference system of so-called pseudo-hard bodies for water and hard triatomics for carbon dioxide. Pseudo-hard bodies bear the traits of the non-additive nature of association supplementing the common excluded volume effect. The reference term is parametrized using Monte Carlo simulation data on the compressibility factor. After adding a simple mean-field term to the reference equation, fluid phase equilibria are qualitatively reproduced. PMID:25923412

  17. A molecular-based approach to the thermodynamics of aqueous solutions: binary mixture of water and carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple model and theory of molecular fluids is applied to a binary mixture of water and carbon dioxide. An approach based on the perturbation theory is followed using a reference system of so-called pseudo-hard bodies for water and hard triatomics for carbon dioxide. Pseudo-hard bodies bear the traits of the non-additive nature of association supplementing the common excluded volume effect. The reference term is parametrized using Monte Carlo simulation data on the compressibility factor. After adding a simple mean-field term to the reference equation, fluid phase equilibria are qualitatively reproduced. (paper)

  18. MAP-Based Underdetermined Blind Source Separation of Convolutive Mixtures by Hierarchical Clustering and ℓ1-Norm Minimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Sawada

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We address the problem of underdetermined BSS. While most previous approaches are designed for instantaneous mixtures, we propose a time-frequency-domain algorithm for convolutive mixtures. We adopt a two-step method based on a general maximum a posteriori (MAP approach. In the first step, we estimate the mixing matrix based on hierarchical clustering, assuming that the source signals are sufficiently sparse. The algorithm works directly on the complex-valued data in the time-frequency domain and shows better convergence than algorithms based on self-organizing maps. The assumption of Laplacian priors for the source signals in the second step leads to an algorithm for estimating the source signals. It involves the ℓ1-norm minimization of complex numbers because of the use of the time-frequency-domain approach. We compare a combinatorial approach initially designed for real numbers with a second-order cone programming (SOCP approach designed for complex numbers. We found that although the former approach is not theoretically justified for complex numbers, its results are comparable to, or even better than, the SOCP solution. The advantage is a lower computational cost for problems with low input/output dimensions.

  19. Nutrition Labeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G

    2013-01-01

    because consumers will avoid products that the label shows to be nutritionally deficient, but also because food producers will try to avoid marketing products that appear, according to the label, as nutritionally problematic, for example, because of a high content of saturated fat or salt. Nutrition......Nutrition labeling refers to the provision of information on a food product’s nutritional content on the package label. It can serve both public health and commercial purposes. From a public health perspective, the aim of nutrition labeling is to provide information that can enable consumers...... to make healthier choices when choosing food products. Nutrition labeling is thus closely linked to the notion of the informed consumer, that chooses products according to their aims, on the basis of the information at their disposal. Because many consumers are assumed to be interested in making healthy...

  20. Effect of maize based composite flour noodles on functional, sensory, nutritional and storage quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobha, D; Vijayalakshmi, D; Puttaramnaik; Asha, K J

    2015-12-01

    To explore the feasibility of utilization of maize flour in noodle preparation, eight different combinations (T1 to T8) with varied amount of maize flour (MF), refined wheat flour (RWF), rice flour (RF), wheat gluten (WG), soya protein isolate (SPI), kansui (Sodium Carbonates), potato starch (PS) were extruded to standardize good quality noodles. Among various combinations tested, the combination T5 (50 %MF + 30 %RWF + 10 %SPI + 7 %RF + 3 %WG) was rated the best for appearance (8.3) colour (8.25) taste (8.5) elasticity (8.3) with an overall acceptability of 8.2 on a nine point hedonic rating sensory scale. There was no significant difference in normal noodle (NN) and Quality protein maize (QPM) noodle (QN) for T5 with respect to sensory characteristics when compared to control noodle (CN) prepared out of refined wheat flour. The cooked yield was more for maize based noodle (234 g NN and 220 g QN) with lower cooking loss of 7.80 and 7.76 respectively for NN & QN. The nutritional composition of maize noodles revealed that addition of 10 % soya protein isolate had increased the protein content of noodles to the tune of 16.6 and 12.7 % in QN and NN respectively. The soluble (3.18NN, 3.76QN) and insoluble fiber (21.67NN, 21.87QN) contents of both NN & QN was significantly more compared to CN (0.15 and 9.3 g).There was non- significant increase in moisture and peroxide values up to 3 months of storage with high overall acceptable sensory scores (4.0, 4.1, & 4.2 respectively for NN, QN and CN but beyond third month of storage the increase was significant. However the noodles were within the acceptable range up to 6 months of storage with an overall acceptability score of 3.0, 3.4 and 3.2 for NN, QN and CN respectively on a five point hedonic scale. PMID:26604375

  1. An assessment of nutritional quality of hybryd maize grain based on chemical composition

    OpenAIRE

    Stevanović Milan; Mladenović-Drinić Snežana; Dragičević Vesna; Camdžija Zoran; Filipović Milomir; Veličković Nevena; Stanković Goran

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate chemical composition of grain of 20 maize hybrids, from different maturity groups, to define their nutritional quality from the point of main grain constituents: starch, total proteins, soluble proteins, oil, phytate, inorganic phosphorus, and soluble phenolics, as well as mass of 1.000 grains. A set of 20 ZP hybrids, FAO 400-800, were grown in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) at Zemun Polje (Serbia), during...

  2. Dynamics of caste-based deprivation in child under-nutrition in India

    OpenAIRE

    Rudra Narayan Mishra

    2006-01-01

    Nutritional deprivation among Indian children is one of the parameters of underdevelopment mentioned in development discourse in recent times. And such deprivation is more often associated with well known socio-economic indicators of deprivation; prominent among them is caste, which ranks the society into a hierarchy in terms of benefit and welfare. Though caste dimension has been frequently considered as a category of understanding deprivation, it is rare to find explicit disadvantage of cas...

  3. Web-Based Targeted Nutrition Counselling and Social Support for Patients at Increased Cardiovascular Risk in General Practice: Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Verheijden, Marieke; Bakx, J Carel; Akkermans, Reinier; van den Hoogen, Henk; Godwin, N Marshall; Rosser, Walter; Staveren, Wija; van Weel, Chris

    2004-01-01

    Background Using the Internet may prove useful in providing nutrition counselling and social support for patients with chronic diseases. Objective We evaluated the impact of Web-based nutrition counselling and social support on social support measures, anthropometry, blood pressure, and serum cholesterol in patients at increased cardiovascular risk. Methods We conducted a randomized controlled trial among patients with increased cardiovascular risk in Canadian family practices. During 8 month...

  4. Food-based dietary guidelines as nutrition education tool : a study among Tswana women in the North West Province / Tshwanelo Kgengwenyane

    OpenAIRE

    Kgengwenyane, Tshwanelo Yvonne

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND MOTIVATION Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDG) has been developed in South Africa as a consistent communication tool to represent agreement on how diet-related public health problems should be addressed. The guidelines demonstrate the striving towards equity in diet and health and the purpose is to optimise nutritional status in both disadvantaged and affluent communities. AIM The overall aim of the study was: To improve nutritional knowledge and practi...

  5. Characterization of a GEM-based scintillation detector with He-CF4 gas mixture in clinical proton beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichiporov, D; Coutinho, L; Klyachko, A V

    2016-04-21

    Accurate, high-spatial resolution dosimetry in proton therapy is a time consuming task, and may be challenging in the case of small fields, due to the lack of adequate instrumentation. The purpose of this work is to develop a novel dose imaging detector with high spatial resolution and tissue equivalent response to dose in the Bragg peak, suitable for beam commissioning and quality assurance measurements. A scintillation gas electron multiplier (GEM) detector based on a double GEM amplification structure with optical readout was filled with a He/CF4 gas mixture and evaluated in pristine and modulated proton beams of several penetration ranges. The detector's performance was characterized in terms of linearity in dose rate, spatial resolution, short- and long-term stability and tissue-equivalence of response at different energies. Depth-dose profiles measured with the GEM detector in the 115-205 MeV energy range were compared with the profiles measured under similar conditions using the PinPoint 3D small-volume ion chamber. The GEM detector filled with a He-based mixture has a nearly tissue equivalent response in the proton beam and may become an attractive and efficient tool for high-resolution 2D and 3D dose imaging in proton dosimetry, and especially in small-field applications. PMID:26992243

  6. Characterization of a GEM-based scintillation detector with He–CF4 gas mixture in clinical proton beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichiporov, D.; Coutinho, L.; Klyachko, A. V.

    2016-04-01

    Accurate, high-spatial resolution dosimetry in proton therapy is a time consuming task, and may be challenging in the case of small fields, due to the lack of adequate instrumentation. The purpose of this work is to develop a novel dose imaging detector with high spatial resolution and tissue equivalent response to dose in the Bragg peak, suitable for beam commissioning and quality assurance measurements. A scintillation gas electron multiplier (GEM) detector based on a double GEM amplification structure with optical readout was filled with a He/CF4 gas mixture and evaluated in pristine and modulated proton beams of several penetration ranges. The detector’s performance was characterized in terms of linearity in dose rate, spatial resolution, short- and long-term stability and tissue-equivalence of response at different energies. Depth-dose profiles measured with the GEM detector in the 115–205 MeV energy range were compared with the profiles measured under similar conditions using the PinPoint 3D small-volume ion chamber. The GEM detector filled with a He-based mixture has a nearly tissue equivalent response in the proton beam and may become an attractive and efficient tool for high-resolution 2D and 3D dose imaging in proton dosimetry, and especially in small-field applications.

  7. Three dimensional indoor positioning based on visible light with Gaussian mixture sigma-point particle filter technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Wenjun; Zhang, Weizhi; Wang, Jin; Amini Kashani, M. R.; Kavehrad, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade, location based services (LBS) have found their wide applications in indoor environments, such as large shopping malls, hospitals, warehouses, airports, etc. Current technologies provide wide choices of available solutions, which include Radio-frequency identification (RFID), Ultra wideband (UWB), wireless local area network (WLAN) and Bluetooth. With the rapid development of light-emitting-diodes (LED) technology, visible light communications (VLC) also bring a practical approach to LBS. As visible light has a better immunity against multipath effect than radio waves, higher positioning accuracy is achieved. LEDs are utilized both for illumination and positioning purpose to realize relatively lower infrastructure cost. In this paper, an indoor positioning system using VLC is proposed, with LEDs as transmitters and photo diodes as receivers. The algorithm for estimation is based on received-signalstrength (RSS) information collected from photo diodes and trilateration technique. By appropriately making use of the characteristics of receiver movements and the property of trilateration, estimation on three-dimensional (3-D) coordinates is attained. Filtering technique is applied to enable tracking capability of the algorithm, and a higher accuracy is reached compare to raw estimates. Gaussian mixture Sigma-point particle filter (GM-SPPF) is proposed for this 3-D system, which introduces the notion of Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM). The number of particles in the filter is reduced by approximating the probability distribution with Gaussian components.

  8. Classification of Mixtures of Chinese Herbal Medicines Based on a Self-organizing Map (SOM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Maolin; Li, Li; Yu, Changyuan; Yan, Aixia; Zhao, Zhongzhen; Zhang, Ge; Jiang, Miao; Lu, Aiping; Gasteiger, Johann

    2016-04-01

    Chinese Herbal Medicines (CHMs) are typically mixtures of compounds and are often categorized into cold and hot according to the theory of Chinese Medicine. This classification is essential for guiding the clinical application of CHMs. In this study, three types of molecular descriptors were used to build models for classification of 59 CHMs with typical cold/hot properties in the training set taken from the original records on properties in China Pharmacopeia as reference. The accuracy and the Matthews correlation coefficient of the models were validated by a test set containing other 56 CHMs. The best model produced the accuracies of 94.92 % and 83.93 % on training set and test set, respectively. The MACCS fingerprint model is robust in predicting hot/cold properties of the CHMs from their major constituting compounds. This work shows how a classification model for data consisting of multi-components can be developed. The derived model can be used for the application of Chinese herbal medicines. PMID:27491920

  9. Nutritional status and feeding-tube placement in patients with locally advanced hypopharyngeal cancer included in an induction chemotherapy-based larynx preservation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozec, Alexandre; Benezery, Karen; Chamorey, Emmanuel; Ettaiche, Marc; Vandersteen, Clair; Dassonville, Olivier; Poissonnet, Gilles; Riss, Jean-Christophe; Hannoun-Lévi, Jean-Michel; Chand, Marie-Eve; Leysalle, Axel; Saada, Esma; Sudaka, Anne; Haudebourg, Juliette; Hebert, Christophe; Falewee, Marie-Noelle; Demard, François; Santini, José; Peyrade, Frédéric

    2016-09-01

    The objective of the study is to evaluate the nutritional status and determine its impact on clinical outcomes in patients with locally advanced hypopharyngeal cancer included in an induction chemotherapy (ICT)-based larynx preservation program without prophylactic feeding-tube placement. All patients with locally advanced (T3/4, N0-3, M0) hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, technically suitable for total pharyngolaryngectomy, treated by docetaxel, cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (TPF)-ICT for larynx preservation at our institution between 2004 and 2013, were included in this retrospective study. Patients' nutritional status was closely monitored. Enteral nutrition was used if and when a patient was unable to sustain per-oral nutrition and hydration. The impact of nutritional status on clinical outcomes was investigated in univariate and multivariate analysis. A total of 53 patients (42 men and 11 women, mean age = 58.6 ± 8.2 years) were included in this study. Six (11.3 %) patients had lost more than 10 % of their usual body weight before therapy. Compared with patients' usual weight, the mean maximum patient weight loss during therapeutic management was 8.7 ± 4.5 kg. Enteral nutrition was required in 17 patients (32 %). We found no influence of the tested nutritional status-related factors on response to ICT, toxicity of ICT, overall, cause-specific and recurrence-free survival, and on post-therapeutic swallowing outcome. Maximum weight loss was significantly associated with a higher risk of enteral tube feeding during therapy (p = 0.03) and of complications (grade ≥3, p = 0.006) during RT. Without prophylactic feeding-tube placement, approximately one-third of the patients required enteral nutrition. There was no significant impact of nutritional status on oncologic or functional outcomes. PMID:26395117

  10. Investigation on the performance of the supercritical Brayton cycle with CO2-based binary mixture as working fluid for an energy transportation system of a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the performance of a SBC (supercritical gas Brayton cycle) using CO2-based binary mixtures as the working fluids have been studied. Based on the thermodynamic analyses, an in-house code has been developed to determine the cycle efficiency and the amounts of heat transfer in the HTR (high temperature recuperator) and the LTR (low temperature recuperator) with different CO2/additive gas ratios. Several gases are selected as potential additives, including O2, He, Ar, Kr, butane and cyclohexane. Compared with the Brayton cycle with pure S–CO2 (supercritical carbon dioxide) as the working fluid, it is found that both CO2–He and CO2–Kr mixtures can improve the thermodynamic performances of the SBC by increasing the cycle efficiency and decreasing the amounts of heat transfer in the HTR and LTR. For the cycles with the pure S–CO2 mixture, CO2–butane mixture and CO2–cyclohexane mixture as the working fluids, the cycle efficiencies decrease with increasing main compressor inlet temperature. However, when the main compressor inlet temperature is above the critical temperature of pure CO2, the cycle efficiencies of the cycles with CO2–butane mixture and CO2–cyclohexane mixture are higher than that of the cycle with pure CO2 as the working fluid. For the cycles with CO2-based binary mixtures and pure S–CO2 as the working fluids, the higher reactor outlet temperature always results into higher cycle efficiencies and larger amount of heat transfer in the HTR and smaller amount of heat transfer in the LTR. - Highlights: • The Brayton cycle performance with different mixtures as working fluids is studied. • Thermodynamic analysis is carried out to evaluate cycle efficiency and heat transfer in HTR and LTR. • The optimum working parameters of the Brayton cycle is proposed to improve working performance

  11. Will web-based research suffice when collecting U.S. school district policies? The case of physical education and school-based nutrition policies

    OpenAIRE

    Agurs-Collins Tanya; Tynan Michael; Chriqui Jamie F; Mâsse Louise C

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Recognizing the growing childhood overweight problem, a number of school-based strategies, including policy approaches, have been proposed and are being implemented to address the problem considering the amount of time children spend in schools. This paper describes the results of a pilot study that tested approaches to collecting U.S. school district policy information regarding physical education and nutrition requirements that can inform efforts by policy makers, resear...

  12. NUTRITIONAL ESTIMATES OF SCHOOL GOING CHILDREN BASED ON ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASUREMENTS: STUDY FROM A RURAL AREA OF VARANASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M K Gupta

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the adoption of western lifestyle the problem of overweight and obesity is gradually increasing in children, while problem of malnutrition is persisting continuously in the country. With this background a school based cross sectional study was conducted to assess the nutritional status of school going children in a rural area: Chiraigaon block of Varanasi. Study period: July 2010 to September 2010 Methods: A school-based study with cross-sectional design was adopted. A total of 1448 school children were examined from 3 middle-schools that were selected by simple random sampling method. Height and weight of the children were measured, and BMI and other parameters were assessed. Results: On applying the BMI-for-age criteria, twelve percent of the children (12.4% boys and 11.1% girls were found underweight while 5.4% were overweight or obese (5.71% of the boys and 4.63% of the girls. But when the previous WHO’s BMI classification was used, 86.5% children had BMI <18.5 (88.4% of total boys and 81.9% of all girls. Conclusion: Nutritional status of school going children based on WHO criteria of BMI for age has been satisfactory. However, this approach needs scientific validation by undertaking a multi-centric study.

  13. Critical Temperature Differences of a Standing Wave Thermoacoustic Prime Mover with Various Helium-Based Binary Mixture Working Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, Ikhsan; Nohtomi, Makoto; Katsuta, Masafumi

    2015-06-01

    Thermoacoustic prime movers are energy conversion devices which convert thermal energy into acoustic work. The devices are environmentally friendly because they do not produce any exhaust gases. In addition, they can utilize clean energy such as solar-thermal energy or waste heat from internal combustion engines as the heat sources. The output mechanical work of thermoacoustic prime movers are usually used to drive a thermoacoustic refrigerator or to generate electricity. A thermoacoustic prime mover with low critical temperature difference is desired when we intend to utilize low quality of heat sources such as waste heat and sun light. The critical temperature difference can be significantly influenced by the kinds of working gases inside the resonator and stack's channels of the device. Generally, helium gas is preferred as the working gas due to its high sound speed which together with high mean pressure will yield high acoustic power per unit volume of the device. Moreover, adding a small amount of a heavy gas to helium gas may improve the efficiency of thermoacoustic devices. This paper presents numerical study and estimation of the critical temperature differences of a standing wave thermoacoustic prime mover with various helium-based binary-mixture working gases. It is found that mixing helium (He) gas with other common gases, namely argon (Ar), nitrogen (N2), oxygen (O2), and carbon dioxide (CO2), at appropriate pressures and molar compositions, reduce the critical temperature differences to lower than those of the individual components of the gas mixtures. In addition, the optimum mole fractions of Hegas which give the minimum critical temperature differences are shifted to larger values as the pressure increases, and tends to be constant at around 0.7 when the pressure increases more than 2 MPa. However, the minimum critical temperature differences slightly increase as the pressure increases to higher than 1.5 MPa. Furthermore, we found that the lowest

  14. Hydrate-based removal of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide from biogas mixtures: Experimental investigation and energy evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an experimental study on the application of gas hydrate technology to biogas upgrading. Since CH4, CO2 and H2S form hydrates at quite different thermodynamic conditions, the capture of CO2 and H2S by means of gas hydrate crystallization appears to be a viable technological alternative for their removal from biogas streams. Nevertheless, hydrate-based biogas upgrading has been poorly investigated. Works found in literature are mainly at a laboratory scale and concern with thermodynamic and kinetic fundamental studies. The experimental campaign was carried out with an up-scaled apparatus, in which hydrates are produced in a rapid manner, with hydrate formation times of few minutes. Two types of mixtures were used: a CH4/CO2 mixture and a CH4/CO2/H2S mixture. The objective of the investigation is to evaluate the selectivity and the separation efficiency of the process and the role of hydrogen sulphide in the hydrate equilibrium. Results show that H2S can be captured along with CO2 in the same process. The maximum value of the separation factor, defined as the ratio between the number of moles of CO2 and the number of moles of CH4 removed from the gas phase, is 11. In the gas phase, a reduction of CO2 of 24.5% in volume is achievable in 30 min. Energy costs of a real 30-min separation process, carried out in the experimental campaign, are evaluated and compared with those obtained from theoretical calculations. Some aspects for technology improvement are discussed. - Highlights: • Tests on CO2 and H2S removal from biogas mixture via gas hydrates were carried out. • An up-scaled apparatus was used with hydrate formation times of few minutes. • CO2 hydrates were produced through spraying aqueous solution into the gas phase. • H2S was completely captured along with CO2 in 30- minute formation process. • Aspects for process improvement and energy costs are evaluated

  15. Nutritional surveillance*

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, John B.; Mitchell, Janice T.

    1983-01-01

    The concept of nutritional surveillance is derived from disease surveillance, and means “to watch over nutrition, in order to make decisions that lead to improvements in nutrition in populations”. Three distinct objectives have been defined for surveillance systems, primarily in relation to problems of malnutrition in developing countries: to aid long-term planning in health and development; to provide input for programme management and evaluation; and to give timely warning of the need for i...

  16. Evaluation of Biochemical Contents, Trace Elements, Nutritive Value and HPTLC Profiling in Two Edible Food Plants Based Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Aberoumand

    2014-09-01

    Conclusions: Our findings suggest that both Asparagus officinalis DC and Chlorophytum comosum Linn are endowed with antioxidant phytochemicals and nutritive values. Keywords: Asparagus officinalis DCChlorophytum comosum Linn, Nutritive values

  17. Optimization of the general acceptability though affective tests and response surface methodology of a dry cacao powder mixture based beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Chau Loo Kung

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This research work had as main objective optimizing the general acceptability though affective tests and response surface methodology of a dry cacao powder mixture based beverage. We obtained formulations of mixtures of cacao powder with different concentrations of 15%, 17.5% and 20%, as well as lecithin concentrations of 0.1%; 0.3%; and 0.5% maintaining a constant content of sugar (25 %, Vanillin (1% that included cacao powder with different pH values: natural (pH 5 and alkalinized (pH 6.5 and pH 8 and water by difference to 100%, generating a total of fifteen treatments to be evaluated, according to the Box-Behnen design for three factors. The treatments underwent satisfaction level tests to establish the general acceptability. The treatment that included cacao powder with a concentration of 17.5 %, pH 6.5 and lecithin concentration of 0.3 % obtained the best levels of acceptability. The software Statgraphics Plus 5.1 was used to obtain the treatment with maximum acceptability that corresponded to cacao powder with pH 6.81, with a concentration of 18.24 % and soy lecithin in 0.28% with a tendency to what was obtained in the satisfaction levels tests. Finally we characterized in a physical-chemistry and microbiological way the optimum formulation as well as evaluated sensitively obtaining an acceptability of 6.17.

  18. Research on dimension reduction method for hyperspectral remote sensing image based on global mixture coordination factor analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S.; Wang, C.

    2015-06-01

    Over the past thirty years, the hyperspectral remote sensing technology is attracted more and more attentions by the researchers. The dimension reduction technology for hyperspectral remote sensing image data is one of the hotspots in current research of hyperspectral remote sensing. In order to solve the problems of nonlinearity, the high dimensions and the redundancy of the bands that exist in the hyperspectral data, this paper proposes a dimension reduction method for hyperspectral remote sensing image data based on the global mixture coordination factor analysis. In the first place, a linear low dimensional manifold is obtained from the nonlinear and high dimensional hyperspectral image data by mixture factor analysis method. In the second place, the parameters of linear low dimensional manifold are estimated by the EM algorithm of find a local maximum of the data log-likelihood. In the third place, the manifold is aligned to a global parameterization by the global coordinated factor analysis model and then the lowdimension image data of hyperspectral image data is obtained at last. Through the comparison of different dimensionality reduction method and different classification method for the low-dimensional data, the result illuminates the proposed method can retain maximum spectral information in hyperspectral image data and can eliminate the redundant among bands.

  19. [Preparation of self-microemulsion drug delivery system of the mixture of paeonol and borneol based on Xingbi Fang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Feng-Qin; Li, Huang; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Xun; Huang, Ming-Qing; Zheng, Jian; Chu, Ke-Dan

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study is to prepare self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) of the mixture of paeonol (Pae) and borneol (Bor). Solubility test, ternary phase diagrams and simplex lattice method were employed to screen and optimize the formulation of the mixture of Pae and Bor-loaded SMEDDS. After formed into microemulsions, the particle diameter (PD) was determined and a TEM was employed to observe the microemulsions' morphology. The contents of Pae and Bor were determined by gas chromatography. As a result, while ethyl oleate (EO) as the oil phase, cremophor EL35 (EL35) as surfactant and Transcutol HP (HP) as cosurfactant, the range of the microemulsion on the ternary phase diagram was larger than other combinations. And at a ratio of 20:45:35, the microemulsions' PD was about 34 nm and the polydispersity index (PI) was about 0.2. There were 16% of Pae, 2% of Bor, 16% of EO, 37% of EL35 and 29% of HP in the prepared SMEDDS. The preparation process of the Pae and Bor-loaded SMEDDS based on Xingbi Fang is simple and feasible. This study provides a reference for the researches on the related traditional Chinese medicine and the related components. PMID:24417089

  20. Effect of a School-Based Intervention on Nutritional Knowledge and Habits of Low-Socioeconomic School Children in Israel: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman-Shriqui, Vered; Fraser, Drora; Friger, Michael; Geva, Dikla; Bilenko, Natalya; Vardi, Hillel; Elhadad, Naama; Mor, Karen; Feine, Zvi; Shahar, Danit R.

    2016-01-01

    Early social and economic deprivation, associated with poor nutrition and physical inactivity, may lead to adverse health trajectories. A cluster-randomized controlled-trial examining the effect of a school-based comprehensive intervention on nutrition knowledge, eating habits, and behaviors among low socioeconomic status (LSES) school-aged children was performed. LSES school-aged children (4–7 years) and their mothers were recruited from 11 schools, located in one town. The intervention was implemented on three levels: children, mothers, and teachers. The intervention (IArm) included nutrition classes for children, mothers, and teachers and physical activity (PA) classes for children; the control (CArm) received PA only. Interventions were conducted by professional personnel, who were trained during in a two-day session to deliver the specific program in schools. Family data were obtained by parental interviews. Food knowledge observations, packed lunch records, and anthropometric measurements were obtained in school at baseline, six months, and at the end of the school year. Of 258 children enrolled, 220 (87.6%) completed the six-month program. Only children in the IArm improved their nutrition knowledge and eating-habits and increased food variety and fruit and vegetable consumption, quality score of packed lunches (p water drinking increased (p = 0.02), and decreased sweet-drink consumption (p = 0.05). A school-based comprehensive nutrition intervention targeting LSES population improved eating habits, nutritional knowledge, and healthier packed lunches. PMID:27110817

  1. Effect of a School-Based Intervention on Nutritional Knowledge and Habits of Low-Socioeconomic School Children in Israel: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vered Kaufman-Shriqui

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Early social and economic deprivation, associated with poor nutrition and physical inactivity, may lead to adverse health trajectories. A cluster-randomized controlled-trial examining the effect of a school-based comprehensive intervention on nutrition knowledge, eating habits, and behaviors among low socioeconomic status (LSES school-aged children was performed. LSES school-aged children (4–7 years and their mothers were recruited from 11 schools, located in one town. The intervention was implemented on three levels: children, mothers, and teachers. The intervention (IArm included nutrition classes for children, mothers, and teachers and physical activity (PA classes for children; the control (CArm received PA only. Interventions were conducted by professional personnel, who were trained during in a two-day session to deliver the specific program in schools. Family data were obtained by parental interviews. Food knowledge observations, packed lunch records, and anthropometric measurements were obtained in school at baseline, six months, and at the end of the school year. Of 258 children enrolled, 220 (87.6% completed the six-month program. Only children in the IArm improved their nutrition knowledge and eating-habits and increased food variety and fruit and vegetable consumption, quality score of packed lunches (p < 0.001 for all, habitual water drinking increased (p = 0.02, and decreased sweet-drink consumption (p = 0.05. A school-based comprehensive nutrition intervention targeting LSES population improved eating habits, nutritional knowledge, and healthier packed lunches.

  2. Nutrition Labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Lloyd E.

    Nutrition labeling regulations differ in countries around the world. The focus of this chapter is on nutrition labeling regulations in the USA, as specified by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). A major reason for analyzing the chemical components of foods in the USA is nutrition labeling regulations. Nutrition label information is not only legally required in many countries, but also is of increasing importance to consumers as they focus more on health and wellness.

  3. Feeding Behavior and Nutrition Education in Primary School Students: A School-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Kilic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study of nutrition education given to primary school students was conducted to determine the effects of feeding behavior. Material and Method: This is an intervention study. Research was made at elementary schools located in the center of the province of Yozgat among 6 grade students in 2012-2013. Students were divided into 2 groups by random. Students in the intervention (n=305 and control (n=233 groups were administered a questionnaire prepared by the researcher feeding behaviors. Nutrition surveys in the intervention group after the application of the selected class are given a standardized nutrition education by intern nurses. In data analysis, the dependent and independent samples Student%u2019s t-test, ANOVA for repeated measures multivariate analysis (repeated multiple general model, chi-square, correlation and regression analysis were used. Results: Seventy-one percent point nine of the students usually make breakfast before coming school, 24.5% often bring food to school, 79.4% have at least 3 meals a day, %41.3 at least 2 times eating something between meals. After a year of this habit of the students (49.3% increases in the frequency of eating something between meals as well as a reduction of approximately 10% was determined. In the study, positive and negative eating behavior could not gain the desired level of behavior change with the education given in schools to students. However, the decline in average scores positive eating behaviors, the intervention group (%uF8E5d=3.5 than in the control group (%uF8E5d=6.4 were found to be less. Discussion: Education is an important method meets the information needs of individuals, but is insufficient in creating behavior change in a short time.

  4. Evaluation of nutritional and sub-acute toxicological study of plant based supplement of Achyranthes aspera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Nudrat; Dar, Nabeela G; Imran, Hina; Sohail, Tehmina; Asghar, Uzma; Yaqeen, Zahra; Syed, Shazia; Jamil, Khalid

    2014-09-01

    The present study was conducted for the nutritional, microbiological and toxicological evaluation of test compound having main ingredient Achyranthes aspera. Nutritional value assessment, microbiological analysis and toxicological studies were conducted according to the standard reported methods which exhibited that A. aspera contains moisture 4.05%, proteins 20.54%, fats 0.903%, ash 20.25%, carbohydrates 54,26% and energy 294 Kcal. Vitamin profile was found to be B(1) 0.27mg/100g, B(2) 0.28mg/100g, B(3) 0.58mg/100g, B(6) 0.27mg/100g and B(9) 39μg/100g. The content of sodium, calcium, magnesium, potassium, chloride and phosphorus was found to be 1119.67, 5385.23, 5446.08, 1343.6, 675880.73 and 1447.5mg/kg respectively and trace metals i.e. iron, copper, zinc, manganese and aluminum were detected as 283.05, 8.062, 48.37, 16.12 and 9.853 mg/kg respectively. The microbiological result indicated that the compound qualifies the international standards of microbial limit and was found free from Salmonella species. The toxicological study was conducted to find safe use of Achyranthes aspera compound in human as a nutritive supplement in blood disorders. The toxicity studies exhibited that the test compound has a good effect on general health as an increase in body weights of animals of test group was noticed as compared to that of control group. Blood parameters before and after the study were monitored which confirms our hypothesis by showing an increase in hemoglobin from 9.133 to 10.96, RBC count from 3.11 to 3.6, WBC count from 5.68 to 5.73 and platelets from 245 to 319. PMID:25176360

  5. Complex organochlorine pesticide mixtures as determinant factor for breast cancer risk: a population-based case–control study in the Canary Islands (Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Boada Luis D; Zumbado Manuel; Henríquez-Hernández Luis; Almeida-González Maira; Álvarez-León Eva E; Serra-Majem Lluis; Luzardo Octavio P

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background All the relevant risk factors contributing to breast cancer etiology are not fully known. Exposure to organochlorine pesticides has been linked to an increased incidence of the disease, although not all data have been consistent. Most published studies evaluated the exposure to organochlorines individually, ignoring the potential effects exerted by the mixtures of chemicals. Methods This population-based study was designed to evaluate the profile of mixtures of organochlor...

  6. Geographical and Statistical Analysis on the Relationship between Land-Use Mixture and Home-Based Trip Making and More: Case of Richmond, Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Yin - Shan MA; Xueming CHEN

    2013-01-01

    Richmond, Virginia has implemented numerous mixed land-use policies to encourage non-private-vehicle commuting for decades based on the best practices of other cities and the assumption that land-use mixture would positively lead to trip reduction. This paper uses both Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and statistical tools to empirically test this hypothesis. With local land use and trip making data as inputs, it first calculates two common indices of land-use mixture - entropy and diss...

  7. A study of Community Based Nutritional Intervention and prevention of malnutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam Anupama Toppo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: PEM is one of the major health and nutritional problem in India. It is not only an important cause of childhood mortality and morbidity but also leads to permanent impairment of both physical and mental growth of those who survive. Malnutrition is implicated in >50% of deaths of <5 children (5 million/yr. Improving nutrition for children is crucial in meeting two of the Millennium Development Goals. According to national family health survey-3 there is considerable variation across states with Madhya Pradesh recording the highest rate for underweight children (60.3% and Kerala among the lowest (28.8%. The great majority of cases of PEM nearly 80% are intermediate that is mild and moderate cases which frequently go unrecognized. These are the fact that made us to pick this issue in order to benefit the children of locality to some extent. Objectives: To identify under 5 year children with malnutrition, To demonstrate the method of preparing high protein mix diet and to educate mothers about adequate recommended diet as per age of children, To find out whether high protein mix improves nutritional status of identified malnourished children. Methodology: It was cross sectional and interventional study carried out in two villages of Jabalpur districts during the period of three months among 100 under five children. We had screened them and calculated weight for age (% and categorized them according to Gomez Classification that is normal, mild, moderate and severe malnutrition. Intervention was done on malnourished children then 4 follow ups at the interval of 15 days. Intervention strategies: Nutrition education and provision of High Protein Mix Diet. Result: 12% children were identified as malnourished where 7% were having mild grade malnutrition and 5% with moderate grade of malnutrition. Among male there were 14.04% children were malnourished while among female 9.3% were malnourished. After intervention 50% children were showing

  8. Complex organochlorine pesticide mixtures as determinant factor for breast cancer risk: a population-based case–control study in the Canary Islands (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boada Luis D

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background All the relevant risk factors contributing to breast cancer etiology are not fully known. Exposure to organochlorine pesticides has been linked to an increased incidence of the disease, although not all data have been consistent. Most published studies evaluated the exposure to organochlorines individually, ignoring the potential effects exerted by the mixtures of chemicals. Methods This population-based study was designed to evaluate the profile of mixtures of organochlorines detected in 103 healthy women and 121 women diagnosed with breast cancer from Gran Canaria Island, and the relation between the exposure to these compounds and breast cancer risk. Results The most prevalent mixture of organochlorines among healthy women was the combination of lindane and endrin, and this mixture was not detected in any affected women. Breast cancer patients presented more frequently a combination of aldrin, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD, and this mixture was not found in any healthy woman. After adjusting for covariables, the risk of breast cancer was moderately associated with DDD (OR = 1.008, confidence interval 95% 1.001-1.015, p = 0.024. Conclusions This study indicates that healthy women show a very different profile of organochlorine pesticide mixtures than breast cancer patients, suggesting that organochlorine pesticide mixtures could play a relevant role in breast cancer risk.

  9. Analysis of Road Base Uniformity via the Deviation of Modulus of Asphalt Mixtures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHI Yufeng; ZHANG Xiaoning

    2007-01-01

    The modulus deviation of base material calculated from the data of falling weight deflectometer (FWD) was used to evaluate the uniformity of road base so as to reflect the construction quality. Four parameters,the repeatability standard deviation of the data in the same driveway, the reproducibility standard deviation of the data in the different driveway, the consistency statistics value of the data in the different driveway, and the consistency statistics value of the data in the same driveway, were introduced for the construction uniformity analysis. The experimental result shows that the materials modulus calculated from FWD has a highly correlative relationship with the uniformity of road base.

  10. Evidence-based evolution of an integrated nutrition-focused agriculture approach to address the underlying determinants of stunting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haselow, Nancy J; Stormer, Ame; Pries, Alissa

    2016-05-01

    Despite progress in reducing hunger and malnutrition since the 1990s, many still suffer from undernutrition and food insecurity, particularly women and young children, resulting in preterm birth, low birthweight and stunting, among other conditions. Helen Keller International (HKI) has addressed malnutrition and household food insecurity through implementation of an Enhanced Homestead Food Production (EHFP) programme that increases year-round availability and intake of diverse micronutrient-rich foods and promotes optimal nutrition and hygiene practices among poor households. This paper reviews the evolution and impact of HKI's EHFP programme and identifies core components of the model that address the underlying determinants of stunting. To date, evaluations of EHFP have shown impact on food production, consumption by women and children and household food security. Sale of surplus produce has increased household income, and the use of a transformative gender approach has empowered women. EHFP has also realized nutrition improvements in many project sites. Results from a randomized control trial (RCT) in Baitadi district, Nepal showed a significant improvement in a range of practices known to impact child growth, although no impact on stunting. Additional non-RCT evaluations in Kailali district of Nepal, demonstrated a 10.5% reduction in stunting and in the Chittagong Hill Tracts in Bangladesh, revealed an 18% decrease in stunting. Based on evidence, the EHFP has evolved into an integrated package that includes agriculture, nutrition, water/hygiene/sanitation, linkages to health care, women's empowerment, income generation and advocacy. Closing the stunting gap requires long-term exposure to targeted multi-sectoral solutions and rigorous evaluation to optimize impact. PMID:27187913

  11. Client perceptions of dietetic students and registered dietitians at a university-based nutrition clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, G W

    1990-03-01

    Client perceptions of students enrolled in a nutrition counseling practicum were compared with client perceptions of those students' clinical instructors, who were registered dietitians. One hundred forty-two clients who had either a student (no. = 81) or a dietitian (no. = 61) as primary counselor completed a postcard evaluation or a telephone interview. Students were rated significantly more positively (p less than .01) than their instructors for the item "I would recommend the clinic to others" and (p less than .05) for the items "The counselor helped me with my problem" and "I learned at the clinic what I did not know before." Seventy-two of the 89 clients interviewed by telephone replied to the question "Did students enhance or detract from services provided?" Sixty-one percent replied that students enhanced, but 25% replied that students detracted in some way, primarily because of concerns about having an additional observer during counseling sessions. In general, clients receiving nutrition counseling evaluated student dietitians very positively. PMID:2307818

  12. Preliminary assessment of nutritional value of plant-based diets in relation to human nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberoumand, Ali

    2009-01-01

    In this research, we present preliminary nutritional data for traditional vegetables and fruits including their content of mineral elements (calcium, potassium, sodium, zinc, and iron) and antioxidant phenolic compounds levels. Eight vegetables and vegetables were studied. Plant foods Asparagus officinalis DC, Chlorophytum comosum Linn., Cordia myxa Roxb., Portulaca oleracia Linn. and Solanum indicum Linn. were collected in Behbehan, south Iran, and also Alocacia indica Sch., Eulophia ocherata Lindl. and Momordica dioica Roxb. were collected from the south of India. Nutrients were measured with food analytical standard methods. The results of this study provide evidence that these local traditional vegetables, which do not require formal cultivation, could be important contributors to improving the nutritional content of Pune and Behbehan people. Results indicate that 50% of the vegetables have significant energy values ranging from 281.4 to 303.9 kcal/100 g. From this study, it was determined that five vegetables, namely A. officinalis, C. comosum, E. ocherata, P. oleracia and S. indicum, provide mineral concentrations exceeding 2% of the plant dry weight and are much higher than typical mineral concentrations in conventional edible vegetables; they are thus recommended for future commercial cultivation. High levels of antioxidant compounds were noticed in P. oleracia and S. indicum. The three plants S. indicum, A. officinalis and P. oleracia are suitable for high-temperature food processes. PMID:19274594

  13. LSTM-based Mixture-of-Experts for Knowledge-Aware Dialogues

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Phong; Dymetman, Marc; Renders, Jean-Michel

    2016-01-01

    We introduce an LSTM-based method for dynamically integrating several word-prediction experts to obtain a conditional language model which can be good simultaneously at several subtasks. We illustrate this general approach with an application to dialogue where we integrate a neural chat model, good at conversational aspects, with a neural question-answering model, good at retrieving precise information from a knowledge-base, and show how the integration combines the strengths of the independe...

  14. Mixture model for inferring susceptibility to mastitis in dairy cattle: a procedure for likelihood-based inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen Just

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A Gaussian mixture model with a finite number of components and correlated random effects is described. The ultimate objective is to model somatic cell count information in dairy cattle and to develop criteria for genetic selection against mastitis, an important udder disease. Parameter estimation is by maximum likelihood or by an extension of restricted maximum likelihood. A Monte Carlo expectation-maximization algorithm is used for this purpose. The expectation step is carried out using Gibbs sampling, whereas the maximization step is deterministic. Ranking rules based on the conditional probability of membership in a putative group of uninfected animals, given the somatic cell information, are discussed. Several extensions of the model are suggested.

  15. Nutritional epigenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter is intended to provide a timely overview of the current state of research at the intersection of nutrition and epigenetics. I begin by describing epigenetics and molecular mechanisms of eigenetic regulation, then highlight four classes of nutritional exposures currently being investiga...

  16. [Community nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranceta Bartrina, J; Pérez Rodrigo, C; Serra Majem, L I

    2006-01-01

    A growing body of scientific and epidemiological evidence indicates that diet and health are related: diet may be a risk factor or have potential protective effects. As a consequence, the focus of nutrition research has experienced a shift towards qualitative aspects of diet which could influence chronic disease, longevity, quality of life and physical and cognitive performance, leading to the development of Community Nutrition. The main undertakings in a Community Nutrition Unit are related to the identification, assessment and monitoring of nutrition problems at the community level and to planning, design, implementation and evaluation of nutrition intervention programs. Such programs combine a number of suitable strategies in a whole population approach, a high risk approach or an approach targeted at specific population groups, and are implemented in different settings, such as the work place, schools or community organizations. Community nutrition interventions aim to gradually achieve change in eating patterns towards a healthier profile. Community Nutrition programs require the use of a combination of strategies and a working group of people from different backgrounds. Many factors influence the nutritional status of an individual or a population. In order to gain effective work output, sound understanding of these patterns and a practical surveillance system are required. PMID:17424768

  17. Thermal transport properties of ethylene glycol/N-methylformamide binary mixture based CuO nanofluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, M.; Kiruba, R.; Jeevaraj, A. Kingson Solomon

    2015-06-01

    In this present investigation, we have synthesized copper oxide nanoparticles by solvothermal method and analyzed their rheological behavior and thermal conductivity properties in binary base fluids (Ethylene Glycol+N-Methylformamide) and CuO binary nanofluid at different temperature. The crystalline nature and morphological properties of prepared CuO nanoparticles were characterized using XRD and SEM analysis respectively. The influence of CuO nanoparticles increases the thermal conductivity of binary base fluids. The results suggested that prepared binary nanofluids can be applicable in heat transfer.

  18. Discharge instabilities in high-pressure fluorine based excimer laser gas mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Mathew, Denny

    2007-01-01

    Fluorine based excimer lasers such as KrF, ArF and F2 are currently the most powerful sources available in the ultraviolet wavelength range, operating at 248 nm, at 193 nm and at 157 nm, respectively. They are thus of central importance for numerous applications in this range. At these short wavelengths, reaching the laser threshold for an efficient operation, F2-based lasers require to be pumped, in a controlled manner, with very high power densities. This can practically be achieved only vi...

  19. Pharmaceutical Point of View on Parenteral Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Stawny

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Parenteral nutrition—a form of administering nutrients, electrolytes, trace elements, vitamins, and water—is a widely used mode of therapy applied in many diseases, in patients of different ages both at home and in hospital. The success of nutritional therapy depends chiefly on proper determination of the patient’s energetic and electrolytic needs as well as preparation and administration of a safe nutritional mixture. As a parenterally administered drug, it is expected to be microbiologically and physicochemically stable, with all of the components compatible with each other. It is very difficult to obtain a stable nutritional mixture due to the fact that it is a complex, two-phase drug. Also, the risk of incompatibility between mixture components and packaging should be taken into consideration and possibly eliminated. Since parenteral nutrition is a part of therapy, simultaneous use of drugs may cause pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions as well as those with the pharmaceutical phase. The aim of this paper is to discuss such aspects of parenteral nutrition as mixture stability, methodology, and methods for determining the stability of nutritional mixtures and drugs added to them.

  20. Based on Gaussian Mixture Model to Explore the General Characteristic and Make Recognition of XinTianYou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Juan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available XinTianYou, a folk song style from Shannxi province in China, is considered to be a precious traditional culture heritage. Research about XinTianYou is important to the overall Chinese folk music theory and is potentially quite useful for the culture preservation and applications. In this paper, we analyze the general characteristics of XinTianYou by using the pitch, rhythm features and the combination of these two features. First, we use the Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM to cluster the XinTianYou audio based on pitch and rhythm respectively, and analyze the general characteristics of XinTianYou based on the clustering result. Second, we propose an improved Features Relative Contribution Algorithm (CFRCA to com-pare the contributions of pitch and rhythm. Third, the probability of a song being XinTianYou can be estimated based on the GMM and the cosine similarity distance. The experimental results show that XinTianYou has large pitch span and large proportion of high pitch value (about 22%. Regarding the rhythm, we find that moderato is dominated while lento-moderato keep a similar ratio as moderato-allegro. The similarity between pitch features of all XinTianYou songs is more significant than rhythm features. Additionally, the average accuracy of XinTianYou recognition reaches 92.4% based on our method

  1. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on establishing Food-Based Dietary Guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    optimising FBDG and 7) Graphical representations of FBDG. FBDG should focus on the diet-disease relationships of particular relevance to the specific population and should be developed using a multi-disciplinary approach. The early involvement of stakeholders is recommended to promote the acceptance of the...... would help to maintain good health through optimal nutrition (food-based dietary guidelines). The main focus of this Opinion is put on the scientific process of developing food-based dietary guidelines (FBDG) for the diverse European populations, following a stepwise approach which should ideally...... consist of: 1) Identification of diet-health relationships, 2) Identification of country specific diet-related health problems, 3) Identification of nutrients of public health importance, 4) Identification of foods relevant for FBDG, 5) Identification of food consumption patterns, 6) Testing and...

  2. Self adaptive internal combustion engine control for hydrogen mixtures based on piezoelectric dynamic cylinder pressure transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piezoelectric transducers offer an effective, non-intrusive way to monitor dynamic cylinder pressure in internal combustion engines. Devices dedicated to this purpose are appearing on the market, often in the form of spark plugs with embedded piezo elements. Dynamic cylinder pressure is typically used to provide diagnostic functions, or to help map an engine after it is designed. With the advent of powerful signal processor chips, it is now possible to embed enough computing power in the engine controller to perform auto tuning based on the signals provided by such transducers. Such functionality is very useful if the fuel characteristics vary between fill ups, as is often the case with alternative fuels. We propose here an algorithm for self-adaptive tuning based on a Kalman filter operating on a few selected metrics of the dynamic pressure curve. (author)

  3. Performance of sand and shredded rubber tire mixture as a natural base isolator for earthquake protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Srijit; Sengupta, Aniruddha; Reddy, G. R.

    2015-12-01

    The performance of a well-designed layer of sand, and composites like layer of sand mixed with shredded rubber tire (RSM) as low cost base isolators, is studied in shake table tests in the laboratory. The building foundation is modeled by a 200 mm by 200 mm and 40 mm thick rigid plexi-glass block. The block is placed in the middle of a 1m by 1m tank filled with sand. The selected base isolator is placed between the block and the sand foundation. Accelerometers are placed on top of the footing and foundation sand layer. The displacement of the footing is also measured by LVDT. The whole setup is mounted on a shake table and subjected to sinusoidal motions with varying amplitude and frequency. Sand is found to be effective only at very high amplitude (> 0.65 g) of motions. The performance of a composite consisting of sand and 50% shredded rubber tire placed under the footing is found to be most promising as a low-cost effective base isolator.

  4. Selection of oviposition sites by wild Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) based on the nutritional composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Few works have studied in detail the types of nutrients associated to hosts which are attractive to females of Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) and influence the choice of the oviposition site. The relationship of the males in the physiology and in the behavior of those females has also been scarcely studied and some ecological relationships seem to be quite important for the knowledge of this species' biology. Our objective in this study was to evaluate the discriminatory behavior of A. obliqua between oviposition sites containing different nutrients. The presence of the male and the nutritional status of the female were also considered in this work. Two experiments were developed: in the first, the preference of A. obliqua females between artificial oviposition substrates was evaluated; in the second, females were submitted to two types of artificial oviposition substrates in the presence and in the absence of males and were fed either on a poor diet or on an adequate diet concerning sucrose concentration. In the first experiment, A. obliqua showed higher preference for substrates containing brewer's yeast and sucrose. Substrate containing only yeast was the second most accepted. Offspring development and adult feeding may have determined the choice for the substrate containing brewer's yeast and sucrose. In addition, the presence of protein in the brewer's yeast may indicate nutritional quality to the females in a more accurate way than the sucrose. In the second experiment, the brewer's yeast was the most accepted by the females. The male absence was also an important factor in the selection of hosts and in the egg production of A. obliqua. (author)

  5. Model Misspecification: Finite Mixture or Homogeneous?

    OpenAIRE

    Tarpey, Thaddeus; Yun, Dong; Petkova, Eva

    2008-01-01

    A common problem in statistical modelling is to distinguish between finite mixture distribution and a homogeneous non-mixture distribution. Finite mixture models are widely used in practice and often mixtures of normal densities are indistinguishable from homogenous non-normal densities. This paper illustrates what happens when the EM algorithm for normal mixtures is applied to a distribution that is a homogeneous non-mixture distribution. In particular, a population-based EM algorithm for fi...

  6. Assessment of mixtures of mycotoxins in cereal based foods available in Portuguese market

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Carla; Assunção, Ricardo; Cunha, S.; Jager, A.; Alvito, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of fungi that cause toxic and carcinogenic outcomes in humans exposed to them1. Mycotoxins affect several commodities including cereal grains and their finished products, infant formula and baby foods2. This study aimed to determine the incidence and levels of 20 mycotoxins and metabolites (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2, AFM1, OTA, NIV, NEO, DAS, FUS-X, DON, 15-AC-DON, 3-AC-DON, HT-2, T-2, VER, T-2 TETROL, T-2 TRIOL), in breakfast cereals and cereal based baby fo...

  7. Speckle-reduction algorithm for ultrasound images in complex wavelet domain using genetic algorithm-based mixture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Muhammad Shahin; Tahtali, Murat; Lambert, Andrew J; Pickering, Mark R; Marchese, Margaret; Stuart, Iain

    2016-05-20

    Compared with other medical-imaging modalities, ultrasound (US) imaging is a valuable way to examine the body's internal organs, and two-dimensional (2D) imaging is currently the most common technique used in clinical diagnoses. Conventional 2D US imaging systems are highly flexible cost-effective imaging tools that permit operators to observe and record images of a large variety of thin anatomical sections in real time. Recently, 3D US imaging has also been gaining popularity due to its considerable advantages over 2D US imaging. It reduces dependency on the operator and provides better qualitative and quantitative information for an effective diagnosis. Furthermore, it provides a 3D view, which allows the observation of volume information. The major shortcoming of any type of US imaging is the presence of speckle noise. Hence, speckle reduction is vital in providing a better clinical diagnosis. The key objective of any speckle-reduction algorithm is to attain a speckle-free image while preserving the important anatomical features. In this paper we introduce a nonlinear multi-scale complex wavelet-diffusion based algorithm for speckle reduction and sharp-edge preservation of 2D and 3D US images. In the proposed method we use a Rayleigh and Maxwell-mixture model for 2D and 3D US images, respectively, where a genetic algorithm is used in combination with an expectation maximization method to estimate mixture parameters. Experimental results using both 2D and 3D synthetic, physical phantom, and clinical data demonstrate that our proposed algorithm significantly reduces speckle noise while preserving sharp edges without discernible distortions. The proposed approach performs better than the state-of-the-art approaches in both qualitative and quantitative measures. PMID:27411128

  8. Enzymatic hydrolyses of pretreated eucalyptus residues, wheat straw or olive tree pruning, and their mixtures towards flexible sugar-based biorefineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva-Fernandes, Talita; Marques, Susana; Rodrigues, Rita C. L. B.;

    2016-01-01

    Eucalyptus residues, wheat straw, and olive tree pruning are lignocellulosic materials largely available in Southern Europe and have high potential to be used solely or in mixtures in sugar-based biorefineries for the production of biofuels and other bio-based products. Enzymatic hydrolysis of ce...

  9. Enzymatic hydrolyses of pretreated eucalyptus residues, wheat straw or olive tree pruning, and their mixtures towards flexible sugar-based biorefineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva-Fernandes, Talita; Marques, Susana; Rodrigues, Rita C. L. B.; Loureiro-Dias, Maria Conceição; Fonseca, César; Gírio, Francisco

    Eucalyptus residues, wheat straw, and olive tree pruning are lignocellulosic materials largely available in Southern Europe and have high potential to be used solely or in mixtures in sugar-based biorefineries for the production of biofuels and other bio-based products. Enzymatic hydrolysis of ce...

  10. PlantID – DNA-based identification of multiple medicinal plants in complex mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Caroline

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An efficient method for the identification of medicinal plant products is now a priority as the global demand increases. This study aims to develop a DNA-based method for the identification and authentication of plant species that can be implemented in the industry to aid compliance with regulations, based upon the economically important Hypericum perforatum L. (St John’s Wort or Guan ye Lian Qiao. Methods The ITS regions of several Hypericum species were analysed to identify the most divergent regions and PCR primers were designed to anneal specifically to these regions in the different Hypericum species. Candidate primers were selected such that the amplicon produced by each species-specific reaction differed in size. The use of fluorescently labelled primers enabled these products to be resolved by capillary electrophoresis. Results Four closely related Hypericum species were detected simultaneously and independently in one reaction. Each species could be identified individually and in any combination. The introduction of three more closely related species to the test had no effect on the results. Highly processed commercial plant material was identified, despite the potential complications of DNA degradation in such samples. Conclusion This technique can detect the presence of an expected plant material and adulterant materials in one reaction. The method could be simply applied to other medicinal plants and their problem adulterants.

  11. The Patient- And Nutrition-Derived Outcome Risk Assessment Score (PANDORA: Development of a Simple Predictive Risk Score for 30-Day In-Hospital Mortality Based on Demographics, Clinical Observation, and Nutrition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hiesmayr

    Full Text Available To develop a simple scoring system to predict 30 day in-hospital mortality of in-patients excluding those from intensive care units based on easily obtainable demographic, disease and nutrition related patient data.Score development with general estimation equation methodology and model selection by P-value thresholding based on a cross-sectional sample of 52 risk indicators with 123 item classes collected with questionnaires and stored in an multilingual online database.Worldwide prospective cross-sectional cohort with 30 day in-hospital mortality from the nutritionDay 2006-2009 and an external validation sample from 2012.We included 43894 patients from 2480 units in 32 countries. 1631(3.72% patients died within 30 days in hospital. The Patient- And Nutrition-Derived Outcome Risk Assessment (PANDORA score predicts 30-day hospital mortality based on 7 indicators with 31 item classes on a scale from 0 to 75 points. The indicators are age (0 to 17 points, nutrient intake on nutritionDay (0 to 12 points, mobility (0 to 11 points, fluid status (0 to 10 points, BMI (0 to 9 points, cancer (9 points and main patient group (0 to 7 points. An appropriate model fit has been achieved. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for mortality prediction was 0.82 in the development sample and 0.79 in the external validation sample.The PANDORA score is a simple, robust scoring system for a general population of hospitalised patients to be used for risk stratification and benchmarking.

  12. Capture zone delineation methodology based on the maximum concentration: Preventative groundwater well protection areas for heat exchange fluid mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okkonen, Jarkko; Neupauer, Roseanna M.

    2016-05-01

    Capture zones of water supply wells are most often delineated based on travel times of water or solute to the well, with the assumption that if the travel time is sufficiently large, the concentration of chemical at the well will not exceed the drinking water standards. In many situations, the likely source concentrations or release masses of contamination from the potential sources are unknown; therefore, the exact concentration at the well cannot be determined. In situations in which the source mass can be estimated with some accuracy, the delineation of the capture zone should be based on the maximum chemical concentration that can be expected at the well, rather than on an arbitrary travel time. We present a new capture zone delineation methodology that is based on this maximum chemical concentration. The method delineates capture zones by solving the adjoint of the advection-dispersion-reaction equation and relating the adjoint state and the known release mass to the expected chemical concentration at the well. We demonstrate the use of this method through a case study in which soil heat exchange systems are potential sources of contamination. The heat exchange fluid mixtures contain known fluid volumes and chemical concentrations; thus, in the event of a release, the release mass of the chemical is known. We also demonstrate the use of a concentration basis in quantifying other measures of well vulnerability including exposure time and time to exceed a predefined threshold concentration at the well.

  13. Transport Mechanisms and Quality Changes During Frying of Chicken Nuggets--Hybrid Mixture Theory Based Modeling and Experimental Verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Harkirat S; Takhar, Pawan S; Alvarado, Christine Z; Thompson, Leslie D

    2015-12-01

    Hybrid mixture theory (HMT) based 2-scale fluid transport relations of Takhar coupled with a multiphase heat transfer equation were solved to model water, oil and gas movement during frying of chicken nuggets. A chicken nugget was treated as a heterogeneous material consisting of meat core with wheat-based coating. The coupled heat and fluid transfer equations were solved using the finite element method. Numerical simulations resulted in data on spatial and temporal profiles for moisture, rate of evaporation, temperature, oil, pore pressure, pressure in various phases, and coefficient of elasticity. Results showed that most of the oil stayed in the outer 1.5 mm of the coating region. Temperature values greater than 100 °C were observed in the coating after 30 s of frying. Negative gage-pore pressure (p(w) p(g)) in the hydrophilic matrix causes p(w) < p(g), which further results in negative pore pressure. The coefficient of elasticity was the highest at the surface (2.5 × 10(5) Pa) for coating and the interface of coating and core (6 × 10(5) Pa). Kinetics equation for color change obtained from experiments was coupled with the HMT based model to predict the color (L, a, and b) as a function of frying time. PMID:26509578

  14. Spontaneous formation of biocompatible vesicles in aqueous mixtures of amino acid-based cationic surfactants and SDS/SDBS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shome, Anshupriya; Kar, Tanmoy; Das, Prasanta K

    2011-02-01

    The spontaneous formation of vesicles by six amino acid-based cationic surfactants and two anionic surfactants (sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)) is reported. The head-group structure of the cationic surfactants is minutely altered to understand their effect on vesicle formation. To establish the regulatory role of the aromatic group in self-aggregation, both aliphatic and aromatic side-chain-substituted amino acid-based cationic surfactants are used. The presence of aromaticity in any one of the constituents favors the formation of vesicles by cationic/anionic surfactant mixtures. The formation of vesicles is primarily dependent on the balance between the hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity of both cationic and anionic surfactants. Vesicle formation is characterized by surface tension, fluorescence anisotropy, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and phase diagrams. These vesicles are thermally stable up to 65 °C, determined by temperature-dependent fluorescence anisotropy. According to the MTT assay, these catanionic vesicles are nontoxic to NIH3T3 cells, thus indicating their wider applicability as delivery vehicles to cells. Among the six cationic surfactants examined, tryptophan- and tyrosine-based surfactants have the ability to reduce HAuCl(4) to gold nanoparticles (GNPs), which is utilized to obtain in-situ-synthesized GNPs entrapped in vesicles without the need for any external reducing agent. PMID:21275029

  15. ICA if fMRI based on a convolutive mixture model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kai

    2003-01-01

    Modeling & Analysis Abstract The fMRI signal has many sources: Stimulus induced activation, other brain activations, confounds including several physiological signal components, the most prominent being the cardiac pulsation at about 1 Hz, and breathing induced motion (0.2-1 Hz). Most fMRI data...... sets are acquired at sampling frequencies 0.2-0.5 Hz, hence the heart and breathing signals are aliased and not represented faithfully. Whether the heart signal is aliased or not, the fMRI signal is of a complicated spatio-temporal nature and is consequently approached by many different signal...... processing strategies. Global linear dependencies can be probed by independent component analysis (ICA) based on higher order statistics or spatio-temporal properties. With ICA we separate the different sources of the fMRI signal. ICA can be performed assuming either spatial or temporal independency. A major...

  16. EVALUATION OF OZONE-FRIENDLY HYDROFLUOROPROPANE-BASED ZEOTROPIC REFRIGERANT MIXTURES IN A LORENZ-MEUTZNER REFRIGERATOR/FREEZER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The two-evaporator (located in the freezer and fresh food compartments) design of the Lorenz-Meutzner (L-M) refrigerator/freezer (R/F) makes it a leading candidate for use of zeotropic refrigerant mixtures. Zeotrophic mixtures can have significant temperature glides during evapor...

  17. Structure and properties of mixtures based on long chain polyacrylate and 1-alcohol composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of phase change materials (PCMs) based on long chain polyacrylate and 1-alcohol, i.e., poly (stearyl methacrylate) and 1-tetradecanol (PSMA/C14OH) were prepared through the solution-mixing method. Thermal energy storage capacity, thermal stability and morphology of PSMA/C14OH PCMs were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), polarized optical microscopy (POM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). DSC results demonstrated that the heat of fusion of PSMA/C14OH PCMs increased from 85.9 to 172.3 J g−1 with the weight fraction of C14OH increasing from 20 to 80 wt%. And, the thermal stability also enhanced with PSMA weight. The spherulite (ca. 250 μm) in PSMA/C14OH composites containing 60 wt% C14OH proved the compatibility between PSMA and C14OH, indicating the cocrystallization behavior of alkyl side groups appeared. The cocrystallization behavior contributes the enhanced thermal stability of PSMA/C14OH PCMs, and it is suitable as the thermal energy storage materials in the future. - Highlights: • Heat storage capability of PSMA/C14OH PCMs increased with C14OH weight. • The spherulites exhibit the weight-dependence upon C14OH. • The thermal stability of PSMA/C14OH PCMs obviously improved

  18. Prevention of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infections in pigs by dairy-based nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sugiharto, Sugiharto; Jensen, Bent Borg; Jensen, Karin Hjelholt;

    2015-01-01

    Postweaning diarrhoea (PWD) is a significant enteric disease causing considerable economic losses for the pig industry. Among several aetiological risk factors, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is considered to be a major cause. After being routinely used for several decades to control...... bacterial disease outbreaks in piglets, the use of antibiotics at subtherapeutic concentrations has been banned in the European Union because of the increasing prevalence of resistance to antibiotics in pigs. The removal of in-feed antibiotics from piglet diets has negative economic consequences as it...... impacts on the environment. Thus, other alternatives that can control ETEC infections in piglets postweaning will be of great advantage. A number of nutritional strategies have been proposed as alternative means of preventing ETEC infections, of which feeding dairy-based products to piglets could be one...

  19. Food consumption of adults in Germany: results of the German National Nutrition Survey II based on diet history interviews

    OpenAIRE

    Heuer, Thorsten; Krems, Carolin; Moon, Kilson; Brombach, Christine; Hoffmann, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    The second German National Nutrition Survey (NVS II) aimed to evaluate food consumption and other aspects of nutritional behaviour of a representative sample of the German population, using a modular design with three different dietary assessment methods. To assess usual food consumption, 15 371 German speaking subjects 14–80 years of age completed a diet history interview between November 2005 and November 2006. With reference to the guidelines of the German Nutrition Society (DGE), NVS II o...

  20. Crack propagation monitoring in a full-scale aircraft fatigue test based on guided wave-Gaussian mixture model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Lei; Yuan, Shenfang; Bao, Qiao; Mei, Hanfei; Ren, Yuanqiang

    2016-05-01

    For aerospace application of structural health monitoring (SHM) technology, the problem of reliable damage monitoring under time-varying conditions must be addressed and the SHM technology has to be fully validated on real aircraft structures under realistic load conditions on ground before it can reach the status of flight test. In this paper, the guided wave (GW) based SHM method is applied to a full-scale aircraft fatigue test which is one of the most similar test status to the flight test. To deal with the time-varying problem, a GW-Gaussian mixture model (GW-GMM) is proposed. The probability characteristic of GW features, which is introduced by time-varying conditions is modeled by GW-GMM. The weak cumulative variation trend of the crack propagation, which is mixed in time-varying influence can be tracked by the GW-GMM migration during on-line damage monitoring process. A best match based Kullback–Leibler divergence is proposed to measure the GW-GMM migration degree to reveal the crack propagation. The method is validated in the full-scale aircraft fatigue test. The validation results indicate that the reliable crack propagation monitoring of the left landing gear spar and the right wing panel under realistic load conditions are achieved.

  1. Nutritional Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eirmann, Laura

    2016-09-01

    Nutritional assessment focuses on evaluation of animal-specific, diet-specific, feeding management, and environmental factors. Assessment includes evaluation of a patient's medical history, comprehensive diet history, and physical examination including body weight, body condition, and muscle condition. Diagnostic testing may identify comorbidities associated with obesity or concurrent health conditions that need to be considered when developing a nutrition plan. When obesity is diagnosed during the nutritional assessment this finding along with health implications must be clearly communicated to the pet owner. Careful consideration of animal-specific, diet-specific, owner-specific, and environmental factors allows the clinician to develop a specific nutrition plan tailored to the needs of pet and owner. PMID:27364967

  2. Diet & Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in MS is growing. Resources Find a dietician / nutritionist Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics – Provides an online search tool to locate registered dietician nutritionists (RDNs). Offers many consumer-geared resources. Food assistance ...

  3. NUTRITIONAL ASSESSMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutritional assessment is an essential component of the history and physical examination of children with gastrointestinal disorders. Protein-energy malnutrition, linear growth failure, overweight, and iron deficiency anemia frequently complicate the clinical course of common gastrointestinal proble...

  4. Nutritional status of under-five children in Libya: a national population-based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenoir Gerard

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To describe the nutritional status of children under-five years of age in Libya.Population and methods: A secondary analysis of data of 5348 children taken from a nationalrepresentative, two-stage, cluster-sample survey that was performed in 1995.Results: Prevalence rates of underweight, wasting, stunting, and overweight were determined usingstandard definitions in reference to newly established WHO growth charts. The study revealed that4.3% of children were underweight, 3.7% wasted, 20.7% stunted, and 16.2% overweight. Seventypercent of children had normal weight. Undernutrition was more likely to be found in males, in ruralareas, and in underprivileged groups. Overweight was more likely found in urban, privileged groups.Wasting was more common in arid regions; stunting was more common in mountainous regions of Al-Akhdar, Al-Gharbi, and in Sirt. Al-Akhdar had the highest prevalence of overweight.Conclusion: The country had a low prevalence of underweight and wasting, moderate prevalence ofstunting, and high prevalence of overweight. The country is in the early stages of transition withevidence of dual-burden in some regions. Similar surveys are needed to verify secular trends of thesenutritional problems, particularly overweight.

  5. An updated 18S rRNA phylogeny of tunicates based on mixture and secondary structure models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenkar Noa

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tunicates have been recently revealed to be the closest living relatives of vertebrates. Yet, with more than 2500 described species, details of their evolutionary history are still obscure. From a molecular point of view, tunicate phylogenetic relationships have been mostly studied based on analyses of 18S rRNA sequences, which indicate several major clades at odds with the traditional class-level arrangements. Nonetheless, substantial uncertainty remains about the phylogenetic relationships and taxonomic status of key groups such as the Aplousobranchia, Appendicularia, and Thaliacea. Results Thirty new complete 18S rRNA sequences were acquired from previously unsampled tunicate species, with special focus on groups presenting high evolutionary rate. The updated 18S rRNA dataset has been aligned with respect to the constraint on homology imposed by the rRNA secondary structure. A probabilistic framework of phylogenetic reconstruction was adopted to accommodate the particular evolutionary dynamics of this ribosomal marker. Detailed Bayesian analyses were conducted under the non-parametric CAT mixture model accounting for site-specific heterogeneity of the evolutionary process, and under RNA-specific doublet models accommodating the occurrence of compensatory substitutions in stem regions. Our results support the division of tunicates into three major clades: 1 Phlebobranchia + Thaliacea + Aplousobranchia, 2 Appendicularia, and 3 Stolidobranchia, but the position of Appendicularia could not be firmly resolved. Our study additionally reveals that most Aplousobranchia evolve at extremely high rates involving changes in secondary structure of their 18S rRNA, with the exception of the family Clavelinidae, which appears to be slowly evolving. This extreme rate heterogeneity precluded resolving with certainty the exact phylogenetic placement of Aplousobranchia. Finally, the best fitting secondary-structure and CAT-mixture models

  6. Denoising and Back Ground Clutter of Video Sequence using Adaptive Gaussian Mixture Model Based Segmentation for Human Action Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanmugapriya. K

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The human action recognition system first gathers images by simply querying the name of the action on a web image search engine like Google or Yahoo. Based on the assumption that the set of retrieved images contains relevant images of the queried action, we construct a dataset of action images in an incremental manner. This yields a large image set, which includes images of actions taken from multiple viewpoints in a range of environments, performed by people who have varying body proportions and different clothing. The images mostly present the “key poses” since these images try to convey the action with a single pose. In existing system to support this they first used an incremental image retrieval procedure to collect and clean up the necessary training set for building the human pose classifiers. There are challenges that come at the expense of this broad and representative data. First, the retrieved images are very noisy, since the Web is very diverse. Second, detecting and estimating the pose of humans in still images is more difficult than in videos, partly due to the background clutter and the lack of a foreground mask. In videos, foreground segmentation can exploit motion cues to great benefit. In still images, the only cue at hand is the appearance information and therefore, our model must address various challenges associated with different forms of appearance. Therefore for robust separation, in proposed work a segmentation algorithm based on Gaussian Mixture Models is proposed which is adaptive to light illuminations, shadow and white balance is proposed here. This segmentation algorithm processes the video with or without noise and sets up adaptive background models based on the characteristics also this method is a very effective technique for background modeling which classifies the pixels of a video frame either background or foreground based on probability distribution.

  7. Intergranular tellurium cracking of nickel-based alloys in molten Li, Be, Th, U/F salt mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Russia, R and D on Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) are concentrated now on fast/intermediate spectrum concepts which were recognized as long term alternative to solid fueled fast reactors due to their attractive features: strong negative feedback coefficients, easy in-service inspection, and simplified fuel cycle. For high-temperature MSR corrosion of the metallic container alloy in primary circuit is the primary concern. Key problem receiving current attention include surface fissures in Ni-based alloys probably arising from fission product tellurium attack. This paper summarizes results of corrosion tests conducted recently to study effect of oxidation state in selected fuel salt on tellurium attack and to develop means of controlling tellurium cracking in the special Ni-based alloys recently developed for molten salt actinide recycler and tranforming (MOSART) system. Tellurium corrosion of Ni-based alloys was tested at temperatures up to 750 °C in stressed and unloaded conditions in molten LiF–BeF2 salt mixture fueled by about 20 mol% of ThF4 and 2 mol% of UF4 at different [U(IV)]/[U(III)] ratios: 0.7, 4, 20, 100 and 500. Following Ni-based alloys (in mass%): HN80M-VI (Mo—12, Cr—7.6, Nb—1.5), HN80MTY (Mo—13, Cr—6.8, Al—1.1, Ti—0.9), HN80MTW (Mo—9.4, Cr—7.0, Ti—1.7, W—5.5) and EM-721 (W—25.2, Cr—5.7, Ti—0.17) were used for the study in the corrosion facility

  8. Intergranular tellurium cracking of nickel-based alloys in molten Li, Be, Th, U/F salt mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignatiev, Victor, E-mail: ignatiev@vver.kiae.ru; Surenkov, Alexander; Gnidoy, Ivan; Kulakov, Alexander; Uglov, Vadim; Vasiliev, Alexander; Presniakov, Mikhail

    2013-09-15

    In Russia, R and D on Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) are concentrated now on fast/intermediate spectrum concepts which were recognized as long term alternative to solid fueled fast reactors due to their attractive features: strong negative feedback coefficients, easy in-service inspection, and simplified fuel cycle. For high-temperature MSR corrosion of the metallic container alloy in primary circuit is the primary concern. Key problem receiving current attention include surface fissures in Ni-based alloys probably arising from fission product tellurium attack. This paper summarizes results of corrosion tests conducted recently to study effect of oxidation state in selected fuel salt on tellurium attack and to develop means of controlling tellurium cracking in the special Ni-based alloys recently developed for molten salt actinide recycler and tranforming (MOSART) system. Tellurium corrosion of Ni-based alloys was tested at temperatures up to 750 °C in stressed and unloaded conditions in molten LiF–BeF{sub 2} salt mixture fueled by about 20 mol% of ThF{sub 4} and 2 mol% of UF{sub 4} at different [U(IV)]/[U(III)] ratios: 0.7, 4, 20, 100 and 500. Following Ni-based alloys (in mass%): HN80M-VI (Mo—12, Cr—7.6, Nb—1.5), HN80MTY (Mo—13, Cr—6.8, Al—1.1, Ti—0.9), HN80MTW (Mo—9.4, Cr—7.0, Ti—1.7, W—5.5) and EM-721 (W—25.2, Cr—5.7, Ti—0.17) were used for the study in the corrosion facility.

  9. Will web-based research suffice when collecting U.S. school district policies? The case of physical education and school-based nutrition policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agurs-Collins Tanya

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recognizing the growing childhood overweight problem, a number of school-based strategies, including policy approaches, have been proposed and are being implemented to address the problem considering the amount of time children spend in schools. This paper describes the results of a pilot study that tested approaches to collecting U.S. school district policy information regarding physical education and nutrition requirements that can inform efforts by policy makers, researchers, advocates and others interested in collecting school district-level obesity-related policies that are typically not systematically available from a "one stop" source. Methods Sixty local school districts representing six states were selected for conducting the district policy research, with larger, urban school districts over-sampled to facilitate collection of policies from districts representing a larger proportion of the public school population in each study state. The six states within which the pilot districts were located were chosen based on the variability in their physical education and school-based nutrition policy and geographic and demographic diversity. Web research and a mail canvass of the study districts was conducted between January and May 2006 to obtain all relevant policies. An additional field collection effort was conducted in a sample of districts located in three study states to test the extent to which field collection would yield additional information. Results Policies were obtained from 40 (67% of the 60 districts, with policies retrieved via both Web and mail canvass methods in 16 (27% of the districts, and were confirmed to not exist in 10 (17% of the districts. Policies were more likely to be retrieved from larger, urban districts, whereas the smallest districts had no policies available on the Web. In no instances were exactly the same policies retrieved from the two sources. Physical education policies were slightly

  10. Geographical and Statistical Analysis on the Relationship between Land-Use Mixture and Home-Based Trip Making and More: Case of Richmond, Virginia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin - Shan MA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Richmond, Virginia has implemented numerous mixed land-use policies to encourage non-private-vehicle commuting for decades based on the best practices of other cities and the assumption that land-use mixture would positively lead to trip reduction. This paper uses both Geographical Information Systems (GIS and statistical tools to empirically test this hypothesis. With local land use and trip making data as inputs, it first calculates two common indices of land-use mixture - entropy and dissimilarity indices, using GIS tool, supplemented by Microsoft Excel. Afterwards, it uses Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS to calculate the correlation matrices among land-use mixture indices, socioeconomic variables, and home-based work/other trip rates, followed by a series of regression model runs on these variables. Through this study, it has been found that land-use mixture has some but weak effects on home-based work trip rate, and virtually no effects on home-based other trip rate. In contrast, socioeconomic variables, especially auto ownership, have larger effects on home-based trip making.

  11. Three-dimensional modeling and simulation of asphalt concrete mixtures based on X-ray CT microstructure images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hainian Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available X-ray CT (computed tomography was used to scan asphalt mixture specimen to obtain high resolution continuous cross-section images and the meso-structure. According to the theory of three-dimensional (3D reconstruction, the 3D reconstruction algorithm was investigated in this paper. The key to the reconstruction technique is the acquisition of the voxel positions and the relationship between the pixel element and node. Three-dimensional numerical model of asphalt mixture specimen was created by a self-developed program. A splitting test was conducted to predict the stress distributions of the asphalt mixture and verify the rationality of the 3D model.

  12. Evidence-based nutritional therapy for chronic kidney disease%慢性肾脏病循证营养治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦广宇; 周春凌

    2011-01-01

    Summary:Chronic kidney disease is currently one of the major public health issues worldwide. Therapy for end-stage renal disease imposes a heavy financial burden to patients, their family members, and the society. Proper evidence-based nutritional therapy and nutrition monitoring may effectively improve the patients' nutrition status and delay the progression of chronic kidney disease.%慢性肾脏病已成为世界各国所面临的重要公共卫生问题之一.终末期肾脏病给患者及其家庭、社会带来沉重的经济负担.合理的营养治疗和营养监测可以有效地改善患者营养状况、延缓CKD进展.

  13. Association of maternal and child nutritional status in Brazil: a population based cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Santos Felisbino-Mendes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although child undernutrition and stunting has been decreasing worldwide while obesity rates increase, these extreme conditions might coexist in families from low- and middle-income countries. We examined the association between maternal and child anthropometric indicators using a population representative sample. METHODS: 4,258 non-pregnant women and their children 2. RESULTS: HAZ was positively associated with maternal height and WC in a linear fashion. After adjustment, for sociodemographic characteristics, children whose mothers' height was<145 cm had 1.2 lower HAZ than children whose mothers were ≥160 cm tall (p-trend<0.0001. After further adjustment for maternal height and maternal BMI, children of mothers with a waist circumference ≥88 cm had 0.3 higher HAZ than those of mothers with WC<80 cm (p-trend<0.01. Adjusted prevalence ratios and 95% CI for stunting by the categories of maternal height (<145, 145-149, 150-154, 155-159 and ≥160 cm were, respectively, 2.95 (1.51;5.77, 2.29 (1.33;3.93, 1.09 (0.63;1.87, and 0.89 (0.45;1.77, (p-trend = 0.001. BAZ was positively associated with maternal BMI and WC. CONCLUSION: We observed a strong, positive association of maternal and child nutritional status. Mothers of low stature had children with lower stature, mothers with central obesity had taller children, and mothers with overall or abdominal obesity had children with higher BAZ.

  14. Mixture Based Outlier Filtration

    OpenAIRE

    P. Pecherková; Nagy, I

    2006-01-01

    Success/failure of adaptive control algorithms – especially those designed using the Linear Quadratic Gaussian criterion – depends on the quality of the process data used for model identification. One of the most harmful types of process data corruptions are outliers, i.e. ‘wrong data’ lying far away from the range of real data. The presence of outliers in the data negatively affects an estimation of the dynamics of the system. This effect is magnified when the outliers are grouped into block...

  15. Cation effect of ammonium imide based ionic liquids in alcohols extraction from alcohol-alkane azeotropic mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Six ternary liquid+liquid equilibriums alkane + alcohol + IL were studied. • The influence of IL cation structure was evaluated. • The ethanol extraction ability from alkanes was determined for each IL. • Determination of solute distribution ratio and selectivity was required. • Experimental data correlation was realized by NRTL model. -- Abstract: During recent last years, outstanding properties of ionic liquids such as low melting point, large liquid range and negligible volatility have turned them into possible volatile organic solvents replacers to break alcohol-alkane azeotropic mixtures. On this basis, two ionic liquids, butyltrimethylammoniumbis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, [BTMA][NTf2], and tributylmethylammoniumbis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, [TBMA][NTf2], were studied through ternary liquid+liquid equilibrium (LLE) of {alkane(1) + alcohol (2) + IL(3)} at T = 298.15 K and atmospheric pressure in order to consider the effect of ionic liquid cation alkyl chain length on the extraction process. The ILs capability as azeotrope breakers was determined by the calculation of parameters such as solute distribution ratio, β, and selectivity, S and this capability was compared with other bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide based ionic liquids from literature. The consistency of tie-line data was ascertained by applying the Othmer–Tobias and Hand equations. Finally, the experimental LLE were correlated by the Non Random Two Liquid (NRTL) thermodynamic model

  16. An exact model for predicting tablet and blend content uniformity based on the theory of fluctuations in mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Rane, Sagar S; Rieschl, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    The content uniformity (CU) of blend and tablet formulations is a critical property that needs to be well controlled in order to produce an acceptable pharmaceutical product. Methods that allow the formulations scientist to predict the CU accurately can greatly help in reducing the development efforts. This article presents a new statistical mechanical framework for predicting CU based on first principles at the molecular level. The tablet is modeled as an open system which can be treated as a grand canonical ensemble to calculate fluctuations in the number of granules and thus the CU. Exact analytical solutions to hard sphere mixture systems available in the literature are applied to derive an expression for the CU and elucidate the different factors that impact CU. It is shown that there is a single ratio, {\\lambda}{\\equiv}/; that completely characterizes "granule quality" with respect to impact on CU. Here w and f denote the weight of granule and the fractional (w/w) assay of API in it. This ratio should b...

  17. Access to Difficult-to-reach Population Subgroups: A Family Midwife Based Home Visiting Service for Implementing Nutrition-related Preventive Activities - A Mixed Methods Explorative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Walz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Health and social inequality are tightly linked and still pose an important public health problem. However, vulnerable and disadvantaged populations are difficult to reach for health-related interventions. Given the long-lasting effects of an adverse, particular nutrition-related, intrauterine and neonatal environment on health development (perinatal programming, an early and easy access is essential for sustainable interventions. The goal of this explorative study was therefore to elucidate whether an existing access of family midwives (FMs to families in need of support could be an option to implement effective public health and nutrition interventions. To that end three research objectives were formulated: (1 to determine whether a discernible impact of home visits by FMs can be described; (2 to identify subgroups among these families in need of more specific interventions; (3 to determine how relevant nutrition-related topics are for both FMs and the supported families. For addressing these objectives a mixed methods design was used: Routine documentation data from 295 families visited by a family midwife (FM were analyzed (secondary analysis, and structured expert interviews with FMs were conducted and analyzed. Study reporting followed the STROBE (STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology statement. Based on the FMs reports, a significant improvement (p < 0.001 regarding psycho-social variables could be determined after the home visits. Single mothers, however, seemed to benefit less from the FMs service compared to their counterparts (p = 0.015. Nutritional counseling was demanded by 89% of the families during the home visits. In addition, nutrition-related topics were reported in the interviews to be of high interest to both families and the FMs. Based on the obtained results it is concluded that FMs home visits offer a promising access to vulnerable and disadvantaged families for implementing nutrition

  18. The effect of fibers on coagulation of casein-based enteral nutrition in an artificial gastric digestion model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luttikhold, J.; Norren, van K.; Minor, M.; Buijs, N.; Braak, van den C.C.M.; Ludwig, T.; Abrahamse, E.; Rijna, H.; Leeuwen, P.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    A serious complication seen in critically ill patients is the solidification of enteral nutrition causing gastrointestinal obstruction. It has been suggested that enteral nutrition enriched with insoluble fibers may increase the risk of this complication. Therefore, we investigate the effect of solu

  19. Density, conductivity, viscosity, and excess properties of (pyrrolidinium nitrate-based Protic Ionic Liquid + propylene carbonate) binary mixture

    OpenAIRE

    Pires, J; Timperman, L.; Jacquemin, J.; A. Balducci; Anouti, M.

    2013-01-01

    Density, ?, viscosity, ?, and conductivity, s, measurements of binary mixtures containing the pyrrolidinium nitrate Protic Ionic Liquid (PIL) and propylene carbonate (PC), are determined at the atmospheric pressure as a function of the temperature from (283.15 to 353.15) K and within the whole composition range. The temperature dependence of both the viscosity and conductivity of each mixture exhibits a non-Arrhenius behaviour, but is correctly fitted by using the Vogel–Tamman–Fulcher (VTF) e...

  20. Implementing shared decision-making in nutrition clinical practice: A theory-based approach and feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Légaré France

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are a growing number of dietary treatment options to choose from for the management of many chronic diseases. Shared decision making represents a promising approach to improve the quality of the decision making process needed for dietary choices that are informed by the best evidence and value-based. However, there are no studies reporting on theory-based approaches that foster the implementation of shared decision making in health professions allied to medicine. The objectives of this study are to explore the integration of shared decision making within real nutritional consultations, and to design questionnaires to assess dieticians' intention to adopt two specific behaviors related to shared decision making using the Theory of Planned Behavior. Methods Forty dieticians will audiotape one clinical encounter to explore the presence of shared decision making within the consultation. They will also participate to one of five to six focus groups that aim to identify the salient beliefs underlying the determinants of their intention to present evidence-based dietary treatment options to their patients, and clarify the values related to dietary choices that are important to their patients. These salient beliefs will be used to elaborate the items of two questionnaires. The internal consistency of theoretical constructs and the temporal stability of their measurement will be checked using the test-retest method by asking 35 dieticians to complete the questionnaire twice within a two-week interval. Discussion The proposed research project will be the first study to: provide preliminary data about the adoption of shared decision making by dieticians and theirs patients; elicit dieticians' salient beliefs regarding the intention to adopt shared decision making behaviors, report on the development of a specific questionnaire; explore dieticians' views on the implementation of shared decision making; and compare their views

  1. Nutritional biology: a neglected basic discipline of nutritional science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döring, Frank; Ströhle, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    On the basis of a scientific-philosophical analysis, this paper tries to show that the approaches in current nutritional science-including its subdisciplines which focus on molecular aspects-are predominantly application-oriented. This becomes particularly evident through a number of conceptual problems characterized by the triad of 'dearth of theoretical foundation,' 'particularist research questions,' and 'reductionist understanding of nutrition.' The thesis presented here is that an interpretive framework based on nutritional biology is able to shed constructive light on the fundamental problems of nutritional science. In this context, the establishment of 'nutritional biology' as a basic discipline in research and education would be a first step toward recognizing the phenomenon of 'nutrition' as an oecic process as a special case of an organism-environment interaction. Modern nutritional science should be substantively grounded on ecological-and therefore systems biology as well as organismic-principles. The aim of nutritional biology, then, should be to develop near-universal 'law statements' in nutritional science-a task which presents a major challenge for the current science system. PMID:26584807

  2. Mixture effects of organic micropollutants present in water: towards the development of effect-based water quality trigger values for baseline toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Janet Y M; McCarty, Shane; Glenn, Eva; Neale, Peta A; Warne, Michel St J; Escher, Beate I

    2013-06-15

    In this study we propose for the first time an approach for the tentative derivation of effect-based water quality trigger values for an apical endpoint, the cytotoxicity measured by the bioluminescence inhibition in Vibrio fischeri. The trigger values were derived for the Australian Drinking Water Guideline and the Australian Guideline for Water Recycling as examples, but the algorithm can be adapted to any other set of guideline values. In the first step, a Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) describing the 50% effect concentrations, EC50, was established using chemicals known to act according to the nonspecific mode of action of baseline toxicity. This QSAR described the effect of most of the chemicals in these guidelines satisfactorily, with the exception of antibiotics, which were more potent than predicted by the baseline toxicity QSAR. The mixture effect of 10-56 guideline chemicals mixed at various fixed concentration ratios (equipotent mixture ratios and ratios of the guideline values) was adequately described by concentration addition model of mixture toxicity. Ten water samples were then analysed and 5-64 regulated chemicals were detected (from a target list of over 200 chemicals). These detected chemicals were mixed in the ratios of concentrations detected and their mixture effect was predicted by concentration addition. Comparing the effect of these designed mixtures with the effect of the water samples, it became evident that less than 1% of effect could be explained by known chemicals, making it imperative to derive effect-based trigger values. The effect-based water quality trigger value, EBT-EC50, was calculated from the mixture effect concentration predicted for concentration-additive mixture effects of all chemicals in a given guideline divided by the sum of the guideline concentrations for individual components, and dividing by an extrapolation factor that accounts for the number of chemicals contained in the guidelines and for

  3. Nutritional supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Gry Bjerg; Andersen, Jens Rikardt

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several studies have indicated that cancer patients have significantly altered taste sensitivity without specifying the preferences. One of the related problems is low compliance to nutritional therapy with oral nutritional supplements (ONS) in patients suffering severe weight loss....... Objective: We wanted to investigate taste preferences and sensoric characteristics among three usually used ONS in patients with malignant haematological disease during cytotoxic treatment. Design: Tested drinks were: Protin® (protein-enriched-milk, ARLA), Nutridrink® (NUTRICIA) and hospital-produced drink...

  4. Nutrition and Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thai HbH:Vietnamese Relevant links Living with Thalassemia NUTRITIONNutrition and Diet ▶ Diet for the Non-transfused ... booklet ▶ 3 Simple Suggestions for a Healthy Diet Nutrition and Diet Nutritional deficiencies are common in thalassemia, ...

  5. Diet and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources > Diet and Nutrition Go Back Diet and Nutrition Email Print + Share Diet and nutrition concerns of ... you. NEW!! Test your knowledge of diet and nutrition by taking this self-assessment for an opportunity ...

  6. Multilevel Mixture Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Wang

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The mixture Kalman filter is a general sequential Monte Carlo technique for conditional linear dynamic systems. It generates samples of some indicator variables recursively based on sequential importance sampling (SIS and integrates out the linear and Gaussian state variables conditioned on these indicators. Due to the marginalization process, the complexity of the mixture Kalman filter is quite high if the dimension of the indicator sampling space is high. In this paper, we address this difficulty by developing a new Monte Carlo sampling scheme, namely, the multilevel mixture Kalman filter. The basic idea is to make use of the multilevel or hierarchical structure of the space from which the indicator variables take values. That is, we draw samples in a multilevel fashion, beginning with sampling from the highest-level sampling space and then draw samples from the associate subspace of the newly drawn samples in a lower-level sampling space, until reaching the desired sampling space. Such a multilevel sampling scheme can be used in conjunction with the delayed estimation method, such as the delayed-sample method, resulting in delayed multilevel mixture Kalman filter. Examples in wireless communication, specifically the coherent and noncoherent 16-QAM over flat-fading channels, are provided to demonstrate the performance of the proposed multilevel mixture Kalman filter.

  7. Acid-base pH curves in vitro with mixtures of pure cultures of human oral microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijeyeweera, R L; Kleinberg, I

    1989-01-01

    Pure cultures of microorganisms commonly found in supragingival plaque were incubated alone and in combinations to determine the bacterial contribution to the pH-fall-pH-rise that is the central characteristic of the Stephan-curve pH change seen in plaque in vivo after brief exposure to a sugar solution. To avoid the complicating conditions of saliva flow and plaque diffusion, experiments were done with bacterial suspensions in incubations in vitro. In an initial experimental series where each microorganism was incubated only with glucose, all but a few produced the initial pH fall. Some also showed a subsequent small, sharp rise in the pH which then quickly levelled off; this was due to metabolism of endogenous substrate accumulated by most microorganisms during their growth in culture. When arginolytic and non-arginolytic bacteria were each then incubated with both glucose and arginine present (the glucose substrate to stimulate a pH fall and the arginine to stimulate a pH rise), the non-arginolytic gave a progressively more acidic pH response with progressive increase in the cell concentration, whereas the arginolytic bacteria produced a much smaller and variable pH decrease with similar cell concentration increase. Mixing pure cultures of either arginolytic or non-arginolytic bacteria gave acid-base pH responses similar to those of their respective pure cultures, whereas mixing arginolytic with non-arginolytic bacteria resulted in an approximate averaging of their different curves. The organisms present in highest proportion in a mixture had the greatest effects. The outcome of mixing the most numerous streptococcal and actinomyces species found normally in supragingival plaque indicated that the well-established difference in the acidity level of the Stephan pH response of caries-active and caries-inactive plaques could be due to differences in the proportions of their arginolytic and non-arginolytic members. PMID:2675801

  8. A systematic review and meta-analysis of social cognitive theory-based physical activity and/or nutrition behavior change interventions for cancer survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Stacey, Fiona G; James, Erica L.; Chapman, Kathy; Courneya, Kerry S; Lubans, David R

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Little is known about how to improve and create sustainable lifestyle behaviors of cancer survivors. Interventions based on social cognitive theory (SCT) have shown promise. This review examined the effect of SCT-based physical activity and nutrition interventions that target cancer survivors and identified factors associated with their efficacy. Methods A systematic search of seven databases identified randomized controlled trials that (i) targeted adult cancer survivors (any point f...

  9. Nutritive Value of Grasses in Semi-arid Rangelands of Ethiopia: Local Experience Based Herbage Preference Evaluation versus Laboratory Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keba, Habtamu T; Madakadze, I C; Angassa, A; Hassen, A

    2013-03-01

    We examined the nutritive value of common grass species in the semi-arid rangelands of Borana in southern Ethiopia using local experience based herbage preference (LEBHP) perception and laboratory techniques. Local pastoralists in the study area were asked to identify common grass species and rank them according to the species' preferences and palatability to cattle. The pastoralists listed a total of 15 common grass species which were then sampled during the main rain and cold dry seasons and analyzed for crude protein (CP), Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF), Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF) and ash content to verify pastoralists' claim regarding the quality of individual species. The relative feed value (RFV) and dry matter digestibility (DMD) were also calculated using NDF and ADF contents. Spearman's rank correlation was used to examine possible relationships between laboratory results and pastoralists' experience on grass quality. Cenchrus ciliaris, Chrysopogon aucheri, Digitaria milanjiana, Eragrostis papposa and Panicum maximum were the top five species based on LEBHP perception. There were indications of inconsistency in terms of LEBHP perception among the different pastoral communities. The chemical composition of all grass species showed significant (p<0.05) variation between sites, seasons and species. The results showed that the CP values for the Borana rangelands were in the range of 8.7% in the main rain season to 5.1% for the cold dry season. The fiber constituents were relatively low in the main rain season compared to the cold dry season. Overall, Digitaria milanjiana had the highest CP (16.5%) content, while the least was recorded with Heteropogon contortus (10.8) and Aristida adoensis (9.8%) during the main rain season. It seems that the spatial variability of landscapes within the wider geographical regions, soil properties and texture, and land-use patterns probably contributed to site differences in species quality. Generally, the RFV of individual

  10. Pharmaceutical Point of View on Parenteral Nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Stawny, M.; Olijarczyk, R.; E. Jaroszkiewicz; Jelińska, A.

    2013-01-01

    Parenteral nutrition—a form of administering nutrients, electrolytes, trace elements, vitamins, and water—is a widely used mode of therapy applied in many diseases, in patients of different ages both at home and in hospital. The success of nutritional therapy depends chiefly on proper determination of the patient’s energetic and electrolytic needs as well as preparation and administration of a safe nutritional mixture. As a parenterally administered drug, it is expected to be microbiologicall...

  11. Investigating the effects of methanol-water vapor mixture on a PBI-based high temperature PEM fuel cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Araya, Samuel Simon; Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Nielsen, Heidi Venstrup;

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of methanol and water vapor on the performance of a high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell (HT-PEMFC). A H3PO4-doped polybenzimidazole (PBI) membrane electrode assembly (MEA), Celtec P2100 of 45 cm2 of active surface area from BASF was employed. A...... long-term durability test of around 1250 h was performed, in which the concentrations of methanol-water vapor mixture in the anode feed gas were varied. The fuel cell showed a continuous performance decay in the presence of vapor mixtures of methanol and water of 5% and 8% by volume in anode feed....... Impedance measurements followed by equivalent circuit fitting revealed that the effects were most significant for intermediate-high frequency resistances, implying that charge transfer losses were the most significant losses. Vapor mixture of 3% in feed, however, when introduced after operation at 8...

  12. Integral Wheat Flour Based Biscuits as Sources of Phosphorus in Everyday Nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Dubravka Vitali; Irena Vedrina Dragojević; Katarina Marić; Marija Bujan

    2007-01-01

    Eight experimental integral wheat fl our based biscuits were prepared and investigated for total and bioavailable phosphorus content. Results were compared to the values obtained for classic white wheat fl our based biscuits in order to asses the impact of implantation of bran, different integral raw materials and fibers on the total phosphorus content and its availability. Since a study was conducted in the view of current trends of the excessive intake of this element in most of the develop...

  13. Nutritional Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutritional assessment is an essential component of the history and physical examination of children with gastrointestinal disorders. An understanding of the patterns of growth and the changes in body composition during childhood, as well as a working knowledge of the methods used to assess the nutr...

  14. Nutrition marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Given the obesity epidemic, marketing of non-nutrient dense food has been debated as a policy issue. This research sought to determine how frequently nutrition marketing (health claims, nutrient content claims, or implied claims) is used on labels of foods containing high amounts (>20% daily value) ...

  15. Nutrition & Pancreatic Surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, A.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the first part of this thesis was to determine the optimal feeding strategy after pancreatoduodenectomy. The available nutritional guidelines give conflicting recommendations and are all based on studies after major gastrointestinal surgery for cancer in general. We systematically reviewe

  16. THE EFFECT OF ACID ROCK FROM CĂLIMANI MOUNTAINS ON MAKING UP A NUTRITIVE SUPPORT FOR PLANTS, BASED ON RED MUD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Lacatusu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of an experiment carried out in controlled conditions, regarding triticale plants growth on a nutritive layer consisting of a mixture of red mud, acid rock and compost, in different proportions. The analytical results highlighted the strongly alkaline reaction of the layer, high organic carbon, mobile phosphorus and potassium contents and low nitrogen contents. The layer has a high salinity and sodium salts are predominant. The total microelements and heavy metals contents are generally acceptable. The triticale plants grew in these conditions up to 10-15 cm height, when the experiment was stopped. The plants accumulated normal nitrogen, calcium and magnesium quantities, low potassium ones, high phosphorus and very high sodium contents. The metallic microelements (copper, iron, manganese, zinc accumulated at relatively normal levels, but the heavy metals (cadmium, cobalt, chromium, nickel, lead concentrated up to values several tens of times higher than the normal contents. Introducing the obtained vegetal mass in the nutritive layer will contribute to enhancing its fertility for the next vegetation cycles.

  17. Assessment of Anti-nutritive Activity of Tannins in Tea By-products Based on In vitro Rumen Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Kondo, Makoto; Hirano, Yoshiaki; Ikai, Noriyuki; Kita, Kazumi; Jayanegara, Anuraga; Yokota, Hiro-omi

    2014-01-01

    Nutritive values of green and black tea by-products and anti-nutritive activity of their tannins were evaluated in an in vitro rumen fermentation using various molecular weights of polyethylene glycols (PEG), polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) and polyvinyl polypyrrolidone as tannin-binding agents. Significant improvement in gas production by addition of PEG4000, 6000 and 20000 and PVP was observed only from black tea by-product, but not from green tea by-product. All tannin binding agents increased...

  18. A qualitative exploration of stakeholder perspectives on a school-based multi-component health promotion nutrition programme

    OpenAIRE

    Middleton, Geoff; Keegan, Richard; Henderson, Hannah

    2012-01-01

    Background:  Food for Fitness is an on-going multi-component health promotion programme, delivered in primary and secondary schools by community nutrition assistants. The programme uses nutritional interventions aimed at promoting healthier eating practices for children. This service evaluation investigated the receipt and delivery of the programme, as perceived by local stakeholders who had experienced and administered the service. Methods:  Semi-structured interviews and focus groups we...

  19. Effect of Short Term Community Based Intervention to Reduce the Prevalence of Under Nutrition in Under-five Children

    OpenAIRE

    Vishal Jamra, Vishal Bankwar, Dinesh M Saxena

    2013-01-01

    Background & Objectives: Malnutrition is a scourge for mankind especially among the developing world countries like India. The present study endeavors to find the factors responsible for this magnitude of under nutrition in under-5 in an urban slum area and also to find the effect of short term educa-tional intervention and de-worming on the status of under nutrition. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional intervention study was undertaken in slum area for a period of 6 months. I...

  20. Patterns of Nutrition and Dietary Supplements Use in Young Egyptian Athletes: A Community-Based Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, Safaa; El Koofy, Nehal; Moawad, Eman Mohamed Ibraheim

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the pattern of basic and sport nutrition as well as perspectives of young Egyptian athletes. Structured interview survey measuring knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and behaviors about basic and sport nutrition was administered to adolescent athletes recruited from 4 sport clubs and 2 fitness centers in Greater Cairo governorate. A total of 358 participants aged 13-18 years completed questionnaires. Basic nutrition knowledge was reasonable in almost all domains except fast food. Fixed breakfast (78.5%), home meals (lunch, 70.7%), and healthy snacks (55.8%) were the most positive features of the basic dietary pattern. More than 70% perceived themselves as knowledgeable about sport nutrition. The prevalence rate of sport supplement intake was (48.9%, n = 175), predominantly sport drinks (66.9%) and creatine (54.3%). Coaches were the primary source of sport nutrition information. Forty-four percent of participants (n = 77/175) reported supplement consumption during competition seasons only. Better physical appearance and enhancement of athletic performance were the major motivations for supplement intake. These findings indicate the necessity of a comprehensive nutrition education program targeting not only athletes and parents, but also coaching staff, health trainers and all sport team officials. PMID:27529492

  1. Factors associated with physical inactivity among school-going adolescents: data from the Malaysian School-Based Nutrition Survey 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharudin, Azli; Zainuddin, Ahmad Ali; Manickam, Mala A; Ambak, Rashidah; Ahmad, Mohamad Hasnan; Naidu, Balkish Mahadir; Cheong, Siew Man; Ying, Chan Ying; Saad, Hazizi Abu; Ahmad, Noor Ani

    2014-09-01

    The importance of physical activity to health is well recognized. Good health habits should begin from a young age. This article aims to explore physical activity among Malaysian school adolescents and factors associated with it. Data from the Malaysian School-Based Nutrition Survey (MSNS), comprising a nationally representative sample of school-going children aged 10 to 17 years, were used. The overall prevalence of physically inactive adolescents was 57.3%. Age in years (adjusted odds ratio = 1.2; 95% confidence interval = 1.16-1.23), gender - females (adjusted odds ratio = 2.9; 95% confidence interval = 2.66-3.10), afternoon school session, breakfast consumption (no breakfast and irregular breakfast), body mass index status (obese and underweight), and body weight perception (underweight perceivers) were significant factors associated with physical inactivity among Malaysian adolescents. Thus, there is evidence that programs to promote physical activity in this group should consider the combination of the aforementioned factors at the household, school, and community levels. PMID:25070696

  2. Development by extrusion of soyabari snack sticks: a nutritionally improved soya-maize product based on the Nigerian snack (kokoro).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omueti, O; Morton, I D

    1996-01-01

    A nutritionally improved local snack compared to existing kokoro has been developed by extrusion cooking of different formulations of maize, soybean and condiments such as pepper, onion, salt, palm oil, plantain and banana. The improved snack was named as the 'soyabari snack stick'. The chemical composition of representative extruded products indicates a high level of crude protein, fat, energy, available lysine and improved in vitro digestibility compared to the usual maize-based products. The level of stachyose and raffinose were greatly reduced in the extruded products compared to raw soya. Formulations using various additives yielded products suitable for different consumers' preferences such as hot, sweet, bland, gritty or crispy and acceptable to taste assessors. Soyabari snack sticks were equally acceptable as Bombay mix, a product on the market in London. Sensory analysis showed no significant differences in the two products but the crude fibre content of Bombay mix was higher while the protein was slightly lower than for soyabari sticks. Local ingredients can produce acceptable extrudates. PMID:8616673

  3. Characterizing diversity based on nutritional and bioactive compositions of yam germplasm (Dioscorea spp. commonly cultivated in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Gang Wu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Yams (Dioscorea spp. are widely cultivated as edible resources and medical materials in China. Characterizing chemical compositions in yam germplasm is crucial to determine their diversity and suitability for food and medicine applications. In this study, a core germplasm containing 25 yam landraces was used to create an effective classification of usage by characterizing their nutritive and medicinal compositions. All studied landraces exhibited high contents of starch from 60.7% to 80.6% dry weight (DW, protein (6.3–12.2% DW, minerals (especially Mg 326.8–544.7 mg/kg DW, and essential amino acids. Allantoin and dioscin varied considerably, with values of 0.62–1.49% DW and 0.032–0.092% DW, respectively. The quality variability of 25 yam landraces was clearly separated in light of UPGMA clustering and principal component analysis (PCA. Using an eigenvalue ≥1 as the cutoff, the first three principal components accounted for most of the total variability (62.33%. Classification was achieved based on the results of the measured parameters and principal component analysis scores. The results are of great help in determining appropriate application strategies for yam germplasm in China.

  4. Development of a biologically based fertilizer, incorporating Bacillus megaterium A6, for improved phosphorus nutrition of oilseed rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaojia; Roberts, Daniel P; Xie, Lihua; Maul, Jude E; Yu, Changbing; Li, Yinshui; Zhang, Shujie; Liao, Xing

    2013-04-01

    Sustainable methods with diminished impact on the environment need to be developed for the production of oilseed rape in China and other regions of the world. A biological fertilizer consisting of Bacillus megaterium A6 cultured on oilseed rape meal improved oilseed rape seed yield (P rape meal without strain A6 in 1 of 2 experiments, suggesting a role for strain A6 in improving yield. Strain A6 was capable of solubilizing phosphorus from rock phosphate in liquid culture and produced enzymes capable of mineralizing organic phosphorus (acid phosphatase, phytase) in liquid culture and in the biological fertilizer. The biologically based fertilizer, containing strain A6, improved plant phosphorus nutrition in greenhouse pot experiments resulting in significantly greater available phosphorus in natural soil and in significantly greater plant phosphorus content relative to the nontreated control. Seed yield and available phosphorus in natural soil were significantly greater with a synthetic chemical fertilizer treatment, reduced in phosphorus content, than the biological fertilizer treatment, but a treatment containing the biological fertilizer combined with the synthetic fertilizer provided the significantly greatest seed yield, available phosphorus in natural soil, and plant phosphorus content. These results suggest that the biological fertilizer was capable of improving oilseed rape seed yield, at least in part, through the phosphorus-solubilizing activity of B. megaterium A6. PMID:23586746

  5. Policy windows for school-based health education about nutrition in Ecuador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres, Irene

    2016-01-01

    through critical, democratic and collaborative processes, anchored in and supported by the local community. Based on a textual analysis of health, food and education policy documents, the study finds that concrete norms endorse a biomedical stance. Consequently, focus remains on prescribing individual...

  6. Evaluation of Health Profession Student Attitudes toward an Online Nutrition Education Problem-Based Learning Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Kathleen; Sadera, William

    2015-01-01

    The intent of problem-based learning (PBL) is to increase student motivation to learn, to promote critical thinking and to teach students to learn with complexity. PBL encourages students to understand that there are no straightforward answers and that problem solutions depend on context. This paper discusses the experience of undergraduate health…

  7. Integral Wheat Flour Based Biscuits as Sources of Phosphorus in Everyday Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravka Vitali

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Eight experimental integral wheat fl our based biscuits were prepared and investigated for total and bioavailable phosphorus content. Results were compared to the values obtained for classic white wheat fl our based biscuits in order to asses the impact of implantation of bran, different integral raw materials and fibers on the total phosphorus content and its availability. Since a study was conducted in the view of current trends of the excessive intake of this element in most of the developed countries, we expressed results obtained for total phosphorus content as percentages of allocated RDA values. Total phosphorus was determined by an offi cial AOAC method (AOAC 2001 and its bioavailability by an in vitro enzymatic method (Schwedt et al. 1998. Total phosphorus content of investigated samples ranged from 1.093 g kg-1 (biscuit based on type 500 wheat fl our to 2.987 g kg-1 (biscuit enriched with integral wheat fl our and amaranth. Phosphorus availability was the highest in biscuit based on type 500 wheat fl our, as expected (86.1 %, and the lowest in the sample enriched with amaranth fl our (53.0 %, due to a very high phytic acid content. Considering revealed values of total phosphorus content and its bioavailability, we concluded that the richest source of this important macroelement was the sample enriched with soy flour providing 1.671 g kg-1 of available phosphorus.

  8. Trajectories of Heroin Addiction: Growth Mixture Modeling Results Based on a 33-Year Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hser, Yih-Ing; Huang, David; Chou, Chih-Ping; Anglin, M. Douglas

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates trajectories of heroin use and subsequent consequences in a sample of 471 male heroin addicts who were admitted to the California Civil Addict Program in 1964-1965 and followed over 33 years. Applying a two-part growth mixture modeling strategy to heroin use level during the first 16 years of the addiction careers since…

  9. Key Resources for Creating Online Nutrition Education for Those Participating in Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stosich, Marie C.; LeBlanc, Heidi; Kudin, Janette S.; Christofferson, Debra

    2016-01-01

    Internet-based nutrition education is becoming an important tool in serving the rural, low-income community, yet the task of creating such programming can be daunting. The authors describe the key resources used in developing an Internet-based nutrition education program for those participating in Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program…

  10. Comparison of growth and nutritional status in infants receiving goat milk–based formula and cow milk–based formula: a randomized, double-blind study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meihong Xu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the growth and nutritional status of infants fed goat milk–based formula (GMF and cow milk–based formula (CMF. Methods: The study was conducted in Beijing, China. It was a double-blind randomized controlled trial. A total of 79 infants aged 0–3 months old were recruited and randomized in GMF or CMF group. The infants were fed the allocated formula to 6 months. The weight, length, and head circumference were measured at the enrolment, 3 and 6 months. The start time and types of solid food were recorded. Blood elements, urinal, and fecal parameters were also tested. Results: The average weight of infants in the GMF group (mean±SD was 4.67±0.99 kg and in the CMF group 4.73±1.10 kg at enrolment, and 8.75±0.98 kg (GMF and 8.92±0.88 kg (CMF at 6 months. There were no differences in the adjusted intention-to-treat analyses of weight, length, head circumference, and BMI z-scores between the two formula-fed groups over the 6-month study. Similarly, there were no remarkable differences in the timing and types of solid food, blood elements, urinal, and feces parameters, between the GMF and CMF group. No group differences have been shown in bowel motion consistency, duration of crying, ease of settling, or frequency of adverse events. Conclusions: GMF-provided growth and nutritional outcomes did not differ from those provided by CMF.

  11. Comparison of growth and nutritional status in infants receiving goat milk–based formula and cow milk–based formula: a randomized, double-blind study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Meihong; Wang, Yibin; Dai, Zhiyong; Zhang, Yanchun; Li, Yong; Wang, Junbo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the growth and nutritional status of infants fed goat milk–based formula (GMF) and cow milk–based formula (CMF). Methods The study was conducted in Beijing, China. It was a double-blind randomized controlled trial. A total of 79 infants aged 0–3 months old were recruited and randomized in GMF or CMF group. The infants were fed the allocated formula to 6 months. The weight, length, and head circumference were measured at the enrolment, 3 and 6 months. The start time and types of solid food were recorded. Blood elements, urinal, and fecal parameters were also tested. Results The average weight of infants in the GMF group (mean±SD) was 4.67±0.99 kg and in the CMF group 4.73±1.10 kg at enrolment, and 8.75±0.98 kg (GMF) and 8.92±0.88 kg (CMF) at 6 months. There were no differences in the adjusted intention-to-treat analyses of weight, length, head circumference, and BMI z-scores between the two formula-fed groups over the 6-month study. Similarly, there were no remarkable differences in the timing and types of solid food, blood elements, urinal, and feces parameters, between the GMF and CMF group. No group differences have been shown in bowel motion consistency, duration of crying, ease of settling, or frequency of adverse events. Conclusions GMF-provided growth and nutritional outcomes did not differ from those provided by CMF. PMID:26652603

  12. WIFE'S EARNINGS, CHILD NUTRITION, AND GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE IN EGYPT

    OpenAIRE

    JOHN SIMISTER; HASSAN ZAKY

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the "children fare better" view, that children tend to be better fed if their mother has control over household decisions, using three household surveys in Egypt. It suggests an approach which might improve current economic analysis of household spending, by incorporating "Gender-Based Violence": there appears to be a link between undernutrition of household members, and violence against mothers (violent men often misspend a large fraction of household income on themse...

  13. Intergranular tellurium cracking of nickel-based alloys in molten Li, Be, Th, U/F salt mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatiev, Victor; Surenkov, Alexander; Gnidoy, Ivan; Kulakov, Alexander; Uglov, Vadim; Vasiliev, Alexander; Presniakov, Mikhail

    2013-09-01

    In Russia, R&D on Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) are concentrated now on fast/intermediate spectrum concepts which were recognized as long term alternative to solid fueled fast reactors due to their attractive features: strong negative feedback coefficients, easy in-service inspection, and simplified fuel cycle. For high-temperature MSR corrosion of the metallic container alloy in primary circuit is the primary concern. Key problem receiving current attention include surface fissures in Ni-based alloys probably arising from fission product tellurium attack. This paper summarizes results of corrosion tests conducted recently to study effect of oxidation state in selected fuel salt on tellurium attack and to develop means of controlling tellurium cracking in the special Ni-based alloys recently developed for molten salt actinide recycler and tranforming (MOSART) system. Tellurium corrosion of Ni-based alloys was tested at temperatures up to 750 °C in stressed and unloaded conditions in molten LiF-BeF2 salt mixture fueled by about 20 mol% of ThF4 and 2 mol% of UF4 at different [U(IV)]/[U(III)] ratios: 0.7, 4, 20, 100 and 500. Following Ni-based alloys (in mass%): HN80М-VI (Mo—12, Cr—7.6, Nb—1.5), HN80МТY (Mo—13, Cr—6.8, Al—1.1, Ti—0.9), HN80МТW (Mo—9.4, Cr—7.0, Ti—1.7, W—5.5) and ЕМ-721 (W—25.2, Cr—5.7, Ti—0.17) were used for the study in the corrosion facility. If the redox state the fuel salt is characterized by uranium ratio [U(IV)]/[U(III)] construction alloys and carbon, are formed. In the melt with [U(IV)]/[U(III)] = 500 in all of the alloys tested the tellurium IGC took place. The HN80MTY alloy shows the maximum resistance to tellurium IGC. The intensity of tellurium IGC of the alloy (the K parameter) is by 3-5 times lower as compared to other alloys. The EM-721 alloy has the minimal resistance to tellurium IGC (K = 9200 pc m/cm, the depth of cracks is up to 434 μm). The studies have shown, that the intensity of the nickel alloys

  14. Wise Choices: Nutrition and Exercise for Older Adults: A Community-Based Health Promotion Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Melanie T; Elci, Okan U; Resick, Lenore K; Kalarchian, Melissa A

    2016-01-01

    Effective interventions for older adults are needed to address lifestyle behaviors linked to chronic illnesses. We implemented a 12-week group behavioral intervention for 118 racially diverse older adults at 6 community-based senior centers to improve eating and physical activity. Assessments were completed pre- and postintervention, with 85.6% retention. We documented increases in fruit, vegetable, and whole grain intake; pace of walking; number of city blocks walked; daily steps walked; functional mobility; and self-rated general health (P < .05). Findings indicate that a relatively low-intensity lifestyle intervention can effectively be implemented for community-dwelling older adults. Further development of this approach is warranted. PMID:27536931

  15. Whole Blood RNA as a Source of Transcript-Based Nutrition- and Metabolic Health-Related Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Petar D.; Bonet, M. Luisa; Reynés, Bárbara; Oliver, Paula; Palou, Andreu; Ribot, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Blood cells are receiving an increasing attention as an easily accessible source of transcript-based biomarkers. We studied the feasibility of using mouse whole blood RNA in this context. Several paradigms were studied: (i) metabolism-related transcripts known to be affected in rat tissues and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) by fasting and upon the development of high fat diet (HFD)-induced overweight were assessed in whole blood RNA of fasted rats and mice and of HFD-fed mice; (ii) retinoic acid (RA)-responsive genes in tissues were assessed in whole blood RNA of control and RA-treated mice; (iii) lipid metabolism-related transcripts previously identified in PBMC as potential biomarkers of metabolic health in a rat model were assessed in whole blood in an independent model, namely retinoblastoma haploinsufficient (Rb+/-) mice. Blood was collected and stored in RNAlater® at -80°C until analysis of selected transcripts by real-time RT-PCR. Comparable changes with fasting were detected in the expression of lipid metabolism-related genes when RNA from either PBMC or whole blood of rats or mice was used. HFD-induced excess body weight and fat mass associated with expected changes in the expression of metabolism-related genes in whole blood of mice. Changes in gene expression in whole blood of RA-treated mice reproduced known transcriptional actions of RA in hepatocytes and adipocytes. Reduced expression of Fasn, Lrp1, Rxrb and Sorl1 could be validated as early biomarkers of metabolic health in young Rb+/- mice using whole blood RNA. Altogether, these results support the use of whole blood RNA in studies aimed at identifying blood transcript-based biomarkers of nutritional/metabolic status or metabolic health. Results also support reduced expression of Fasn, Lrp1, Rxrb and Sorl1 in blood cells at young age as potential biomarkers of metabolic robustness. PMID:27163124

  16. An analysis of Bronx-based online grocery store circulars for nutritional content of food and beverage products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethan, Danna; Samuel, Lalitha; Basch, Corey H

    2013-06-01

    With the rising rates of diabetes and obesity in New York City's poorest communities, efforts to assist low-income residents in spending money to promote nutritious food consumption have increased. The objective of this study was to assess the extent to which Bronx-based grocery stores offered nutritious foods on sale through their weekly circulars. Over a 2-month period, we analyzed 2,311 food and beverage products placed on the first page of online circulars for fifteen Bronx-based grocery stores. For each circular, we recorded the number of starchy and non-starchy fruits and vegetables; for each product, total fiber and carbohydrate content per serving (in grams), whether the product was processed, and sale price were recorded. Total sugar content (in grams) was recorded for all sugar-sweetened beverages. Over 84 % of the products were processed, and almost 40 % had at least one carbohydrate choice (15 g) per food serving. Only 16.5 % of the products were fresh fruits and green leafy vegetables, and 1.4 % had fiber content of 5 or more grams per serving. Requiring the purchase of multiples of unhealthy products to receive the sale price was also noted. Almost three-quarters of the sugar-sweetened beverages were advertised with promotional sales compared to over half of the fresh fruits and only one-third of fresh vegetables. We identified no other studies that address nutritional content of foods found in grocery store circulars. More research is necessary to determine if purchasing nutritious products at grocery stores in low-income neighborhoods is influenced by sale prices. PMID:23203239

  17. Are additional trace elements necessary in total parenteral nutrition for patients with esophageal cancer receiving cisplatin-based chemotherapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akutsu, Yasunori; Kono, Tsuguaki; Uesato, Masaya; Hoshino, Isamu; Murakami, Kentaro; Fujishiro, Takeshi; Imanishi, Shunsuke; Endo, Satoshi; Toyozumi, Takeshi; Matsubara, Hisahiro

    2012-12-01

    It is known that cisplatin induces the excretion of zinc from the urine and thereby reduces its serum concentration. However, the fluctuation of these trace elements during or after cisplatin-based chemotherapy has not been evaluated. To answer this question, we performed a clinical study in esophageal cancer patients undergoing cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Eighteen patients with esophageal cancer who were not able to swallow food or water orally due to complete stenosis of the esophagus were evaluated. The patients were divided into a control group [total parenteral nutrition (TPN) alone for 28 days, ten cases] and an intervention group (TPN with additional trace elements for 28 days, eight cases). The serum concentrations of zinc, iron, copper, manganese, triiodothyronin (T3), and thyroxin (T4), as alternative indicators of iodine, were measured on days 0, 14, and 28 of treatment, and statistically analyzed on day 28. In the control group, the serum concentration of copper was significantly decreased from 135.4 (day 0) to 122.1 μg/ml (day 14), and finally to 110.6 μg/ml (day 28, p = 0.015). The concentration of manganese was also significantly decreased from 1.34 (day 0) to 1.17 μg/ml (day 14) and finally to 1.20 (day 28, p = 0.049). The levels of zinc, iron, T3, and T4 were not significantly changed. In the intervention group, the supplementation with trace elements successfully prevented these decreases in their concentrations. TPN with supplementary trace elements is preferable and recommended for patients who are undergoing chemotherapy in order to maintain the patients' nutrient homeostasis. PMID:23054866

  18. Nutritional Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the effects that space flight has on humans nutritional biochemistry. Particular attention is devoted to the study of protein breakdown, inflammation, hypercatabolism, omega 3 fatty acids, vitamin D, calcium, urine, folate and nutrient stability of certain vitamins, the fluid shift and renal stone risk, acidosis, iron/hematology, and the effects on bone of dietary protein, potassium. inflammation, and omega-3 fatty acids

  19. Nutritional Rickets

    OpenAIRE

    Özkan, Behzat

    2010-01-01

    Nutritional rickets (NR) is still the most common form of growing bone disease despite the efforts of health care providers to reduce the incidence of the disease. Today, it is well known that the etiology of NR ranges from isolated vitamin D deficiency (VDD) to isolated calcium deficiency. In Turkey, almost all NR cases result from VDD. Recent evidence suggests that in addition to its short− or long−term effects on skeletal development, VDD during infancy may predispose the patient to diseas...

  20. Performance of a Community-based Health and Nutrition-education Intervention in the Management of Diarrhoea in a Slum of Delhi, India

    OpenAIRE

    Pahwa, Smriti; Kumar, Geeta Trilok; Toteja, G.S.

    2010-01-01

    Diarrhoeal infections are the fifth leading cause of death worldwide and continue to take a high toll on child health. Mushrooming of slums due to continuous urbanization has made diarrhoea one of the biggest public-health challenges in metropolitan cities in India. The objective of the study was to carry out a community-based health and nutrition-education intervention, focusing on several factors influencing child health with special emphasis on diarrhoea, in a slum of Delhi, India. Mothers...

  1. Comparison of salty taste acuity and salty taste preference with sodium intake and blood pressure based on zinc nutritional status in two rural populations in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Choe, Jeong-Sook; Kim, Eun-Kyung

    2012-01-01

    This study examined salty taste acuity and salty taste preference and sodium intake in relation to zinc nutritional status in 2 rural populations in Korea. And we also examined the main food contributors of their sodium intakes. We enrolled 218 adults (66 men and 152 women) from the Kangneung and Samcheok regions in Korea's Kangwon province in our study conducted from December 2011 to February 2012. Participants from each region were divided into 3 groups based on their serum zinc level (T1: ...

  2. Assessing the Impact of a Community-Based Health and Nutrition Education on the Management of Diarrhea in an Urban District, Cairo, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Aziz, Shaimaa B; Mowafy, Maha A; Galal, Yasmine S

    2016-02-01

    Diarrhea is considered as a major cause of mortality in children aged less than five years old. This pre/post interventional study was designed to assess maternal knowledge about diarrhea and implement a community-based health and nutrition education messages. The study was held in Al-Darb Al-Ahamar (ADAA) district, Cairo, Egypt and targeted a random sample of 600 mothers having at least one child under-five years old and complained of at least one previous attack of diarrhea. The study was conducted in three phases. The pre-intervention phase included a base line survey for the mothers and training activities for the community health workers (CHWs). Intervention phase included health and nutrition education sessions; performance evaluation for the CHWs during providing the message. In phase three, the mothers had no instructions for 3 months then the post- intervention interview and feedback sessions were conducted. Results showed that knowledge of mothers about diarrhea (etiological factors and preventive measures) had improved significantly after the intervention. During observation CHWs' scored 50% of the required tasks in education and communication skills. In the feedback sessions, all the mothers declared that nutrition education sessions were highly valuable, and asked for on-going support and training programs. The current study found that health and nutrition education sessions were successful in improving mothers' knowledge regarding preventive measures and management of diarrhea. CHWs are effective health education providers especially in household based intervention. Thus, health services should support community based interventions to reinforce mothers' knowledge and practices towards their sick children. PMID:26383210

  3. Priority-based assessment of food additives database of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.

    OpenAIRE

    Benz, R D; Irausquin, H

    1991-01-01

    The priority-based assessment of food additives (PAFA) is a database maintained by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. PAFA contains extensive administrative, chemical, and toxicological information on 1685 regulated direct food additives. The database also has limited administrative and chemical information on an additional 1236 direct additives. The total 2921 substances represent everything added to food in the United States. PAFA conta...

  4. An exclusive human milk-based diet in extremely premature infants reduces the probability of remaining on total parenteral nutrition: a reanalysis of the data

    OpenAIRE

    Ghandehari Heli; Lee Martin L; Rechtman David J

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background We have previously shown that an exclusively human milk-based diet is beneficial for extremely premature infants who are at risk for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). However, no significant difference in the other primary study endpoint, the length of time on total parenteral nutrition (TPN), was found. The current analysis re-evaluates these data from a different statistical perspective considering the probability or likelihood of needing TPN on any given day rather than ...

  5. School-Based Nutrition Programs Are Associated with Reduced Child Food Insecurity over Time among Mexican-Origin Mother-Child Dyads In Texas Border Colonias12

    OpenAIRE

    Nalty, Courtney C; Sharkey, Joseph R; Dean, Wesley R

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, an estimated 50.2 million adults and children lived in US households with food insecurity, a condition associated with adverse health effects across the life span. Relying solely on parent proxy may underreport the true prevalence of child food insecurity. The present study sought to understand mothers’ and children’s (aged 6–11 y) perspectives and experiences of child food insecurity and its seasonal volatility, including the effects of school-based and summertime nutrition programs...

  6. Prevalence and determinants of nutritional anemia in an urban area among unmarried adolescent girls: A community-based cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Vani Srinivas; Ranjit Mankeshwar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Nutrition status prior to pregnancy is of vital importance. Inadequate iron stores bef ore conception is a major cause of iron deficiency.The primary objective of this research was to estimate the prevalence of anaemia and the secondary objective was to assess various epidemiological factors associated with anaemia. Methods: A community based, cross - sectional study was carried among 207 unmarried adolescent girls between 10 to 19 years, residing in urban field practice area of...

  7. Parenteral nutrition in radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basing on the results of experiments on mice and rats and their clinical use in oncological patients treatment recommendations are given on use of parenteral nutrition in treatment of radiation disease

  8. Nutrition in neurocritical care

    OpenAIRE

    Afzal Azim; Armin Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Adequate nutritional therapy is essential for recovery from critical illness. Nutritional requirement varies in different patients and varies daily in a single patient. Both under and over feeding are associated with complications. Besides this, not all patients behave in a similar way to nutritional therapy. Appropriate nutritional therapy requires identification of patients “at nutritional risk” and providing aggressive nutritional support to them. The current article deals with nutritional...

  9. Development and application of a web-based nutritional management program to improve dietary behaviors for the prevention of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoon; Lee, Min June; Kang, Hee Cheol; Lee, Mee Sook; Yoon, Sun

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a Web-based nutritional management program for the prevention of metabolic syndrome and to evaluate how the program affects health-related behaviors and the health status of office workers with metabolic syndrome risk factors. For the pilot test of the Web-based nutritional management program, 29 employees (19 males, 10 females) with more than one metabolic syndrome risk factor participated in the Web-based nutritional management program for 16 weeks. Participants visited the Web site more than two times per week and completed customized assessments of health status, smoking habits, alcohol consumption, dietary habits, food intake, ideal body weight, energy requirements, and exercise. Subjects had a significant decrease in body weight, waist circumference, body mass index (P eating snacks, eating out, and dining with others decreased, whereas the frequency of intake of foods such as whole grains, seaweed, fruit, and low-fat milk increased after intervention. After 16 weeks, program satisfaction was evaluated using a Web evaluation questionnaire, and most of the participants were highly satisfied with Web site components such as the loading speed, configuration, privacy, design, functionality, and contents. PMID:24651253

  10. A numerical investigation of a diffusion-absorption refrigeration cycle based on R124-DMAC mixture for solar cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Ezzine, N.; Garma, R.; Bellagi, A. [U.R. Thermique et Thermodynamique des Procedes Industriels, Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Monastir, Av. Ibn Jazzar, 5060 Monastir (Tunisia)

    2010-05-15

    Research on new working fluid for uses in absorption systems has been continued. The feasibility of a solar driven DAR using the mixture R124/DMAC as working fluid is investigated by numerical simulation. The cycle is simulated for two cooling medium temperatures, 27 C and 35 C, and four driving heat temperatures in the range [90 C-180 C]. The performance characteristics of this system is analyzed parametrically by computer simulation for a design cooling capacity of 1 kW. The results show that the system performance and the lowest (minimum) evaporation temperature reached are largely dependent upon the absorber efficiency and the driving temperature. It is shown that for solar applications this fluid mixture has a higher COP and may constitute an alternative to the conventional ammonia-water system. (author)

  11. Synthesis of mullite-based coatings from alumina and zircon powder mixtures by plasma spraying and laser remelting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mechanical mixture of alumina and pulverized zircon sand in 3:2 M ratio has been plasma sprayed to obtain mullite coating. Thereafter, the top layer of the coating has been remelted using laser. The presence of a mullite phase in the as-sprayed and laser remelted coatings has been confirmed qualitatively using X-ray diffraction. Both as-sprayed and laser remelted coatings have been characterized for their microstructure, hardness and porosity. The ultrafine grain structure of the coating produced by rapid quenching has been analyzed using transmission electron microscope. Presence of a mullite phase in the coatings has also been confirmed using small angle electron diffraction. Laser remelting has resulted in an appreciable reduction in porosity and increase in hardness in the coatings. - Highlights: • Mullite has been produced by plasma spraying of alumina–zircon powder mixture. • As sprayed coating shows good integrity. • Laser remelting reduced porosity and increased coating hardness

  12. Synthesis of mullite-based coatings from alumina and zircon powder mixtures by plasma spraying and laser remelting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazra, S. [Integrated Test Range, Chandipur, Balasore, Odisha 756025 (India); Das, J. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, IIT Kharagpur, 721302 (India); Bandyopadhyay, P.P., E-mail: ppb@mech.iitkgp.ernet.in [Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT Kharagpur, 721302 (India)

    2015-03-15

    A mechanical mixture of alumina and pulverized zircon sand in 3:2 M ratio has been plasma sprayed to obtain mullite coating. Thereafter, the top layer of the coating has been remelted using laser. The presence of a mullite phase in the as-sprayed and laser remelted coatings has been confirmed qualitatively using X-ray diffraction. Both as-sprayed and laser remelted coatings have been characterized for their microstructure, hardness and porosity. The ultrafine grain structure of the coating produced by rapid quenching has been analyzed using transmission electron microscope. Presence of a mullite phase in the coatings has also been confirmed using small angle electron diffraction. Laser remelting has resulted in an appreciable reduction in porosity and increase in hardness in the coatings. - Highlights: • Mullite has been produced by plasma spraying of alumina–zircon powder mixture. • As sprayed coating shows good integrity. • Laser remelting reduced porosity and increased coating hardness.

  13. Acceptability of a theory of planned behaviour email-based nutrition intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothe, E J; Mullan, B A

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated feasibility and acceptability of a new email-delivered intervention promoting fruit and vegetable consumption in a university-based population of Australian young adults. The study explored whether there are differences in the reported feasibility and acceptability between demographic groups within the population of interest and at three levels of intervention intensity. The email-delivered intervention program consists of an implementation intention 'planning task' and between 3 and 15 short email messages over a 15-day study period. The intervention program was developed using the Theory of Planned Behaviour and was designed to modify perceived behavioural control. One hundred and ten participants (mean age = 19.21 years, 25.6% male) completed the feasibility and acceptability questionnaire at Day 15. This questionnaire contained items about all intervention components. High acceptability and feasibility scores were found for all intervention parts and at all levels of intervention intensity. There were few significant differences in the reported acceptability of items between key demographic sub-groups, and no differences in reported acceptability at different levels of intervention intensity. These results suggest that this email-delivered intervention is an acceptable and feasible tool for promoting fruit and vegetable consumption for participants in the target population. PMID:22942273

  14. Mendelian randomization in nutritional epidemiology

    OpenAIRE

    Qi, Lu

    2009-01-01

    Nutritional epidemiology aims to identify dietary and lifestyle causes for human diseases. Causality inference in nutritional epidemiology is largely based on evidence from studies of observational design, and may be distorted by unmeasured or residual confounding and reverse causation. Mendelian randomization is a recently developed methodology that combines genetic and classical epidemiological analysis to infer causality for environmental exposures, based on the principle of Mendel’s law o...

  15. Mixture model for inferring susceptibility to mastitis in dairy cattle: a procedure for likelihood-based inference

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen Just; Madsen Per; Sorensen Daniel; Klemetsdal Gunnar; Heringstad Bjørg; Øegård Jørgen; Gianola Daniel; Detilleux Johann

    2004-01-01

    Abstract A Gaussian mixture model with a finite number of components and correlated random effects is described. The ultimate objective is to model somatic cell count information in dairy cattle and to develop criteria for genetic selection against mastitis, an important udder disease. Parameter estimation is by maximum likelihood or by an extension of restricted maximum likelihood. A Monte Carlo expectation-maximization algorithm is used for this purpose. The expectation step is carried out ...

  16. Mixture model for inferring susceptibility to mastitis in dairy cattle: a procedure for likelihood-based inference

    OpenAIRE

    Gianola, Daniel; Ødegaard, Jørgen; Heringstad, B; Klemetsdal, G; Sorensen, Daniel; Madsen, Per; Jensen, Just; Detilleux, J

    2004-01-01

    A Gaussian mixture model with a finite number of components and correlated random effects is described. The ultimate objective is to model somatic cell count information in dairy cattle and to develop criteria for genetic selection against mastitis, an important udder disease. Parameter estimation is by maximum likelihood or by an extension of restricted maximum likelihood. A Monte Carlo expectation-maximization algorithm is used for this purpose. The expectation step is carried out using Gib...

  17. Differentiation of Chemical Components in a Binary Solvent Vapor Mixture Using Carbon/Polymer Composite-Based Chemiresistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Sanjay V.; Jenkins, Mark W.; Hughes, Robert C.; Yelton, W. Graham; Ricco, Antonio J.

    1999-07-19

    We demonstrate a ''universal solvent sensor'' constructed from a small array of carbon/polymer composite chemiresistors that respond to solvents spanning a wide range of Hildebrand volubility parameters. Conductive carbon particles provide electrical continuity in these composite films. When the polymer matrix absorbs solvent vapors, the composite film swells, the average separation between carbon particles increases, and an increase in film resistance results, as some of the conduction pathways are broken. The adverse effects of contact resistance at high solvent concentrations are reported. Solvent vapors including isooctane, ethanol, dlisopropyhnethylphosphonate (DIMP), and water are correctly identified (''classified'') using three chemiresistors, their composite coatings chosen to span the full range of volubility parameters. With the same three sensors, binary mixtures of solvent vapor and water vapor are correctly classified, following classification, two sensors suffice to determine the concentrations of both vapor components. Polyethylene vinylacetate and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) are two such polymers that are used to classify binary mixtures of DIMP with water vapor; the PVA/carbon-particle-composite films are sensitive to less than 0.25{degree}A relative humidity. The Sandia-developed VERI (Visual-Empirical Region of Influence) technique is used as a method of pattern recognition to classify the solvents and mixtures and to distinguish them from water vapor. In many cases, the response of a given composite sensing film to a binary mixture deviates significantly from the sum of the responses to the isolated vapor components at the same concentrations. While these nonlinearities pose significant difficulty for (primarily) linear methods such as principal components analysis, VERI handles both linear and nonlinear data with equal ease. In the present study the maximum speciation accuracy is achieved by an array

  18. Childhood nutrition education in health promotion and disease prevention.

    OpenAIRE

    C. M. Olson

    1989-01-01

    In the last 10 to 15 years, nutrition has become a major component of health promotion and chronic disease prevention. Two widely recommended strategies for incorporating nutrition education directed toward children and youth into health promotion and disease prevention efforts are school-based nutrition education and the integration of nutritional care into health care. School-based nutrition education programs targeted toward very specific eating behaviors are showing very promising results...

  19. Electrolyte Mixtures Based on Ethylene Carbonate and Dimethyl Sulfone for Li-Ion Batteries with Improved Safety Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Andreas; Migeot, Matthias; Thißen, Eva; Schulz, Michael; Heinzmann, Ralf; Indris, Sylvio; Bergfeldt, Thomas; Lei, Boxia; Ziebert, Carlos; Hanemann, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    In this study, novel electrolyte mixtures for Li-ion cells are presented with highly improved safety features. The electrolyte formulations are composed of ethylene carbonate/dimethyl sulfone (80:20 wt/wt) as the solvent mixture and LiBF4 , lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)azanide, and lithium bis(oxalato)borate as the conducting salts. Initially, the electrolytes are characterized with regard to their physical properties, their lithium transport properties, and their electrochemical stability. The key advantages of the electrolytes are high flash points of >140 °C, which enhance significantly the intrinsic safety of Li-ion cells containing these electrolytes. This has been quantified by measurements in an accelerating rate calorimeter. By using the newly developed electrolytes, which are liquid down to T=-10 °C, it is possible to achieve C-rates of up to 1.5 C with >80 % of the initial specific capacity. During 100 cycles in cell tests (graphite||LiNi1/3 Co1/3 Mn1/3 O2 ), it is proven that the retention of the specific capacity is >98 % of the third discharge cycle with dependence on the conducting salt. The best electrolyte mixture yields a capacity retention of >96 % after 200 cycles in coin cells. PMID:25950145

  20. Novel electrolyte mixtures based on dimethyl sulfone, ethylene carbonate and LiPF6 for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Andreas; Hanemann, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    In this study, novel electrolyte mixtures for Li-ion cells are presented which are composed of ethylene carbonate/dimethyl sulfone (80:20 wt./wt.) as a solvent mixture and LiPF6, lithium bis(oxalato)borate and lithium difluoro(oxalato)borate as conducting salts. The main advantages of the solvent mixture are high flash points of >140 °C which enhance the intrinsic safety of Li-ion cells while maintaining good cell performance above 0-5 °C. The movability of the lithium ions in the electrolyte is investigated via programmed current derivative chronopotentiometry. It is found that pure electrolyte properties cannot necessarily predict the electrolyte behavior in real Li-ion cells but the complex interplay between electrolytes, electrode materials and separators has to be taken into account. Using the newly developed electrolytes, it is possible to achieve C-rates up to 1.5C with >80% of the initial specific discharge capacity (25 °C). Within 200 cycles during one month in cell tests (C||NMC) it is proven that the retention of the specific capacity is >98% of the third discharge cycle in dependence of the conducting salt.

  1. Danish evidence-based clinical guideline for use of nutritional support in pulmonary rehabilitation of undernourished patients with stable COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Anne Marie; Iepsen, Ulrik Winning; Topperup, Randi;

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims Disease-related under-nutrition is a common problem in individuals with COPD. The rationale for nutritional support in pulmonary rehabilitation therefore seems obvious. However there is limited evidence regarding the patient-relevant outcomes i.e. activities of daily living (ADL...... possible, or meta-analyses from existing guidelines or systematic reviews were adapted. The results were used for labeling and wording of the recommendations. Results Data from 12 randomized controlled trials were included in a systematic review, which formed the basis for our recommendations as no new...... primary studies had been published. There were evidence of moderate quality that nutritional support for undernourished patients with COPD lead to a weight gain of 1.7 kg (95% confidence interval: 1.3 to 2.2 kg), but the effect was quantified as a mean change from baseline, which is less reliable. There...

  2. Toward public health nutrition strategies in the European Union to implement food based dietary guidelines and to enhance healthier lifestyles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockley, L

    2001-04-01

    This paper suggests strategies for implementing the EU food based dietary guidelines. Dietary guidelines have been developed and disseminated in many countries across the world. However, the EU guidelines are the first to include a specific section on implementation. The aims of the guidelines are twofold, 1) to provide food based dietary guidelines which can be used as a consistent communication tool and 2) as a springboard to planning, implementing, and evaluating public health nutrition strategies. The report is not intended to be prescriptive. It aims to build upon a solid evidence base to provide practical and cost effective suggestions for developing public health strategies, which member countries can use and tailor to the social, cultural and health needs of their populations. Diet and physical activity related diseases impose vast costs on the European economy. However, despite the enormous costs to healthcare systems and in terms of lost productivity, there have been a very few resources allocated in Europe to attempting to prevent these, rather than treating them. The burden of disease exists in the majority of the population, and not in high-risk groups. The optimal public health strategy is thus to focus on the population as a whole, rather than targeting those with increased risk factors or pre-existing disease. Reviews have been carried out on the health impact effectiveness of various types of intervention to promote healthy eating and physical activity in the population. These conclude that the most effective interventions a) adopt an integrated, multidisciplinary, and comprehensive approach b) involve a complementary range of actions, and c) work at an individual, community, environmental and policy level. Information provision in isolation is not effective, and may exacerbate inequalities in health. In some countries inequities in diet and physical activity are not only significant contributors to inequalities in health, but are increasing

  3. Governor's nutrition and physical activity scorecard

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    11 pages Research-based “best practices” that support proper nutrition and increased physical activity for K-12 students form the basis of a Web-based Governor’s Nutrition and Physical Activity Scorecard. Schools are encouraged to use the Web-based scorecard as a tool for identifying best practices and measuring progress towards meeting the nutrition and physical activity needs of students. The best practices and policies recommended by Virginia Action for Healthy Kids, national and state ...

  4. Physical properties and solubility parameters of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium based ionic liquids/DMSO mixtures at 298.15 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, H.; Yumei, Z.; Huaping, W.

    2015-12-01

    Densities, refractive indices, conductivities and viscosities of binary mixtures of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs) with dimethyl sulfoxide at 298.15 K are reported. Excess molar volumes have been calculated from experimental data and were fitted with Redlich-Kister equation. The density and refractive index were found to increase with increasing concentration in all cases except [EMIM]COOH. The free mobility of ions has found to enhance conductivity and decrease viscosity to varying extent in all mixtures being studied. It has been observed that solubility parameters, dielectric constants and nature of anions of ILs being used play a vital role in determining the subsequent characteristics. As DMSO has high dielectric constant therefore, it was able to form interactions with most of ILs except with [EMIM]COOH due to anomalous nature of anion.

  5. Comparison of Formulas Based on Lipid Emulsions of Olive Oil, Soybean Oil, or Several Oils for Parenteral Nutrition: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yu-Jie; Sun, Li-Li; Li, Meng-Ying; Ding, Cui-Ling; Su, Yu-Cheng; Sun, Li-Juan; Xue, Sen-Hai; Yan, Feng; Zhao, Chang-Hai; Wang, Wen

    2016-03-01

    Many studies have reported that olive oil-based lipid emulsion (LE) formulas of soybean oil, medium-chain triglycerides, olive oil, and fish oil (SMOF) may be a viable alternative for parenteral nutrition. However, some randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) have raised concerns regarding the nutritional benefits and safety of SMOFs. We searched principally the MEDLINE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Scopus, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases from inception to March 2014 for the relevant literature and conducted a meta-analysis of 15 selected RCTs that 1) compared either olive oil- or SMOF-based LEs with soybean oil-based LEs and 2) reported plasma concentrations of α-tocopherol, oleic acid, and ω-6 (n-6) and ω-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and liver concentrations of total bilirubin and the enzymes alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and γ-glutamyl transferase. The meta-analysis suggested that SMOF-based LEs were associated with higher plasma concentrations of plasma α-tocopherol, oleic acid, and the ω-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid. Olive oil- and SMOF-based LEs correlated with lower plasma concentrations of long-chain ω-6 PUFAs and were similar to soybean oil-based LEs with regard to their effects on liver function indicators. In summary, olive oil- and SMOF-based LEs have nutritional advantages over soybean oil-based LEs and are similarly safe. However, their performance in clinical settings requires further investigation. PMID:26980811

  6. Food sources of arachidonic acid (PFA 20:4), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food sources of arachidonic acid (PFA 20:4), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

  7. Food sources of alpha-linolenic acid (PFA 18:3), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food sources of alpha-linolenic acid (PFA 18:3), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

  8. Food sources of total omega 6 fatty acids (18:2 + 20:4), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food sources of total omega 6 fatty acids (18:2 + 20:4), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

  9. Food products made with glycomacropeptide, a low-phenylalanine whey protein, provide a new alternative to amino Acid-based medical foods for nutrition management of phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Calcar, Sandra C; Ney, Denise M

    2012-08-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU), an inborn error in phenylalanine metabolism, requires lifelong nutrition management with a low-phenylalanine diet, which includes a phenylalanine-free amino acid-based medical formula to provide the majority of an individual's protein needs. Compliance with this diet is often difficult for older children, adolescents, and adults with PKU. The whey protein glycomacropeptide (GMP) is ideally suited for the PKU diet because it is naturally low in phenylalanine. Nutritionally complete, acceptable medical foods and beverages can be made with GMP to increase the variety of protein sources for the PKU diet. As an intact protein, GMP improves protein use and increases satiety compared with amino acids. Thus, GMP provides a new, more physiologic source of low-phenylalanine dietary protein for people with PKU. PMID:22818728

  10. Phase change material: Optimizing the thermal properties and thermal conductivity of myristic acid/palmitic acid eutectic mixture with acid-based surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study the addition of surfactant to fatty acids as phase change materials (PCMs) for solar thermal applications is proposed. The incorporation of surfactant additives into a eutectic mixture of fatty acids can significantly increase the value of latent heat storage and can suppress undercooling. We report the preparation of myristic acid/palmitic acid (MA/PA) eutectic mixture as Phase Change Material (PCM) with addition of 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% sodium myristate (SM), sodium palmitate (SP), and sodium stearate (SS), the influence of surfactant additives on thermal properties and thermal conductivity of eutectic mixtures. It was found that the addition of 5% SM, 5% SP, and 5% SS to MA/PA eutectic mixture is very effective in depressing the liquid/solid phase change temperature, reducing the undercooling and increasing the amount of latent heat of fusion as well as thermal conductivity of eutectic PCM compared to eutectic PCM without surfactants. Furthermore MA/PA + 5%SS has the highest latent heat of fusion of 191.85 J g−1, while MA/PA + 5%SM showed the least undercooling of 0.34 °C and the highest thermal conductivity of 0.242 W m−1 K−1. -- Highlights: • Myristic acid (MA) and palmitic acid (PA) are fatty acids component. • The eutectic composition ratio of MA/PA obtained at 70/30, wt.%. • 5% each acid-based surfactants were reduces the melting and undercooling temperature of MA/PA (70/30, wt.%). • Thermal conductivity and ΔHf of MA/PA (70/30, wt.%) were increased by adding 5% surfactants. • MA/PA + 5% acid-based surfactants have a great potential to apply in LHTES applications

  11. Mixture Density Mercer Kernels

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We present a method of generating Mercer Kernels from an ensemble of probabilistic mixture models, where each mixture model is generated from a Bayesian mixture...

  12. Diet and Colorectal Cancer Risk: Evaluation of a Nutrition Education Leaflet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, K. J.; Fearon, K. C. H.; Buckner, K.; Richardson, R. A.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of a needs-based, nutrition education leaflet on nutritional knowledge. Design: Comparison of nutritional knowledge levels before and after exposure to a nutrition education leaflet. Setting: A regional colorectal out-patient clinic in Edinburgh. Method: A nutrition education leaflet, based on an earlier…

  13. Nutritional Metabolomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gürdeniz, Gözde

    . Application of multiple analytical strategies may provide comprehensive information to reach a valid answer to these research questions. In this thesis, I investigated several analytical technologies and data handling strategies in order to evaluate their effects on the biological answer. In metabolomics, one...... strategy influences the patterns identified as important for the nutritional question under study. Therefore, in depth understanding of the study design and the specific effects of the analytical technology on the produced data is extremely important to achieve high quality data handling. Besides data...

  14. Optimizing supplementary pollen mixtures for bumblebeeBombus terrestris colonies based on colony reproductive variables%地熊蜂蜂群发育性状评价及其饲料花粉配比优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盖琴宝; 周志勇; 张红; 黄家兴; 安建东

    2015-01-01

    , total weight of pupae, duration of the drone stage, total number and birth weight of drones in queen-less micro-colonies ofBombus terrestris (L.) were measured and analyzed in colonies provided with the seven different supplementary pollen mixtures. Principal component analysis was used to assess the information provided by each of the nine variables and pollen mixtures were optimized using the mixture regression model.[Results] To evaluate the micro-colony development ofB. Terrestris the nine variables can be categorized as either larval development, pupal development, drone development, or developmental cycle, factors (including the total number of larvae, total weight of pupae, birth weight of drones, egg laying delay and duration of the drone stage). Optimized pollen mixtures based on the five representative variables are: 1) oilseed rape pollen for colonies with the shortest egg laying delay, the highest total number of larvae, the greatest total weight of pupae, 2) 1︰1.5︰1.5 combination of apricot︰willow︰oilseed rape pollen for colonies with the shortest drone stage 3) 3︰1 combination of willow︰oilseed rape pollen for colonies with the largest drone birth weight. [Conclusion]Reproductive variables of B. Terrestris micro-colonies can be measured and used to optimize supplementary pollen mixtures. These results should be useful for further research on the nutritional requirements of different developmental phases of bumblebee colonies and for the commercial production of bumblebees.

  15. Evaluation of a School-Based Multicomponent Nutrition Education Program to Improve Young Children's Fruit and Vegetable Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prelip, Michael; Kinsler, Janni; Thai, Chan Le; Erausquin, Jennifer Toller; Slusser, Wendelin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of a multicomponent nutrition education program on student knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to consumption of fruits and vegetables (FVs). Design: Quasi-experimental pretest/posttest research design; 3 study conditions (Intervention+, Intervention, Comparison). Setting: Six schools from the Los Angeles…

  16. Nutritional aspects of food irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, T.K.

    1981-08-01

    From the nutritional point of view the irradiation of fruits and vegetables presents few problems. It should be noted that irradiation-induced changes in the ..beta..-carotene content of papaya (not available to the Joint Expert Committee in 1976) have been demonstrated to be unimportant. The Joint Expert Committee also noted the need for more data on thiamine loss. These have been forthcoming and indicate that control of insects in rice is possible without serious loss of the vitamin. Experiments with other cereal crops were also positive in this regard. The most important evidence on the nutritional quality of irradiated beef and poultry was the demonstration that they contained no anti-thiamine properties. A point not to be overlooked is the rather serious loss of thiamine when mackerel is irradiated at doses exceeding 3 kGy. Recent evidence indicates that thiamine loss could be reduced by using a high dose rate application process. Though spices contribute little directly to the nutritional quality of the food supply they play an important indirect role. It is thus encouraging that they can be sterilized by irradiation without loss of aroma and taste and without significant loss of ..beta..-carotenes. Of future importance are the observations on single cell protein and protein-fat-carbohydrate mixtures. The reduction of net protein utilization in protein-fat mixtures may be the result of physical interaction of the components.

  17. Nutrition.gov

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Site Help Contact Us FAQ En Espanol Search Nutrition.Gov Search all USDA Advanced Search Search Tips Browse by Subject What's In Food Smart Nutrition 101 Life Stages Weight Management Nutrition and Health ...

  18. Nutrition Advice and Recipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pancreas Foundation > Patient Information > Nutrition Advice & Recipes test Nutrition Advice & Recipes This is a very important section ... information on all aspects of daily life, including nutrition, medical treatments, pain management, and practical tips. For ...

  19. Food and Nutrition Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... display title no content is required Programs and Services Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Women, Infants, and Children ... Assistance State Systems Offices Food, Nutrition and Consumer Services (FNCS) Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion (CNPP) ...

  20. Total parenteral nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) will help you or your child get nutrition from a special formula through a vein in the ... you can also eat and drink while getting nutrition from TPN. Your nurse will teach you how ...

  1. Geriatric nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, R W; Hodgkins, E M

    1989-01-01

    In recent decades, veterinary medicine has become more successful in prolonging the healthy, useful lives of pets. As a result, the practitioner spends a greater part of each practice day caring for the geriatric animal, both healthy and unhealthy. Because of their longevity, older pets are typically regular family members, with owners who seek the finest health care possible for their pets. The practice of geriatric medicine most properly should begin not when the dog or cat reaches some specific "golden" age, but rather when the wiggly, robust puppy or kitten receives its first examination. Like all parts of a sound preventive program, geriatric nutrition best follows from a well-considered juvenile and adult nutrition program. Furthermore, once it becomes senior, the "well" geriatric is as much a candidate for a diet designed especially to accommodate old age changes as is his unhealthy contemporary. In fact, evidence suggests that appropriate dietary management of the healthy, but often subclinical, patient may help postpone the signs of dysfunction and increase quality and length of life. A knowledge of the most significant nutrients and the impact of each on aging systems is now, and will become increasingly more, important to the progressive, skillful veterinarian. PMID:2646815

  2. Effects of nutritional level of concentrate-based diets on meat quality and expression levels of genes related to meat quality in Hainan black goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dingfa; Zhou, Luli; Zhou, Hanlin; Hou, Guanyu; Shi, Liguang; Li, Mao; Huang, Xianzhou; Guan, Song

    2015-02-01

    The present study investigated the effects of the nutritional levels of diets on meat quality and related gene expression in Hainan black goat. Twenty-four goats were divided into six dietary treatments and were fed a concentrate-based diet with two levels of crude protein (CP) (15% or 17%) and three levels of digestive energy (DE) (11.72, 12.55 or 13.39 MJ/kg DM) for 90 days. Goats fed the concentrate-based diet with 17% CP had significantly (P meat quality and expression levels of genes associated with meat quality in Hainan black goats. PMID:25039653

  3. A comparative study of novel spectrophotometric methods based on isosbestic points; application on a pharmaceutical ternary mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfy, Hayam M; Saleh, Sarah S; Hassan, Nagiba Y; Salem, Hesham

    2014-05-21

    This work represents the application of the isosbestic points present in different absorption spectra. Three novel spectrophotometric methods were developed, the first method is the absorption subtraction method (AS) utilizing the isosbestic point in zero-order absorption spectra; the second method is the amplitude modulation method (AM) utilizing the isosbestic point in ratio spectra; and third method is the amplitude summation method (A-Sum) utilizing the isosbestic point in derivative spectra. The three methods were applied for the analysis of the ternary mixture of chloramphenicol (CHL), dexamethasone sodium phosphate (DXM) and tetryzoline hydrochloride (TZH) in eye drops in the presence of benzalkonium chloride as a preservative. The components at the isosbestic point were determined using the corresponding unified regression equation at this point with no need for a complementary method. The obtained results were statistically compared to each other and to that of the developed PLS model. The specificity of the developed methods was investigated by analyzing laboratory prepared mixtures and the combined dosage form. The methods were validated as per ICH guidelines where accuracy, repeatability, inter-day precision and robustness were found to be within the acceptable limits. The results obtained from the proposed methods were statistically compared with official ones where no significant difference was observed. PMID:24589996

  4. A Gaussian Mixture MRF for Model-Based Iterative Reconstruction with Applications to Low-Dose X-ray CT

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Ruoqiao; Pal, Debashish; Thibault, Jean-Baptiste; Sauer, Ken D; Bouman, Charles A

    2016-01-01

    Markov random fields (MRFs) have been widely used as prior models in various inverse problems such as tomographic reconstruction. While MRFs provide a simple and often effective way to model the spatial dependencies in images, they suffer from the fact that parameter estimation is difficult. In practice, this means that MRFs typically have very simple structure that cannot completely capture the subtle characteristics of complex images. In this paper, we present a novel Gaussian mixture Markov random field model (GM-MRF) that can be used as a very expressive prior model for inverse problems such as denoising and reconstruction. The GM-MRF forms a global image model by merging together individual Gaussian-mixture models (GMMs) for image patches. In addition, we present a novel analytical framework for computing MAP estimates using the GM-MRF prior model through the construction of surrogate functions that result in a sequence of quadratic optimizations. We also introduce a simple but effective method to adjust...

  5. [Nutritional therapy of gout].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickolai, Beate; Kiss, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition and nutritional behaviours have been found to play a major role in the development of gout. Studies show that body mass index (BMI), as well as excessive intake of alcoholic beverages, meat, soft drinks and fruit juices increase the risk of developing gout. Similarly, dairy products and coffee have been seen to decrease the risk of hyperuricemia and gout, as they increase the excretion of uric acid. Flares of gout are often caused by large meals and high alcohol consumption. Each additional intake of meat portion per day increases the risk of gout by 21 %. Taking total alcohol consumption into account, the risk of gout increases after one to two standard drinks. In contrast to previous assumptions purine-rich plant foods like legumes and vegetables do not increase the risk of gout. The current dietary guidelines take into account nutritional factors, which not only consider purine intake, but also their endogenous production and their influence on renal excretion. A balanced diet based on the Swiss healthy eating guideline pyramid as well as the Mediterranean diet is appropriate for this patient population. The treatment of gout is multi-faceted, since this patient population presents other comorbidities such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Collectively, these risk factors are diet dependent and require a treatment strategy that is centered on modifying one's nutrition and nutritional behaviours. The aim of such therapy is to educate the patient as well as treat the accompanying comorbidities with the goal of decreasing serum uric acid values. Motivated patients require consultation and follow-up care in order to be able to actively decrease the serum uric acid. PMID:27008448

  6. Effect of a child care center-based obesity prevention program on body mass index and nutrition practices among preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natale, Ruby A; Lopez-Mitnik, Gabriela; Uhlhorn, Susan B; Asfour, Lila; Messiah, Sarah E

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the effect of an early childhood obesity prevention program on changes in Body Mass Index (BMI) z-score and nutrition practices. Eight child care centers were randomly assigned to an intervention or attention control arm. Participants were a multiethnic sample of children aged 2 to 5 years old (N = 307). Intervention centers received healthy menu changes and family-based education focused on increased physical activity and fresh produce intake, decreased intake of simple carbohydrate snacks, and decreased screen time. Control centers received an attention control program. Height, weight, and nutrition data were collected at baseline and at 3, 6, and 12 months. Analysis examined height, weight, and BMI z-score change by intervention condition (at baseline and at 3, 6, and 12 months). Pearson correlation analysis examined relationships among BMI z-scores and home activities and nutrition patterns in the intervention group. Child BMI z-score was significantly negatively correlated with the number of home activities completed at 6-month post intervention among intervention participants. Similarly, intervention children consumed less junk food, ate more fresh fruits and vegetables, drank less juice, and drank more 1% milk compared to children at control sites at 6 months post baseline. Ninety-seven percent of those children who were normal weight at baseline were still normal weight 12 months later. Findings support child care centers as a promising setting to implement childhood obesity prevention programs in this age group. PMID:24662896

  7. Uncovering the nutritional landscape of food

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Seunghyeon; Foo, Mathias; Jin, Yong-Su; Kim, Pan-Jun

    2014-01-01

    The study of foods and nutrients is essential for designing healthy diets. This can be facilitated through quantitative, data-driven approaches that utilize massive nutritional information collected for many different foods. Using information from over 1,000 raw foods, we systematically evaluated the nutrient composition of each food in regards to satisfying daily nutritional requirements. Such nutrient balance within a food was quantified herein as nutritional fitness, using the food's frequency of occurrence in nutritionally-adequate food combinations. Nutritional fitness offers prioritization of recommendable foods within a food network, in which foods are connected based on similarities of nutrient compositions. We found a number of key nutrients, such as choline and \\alpha-linolenic acid, whose levels in foods can critically affect the foods' nutritional fitness. Analogously, pairs of nutrients can have the same effect. In fact, two nutrients can impact nutritional fitness synergistically, although the i...

  8. Partnerships - Nutrition / Health

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Judy Bland: School Nutrition Program Employees Impact the Lives of Children. Roxie Rodgers Dinstel: Extension/Food Bank Partnership Unites to Fill Funding Gap in Alaska. Karen Ensle: Should I Eat the Fish I Catch - An Outreach Project to Pregnant Women. Susan Hansen: Child Care Providers – An Untapped Audience. Vicki Hayman: State and County Based Educators Team Up to Participate in Adolescent Calcium Research Project. Susan Holladay: Healthy Eating, Healthy Living. Luanne J. Hughes: Designin...

  9. Effects of Vegetarian Nutrition–A Nutrition Ecological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Metz

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Although vegetarian nutrition is a complex issue, the multidimensionality and interrelatedness of its effects are rarely explored. This article aims to demonstrate the complexity of vegetarian nutrition by means of the nutrition ecological modeling technique NutriMod. The integrative qualitative cause-effect model, which is based on scientific literature, provides a comprehensive picture of vegetarian nutrition. The nutrition ecological perspective offers a basis for the assessment of the effects of worldwide developments concerning shifts in diets and the effects of vegetarian nutrition on global problems like climate change. Furthermore, new research areas on the complexity of vegetarian nutrition can be identified.

  10. Effects of Vegetarian Nutrition–A Nutrition Ecological Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Martina Metz; Ingrid Hoffmann

    2010-01-01

    Although vegetarian nutrition is a complex issue, the multidimensionality and interrelatedness of its effects are rarely explored. This article aims to demonstrate the complexity of vegetarian nutrition by means of the nutrition ecological modeling technique NutriMod. The integrative qualitative cause-effect model, which is based on scientific literature, provides a comprehensive picture of vegetarian nutrition. The nutrition ecological perspective offers a basis for the assessment of the eff...

  11. Nutritional care in motor neurone disease/ amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Cleide dos Santos Salvioni

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS often present changes in nutritional status. Based on weight loss and on difficulty in nutritional management, this study aims to review the different possibilities and to present guidelines concerning nutritional treatment to such patients. Diet characteristics, types of treatment and nutritional therapy indicating administration routes and discussing the details of the disease are described herein. Nutritional therapy has been a substantial therapeutic resource for ALS development.

  12. 一种基于混合高斯模型的多目标进化算法∗%Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithm Based on Mixture Gaussian Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周爱民; 张青富; 张桂戌

    2014-01-01

    Recombination operators used in most current multiobjective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs) were originally designed for single objective optimization. This paper demonstrates that some widely used recombination operators may not work well for multiobjective optimization problems (MOPs), and proposes a multiobjective evolutionary algorithm based on decomposition and mixture Gaussian models (MOEA/D-MG). In the algorithm, a reproduction operator based on mixture Gaussian models is used to model the population distribution and sample new trails solutions, and a greedy replacement scheme is then applied to update the population by the new trial solutions. MOEA/D-MG is applied to a variety of test instances with complicated Pareto fronts. The extensive experimental results indicate that MOEA/D-MG is promising for dealing with these continuous MOPs.%目前,大多数多目标进化算法采用为单目标优化所设计的重组算子。通过证明或实验分析了几个典型的单目标优化重组算子并不适合某些多目标优化问题。提出了基于分解技术和混合高斯模型的多目标优化算法(multiobjective evolutionary algorithm based on decomposition and mixture Gaussian models,简称MOEA/D-MG)。该算法首先采用一个改进的混合高斯模型对群体建模并采样产生新个体,然后利用一个贪婪策略来更新群体。针对具有复杂Pareto前沿的多目标优化问题的测试结果表明,对给定的大多数测试题,该算法具有良好的效果。

  13. Effect of long-term feeding with a plant protein mixture based diet on growth and body/fillet quality traits of large rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    OpenAIRE

    De Francesco, Matilde; Parisi, Giuliana; Medale, Francoise; Lupi, Paola; Kaushik, Sadasivam; Poli, Bianca

    2004-01-01

    Two diets based oil fish meal (FM) or oil a mixture of plant protein sources supplemented with free amino acids (PP) were fed to rainbow trout having a mean initial body weight of 162.5 g reared at 17 +/- 1 degreesC for 24 weeks to evaluate the effect of plant protein sources oil fish growth, morphological and body quality traits. At the end of the growth study, samples were withdrawn for chemical analyses as well as measurements of different parameters of quality. Compared to the FM gro...

  14. Nickel(II) removal by mixtures of Acorga M5640 and DP8R in pseudo-emulsion based hollow fiber with strip dispersion technology

    OpenAIRE

    González, Roberto; Cerpa Naranjo, Arisbel; Alguacil, Francisco José

    2010-01-01

    This work presents the investigation of Ni(II) extraction from aqueous solution through pseudo-emulsion based hollow fiber strip dispersion (PSEHFSD) containing the mixture 2-hydroxy-5-nonylbenzaldehyde oxime + di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid/Exxsol D100 as extractant in the form of a pseudo-emulsion with H2SO4. The organic and aqueous strip phases are separated when the stirring device is stopped. The permeation of Ni(II) is investigated as a function of various experimental var...

  15. Bayesian Kernel Mixtures for Counts

    OpenAIRE

    Canale, Antonio; David B Dunson

    2011-01-01

    Although Bayesian nonparametric mixture models for continuous data are well developed, there is a limited literature on related approaches for count data. A common strategy is to use a mixture of Poissons, which unfortunately is quite restrictive in not accounting for distributions having variance less than the mean. Other approaches include mixing multinomials, which requires finite support, and using a Dirichlet process prior with a Poisson base measure, which does not allow smooth deviatio...

  16. Soft drinks, childhood overweight, and the role of nutrition educators: let's base our solutions on reality and sound science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, Liz

    2004-01-01

    The percentage of overweight children in the United States and other countries has now reached epidemic proportions. Both physical activity and food intake contribute to the energy equation, but research increasingly points to physical inactivity as the primary culprit in weight gain. Singling out and restricting specific foods and beverages are unlikely to be effective in reducing the prevalence of overweight children. Nutrition educators need to emphasize overall lifestyle, including physical activity, as well as caloric intake, in childhood overweight intervention efforts. Long-lasting solutions to the obesity epidemic must be comprehensive and must include all of the key stakeholders: children, parents, schools, health professionals, businesses, and community leaders and organizations. Nutrition educators can play a key role in developing wide-ranging and diverse coalitions, including food and beverage companies, designed to affect social change aimed at achieving healthy weight for children. PMID:15707549

  17. Chestnut and lemon balm based ingredients as natural preserving agents of the nutritional profile in matured "Serra da Estrela" cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carocho, Márcio; Barreira, João C M; Bento, Albino; Fernández-Ruiz, Virginia; Morales, Patricia; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-08-01

    Chestnut flowers, lemon balm plants and their decoctions were incorporated into "Serra da Estrela" cheese, to assess their potential to preserve its nutritional properties and provide new foodstuffs. The analyses were carried out after the normal ripening period of 1month and after 6months of storage. The most abundant nutrients were proteins and fats. The most abundant minerals were Ca and Na, while C16:0 and C18:1 were the main fatty acids. Saturated fatty acids were the most abundant, followed by the monounsaturated. Moisture seemed to be lower in the samples with the plants incorporated. The dried plants, when incorporated, seemed to be more efficient as preservers then the decoctions, although these better preserved the proteins. These plants can be regarded as promising natural preservers in foodstuffs cheese, given the preservation of key parameters and the slight impact on the nutritional value. PMID:26988492

  18. The Relationship between Health Behavior and General Health Status: Based on 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Cheon, ChunHoo; Oh, So-Mi; Jang, Soobin; Park, Jeong-Su; Park, Sunju; Jang, Bo-Hyoung; Shin, Yong-Cheol; Ko, Seong-Gyu

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the present study is to investigate the relationship between health behavior and general health status. Methods We used data from the 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Mental health was measured by stress recognition and depression. Dietary habit was measured by mixed grain diet. Life pattern was measured by sleeping time and working pattern. Physical activity was measured by walking and exercise. We defined general health status as Euro Qualit...

  19. Evaluation of effectiveness of class-based nutrition intervention on changes in soft drink and milk consumption among young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Holloman Christopher; Caine-Bish Natalie; Ha Eun-Jeong; Lowry-Gordon Karen

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background During last few decades, soft drink consumption has steadily increased while milk intake has decreased. Excess consumption of soft drinks and low milk intake may pose risks of several diseases such as dental caries, obesity, and osteoporosis. Although beverage consumption habits form during young adulthood, which has a strong impact on beverage choices in later life, nutrition education programs on beverages are scarce in this population. The purpose of this investigation ...

  20. Evaluation of effectiveness of class-based nutrition intervention on changes in soft drink and milk consumption among young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Ha, Eun-Jeong; Caine-Bish, Natalie; Holloman, Christopher; Lowry-Gordon, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Background During last few decades, soft drink consumption has steadily increased while milk intake has decreased. Excess consumption of soft drinks and low milk intake may pose risks of several diseases such as dental caries, obesity, and osteoporosis. Although beverage consumption habits form during young adulthood, which has a strong impact on beverage choices in later life, nutrition education programs on beverages are scarce in this population. The purpose of this investigation was 1) to...

  1. Elevating optimal human nutrition to a central goal of plant breeding and production of plant-based foods

    OpenAIRE

    Sands, David C.; Cindy E. Morris; Dratz, Edward A.; Pilgeram, Alice

    2009-01-01

    High-yielding cereals and other staples have produced adequate calories to ward off starvation for much of the world over several decades. However, deficiencies in certain amino acids, minerals, vitamins and fatty acids in staple crops, and animal diets derived from them, have aggravated the problem of malnutrition and the increasing incidence of certain chronic diseases in nominally well-nourished people (the so-called diseases of civilization). Enhanced global nutrition has great potential ...

  2. Food and Nutrition for the Moon Base: What we have Learned in 45 Years of Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Helen; Kloeris, Vickie; Perchonok, Michele; Zwart, Sara; Smith, Scott M.

    2006-01-01

    The United States has a new human space flight mission to return to the Moon, this time to establish an outpost to continue research there and develop our ability to send humans to Mars and bring them back in good health. The Apollo missions were the first human expeditions to the Moon. Only 2 crew members landed on the lunar surface on each Apollo mission, and they spent a maximum of 72 hours there. Future trips will have at least 4 crew members, and the initial trips will include several days of surface activity. Eventually, these short (sortie) missions will extend to longer lunar surface times, on the order of weeks. Thus, the challenges of meeting the food and nutritional needs of crew members at a lunar outpost will be significantly different from those during the early Apollo missions. The U.S. has had humans in space beginning in 1961 with increasing lengths of time in space flight. Throughout these flights, the areas of particular concern for nutrition are body mass, bone health, and radiation protection. The development and refinement of the food systems over the last 30 years are discussed, as well as the plans for both the sortie and lunar. The articles briefly review what we know today about food and nutrition for space travelers and relate this knowledge to our planned human flights back to the Moon.

  3. Development of a Drinkable, Peanut-Based Dietary Supplement and Comparison of Its Nutritional and Microbiological Qualities with Commercial Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klu, Yaa Asantewaa Kafui; Phillips, Robert D; Chen, Jinru

    2016-05-01

    This study was undertaken to formulate, using peanuts as a major ingredient, a beverage which will benefit older adults who are at a high risk of protein-energy malnutrition and other health complications, and to compare its nutritional and microbiological qualities to commercial products. Peanuts, rice flour, and flaxseed meal in a ratio of 48.0:49.8:2.2 were mixed with water (20% solids) and cooked into gruel which was sequentially treated with BAN(®) , (480 KNU-B/g, 75 °C 1 h), Alcalase(®) (2.4 AU-A/g, 60 °C 1 h), and Flavourzyme(®) (1000 LAPU/g, 55 °C 1 h) to predigest starch and protein, respectively. The degree of hydrolysis and product viscosity during hydrolysis was measured. The nutritional and microbiological qualities of the product were compared to 10 commercial products. Results indicate that 60% of starch was hydrolyzed while a total of 1.62% protein hydrolysis was observed. Product viscosity reduced from 228.55 to 3.60 cP at the end of hydrolysis. The formulation had no cholesterol and low sodium which was a functional property that was absent in the commercial products. Results of this study suggest that the formulation can be further optimized into a unique product that could cater for the protein needs and other nutritional requirements of older adults. PMID:27075630

  4. School Health and Nutrition Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurcan Yabanci

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Schools play an effective role for adopt and maintain healthy eating and physical activity behaviors in children and adolescents. Schools are an important part of national efforts to prevent chronic diseases such as childhood obesity, coronary heart diseases, diabetes and cancer. Nutrition programs in schools can help children and adolescents participate in full educational potential; improve academic performance and health quality. To ensure a healthy future for our children, school-based nutrition education programs must become a national priority. Governments, community leaders, doctors, dieteticians, nurses, teachers, and parents must commit to implementing and sustaining nutrition education programs within the schools. School health and nutrition programs which part of public health and education are summarized in this review. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(3.000: 361-368

  5. Immobilized pH gradient-driven paper-based IEF: a new method for fractionating complex peptide mixtures before MS analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seshi Beerelli

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The vast difference in the abundance of different proteins in biological samples limits the determination of the complete proteome of a cell type, requiring fractionation of proteins and peptides before MS analysis. Methods We present a method consisting of electrophoresis of complex mixtures of peptides using a strip of filter paper cut into 20 sections laid end to end over a 24-cm-long IPG strip, the pH gradient of which would drive the electrophoresis. Peptides absorbed onto individual paper pads after electrophoresis are subsequently recovered into a buffer solution, thus dividing a complex peptide mixture according to pI into 20 liquid fractions. This paper-based IEF method (PIEF was compared side-by-side with a similar but liquid-based Offgel electrophoresis (OGE by analyzing iTRAQ-labeled peptide mixtures of membrane proteins from four different cell types. Results PIEF outperformed OGE in resolving acidic peptides, whereas OGE did a better job in recovering relatively basic peptides. OGE and PIEF were quite comparable in their coverage, identifying almost equal number of distinct proteins (PIEF =1174; OGE = 1080. Interestingly, however, only 675 were identified by both of them, each method identifying many unique proteins (PIEF = 499; OGE = 415. Thus, the two methods uncovered almost 40% more proteins compared to what is obtained by only one method. Conclusion: This initial investigation demonstrates the technical feasibility of PIEF for complementing OGE. PIEF uses standard IPG IEF equipment, requires no specialized apparatus (e.g., OGE fractionator and may be integrated into peptide mapping strategies for clinical samples.

  6. Alternating polyesteramides based on 1,4-butylene terephthalamide: 3. Alternating polyesteramides based on mixtures of linear diols (4NTm,p)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serrano, P.J.M.; Werff, van der B.A.; Gaymans, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    Strictly alternating polyesteramides consisting of 1,4-butylene terephthalamide diester and mixtures of aliphatic diols have been synthesised in the melt in the presence of a titanium catalyst. To increase the molecular weight a solid state post condensation was applied. The composition was determin

  7. Assessing the Impact of a Community-Based Health and Nutrition Education on the Management of Diarrhea in an Urban District, Cairo, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel-Aziz, Shaimaa B.; Maha A Mowafy; Galal, Yasmine S.

    2015-01-01

    Diarrhea is considered as a major cause of mortality in children aged less than five years old. This pre/post interventional study was designed to assess maternal knowledge about diarrhea and implement a community-based health and nutrition education messages. The study was held in Al-Darb Al-Ahamar (ADAA) district, Cairo, Egypt and targeted a random sample of 600 mothers having at least one child under-five years old and complained of at least one previous attack of diarrhea. The study was c...

  8. Nutrition, sensory evaluation, and performance analysis of hydrogenated frying oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hack, Danielle M; Bordi, Peter L; Hessert, S William

    2009-12-01

    The Food and Drug Administration now requires labeling of trans fats on nutrition labels, a decision that has created a push to reformulate deep-fat frying oils. Prior to the passage of this law, frying oils contained trans fats because trans fats made the oils more stable and thus allowing for longer frying usage. In the present study, oil performance, sensory evaluation and nutritional analysis was conducted on trans fat-free oils through a 10-day degradation process using French fries to break down the oil. The goal of the study was to test oil stability and nutrition analysis and to learn consumer preference between trans fat and trans fat-free oils. Sensory evaluation indicated a preference for fries composed from trans fat-free oil mixtures. The most stable oils were also combination oils. Based on these findings, industry representatives considering using the trans fat-free frying oils should consider using blended oils instead, which met customers' taste preference and minimized oil rancidity and usage. PMID:19919512

  9. An in vivo animal study assessing long-term changes in hypothalamic cytokines following perinatal exposure to a chemical mixture based on Arctic maternal body burden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Nanqin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The geographic distribution of environmental toxins is generally not uniform, with certain northern regions showing a particularly high concentration of pesticides, heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants. For instance, Northern Canadians are exposed to high levels of persistent organic pollutants like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB, organochlorine pesticides (OCs and methylmercury (MeHg, primarily through country foods. Previous studies have reported associations between neuronal pathology and exposure to such toxins. The present investigation assessed whether perinatal exposure (gestation and lactation of rats to a chemical mixture (27 constituents comprised of PCBs, OCs and MeHg based on Arctic maternal exposure profiles at concentrations near human exposure levels, would affect brain levels of several inflammatory cytokines Methods Rats were dosed during gestation and lactation and cytokine levels were measured in the brains of offspring at five months of age. Hypothalamic cytokine protein levels were measured with a suspension-based array system and differences were determined using ANOVA and post hoc statistical tests. Results The early life PCB treatment alone significantly elevated hypothalamic interleukin-6 (IL-6 levels in rats at five months of age to a degree comparable to that of the entire chemical mixture. Similarly, the full mixture (and to a lesser degree PCBs alone elevated levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, IL-1b, as well as the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10. The full mixture of chemicals also moderately increased (in an additive fashion hypothalamic levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α. Challenge with bacterial endotoxin at adulthood generally increased hypothalamic levels to such a degree that differences between the perinatally treated chemical groups were no longer detectable. Conclusions These data suggest that exposure at critical

  10. Adaptive wiener filter based on Gaussian mixture distribution model for denoising chest X-ray CT image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent decades, X-ray CT imaging has become more important as a result of its high-resolution performance. However, it is well known that the X-ray dose is insufficient in the techniques that use low-dose imaging in health screening or thin-slice imaging in work-up. Therefore, the degradation of CT images caused by the streak artifact frequently becomes problematic. In this study, we applied a Wiener filter (WF) using the universal Gaussian mixture distribution model (UNI-GMM) as a statistical model to remove streak artifact. In designing the WF, it is necessary to estimate the statistical model and the precise co-variances of the original image. In the proposed method, we obtained a variety of chest X-ray CT images using a phantom simulating a chest organ, and we estimated the statistical information using the images for training. The results of simulation showed that it is possible to fit the UNI-GMM to the chest X-ray CT images and reduce the specific noise. (author)

  11. Multimodal Brain-Tumor Segmentation Based on Dirichlet Process Mixture Model with Anisotropic Diffusion and Markov Random Field Prior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yisu Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain-tumor segmentation is an important clinical requirement for brain-tumor diagnosis and radiotherapy planning. It is well-known that the number of clusters is one of the most important parameters for automatic segmentation. However, it is difficult to define owing to the high diversity in appearance of tumor tissue among different patients and the ambiguous boundaries of lesions. In this study, a nonparametric mixture of Dirichlet process (MDP model is applied to segment the tumor images, and the MDP segmentation can be performed without the initialization of the number of clusters. Because the classical MDP segmentation cannot be applied for real-time diagnosis, a new nonparametric segmentation algorithm combined with anisotropic diffusion and a Markov random field (MRF smooth constraint is proposed in this study. Besides the segmentation of single modal brain-tumor images, we developed the algorithm to segment multimodal brain-tumor images by the magnetic resonance (MR multimodal features and obtain the active tumor and edema in the same time. The proposed algorithm is evaluated using 32 multimodal MR glioma image sequences, and the segmentation results are compared with other approaches. The accuracy and computation time of our algorithm demonstrates very impressive performance and has a great potential for practical real-time clinical use.

  12. Processor core for real time background identification of HD video based on OpenCV Gaussian mixture model algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovese, Mariangela; Napoli, Ettore

    2013-05-01

    The identification of moving objects is a fundamental step in computer vision processing chains. The development of low cost and lightweight smart cameras steadily increases the request of efficient and high performance circuits able to process high definition video in real time. The paper proposes two processor cores aimed to perform the real time background identification on High Definition (HD, 1920 1080 pixel) video streams. The implemented algorithm is the OpenCV version of the Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM), an high performance probabilistic algorithm for the segmentation of the background that is however computationally intensive and impossible to implement on general purpose CPU with the constraint of real time processing. In the proposed paper, the equations of the OpenCV GMM algorithm are optimized in such a way that a lightweight and low power implementation of the algorithm is obtained. The reported performances are also the result of the use of state of the art truncated binary multipliers and ROM compression techniques for the implementation of the non-linear functions. The first circuit has commercial FPGA devices as a target and provides speed and logic resource occupation that overcome previously proposed implementations. The second circuit is oriented to an ASIC (UMC-90nm) standard cell implementation. Both implementations are able to process more than 60 frames per second in 1080p format, a frame rate compatible with HD television.

  13. Algorithms for GPU-based molecular dynamics simulations of complex fluids: Applications to water, mixtures, and liquid crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazachenko, Sergey; Giovinazzo, Mark; Hall, Kyle Wm; Cann, Natalie M

    2015-09-15

    A custom code for molecular dynamics simulations has been designed to run on CUDA-enabled NVIDIA graphics processing units (GPUs). The double-precision code simulates multicomponent fluids, with intramolecular and intermolecular forces, coarse-grained and atomistic models, holonomic constraints, Nosé-Hoover thermostats, and the generation of distribution functions. Algorithms to compute Lennard-Jones and Gay-Berne interactions, and the electrostatic force using Ewald summations, are discussed. A neighbor list is introduced to improve scaling with respect to system size. Three test systems are examined: SPC/E water; an n-hexane/2-propanol mixture; and a liquid crystal mesogen, 2-(4-butyloxyphenyl)-5-octyloxypyrimidine. Code performance is analyzed for each system. With one GPU, a 33-119 fold increase in performance is achieved compared with the serial code while the use of two GPUs leads to a 69-287 fold improvement and three GPUs yield a 101-377 fold speedup. PMID:26174435

  14. Phase Behavior and Rheology of Fatty Alcohol Sulphate, Fatty Alcohol Ether Sulphate from Palm based and Mixtures with other Surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phase diagrams of fatty alcohol sulphate (FAS)/ fatty alcohol ether sulphate (FAES)/ soap (4.5:4.5:1.0)/ propylene glycol/ water mixtures were established at 60 degree Celsius. The birefringence was observed under cross polarizers and their phases changes examined under a polarized microscope. The results showed that the liquid crystalline region for FAS and FAES occurred only in a small region. The optical patterns of lamellar liquid crystal were identified as oily streaks structure. The rheological tests of lamellar liquid crystal were carried out in the region of 4.5/ 4.5/ 1 FAES/ FAS/ soap with 0 % PG and 10 % of water. The rheological tests used were flow curve, 3 interval thixotropy test (3ITT), oscillation (dynamic test) stress sweep test and frequency sweep test measurement done using a cone-plate sensor (25 mm, 1 degree). The flow curve was fitted to a Casson model to obtain values for the consistency coefficient and the flow behavior index. The lamellar liquid crystal show typical flow behavior and stress influenced the recovery of the structure. Linear visco-elastic (LVE) range analysis show the critical stress value at 0.475%, and elastic modulus was dominant over an angular frequency range studied. (author)

  15. (SPartners for Heart Health: a school-based program for enhancing physical activity and nutrition to promote cardiovascular health in 5th grade students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sehnert Scott T

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The American Heart Association Position Statement on Cardiovascular Health Promotion in Public Schools encourages school-based interventions for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD through risk factor prevention or reduction in children with an emphasis on creating an environment that promotes healthy food choices and physical activity (PA. In an effort to address issues related to CVD risk factors including obesity in Michigan children, a multi-disciplinary team of Michigan State University (MSU faculty, clinicians, and health profession students was formed to "(Spartner" with elementary school physical education (PE teachers and MSU Extension staff to develop and implement a cost-effective, sustainable program aimed at CVD risk factor prevention and management for 5th grade students. This (Spartnership is intended to augment and improve the existing 5th grade PE, health and nutrition curriculum by achieving the following aims: 1 improve the students' knowledge, attitudes and confidence about nutrition, PA and heart health; 2 increase the number of students achieving national recommendations for PA and nutrition; and 3 increase the number of students with a desirable CVD risk factor status based on national pediatric guidelines. Secondary aims include promoting school staff and parental support for heart health to help children achieve their goals and to provide experiential learning and service for MSU health profession students for academic credit. Methods/Design This pilot effectiveness study was approved by the MSU IRB. At the beginning and the end of the school year students undergo a CVD risk factor assessment conducted by MSU medical students and graduate students. Key intervention components include eight lesson plans (conducted bi-monthly designed to promote heart healthy nutrition and PA behaviors conducted by PE teachers with assistance from MSU undergraduate dietetic and kinesiology students

  16. Effects of a propionic acid-based preservative on storage characteristics, nutritive value, and energy content for alfalfa hays packaged in large round bales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coblentz, W K; Bertram, M G

    2012-01-01

    During 2009 and 2010, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) hays from 2 cuttings harvested from the same field site were used to evaluate the effects of a propionic acid-based preservative on the storage characteristics and nutritive value of hays stored as large round bales. A total of 87 large round bales (diameter = 1.5m) were included in the study; of these, 45 bales served as controls, whereas 42 were treated with a commercial propionic acid-based preservative at mean application rates of 0.5±0.14 and 0.7±0.19% of bale weight, expressed on a wet (as is) or dry matter basis, respectively. Initial bale moisture concentrations ranged from 10.2 to 40.4%. Internal bale temperatures were monitored daily during an outdoor storage period, and heating characteristics were summarized for each bale as heating degree days (HDD) >30°C. For acid-treated bales, the regression relationship between HDD and initial bale moisture was best fitted to a quadratic model in which the linear term was dropped to improve fit (Y=2.02x(2) - 401; R(2)=0.77); control hays were best fitted to a nonlinear model in which the independent variable was squared [Y=4,112 - (4,549×e(-0.000559x*x)); R(2)=0.77]. Based on these regressions, acid-treated bales accumulated more HDD than control hays when the initial bale moisture was >27.7%; this occurred largely because acid treatment tended to prolong active heating relative to control hays. Linear regressions of recoveries of dry matter on HDD did not differ on the basis of treatment, yielding a common linear relationship of Y=-0.0066x+96.3 (R(2)=0.75). Regressions relating changes (post-storage - pre-storage) in concentrations of several nutritional components (neutral detergent fiber, lignin, ash, crude protein, and total digestible nutrients) with HDD for acid-treated hays typically exhibited more inflection points or were higher-ordered polynomial regressions than those of control hays. These more complex responses probably reflected the perturbation

  17. Food consumption of adults in Germany: results of the German National Nutrition Survey II based on diet history interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, Thorsten; Krems, Carolin; Moon, Kilson; Brombach, Christine; Hoffmann, Ingrid

    2015-05-28

    The second German National Nutrition Survey (NVS II) aimed to evaluate food consumption and other aspects of nutritional behaviour of a representative sample of the German population, using a modular design with three different dietary assessment methods. To assess usual food consumption, 15,371 German speaking subjects 14-80 years of age completed a diet history interview between November 2005 and November 2006. With reference to the guidelines of the German Nutrition Society (DGE), NVS II observed that the German population did not eat enough foods of plant origin, especially vegetables and consumed too much of meat and meat products. While generally similar food consumption is observed in other European countries, consumption of bread, fruit juices/nectars and beer is higher in Germany. On average, men consumed two times more meat and soft drinks as well as six times more beer than women did, whereas the consumption of vegetables, fruit as well as herbal/fruit tea was higher in women. Older participants showed a lower consumption of meat, fruit juice/nectars, soft drinks and spirits as well as a higher consumption of fish, vegetables, fruit, and herbal/fruit tea than adolescents and younger adults did. There are also differences in food consumption with regard to socio-economic status (SES). Persons with higher SES consumed more vegetables, fruit, fish, water, coffee/tea and wine, while persons with lower SES consumed more meat and meat products, soft drinks and beer. In general, the food consumption of women, the elderly and the higher SES group tends to be closer to the official dietary guidelines in Germany. PMID:25866161

  18. Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckerson, Joan M.

    Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

  19. Contenido de zinc y cobre en los componentes individuales de las mezclas para fórmulas pediátricas de nutrición parenteral total Zinc and copper content in individual components used to prepare pediatric total nutrition mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M.ª Menéndez

    2007-10-01

    pueden comprometer la evolución del paciente pediátrico grave.Objectives: 1 to determine zinc and copper levels of contamination in the individual component solutions used to prepare the pediatric total parenteral nutrition mixtures in Argentina; 2 to compare zinc and copper amounts prescribed by the physician with the true amount given to a neonate weighing 1,2 kg and to a child weighing 10 kg, who would receive total parenteral nutrition formulas prepared with those component solutions. Materials and methods: Zn and Cu were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in 59 individual solutions belonging to 14 components chosen between the commercial products available in Argentina. Results: zinc and copper, as contaminants, were found neither in the sterile water, nor in the potassium chloride or in the vitamin solutions. Zinc, but no copper, was detected in sodium chloride, manganese sulfate, chromium chloride and seleniose acid solutions. Zinc and copper were detected in dextrose, amino acids, calcium gluconate and lipid solutions at variable levels. Zinc sulfate solutions® contained between 90,4% and 140% of the declared content and a variable contamination with copper. Copper sulfate solutions® presented between 4% and 18% less the declared copper concentration and a variable contamination with zinc. Dextrose and lipid solutions presented the highest amount of zinc and copper. Therefore, the total parenteral mixtures prepared with the analyzed solutions must have had an excess of zinc and copper in relation to the prescription: ranging between 103% and 161% and between 7%-426% higher than the Zn and Cu amounts prescribed for neonates, respectively; the excess in the total parenteral nutrition for a child weighing 10 kg would ranged between 105% and 189% and between 7%-365% higher than the prescribed for Zn and Cu, respectively. Conclusions: 1 nine components presented Zn and five Cu, both of them not declared in the label; 2 the usually prescribed total

  20. Early parenteral nutrition in critically ill patients with short-term relative contraindications to early enteral nutrition: a full economic analysis of a multicenter randomized controlled trial based on US costs

    OpenAIRE

    Doig, Gordon

    2013-01-01

    Gordon S Doig, Fiona Simpson, On behalf of the Early PN Trial Investigators GroupNorthern Clinical School Intensive Care Research Unit, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, AustraliaPurpose: The provision of early enteral (gut) nutrition to critically ill patients, started within 24 hours of injury or intensive care unit admission, is accepted to improve health outcomes. However, not all patients are able to receive early enteral nutrition. The purpose of the economic analysis presented here wa...